WorldWideScience

Sample records for improved production efficiency

  1. Improving radiation use efficiency in greenhouse production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A large increase in agricultural production is needed to feed the increasing world population with their increasing demand per capita. However, growing competition for arable land, water, energy, and the degradation of the environment impose challenges to improve crop production. Hence agricultural production efficiency needs to increase. Greenhouses provide the possibility to create optimal growth conditions for crops, thereby improving production and product quality. Light is the dr...

  2. Energy efficiency improvements in ammonia production--perspectives and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiqul, Islam; Weber, Christoph; Lehmann, Bianca; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the energy consumption and energy saving potential for a major energy-intensive product in the chemical industry-ammonia, based on technologies currently in use and possible process improvements. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part, mainly references to various ammonia production technologies are given. Energy consumption, emissions and saving potentials are discussed in the second part. Thereby, the situation in Europe, the US and India is highlighted and various data sources are compared. In the third part of the paper, a novel approach for modeling energy efficiency improvements is described that accounts for uncertainties and unobserved heterogeneity in the production processes. Besides new investments, revamping investments are also included in the modeling and the development of the production stock is accounted for. Finally, in the fourth part, this approach is applied to the modeling of energy efficiency improvements and CO 2 emission reductions in ammonia production. Thereby, considerable improvements in specific energy use and CO 2 emissions are found in the reference scenario, yet under the assumption of high oil and gas prices, a partial switch to coal based technologies is expected which lowers notably the CO 2 efficiency. Introduction of a CO 2 penalty under a certificate trading or other regime is on contrary found to foster energy efficiency and the use of low carbon technologies

  3. Scaling production and improving efficiency in DEA: an interactive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödder, Wilhelm; Kleine, Andreas; Dellnitz, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    DEA models help a DMU to detect its (in-)efficiency and to improve activities, if necessary. Efficiency is only one economic aim for a decision-maker; however, up- or downsizing might be a second one. Improving efficiency is the main topic in DEA; the long-term strategy towards the right production size should attract our attention as well. Not always the management of a DMU primarily focuses on technical efficiency but rather is interested in gaining scale effects. In this paper, a formula for returns to scale (RTS) is developed, and this formula is even applicable for interior points of technology. Particularly, technical and scale inefficient DMUs need sophisticated instruments to improve their situation. Considering RTS as well as efficiency, in this paper, we give an advice for each DMU to find an economically reliable path from its actual situation to better activities and finally to most productive scale size (mpss), perhaps. For realizing this path, we propose an interactive algorithm, thus harmonizing the scientific findings and the interests of the management. Small numerical examples illustrate such paths for selected DMUs; an empirical application in theatre management completes the contribution.

  4. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Keywords: Methane, global warming, greenhouse gas, crossbreeding, residual feed intake, feed efficiency. #Corresponding ... improved production per constant unit, crossbreeding and selection for residual feed intake. ... convert such a measure into kg calf produced per kg CO2 equivalent (CH4 can be converted to a CO2.

  5. ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY IN A CONSTRUCTION MACHINE ASSEMBLY LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alidiane Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased competitiveness in the market encourages the ongoing development of systems and production processes. The aim is to increase production efficiency to production costs and waste be reduced to the extreme, allowing an increased product competitiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the overall results of implementing a Kaizen philosophy in an automaker of construction machinery, using the methodology of action research, which will be studied in situ the macro production process from receipt of parts into the end of the assembly line , prioritizing the analysis time of shipping and handling. The results show that the continuous improvement activities directly impact the elimination of waste from the assembly process, mainly related to shipping and handling, improving production efficiency by 30% in the studied processes.

  6. Potential benefits from improved energy efficiency of key electrical products: The case of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the world's second most populous country continues to grow rapidly, bringing prosperity to a growing middle class while further straining an energy infrastructure already stretched beyond capacity. At the same time, efficiency policy initiatives have gained a foothold in India, and promise to grow in number over the coming years. This paper considers the maximum cost-effective potential of efficiency improvement for key energy-consuming products in the Indian context. The products considered are: household refrigerators, window air conditioners, motors and distribution transformers. Together, these products account for about 27% of delivered electricity consumption in India. The analysis estimates the minimum Life-Cycle Cost option for each product class, according to use patterns and prevailing customer marginal rates in each sector. This option represents an efficiency improvement ranging between 12% and 60%, depending on product class. If this level of efficiency was achieved starting in 2010, we estimate that total electricity consumption in India could be reduced by 4.7% by 2020, saving over 74 million tons of oil equivalent and over 246 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Net present financial savings of this efficiency improvement totals 8.1 billion dollars

  7. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  8. Testing improvements in the chocolate traceability system: Impact on product recalls and production efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    hypothetical improvements of the traceability system within the chocolate production system and supply chain and we illustrate the resulting benefits by using a case study. Based on the case study, we quantify the influence of these improvements on production efficiency and recall size in case of a safety......The primary aim of food traceability is to increase food safety, but traceability systems can also bring other benefits to production systems and supply chains. In the literature these benefits are extensively discussed, but studies that quantify them are scarce. In this paper we propose two...... crisis by developing a simulation tool. These results are aimed to illustrate and quantify the additional benefits of traceability information, and could help food industries in deciding whether and how to improve their traceability systems....

  9. Risk Adjusted Production Efficiency of Maize Farmers in Ethiopia: Implication for Improved Maize Varieties Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Diriba Lemessa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technical efficiency and production risk of 862 maize farmers in major maize producing regions of Ethiopia. It employs the stochastic frontier approach (SFA to estimate the level of technical efficiencies of stallholder farmers. The stochastic frontier approach (SFA uses flexible risk properties to account for production risk. Thus, maize production variability is assessed from two perspectives, the production risk and the technical efficiency. The study also attempts to determine the socio-economic and farm characteristics that influence technical efficiency of maize production in the study area. The findings of the study showed the existence of both production risk and technical inefficiency in maize production process. Input variables (amounts per hectare such as fertilizer and labor positively influence maize output. The findings also show that farms in the study area exhibit decreasing returns to scale. Fertilizer and ox plough days reduce output risk while labor and improved seed increase output risk. The mean technical efficiency for maize farms is 48 percent. This study concludes that production risk and technical inefficiency prevents the maize farmers from realizing their frontier output. The best factors that improve the efficiency of the maize farmers in the study area include: frequency of extension contact, access to credit and use of intercropping. It was also realized that altitude and terracing in maize farms had influence on farmer efficiency.

  10. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  11. Evaluating and Directions for Improving the Efficiency of Use of the Main Production Assets of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumak Larysa F.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing approaches to evaluation, as well as analyzing and determining the relevant directions for improving the efficiency of use of the enterprise’s main production assets. The article explores the issues such as development of the theoretical-methodical approaches to evaluating and improving the efficiency of use, finding practical ways and forms to implement innovations and upgrade the main production assets. It has been found that ensuring the efficient use of the main production assets goes along with application of technical, organizational-productive and organizational-administrative activities that are not only related to the technical side of the use, but also require the involvement and training of highly qualified professionals capable of providing with the appropriate productivity a high level of all the types of the work needed. The introduction of modern achievements in the sphere of management automation, production, advanced technologies, and the development of an optimal structure of the main assets would improve the efficiency of use of the main production assets.

  12. Challenges in biobutanol production: How to improve the efficiency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Veronica; Paekkilae, Johanna; Muurinen, Esa; Keiski, Riitta L.; Ojamo, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the production of chemicals and fuels from renewable resources due to the continuing price increase of fossil resources, the insecurity of the availability of fossil resources in the future, and additionally environmental concerns and legislations. Biobutanol may be produced by the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. This paper reviews the biobutanol production bringing up the problems and challenges to overcome. The aim of the paper is to help in finding opportunities to make the process feasible in the near future. The analysis stresses the idea of improving the efficiency of the fermentation stage by altering the up (pretreatment of the raw material) and downstream (product recovery and purification) processes. The paper also explores the biobutanol production from the biorefinery perspective. Finally the review brings up the important role of research in developing and implementing the production of biobutanol by the ABE fermentation. (author)

  13. Challenges in biobutanol production: How to improve the efficiency?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Veronica; Paekkilae, Johanna; Muurinen, Esa; Keiski, Riitta L. [Mass and Heat Transfer Process Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, POB 4300, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Ojamo, Heikki [Bioprocess Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, POB 4300, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    There is an increasing interest in the production of chemicals and fuels from renewable resources due to the continuing price increase of fossil resources, the insecurity of the availability of fossil resources in the future, and additionally environmental concerns and legislations. Biobutanol may be produced by the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. This paper reviews the biobutanol production bringing up the problems and challenges to overcome. The aim of the paper is to help in finding opportunities to make the process feasible in the near future. The analysis stresses the idea of improving the efficiency of the fermentation stage by altering the up (pretreatment of the raw material) and downstream (product recovery and purification) processes. The paper also explores the biobutanol production from the biorefinery perspective. Finally the review brings up the important role of research in developing and implementing the production of biobutanol by the ABE fermentation. (author)

  14. Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.-O.; Elfgren, E.; Westerlund, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A heating system at a juice production was investigated and improved. • Different impacts of drying cycle improvements at the energy usage were explored. • The total heat use for drying could thereby be decreased with 52%. • The results point out a significant decrease of heat consumption with low investment costs. - Abstract: Berry juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds in a press cake. Traditionally, these by-products have been composted, but due to their valuable nutrients, it could be profitable to sell them instead. The skins and seeds need to be separated and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt (on dry basis) in order to avoid fermentation. A berry juice plant in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency, with special focus on the drying system. This was done by means of process integration with mass and energy balance, theory from thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the juice plant. Our study indicates that the drying system could be operated at full capacity without any external heat supply using waste heat supplied from the juice plant. This would be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculation of the drying air and by heat supply from the flue gases of the industrial boiler. The recirculation would decrease the need of heat in the dryer with about 52%. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1262 kW to 1145 kW. The improvements could be done without compromising the production quality

  15. Infrared pre-drying and dry-dehulling of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The walnut industry is faced with an urgent need to improve post-harvest processing efficiency, particularly drying and dehulling operations. This research investigated the feasibility of dry-dehulling and infrared (IR) pre-drying of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and dried product quali...

  16. Operational Efficiency and Productivity Improvement Initiatives in a Large Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Grant W; Hantz, Scott; Cunningham, Rebecca; Krishnaswamy, Amar; Ellis, Stephen G; Khot, Umesh; Rak, Joe; Kapadia, Samir R

    2018-02-26

    This study sought to report outcomes from an efficiency improvement project in a large cardiac cath lab. Operational inefficiencies are common in the cath lab, yet solutions are challenging. A detailed report describing and providing solutions for these inefficiencies may be valuable in guiding improvements in productivity. In this observational study, the authors report metrics of efficiency before and after a cath lab quality improvement program in June 2014. Main outcomes included lab room start times, room turnaround times, laboratory use, and employee satisfaction. Time series analysis was used to assess trend over time. Chi-square testing and analysis of variance were used to assess change before and after the initiative. The principal changes included implementation of a pyramidal nursing schedule, increased use of an electronic scheduling system, and increased utilization of a preparation and recovery area. Comparing before with after the program, start times improved an average of 17 min, and on-time starts improved from 61.8% to 81.7% (p = 0.0024). Turnaround times improved from 20.5 min to 16.4 min (trend p productivity. This knowledge may be helpful in assisting other cath labs in similar efficiency improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  18. Optimal production scheduling for energy efficiency improvement in biofuel feedstock preprocessing considering work-in-process particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lin; Sun, Zeyi; Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel is considered a promising alternative to traditional liquid transportation fuels. The large-scale substitution of biofuel can greatly enhance global energy security and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One major concern of the broad adoption of biofuel is the intensive energy consumption in biofuel manufacturing. This paper focuses on the energy efficiency improvement of biofuel feedstock preprocessing, a major process of cellulosic biofuel manufacturing. An improved scheme of the feedstock preprocessing considering work-in-process particle separation is introduced to reduce energy waste and improve energy efficiency. A scheduling model based on the improved scheme is also developed to identify an optimal production schedule that can minimize the energy consumption of the feedstock preprocessing under production target constraint. A numerical case study is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The research outcome is expected to improve the energy efficiency and enhance the environmental sustainability of biomass feedstock preprocessing. - Highlights: • A novel method to schedule production in biofuel feedstock preprocessing process. • Systems modeling approach is used. • Capable of optimize preprocessing to reduce energy waste and improve energy efficiency. • A numerical case is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. • Energy consumption per unit production can be significantly reduced.

  19. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  20. Improvements to the solar cell efficiency and production yields of low-lifetime wafers with effective phosphorus gettering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jiunn-Chenn; Chen, Ping-Nan; Chen, Chih-Min; Wu, Chung-Han

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Variable-temperature gettering improves efficiencies when the wafer quality is poor. • High-quality wafers need not be used for variable-temperature gettering. • The proposed gettering method is based on an existing diffusion process. • It has a potential interest for hot-spot prevention. -- Abstract: This research focuses on the improvement of solar cell efficiencies in low-lifetime wafers by implementing an appropriate gettering method of the diffusion process. The study also considers a reduction in the value of the reverse current at −12 V, an important electrical parameter related to the hot-spot heating of solar cells and modules, to improve the product's quality during commercial mass production. A practical solar cell production case study is examined to illustrate the use of the proposed method. The results of this case study indicate that variable-temperature gettering significantly improves solar cell efficiencies by 0.14% compared to constant-temperature methods when the wafer quality is poor. Moreover, this study finds that variable-temperature gettering raises production yields of low quality wafers by more than 30% by restraining the measurement value of the reverse current at −12 V during solar cell manufacturing

  1. Improvement of uranium production efficiency to meet China's nuclear power requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.

    1997-01-01

    Recently China put the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, with an installed capacity of 300 MW, in the province of Zhejiang and the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, with a total installed capacity of 2 x 900 MW, in commercial operation. China plans a rapid growth in nuclear power from 1995 to 2010. China's uranium production will therefore also enter a new period with nuclear power increasing. In order to meet the demand of nuclear power for uranium special attention has been paid to both technical progress improvement using management with the aim of reducing the cost of uranium production. The application of the trackless mining technique has enhanced the uranium mining productivity significantly. China has produced a radiometric sorter, model 5421-2 for pre-concentrating uranium run-of-mine ore. This effectively increases the uranium content in mill feed and decreases the operating cost of hydrometallurgical treatment. The in situ leach technique after blasting is applied underground in the Lantian Mine, in addition to the surface heap leaching, and has obtained a perfect result. The concentrated acid-curing, and ferric sulphate trickle leaching process, will soon be used in commercial operation for treating uranium ore grading -5 to -7 mm in size. The annual production capability of the Yining Mine will be extended to 100 tonnes U using improving in situ leaching technology. For the purpose of improving the uranium production efficiency much work has been done optimizing the distribution of production centres. China plans to expand its uranium production to meet the uranium requirements of the developing nuclear power plants. (author). 4 tabs

  2. Adaptation to climate change in industry: improving resource efficiency through sustainable production applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkayal, Emrah; Bogurcu, Merve; Ulutas, Ferda; Demirer, Göksel Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the climate change adaptation opportunities of six companies from different sectors through resource efficiency and sustainable production. A total of 77 sustainable production options were developed for the companies based on the audits conducted. After screening these opportunities with each company's staff, 19 options were selected and implemented. Significant water savings (849,668 m3/year) were achieved as a result of the applications that targeted reduction of water use. In addition to water savings, the energy consumption was reduced by 3,607 MWh, which decreased the CO2 emissions by 904.1 tons/year. Moreover, the consumption of 278.4 tons/year of chemicals (e.g., NaCl, CdO, NaCN) was avoided, thus the corresponding pollution load to the wastewater treatment plant was reduced. Besides the tangible improvements, other gains were achieved, such as improved product quality, improved health and safety conditions, reduced maintenance requirements, and ensured compliance with national and EU regulations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first ever activity in Turkey devoted to climate change adaptation in the private sector. This study may serve as a building block in Turkey for the integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation approach in the industry, since water efficiency (adaptation) and carbon reduction (mitigation) are achieved simultaneously.

  3. Improving Farmers' Efficiency in Rice Production In Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the effects of extension services on farmers' efficiency and productivity in rice production in Kano State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from 126 rice farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Stochastic production frontier function was estimated to ascertain the effects of ...

  4. Strategies for improving water use efficiency of livestock production in rain-fed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Haileslassie, A; Duncan, A J; de Boer, I J M

    2015-05-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall water use efficiency of agriculture. Previous studies have reported significant variation in livestock water productivity (LWP) within and among farming systems. Underlying causes of this variation in LWP require further investigation. The objective of this paper was to identify the factors that explain the variation in LWP within and among farming systems in Ethiopia. We quantified LWP for various farms in mixed-crop livestock systems and explored the effect of household demographic characteristics and farm assets on LWP using ANOVA and multilevel mixed-effect linear regression. We focused on water used to cultivate feeds on privately owned agricultural lands. There was a difference in LWP among farming systems and wealth categories. Better-off households followed by medium households had the highest LWP, whereas poor households had the lowest LWP. The variation in LWP among wealth categories could be explained by the differences in the ownership of livestock and availability of family labor. Regression results showed that the age of the household head, the size of the livestock holding and availability of family labor affected LWP positively. The results suggest that water use efficiency could be improved by alleviating resource constraints such as access to farm labor and livestock assets, oxen in particular.

  5. Energy management in production: A novel method to develop key performance indicators for improving energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Gökan; Barletta, Ilaria; Stahl, Bojan; Taisch, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a 7-step methodology to develop firm-tailored energy-related KPIs (e-KPIs). • We provide a practical guide for companies to identify their most important e-KPIs. • e-KPIs support identification of energy efficiency improvement areas in production. • The method employs an action plan for achieving energy saving targets. • The paper strengthens theoretical base for energy-based decision making in manufacturing. - Abstract: Measuring energy efficiency performance of equipments, processes and factories is the first step to effective energy management in production. Thus, enabled energy-related information allows the assessment of the progress of manufacturing companies toward their energy efficiency goals. In that respect, the study addresses this challenge where current industrial approaches lack the means and appropriate performance indicators to compare energy-use profiles of machines and processes, and for the comparison of their energy efficiency performance to that of competitors’. Focusing on this challenge, the main objective of the paper is to present a method which supports manufacturing companies in the development of energy-based performance indicators. For this purpose, we provide a 7-step method to develop production-tailored and energy-related key performance indicators (e-KPIs). These indicators allow the interpretation of cause-effect relationships and therefore support companies in their operative decision-making process. Consequently, the proposed method supports the identification of weaknesses and areas for energy efficiency improvements related to the management of production and operations. The study therefore aims to strengthen the theoretical base necessary to support energy-based decision making in manufacturing industries

  6. Efficiency and productivity of hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Linh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative efficiency and productivity of hospitals during the health reform process. Data envelopment analyses method (DEA) with the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model was used to calculate efficiency scores. Malmquist total factor productivity index approach was then employed to calculate productivity of hospitals. Data of 101 hospitals was extracted from databases of the Ministry of Health, Vietnam from the years 1998 to 2006. There was evidence of improvement in overall technical efficiency from 65 per cent in 1998 to 76 per cent in 2006. Hospitals' productivity progressed around 1.4 per cent per year, which was mainly due to the technical efficiency improvement. Furthermore, provincial hospitals were more technically efficient than their central counterparts and hospitals located in different regions performed differently. The paper provides an insight in the performance of Vietnamese public hospitals that has been rarely examined before and contributes to the existing literature of hospital performance in developing countries

  7. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  8. Improving The Efficiency Of Ammonia Electrolysis For Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Ramasamy

    Given the abundance of ammonia in domestic and industrial wastes, ammonia electrolysis is a promising technology for remediation and distributed power generation in a clean and safe manner. Efficiency has been identified as one of the key issues that require improvement in order for the technology to enter the market phase. Therefore, this research was performed with the aim of improving the efficiency of hydrogen production by finding alternative materials for the cathode and electrolyte. 1. In the presence of ammonia the activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) followed the trend Rh>Pt>Ru>Ni. The addition of ammonia resulted in lower rates for HER for Pt, Ru, and Ni, which have been attributed to competition from the ammonia adsorption reaction. 2. The addition of ammonia offers insight into the role of metal-hydrogen underpotential deposition (M-Hupd) on HER kinetics. In addition to offering competition via ammonia adsorption it resulted in fewer and weaker M-Hupd bonds for all metals. This finding substantiates the theory that M-Hupd bonds favor HER on Pt electrocatalyst. However, for Rh results suggest that M-Hupd bond may hinder the HER. In addition, the presence of unpaired valence shell electrons is suggested to provide higher activity for HER in the presence of ammonia. 3. Bimetals PtxM1-x (M = Ir, Ru, Rh, and Ni) offered lower overpotentials for HER compared to the unalloyed metals in the presence of ammonia. The activity of HER in the presence of ammonia follows the trend Pt-Ir>Pt-Rh>Pt-Ru>Pt-Ni. The higher activity of HER is attributed to the synergistic effect of the alloy, where ammonia adsorbs onto the more electropositive alloying metal leaving Pt available for Hupd formation and HER to take place. Additionally, this supports the theory that the presence of a higher number of unpaired electrons favors the HER in the presence of ammonia. 4. Potassium polyacrylate (PAA-K) was successfully used as a substitute for aqueous KOH for ammonia

  9. Eco-efficiency Analysis of Furniture Product Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Rinawati Dyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Furniture is one of Indonesia’s main commodities strategically role in economic growth and employment in Indonesia. In their production process there many wastes resulted, such as such as sawdust, cuttings - pieces of wood, components that do not conform to specifications and the edges of wood from a log. Contrast with requirement of timber for furniture industries, availability of raw material sources decrease because of limited forest areas. Beside that, using electricity and chemical material in furniture production process have impact to environment. This study aim to assess the eco-cost and eco-efficiency ratio of the product so strategic recommendations to improve the eco-efficiency of products can be designed. The results of data processing showed the environmental costs of the furniture production process amount Rp 30.887.84. Eco-efficiency index of furniture products studied was 4,79 with the eco-efficiency ratio of 79,12%. This result means that the measured furniture products already profitable and sustainable, as well as its production process is already fairly efficient. However, improved performance of the production process can still be done to improve the eco-efficiency by minimizing the use of raw materials.

  10. Eco-efficiency Analysis of Furniture Product Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati, Dyah Ika; Sriyanto; Sari, Diana Puspita; Prayodha, Andana Cantya

    2018-02-01

    Furniture is one of Indonesia's main commodities strategically role in economic growth and employment in Indonesia. In their production process there many wastes resulted, such as such as sawdust, cuttings - pieces of wood, components that do not conform to specifications and the edges of wood from a log. Contrast with requirement of timber for furniture industries, availability of raw material sources decrease because of limited forest areas. Beside that, using electricity and chemical material in furniture production process have impact to environment. This study aim to assess the eco-cost and eco-efficiency ratio of the product so strategic recommendations to improve the eco-efficiency of products can be designed. The results of data processing showed the environmental costs of the furniture production process amount Rp 30.887.84. Eco-efficiency index of furniture products studied was 4,79 with the eco-efficiency ratio of 79,12%. This result means that the measured furniture products already profitable and sustainable, as well as its production process is already fairly efficient. However, improved performance of the production process can still be done to improve the eco-efficiency by minimizing the use of raw materials.

  11. Work efficiency improvement of >90% after implementation of an annual inpatient blood products administration consent form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Holly; Bhar, Saleh; Bonifant, Challice; Sartain, Sarah; Whittle, Sarah B; Lee-Kim, Youngna; Shah, Mona D

    2018-01-01

    Paediatric haematology, oncology and bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients frequently require transfusion of blood products. Our institution required a new transfusion consent be obtained every admission. The objectives of this project were to: revise inpatient blood products consent form to be valid for 1 year, decrease provider time spent consenting from 15 to improve provider frustration with the consent process. Over 6 months, we determined the average number of hospitalisations requiring transfusions in a random sampling of haematology/oncology/BMT inpatients. We surveyed nurses and providers regarding frustration levels and contact required regarding consents. Four and 12 months after implementation of the annual consent, providers and nurses were resurveyed, and new inpatient cohorts were assessed. Comparison of preintervention and postintervention time data allowed calculation of provider time reduction, a surrogate measure of improved work efficiency. Prior to the annual consent, >33 hours were spent over 6 months obtaining consent on 40 patients, with >19 hours spent obtaining consent when no transfusions were administered during admission. Twelve months after annual consent implementation, 97.5% (39/40) of analysed patients had a completed annual blood products transfusion consent and provider work efficiency had improved by 94.6% (>30 hours). Although several surveyed variables improved following annual consent implementation, provider frustration with consent process remained 6 out of a max score of 10, the same level as prior to the intervention. Development of an annual inpatient blood products consent form decreased provider time from 15 to 90%.

  12. How can we use a mathematical model in order to analyze and improve the efficiency of a productive activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nikolla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beer business industry is one of the most profitable agro-processing industries in the country. It has increased by expanding local and international market. There are 80 small and large beer factories that have their activity in Albania. The leading domestic beer manufacturers are: "Stela" beer, “Tirana” beer, “Korca” beer, “Kaon” beer, “Norga” beer, etc. They have invested millions of euros in terms of improving the quality of their production. Stela beer was the fi rst private beer active in the Albanian market. Its factory production founders of Stela beer responded to the market by investing in the development of technology, modern equipment and science. Stela beer processing and production systems have been improved continuously. The investments today are at around 20 million dollars. The factory has a considerable number of employees and a production capacity of around 250,000 hl per year. This article uses information obtained for beer production during the period 2003-2016. Through nonparametric mathematical model Dea, the impact of production factors such as investment, advertising, expenses, capital and number of employees in the production of beer during the study period is analyzed. The analysis showed that the best years or more efficient years in the use of the quantity of inputs for the period 2003-2016 are 2007, 2014 and 2015. The years 2003, 2010 and 2012 are less efficient by Dea analysis. The study also showed the best possible combinations of inputs improving the efficiency of inefficient years in the Stela Beer production.

  13. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products. Revised target support document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-02-15

    In accordance with section 374 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), Pub. L. 94-163, the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) proposed industrial energy efficiency improvement targets for the ten most energy-consumptive manufacturing industries in the U.S. Following public hearings and a review of the comments made, the final targets for Fabricated Metal Products (SIC 34) were established and are described. Using 1972 data on the energy consumed to produce specific metal products, it was concluded that a 24% reduction in energy consumption for SIC 34 is a viable goal for achievement by 1980. (ERA citation 04:045006)

  14. Monitoring Crop Productivity over the U.S. Corn Belt using an Improved Light Use Efficiency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Qin, Y.; Doughty, R.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale monitoring of crop yield is of great significance for forecasting food production and prices and ensuring food security. Satellite data that provide temporally and spatially continuous information that by themselves or in combination with other data or models, raises possibilities to monitor and understand agricultural productivity regionally. In this study, we first used an improved light use efficiency model-Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) to simulate the gross primary production (GPP). Model evaluation showed that the simulated GPP (GPPVPM) could well captured the spatio-temporal variation of GPP derived from FLUXNET sites. Then we applied the GPPVPM to further monitor crop productivity for corn and soybean over the U.S. Corn Belt and benchmarked with county-level crop yield statistics. We found VPM-based approach provides pretty good estimates (R2 = 0.88, slope = 1.03). We further showed the impacts of climate extremes on the crop productivity and carbon use efficiency. The study indicates the great potential of VPM in estimating crop yield and in understanding of crop yield responses to climate variability and change.

  15. Scope for improved eco-efficiency varies among diverse cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Peter S; Liang, Wei-li; Twomlow, Stephen; Holzworth, Dean P; Dimes, John P; McClelland, Tim; Huth, Neil I; Chen, Fu; Hochman, Zvi; Keating, Brian A

    2013-05-21

    Global food security requires eco-efficient agriculture to produce the required food and fiber products concomitant with ecologically efficient use of resources. This eco-efficiency concept is used to diagnose the state of agricultural production in China (irrigated wheat-maize double-cropping systems), Zimbabwe (rainfed maize systems), and Australia (rainfed wheat systems). More than 3,000 surveyed crop yields in these three countries were compared against simulated grain yields at farmer-specified levels of nitrogen (N) input. Many Australian commercial wheat farmers are both close to existing production frontiers and gain little prospective return from increasing their N input. Significant losses of N from their systems, either as nitrous oxide emissions or as nitrate leached from the soil profile, are infrequent and at low intensities relative to their level of grain production. These Australian farmers operate close to eco-efficient frontiers in regard to N, and so innovations in technologies and practices are essential to increasing their production without added economic or environmental risks. In contrast, many Chinese farmers can reduce N input without sacrificing production through more efficient use of their fertilizer input. In fact, there are real prospects for the double-cropping systems on the North China Plain to achieve both production increases and reduced environmental risks. Zimbabwean farmers have the opportunity for significant production increases by both improving their technical efficiency and increasing their level of input; however, doing so will require improved management expertise and greater access to institutional support for addressing the higher risks. This paper shows that pathways for achieving improved eco-efficiency will differ among diverse cropping systems.

  16. Energy productivity and efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Hasan, M. Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Bangladesh and production is highly sensitive to variations in the environment. We estimate productivity and energy efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach while accounting for the environmental constraints affecting production. Wheat farming is energy efficient with a net energy balance of 20,596 MJ per ha and energy ratio of 2.34. Environmental constraints such as a combination of unsuitable land, weed and pest attack, bad weather, planting delay and infertile soils significantly reduce wheat production and its energy efficiency. Environmental constraints account for a mean energy efficiency of 3 percentage points. Mean technical efficiency is 88% thereby indicating that elimination of inefficiencies can increase wheat energy output by 12%. Farmers' education, access to agricultural information and training in wheat production significantly improves efficiency, whereas events such as a delay in planting and first fertilization significantly reduce it. Policy recommendations include development of varieties that are resistant to environmental constraints and suitable for marginal areas; improvement of wheat farming practices; and investments in education and training of farmers as well as dissemination of information. - Highlights: • Bangladesh wheat farming is energy efficient at 20,596 MJha −1 ; energy ratio 2.34. • Environmental factors significantly influence productivity and energy efficiency. • Environmental factors must be taken into account when estimating wheat productivity. • Government policies must focus on ways of alleviating environmental factors. • Farmers' education, training and information sources increase technical efficiency

  17. Frontier technologies to improve efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalhammer, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses conservation technology to improve the efficiency of energy production. Although coal is seen as the largest source of fuel for producing electricity until the year 2040, the heating value of coal is expected to be increased by using Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. Use of fuel cells to produce electricity will be a viable option only if costs can be reduced to make the technology competitive. By coupling IGCC with fuel cells it may be possible to increase total conversion efficiency of coal to electricity at 50%. Photovoltaics technology is more likely to be used in developing countries. Electric utilities target power electronics, lighting fixtures, heat pumps, plasma processing, freeze concentration and application of superconductivity as electricity end use technologies that have the most potential for efficiency improvement. The impact of these technologies in coping with the greenhouse effect was not addressed

  18. Industrial policy, production efficiency improvement and the Chinese county economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the difference in the level of economic development between China’s counties from the two perspectives of industrial policy and production efficiency. Based on panel data of 1830 Chinese counties, this study employs the new classical economic growth theory framework to analyze the counties’ economic growth by the perpetual inventory method, Malmquist index, among others. The results show that the economy of the counties exhibits δ convergence since 2004, and the absolute differences in the different counties are expanding. Industrial policy ensures the additional deepening of the level of capital in the county. Additionally, a substantial difference was observed between the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, whereby the total factor productivity and the technical efficiency are on the rise, resulting in the phenomenon of dual paths of technological progress. In summary, the capital deepening difference between the sectors, production efficiency, and dual paths of technological progress owing to the counties’ industrial policy are the basic reasons for the regional differences in the level of economic development in China.

  19. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  20. [Carbon efficiency of double-rice production system in Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-du; Wu, Yao; Ti, Jin-song; Chen, Fu; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Improving the carbon efficiency of crop production systems is one of the important ways to realize low-carbon agriculture. A life cycle assessment approach and input-output calculation method was applied for a double-rice production system in the Hunan Province. Based on statistical data of crop yield and investment in the production system in the period from 2004 to 2012, carbon emission, carbon absorption, carbon efficiency and their dynamic changes of the double rice production systems were estimated. The results showed that the average of annual carbon emission from 2004 to 2012 was 656.4 x 10(7) kg CE. Carbon emissions from production and transport of fertilizer and pesticide accounted for a majority of agricultural input carbon emissions, approximately 70.0% and 15.9%, respectively. The carbon emission showed a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 in the Hunan Province, with an annual reduction rate of 2.4%, but the carbon emission intensity was in a trend of increase. The average of annual carbon absorption was 1547.0 x 10(7) kg C. The annual carbon absorption also showed a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 in Hunan Province, with an average annual reduction rate of 1.2%, and the carbon absorption intensity showed a trend of increase. Furthermore, production efficiency of carbon showed a slow upward trend. The economic efficiency of carbon showed a larger increasing rate with time, with an average annual growth rate of 9.9%. Ecological efficiency of carbon was stable and low, maintained at about 2.4 kg C . kg-1 CE. It indicated that the integrated carbon efficiency of Hunan double rice crop production system improved slowly with time and the key to improve the carbon efficiency of double rice production systems lies in reducing the rates of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide, and improving their use efficiencies.

  1. A Hypothesis and Review of the Relationship between Selection for Improved Production Efficiency, Coping Behavior, and Domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Rauw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coping styles in response to stressors have been described both in humans and in other animal species. Because coping styles are directly related to individual fitness they are part of the life history strategy. Behavioral styles trade off with other life-history traits through the acquisition and allocation of resources. Domestication and subsequent artificial selection for production traits specifically focused on selection of individuals with energy sparing mechanisms for non-production traits. Domestication resulted in animals with low levels of aggression and activity, and a low hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. In the present work, we propose that, vice versa, selection for improved production efficiency may to some extent continue to favor docile domesticated phenotypes. It is hypothesized that both domestication and selection for improved production efficiency may result in the selection of reactive style animals. Both domesticated and reactive style animals are characterized by low levels of aggression and activity, and increased serotonin neurotransmitter levels. However, whereas domestication quite consistently results in a decrease in the functional state of the HPA axis, the reactive coping style is often found to be dominated by a high HPA response. This may suggest that fearfulness and coping behavior are two independent underlying dimensions to the coping response. Although it is generally proposed that animal welfare improves with selection for calmer animals that are less fearful and reactive to novelty, animals bred to be less sensitive with fewer desires may be undesirable from an ethical point of view.

  2. Improving radiation use efficiency in greenhouse production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY

    A large increase in agricultural production is needed to feed the increasing world population with their increasing demand per capita. However, growing competition for arable land, water, energy, and the degradation of the environment impose challenges to improve

  3. Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

  4. Improvement of productivity in low volume production industry layout by using witness simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, V.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.; Rose, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    In almost all manufacturing industry, increased productivity and better efficiency of the production line are the most important goals. Most factories especially small scale factory has less awareness of manufacturing system optimization and lack of knowledge about it and uses the traditional way of management. Problems that are commonly identified in the factory are a high idle time of labour and also small production. This study is done in a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) low volume production company. Data collection and problems affecting productivity and efficiency are identified. In this study, Witness simulation software is being used to simulate the layout and the output is focusing on the improvement of layout in terms of productivity and efficiency. In this study, the layout is rearranged by reducing the travel time from a workstation to another workstation. Then, the improved layout is modelled and the machine and labour statistic of both, original and improved layout is taken. Productivity and efficiency are calculated for both layout and then being compared.

  5. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  6. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  7. Improving energy productivity in paddy production through benchmarking-An application of data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvendra Singh; Mohapatra, Pratap K.J.; Pandey, Keshaw Prasad

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a data envelopment analysis approach has been used to determine the efficiencies of farmers with regard to energy use in rice production activities in the alluvial zone in the state of West Bengal in India. The study has helped to segregate efficient farmers from inefficient ones, identify wasteful uses of energy from different sources by inefficient farmers and to suggest reasonable savings in energy uses from different sources. The methods of cross efficiency matrix and distribution of virtual inputs are used to get insights into the performance of individual farmers, rank efficient farmers and identify the improved operating practices followed by a group of truly efficient farmers. The results reveal that, on an average, about 11.6% of the total input energy could be saved if the farmers follow the input package recommended by the study. The study also suggests that better use of power tillers and introduction of improved machinery would improve the efficiency of energy use and thereby improve the energy productivity of the rice production system in the zone

  8. Improving energy productivity in paddy production through benchmarking-An application of data envelopment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Narvendra Singh [Department of Agronomy, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, P.O. Pundibari, District Cooch Behar (West Bengal) 736 165 (India)]. E-mail: nsc_01@rediffmail.com; Mohapatra, Pratap K.J. [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (West Bengal) 721 302 (India); Pandey, Keshaw Prasad [Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (West Bengal) 721 302 (India)

    2006-06-15

    In this study, a data envelopment analysis approach has been used to determine the efficiencies of farmers with regard to energy use in rice production activities in the alluvial zone in the state of West Bengal in India. The study has helped to segregate efficient farmers from inefficient ones, identify wasteful uses of energy from different sources by inefficient farmers and to suggest reasonable savings in energy uses from different sources. The methods of cross efficiency matrix and distribution of virtual inputs are used to get insights into the performance of individual farmers, rank efficient farmers and identify the improved operating practices followed by a group of truly efficient farmers. The results reveal that, on an average, about 11.6% of the total input energy could be saved if the farmers follow the input package recommended by the study. The study also suggests that better use of power tillers and introduction of improved machinery would improve the efficiency of energy use and thereby improve the energy productivity of the rice production system in the zone.

  9. Assembly Line Efficiency Improvement by Using WITNESS Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, A. S. H. M.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.

    2018-03-01

    In the nowadays-competitive world, efficiencies and the productivity of the assembly line are essential in manufacturing company. This paper demonstrates the study of the existing production line performance. The actual cycle time observed and recorded during the working process. The current layout was designed and analysed using Witness simulation software. The productivity and effectiveness for every single operator are measured to determine the operator idle time and busy time. Two new alternatives layout were proposed and analysed by using Witness simulation software to improve the performance of production activities. This research provided valuable and better understanding of production effectiveness by adjusting the line balancing. After analysing the data, simulation result from the current layout and the proposed plan later been tabulated to compare the improved efficiency and productivity. The proposed design plan has shown an increase in yield and productivity compared to the current arrangement. This research has been carried out in company XYZ, which is one of the automotive premises in Pahang, Malaysia.

  10. Applying Toyota production system techniques for medication delivery: improving hospital safety and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Terry L; Steinmetz-Malato, Laura L; Van Dyke, Deborah L

    2011-01-01

    The inpatient medication delivery system used at a large regional acute care hospital in the Midwest had become antiquated and inefficient. The existing 24-hr medication cart-fill exchange process with delivery to the patients' bedside did not always provide ordered medications to the nursing units when they were needed. In 2007 the principles of the Toyota Production System (TPS) were applied to the system. Project objectives were to improve medication safety and reduce the time needed for nurses to retrieve patient medications. A multidisciplinary team was formed that included representatives from nursing, pharmacy, informatics, quality, and various operational support departments. Team members were educated and trained in the tools and techniques of TPS, and then designed and implemented a new pull system benchmarking the TPS Ideal State model. The newly installed process, providing just-in-time medication availability, has measurably improved delivery processes as well as patient safety and satisfaction. Other positive outcomes have included improved nursing satisfaction, reduced nursing wait time for delivered medications, and improved efficiency in the pharmacy. After a successful pilot on two nursing units, the system is being extended to the rest of the hospital. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  11. Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure International Agricultural Efficiency and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Numerous methods for measuring multifactor productivity have been used by economists. This report uses a recently developed approach, data envlopment analysis, to measure productivity. This method can be used not only to calculate productivity but also to divide productivity measures into indices that measure technical efficiency and technical change. Technical efficiency measures the efficiency with which resources are used. Technical change measures changes in output arising from improved t...

  12. Development of an eco-efficient product/process for the vulcanising industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra, M. B.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an eco-efficient product/process, which has improved mechanical properties from the introduction of natural fibres in the EPDM (Ethylene-Propylene-Diene-Terpolymer rubber formulation. The optimisation analysis is made by a fractional factorial design 211-7. Different formulations were evaluated using a multi-response desirability function, with the aim of finding efficient levels for the manufacturing time-cycle, improving the mechanical properties of the product, and reducing the raw material costs. The development of an eco-efficient product/process generates a sustainable alternative to conventional manufacturing.

  13. Improving Global Gross Primary Productivity Estimates by Computing Optimum Light Use Efficiencies Using Flux Tower Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S.; Running, Steven W.

    2017-11-01

    In the light use efficiency (LUE) approach of estimating the gross primary productivity (GPP), plant productivity is linearly related to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation assuming that plants absorb and convert solar energy into biomass within a maximum LUE (LUEmax) rate, which is assumed to vary conservatively within a given biome type. However, it has been shown that photosynthetic efficiency can vary within biomes. In this study, we used 149 global CO2 flux towers to derive the optimum LUE (LUEopt) under prevailing climate conditions for each tower location, stratified according to model training and test sites. Unlike LUEmax, LUEopt varies according to heterogeneous landscape characteristics and species traits. The LUEopt data showed large spatial variability within and between biome types, so that a simple biome classification explained only 29% of LUEopt variability over 95 global tower training sites. The use of explanatory variables in a mixed effect regression model explained 62.2% of the spatial variability in tower LUEopt data. The resulting regression model was used for global extrapolation of the LUEopt data and GPP estimation. The GPP estimated using the new LUEopt map showed significant improvement relative to global tower data, including a 15% R2 increase and 34% root-mean-square error reduction relative to baseline GPP calculations derived from biome-specific LUEmax constants. The new global LUEopt map is expected to improve the performance of LUE-based GPP algorithms for better assessment and monitoring of global terrestrial productivity and carbon dynamics.

  14. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  15. Informatics in radiology: Efficiency metrics for imaging device productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengqi; Pavlicek, William; Liu, Patrick T; Zhang, Muhong; Langer, Steve G; Wang, Shanshan; Place, Vicki; Miranda, Rafael; Wu, Teresa Tong

    2011-01-01

    Acute awareness of the costs associated with medical imaging equipment is an ever-present aspect of the current healthcare debate. However, the monitoring of productivity associated with expensive imaging devices is likely to be labor intensive, relies on summary statistics, and lacks accepted and standardized benchmarks of efficiency. In the context of the general Six Sigma DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) process, a World Wide Web-based productivity tool called the Imaging Exam Time Monitor was developed to accurately and remotely monitor imaging efficiency with use of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) combined with a picture archiving and communication system. Five device efficiency metrics-examination duration, table utilization, interpatient time, appointment interval time, and interseries time-were derived from DICOM values. These metrics allow the standardized measurement of productivity, to facilitate the comparative evaluation of imaging equipment use and ongoing efforts to improve efficiency. A relational database was constructed to store patient imaging data, along with device- and examination-related data. The database provides full access to ad hoc queries and can automatically generate detailed reports for administrative and business use, thereby allowing staff to monitor data for trends and to better identify possible changes that could lead to improved productivity and reduced costs in association with imaging services. © RSNA, 2011.

  16. JIT maintenance improves the productivity and energy efficiency of the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Željko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance planning in order to ensure the smooth functioning of the system, optimal interaction of system with the environment, and timely responses to the set requirements is one of the most important internal resources of the organization. Just-In-Time Maintenance enables rarely downtime and lower maintenance costs throughout the life cycle of the system, and dramatically increases the productivity and energy efficiency of the entire system. By adopting of the Just-In-Time Maintenance philosophy, minimum of objective function of energy or production system, as well as of production of services system, is achieved.

  17. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  18. Measuring efficiency of cotton cultivation in Pakistan: a restricted production frontier study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watto, Muhammad Arif; Mugera, Amin

    2014-11-01

    Massive groundwater pumping for irrigation has started lowering water tables rapidly in different regions of Pakistan. Declining water tables have thus prompted research efforts to improve agricultural productivity and efficiency to make efficient use of scarce water resources. This study employs a restricted stochastic production frontier to estimate the level of, and factors affecting, technical efficiency of groundwater-irrigated cotton farms in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The mean technical efficiency estimates indicate substantial technical inefficiencies among cotton growers. On average, tube-well owners and water buyers can potentially increase cotton production by 19% and 28%, respectively, without increasing the existing input level. The most influential factors affecting technical efficiency positively are the use of improved quality seed, consultation with extension field staff and farmers' perceptions concerning the availability of groundwater resources for irrigation in the future. This study proposes that adopting improved seed for new cotton varieties and providing better extension services regarding cotton production technology would help to achieve higher efficiency in cotton farming. Within the context of falling water tables, educating farmers about the actual crop water requirements and guiding them about groundwater resource availability may also help to achieve higher efficiencies. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  20. Improving productivity and firm performance with enterprise resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Hooshang M.; Beheshti, Cyrus M.

    2010-11-01

    Productivity is generally considered to be the efficient utilisation of organisational resources and is measured in terms of the efficiency of a worker, company or nation. Focusing on efficiency alone, however, can be harmful to the organisation's long-term success and competitiveness. The full benefits of productivity improvement measures are realised when productivity is examined from two perspectives: operational efficiency (output/input) of an individual worker or a business unit as well as performance (effectiveness) with regard to end user or customer satisfaction. Over the years, corporations have adopted new technology to integrate business activities in order to achieve both effectiveness and efficiency in their operations. In recent years, many firms have invested in enterprise resource planning (ERP) in order to integrate all business activities into a uniform system. The implementation of ERP enables the firm to reduce the transaction costs of the business and improve its productivity, customer satisfaction and profitability.

  1. Production System of Peranakan Etawah Goat under Application of Feed Technology: Productivity and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency

  2. Production Efficiency Audit on Tea Beverage Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes

  3. Optimization and Improvement of Test Processes on a Production Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujová, Erika; Čierna, Helena

    2018-06-01

    The paper deals with increasing processes efficiency at a production line of cylinder heads of engines in a production company operating in the automotive industry. The goal is to achieve improvement and optimization of test processes on a production line. It analyzes options for improving capacity, availability and productivity of processes of an output test by using modern technology available on the market. We have focused on analysis of operation times before and after optimization of test processes at specific production sections. By analyzing measured results we have determined differences in time before and after improvement of the process. We have determined a coefficient of efficiency OEE and by comparing outputs we have confirmed real improvement of the process of the output test of cylinder heads.

  4. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  5. A chain information model for structured knowledge management: Towards effective and efficient food product improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Geerts, R.F.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    New food products often fail, because they are not designed according to consumers' wishes or not produced efficiently. Frequently, the information required for an effective and efficient product development process is not relayed to the appropriate actor in the chain. This article presents a

  6. A chain information model for structured knowledge management: towards effective and efficient food product improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Geerts, R.F.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    New food products often fail, because they are not designed according to consumers' wishes or not produced efficiently. Frequently, the information required for an effective and efficient product development process is not relayed to the appropriate actor in the chain. This article presents a

  7. A history of industrial statistics and quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Coleman, S.; Greenfield, T.; Stewardson, D.; Montgomery, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed incredible increases in product quality, while in the same period product priced dropped dramatically. These important improvements in quality and efficiency in industry were the result of innovations in management and engineering. But these developments were

  8. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  9. Design of production process main shaft process with lean manufacturing to improve productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Nasution, A. A.; Andayani, U.; Anizar; Syahputri, K.

    2018-02-01

    This object research is one of manufacturing companies that produce oil palm machinery parts. In the production process there is delay in the completion of the Main shaft order. Delays in the completion of the order indicate the low productivity of the company in terms of resource utilization. This study aimed to obtain a draft improvement of production processes that can improve productivity by identifying and eliminating activities that do not add value (non-value added activity). One approach that can be used to reduce and eliminate non-value added activity is Lean Manufacturing. This study focuses on the identification of non-value added activity with value stream mapping analysis tools, while the elimination of non-value added activity is done with tools 5 whys and implementation of pull demand system. Based on the research known that non-value added activity on the production process of the main shaft is 9,509.51 minutes of total lead time 10,804.59 minutes. This shows the level of efficiency (Process Cycle Efficiency) in the production process of the main shaft is still very low by 11.89%. Estimation results of improvement showed a decrease in total lead time became 4,355.08 minutes and greater process cycle efficiency that is equal to 29.73%, which indicates that the process was nearing the concept of lean production.

  10. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  11. Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, Christian; Auer, Hans; Lettner, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind stands in dynamic relationship with various influence factors, the most important of which are promotion instruments, topographic givens, regulation of grid connection, and supraregional market integration concepts. Using three case studies from different countries to highlight national differences in the promotion of offshore wind power plants the present analysis points out ways of improving the efficiency of promotion instruments.

  12. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF EVIDENCE PRODUCTION FOR HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Karen; Henshall, Chris; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Thomas, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) needs to address the challenges posed by high cost, effective technologies, expedited regulatory approaches, and the opportunities provided by collaborative real-world evaluation of technologies. The Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum met to consider these issues and the implications for evidence production to inform HTA. This paper shares their discussion to stimulate further debate. A background paper, presentations, group discussions, and stakeholder role play at the 2015 HTAi Policy Forum meeting informed this paper. HTA has an important role to play in helping improve evidence production and ensuring that the health service is ready to adopt effective technologies. It needs to move from simply informing health system decisions to also working actively to align stakeholder expectations about realistic evidence requirements. Processes to support dialogue over the health technology life cycle need to be developed that are mindful of limited resources, operate across jurisdictions and learn from past processes. Collaborations between health technology developers and health systems in different countries should be encouraged to develop evidence that will inform decision making. New analytical techniques emerging for real-world data should be harnessed to support modeling for HTA. A paradigm shift (to "Health Innovation System 2.0") is suggested where HTA adopts a more central, proactive role to support alignment within and amongst stakeholders over the whole life cycle of the technology. This could help ensure that evidence production is better aligned with patient and health system needs and so is more effective and efficient.

  13. Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an economy where recourses are scarce and opportunities for a new technology are lacking, studies will be able to show the possibility of raising productivity by improving the industry's efficiency. This study attempts to measure the status of technical efficiency of tea-producing industry for panel data in Bangladesh using ...

  14. Importance of organized energy efficiency introduction and improvement in PE EPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management system (EnMS introduction into companies that are significant energy consumers has been initiated after adoption of the Law of efficient energy usage. Due to the fact that sectors for production, transmission and distribution of electrical and heat energy are also implied by this law, it is clear that PE EPS is also obligated to implement EnMS and to carry out the requirements defined by legislation. In this paper, the results of first-phase introduction of the system for supervision and improvement of energy efficiency in PE EPS in production of coal, and production and distribution of electrical and heat energy, are given. Recommended measures for energy efficiency improvement with stress on larger energy, financial savings and a lower rate of investment return are emphasised. Such systematic measures should also serve as a good basis for further stages of energy management introduction and implementation.

  15. Improved production operating efficiencies through automation: Wascana Energy`s SCADA system implementation in southeast Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, R; Foord, T; Bartle, A

    1996-12-31

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems covering Wascana Energy`s whole southeast Saskatchewan operating area were implemented in 1994-95. The benefits of this automation were described. Operations practices were reviewed and a brief description of the system was provided. Main features of the system described included data storage/retrieval, data display, alarm group organization, alarm call out monitoring, dynagraph display, and the Microsoft SQL server computer. Automation was found to significantly change the operator`s traditional role and altered operation practices in general. SCADA systems were found to improve operating efficiencies and production performance significantly, when properly implemented and utilized. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Koeijer, de, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in the transition towards more sustainable production systems. Agronomic efficiency measures the technical performance. If it could be improved, environmental damage could be reduced while, at the sam...

  17. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  18. Utilization of information and communications technology (ICT) to improve workface efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, A.; Rasmussen, J. [Industrial Audit Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Improving the efficiency of personnel at the workface is a key objective for executing construction, maintenance, quality, engineering and human performance activities. Schedule and cost overruns have a significant impact on the bottom line and on future business efficiency in execution of tasks is paramount to success. Leveraging information and communications technology (ICT) in construction, maintenance and operation environments can create a mobile workforce where personnel efficiency is improved, significant gains are made on schedule and cost, and the overall quality of work is raised. This paper will discuss the impact of mobile technology specifically on workface efficiency and productivity. (author)

  19. Utilization of information and communications technology (ICT) to improve workface efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, A.; Rasmussen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of personnel at the workface is a key objective for executing construction, maintenance, quality, engineering and human performance activities. Schedule and cost overruns have a significant impact on the bottom line and on future business efficiency in execution of tasks is paramount to success. Leveraging information and communications technology (ICT) in construction, maintenance and operation environments can create a mobile workforce where personnel efficiency is improved, significant gains are made on schedule and cost, and the overall quality of work is raised. This paper will discuss the impact of mobile technology specifically on workface efficiency and productivity. (author)

  20. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  1. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  2. Productivity Improvement in Underground Coal Mines - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasad Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of productivity has become an important goal for today's coal industry in the race to increase price competitiveness. The challenge now lying ahead for the coal industry is to identify areas of waste, meet the market price and maintain a healthy profit. The only way to achieve this is to reduce production costs by improving productivity, efficiency and the effectiveness of the equipment. This paper aims to identify the various factors and problems affecting the productivity of underground coal mines adopting the bord and pillar method of mining and to propose suitable measures for improving them. The various key factors affecting productivity, namely the cycle of operations, manpower deployment, machine efficiency, material handling and management of manpower are discussed. In addition, the problem of side discharge loader (SDL cable handling resulting in the wastage of precious manpower resources and SDL breakdown have also been identified and resolved in this paper.

  3. Improving crop nutrient efficiency through root architecture modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Improving crop nutrient efficiency becomes an essential consideration for environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture. Plant growth and development is dependent on 17 essential nutrient elements, among them, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important mineral nutrients. Hence it is not surprising that low N and/or low P availability in soils severely constrains crop growth and productivity, and thereby have become high priority targets for improving nutrient efficiency in crops. Root exploration largely determines the ability of plants to acquire mineral nutrients from soils. Therefore, root architecture, the 3-dimensional configuration of the plant's root system in the soil, is of great importance for improving crop nutrient efficiency. Furthermore, the symbiotic associations between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi/rhizobial bacteria, are additional important strategies to enhance nutrient acquisition. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the current understanding of crop species control of root architecture alterations in response to nutrient availability and root/microbe symbioses, through gene or QTL regulation, which results in enhanced nutrient acquisition. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  5. Towards a more efficient energy use in photovoltaic powered products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.; Strijk, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the energy saving and power management solutions necessary to improve the energy consumption efficiency in photovoltaic powered products. Important in the design of such products is not only the energy supply optimization required to deliver the actual energy to fulfil their

  6. Improved Xylitol Production from D-Arabitol by Enhancing the Coenzyme Regeneration Efficiency of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Zhang, Jinliang; Xu, Hong; Feng, Xiaohai

    2016-02-10

    Gluconobacter oxydans is used to produce xylitol from D-arabitol. This study aims to improve xylitol production by increasing the coenzyme regeneration efficiency of the pentose phosphate pathway in G. oxydans. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) were overexpressed in G. oxydans. Real-time PCR and enzyme activity assays revealed that G6PDH/6PGDH activity and coenzyme regeneration efficiency increased in the recombinant G. oxydans strains. Approximately 29.3 g/L xylitol was obtained, with a yield of 73.2%, from 40 g/L d-arabitol in the batch biotransformation with the G. oxydans PZ strain. Moreover, the xylitol productivity (0.62 g/L/h) was 3.26-fold of the wild type strain (0.19 g/L/h). In repetitive batch biotransformation, the G. oxydans PZ cells were used for five cycles without incurring a significant loss in productivity. These results indicate that the recombinant G. oxydans PZ strain is economically feasible for xylitol production in industrial bioconversion.

  7. Efficient protein production by yeast requires global tuning of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Mingtao; Bao, Jichen; Hallstrom, Bjorn M.

    2017-01-01

    The biotech industry relies on cell factories for production of pharmaceutical proteins, of which several are among the top-selling medicines. There is, therefore, considerable interest in improving the efficiency of protein production by cell factories. Protein secretion involves numerous...... intracellular processes with many underlying mechanisms still remaining unclear. Here, we use RNA-seq to study the genome-wide transcriptional response to protein secretion in mutant yeast strains. We find that many cellular processes have to be attuned to support efficient protein secretion. In particular...... that by tuning metabolism cells are able to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins. Our findings provide increased understanding of which cellular regulations and pathways are associated with efficient protein secretion....

  8. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profit rate for a meat production enterprise can be decomposedinto the unit price for meat and herd ... supply and demand, whereas breeding improvement is gen- ... Herd efficiency is total live mass for slaughter divided by costs .... tenance and above-maintenance components by Dickerson, and ..... Growth and productivity.

  9. Efficiency improvements of offline metrology job creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Victor J.; Carlson, Alan; Podlesny, John C.; Knutrud, Paul C.

    1999-06-01

    Progress of the first lot of a new design through the production line is watched very closely. All performance metrics, cycle-time, in-line measurement results and final electrical performance are critical. Rapid movement of this lot through the line has serious time-to-market implications. Having this material waiting at a metrology operation for an engineer to create a measurement job plan wastes valuable turnaround time. Further, efficient use of a metrology system is compromised by the time required to create and maintain these measurement job plans. Thus, having a method to develop metrology job plans prior to the actual running of the material through the manufacture area can significantly improve both cycle time and overall equipment efficiency. Motorola and Schlumberger have worked together to develop and test such a system. The Remote Job Generator (RJG) created job plans for new device sin a manufacturing process from an NT host or workstation, offline. This increases available system tim effort making production measurements, decreases turnaround time on job plan creation and editing, and improves consistency across job plans. Most importantly this allows job plans for new devices to be available before the first wafers of the device arrive at the tool for measurement. The software also includes a database manager which allows updates of existing job plans to incorporate measurement changes required by process changes or measurement optimization. This paper will review the result of productivity enhancements through the increased metrology utilization and decreased cycle time associated with the use of RJG. Finally, improvements in process control through better control of Job Plans across different devices and layers will be discussed.

  10. Efficiency Improvement and Quality Initiatives Application in Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ajtene Avdullahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions in today’s economy have no longer the luxury to improve profit simply by increasing revenue. These firms, due to the significant measuring reductions in the financial services industry needed to improve operational efficiencies and merely support existing processes with fewer resources. This paper explains the benefits of Lean, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management and Lean Six Sigma that have improved organization's performance, by cutting costs and waste, improving their products or services, increasing profitability as well as enhancing customer satisfaction. The applicability of quality management practices in financial institutions in Kosovo is presented and also their efficiency and effectiveness. By analyzing data from Raiffeisen Bank Kosovo, this paper highlights the benefits of Individual and Micro companies customer segment as the result of organizational change and successful application of quality initiatives from financial institutions in Kosovo.

  11. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  12. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  13. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  14. A non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis approach for improving energy efficiency of grape production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshroo, Alireza; Mulwa, Richard; Emrouznejad, Ali; Arabi, Behrouz

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops with approximately 67.5 million tonnes produced each year and energy is an important element in modern grape productions as it heavily depends on fossil and other energy resources. Efficient use of these energies is a necessary step toward reducing environmental hazards, preventing destruction of natural resources and ensuring agricultural sustainability. Hence, identifying excessive use of energy as well as reducing energy resources is the main focus of this paper to optimize energy consumption in grape production. In this study we use a two-stage methodology to find the association of energy efficiency and performance explained by farmers' specific characteristics. In the first stage a non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis is used to model efficiencies as an explicit function of human labor, machinery, chemicals, FYM (farmyard manure), diesel fuel, electricity and water for irrigation energies. In the second step, farm specific variables such as farmers' age, gender, level of education and agricultural experience are used in a Tobit regression framework to explain how these factors influence efficiency of grape farming. The result of the first stage shows substantial inefficiency between the grape producers in the studied area while the second stage shows that the main difference between efficient and inefficient farmers was in the use of chemicals, diesel fuel and water for irrigation. The use of chemicals such as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides were considerably less than inefficient ones. The results revealed that the more educated farmers are more energy efficient in comparison with their less educated counterparts. - Highlights: • The focus of this paper is to identify excessive use of energy and optimize energy consumption in grape production. • We measure the efficiency as a function of labor/machinery/chemicals/farmyard manure/diesel-fuel/electricity/water. • Data were obtained from 41 grape

  15. An efficiency improvement in warehouse operation using simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samattapapong, N.

    2017-11-01

    In general, industry requires an efficient system for warehouse operation. There are many important factors that must be considered when designing an efficient warehouse system. The most important is an effective warehouse operation system that can help transfer raw material, reduce costs and support transportation. By all these factors, researchers are interested in studying about work systems and warehouse distribution. We start by collecting the important data for storage, such as the information on products, information on size and location, information on data collection and information on production, and all this information to build simulation model in Flexsim® simulation software. The result for simulation analysis found that the conveyor belt was a bottleneck in the warehouse operation. Therefore, many scenarios to improve that problem were generated and testing through simulation analysis process. The result showed that an average queuing time was reduced from 89.8% to 48.7% and the ability in transporting the product increased from 10.2% to 50.9%. Thus, it can be stated that this is the best method for increasing efficiency in the warehouse operation.

  16. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, Osinergmin (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  17. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  18. Eco-efficiency in industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Groen, Arend J.

    2001-01-01

    English AbstractThis report of the MATRIC project investigated 'Eco-efficiency in industrial production'. After a general introduction into the domain of eco-efficiency, the first part of this report further focusses on the organisation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management (POEM), which is

  19. Supplemental irrigation to improve wheat production and water use efficiency under rainfed farming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Q.; Bhatti, A.A.; Ahmad, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    conditions ranges between 6.2-7.1, 7.9-8.5 and 19.6-30.8 kg/ha/mm of water respectively. The water use efficiencies WUE/sub r/, WUE/sub g/ and WUE/sub si/ under fertilizer conditions ranges between 7.0-8.7, 8.5-11.1 and 26.8-40 kg/ha/mm of water respectively. Whereas the WUE/sub sis/ was 40.2, 62.0 and 40.6 kg/ha/mm of water during the year 2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06 respectively. Supplemental irrigation increased both the wheat production and water use efficiency by supplying irrigation water at critical moisture stress and improving level of input. (author)

  20. New process modeling[sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice

  1. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  2. Improving the global efficiency in small hydropower practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razurel, P.; Gorla, L.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global increase in energy production from renewable sources has seen river exploitation for small hydropower plants to also grow considerably in the last decade. River intakes used to divert water from the main course to the power plant are at the base of such practice. A key issue concern with finding innovative concepts to both design and manage such structures in order to improve classic operational rules. Among these, the Minimal Flow Release (MFR) concept has long been used in spite of its environmental inconsistency.In this work, we show that the economical and ecological efficiency of diverting water for energy production in small hydropower plants can be improved towards sustainability by engineering a novel class of flow-redistribution policies. We use the mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to define non-proportional dynamic flow-redistribution rules, which broadens the spectrum of dynamic flow releases based on proportional redistribution. The theoretical background as well as the economic interpretation is presented and applied to three case studies in order to systematically test the global performance of such policies. Out of numerical simulations, a Pareto frontier emerges in the economic vs environmental efficiency plot, which show that non-proportional distribution policies improve both efficiencies with respect to those obtained from some traditional MFR and proportional policies. This picture is shown also for long term climatic scenarios affecting water availability and the natural flow regime.In a time of intense and increasing exploitation close to resource saturation, preserving natural river reaches requires to abandon inappropriate static release policies in favor of non-proportional ones towards a sustainable use of the water resource.

  3. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  4. HelioTrope: An innovative and efficient prototype for solar power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy alternative could provide us with all the energy we need as it exist in vast quantities all around us. We only should be innovative enough in order to improve the efficiency of our systems in capturing and converting solar energy in usable forms of power. By making a case for the solar energy alternative, we identify areas where efficiency can be improved and thereby Solar Energy can become a competitive energy source. This paper suggests an innovative approach to solar energy power production, which is manifested in a prototype given the name HelioTrope. The Heliotrope Solar Energy Production prototype is tested on its' capabilities to efficiently covert solar energy to generation of electricity and other forms of energy for storage or direct use. HelioTrope involves an innovative Stirling engine design and a parabolic concentrating dish with a sun tracking system implementing a control algorithm to maximize the capturing of solar energy. Further, it utilizes a patent developed by the authors where a mechanism is designed for the transmission of reciprocating motion of variable amplitude into unidirectional circular motion. This is employed in our prototype for converting linear reciprocating motion into circular for electricity production, which gives a significant increase in efficiency and reduces maintenance costs. Preliminary calculations indicate that the Heliotrope approach constitutes a competitive solution to solar power production.

  5. Contracting for Efficiency. A Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  6. Contracting for Efficiency: A Best Practices Guide for Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  7. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of

  8. Improving recovery efficiency of water-drive channel sandstone reservoir by drilling wells laterally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiguo, F.; Quinglong, D.; Pingshi, Z.; Bingyu, J.; Weigang, L. [Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

    1998-12-31

    Example of drilling a horizontal well in reservoir rock of only four meter thick by using existing casing pipe of low efficiency vertical wells to induce production in the top remaining reservoir is described. The experience shows that drilling horizontal wells laterally in thin bodies of sandstone reservoirs and improve their productivity is a feasible proposition. Productivity will still be low, but it can be improved by well stimulation. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Improving crop water use efficiency using carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serraj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity, drought and salinity are among the most important environmental constraints challenging crop productivity in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, especially the rain-fed production systems. The current challenge is to enhance food security in water-limited and/or salt-affected areas for the benefit of resource-poor farmers in developing countries. There is also an increasing need that water use in agriculture should focus on improvement in the management of existing water resources and enhancing crop water productivity. The method based on carbon-13 discrimination in plant tissues has a potentially important role in the selection and breeding of some crop species for increased water use efficiency in some specific environments. Under various water-limited environments, low delta in the plants, indicating low carbon isotope discrimination has been generally associated with high transpiration efficiency (TE). In contrast, for well-watered environments many positive genotypic correlations have been reported between delta and grain yield indicating potential value in selecting for greater delta in these environments. Few studies have been reported on the impact of selection for delta on adaptation and grain yield in saline environments. Studies of the impact of genetic selection for greater and lower delta are currently coordinated by the Soil and water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) is currently on-going on the Selection for Greater Agronomic Water-Use Efficiency in Wheat and Rice using Carbon Isotope Discrimination (D1-20 08). The overall objective of this project is to contribute to increasing the agronomic water-use efficiency of wheat and rice production, where agronomic water-use efficiency is defined as grain yield/total water use including both transpiration and evaporation. The CRP is also aiming at increasing wheat productivity under drought and rice

  10. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  11. Technical efficiency in milk production in underdeveloped production environment of India*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Dwaipayan; Sharma, Murari Lal

    2013-12-01

    The study was undertaken in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state of India with the objective of estimating technical efficiency in milk production across different herd-size category households and factors influencing it. Total of 60 farm households having representation from different herd-size categories drawn from six randomly selected villages of plain and hilly regions of the division constituted the ultimate sampling units of the study. Stochastic frontier production function analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency in milk production. Multivariate regression equations were fitted taking technical efficiency index as the regressand to identify the factors significantly influencing technical efficiency in milk production. The study revealed that variation in output across farms in the study area was due to difference in their technical efficiency levels. However, it was interesting to note that smallholder producers were more technically efficient in milk production than their larger counterparts, especially in the plains. Apart from herd size, intensity of market participation had significant and positive impact on technical efficiency in the plains. This provides definite indication that increasing the level of commercialization of dairy farms would have beneficial impact on their production efficiency.

  12. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  13. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread

  14. Energy efficiency improvement and environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhier, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Massive reliance on polluting sources of energy (coal, traditional biomass and oil) has damaged the environment in China over years. Now, China is the world's first carbon dioxide emitter and air pollution represents between 2 and 7 percent of loss of Gross Domestic Product per year, depending on the studies chosen. In order to reduce the level of pollution, one can either enhance the technology in use or reduce the share of polluting fuels in the energy mix. Indeed, current Chinese technologies are far less efficient than those of developed countries and the energy mix is massively composed of polluting sources of energy. So, they both represent huge potential savings. This article enquires the link between diversification, efficiency in the power sector and the per capita emissions and shows that emissions are negatively correlated to a diversification of the energy mix as well as an improvement of power generating technologies. Hence, it justifies the diversification of the energy mix and technology improvement as viable strategies to tackle pollution

  15. Surgeons' efficiency change is a major determinant of their productivity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yuichi; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Yoshimura, Tatsuya; Otake, Hiroshi; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The sustainability of the Japanese healthcare system is in question because the government has had a huge fiscal debt. Despite an enormous effort to cut the deficit, our healthcare expenditure is increasing every year because of the rapidly aging population. One of the solutions for this problem is to improve the productivity of healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that change surgeons' productivity in one year. Design/methodology/approach - The authors collected data of all surgical procedures performed at Teikyo University Hospital from April 1 through September 30 in 2014 and 2015, and computed the surgeons' Malmquist index (MI), efficiency change (EC) and technical change (TC) using non-radial and non-oriented Malmquist model under the constant returns-to-scale assumptions. The authors then divided the surgeons into two groups; one whose productivity progressed and the other whose productivity regressed. These two groups were compared to identify factors that may influence their MI. Findings - The only significant difference between the two groups was ECs (p productivity change. The best way to improve surgeons' productivity may be to enhance their efficiency regardless of their surgical volume and personal backgrounds.

  16. The Gains from Improved Market Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar; Ejrnæs, Mette

    faster, violations of the law of one price become smaller and hence less persistent. There were also significant gains from improved market efficiency but that improvement took place after the information ‘regime’ shifted from pre-telegraphic communication to a regime with swift transmission...... of information in an era which developed a sophisticated commercial press and telegraphic communication. Improved market efficiency probably stimulated trade more than falling transport costs......This paper looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the 19th century when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer...

  17. Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lower, Mark D [ORNL; Christopher, Timothy W [ORNL; Oland, C Barry [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL

  18. Energy efficiency analysis method based on fuzzy DEA cross-model for ethylene production systems in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yongming; Geng, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Qunxiong; Qu, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    DEA (data envelopment analysis) has been widely used for the efficiency analysis of industrial production process. However, the conventional DEA model is difficult to analyze the pros and cons of the multi DMUs (decision-making units). The DEACM (DEA cross-model) can distinguish the pros and cons of the effective DMUs, but it is unable to take the effect of the uncertainty data into account. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis method based on FDEACM (fuzzy DEA cross-model) with Fuzzy Data. The proposed method has better objectivity and resolving power for the decision-making. First we obtain the minimum, the median and the maximum values of the multi-criteria ethylene energy consumption data by the data fuzzification. On the basis of the multi-criteria fuzzy data, the benchmark of the effective production situations and the improvement directions of the ineffective of the ethylene plants under different production data configurations are obtained by the FDEACM. The experimental result shows that the proposed method can improve the ethylene production conditions and guide the efficiency of energy utilization during ethylene production process. - Highlights: • This paper proposes an efficiency analysis method based on FDEACM (fuzzy DEA cross-model) with data fuzzification. • The proposed method is more efficient and accurate than other methods. • We obtain an energy efficiency analysis framework and process based on FDEACM in ethylene production industry. • The proposed method is valid and efficient in improvement of energy efficiency in the ethylene plants

  19. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  20. Efficiency and Import Penetrationon the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the ave-rage level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  1. Design of China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP) for equipment and appliances and comparative study of international experience on super-efficient products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuying; Zhu, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    With rising global emphasizes on climate change and sustainable development, how to accelerate the transformation of energy efficiency has become an important question. Designing and implementing energy-efficiency policies for super-efficient products represents an important direction to achieve breakthroughs in the field of energy conservation. On December 31, 2014, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) jointly six other ministerial agencies launched China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP), which identifies top efficiency models for selected product categories. LEP sets the highest energy efficiency benchmark. Design of LEP took into consideration of how to best motivate manufacturers to accelerate technical innovation, promote high efficiency products. This paper explains core elements of LEP, such as objectives, selection criteria, implementation method and supportive policies. It also proposes recommendations to further improve LEP through international policy comparison with Japan’s Top Runner Program, U.S. Energy Star Most Efficient, and SEAD Global Efficiency Medal.

  2. Ownership and efficiency in nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the relatively small amount of academic literature on the efficiency of nuclear power production. The author draws on world-wide comparisons to illustrate the situation in the United Kingdom, where the nuclear generating capacity, conceived of and constructed as a public concern, has recently been privatised. The theory and evidence for links between ownership and productive efficiency is received. Efficiency measures used are explained as are the linear programs required to generate them. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to analyse productive efficiency of nuclear power plants before and after privatisation. Results of the DEA are used to test the hypothesis that ownership has no effect on productive efficiency. (UK)

  3. New raw materials improve packing sealing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igel, B.; McKeague, L.

    2012-01-01

    End-users and OEM's using or manufacturing on/off and control valves expect a permanent and effective increase in service life together with an increased sealing capability while at the same time minimizing maintenance concerns. Developing materials which provide consistency and repeatability are essential characteristics to optimizing valve performance. “New Generation” materials and yarn allow us to meet this growing demand while complying with the requirements related to chemical purity and an increased level of safety to both plant workers and equipment in the nuclear environment. Through R&D initiatives and developments in new and improved raw materials; a new mechanical packing generation which optimizes friction coefficients and extended life cycle has been introduced to the industry. Lower friction values drastically optimize actuator effort and size improving efficiency for stem operation with significant improvements in flow control of fluids. Combined with new and improved procedures (installation, torque levels and consolidation recommendations), this new packing generation has provided significant improvement in the mechanical behavior of packing materials (independent tests carried out in collaboration with AECL and CETIM) this has provided the opportunity to develop successful Valve Enhancement Programs which offer improved efficiency, valve operation and repeatability. These NEW generation yarns are available with or without wire reinforcement depending on specific operating parameters and conditions. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate that new generation material(s). Which are available to the industry for AOV, MOV and Manual valves? - To highlight the steps taken in R&D and manufacturing contributing to the much improved yarns and finished packing products. - Comply and are designed to meet the stringent requirements in the nuclear industry - Simplify valve maintenance without risk to safety or performance - Increase service

  4. USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic ethanol production has drawn much attention in recent years. However, there remain significant technical challenges before such production can be considered as economically feasible at an industrial scale. Among them, the efficient conversion of carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is one of the most challenging technical difficulties in cellulosic ethanol production. Use of ionic liquids has opened new avenues to solve this problem by two different pathways. One is pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids to increase its enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. The other is to transform the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic biomass from a heterogeneous reaction system to a homogeneous one by dissolving it into ionic liquids, thus improving its hydrolysis efficiency.

  5. Lean Maintenance Applied to Improve Maintenance Efficiency in Thermoelectric Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Duran; Andrea Capaldo; Paulo Andrés Duran Acevedo

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric power plants consist of a set of critical equipment that require high levels of availability and reliability. Due to this, maintenance of these physical assets is gaining momentum in industry. Maintenance is considered as an activity that contributes to improving the availability, efficiency and productivity of each piece of equipment. Several techniques have been used to achieve greater efficiencies in maintenance, among which we can find the lean maintenance philosophy. Despi...

  6. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  7. Management efficiency improvement promotion of SS; SS no unei koritsuka sokushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Full amount fund petroleum product marketer and Sumisyo petroleum of Sumitomo accelerate management efficiency improvement of service station (SS). National about 300 places have been developed in within the year Within SS, it aims at break-even point achievement of gasoline, coarse advantage 10 yen per light oil of 1 liter in 84 all tied SS stores. SS which has realized the system of 10 yen in the current is whole about 50%. But, by doing personnel configurations and operational procedures, that they reexamine the balance management, etc. in half remaining SS 12 yen-13 yen; the efficiency improvement is done thoroughly. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Development of a novel energy-efficient adsorption dryer with zeolite for food product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The demand of high quality dry products closing to the fresh condition increases significantly. Current drying technology have shown the significant improvement on product quality, but the breakthrough respecting to energy efficiency is scarce. Air dehumidification with adsorbent such as

  9. Technology intervention to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of silk reeling sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhingra, Sunil; Mande, Sanjay; Raman, P.; Srinivas, S.N.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) has been actively involved in development of biomass gasifier system for thermal and power generation use. Though the basic science of gasification is well established, there have not many efforts in the past on product development. By continuous interaction with users, silk experts and consultants, TERI could able to develop a gasifier based silk reeling oven. A major thrust on this development work was to evolve marketable product by continued efforts to gain an insight of the actual process and user feedback through an extended presence and interaction at field level, and then translating this experience in product design. The present paper gives a summary of design, development and testing of gasifier based cottage basin system for cocoon cooking in silk reeling industry in order to achieve higher fuel efficiency and increase productivity of the process. The paper describes in detail the approach of different technology development stages, its testing both at laboratory and field and economic viability of the system

  10. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants.

  11. Improving efficiency in stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kresten Krarup; Andersen, Ina Trolle; Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm

    2013-01-01

    of the study was to investigate the time efficiency of the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides compared with traditional methods in a practical application, namely the estimation of osteoclast numbers in paws from mice with experimental arthritis and control mice. Tissue slides were scanned......, a proportionator sampling and a systematic, uniform random sampling were simulated. We found that the proportionator was 50% to 90% more time efficient than systematic, uniform random sampling. The time efficiency of the autodisector on virtual slides was 60% to 100% better than the disector on tissue slides. We...... conclude that both the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides may improve efficiency of cell counting in stereology....

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency and Enabling Water Recycle in Biorefineries Using Bioelectrochemical Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2010-01-01

    Improving biofuel yield and water reuse are two important issues in further development of biorefineries. The total energy content of liquid fuels (including ethanol and hydrocarbon) produced from cellulosic biomass via biochemical or hybrid bio-thermochemical routes can vary from 49% to 70% of the biomass entering the biorefinery, on an energy basis. Use of boiler for combustion of residual organics and lignin results in significant energy and water losses. An alternate process to improve energy recovery from the residual organic streams is via use of bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The potential advantages of this alternative scheme in a biorefinery include minimization of heat loss and generation of a higher value product, hydrogen. The need for 5-15 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol can be reduced significantly via recycle of water after MEC treatment. Removal of inhibitory byproducts such as furans, phenolics and acetate in MFC/MECs to generate energy, thus, has dual advantages including improvements in energy efficiency and ability to recycle water. Conversion of the sugar- and lignin- degradation products to hydrogen is synergistic with biorefinery hydrogen requirements for upgrading F-T liquids and other byproducts to high-octane fuels and/or high value products. Some of these products include sorbitol, succinic acid, furan and levulinate derivatives, glycols, polyols, 1,4-butenadiol, phenolics polymers, etc. Potential process alternatives utilizing MECs in biorefineries capable of improving energy efficiency by up to 30% are discussed.

  13. ADDED VALUE AS EFFICIENCY CRITERION FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Korotkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literary analysis has shown that the majority of researchers are using classical efficiency criteria for construction of an optimization model for production process: profit maximization; cost minimization; maximization of commercial product output; minimization of back-log for product demand; minimization of total time consumption due to production change. The paper proposes to use an index of added value as an efficiency criterion because it combines economic and social interests of all main interested subjects of the business activity: national government, property owners, employees, investors. The following types of added value have been considered in the paper: joint-stock, market, monetary, economic, notional (gross, net, real. The paper makes suggestion to use an index of real value added as an efficiency criterion. Such approach permits to bring notional added value in comparable variant because added value can be increased not only due to efficiency improvement of enterprise activity but also due to environmental factors – excess in rate of export price increases over rate of import growth. An analysis of methods for calculation of real value added has been made on a country-by-country basis (extrapolation, simple and double deflation. A method of double deflation has been selected on the basis of the executed analysis and it is counted according to the Laspeyires, Paasche, Fischer indices. A conclusion has been made that the used expressions do not take into account fully economic peculiarities of the Republic of Belarus: they are considered as inappropriate in the case when product cost is differentiated according to marketing outlets; they do not take account of difference in rate of several currencies and such approach is reflected in export price of a released product and import price for raw material, supplies and component parts. Taking this into consideration expressions for calculation of real value added have been specified

  14. Improving energy productivity of sunflower production using data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avval, Seyed Hashem Mousavi; Rafiee, Shahin; Jafari, Ali; Mohammadi, Ali

    2011-08-15

    Efficient use of energy in agriculture is one of the conditions for sustainable agricultural production. This study applies the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach to the data of 95 randomly selected farms to investigate the technical and scale efficiencies of farmers with respect to energy use for sunflower production in Golestan province, Iran. The study also helps to identify the wasteful usage and the optimum level of energy from different inputs. According to the results of DEA models, about 36% of farmers were found to be technically efficient and the mean efficiency of sunflower producers was found to be 0.87 and 0.96 under the constant and variable returns to scale assumptions respectively. The optimum energy requirement was calculated as 8448.3 MJ ha⁻¹; accordingly, a potential reduction of 10.8% (1020.3 MJ ha⁻¹) in total energy input could be achieved by raising the performance of farmers to the highest level. Applying a better machinery management technique and conservation tillage methods, application of fertilisers by performance monitoring and utilisation of alternative sources of energy such as compost and chopped residues may be the pathways for improving energy productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Scenario-based energy efficiency and productivity in China: A non-radial directional distance function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2013-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency and productivity is one of the most cost-effective ways for achieving the sustainable development target in China. This paper employs non-radial directional distance function approach to empirically investigate energy efficiency and energy productivity by including CO 2 emissions as an undesirable output. Three production scenarios, namely energy conservation (EC), energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER), and energy conservation, emission reduction and economic growth (ECEREG), are specified to assess China's energy efficiency and productivity growth during the period of Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Our empirical results show that there exist substantial differences in China's total-factor energy efficiency and productivity under different scenarios. Under the ECEREG scenario, the national average total-factor energy efficiency score was 0.6306 in 2005–2010, while the national average total-factor energy productivity increased by 0.27% annually during the period. The main driving force for energy productivity growth in China was energy technological change rather than energy efficiency change. - Highlights: • China's regional energy efficiency and productivity in 2005–2010 are evaluated. • Three production scenarios are considered. • Non-radial directional distance function with CO 2 emissions is employed. • Technological change is the main driver for China's energy productivity growth

  16. Common challenge in resource efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Motta, Sergio; Peronaci, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency and technology improvements on their own will not achieve the Low Carbon Societies (LCS) goals. Thus, resource efficiency and a circular economy are keys to a low carbon society. Resource efficiency improvement potential has been analysed from the industrial and territorial management perspectives. Exploring synergies between LCS and the larger area of sustainable development and green economy, highlighting co-benefits and trade-offs, is of utmost importance to pave the way to a more equitable and largely participated low carbon transition.

  17. Rebound effect of improved energy efficiency for different energy types: A general equilibrium analysis for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yingying; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the rebound effect of different energy types in China based on a static computable general equilibrium model. A one-off 5% energy efficiency improvement is imposed on five different types of energy, respectively, in all the 135 production sectors in China. The rebound effect is measured both on the production level and on the economy-wide level for each type of energy. The results show that improving energy efficiency of using electricity has the largest positive impact on GDP among the five energy types. Inter-fuel substitutability does not affect the macroeconomic results significantly, but long-run impact is usually greater than the short-run impact. For the exports-oriented sectors, those that are capital-intensive get big negative shock in the short run while those that are labour-intensive get hurt in the long run. There is no “backfire” effect; however, improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound, which implies that improving the energy efficiency of using electricity might be a good policy choice under China's current energy structure. In general, macro-level rebound is larger than production-level rebound. Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. In addition, the paper points out that the policy makers in China should look at the rebound effect in the long term rather than in the short term. The energy efficiency policy would be a good and effective policy choice for energy conservation in China when it still has small inter-fuel substitution. - Highlights: • Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. • Improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound. • The energy efficiency policy would be an effective policy choice for China. • Policy-makers should consider the rebound effect in the longer term.

  18. Efficiency and Import Penetration on the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  19. Enhancement of Energy Efficiency and Food Product Quality Using Adsorption Dryer with Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Djaeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a basic operation in wood, food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Currently, several drying methods are often not efficient in terms of energy consumption (energy efficiency of 20-60% and have an impact on product quality degradation due to the introduction of operational temperature upper 80oC. This work discusses the development of adsorption drying with zeolite to improve the energy efficiency as well as product quality. In this process, air as drying medium is dehumidified by zeolite. As a result humidity of air can be reduced up to 0.1 ppm. So, for heat sensitive products, the drying process can be performed in low or medium temperature with high driving force. The study has been conducted in three steps: designing the dryer, performing laboratory scale equipment (tray, spray, and fluidised bed dryers with zeolite, and evaluating the dryer performance based on energy efficiency and product quality. Results showed that the energy efficiency of drying process is 15-20% higher than that of conventional dryer. In additon, the dryer can speed up drying time as well as retaining product quality.

  20. Spatially Explicit Estimation of Optimal Light Use Efficiency for Improved Satellite Data Driven Ecosystem Productivity Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, N.; Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) models, including the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MOD17 algorithm are commonly used for regional estimation and monitoring of vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and photosynthetic carbon (CO2) uptake. A common model assumption is that plants in a biome matrix operate at their photosynthetic capacity under optimal climatic conditions. A prescribed biome maximum light use efficiency parameter defines the maximum photosynthetic carbon conversion rate under prevailing climate conditions and is a large source of model uncertainty. Here, we used tower (FLUXNET) eddy covariance measurement based carbon flux data for estimating optimal LUE (LUEopt) over a North American domain. LUEopt was first estimated using tower observed daily carbon fluxes, meteorology and satellite (MODIS) observed fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). LUEopt was then spatially interpolated over the domain using empirical models derived from independent geospatial data including global plant traits, surface soil moisture, terrain aspect, land cover type and percent tree cover. The derived LUEopt maps were then used as primary inputs to the MOD17 LUE algorithm for regional GPP estimation; these results were evaluated against tower observations and alternate MOD17 GPP estimates determined using Biome-specific LUEopt constants. Estimated LUEopt shows large spatial variability within and among different land cover classes indicated from a sparse North American tower network. Leaf nitrogen content and soil moisture are two important factors explaining LUEopt spatial variability. GPP estimated from spatially explicit LUEopt inputs shows significantly improved model accuracy against independent tower observations (R2 = 0.76; Mean RMSE plant trait information can explain spatial heterogeneity in LUEopt, leading to improved GPP estimates from satellite based LUE models.

  1. Malmquist Productivity Index on Efficiency Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezai balf ∗

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, a popular linear programming technique is useful to rate comparatively operational effiency of decision Making Unit (DMU based on the their deterministic inputoutput data. The Malmquist productivity index in DEA, calculable with the distance function, for measurement the productivity change among two variant time period or two variant group in the same time. This index is based on two factor of efficiency change index and a technological change index. In this paper, we operate on the collective Malmquist productivity index, which performs clustering operation DMUs with classification into different levels of efficient frontier, and then we discuss on the relation between Malmquist index on the efficiency layers and their attractiveness and progress

  2. Improving the thermal efficiency of a jaggery production module using a fire-tube heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Madrid, Raul; Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel

    2017-12-15

    Jaggery is a product obtained after heating and evaporation processes have been applied to sugar cane juice via the addition of thermal energy, followed by the crystallisation process through mechanical agitation. At present, jaggery production uses furnaces and pans that are designed empirically based on trial and error procedures, which results in low ranges of thermal efficiency operation. To rectify these deficiencies, this study proposes the use of fire-tube pans to increase heat transfer from the flue gases to the sugar cane juice. With the aim of increasing the thermal efficiency of a jaggery installation, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-based model was used as a numerical tool to design a fire-tube pan that would replace the existing finned flat pan. For this purpose, the original configuration of the jaggery furnace was simulated via a pre-validated CFD model in order to calculate its current thermal performance. Then, the newly-designed fire-tube pan was virtually replaced in the jaggery furnace with the aim of numerically estimating the thermal performance at the same operating conditions. A comparison of both simulations highlighted the growth of the heat transfer rate at around 105% in the heating/evaporation processes when the fire-tube pan replaced the original finned flat pan. This enhancement impacted the jaggery production installation, whereby the thermal efficiency of the installation increased from 31.4% to 42.8%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of technical and technological changes on energy efficiency of production company - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedzka, K.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union for rational energy economy. To make efforts to improve energy efficiency have been obliged both small and large end-users. This article aims to show the possibilities of improving energy efficiency by introducing technical and technological process changes of pine lumber drying. The object of the research is process of drying lumber implemented in a production company, which is a key supplier of large furniture manufacturer. Pine lumber drying chamber consume about 45% of total electricity in sawmill. According to various sources, drying of 1m3 of lumber uses about 3060kWh and is dependent of inter alia: the drying process itself, the factors affecting the processing time and the desired output moisture content of the timber. The article proposals for changes in the process of drying lumber pine have been positively validated in the company, and as a result their energy consumption per 1 m3 of product declined by 18%.

  4. Leveraging management information in improving call centre productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manthisana Mosese

    2016-04-01

    Objectives: This research explored the use of management information and its impact on two fundamental functions namely, improving productivity without compromising the quality of service, in the call centre of a well-known South African fashion retailer, Edcon. Following the implementation of the call centre technology project the research set out to determine how Edcon can transform their call centre to improve productivity and customer service through effective utilisation of their management information. Method: Internal documents and reports were analysed to provide the basis of evaluation between the measures of productivity prior to and post the implementation of a technology project at Edcon’s call centre. Semi-structured in-depth and group interviews were conducted to establish the importance and use of management information in improving productivity and customer service. Results: The results indicated that the availability of management information has indeed contributed to improved efficiency at the Edcon call centre. Although literature claims that there is a correlation between a call centre technology upgrade and improvement in performance, evident in the return on investment being realised within a year or two of implementation, it fell beyond the scope of this study to investigate the return on investment for Edcon’s call centre. Conclusion: Although Edcon has begun realising benefits in improved productivity in their call centre from their available management information, information will continue to play a crucial role in supporting management with informed decisions that will improve the call centre operations. [pdf to follow

  5. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  6. The productive efficiency of organic farming: the case of grape sector in Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesmi, B.; Serra, T.; Kallas, Z.; Gil Roig, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge about productivity and efficiency differences between conventional and organic farms has important implications for the evaluation of the economic viability of these two agricultural practices. The main purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency ratings of organic and conventional grape farms in Catalonia. To do so, we fit a stochastic production frontier to cross sectional, farm-level data collected from a sample of 141 Catalan farms that specialize in grape growing. Results show that organic farmers, on average, are more efficient than their conventional counterparts (efficiency ratings are on the order of 0.80 and 0.64, respectively). Apart from adoption of organic practices, experience is also found to improve technical efficiency. Conversely, technical efficiency tends to decrease with the relevance of unpaid family labor, farm location in less favored areas, and farmers strong environmental preservation preferences. (Author) 41 refs.

  7. Improved waterflooding efficiency by horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, C. G. [Petroleum and Gas Univ., Ploesti (Romania); Clipea, M. [SNP Petrom SA, ICPT Campina (Romania)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of well pattern involving the use of horizontal wells on the overall efficiency of the waterflooding process was analyzed. Three different scenarios were examined: (1) a pattern of using two parallel horizontal wells, one for injection, the other for production, (2) a pattern of one horizontal well for water injection and several vertical wells for production, and (3) a pattern of using vertical wells for injection and one horizontal well for production. In each case, the waterflooding process was simulated using a two phase two dimensional numerical model. Results showed that the pressure loss along the horizontal section had a large influence on the sweep efficiency whether the horizontal well was used for injection or production. Overall, the most successful combination appeared to be using vertical wells for injection and horizontal wells for production. 4 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  8. Productivity and production efficiency among small scale irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined productivity and production efficiency among small scale irrigated sugarcane farmers in Niger State, Nigeria using a stochastic translog frontier function. Data for the study were obtained using structured questionnaires administered to 100 randomly selected sugarcane farmers from Paiko and Gurara ...

  9. Changes in production efficiency in China identification and measuring

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bing; Watada, Junzo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating  Production Efficiency in China examines production from engineering and statistics perspectives rather than from economics and mathematics perspectives. The authors present an observable benchmark as the criterion of the production efficiency to replace the unobservable production frontier surface. This book discusses several different computing technologies, controllable variable as a path of identification, changes in production efficiency by decision making on specific operating conditions, and optimal resource allocation. The book provides a channel to tap inside the success stories of China, exploiting the way of changes in production efficiency during China’s development in the past 30 years. This book examines the concepts and realization of production efficiencies across all areas of the economy. Also the book provides the perspective of foreign direct investment (FDI) absorption to identify how Chinese economy changes in production efficiency.

  10. Voluntary medical male circumcision scale-up in Nyanza, Kenya: evaluating technical efficiency and productivity of service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) service delivery is complex and resource-intensive. In Kenya's context there is still paucity of information on resource use vis-à-vis outputs as programs scale up. Knowledge of technical efficiency, productivity and potential sources of constraints is desirable to improve decision-making. To evaluate technical efficiency and productivity of VMMC service delivery in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using data envelopment analysis. Comparative process evaluation of facilities providing VMMC in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using output orientated data envelopment analysis. Twenty one facilities were evaluated. Only 1 of 7 variables considered (total elapsed operation time) significantly improved from 32.8 minutes (SD 8.8) in 2011 to 30 minutes (SD 6.6) in 2012 (95%CI = 0.0350-5.2488; p = 0.047). Mean scale technical efficiency significantly improved from 91% (SD 19.8) in 2011 to 99% (SD 4.0) in 2012 particularly among outreach compared to fixed service delivery facilities (CI -31.47959-4.698508; p = 0.005). Increase in mean VRS technical efficiency from 84% (SD 25.3) in 2011 and 89% (SD 25.1) in 2012 was not statistically significant. Benchmark facilities were #119 and #125 in 2011 and #103 in 2012. Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) at fixed facilities declined by 2.5% but gained by 4.9% at outreach ones by 2012. Total factor productivity improved by 83% (p = 0.032) in 2012, largely due to progress in technological efficiency by 79% (p = 0.008). Significant improvement in scale technical efficiency among outreach facilities in 2012 was attributable to accelerated activities. However, ongoing pure technical inefficiency requires concerted attention. Technological progress was the key driver of service productivity growth in Nyanza. Incorporating service-quality dimensions and using stepwise-multiple criteria in performance evaluation enhances comprehensiveness and validity. These findings highlight site-level resource use and sources of

  11. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Nyanza, Kenya: Evaluating Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S.; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) service delivery is complex and resource-intensive. In Kenya’s context there is still paucity of information on resource use vis-à-vis outputs as programs scale up. Knowledge of technical efficiency, productivity and potential sources of constraints is desirable to improve decision-making. Objective To evaluate technical efficiency and productivity of VMMC service delivery in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using data envelopment analysis. Design Comparative process evaluation of facilities providing VMMC in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using output orientated data envelopment analysis. Results Twenty one facilities were evaluated. Only 1 of 7 variables considered (total elapsed operation time) significantly improved from 32.8 minutes (SD 8.8) in 2011 to 30 minutes (SD 6.6) in 2012 (95%CI = 0.0350–5.2488; p = 0.047). Mean scale technical efficiency significantly improved from 91% (SD 19.8) in 2011 to 99% (SD 4.0) in 2012 particularly among outreach compared to fixed service delivery facilities (CI -31.47959–4.698508; p = 0.005). Increase in mean VRS technical efficiency from 84% (SD 25.3) in 2011 and 89% (SD 25.1) in 2012 was not statistically significant. Benchmark facilities were #119 and #125 in 2011 and #103 in 2012. Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) at fixed facilities declined by 2.5% but gained by 4.9% at outreach ones by 2012. Total factor productivity improved by 83% (p = 0.032) in 2012, largely due to progress in technological efficiency by 79% (p = 0.008). Conclusions Significant improvement in scale technical efficiency among outreach facilities in 2012 was attributable to accelerated activities. However, ongoing pure technical inefficiency requires concerted attention. Technological progress was the key driver of service productivity growth in Nyanza. Incorporating service-quality dimensions and using stepwise-multiple criteria in performance evaluation enhances comprehensiveness and validity. These findings

  12. Production of drug nanosuspensions: effect of drug physical properties on nanosizing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Müller, Rainer H; Möschwitzer, Jan P

    2018-02-01

    Drug nanosuspension is one of the established methods to improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Drug physical properties aspect (morphology, solid state, starting size et al) is a critical parameter determining the production efficiency. Some drug modification approaches such as spray-drying were proved to improve the millability of drug powders. However, the mechanism behind those improved performances is unclear. This study is to systematically investigate the influence of those physical properties. Five different APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients) with different millabilities, i.e. resveratrol, hesperetin, glibenclamide, rutin, and quercetin, were processed by standard high pressure homogenization (HPH), wet bead milling (WBM), and a combinative method of spray-drying and HPH. Smaller starting sizes of certain APIs could accelerate the particle size reduction velocity during both HPH and WBM processes. Spherical particles were observed for almost all spray-dried powders (except spray-dried hesperetin) after spray-drying. The crystallinity of some spray-dried samples such as rutin and glibenclamide became much lower than their corresponding unmodified powders. Almost all spray-dried drug powders after HPH processes could lead to smaller nanocrystal particle size than unmodified APIs. The modified microstructure instead of solid state after spray-drying explained the potential reason for improved nanosizing efficiency. In addition, the contribution of starting size on the production efficiency was also critical according to both HPH and WBM results.

  13. Treat a new and efficient match algorithm for AI production system

    CERN Document Server

    Miranker, Daniel P

    1988-01-01

    TREAT: A New and Efficient Match Algorithm for AI Production Systems describes the architecture and software systems embodying the DADO machine, a parallel tree-structured computer designed to provide significant performance improvements over serial computers of comparable hardware complexity in the execution of large expert systems implemented in production system form.This book focuses on TREAT as a match algorithm for executing production systems that is presented and comparatively analyzed with the RETE match algorithm. TREAT, originally designed specifically for the DADO machine architect

  14. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomashevska Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sugar beet production by agrarian enterprises of Kiev region and an individual enterprise of Rokytne district is determined. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of profitability of sugar beet production in the period from 2011 to 2015. The main problems hindering the development of sugar beet production are identified, namely, the lack of sales channels and high production costs. Prospects for further research in this area are to increase the economic efficiency of sugar beet production and find ways to develop this sector, provided that the production is properly organized, the manufacturing process is followed, the fertilizers are properly used, the seeds are chosen correctly, advanced technologies and high-performance equipment are applied, etc.

  15. Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Soybean Production in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugbabe, OO.

    2017-01-01

    strictly to the recommended soybean production practices towards ensuring efficient utilization of their available resources so that they can improve their technical efficiency and increase their profit level towards enhancing their household food security.

  16. Can worksite nutritional interventions improve productivity and firm profitability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    ’ nutritional knowledge, food intake and health and on the firm’s profitability, mainly in terms of reduced absenteeism and presenteeism. Conclusions: Well-targeted and efficiently implemented diet-related worksite health promotion interventions may improve labour productivity by 1%–2%. On larger worksites......Aims: This paper investigates whether and how worksite nutrition policies can improve employee productivity. Methods: The questions are pursued through a literature review, including a systematic search of literature – combined with literature identified from backward references – on randomized......, such productivity gains are likely to more than offset the costs of implementing such interventions. These conclusions are subject to some uncertainty due to the relatively limited amount of literature in the field....

  17. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  18. Eco-Efficiency Assessments as a Tool for Revealing the Environmental Improvement Potential of New Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Michelsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public regulations can result in improved environmental performance of products. In this paper eco-efficiency is used to assess the most likely outcome of potential new regulations. The paper presents a case study of furniture production in Norway where different scenarios for improving the environmental performance of the products are presented. Four regulatory options for imposing environmental improvements are assessed; (1 an introduction of a tax on emissions, (2 an increase of the tax on landfills, (3 an introduction of a tax on raw material consumption, and (4 introduction of take-back legislation.

  19. From Policy to Compliance: Federal Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMates, Laurèn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scodel, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Federal buyers are required to purchase energy-efficient products in an effort to minimize energy use in the federal sector, save the federal government money, and spur market development of efficient products. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)’s Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) Program helps federal agencies comply with the requirement to purchase energy-efficient products by providing technical assistance and guidance and setting efficiency requirements for certain product categories. Past studies have estimated the savings potential of purchasing energy-efficient products at over $500 million per year in energy costs across federal agencies.1 Despite the strong policy support for EEPP and resources available, energy-efficient product purchasing operates within complex decision-making processes and operational structures; implementation challenges exist that may hinder agencies’ ability to comply with purchasing requirements. The shift to purchasing green products, including energy-efficient products, relies on “buy in” from a variety of potential actors throughout different purchasing pathways. Challenges may be especially high for EEPP relative to other sustainable acquisition programs given that efficient products frequently have a higher first cost than non-efficient ones, which may be perceived as a conflict with fiscal responsibility, or more simply problematic for agency personnel trying to stretch limited budgets. Federal buyers may also face challenges in determining whether a given product is subject to EEPP requirements. Previous analysis on agency compliance with EEPP, conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), shows that federal agencies are getting better at purchasing energy-efficient products. ASE conducted two reviews of relevant solicitations for product and service contracts listed on Federal Business Opportunities (FBO), the centralized website where federal agencies are required to post procurements greater

  20. TECHNICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS OF PACKAGING PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to customer driven economies, today’s world markets are characterized by high fluctuations in market demand and the frequent arrival of new technologies and new products. To stay competitive in such markets manufacturing companies require continuous improvements both in technical and organizational areas of their activity. The paper presents results of the diagnosis provided in the manufacturing area of the company producing cardboard packages and recommendations to make the production process more efficient. Especially, among the proposed technical and organizational recommendations the most important ones are: automation of certain elements of the production process and changes in production plant layout.

  1. Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzi, Elisa [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Italy); Verdolini, Elena, E-mail: elena.verdolini@feem.it [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Italy); Universita Cattolica, del Sacro Cuore di Milano (Italy); Hascic, Ivan [OECD Environment Directorate (France)

    2011-11-15

    This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: > We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. > Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. > We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. > Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. > Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

  2. The global anthropogenic gallium system: determinants of demand, supply and efficiency improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvik, Amund N; Restrepo, Eliette; Müller, Daniel B

    2015-05-05

    Gallium has been labeled as a critical metal due to rapidly growing consumption, importance for low-carbon technologies such as solid state lighting and photovoltaics, and being produced only as a byproduct of other metals (mainly aluminum). The global system of primary production, manufacturing, use and recycling has not yet been described or quantified in the literature. This prevents predictions of future demand, supply and possibilities for efficiency improvements on a system level. We present a description of the global anthropogenic gallium system and quantify the system using a combination of statistical data and technical parameters. We estimated that gallium was produced from 8 to 21% of alumina plants in 2011. The most important applications of gallium are NdFeB permanent magnets, integrated circuits and GaAs/GaP-based light-emitting diodes, demanding 22-37%, 16-27%, and 11-21% of primary metal production, respectively. GaN-based light-emitting diodes and photovoltaics are less important, both with 2-6%. We estimated that 120-170 tons, corresponding to 40-60% of primary production, ended up in production wastes that were either disposed of or stored. While demand for gallium is expected to rise in the future, our results indicated that it is possible to increase primary production substantially with conventional technology, as well as improve the system-wide material efficiency.

  3. Energy efficiency improvement: A strong driver for Total operations and R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnaud, Frederic; Rocher, Anne

    2010-09-15

    Total has implemented an energy efficiency action plan for both producing fields and new projects linked to a dedicated R and D program. The Energy efficiency assessment methodology is described, with an example: base line of the current situation, energy efficiency plan, contribution to best practices at corporate level. A methodology to assess the energy efficiency of a new development has been defined and implemented within Total. This methodology as well as related indicators is presented. Examples of R and D results dedicated to improve energy efficiency in two major areas of future developments are given: sour gas production and deep offshore field architecture.

  4. Effect of voltage waveform on dielectric barrier discharge ozone production efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericam-Bourdet, N.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Tuvache, F.; Frochot, D.; Odic, E.

    2012-03-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are commonly used for gas effluent cleanup and ozone generation. For these applications, the energy efficiency of the discharge is a major concern. This paper reports on investigations carried out on the voltage shape applied to DBD reactor electrodes, aiming to evaluate a possible energy efficiency improvement for ozone production. Two DBD reactor geometries were used: pin-to-pin and cylinder-to-cylinder, both driven either by a bi-directional power supply (voltage rise rate 1 kV/μs) or by a pulsed power supply (voltage rise rate 1 kV/ns). Ozone formed in dry air was measured at the reactor outlet. Special attention was paid to discharge input power evaluation using different methods including instantaneous current-voltage product and transferred charge-applied voltage figures. The charge transferred by the discharges was also correlated to the ozone production. It is shown that, in the case of the DBD reactors under investigation, the applied voltage shape has no influence on the ozone production efficiency. For the considered voltage rise rate, the charge deposit on the dielectric inserted inside the discharge gap is the important factor (as opposed to the voltage shape) governing the efficiency of the discharge - it does this by tailoring the duration of the current peak into the tens of nanosecond range.

  5. GATE: Improving the computational efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staelens, S.; De Beenhouwer, J.; Kruecker, D.; Maigne, L.; Rannou, F.; Ferrer, L.; D'Asseler, Y.; Buvat, I.; Lemahieu, I.

    2006-01-01

    GATE is a software dedicated to Monte Carlo simulations in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). An important disadvantage of those simulations is the fundamental burden of computation time. This manuscript describes three different techniques in order to improve the efficiency of those simulations. Firstly, the implementation of variance reduction techniques (VRTs), more specifically the incorporation of geometrical importance sampling, is discussed. After this, the newly designed cluster version of the GATE software is described. The experiments have shown that GATE simulations scale very well on a cluster of homogeneous computers. Finally, an elaboration on the deployment of GATE on the Enabling Grids for E-Science in Europe (EGEE) grid will conclude the description of efficiency enhancement efforts. The three aforementioned methods improve the efficiency of GATE to a large extent and make realistic patient-specific overnight Monte Carlo simulations achievable

  6. The efficiency of aerodynamic force production in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, F O

    2001-12-01

    Total efficiency of aerodynamic force production in insect flight depends on both the efficiency with which flight muscles turn metabolic energy into muscle mechanical power and the efficiency with which this power is converted into aerodynamic flight force by the flapping wings. Total efficiency has been estimated in tethered flying fruit flies Drosophila by modulating their power expenditures in a virtual reality flight simulator while simultaneously measuring stroke kinematics, locomotor performance and metabolic costs. During flight, muscle efficiency increases with increasing flight force production, whereas aerodynamic efficiency of lift production decreases with increasing forces. As a consequence of these opposite trends, total flight efficiency in Drosophila remains approximately constant within the kinematic working range of the flight motor. Total efficiency is broadly independent of different profile power estimates and typically amounts to 2-3%. The animal achieves maximum total efficiency near hovering flight conditions, when the beating wings produce flight forces that are equal to the body weight of the insect. It remains uncertain whether this small advantage in total efficiency during hovering flight was shaped by evolutionary factors or results from functional constraints on both the production of mechanical power by the indirect flight muscles and the unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms in flapping flight.

  7. Dynamic water allocation policies improve the global efficiency of storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Water impoundment by dams strongly affects the river natural flow regime, its attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Fostering the sustainability of water uses e.g., hydropower systems thus implies searching for innovative operational policies able to generate Dynamic Environmental Flows (DEF) that mimic natural flow variability. The objective of this study is to propose a Direct Policy Search (DPS) framework based on defining dynamic flow release rules to improve the global efficiency of storage systems. The water allocation policies proposed for dammed systems are an extension of previously developed flow redistribution rules for small hydropower plants by Razurel et al. (2016).The mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution applied to lake equations for the stored water in the dam is used to formulate non-proportional redistribution rules that partition the flow for energy production and environmental use. While energy production is computed from technical data, riverine ecological benefits associated with DEF are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to build ecological versus economic efficiency plot and locate its (Pareto) frontier. This study benchmarks two MOEAs (NSGA II and Borg MOEA) and compares their efficiency in terms of the quality of Pareto's frontier and computational cost. A detailed analysis of dam characteristics is performed to examine their impact on the global system efficiency and choice of the best redistribution rule. Finally, it is found that non-proportional flow releases can statistically improve the global efficiency, specifically the ecological one, of the hydropower system when compared to constant minimal flows.

  8. Production and efficiency analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This textbook introduces essential topics and techniques in production and efficiency analysis and shows how to apply these methods using the statistical software R. Numerous small simulations lead to a deeper understanding of random processes assumed in the models and of the behavior of estimation techniques. Step-by-step programming provides an understanding of advanced approaches such as stochastic frontier analysis and stochastic data envelopment analysis. The text is intended for master students interested in empirical production and efficiency analysis. Readers are assumed to have a general background in production economics and econometrics, typically taught in introductory microeconomics and econometrics courses.

  9. Regional energy rebound effect: The impact of economy-wide and sector level energy efficiency improvement in Georgia, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xuewei; Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Crittenden, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Rebound effect is defined as the lost part of ceteris paribus energy savings from improvements on energy efficiency. In this paper, we investigate economy-wide energy rebound effects by developing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Georgia, USA. The model adopts a highly disaggregated sector profile and highlights the substitution possibilities between different energy sources in the production structure. These two features allow us to better characterize the change in energy use in face of an efficiency shock, and to explore in detail how a sector-level shock propagates throughout the economic structure to generate aggregate impacts. We find that with economy-wide energy efficiency improvement on the production side, economy-wide rebound is moderate. Energy price levels fall very slightly, yet sectors respond to these changing prices quite differently in terms of local production and demand. Energy efficiency improvements in particular sectors (epicenters) induce quite different economy-wide impacts. In general, we expect large rebound if the epicenter sector is an energy production sector, a direct upstream/downstream sector of energy production sectors, a transportation sector or a sector with high production elasticity. Our analysis offers valuable insights for policy makers aiming to achieve energy conservation through increasing energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We developed a CGE model to investigate economy-wide energy rebound in Georgia, USA. • The CGE model has detailed treatment for different energy inputs for production. • The model has a highly disaggregated sector profile helpful for policy making. • We compared the economy-wide impact shocks in different epicenter sectors. • We analyzed why epicenters generate dramatically different economy-wide impacts.

  10. Efficiency and productivity terms for water management: A matter of contextual relativism versus general absolutism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, van G.E.; Vincent, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Growing water scarcity and increasing demands for agricultural products generate much debate about improving the agricultural sector's water use efficiency and productivity. Agricultural engineering traditions feed this debate with notions such as agricultural yield gaps and low water use

  11. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency in smallholder maize production in Zimbabwe: The post-fast-track land reform outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the technical efficiency of maize production in Zimbabwe’s smallholder farming communities following the fast-track land reform of the year 2000 with a view of highlighting key entry points for policy. Using a randomly selected sample of 522 smallholder maize producers, a stochastic frontier production model was applied, using a linearised Cobb–Douglas production function to determine the production elasticity coefficients of inputs, technical efficiency and the determinants of efficiency. The study finds that maize output responds positively to increases in inorganic fertilisers, seed quantity, the use of labour and the area planted. The technical efficiency analysis suggests that about 90% of farmers in the sample are between 60 and 75% efficient, with an average efficiency in the sample of 65%. The significant determinants of technical efficiency were the gender of the household head, household size, frequency of extension visits, farm size and the farming region. The results imply that the average efficiency of maize production could be improved by 35% through better use of existing resources and technology. The results highlight the need for government and private sector assistance in improving efficiency by promoting access to productive resources and ensuring better and more reliable agricultural extension services.

  12. Improving primary health care facility performance in Ghana: efficiency analysis and fiscal space implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novignon, Jacob; Nonvignon, Justice

    2017-06-12

    and public facilities. There is need for primary health facility managers to improve productivity via effective and efficient resource use. Efforts to improve efficiency should focus on training health workers and improving facility environment alongside effective monitoring and evaluation exercises.

  13. Method of improving the decontaminating efficiency of ruthenium in evaporating treatment of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kanya; Yamana, Hajime; Takeda, Seiichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve the ruthenium removing efficiency in a nitric acid solution in an acid recovery system for the recovery of nitric acid from nitric acid liquid wastes through evaporating condensation. Method: Upon evaporating treatment of nitric acid solution containing ruthenium by supplying and heating the solution to a nitric acid evaporating device, hydrazine is previously added to the nitric acid solution. Hydrazine and intermediate reaction product of hydrazine such as azide causes a reduction reaction with intermediate reaction product of ruthenium tetraoxide to suppress the oxidation of ruthenium and thereby improve the decontaminating efficiency of ruthenium. The amount of hydrazine to be added is preferably between 20 - 500 mg/l and most suitably between 200 - 2000 mg/l per one liter of the liquid in the evaporating device. (Seki, T.)

  14. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  15. Relative efficiency and productivity: a preliminary exploration of public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Siping; Liu, Tingfang

    2014-04-06

    Third-grade hospitals in Beijing have been rapidly developing in capacity and scale for many years. These hospitals receive a large number of patients, and ensuring their efficient operation is crucial in meeting people's healthcare needs. In this context, a study of their relative efficiency and productivity would be helpful to identify the driving factors and further improve their performance. After a review of literature, the current numbers of open beds and employees were selected as input variables. The number of outpatient and emergency visits and the number of discharged patients were selected as output variables. A total of 12 third-grade Class A general public hospitals in Beijing were selected for a preliminary study. The panel data from 2006-2009 were collected by the National Institute of Hospital Administration, Ministry of Health of P.R. China. Descriptive analysis and data envelopment analysis were used to analyze the data using Stata 10.0 and DEAP(V2.1) software. In the 2006-2009 period, descriptive results show that sample hospitals continuously expanded their capacity and scale, with growth rate of total revenue being the highest among all variables. The DEA results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity was 26.7%, and the rates were 47.3%, 21.3% and 13.8% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technological change was 28.3%, and the rates were 49.4%, 21.5% and 16.4% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technical efficiency change was -1.3%, and the rates were -1.4%, -0.02% and -2.2% respectively for two consecutive years. The sample hospitals in Beijing experienced substantial productivity growth, but annual growth rates were declining. Substantial technological change was the main contributor to the growth. Although some hospitals exhibited improvements in technical efficiency, there was a slight decline in general. To improve overall efficiency and

  16. Relative efficiency and productivity: a preliminary exploration of public hospitals in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Third-grade hospitals in Beijing have been rapidly developing in capacity and scale for many years. These hospitals receive a large number of patients, and ensuring their efficient operation is crucial in meeting people’s healthcare needs. In this context, a study of their relative efficiency and productivity would be helpful to identify the driving factors and further improve their performance. Methods After a review of literature, the current numbers of open beds and employees were selected as input variables. The number of outpatient and emergency visits and the number of discharged patients were selected as output variables. A total of 12 third-grade Class A general public hospitals in Beijing were selected for a preliminary study. The panel data from 2006–2009 were collected by the National Institute of Hospital Administration, Ministry of Health of P.R. China. Descriptive analysis and data envelopment analysis were used to analyze the data using Stata 10.0 and DEAP(V2.1) software. Results In the 2006–2009 period, descriptive results show that sample hospitals continuously expanded their capacity and scale, with growth rate of total revenue being the highest among all variables. The DEA results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity was 26.7%, and the rates were 47.3%, 21.3% and 13.8% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technological change was 28.3%, and the rates were 49.4%, 21.5% and 16.4% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technical efficiency change was -1.3%, and the rates were -1.4%, -0.02% and -2.2% respectively for two consecutive years. Conclusions The sample hospitals in Beijing experienced substantial productivity growth, but annual growth rates were declining. Substantial technological change was the main contributor to the growth. Although some hospitals exhibited improvements in technical efficiency, there was a slight decline in

  17. Achieving energy efficiency through product policy: the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on energy efficiency of domestic equipment. It is contended that, in the UK and--by extension--elsewhere. Government has to take the lead in defining low-energy standards for products. In the absence of policy, manufacturers do not recognize the need for carbon reductions in the equipment they design and consumers are unaware of the variation in energy performance in the product range. At present, neither market pull nor technology push can be relied upon to deliver energy savings. The imposition of a weak minimum standard on domestic fridges and freezers in 1999 will, over the lifetime of the appliances already sold by December 2002, save 1 Mt C of carbon dioxide at nil cost to government or to the manufacturers, and a net benefit to consumers of pound 855 m: a highly cost-effective policy. The difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation is that it takes time for the cumulative benefits of an energy efficiency improvement to result in the maximum effect on energy demand reduction: the benefits of the 1999 energy efficiency standard will accumulate until at least 2020. This period is equivalent to the cycle of stock replacement for that particular object. The final level of energy conservation depends upon the offsetting effects of growth in ownership levels and the size of new equipment purchases

  18. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crop productivities and radiation use efficiencies for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.

    NASA’s Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center was decommissioned in 1998, but several crop tests were conducted that have not been reported in the open literature. These include several monoculture studies with wheat, soybean, potato, lettuce, and tomato. For all of these studies, either 10 or 20 m2 of plants were grown in an atmospherically closed chamber (113 m3 vol.) using a hydroponic nutrient film technique along with elevated CO2 (1000 or 1200 μmol mol-1). Canopy light (PAR) levels ranged from 17 to 85 mol m-2 d-1 depending on the species and photoperiod. Total biomass (DM) productivities reached 39.6 g m-2 d-1 for wheat, 27.2 g m-2 d-1 for potato, 19.6 g m-2 d-1 for tomato, 15.7 g m-2 d-1 for soybean, and 7.7 g m-2 d-1 for lettuce. Edible biomass (DM) productivities reached 18.4 g m-2 d-1 for potato, 11.3 g m-2 d-1 for wheat, 9.8 g m-2 d-1 for tomato, 7.1 g m-2 d-1 for lettuce, and 6.0 g m-2 d-1 for soybean. The corresponding radiation (light) use efficiencies for total biomass were 0.64 g mol-1 PAR for potato, 0.59 g DM mol-1 for wheat, 0.51 g mol-1 for tomato, 0.46 g mol-1 for lettuce, and 0.43 g mol-1 for soybean. Radiation use efficiencies for edible biomass were 0.44 g mol-1 for potato, 0.42 g mol-1 for lettuce, 0.25 g mol-1 for tomato, 0.17 g DM mol-1 for wheat, and 0.16 g mol-1 for soybean. By initially growing seedlings at a dense spacing and then transplanting them to the final production area could have saved about 12 d in each production cycle, and hence improved edible biomass productivities and radiation use efficiencies by 66% for lettuce (to 11.8 g m-2 d-1 and 0.70 g mol-1), 16% for tomato (to 11.4 g m-2 d-1and 0.29 g mol-1), 13% for soybean (to 6.9 g m-2 d-1 and 0.19 g mol-1), and 13% for potato (to 20.8 g m-2 d-1 and 0.50 g mol-1). Since wheat was grown at higher densities, transplanting seedlings would not have improved yields. Tests with wheat resulted in a relatively low harvest index of 29%, which may have been

  20. Multidirectional analysis of technical efficiency for pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labajavo, Katarina; Hansson, Helena; Asmild, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Declining profitability and ongoing structural changes in the pig sector require thorough efficiency analysis of individual production factors. In this study we calculated technical efficiency indices for each input and output using multidirectional efficiency analysis and examined the relationship...... between ‘farm-specific characteristics’ and input and output technical efficiencies by production type (piglet, growing-finishing, finish-to-farrow). The results indicated that advisory services and farm location were not significantly correlated with technical efficiency. Similar results were obtained...... for ‘housing practices’, with the exception of the latest technology such as heated floors in relation to input labour technical efficiency for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow productions. Use of written instructions for feeding for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow production and written...

  1. Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzi, Elisa; Verdolini, Elena; Hascic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: → We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. → Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. → We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. → Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. → Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

  2. Increasing energy efficiency level of building production based on applying modern mechanization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Building industry in a present day going through the hard times. Machine and mechanism exploitation cost, on a field of construction and installation works, takes a substantial part in total building construction expenses. There is a necessity to elaborate high efficient method, which allows not only to increase production, but also to reduce direct costs during machine fleet exploitation, and to increase its energy efficiency. In order to achieve the goal we plan to use modern methods of work production, hi-tech and energy saving machine tools and technologies, and use of optimal mechanization sets. As the optimization criteria there are exploitation prime cost and set efficiency. During actual task-solving process we made a conclusion, which shows that mechanization works, energy audit with production juxtaposition, prime prices and costs for energy resources allow to make complex machine fleet supply, improve ecological level and increase construction and installation work quality.

  3. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  4. Perfusion seed cultures improve biopharmaceutical fed-batch production capacity and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Lu, Jiuyi; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Yuan, Hang; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric productivity and product quality are two key performance indicators for any biopharmaceutical cell culture process. In this work, we showed proof-of-concept for improving both through the use of alternating tangential flow perfusion seed cultures coupled with high-seed fed-batch production cultures. First, we optimized the perfusion N-1 stage, the seed train bioreactor stage immediately prior to the production bioreactor stage, to minimize the consumption of perfusion media for one CHO cell line and then successfully applied the optimized perfusion process to a different CHO cell line. Exponential growth was observed throughout the N-1 duration, reaching >40 × 10(6) vc/mL at the end of the perfusion N-1 stage. The cultures were subsequently split into high-seed (10 × 10(6) vc/mL) fed-batch production cultures. This strategy significantly shortened the culture duration. The high-seed fed-batch production processes for cell lines A and B reached 5 g/L titer in 12 days, while their respective low-seed processes reached the same titer in 17 days. The shortened production culture duration potentially generates a 30% increase in manufacturing capacity while yielding comparable product quality. When perfusion N-1 and high-seed fed-batch production were applied to cell line C, higher levels of the active protein were obtained, compared to the low-seed process. This, combined with correspondingly lower levels of the inactive species, can enhance the overall process yield for the active species. Using three different CHO cell lines, we showed that perfusion seed cultures can optimize capacity utilization and improve process efficiency by increasing volumetric productivity while maintaining or improving product quality. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Leanergy(TM): how lean manufacturing can improve energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become a competitive issue for industrial companies. The evolution of energy prices and regulation will make this issue even more important in the future. For several years, the energy-intensive chemical industry has been implementing corrective actions. Helped by the absorption of base load energy consumption by larger production volumes, specific energy consumption (KWh per production unit) has been significantly reduced in recent years. However, most plants have reached the end of their first action plan based on improving the utilities performance. The Leanergy(TM) method developed by the consultancy company Okavango-energy, is a structured approach based on lean manufacturing which widens the scope of saving sources to process and operations. Starting from the analysis of actual production requirements, Okavango is able to adjust consumption to minimum requirements and so remove any energy consumption that does not contribute to the added value creation.

  6. Chemistry - Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Christensen, Claus H.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy.......Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy....

  7. Operational Improvements of Continuous Process with Tools of Lean Production - A Case Study in a Brazilian Petrochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Uchoa Passos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate operational improvements in Brazilian petrochemical company Braskem, which has been using lean production management tools to monitor its processes. There was some improvement in plant efficiency, measured from the beginning of implementation of management tools Six Sigma and TPM. Thus, we investigated three efficiency indicators considered by the company of great importance for the competitiveness of the business: the physical loss of products, plant’s energy efficiency, and the utilization rate of assets. The differences observed in these indicators, before and after the use of the tools, were tested for its statistical significance, which revealed that the physical losses of ethylene and plant’s energy efficiency improved, almost reaching the performance considered as class world. As for the utilization rate of assets, although it has evolved positively, still is at a considerable distance from that performance standard. By registering operational improvements in a continuous process plant, with lean production tools, this study indicates that these instruments, even if they have no causal relation with the improvements, are suitable for continuous processes and could have a much broader use, oriented, first of all, by the general approach of process optimization and, somehow, regardless of the nature of productive activity.

  8. Improving urban district heating systems and assessing the efficiency of the energy usage therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. E.; Sharapov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes issues in connection with improving urban district heating systems from combined heat power plants (CHPs), to propose the ways for improving the reliability and the efficiency of the energy usage (often referred to as “energy efficiency”) in such systems. The main direction of such urban district heating systems improvement suggests transition to combined heating systems that include structural elements of both centralized and decentralized systems. Such systems provide the basic part of thermal power via highly efficient methods for extracting thermal power plants turbines steam, while peak loads are covered by decentralized peak thermal power sources to be mounted at consumers’ locations, with the peak sources being also reserve thermal power sources. The methodology was developed for assessing energy efficiency of the combined district heating systems, implemented as a computer software product capable of comparatively calculating saving on reference fuel for the system.

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  10. Restructuring and energy efficiency improvement of the Bulgarian energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumdjian, G.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the national energy economy of Bulgaria implies characteristic features that specify low efficiency as regards power production, ecology and economics. Even the qualitative assessments show that these indices stand far away from the standards established in developed countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, etc. The best starting position for harmful energy efficiency improvement as well as emission reduction must be based on the restructuring of energy economy. The strategy of restructuring and development of energy economy covers the whole integrated national energy flow system 'resources - end user'. The preliminary study shows that energy efficiency can be increased by 25-30% within a period of 6-10 years using the least-cost investment strategy (including the research and development activities expenses). The study covers the existing structure of energy sector. Scenarios are being elaborated for its development and restructuring in respect to: heat production and transfer; electricity generation and transmission; energy consumption and conservation in residential buildings, public buildings and commercial sector; energy consumption in transport sector and agriculture. The approach for identification of the real potential opportunities in relation to the above stated areas is based on mathematical statistics and stochastic differential equations, multicriterial assessments, approach of self organisation systems and demand-side management. (author)

  11. Productivity, Efficiency, and Competitiveness of Small-Scale Organic Cotton Production in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mgeni, Dotto; Henningsen, Arne

    cannot be adjusted in the short run. However, land, labor, and organic fertilizer can neither be traded on a perfect market nor are their quantities completely fixed for cotton production, but these input quantities can be adjusted by adjusting their use for other activities of the household. Hence......Cotton is known as the “white gold” of Africa since it is the only export crop in which the continent’s share in the world market has increased over the past decades. Total cotton production as well as productivity grew particularly in Western and Central Africa. In contrast, cotton production grew...... and output, as well as socio-economic and agronomic factors, but also on the shadow prices of all sparsely traded inputs, i.e. land, labor, and organic fertilizer. Hence, we can not only analyze productivity, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency, but also allocative efficiency, profitability...

  12. Incentives to improve energy efficiency in EU Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Beestermoeller, C.; Gardiner, A.

    2013-04-15

    The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) includes provisions related to network tariffs and regulation. It is timely therefore to revisit the potential options for energy efficiency in grids, the treatment of energy efficiency in network tariffs and alternative policies for improving energy efficiency. This project builds on work done previously for the European Copper Institute in this area. In this paper, we concentrate on energy efficiency in electricity network design and operation. Other articles in the Directive relate to the role of the network tariffs and regulations in enabling or incentivising the provision of energy efficiency to end users. In section 2, we describe technical efficiency measures to reduce losses (improve energy efficiency) in the grid. Section 3 reviews grid tariffs in three countries to identify whether they provide incentives or disincentives for energy efficiency in the grid. Section 4 discusses and evaluates alternative regulations for energy efficiency in grids. Section 5 concludes and discusses the main components of the optimal policy framework.

  13. Global energy efficiency improvement in the log term: a demand- and supply-side perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, W.H.J.; Blomen, E.; Worrell, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed technical potentials for energy efficiency improvement in 2050 in a global context. The reference scenario is based on the World Energy Outlook of the International Energy Agency 2007 edition and assumptions regarding gross domestic product developments after 2030. In the

  14. Reluctance motor of new design with improved efficiency and power factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen-Goos, P; Pieper, W

    1981-09-01

    Improvement of operating conditions and efficiency by development of new configurations of lamination and production methods for reluctance motors. Investigations during the starting-up period and of the operating behaviour in connection with variable frequency. Reluctance motors are designed in the range from 0,6-4kW with 4-pole winding. They are due to the following identification: 1. The power of motors is in accordance with VDE 42673. 2. The volume of lamination is equal to asynchronous motors of the same IED size. 3. Synchronous pull-out torque is in compliance with VDE 0530: Msub(K)sub(S) > 1,35 Mn (nominal torque). As against standard reluctance motors the following improvements with the new ones have been realized: 4. Increase of nominal power by approx. 100%. 5. Increase of quality factor by approx. 50%. 6. The efficiency is equal to asynchronous motors of the same IEC size.

  15. Efficiency of dairy production on a family farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Grgić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of economic efficiency of dairyproduction on a family farm with 14 dairy cows in the breeding stock, and with average production from 3.206 to 3.407 lit. of milk annually. On the basis of survey data for three-year period from 1998 to 2000, economic indicators were calculated, as well as the cost price of milk, income and the revenue of total production and per production head. In the family farm with an average annual sale from 2.827 to 2.972 lit. of milk per head, total revenue has been realized from 44.884 to 47.695 kuna and the profit from 606 to 8.515 kuna. Revenues per production head were from 5.655 to 6.495 kuna and the profitfrom 177 to 726 kuna. The milk cost price in the analyzed period was 1.71, 1.66 and 1.69 kn. per lit, and the profit per liter of milk was 0.06, and 0.21 kn. Basic economic indicators point out on efficiency of dairy production for the investigated farm on the stated production level. The biggest influence on the dairy production efficiency on the farm, regarding the cost price structure, has been registered from the costs of fodder production, while the favorable parity of the cost price and producer-sale price of milk determines the increase in dairy production efficiency and income from dairy production in the analyzed period.

  16. Trapping truffle production in holes: a promising technique for improving production and unravelling truffle life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Murat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Périgord black truffle, Tuber melanosporum Vittad., is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms edible hypogeous ascomata. It is now harvested in plantations and is recognized as an agricultural product by European policy. Empirical techniques without scientific demonstration of their efficiency are often used to improve the production of truffles in plantations. One of these techniques is “truffle trapping” which consists in practicing holes inside the potential productive area and to fill them with a substrate containing ascospores. We report an experiment in a truffle orchard where 784 holes were set under 196 trees. Two years after the installation of the holes, 95% of the truffles were found inside the holes corresponding to only 5% of the productive area. This study confirms the efficiency of this empirical technique and demonstrates new ways for in situ studies of the truffle life cycle.

  17. Electronic medical records and efficiency and productivity during office visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Michael F

    2011-04-01

    To estimate the relationship between electronic medical record (EMR) use and efficiency of utilization and provider productivity during visits to US office-based physicians. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2006-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. The sample included 62,710 patient visits to 2625 physicians. EMR systems included demographics, clinical notes, prescription orders, and laboratory and imaging results. Efficiency was measured as utilization of examinations, laboratory tests, radiology procedures, health education, nonmedication treatments, and medications. Productivity was measured as total services provided per 20-minute period. Survey-weighted regressions estimated association of EMR use with services provided, visit intensity/duration, and productivity. Marginal effects were estimated by averaging across all visits and by major reason for visit. EMR use was associated with higher probability of any examination (7.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4%, 13.1%); any laboratory test (5.7%, 95% CI = 2.6%, 8.8%); any health education (4.9%, 95% CI = 0.2%, 9.6%); and fewer laboratory tests (-7.1%, 95% CI = -14.2%, -0.1%). During pre/post surgery visits, EMR use was associated with 7.3% (95% CI= -12.9%, -1.8%) fewer radiology procedures. EMR use was not associated with utilization of nonmedication treatments and medications, or visit duration. During routine visits for a chronic problem, EMR use was associated with 11.2% (95% CI = 5.7%, 16.8%) more diagnostic/screening services provided per 20-minute period. EMR use had a mixed association with efficiency and productivity during office visits. EMRs may improve provider productivity, especially during visits for a new problem and routine chronic care.

  18. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche–efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche–efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species’ inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty. PMID:25901325

  19. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche–efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche–efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species’ inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  20. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C; McGuire, A David; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-05

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  1. Using Ecophysiology to Improve Farm Efficiency: Application in Temperate Dairy Grazing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Chapman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the physiological ecology of grass-dominant pastures has made a substantial contribution to the development of practices that optimise the amount of feed harvested by grazing animals in temperate livestock systems. However, the contribution of ecophysiology is often under-stated, and the need for further research in this field is sometimes questioned. The challenge for ecophysiolgists, therefore, is to demonstrate how ecophysiological knowledge can help solve significant problems looming for grassland farming in temperate regions while also removing constraints to improved productivity from grazed pastures. To do this, ecophysiological research needs to align more closely with related disciplines, particularly genetics/genomics, agronomy, and farming systems, including systems modelling. This review considers how ecophysiological information has contributed to the development of grazing management practices in the New Zealand dairy industry, an industry that is generally regarded as a world leader in the efficiency with which pasture is grown and utilised for animal production. Even so, there are clear opportunities for further gains in pasture utilisation through the refinement of grazing management practices and the harnessing of those practices to improved pasture plant cultivars with phenotypes that facilitate greater grazing efficiency. Meanwhile, sub-optimal persistence of new pastures continues to constrain productivity in some environments. The underlying plant and population processes associated with this have not been clearly defined. Ecophysiological information, placed in the context of trait identification, grounded in well-designed agronomic studies and linked to plant improvements programmes, is required to address this.

  2. Statistical media design for efficient polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Pseudomonas sp. MNNG-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, V; Rajeswari, V; Abirami, P; Poornimakkani, K; Suguna, P; Shenbagarathai, R

    2016-07-03

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a promising polymer for various biomedical applications. There is a high need to improve the production rate to achieve end use. When a cost-effective production was carried out with cheaper agricultural residues like molasses, traces of toxins were incorporated into the polymer, which makes it unfit for biomedical applications. On the other hand, there is an increase in the popularity of using chemically defined media for the production of compounds with biomedical applications. However, these media do not exhibit favorable characteristics such as efficient utilization at large scale compared to complex media. This article aims to determine the specific nutritional requirement of Pseudomonas sp. MNNG-S for efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used in this study to statistically design for PHA production based on the interactive effect of five significant variables (sucrose; potassium dihydrogen phosphate; ammonium sulfate; magnesium sulfate; trace elements). The interactive effects of sucrose with ammonium sulfate, ammonium sulfate with combined potassium phosphate, and trace element with magnesium sulfate were found to be significant (p production more than fourfold (from 0.85 g L(-1) to 4.56 g L(-1)).

  3. Efficiency and productivity assessment of public hospitals in Greece during the crisis period 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, P; Yfantopoulos, J; Nektarios, M; Polyzos, N; Tinios, P; Constantopoulos, A

    2017-01-01

    This study is an initial effort to examine the dynamics of efficiency and productivity in Greek public hospitals during the first phase of the crisis 2009-2012. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health after several quality controls ensuring comparability and validity of hospital inputs and outputs. Productivity is estimated using the Malmquist Indicator, decomposing the estimated values into efficiency and technological change. Hospital efficiency and productivity growth are calculated by bootstrapping the non-parametric Malmquist analysis. The advantage of this method is the estimation efficiency and productivity through the corresponding confidence intervals. Additionally, a Random-effects Tobit model is explored to investigate the impact of contextual factors on the magnitude of efficiency. Findings reveal substantial variations in hospital productivity over the period from 2009 to 2012. The economic crisis of 2009 had a negative impact in productivity. The average Malmquist Productivity Indicator (MPI) score is 0.72 with unity signifying stable production. Approximately 91% of the hospitals score lower than unity. Substantial increase is observed between 2010 and 2011, as indicated by the average MPI score which fluctuates to 1.52. Moreover, technology change scored more than unity in more than 75% of hospitals. The last period (2011-2012) has shown stabilization in the expansionary process of productivity. The main factors contributing to overall productivity gains are increases in occupancy rates, type and size of the hospital. This paper attempts to offer insights in efficiency and productivity growth for public hospitals in Greece. The results suggest that the average hospital experienced substantial productivity growth between 2009 and 2012 as indicated by variations in MPI. Almost all of the productivity increase was due to technology change which could be explained by the concurrent managerial and financing healthcare reforms. Hospitals operating

  4. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  5. The Evaluation of Efficiency of Production Management at Forestry Enterprise: Experience with Discriminantal and Applied Econometric Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilko Andriy D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed at coverage of the results of a study on existing approaches to the setting and solving the task of evaluation and analysis of efficiency of management of production processes at forestry enterprises, as well as implementation and development (in line with the industry specificity of the previously proposed approach to evaluating, analyzing and forecasting the efficiency of management of the production process by means of development and application of the economic-mathematical modeling capabilities. A study on the efficiency of the production process management and the usage of enterprise’s basic production assets has been conducted with application of discriminantal and simultative econometric models. Further development of the proposed approach could provide an additional methodical basis for planning activities to improve the management of production at forestry enterprises.

  6. Nanoscale Dimples for Improved Absorption in and Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Adam, Jost; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    Organic solar cells (OSC’s) have attracted much attention in the past years due to their low costs, light weight and mechanical flexibility. A promising method for improving the power conversion efficiencies of the devices is by incorporating structured electrodes in the solar cell architecture....... That way light absorption in the active layers of the devices can be improved. A cheap and large-scale production compatible method for structuring the electrodes in OSC’s is by the use of Anodic Alumina Oxide (AAO) membranes. Here, nano-scale pores of controlled dimensions are formed through anodic...

  7. Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Analysis on Islamic Banks in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to measure productivity and efficiency, to analyze factors which affect the level of efficiency and to analyze correlation between productivity and efficiency of Islamic Banking in Indonesia. The objects of this study are 11 (eleven Islamic Banks (BUS in Indonesia which are analyzed from the second quarter of 2010 to the third quarter of 2015. The result shows only six of the eleven banks that have a good productivity levels, otherwise for efficiency there are only three banks that efficient enough. Furthermore, the relationship between productivity and efficiency levels that are categorized into 4 (four quadrants. In quadrant I, three banks have high productivity and efficiency namely Syariah Mandiri, Panin Syariah and Victoria Syariah; quadrant IV two banks in low level of productivity and efficiency namely Mega Syariah and Bukopin Syariah. While the quadrant II namely BCA Syariah, BRI syariah and Muamalat and quadrant III namely BJB Syariah, BNI Syariah and Maybank Syariah required further research to determine the factors that affect the productivity and efficiency relationships that occur. 

  8. Enhancing efficiency of production cost on seafood process with activity based management method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Tarigan, U. P. P.

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of production costs has an important impact maintaining company presence in the business world, as well as in the face of increasingly sharp global competition. It was done by identifying and reducing non-value-added activities to decrease production costs and increase profits. The study was conducted at a company engaged in the production of squid (seafood). It has a higher product price than the market as Rp 50,000 per kg while the market price of squid is only Rp 35,000 per kg. The price of the product to be more expensive compared with market price, and thereby a lot more consumers choose the lower market price. Based on the discussions conducted, the implementation of Activity Based Management was seen in the reduction of activities that are not added value in the production process. Since each activities consumers cost, the reduction of nonvalue-added activities has effects on the decline of production cost. The production’s decline costs mainly occur in the reduction of material transfer costs. The results showed that there was an increase after the improvement of 2.60%. Increased production cost efficiency causes decreased production costs and increased profits.

  9. Estimating Production Technical Efficiency of Irvingia Seed (Ogbono ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated the production technical efficiency of irvingia seed (Ogbono) farmers in Nsukka agricultural zone in Enugu State, Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of the importance of efficiency as a factor of productivity in a growing economy like Nigeria where resources are scarce and opportunities for new ...

  10. Biomass production efficiency controlled by management in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioli, M.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bilcke, J.; Ceschia, E.; Chapin, F. S., III; Ciais, P.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Malhi, Y.; Obersteiner, M.; Olefeldt, D.; Papale, D.; Piao, S. L.; Peñuelas, J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Wang, X.; Zenone, T.; Janssens, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Plants acquire carbon through photosynthesis to sustain biomass production, autotrophic respiration and production of non-structural compounds for multiple purposes. The fraction of photosynthetic production used for biomass production, the biomass production efficiency, is a key determinant of the conversion of solar energy to biomass. In forest ecosystems, biomass production efficiency was suggested to be related to site fertility. Here we present a database of biomass production efficiency from 131 sites compiled from individual studies using harvest, biometric, eddy covariance, or process-based model estimates of production. The database is global, but dominated by data from Europe and North America. We show that instead of site fertility, ecosystem management is the key factor that controls biomass production efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, in natural forests, grasslands, tundra, boreal peatlands and marshes, biomass production efficiency is independent of vegetation, environmental and climatic drivers. This similarity of biomass production efficiency across natural ecosystem types suggests that the ratio of biomass production to gross primary productivity is constant across natural ecosystems. We suggest that plant adaptation results in similar growth efficiency in high- and low-fertility natural systems, but that nutrient influxes under managed conditions favour a shift to carbon investment from the belowground flux of non-structural compounds to aboveground biomass.

  11. A hydrogen production experiment by the thermo-chemical and electrolytic hybrid hydrogen production in lower temperature range. System viability and preliminary thermal efficiency estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Toshihide; Nakagiri, Toshio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2008-10-01

    A new experimental apparatus by the thermo-chemical and electrolytic Hybrid-Hydrogen production in Lower Temperature range (HHLT) was developed and hydrogen production experiment was performed to confirm the system operability. Hydrogen production efficiency was estimated and technical problems were clarified through the experimental results. Stable operation of the SO 3 electrolysis cell and the sulfur dioxide solution electrolysis cell were confirmed during experimental operation and any damage which would be affected solid operation was not detected under post operation inspection. To improve hydrogen production efficiency, it was found that the reduction of sulfuric acid circulation and the decrease in the cell voltage were key issues. (author)

  12. Thermal efficiency improvements - an imperative for nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanien, S.; Rouse, S.

    1997-01-01

    A one and a half percent thermal performance improvement of Ontario Hydro's operating nuclear units (Bruce B, Pickering B, and Darlington) means almost 980 GWh are available to the transmission system (assuming an 80% capacity factor). This is equivalent to the energy consumption of 34,000 electrically-heated homes in Ontario, and worth more than $39 million in revenue to Ontario Hydro Nuclear Generation. Improving nuclear plant thermal efficiency improves profitability (more GWh per unit of fuel) and competitiveness (cost of unit energy), and reduces environmental impact (less spent fuel and nuclear waste). Thermal performance will naturally decrease due to the age of the units unless corrective action is taken. Most Ontario Hydro nuclear units are ten to twenty years old. Some common causes for loss of thermal efficiency are: fouling and tube plugging of steam generators, condensers, and heat exchangers; steam leaks in the condenser due to valve wear, steam trap and drain leaks; deposition, pitting, cracking, corrosion, etc., of turbine blades; inadequate feedwater metering resulting from corrosion and deposition. This paper stresses the importance of improving the nuclear units' thermal efficiency. Ontario Hydro Nuclear has demonstrated energy savings results are achievable and affordable. Between 1994 and 1996, Nuclear reduced its energy use and improved thermal efficiency by over 430,000 MWh. Efficiency improvement is not automatic - strategies are needed to be effective. This paper suggests practical strategies to systematically improve thermal efficiency. (author)

  13. Potential use and the energy conversion efficiency analysis of fermentation effluents from photo and dark fermentative bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Yameng; Zhang, Huan; He, Chao; Zhang, Quanguo

    2017-12-01

    Effluent of bio-hydrogen production system also can be adopted to produce methane for further fermentation, cogeneration of hydrogen and methane will significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency. Platanus Orientalis leaves were taken as the raw material for photo- and dark-fermentation bio-hydrogen production. The resulting concentrations of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and ethanol in the photo- and dark-fermentation effluents were 2966mg/L and 624mg/L, 422mg/L and 1624mg/L, 1365mg/L and 558mg/L, and 866mg/L and 1352mg/L, respectively. Subsequently, we calculated the energy conversion efficiency according to the organic contents of the effluents and their energy output when used as raw material for methane production. The overall energy conversion efficiencies increased by 15.17% and 22.28%, respectively, when using the effluents of photo and dark fermentation. This two-step bio-hydrogen and methane production system can significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency of anaerobic biological treatment plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    . The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than......Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas...... in 180 times in comparison with a direct fiber-waveguide coupling. Pros and cons of each configuration are discussed. Fabrication and characterisation results are reported....

  15. Rational modular design of metabolic network for efficient production of plant polyphenol pinosylvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Xia; Zhu, Yingjie; Tan, Qinyu; He, Jiacheng; Dong, Mingsheng

    2017-05-03

    Efficient biosynthesis of the plant polyphenol pinosylvin, which has numerous applications in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is necessary to make biological production economically viable. To this end, an efficient Escherichia coli platform for pinosylvin production was developed via a rational modular design approach. Initially, different candidate pathway enzymes were screened to construct de novo pinosylvin pathway directly from D-glucose. A comparative analysis of pathway intermediate pools identified that this initial construct led to the intermediate cinnamic acid accumulation. The pinosylvin synthetic pathway was then divided into two new modules separated at cinnamic acid. Combinatorial optimization of transcriptional and translational levels of these two modules resulted in a 16-fold increase in pinosylvin titer. To further improve the concentration of the limiting precursor malonyl-CoA, the malonyl-CoA synthesis module based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference was assembled and optimized with other two modules. The final pinosylvin titer was improved to 281 mg/L, which was the highest pinosylvin titer even directly from D-glucose without any additional precursor supplementation. The rational modular design approach described here could bolster our capabilities in synthetic biology for value-added chemical production.

  16. Improving employee productivity through improved health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Serxner, Seth

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate productivity-related savings associated with employee participation in health promotion programs. Propensity score weighting and multiple regression techniques were used to estimate savings. These techniques were adjusted for demographic and health status differences between participants who engaged in one or more telephonic health management programs and nonparticipants who were eligible for but did not engage in these programs. Employees who participated in a program and successfully improved their health care or lifestyle showed significant improvements in lost work time. These employees saved an average of $353 per person per year. This reflects about 10.3 hours in additional productive time annually, compared with similar, but nonparticipating employees. Participating in health promotion programs can help improve productivity levels among employees and save money for their employers.

  17. Efficiency improvement of technological preparation of power equipment manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milukov, I. A.; Rogalev, A. N.; Sokolov, V. P.; Shevchenko, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Competitiveness of power equipment primarily depends on speeding-up the development and mastering of new equipment samples and technologies, enhancement of organisation and management of design, manufacturing and operation. Actual political, technological and economic conditions cause the acute need in changing the strategy and tactics of process planning. At that the issues of maintenance of equipment with simultaneous improvement of its efficiency and compatibility to domestically produced components are considering. In order to solve these problems, using the systems of computer-aided process planning for process design at all stages of power equipment life cycle is economically viable. Computer-aided process planning is developed for the purpose of improvement of process planning by using mathematical methods and optimisation of design and management processes on the basis of CALS technologies, which allows for simultaneous process design, process planning organisation and management based on mathematical and physical modelling of interrelated design objects and production system. An integration of computer-aided systems providing the interaction of informative and material processes at all stages of product life cycle is proposed as effective solution to the challenges in new equipment design and process planning.

  18. Improving the efficiency of a chemotherapy day unit: applying a business approach to oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Wineke A M; Goedbloed, N; van Harten, W H

    2009-03-01

    To improve the efficiency of a hospital-based chemotherapy day unit (CDU). The CDU was benchmarked with two other CDUs to identify their attainable performance levels for efficiency, and causes for differences. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis using a business approach, called lean thinking, was performed. An integrated set of interventions was implemented, among them a new planning system. The results were evaluated using pre- and post-measurements. We observed 24% growth of treatments and bed utilisation, a 12% increase of staff member productivity and an 81% reduction of overtime. The used method improved process design and led to increased efficiency and a more timely delivery of care. Thus, the business approaches, which were adapted for healthcare, were successfully applied. The method may serve as an example for other oncology settings with problems concerning waiting times, patient flow or lack of beds.

  19. Laser processes and system technology for the production of high-efficient crystalline solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, R.; Hendel, R.; Zhu, Wenjie; Geiger, S.

    2012-10-01

    The laser as an industrial tool is an essential part of today's solar cell production. Due to the on-going efforts in the solar industry, to increase the cell efficiency, more and more laser-based processes, which have been discussed and tested at lab-scale for many years, are now being implemented in mass production lines. In order to cope with throughput requirements, standard laser concepts have to be improved continuously with respect to available average power levels, repetition rates or beam profile. Some of the laser concepts, that showed high potential in the past couple of years, will be substituted by other, more economic laser types. Furthermore, requirements for processing with less-heat affected zones fuel the development of industry-ready ultra short pulsed lasers with pulse widths even below the picosecond range. In 2011, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) had launched the program "PV-Innovation Alliance", with the aim to support the rapid transfer of high-efficiency processes out of development departments and research institutes into solar cell production lines. Here, lasers play an important role as production tools, allowing the fast implementation of high-performance solar cell concepts. We will report on the results achieved within the joint project FUTUREFAB, where efficiency optimization, throughput enhancement and cost reduction are the main goals. Here, the presentation will focus on laser processes like selective emitter doping and ablation of dielectric layers. An indispensable part of the efforts towards cost reduction in solar cell production is the improvement of wafer handling and throughput capabilities of the laser processing system. Therefore, the presentation will also elaborate on new developments in the design of complete production machines.

  20. Low Impedance Voice Coils for Improved Loudspeaker Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In modern audio systems utilizing switch-mode amplifiers the total efficiency is dominated by the rather poor efficiency of the loudspeaker. For decades voice coils have been designed so that nominal resistances of 4 to 8 Ohms is obtained, despite modern audio amplifiers, using switch-mode techno...... responses are estimated. For this woofer it is shown that the sensitivity can be improved approximately 1 dB, corresponding to a 30% efficiency improvement, just by increasing the fill factor using a low impedance voice coil with rectangular wire....

  1. Wastewater treatment facilities: Energy efficient improvements and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkle, R.; Gray, R.; Delzel, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has worked with both the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance to local governments. Based on a recent study conducted by Ecotope for WSEO, local governments spend an estimated $45 million on utility bills statewide. Water and wastewater facilities account for almost a third of this cost. As a result, WSEO decided to focus its efforts on the energy intensive water and wastewater sector. The ultimate goal of this project was to develop mechanisms to incorporate energy efficiency improvements into wastewater treatment facilities in retrofits and during upgrades, remodels, and new construction. Project activities included the following: The review of the existing regulatory environment for treatment system construction, A summary of financing options for efficiency improvements in treatment facilities, A literature review of energy efficiency opportunities in treatment plants, Survey and site visits to characterize existing facilities in Washington State, Estimates of the energy efficiency and cogeneration potential in the sector, and A case study to illustrate the implementation of an efficiency improvement in a treatment facility

  2. Improved Efficient Routing Strategy on Scale-Free Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui

    Since the betweenness of nodes in complex networks can theoretically represent the traffic load of nodes under the currently used routing strategy, we propose an improved efficient (IE) routing strategy to enhance to the network traffic capacity based on the betweenness centrality. Any node with the highest betweenness is susceptible to traffic congestion. An efficient way to improve the network traffic capacity is to redistribute the heavy traffic load from these central nodes to non-central nodes, so in this paper, we firstly give a path cost function by considering the sum of node betweenness with a tunable parameter β along the actual path. Then, by minimizing the path cost, our IE routing strategy achieved obvious improvement on the network transport efficiency. Simulations on scale-free Barabási-Albert (BA) networks confirmed the effectiveness of our strategy, when compared with the efficient routing (ER) and the shortest path (SP) routing.

  3. The gain from improved market efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    demand as well as excess supply, which triggered off the tâtonnement process. Over time, adjustments to equilibrium, as measured by the half-life of a shock, became faster and violations of the law of one price become smaller. There were significant gains from improved market efficiency, which took place......This article looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the nineteenth century, when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer......, Liverpool, are analysed. We show that the law of one price equilibrium was an ‘attractor equilibrium'. The implication is that prices converged to that equilibrium in a tâtonnement process. Because of asymmetrically timed information between markets separated by long distances there were periods of excess...

  4. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  5. BOREAS TE-17 Production Efficiency Model Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A BOREAS version of the Global Production Efficiency Model(www.inform.umd.edu/glopem) was developed by TE-17 to generate maps of gross and net primary production,...

  6. Discontinuous interleaving of parallel inverters for efficiency improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjørn; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Gadgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Interleaved switching of parallel inverters has previously been proposed for efficiency/size improvements of grid connected three-phase inverters. This paper proposes a novel interleaving method which practically eliminates insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses and drastically...... overall power module losses are reduced. The modulation strategy is suited for converters with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) for wind turbines, but are not limited hereto. Improvement of switching performance are measured and operational efficiency improvements are calculated and verified...

  7. Determination of Energy Use Efficiency of Sesame Production

    OpenAIRE

    BARAN, Mehmet Firat

    2018-01-01

    In this research it was aimed to determine an energy use efficiency of sesame production in Şanlıurfa province, during the production season of 2015. In order to determine the energy use efficiency of sesame production, trials and measurement were performed in sesame farm in the Bozova district of Şanlıurfa province. As energy inputs, human labour energy, machinery energy, chemical fertilizers energy, irrigation water energy, chemicals energy, diesel fuel energy and seed energy as were calcul...

  8. Evaluating the Impacts of Health, Social Network and Capital on Craft Efficiency and Productivity: A Case Study of Construction Workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingfeng; Yi, Wen; Miao, Mengyi; Zhang, Lei

    2018-02-15

    The construction industry has been recognized, for many years, as among those having a high likelihood of accidents, injuries and occupational illnesses. Such risks of construction workers can lead to low productivity and social problems. As a result, construction workers' well-being should be highly addressed to improve construction workers' efficiency and productivity. Meanwhile, the social support from a social network and capital (SNC) of construction workers has been considered as an effective approach to promote construction workers' physical and mental health (P&M health), as well as their work efficiency and productivity. Based on a comprehensive literature review, a conceptual model, which aims to improve construction workers' efficiency and productivity from the perspective of health and SNC, was proposed. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the construction workers' health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity in Nanjing, China. A structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the three hypothetical relationships among construction workers' P&M health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity. The results indicated that the direct impacts from construction workers' P&M health on work efficiency and productivity were more significant than that from the SNC. In addition, the construction workers' social capital and the network can indirectly influence the work efficiency and productivity by affecting the construction workers' P&M health. Therefore, strategies for enhancing construction workers' efficiency and productivity were proposed. Furthermore, many useable suggestions can be drawn from the research findings from the perspective of a government. The identified indicators and relationships would contribute to the construction work efficiency and productivity assessment and health management from the perspective of the construction workers.

  9. Evaluating the Impacts of Health, Social Network and Capital on Craft Efficiency and Productivity: A Case Study of Construction Workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has been recognized, for many years, as among those having a high likelihood of accidents, injuries and occupational illnesses. Such risks of construction workers can lead to low productivity and social problems. As a result, construction workers’ well-being should be highly addressed to improve construction workers’ efficiency and productivity. Meanwhile, the social support from a social network and capital (SNC of construction workers has been considered as an effective approach to promote construction workers’ physical and mental health (P&M health, as well as their work efficiency and productivity. Based on a comprehensive literature review, a conceptual model, which aims to improve construction workers’ efficiency and productivity from the perspective of health and SNC, was proposed. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the construction workers’ health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity in Nanjing, China. A structural equation model (SEM was employed to test the three hypothetical relationships among construction workers’ P&M health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity. The results indicated that the direct impacts from construction workers’ P&M health on work efficiency and productivity were more significant than that from the SNC. In addition, the construction workers’ social capital and the network can indirectly influence the work efficiency and productivity by affecting the construction workers’ P&M health. Therefore, strategies for enhancing construction workers’ efficiency and productivity were proposed. Furthermore, many useable suggestions can be drawn from the research findings from the perspective of a government. The identified indicators and relationships would contribute to the construction work efficiency and productivity assessment and health management from the perspective of the construction workers.

  10. Evaluating the Impacts of Health, Social Network and Capital on Craft Efficiency and Productivity: A Case Study of Construction Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Miao, Mengyi; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    The construction industry has been recognized, for many years, as among those having a high likelihood of accidents, injuries and occupational illnesses. Such risks of construction workers can lead to low productivity and social problems. As a result, construction workers’ well-being should be highly addressed to improve construction workers’ efficiency and productivity. Meanwhile, the social support from a social network and capital (SNC) of construction workers has been considered as an effective approach to promote construction workers’ physical and mental health (P&M health), as well as their work efficiency and productivity. Based on a comprehensive literature review, a conceptual model, which aims to improve construction workers’ efficiency and productivity from the perspective of health and SNC, was proposed. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the construction workers’ health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity in Nanjing, China. A structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the three hypothetical relationships among construction workers’ P&M health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity. The results indicated that the direct impacts from construction workers’ P&M health on work efficiency and productivity were more significant than that from the SNC. In addition, the construction workers’ social capital and the network can indirectly influence the work efficiency and productivity by affecting the construction workers’ P&M health. Therefore, strategies for enhancing construction workers’ efficiency and productivity were proposed. Furthermore, many useable suggestions can be drawn from the research findings from the perspective of a government. The identified indicators and relationships would contribute to the construction work efficiency and productivity assessment and health management from the perspective of the construction workers. PMID:29462861

  11. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  12. Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind; Effiziente Foerderung der Stromerzeugung aus Offshore-Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, Christian; Auer, Hans; Lettner, Georg [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Energy Economics Group (EEG)

    2014-03-15

    Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind stands in dynamic relationship with various influence factors, the most important of which are promotion instruments, topographic givens, regulation of grid connection, and supraregional market integration concepts. Using three case studies from different countries to highlight national differences in the promotion of offshore wind power plants the present analysis points out ways of improving the efficiency of promotion instruments.

  13. A treatment of thermal efficiency improvement in the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji; Nakanishi, Shigeyasu; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Ishigai, Seikan.

    1982-01-01

    So far, as the working fluid for power-generating plants, mainly water and air (combustion gas) have been used. In this study, in regeneration and isothermal compression processes being considered as the means for the efficiency improvement in Brayton cycle, the investigation of equivalent graphical presentation method with T-S diagrams, the introduction of the new characteristic number expressing the possibility of thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, and the investigation of the effect of the difference of working fluid on thermal efficiency were carried out. Next, as the cycle approximately realizing isothermal compression process with condensation process, the super-critical pressure cycle with liquid phase compression was rated, and four working fluids, NH 3 , SO 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O were examined as perfect gas and real gas. The advantage of CO 2 regeneration for the thermal efficiency improvement was clarified by using the dimensionless characteristic number. The graphical presentation of effective work, the thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, the thermal efficiency improvement by making compression process isothermal, the effect on thermal efficiency due to various factors and working fluids, the characteristic number by regeneration, and the application to real working fluids are reported. (Kako, I.)

  14. Water conservation and improved production efficiency using closed-loop evaporative cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetta, C. [Niagara Blower Co., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described wet surface air coolers (WSAC) that can be used in refineries and hydrocarbon processing plants to address water use issues. These closed-loop evaporative cooling systems are a cost-effective technology for both heat transfer and water conservation. WSACs can help deliver required cooling water temperatures and improve plant performance while using water streams currently considered to be unusable with conventional towers and heat exchangers. WSACs are versatile and can provide solutions to water use, water quality, and outlet temperature. The benefits of the WSAC include capital cost savings, reduced system pressures, lower carbon footprint, and the ability to use poor quality water as makeup. Water makeup can be blowdown from other equipment, plant effluent, reclaimed water, produced water, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) wastewater, and even seawater. Units can be manufactured with a wide variety of materials depending on water quality, water treatment, and cycles of concentration. This paper also provided comparisons to other alternative technologies, capital and operating cost savings, and site specific case studies. Two other system designs can accommodate closed-loop heat transfer applications, notably an open tower with a heat exchanger and a dry, air-cooled system. A WSAC system is an efficient and effective heat rejection technology for several reasons. The WSAC cooler or condenser utilizes latent cooling, which is far more efficient than sensible cooling. This means that a WSAC system can cool the same heat load with a smaller footprint than all-dry systems. 6 figs.

  15. Eco-efficiency of intensification scenarios for milk production in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basset-Mens, Claudine; Ledgard, Stewart; Boyes, Mark [AgResearch Limited, Ruakura Research Centre, East Street, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-04-15

    New Zealand (NZ) dairy farms used to be the lowest input and most efficient dairy farms of the world. However, intensification of the traditional pasture-based system has occurred over the last decade and has not always been accompanied by increased efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to produce an updated reference of the eco-efficiency of NZ dairy farm systems and to analyse the implications of intensification on their eco-efficiency. Results for an average NZ dairy farm system were compared with those for three dairy farmlet systems representing a wide range in intensification practices. A low input system (LI) (no N fertiliser, no brought-in feed supplement, stocking rate of 2.3 cows/ha) was compared with an N-fertilised farm system (NF) (170 kg fertiliser-N/ha/year, 3 cows/ha) representing a first level of intensification and with an N-fertilised and maize silage supplemented system (NFMS) (170 kg fertiliser-N/ha/year, 13 t DM maize silage/ha/year, 5.2 cows/ha), representing a possible future intensification option. Their eco-efficiency in terms of milk production and land use was compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. NZ dairy farm systems rely on favourable temperate climate conditions and long-term perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture, to achieve eco-efficient milk production and land use compared to European systems. However, intensification of NZ dairy farms was shown to be detrimental to their eco-efficiency in terms both of milk production and land use functions and could greatly reduce their advantage compared to European systems. The eco-efficiency of LI was very high whatever the functional unit which is remarkable from an LCA perspective. NF and NFMS had a similar eco-efficiency except for energy use which corresponded to the most critical hot spot of NFMS. All studied NZ systems presented some areas for improvement where some new technologies available for dairy farms might play a promising role in the future. Finally, it

  16. Estimating shadow prices and efficiency analysis of productive inputs and pesticide use of vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, Alphonse G.; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Emvalomatis, Grigorios

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes technical efficiency and the value of the marginal product of productive inputs vis-a-vis pesticide use to measure allocative efficiency of pesticide use along productive inputs. We employ the data envelopment analysis framework and marginal cost techniques to estimate

  17. SAGD CO2 mitigation through energy efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis du, D.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reductions achieved using energy efficiency measures in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations was presented. The efficiency of a typical SAGD operation was analyzed using an indexing tool based on the Carnot cycle efficiency to develop an ideal SAGD heat cycle. The benefits of using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology to convert waste heat to electrical power were also investigated. A CO 2 abatement curve was used to identify the economic benefits and costs of various greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. The level of recovered energy was determined in relation to energy prices, capital costs, and carbon penalties in order to determine the most efficient means of decreasing energy usage. The study demonstrated that energy efficiency can be improved by up to 20 percent, and water loss reductions of up to 50 percent can be achieved using cost-effective energy efficiency measures. Results of the study can be used to guide government policy and provide industry with practical tools to benchmark performance and improve efficiencies. 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  18. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of intelligent mobile robots that execute medium sized production runs. For a wide range of products, the machining tasks will be defined on an appropriate level, enabling control over the robots beha...

  19. EFFICIENT USE OF BIOMASS IN IMPROVED COOKSTOVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. PAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional biomass cookstoves have very low efficiency. The improved cookstoves have very high efficiency. These improved cookstoves with high efficiency saves biomass fuels. Biomass can be saved in case of rocket elbow cookstoves. The amount of biomass which can be saved in case of rocket elbow cookstoves is 65.88 MT. More biomass can be saved in case of gasifier fan cookstoves. The amount of biomass which can be saved is 155.71 MT. The pollutants like particulate matter, black carbon, carbon mono-oxide and carbon dioxide emission is lesser in case of rocket elbow cookstoves. The pollutants are least in case of gasifier fan cookstoves. The reduction in particulate matter, black carbon, carbon mono-oxide and carbon dioxide emission in gasifier fan cookstoves is 1.77 MT, 0.24 MT, 0.71 MT & 151.64 MT respectively in comparison to traditional cookstoves. Therefore indoor air pollution is greatly reduced in case of improved cookstoves especially in case of gasifier fan cookstoves as compared to traditional cookstoves.

  20. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R

    2016-06-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  1. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  2. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  3. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  4. The Efficiency of Damage Production in Silicon Carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ram; Jiang, Weilin

    2004-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the statistics of damage production in 3C-SiC due to C, Si and Au primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) over energies from 0.25 to 50 keV. In order to account for the different displacement energies on the Si and C sublattices and accurately assess the damage efficiency, a modified version of the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code, with the electronic stopping turned off to duplicate the molecular dynamics conditions, was used to calculate the statistics of damage production for the same PKAs over the energy range from 0.1 to 400 keV under the binary collision approximation using threshold displacement energies of 20 and 35 eV for C and Si, respectively. Using the modified SRIM predictions as a reference, the efficiencies of total damage production are determined for C, Si and Au PKAs as functions of energy. The efficiency for production of C displacements is similar for all PKAs; however, C PKAs have a much lower efficiency for producing stable Si displacements than Si and Au PKAs, which leads to a much higher ratio of C to Si displacements for C PKAs. These results are consistent with the experimental damage production behavior observed in SiC irradiated with C, Si and Au ions at 150 K

  5. The efficiency of damage production in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Gao, F.; Devanathan, R.; Jiang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the statistics of damage production in 3C-SiC due to C, Si and Au primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) over energies from 0.25 to 50 keV. In order to account for the different displacement energies on the Si and C sublattices and accurately assess the damage efficiency, a modified version of the SRIM (stopping and range of ions in matter) code, with the electronic stopping turned off to duplicate the MD conditions, was used to calculate the statistics of damage production for the same PKAs over the energy range from 0.1 to 400 keV under the binary collision approximation using threshold displacement energies of 20 and 35 eV for C and Si, respectively. Using the modified SRIM predictions as a reference, the efficiencies of total damage production are determined for C, Si and Au PKAs as functions of energy. The efficiency for production of C displacements is similar for all PKAs; however, C PKAs have a much lower efficiency for producing stable Si displacements than Si and Au PKAs, which leads to a much higher ratio of C to Si displacements for C PKAs. These results are consistent with the experimental damage production behavior observed in SiC irradiated with C, Si and Au ions at 150 K

  6. A Study of Efficiency, Effectiveness and Productivity of Filipino Administrative Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Simpas

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The public in general would have different ideas regarding "efficiency, effectiveness and productivity" because these concepts have apparently different meanings and purposes. Properly understood and utilized, however, these concepts can be useful tools for improving management in the public service.Employees, supervisors and administrators themselves would have different views of these concepts. Several variables affect the interrelationships between the three factors and it is quite difficult to tell whether or not an agency is really efficient, effective and productive.Intending to operationalize and provide measurements of these concepts in the Philippine setting, this study is a survey on efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of Philippine administrative agencies. Furthermore, insights into the relationships that exist among these three concepts have been obtained and the key variables affecting them identified.More specifically, this study is an examination of the effects of four structural variables – centralization, complexity, formalization and stratification – on efficiency, effectiveness and productivity.During the first phase of the research project, the research team examined organizational records as the basis for the preparation of schedules for study. Pre-tests were done during the first six months of research. Immediately after the formulation of the initial questionnaire, the development of the final questionnaire started. The first set was administered to supervisory personnel of selected units of the four agencies under study - the Department of Health (DOH, the Department of Local Government and Community Development (DLGCD, the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP and the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS. These agencies were selected on the basis of the primary function of financing and service. The original plan was to have at least six representative agencies of the government for the survey, but due

  7. Crop and soil specific N and P efficiency and productivity in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BÄCKMAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates a stochastic production frontier based on experimental data of cereals production in Finland over the period 1977-1994. The estimates of the production frontier are used to analyze nitrogen and phosphorous productivity and efficiency differences between soils and crops. For this input specific efficiencies are calculated. The results can be used to recognize relations between fertilizer management and soil types as well as to learn where certain soil types and crop combinations require special attention to fertilization strategy. The combination of inputs as designed by the experiment shows significant inefficiencies for both N and P. The measures of mineral productivity and efficiency indicate that clay is the most mineral efficient and productive soil while silt and organic soils are the least efficient and productive soils. Furthermore, a positive correlation is found between mineral productivity and efficiency. The results indicate that substantial technical efficiency differences between different experiments prevail.;

  8. RNAi knock-down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 increases photosynthetic H2 production efficiency of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Oey

    Full Text Available Single cell green algae (microalgae are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels. Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3 in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%, LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037% and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05% compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180% and biomass (165% conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ∼100 µE m(-2 s(-1 and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1 reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses near the photobioreactor surface; 2 improved light distribution in the reactor; 3 reduced photoinhibition; 4 early onset of HYDA expression and 5 reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems.

  9. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  10. A Bottom-up Energy Efficiency Improvement Roadmap for China’s Iron and Steel Industry up to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    Iron and steel manufacturing is energy intensive in China and in the world. China is the world largest steel producer accounting for around half of the world steel production. In this study, we use a bottom-up energy consumption model to analyze four steel-production and energy-efficiency scenarios and evaluate the potential for energy savings from energy-efficient technologies in China’s iron and steel industry between 2010 and 2050. The results show that China’s steel production will rise and peak in the year 2020 at 860 million tons (Mt) per year for the base-case scenario and 680 Mt for the advanced energy-efficiency scenario. From 2020 on, production will gradually decrease to about 510 Mt and 400 Mt in 2050, for the base-case and advanced scenarios, respectively. Energy intensity will decrease from 21.2 gigajoules per ton (G/t) in 2010 to 12.2 GJ/t and 9.9 GJ/t in 2050 for the base-case and advanced scenarios, respectively. In the near term, decreases in iron and steel industry energy intensity will come from adoption of energy-efficient technologies. In the long term, a shift in the production structure of China’s iron and steel industry, reducing the share of blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace production and increasing the share of electric-arc furnace production while reducing the use of pig iron as a feedstock to electric-arc furnaces will continue to reduce the sector’s energy consumption. We discuss barriers to achieving these energy-efficiency gains and make policy recommendations to support improved energy efficiency and a shift in the nature of iron and steel production in China.

  11. Efficiency and productivity measurement of rural township hospitals in China: a bootstrapping data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Cai, Miao; Tao, Hongbing; He, Zhifei; Lin, Xiaojun; Lin, Haifeng; Zuo, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Objective Township hospitals (THs) are important components of the three-tier rural healthcare system of China. However, the efficiency and productivity of THs have been questioned since the healthcare reform was implemented in 2009. The objective of this study is to analyse the efficiency and productivity changes in THs before and after the reform process. Setting and participants A total of 48 sample THs were selected from the Xiaogan Prefecture in Hubei Province from 2008 to 2014. Outcome measures First, bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) was performed to estimate the technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE) of the sample THs during the period. Second, the bootstrapping Malmquist productivity index was used to calculate the productivity changes over time. Results The average TE, PTE and SE of the sample THs over the 7-year period were 0.5147, 0.6373 and 0.7080, respectively. The average TE and PTE increased from 2008 to 2012 but declined considerably after 2012. In general, the sample THs experienced a negative shift in productivity from 2008 to 2014. The negative change was 2.14%, which was attributed to a 23.89% decrease in technological changes (TC). The sample THs experienced a positive productivity shift from 2008 to 2012 but experienced deterioration from 2012 to 2014. Conclusions There was considerable space for TE improvement in the sample THs since the average TE was relatively low. From 2008 to 2014, the sample THs experienced a decrease in productivity, and the adverse alteration in TC should be emphasised. In the context of healthcare reform, the factors that influence TE and productivity of THs are complex. Results suggest that numerous quantitative and qualitative studies are necessary to explore the reasons for the changes in TE and productivity. PMID:27836870

  12. Process Cycle Efficiency Improvement Through Lean: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Mohanram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is an applied methodology of scientific, objective techniques that cause work tasks in a process to be performed with a minimum of non-value adding activities resulting in greatly reduced wait time, queue time, move time, administrative time, and other delays. This work addresses the implementation of lean principles in a construction equipment company. The prime objective is to evolve and test several strategies to eliminate waste on the shop floor. This paper describes an application of value stream mapping (VSM. Consequently, the present and future states of value stream maps are constructed to improve the production process by identifying waste and its sources. A noticeable reduction in cycle time and increase in cycle efficiency is confirmed. The production flow was optimized thus minimizing several non-value added activities/times such as bottlenecking time, waiting time, material handling time, etc. This case study can be useful in developing a more generic approach to design lean environment.

  13. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  14. Production Efficiency and Market Orientation in Food Crops in North West Ethiopia: Application of Matching Technique for Impact Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Yesigat Ayenew

    Full Text Available Agricultural technologies developed by national and international research institutions were not benefiting the rural population of Ethiopia to the extent desired. As a response, integrated agricultural extension approaches are proposed as a key strategy to transform the smallholder farming sector. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS of Ethiopian Farmers project is one of the development projects initiated by integrating productivity enhancement technological schemes with market development model. This paper explores the impact of the project intervention in the smallholder farmers' wellbeing.To test the research hypothesis of whether the project brought a significant change in the input use, marketed surplus, efficiency and income of farm households, we use a cross-section data from 200 smallholder farmers in Northwest Ethiopia, collected through multi-stage sampling procedure. To control for self-selection from observable characteristics of the farm households, we employ Propensity Score Matching (PSM. We finally use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA techniques to estimate technical efficiency of farm households.The outcome of the research is in line with the premises that the participation of the household in the IPMS project improves purchased input use, marketed surplus, efficiency of farms and the overall gain from farming. The participant households on average employ more purchased agricultural inputs and gain higher gross margin from the production activities as compared to the non-participant households. The non-participant households on average supply less output (measured both in monetary terms and proportion of total produce to the market as compared to their participant counterparts. Except for the technical efficiency of production in potato, project participant households are better-off in production efficiency compared with the non-participant counterparts.We verified the idea that Improving Productivity and Market

  15. Quality and Efficiency Improvement Tools for Every Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudla, Alexei U; Brook, Olga R

    2018-03-20

    In an era of value-based medicine, data-driven quality improvement is more important than ever to ensure safe and efficient imaging services. Familiarity with high-value tools enables all radiologists to successfully engage in quality and efficiency improvement. In this article, we review the model for improvement, strategies for measurement, and common practical tools with real-life examples that include Run chart, Control chart (Shewhart chart), Fishbone (Cause-and-Effect or Ishikawa) diagram, Pareto chart, 5 Whys, and Root Cause Analysis. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. Setting and participants 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Outcome measures Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. Results (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010–2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. Conclusions There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010–2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency

  17. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  18. Good Housekeeping Implementation for Improving Efficiency in Cassava Starch Industry (Case Study : Margoyoso District, Pati Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Wijayanto Setyo; Purwanto; Suherman, S.

    2018-02-01

    Cassava starch industry is one of the leading small-medium enterprises (SMEs) in Pati Regency. Cassava starch industry released waste that reduces the quantity of final product and potentially contamined the environment. This study was conducted to observe the feasibility of good housekeeping implementation to reduce waste and at the same time improve efficiency of production process. Good housekeeping opportunities are consideration by three aspect, technical, economy and environmental. Good housekeeping opportunities involved water conservation and waste reduction. These included reuse of water in washing process, improving workers awareness in drying section and packaging section. Implementation of these opportunities can reduce water consumption, reduce wastewater and solid waste generation also increased quantity of final product.

  19. A MEPS is a MEPS is a MEPS. Comparing Ecodesign and Top Runner schemes for setting product efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siderius, P.J.S. [NL Agency, Croeselaan 15, P.O. Box 8242, 3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Nakagami, H. [Jyukankyo Research Institute, 3-29, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo, 102-0094 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Both Top Runner in Japan and Ecodesign in the European Union are schemes to set requirements on the energy efficiency (minimum efficiency performance standards, MEPS) of a variety of products. This article provides an overview of the main characteristics and results of both schemes and gives recommendations for improving them. Both schemes contribute significantly to the energy efficiency targets set by the European Commission and the Japanese government. Although it is difficult to compare the absolute levels of the requirements, comparison of the relative improvements and of the savings on household electricity consumption (11 % in Japan, 16 % in the EU) suggest they are in the same range. Furthermore, the time needed to set or review requirements is in both schemes considerable (between 5 and 6 years on average) and the manageability increasingly will become a challenge. The appeal of the Top Runner approach is that the most efficient product (Top Runner) sets the standard for all products at the next target year. Although the Ecodesign scheme includes the elements for a Top Runner approach, it could exploit this principle more explicitly. On the other hand, the Top Runner scheme could benefit by using a real minimum efficiency performance standard instead of a fleet average. This would make the monitoring and enforcement more simple and transparent, and would open the scheme for products where the market situation is less clear.

  20. Buy Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide for Federal Purchasers and Specifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    In a single year, energy-efficient product purchases could save the federal government almost a half billion dollars worth of energy. By purchasing products that exceed the minimum required efficiency levels, buyers can save the government even more energy and money. Federal employees and contractors must take an active role in ensuring that the government receives products that meet efficiency requirements. This document provides an overview of product purchasing requirements and shows you how to write compliant contracts, find funding, and confirm product compliance.

  1. RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF GROUNDNUT PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    2012-09-28

    Sep 28, 2012 ... A stratified sampling technique was employed to select 58 respondents. ... there is still opportunity to increase their production to attain optimal economic efficiency. The ... metric tons and an average productivity of 1.4 metric tons /ha. Developing ... The educated population are gainfully employed in some.

  2. Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkatur, Ananth P.; Sagar, Ambuj D.; Abhyankar, Nikit; Sreekumar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation

  3. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  4. The Multiple Benefits of Measures to Improve Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel; Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    Understanding the barriers to, and enablers for, energy efficiency requires targeted information and analysis. This report is a summary of four detailed studies providing new insights on how to promote efficiency in selected priority areas. It complements initiatives such as the so-called energy...... efficiency accelerators, which seek to increase the uptake of selected technologies, as well as the work of many other institutions committed to improving energy efficiency. The modelling estimates and the case studies presented in this report illustrate that, while significant progress has already been...... achieved, the case for accelerating energy efficiency action is strong. Key highlights include: • At the global level, energy efficiency improvements would account for between 2.6 and 3.3 Gt CO2e of the reductions in 2030, equivalent to between 23 and 26 percent of the overall reductions achieved...

  5. Sustainability assessment of sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using eco-efficiency indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Pongpat, Patcharaporn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane biorefinery in Thailand is evaluated using the eco-efficiency concept. • Green cane along with cane trash use for electricity yields highest eco-efficiency. • Proposed biorefinery system increases eco-efficiency by 20–70%. - Abstract: The study aims to evaluate the sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using the combined environmental and economic sustainability indicator, so called “Eco-efficiency”. Four sugarcane biorefinery scenarios in Thailand are evaluated. The total output values (US$) and the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (kg CO_2eq) are selected as the indicators for characterizing economic and environmental performance, respectively. The results show that the biorefinery system of mechanized farming along with cane trash utilization for power generation yields the highest eco-efficiency. The benefits come from the increased value added of the biorefinery together with the decreased GHG emissions of the biorefinery system. As compared to the base case scenario, the new systems proposed result in the eco-efficiency improvement by around 20–70%. The biorefinery concept induces reduction of GHG emissions attributed to molasses ethanol. Green cane production and harvesting results in further lowering of the GHG emissions. Integration of sugarcane biomass utilization across the entire sugarcane complex would enhance the sustainability of the sugarcane production system.

  6. Factors That Influence Technical Efficiency of Sorghum Production: A Case of Small Holder Sorghum Producers in Lower Eastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaline Chepng’etich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the rural households in Kenya depend on agriculture as a source of food and livelihood. Agricultural productivity has been declining due to many factors resulting in increased food insecurity in the country. Consequently, there is a renewed interest in promoting drought-tolerant crops such as sorghum which thrives in the arid and semiarid lands of the developing world. However, performance of sorghum production among the smallholder farmers has still remained low. This study was thus carried out to identify factors that influence technical efficiency of sorghum production among smallholder farmers in Machakos and Makindu districts of the lower eastern Kenya. Collected data on farm and farmer characteristics were analysed by use of descriptive statistics and Tobit model. Result highlights show that technical efficiency was influenced positively by formal education level of the household, experience in sorghum farming, membership in farmers associations, use of hired labour, production advice, and use of manure. Surprisingly household size, meant to enhance labour, had a negative influence. To increase technical efficiency, efforts should focus on improving information flows on agronomic practices. Farmers should also be encouraged to form and actively participate in various farmers associations, which enhance learning and pooling of labour resources, hence improving technical efficiency.

  7. POSSIBILITIES OF INCREASING EFFICIENCY WITHIN SERIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of transition to the new post-industrial society, massproduction recently faced the most numerous difficulties. They are caused by turbulences in theexternal environment in which companies operate, manifested in particular by enhancing thedynamism of markets and by deep changes in the structure of consumers’ demands. In thiscontext, specialized literature records the concerns for increasing the efficiency and flexibilityof products, elements involving radical changes of management and manufacturingtechnologies methods. Given these issues, the paper approaches two separate ways to improvethe management of serial production: increasing economic efficiency by optimizing the size ofbatches and flexible production systems by implementing techniques to reduce the change-overtime.

  8. Efficient L-Alanine Production by a Thermo-Regulated Switch in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Deng, Can; Cui, Wen-Jing; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Zhou, Zhe-Min

    2016-01-01

    L-Alanine has important applications in food, pharmaceutical and veterinary and is used as a substrate for production of engineered thermoplastics. Microbial fermentation could reduce the production cost and promote the application of L-alanine. However, the presence of L-alanine significantly inhibit cell growth rate and cause a decrease in the ultimate L-alanine productivity. For efficient L-alanine production, a thermo-regulated genetic switch was designed to dynamically control the expression of L-alanine dehydrogenase (alaD) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus on the Escherichia coli B0016-060BC chromosome. The optimal cultivation conditions for the genetically switched alanine production using B0016-060BC were the following: an aerobic growth phase at 33 °C with a 1-h thermo-induction at 42 °C followed by an oxygen-limited phase at 42 °C. In a bioreactor experiment using the scaled-up conditions optimized in a shake flask, B0016-060BC accumulated 50.3 g biomass/100 g glucose during the aerobic growth phase and 96 g alanine/100 g glucose during the oxygen-limited phase, respectively. The L-alanine titer reached 120.8 g/l with higher overall and oxygen-limited volumetric productivities of 3.09 and 4.18 g/l h, respectively, using glucose as the sole carbon source. Efficient cell growth and L-alanine production were reached separately, by switching cultivation temperature. The results revealed the application of a thermo-regulated strategy for heterologous metabolic production and pointed to strategies for improving L-alanine production.

  9. Technical efficiency of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to measure the level of technical efficiency, its determinants in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production and the constraints in the production system in Yewa North Local Government of Ogun State using a stochastic frontier production function. A combination of purposive and random sampling ...

  10. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  11. The improving efficiency frontier of religious not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Sexton, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    By using data-envelopment analysis (DEA), this study evaluates the efficiency of religious not-for-profit hospitals. Hospital executives, healthcare policy makers, taxpayers, and other stakeholders benefit from studies that improve hospital efficiency. Results indicate that overall efficiency in religious hospitals improved from 72% in 1998 to 74% in 2001. What is more important is that the number of religious hospitals operating on the efficiency frontier increased from 40 in 1998 to 47 in 2001. This clearly documents that religious hospitals are becoming more efficient in the management of resources. From a policy perspective, this study highlights the economic importance of encouraging increased efficiency throughout the healthcare industry.

  12. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Powerplant productivity improvement study: policy analysis and incentive assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Policy options that the Illinois Commerce Commission might adopt in order to promote improved power plant productivity for existing units in Illinois are identified and analyzed. These policy options would generally involve either removing existing disincentives and/or adding direct incentives through the regulatory process. The following activities are reported: in-depth review of existing theoretical and empirical literature in the areas of power plant reliability, regulatory utility efficiency and performance incentives, and impacts of various regulatory mechanisms such as the Fuel Adjustment Clauses on productivity; contacts with other state public utility commissions known to be investigating or implementing productivity improvement incentive mechanisms; documentation and analysis of incentive mechanisms adopted or under consideration in other states; analysis of current regulatory practice in Illinois as it relates to power plant productivity incentives and disincentives; identification of candidate incentive mechanisms for consideration by the Illinois Commerce Commission; and analysis and evaluation of these candidates. 72 references, 8 figures.

  14. Improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq3 interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiarong; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Zhou Yunfei; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq 3 interlayer, which is inserted into the hole-transport layer for adjusting the hole-injection and transport, and improving the hole-electron balance. The thin Alq 3 interlayer can effectively influence the electrical performance and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of the devices. The devices with an optimum Alq 3 interlayer exhibit a maximum EL efficiency of around 3.3 cd/A, which is improved by a factor of two over the conventional devices (1.6 cd/A) without the interlayer

  15. Optimization of membrane stack configuration for efficient hydrogen production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells coupled with thermolytic solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xi

    2013-07-01

    Waste heat can be captured as electrical energy to drive hydrogen evolution in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) by using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate. To determine the optimal membrane stack configuration for efficient hydrogen production in MRECs using ammonium bicarbonate solutions, different numbers of cell pairs and stack arrangements were tested. The optimum number of cell pairs was determined to be five based on MREC performance and a desire to minimize capital costs. The stack arrangement was altered by placing an extra low concentration chamber adjacent to anode chamber to reduce ammonia crossover. This additional chamber decreased ammonia nitrogen losses into anolyte by 60%, increased the coulombic efficiency to 83%, and improved the hydrogen yield to a maximum of 3.5mol H2/mol acetate, with an overall energy efficiency of 27%. These results improve the MREC process, making it a more efficient method for renewable hydrogen gas production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new eco-efficient recycling route for post-consumer waste glass was implemented. ► Integrated waste management and industrial production are crucial to green products. ► Most of the waste glass rejects are sent back to the glass industry. ► Recovered co-products give more environmental gains than does avoided landfill. ► Energy intensive recycling must be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. - Abstract: As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  17. Improving STEM Undergraduate Education with Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    The project investigates the potential of Learning Design for efficiently improving STEM undergraduate education with technology. In order to investigate this potential, the project consists of two main studies at Aarhus University: a study of the perspectives of the main stakeholders on Learning...... Design uptake. The project concludes that it is possible to improve STEM undergraduate education with Learning Design for technology-enhanced learning efficiently and that Efficient Learning Design provides a useful concept for qualifying educational decisions....... provided by technology-enhanced learning based on Learning Design, and in particular students’ learning was of a high common interest. However, only the educators were directly interested in Learning Design and its support for design, reuse in their practice and to inform pedagogy. A holistic concept...

  18. Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending.

  19. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...... and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issue and analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency and promote research and development in energy efficiency....

  20. IMPROVING OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY WITH KAIZEN PHILOSOPHY: A CASE STUDY IN A METALLURGICAL COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Luiz Santos; Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The success of an organization should be the pursuit of business excellence which has shown the evolution of people's satisfaction, the preparation of leaders, operational efficiency and business culture based on a system which aims at raising the management, the processes and the products to excellence from the improvement in the training of all employees. Thus organizations apply in their cases the concept of Lean philosophy through Kaizen methodology which pursuits continuou...

  1. Improving Reliability, Security, and Efficiency of Reconfigurable Hardware Systems (Habilitation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziener, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this treatise,  my research on methods to improve efficiency, reliability, and security of reconfigurable hardware systems, i.e., FPGAs, through partial dynamic reconfiguration is outlined. The efficiency of reconfigurable systems can be improved by loading optimized data paths on-the-fly on an

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in 23.206, insert the following clause: Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definition. As...

  3. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebandrija, K. E. N.; Astuti, S. W. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766) and Solow (1957) and updated journal such as Reikard (2011) researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ). The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ≤ 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:μ≥80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach's alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square) Asymp. Sig=0.028financial analysis (NPV 2,340,596>0, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86). The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  4. Applying optimization techniques to improve of energy efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Ashkan; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa; Qasemi-Kordkheili, Peyman; Kouchaki-Penchah, Hamed; Riahi-Dorcheh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    In this study a non-parametric method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and MOGA (Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm) were used to estimate the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction of wheat farmers in Ahvaz county of Iran. Data were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire method from 39 farmers. The results showed that based on constant returns to scale model, 41.02% of wheat farms were efficient, though based on variable returns to scale model it was 53.23%. The average of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of wheat farms were 0.94, 0.95 and 0.98, respectively. By following the recommendations of this study, 3640.90 MJ ha"−"1 could be saved (9.13% of total input energy). Moreover, 42 optimal units were found by MOGA. The total energy required and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of the best generation of MOGA were about 23105 MJ ha"−"1 and 340 kgCO_2_e_q_. ha"−"1, respectively. The results revealed that the total energy required of MOGA was less than DEA, significantly. Also, the GHG emissions of present, DEA and MOGA farms were about 903, 837 and 340 kgCO_2_e_q_. ha"−"1, respectively. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy efficiency and GHG emissions of wheat production in Iran. • The technical and pure technical efficiencies were 0.94 and 0.95 respectively. • DEA can be saved total energy and GHG emissions 9.13% and 7.28% respectively. • MOGA can be reduced total energy and GHG emissions more than DEA significantly.

  5. Photobiological hydrogen production : photochemical efficiency and bioreactor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, I.; Janssen, M.; Rocha, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Biological production of hydrogen can be carried out by photoautotrophic or photoheterotrophic organisms. Here, the photosystems of both processes are described. The main drawback of the photoautotrophic hydrogen production process is oxygen inhibition. The few efficiencies reported on the

  6. Efficiency improvement opportunities in TVs: Implications for market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Televisions (TVs) account for a significant portion of residential electricity consumption and global TV shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of TVs that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that TV efficiency will likely improve by over 60% by 2015 with savings potential of 45 terawatt-hours [TW h] per year in 2015, compared to today’s technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost effectiveness of three of them. At least one of these options improves efficiency by at least 20% cost effectively beyond ongoing market trends. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy savings potential from TVs which we estimate to be up to 23 TW h per year in 2015. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the recent TV market transition on TV energy consumption. • We review TV technology options that could be realized in the near future. • We assess the cost-effectiveness of selected energy-efficiency improvement options. • We estimate global electricity savings potential in selected scenarios. • We discuss possible directions of market transformation programs

  7. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning

    2015-09-09

    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  8. The role of technology, product lifetime, and energy efficiency in climate mitigation: A case study of air conditioners in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact on the life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from a specific durable good (i.e., household air conditioners in this study) of industrial technology changes, product lifetime changes, and energy efficiency improvements. I proposed a comprehensive structural decomposition analysis including two factors of average lifetime and energy efficiency trend of household air conditioners and applied the decomposition method to the Japanese environmental input-output tables of 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. The empirical results show that “Household air-conditioner sector” itself contributed to reducing life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from household air conditioners, while other sectors such as “On-site power generation sector” and “Retail trade sector” contributed to increasing life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from household air conditioners. I also conducted combined scenario analysis about reduction potential of product lifetime and energy efficiency of air conditioners and the results showed the reduction rate of energy efficiency necessary for maintain CO_2 emissions in 2005 at 1990 level on each average lifetime scenario. (e.g. if average lifetime of air conditioners is shortened by 1 year, energy efficiency of air conditioners have to be further improved by 20.6% from current level. - Highlights: • This study provides a decomposition framework for air conditioner’s CO_2 emissions. • Technology, product lifetime and energy efficiency are considered in the framework. • “Household air conditioner” sector contributed to reducing CO_2 emissions largely. • “On-site power generation” indirectly contributed to increasing CO_2 emissions. • I showed the improvement rates of energy efficiency to achieve a reduction target.

  9. Engineering microbes for efficient production of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Dole, Sudhanshu; Grabar, Tammy; Collard, Andrew Christopher; Pero, Janice G; Yocum, R Rogers

    2015-04-28

    This present invention relates to production of chemicals from microorganisms that have been genetically engineered and metabolically evolved. Improvements in chemical production have been established, and particular mutations that lead to those improvements have been identified. Specific examples are given in the identification of mutations that occurred during the metabolic evolution of a bacterial strain genetically engineered to produce succinic acid. This present invention also provides a method for evaluating the industrial applicability of mutations that were selected during the metabolic evolution for increased succinic acid production. This present invention further provides microorganisms engineered to have mutations that are selected during metabolic evolution and contribute to improved production of succinic acid, other organic acids and other chemicals of commercial interest.

  10. Work improvement by computerizing the process of shielding block production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Hyuk; Jeong, Do Hyeong; Kang, Dong Yoon; Jeon, Young Gung; Hwang, Jae Woong

    2013-01-01

    Introducing CR (Computed Radiography) system created a process of printing therapy irradiation images and converting the degree of enlargement. This is to increase job efficiency and contribute to work improvement using a computerized method with home grown software to simplify this process, work efficiency. Microsoft EXCEL (ver. 2007) and VISUAL BASIC (ver. 6.0) have been used to make the software. A window for each shield block was designed to enter patients' treatment information. Distances on the digital images were measured, the measured data were entered to the Excel program to calculate the degree of enlargement, and printouts were produced to manufacture shield blocks. By computerizing the existing method with this program, the degree of enlargement can easily be calculated and patients' treatment information can be entered into the printouts by using macro function. As a result, errors in calculation which may occur during the process of production or errors that the treatment information may be delivered wrongly can be reduced. In addition, with the simplification of the conversion process of the degree of enlargement, no copy machine was needed, which resulted in the reduction of use of paper. Works have been improved by computerizing the process of block production and applying it to practice which would simplify the existing method. This software can apply to and improve the actual conditions of each hospital in various ways using various features of EXCEL and VISUAL BASIC which has already been proven and used widely

  11. Work improvement by computerizing the process of shielding block production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Hyuk; Jeong, Do Hyeong; Kang, Dong Yoon; Jeon, Young Gung; Hwang, Jae Woong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Introducing CR (Computed Radiography) system created a process of printing therapy irradiation images and converting the degree of enlargement. This is to increase job efficiency and contribute to work improvement using a computerized method with home grown software to simplify this process, work efficiency. Microsoft EXCEL (ver. 2007) and VISUAL BASIC (ver. 6.0) have been used to make the software. A window for each shield block was designed to enter patients' treatment information. Distances on the digital images were measured, the measured data were entered to the Excel program to calculate the degree of enlargement, and printouts were produced to manufacture shield blocks. By computerizing the existing method with this program, the degree of enlargement can easily be calculated and patients' treatment information can be entered into the printouts by using macro function. As a result, errors in calculation which may occur during the process of production or errors that the treatment information may be delivered wrongly can be reduced. In addition, with the simplification of the conversion process of the degree of enlargement, no copy machine was needed, which resulted in the reduction of use of paper. Works have been improved by computerizing the process of block production and applying it to practice which would simplify the existing method. This software can apply to and improve the actual conditions of each hospital in various ways using various features of EXCEL and VISUAL BASIC which has already been proven and used widely.

  12. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  13. The role of empowering organization capabilities on efficiency of new product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Nikakhtar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of empowering organizational capabilities on new product-development efficiency improvement and the proposed study is applied in one of Iranian food producers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study considers seven components including technological capabilities, marketing mix capabilities, capabilities for communication with customers, quality of new products, fast entry to market capabilities, customer satisfaction and economic success. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who regularly use different food products. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are within acceptable limits and it confirms the overall questionnaire in terms of various questions. The study has used t-student test as well as structural equation modeling to examine different hypotheses of the survey.

  14. Improving machine operation management efficiency via improving the vehicle park structure and using the production operation information database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu

    2017-02-01

    The work represents the results of studying basic interconnected criteria of separate equipment units of the transport network machines fleet, depending on production and mining factors to improve the transport systems management. Justifying the selection of a control system necessitates employing new methodologies and models, augmented with stability and transport flow criteria, accounting for mining work development dynamics on mining sites. A necessary condition is the accounting of technical and operating parameters related to vehicle operation. Modern open pit mining dispatching systems must include such kinds of the information database. An algorithm forming a machine fleet is presented based on multi-variation task solution in connection with defining reasonable operating features of a machine working as a part of a complex. Proposals cited in the work may apply to mining machines (drilling equipment, excavators) and construction equipment (bulldozers, cranes, pile-drivers), city transport and other types of production activities using machine fleet.

  15. Numerical analysis of an entire ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions for the energy efficiency improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Saponelli, Roberto; Lizzano, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The paper focuses on the analysis of an industrial ceramic kiln in order to improve the energy efficiency and thus the fuel consumption and the corresponding carbon dioxide emissions. A lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire system is constructed to simulate the performance of the kiln under actual operating conditions. The model is able to predict accurately the temperature distribution along the different modules of the kiln and the operation of the many natural gas burners employed to provide the required thermal power. Furthermore, the temperature of the tiles is also simulated so that the quality of the final product can be addressed by the modelling. Numerical results are validated against experimental measurements carried out on a real ceramic kiln during regular production operations. The developed numerical model demonstrates to be an efficient tool for the investigation of different design solutions for the kiln's components. In addition, a number of control strategies for the system working conditions can be simulated and compared in order to define the best trade off in terms of fuel consumption and product quality. In particular, the paper analyzes the effect of a new burner type characterized by internal heat recovery capability aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the ceramic kiln. The fuel saving and the relating reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulted in the order of 10% when compared to the standard burner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ECO-EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF LOW-CARBON CEMENT PRODUCTION BY REPLACING CLINKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanay Ruíz Rosa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work carries out the environmental evaluation of the cement production in Siguaney Factory as well as the calculation of the Eco-efficiency indicators according to the ISO 14045 norms; the Recipe methodology was used including 18 impact categories and the SimaPro 8.1 software was also used. In order to evaluate the eco-efficiency indicators according to the ISO 14045 norm, the results of the impact categories are related to the monetary value indicators, allowing the evaluation of the current situation as well as the consequences of the suggested modifications. As a result, the environmental profiles of P-35 cement (base case were obtained as well as those of the low carbon ones (LC3-35 y LC3-50 resulting from the clinker substitution by kaolinitic clay after some studies carried out by CIDEM researchers; and the eco-efficiency profiles. The comparison made between P-35 cement and the low-carbon cements showed positive results in eight weather impact categories, however, toxicity-related ones rise due to the increase in electricity consumption connected to the grinding of materials to obtain burnt clay bringing about a greater amount of emissions of volatile organic compounds to the air. An improvement in the eco-efficiency of 6 out of 8 calculated indicators is observed due to a simultaneous decrease in the production costs and the environmental impacts. LC3-50 cement shows the best results. The methodology used permits to evaluate alternatives related to the material substitution in the construction sector.

  17. Analysis of Production Funds Efficiency in the Country’s Crane Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Valėnaitė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological aspects of the production funds analysis. In this work the study of literature which examines the basic and transferable funds is presented. Much attention is paid to the analysis of basic production funds in the crane sector. Analysis of the basic production funds in the country’s crane sector is presented. Special attention is paid to the structure of the cranes park and crane utilization efficiency. In the analysis of basic production funds, the factors that impede the efficiency of production funds were established as follows: the greatest negative impact on basic production funds efficiency of businesses was in small tower crane fleet; a small range of tower cranes in the park is reducing the technical possibilities of the lease. Basing on the analysis and observation of tower cranes installation and dismantling, the poor supply of the parts for the work place, lack of competence and motivation of the support staff have been ascertained. After elimination of these factors it is possible to raise the efficiency of the main production funds.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Efficiency and Productivity of County-level Public Hospitals Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis Model and Malmquist Index in Anhui, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Nian Li

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In 2010–2015, the relative service efficiency of 12 county-level public hospitals in Anhui Province showed a decreasing trend, and the service efficiency of each hospital changed. In the past 6 years, although some hospitals have been effective, the efficiency of the county-level public hospitals in Anhui Province has not improved significantly, and the total factor productivity has not been effectively improved. County-level public hospitals need to combine their own reality to find their own deficiencies.

  19. Evaluating games console electricity use : technologies and policy options to improve energy efficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency regulations and standards are increasingly being used as an approach to reduce the impact of appliances on climate change. Each new generation of games consoles is significantly different to the last and their cumulative electricity use has risen due to improved performance and functionality and increasing sales. As a result, consoles have been identified in the EU, US and Australia as a product group with the potential for significant electricity savings. However, there is ...

  20. INNOVATIVE USE OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT METHODS FOR PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna MIDOR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisations constantly look for new, innovative solutions and methods which could be used to improve their efficiency and increase the quality of their products. Identifying the causes for returns is an important issue for modern compa-nies, as returns are the cause for the increase in production costs and, most importantly, the loss of credibility in the eyes of the client. Therefore, for the company to be able to sustain or strengthen its position on the market, it has to follow the rules of quality management. Especially important is the rule of constant improvement. This rule is primarily connected with preventing errors and defects from occurring at all the stages of the production process. To achieve that, one must, among other things, use quality management tools. The article presents an analysis of causes for returns of a vibrating screen produced by a company which manufactures machinery and equipment for the extractive industry, using quality management tools such as the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto analysis. The analysis allowed for the identifi-cation of the causes of client returns which could not be previously identified, and proposing solutions for them.

  1. Innovative Use of Quality Management Methods for Product Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midor, Katarzyna; Žarnovský, Jozef

    2016-12-01

    Organisations constantly look for new, innovative solutions and methods which could be used to improve their efficiency and increase the quality of their products. Identifying the causes for returns is an important issue for modern companies, as returns are the cause for the increase in production costs and, most importantly, the loss of credibility in the eyes of the client. Therefore, for the company to be able to sustain or strengthen its position on the market, it has to follow the rules of quality management. Especially important is the rule of constant improvement. This rule is primarily connected with preventing errors and defects from occurring at all the stages of the production process. To achieve that, one must, among other things, use quality management tools. The article presents an analysis of causes for returns of a vibrating screen produced by a company which manufactures machinery and equipment for the extractive industry, using quality management tools such as the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto analysis. The analysis allowed for the identification of the causes of client returns which could not be previously identified, and proposing solutions for them.

  2. Societal Uplift and Productive Efficiency: Corporate Use of Vocational Education in Ellsworth, Pennsylvania, 1900-1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyser, Raymond M.

    About 1900, James W. Ellsworth created the educational system of Ellsworth, Pennsylvania. His aim was to have the system serve a dual purpose: the societal uplift of foreign miners to make them better citizens and the improvement of the company's productive efficiency. Ellsworth's school offered traditional courses along with training in English…

  3. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Anastasios [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  4. Improving efficiency of polystyrene concrete production with composite binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesovik, R. V.; Ageeva, M. S.; Lesovik, G. A.; Sopin, D. M.; Kazlitina, O. V.; Mitrokhina, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    According to leading marketing researchers, the construction market in Russia and CIS will continue growing at a rapid rate; this applies not only to a large-scale major construction, but to a construction of single-family houses and small-scale industrial facilities as well. Due to this, there are increased requirements for heat insulation of the building enclosures and a significant demand for efficient walling materials with high thermal performance. All these developments led to higher requirements imposed on the equipment that produces such materials.

  5. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle

  6. Upgrading and efficiency improvement in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Improving the efficiencies of the large number of older coal-fired power plants operating around the world would give major savings in CO2 emissions together with significant other benefits. This report begins with a summary of the ways efficiency can become degraded and of the means available to combat the decrease in performance. These include improvements to operating and maintenance practices and more major techniques that are available, including boiler and turbine retrofits. There is also an update on fuel drying developments as a route to higher efficiency in plants firing high moisture lignites. The largest chapter of the report contains a number of descriptions of case study improvement projects, to illustrate measures that have been applied, benefits that have been achieved and identify best practices, which are summarised. Major national and international upgrading programmes are described.

  7. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Killian

    2009-09-30

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have

  8. Improvement of the Dehulling Efficiency of Sorghum and Millet using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditioning of grain with heat and moisture is known to loosen the adhesion of the seed coat from the endosperm and therefore improve the dehulling efficiency of some grains such as beans, cowpea and canola. This study investigated the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the improvement of dehulling efficiency of ...

  9. An Empirical Study of Strategic Positioning and Production Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Hsihui Chang; Guy D. Fernando; Arindam Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationship between strategic positioning of firms and their production efficiency. Firms with competitive advantages based on either cost leadership or differentiation are able to outperform their competitors. Firms pursuing a cost leadership strategy seek to be the lowest cost producer, primarily by minimizing inputs for a given level of output, thus concentrating on increasing the efficiency of their production processes. On the other hand, firms that pursue a differentiat...

  10. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassler, Morris E.

    2005-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material for fabrication into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past few years, Y-12 has continued to improve its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear nonproliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and helping to disposition former U.S. weapons material. It is clearly understood that the research reactor community must keep fuel costs as low as possible and Y-12 is making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. These production cost reductions allows for the U.S. to keep the LEU product price low even with the dramatic increase in the uranium enrichment and feed component market prices in the last few years. This paper will discuss a new standard specification that has been proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product and eliminates two steps of the production process. This new product is expected to decrease fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  12. Endogeneity Corrected Stochastic Production Frontier and Technical Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shee, A.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    A major econometric issue in estimating production parameters and technical efficiency is the possibility that some forces influencing production are only observed by the firm and not by the econometrician. Not only can this misspecification lead to a biased inference on the output elasticity of

  13. What factors affect the productivity and efficiency of physician practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Jonathan H; Hughes, Danny R; Meghea, Cristian; Bhargavan, Mythreyi

    2010-02-01

    Increasing the productivity and efficiency of physician practices could help relieve the rapid growth of US healthcare costs and the expected physician shortage. Radiology practices are an attractive specific focus for research on practices' productivity and efficiency because they are home to many purportedly productivity-enhancing operational technologies. This affords an opportunity to study the effect of production technology on physicians' output. As well, radiology is a leader in the general movement of physicians out of very small practices. And imaging is by the fastest-growing category of physician expenditure. Using data from 2003 to 2007 surveys of radiologists, we estimate a stochastic frontier model to study the effects of practice characteristics, such as work hours, practice size, and output mix, and technologies used in work production, on practices' productivity and efficiency. At the mean, the elasticities of output with respect to practice size and annual hours worked per full-time physician were 0.73 and 0.51, respectively. Some production technologies increase productivity by 15% to 20%; others generate no increase. Using "nighthawks"--ie, contracting out after-hours work to external firms that consolidate workflow--significantly increases practice efficiency. The general US trend toward larger practice size is unlikely to relieve cost or physician shortage pressures. The actual effect of purportedly productivity-enhancing operational technologies needs to be carefully evaluated before they are widely adopted. As the recently-developed innovations of nighthawks and hospitalists show, practices should give more attention to a possible choice to "buy," rather than "make," part of their output.

  14. Productive efficiency in the banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Leandro Dutto Giolongo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to estimate the productive efficiency of Argentine banks. For this purpose, panel data of the universe of banks under the supervision of the Central Bank of the Republic of Argentina (BCRA has been collected. In order to build the bank´s indicators, we used a database of 66 institutions, with annual information for the period 2009-2013. The sources of information were both the BCRA´s web site (www.bcra.gov.ar, and the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange´s web site (www.bolsar.com. It has been selected an efficiency indicator ranging between 0 and 1, meaning the lowest and highest level of efficiency, respectively. The concept of efficiency used here is a relative one, because it considers a Bank´s performance in relation to the behavior of the best players in the industry, being the latter the base of the industry benchmark or frontier. The results show that the mean efficiency of Argentine banks is 0,8277 in the specific period under consideration. The comparison with the results of other studies relating efficiency and competitive pressure, didn´t allow us to infer that the Argentine banking industry experienced in the period a high level of competition

  15. Efficiency and Productivity of County-level Public Hospitals Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis Model and Malmquist Index in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Nian; Wang, Cun-Hui; Ni, Hong; Wang, Heng

    2017-12-05

    China began to implement the national medical and health system and public hospital reforms in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Anhui Province is one of the four pilot provinces, and the medical reform measures received wide attention nationwide. The effectiveness of the above reform needs to get attention. This study aimed to master the efficiency and productivity of county-level public hospitals based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and Malmquist index in Anhui, China, and then provide improvement measures for the future hospital development. We chose 12 country-level hospitals based on geographical distribution and the economic development level in Anhui Province. Relevant data that were collected in the field and then sorted were provided by the administrative departments of the hospitals. DEA models were used to calculate the dynamic efficiency and Malmquist index factors for the 12 institutions. During 2010-2015, the overall average relative service efficiency of 12 county-level public hospitals was 0.926, and the number of hospitals achieved an effective DEA for each year from 2010 to 2015 was 4, 6, 7, 7, 6, and 8, respectively, as measured using DEA. During this same period, the average overall production efficiency was 0.983, and the total productivity factor had declined. The overall production efficiency of five hospitals was >1, and the rest are productivity has not been effectively improved. County-level public hospitals need to combine their own reality to find their own deficiencies.

  16. Preliminary study on the potential of improving pulp quality and energy efficiency in a South African TMP mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this work was to evaluate an opportunity for product quality and refining energy efficiency improvement through assessing the current mill practices in South African TMP mills. The fractionation trials were conducted at a CSIR...

  17. Recent developments in thermally-driven seawater desalination: Energy efficiency improvement by hybridization of the MED and AD cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Oh, Seungjin; Ang, Li; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2015-01-01

    -driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as in increase in water production can be expected. The advent

  18. Productivity and technical efficiency of suckler beef production systems: trends for the period 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Roulenc, M; Troquier, C; Bébin, D

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 23 years (1990 to 2012), French beef cattle farms have expanded in size and increased labour productivity by over 60%, chiefly, though not exclusively, through capital intensification (labour-capital substitution) and simplifying herd feeding practices (more concentrates used). The technical efficiency of beef sector production systems, as measured by the ratio of the volume value (in constant euros) of farm output excluding aids to volume of intermediate consumption, has fallen by nearly 20% while income per worker has held stable thanks to subsidies and the labour productivity gains made. This aggregate technical efficiency of beef cattle systems is positively correlated to feed self-sufficiency, which is in turn negatively correlated to farm and herd size. While volume of farm output per hectare of agricultural area has not changed, forage feed self-sufficiency decreased by 6 percentage points. The continual increase in farm size and labour productivity has come at a cost of lower production-system efficiency - a loss of technical efficiency that 20 years of genetic, technical, technological and knowledge-driven progress has barely managed to offset.

  19. Postharvest Ultrasound-Assisted Freeze-Thaw Pretreatment Improves the Drying Efficiency, Physicochemical Properties, and Macamide Biosynthesis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Gong, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Bo-Yan; Eggert, Dawn; Guo, Yuan-Heng; Zhao, Ming-Xia; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Zhao, Bing

    2018-04-01

    A novel technique of ultrasound-assisted freeze-thaw pretreatment (UFP) was developed to improve the drying efficiency of maca and bioactive amide synthesis in maca. The optimal UFP conditions are ultrasonic processing 90 min at 30 °C with 6 freeze-thaw cycles. Samples with freeze-thaw pretreatment (FP), ultrasound pretreatment (UP), and UFP were prepared for further comparative study. A no pretreatment (NP) sample was included as a control. The results showed that UFP improved the drying efficiency of maca slices, showing the highest effective moisture diffusivity (1.75 × 10 -9 m 2 /s). This result was further supported by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rehydration capacity and protein content of maca slices were improved by UFP. More importantly, contents of bioactive macamides and their biosynthetic precursors were increased in 2.5- and 10-fold, respectively. In conclusion, UFP is an efficient technique to improve drying efficiency, physicochemical properties, and bioactive macamides of maca, which can be applied in the industrial manufacture of maca products. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flenet Francis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  1. Does automation improve stock market efficiency in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The automation of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) in 2008, among other reforms, was expected to improve the efficiency of the market. The extent of this truism has, however, not been empirically established for the GSE. In this study, we attempt to assess the impact of the automation on the efficiency of the GSE within the ...

  2. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  3. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  4. Introducing extra NADPH consumption ability significantly increases the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Fuliang; Meng, Hengkai; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated hospital emergency care improves efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, A A; Robinson, S M; Whitwell, D; Myers, S; Bennett, T J H; Hall, N; Haydock, S; Fritz, Z; Atkinson, P

    2008-02-01

    There is uncertainty about the most efficient model of emergency care. An attempt has been made to improve the process of emergency care in one hospital by developing an integrated model. The medical admissions unit was relocated into the existing emergency department and came under the 4-hour target. Medical case records were redesigned to provide a common assessment document for all patients presenting as an emergency. Medical, surgical and paediatric short-stay wards were opened next to the emergency department. A clinical decision unit replaced the more traditional observation unit. The process of patient assessment was streamlined so that a patient requiring admission was fully clerked by the first attending doctor to a level suitable for registrar or consultant review. Patients were allocated directly to specialty on arrival. The effectiveness of this approach was measured with routine data over the same 3-month periods in 2005 and 2006. There was a 16.3% decrease in emergency medical admissions and a 3.9% decrease in emergency surgical admissions. The median length of stay for emergency medical patients was reduced from 7 to 5 days. The efficiency of the elective surgical services was also improved. Performance against the 4-hour target declined but was still acceptable. The number of bed days for admitted surgical and medical cases rose slightly. There was an increase in the number of medical outliers on surgical wards, a reduction in the number of incident forms and formal complaints and a reduction in income for the hospital. Integrated emergency care has the ability to use spare capacity within emergency care. It offers significant advantages beyond the emergency department. However, improved efficiency in processing emergency patients placed the hospital at a financial disadvantage.

  6. Separating environmental efficiency into production and abatement efficiency. A nonparametric model with application to U.S. power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Benjamin

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we present a new approach to evaluate the environmental efficiency of decision making units. We propose a model that describes a two-stage process consisting of a production and an end-of-pipe abatement stage with the environmental efficiency being determined by the efficiency of both stages. Taking the dependencies between the two stages into account, we show how nonparametric methods can be used to measure environmental efficiency and to decompose it into production and abatement efficiency. For an empirical illustration we apply our model to an analysis of U.S. power plants.

  7. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhezhelenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of increase of efficiency of production, transmission and distribution of electric energy have been formulated. The relation between the values of electricity losses during transmission via power grids of different countries and the level of the economies of these countries characterized by the value of gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita has been established. In the countries with a gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita less than 20 thousand US dollars electricity losses during its transmission via power grids are 1.5–2.5 times more than the ones transmitted via power grids of the industrialized countries where the specified purchasing power parity is in the range of 30.4–54.5 thousand US dollars. In the countries with more developed economies the technical culture of production, transmission and distribution of electricity is higher; the modern control systems of operation modes of electrical networks are used as well as of monitoring and accounting of electricity; also there are solvent and disciplined consumers in such countries as well as clear regulatory framework and tariff regulation system. However, the process of transmission and distribution of electricity is effective if not only low relative losses take place, but the normal (contractual requirements for carrying capacity, quality and reliability of electricity supply are provided. The possibility of analytical determination of the optimum value of reserve capacity of power plants providing the required level of reliability of the power system has been considered.

  8. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  9. Improvement of Artistic Cast Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technology and organization of the artistic cast production. On the basis of the actual cast production system, the manufacturing process was shown, in particular sand–piece moulding, which is a very important process and a time-consuming part of the entire manufacture of the casts. The current state of the production process as well as the organization of the work and production technology were analysed with the use of methods and techniques of production improvement, the Lean Manufacturing concept and computer systems. The results of the analysis and studies were shown with use of schemes and graphs of the layout of the production resources, a flow chart of the production process, value stream mapping, and a costs table for the production and modernization of the moulding stage. The work has shown that there are possibilities to improve the artistic cast production system. This improvement leads to increased productivity, lower production costs of artistic casts and increased competitiveness of the foundry.

  10. Global metabolic rewiring for improved CO2 fixation and chemical production in cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Masahiro; Carroll, Austin L.; Atsumi, Shota

    2017-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as hosts to recycle CO2 into valuable chemicals. Although cyanobacteria have been engineered to produce various compounds, production efficiencies are too low for commercialization. Here we engineer the carbon metabolism of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to improve glucose utilization, enhance CO2 fixation and increase chemical production. We introduce modifications in glycolytic pathways and the Calvin Benson cycle to increase carbon flux and redirect it towards carbon fixation. The engineered strain efficiently uses both CO2 and glucose, and produces 12.6 g l-1 of 2,3-butanediol with a rate of 1.1 g l-1 d-1 under continuous light conditions. Removal of native regulation enables carbon fixation and 2,3-butanediol production in the absence of light. This represents a significant step towards industrial viability and an excellent example of carbon metabolism plasticity.

  11. Improving the Management of Innovative Development of Industrial Production According to Industry Specifics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papizh Yuliia S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improvement of management efficiency of innovative development of industrial enterprises in modern economic conditions is indicated. The dynamics of innovative processes in Ukraine together with volumes of innovative activity of domestic enterprises are analyzed. The basic principles of formation and efficient functioning of the organizational-economic mechanism of innovative development of industrial production are substantiated. The branch specificity in management of innovative development of coal enterprises is identified. Directions of improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of management of innovative development of enterprises of coal industry are defined. The basic principles of introduction of the mechanism for stimulation of innovative development of enterprises of coal industry are suggested.

  12. Light quality and efficiency of consumer grade solid state lighting products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-03-01

    The rapid development in flux and efficiency of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) has resulted in a flooding of the lighting market with Solid State Lighting (SSL) products. Many traditional light sources can advantageously be replaced by SSL products. There are, however, large variations in the quality of these products, and some are not better than the ones they are supposed to replace. A lack of quality demands and standards makes it difficult for consumers to get an overview of the SSL products. Here the results of a two year study investigating SSL products on the Danish market are presented. Focus has been on SSL products for replacement of incandescent lamps and halogen spotlights. The warm white light and good color rendering properties of these traditional light sources are a must for lighting in Denmark and the Nordic countries. 266 SSL replacement lamps have been tested for efficiency and light quality with respect to correlated color temperature and color rendering properties. This shows a trade-off between high color rendering warm white light and energy efficiency. The lumen and color maintenance over time has been investigated and results for products running over 11000 h will be presented. A new internet based SSL product selection tool will be shown. Here the products can be compared on efficiency, light quality parameters, thus providing a better basis for the selection of SSL products for consumers.

  13. Autonomous efficiency improvement or income elasticity of energy demand: Does it matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Mort; Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John

    2008-01-01

    Observations of historical energy consumption, energy prices, and income growth in industrial economies exhibit a trend in improving energy efficiency even when prices are constant or falling. Two alternative explanations of this phenomenon are: a productivity change that uses less energy and a structural change in the economy in response to rising income. It is not possible to distinguish among these from aggregate data, and economic energy models for forecasting emissions simulate one, as an exogenous time trend, or the other, as energy demand elasticity with respect to income, or both processes for projecting energy demand into the future. In this paper, we ask whether and how it matters which process one uses for projecting energy demand and carbon emissions. We compare two versions of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, one using a conventional efficiency time trend approach and the other using an income elasticity approach. We demonstrate that while these two versions yield equivalent projections in the near-term, that they diverge in two important ways: long-run projections and under uncertainty in future productivity growth. We suggest that an income dependent approach may be preferable to the exogenous approach

  14. Corporate Accounting Policy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena K. Vorobei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issues of efficient use of different methods of tax accounting for the optimization of income tax expenses and their consolidation in corporate accounting policy. The article makes reasoned conclusions, concerning optimal selection of depreciation methods for tax and bookkeeping accounting and their consolidation in corporate accounting policy and consolidation of optimal methods of cost recovery in production, considering business environment. The impact of the selected methods on corporate income tax rates and corporate property tax rates was traced and tax recovery was estimated.

  15. Lean Maintenance Applied to Improve Maintenance Efficiency in Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric power plants consist of a set of critical equipment that require high levels of availability and reliability. Due to this, maintenance of these physical assets is gaining momentum in industry. Maintenance is considered as an activity that contributes to improving the availability, efficiency and productivity of each piece of equipment. Several techniques have been used to achieve greater efficiencies in maintenance, among which we can find the lean maintenance philosophy. Despite the wide diffusion of lean maintenance, there is no structured method that supports the prescription of lean tools applied to the maintenance function. This paper presents the experience gathered in two lean maintenance projects in thermoelectric power plants. The application of lean techniques was based on using a previously developed multicriterial decision making process that uses the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methodology to carry out a diagnosis and prescription tasks. That methodology allowed the prescription of the appropriated lean techniques to resolve the main deficiencies in maintenance function. The results of applying such lean tools show that important results can be obtained, making the maintenance function in thermoelectric power plants more efficient and lean.

  16. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  17. Piecewise Loglinear Estimation of Efficient Production Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Ajay Maindiratta

    1986-01-01

    Linear programming formulations for piecewise loglinear estimation of efficient production surfaces are derived from a set of basic properties postulated for the underlying production possibility sets. Unlike the piecewise linear model of Banker, Charnes, and Cooper (Banker R. D., A. Charnes, W. W. Cooper. 1984. Models for the estimation of technical and scale inefficiencies in data envelopment analysis. Management Sci. 30 (September) 1078--1092.), this approach permits the identification of ...

  18. Estimating the Efficiency and Impacts of Petroleum Product Pricing Reforms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuxiong Deng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and effects analysis of a new pricing mechanism would have significant policy implications for the further design of a pricing mechanism in an emerging market. Unlike most of the existing literature, which focuses on the impacts to the macro-economy, this paper firstly uses an econometrics model to discuss the efficiency of the new pricing mechanism, and then establishes an augmented Phillips curve to estimate the impact of pricing reform on inflation in China. The results show that: (1 the new pricing mechanism would strengthen the linkage between Chinese oil prices and international oil prices; (2 oil price adjustments are still inadequate in China. (3 The lag in inflation is the most important factor that affects inflation, while the impact of the Chinese government’s price adjustments on inflation is limited and insignificant. In order to improve the efficiency of the petroleum products pricing mechanism and shorten lags, government should shorten the adjustment period and diminish the fluctuation threshold.

  19. Naturally Efficient Emitters: Luminescent Organometallic Complexes Derived from Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Young, David J.

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring molecules offer intricate structures and functionality that are the basis of modern medicinal chemistry, but are under-represented in materials science. Herein, we review recent literature describing the use of abundant and relatively inexpensive, natural products for the synthesis of ligands for luminescent organometallic complexes used for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and related technologies. These ligands are prepared from the renewable starting materials caffeine, camphor, pinene and cinchonine and, with the exception of caffeine, impart performance improvements to the emissive metal complexes and resulting OLED devices, with emission wavelengths that span the visible spectrum from blue to red. The advantages of these biologically-derived molecules include improved solution processibility and phase homogeneity, brighter luminescence, higher quantum efficiencies and lower turn-on voltages. While nature has evolved these carbon-skeletons for specific purposes, they also offer some intriguing benefits in materials science and technology.

  20. Completion plug design provides improved operational efficiency and safety while minimizing environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dum, Frank [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pipeline repair standards have been raised with recent improvements for completion plugs when used with a brand new setting tool, resulting in lower environmental risks, improved operational efficiency and safety. The design changes were originally made to serve in an offshore environment in order to minimize the diver's time in the water and simplify steps by the diver to execute pipeline repair operations in cold, dark conditions. Enhancements in the design include fewer number of fittings, plugs, o-rings and gaskets isolating the pipeline product found inside the pipe. The new design is a step toward meeting strict operational and safety standards demanded in the field of pipeline maintenance and repair. (author)

  1. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Supandi, Dadang; Firsoni

    2002-01-01

    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  2. Productivity improvement with green approach to palm oil factory productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondang, N.

    2018-02-01

    The palm oil factory (POF) processes fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) by products in the form of liquid and solid waste. One of the solid wastes produced in POF Tanjung Kasau is empty fruit bunches of palm oil (FBPO) which have been burned completely on incinerator tubes so that potentially produces pollutants that pollute the environment. If FBPO waste is managed properly, it will improve the productivity of the company. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to find out how far the increased productivity of the company can reduce their impact on the environment, if FBPO is used as raw material of liquid smoke. The productivity improvement approach is done by Green Productivity concept, by looking at three aspects: environmental, social and economical. Green Productivity aims to protect the environment simultaneously by increasing the productivity of the company. One way is to turn FBPO waste into liquid smoke product is by pyrolysis process. The results showed that turning FBPO solid waste into liquid smoke will increase productivity by 18.18%. Implementation of Green Productivity can improve productivity through the improvement of FBPO waste treatment process which has been done by perfect combustion by pyrolysis process so that waste can be minimized to create environment industry POF clean and friendly environment.

  3. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  4. Improving functional value of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  5. SWEET CORN FARMING: THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION FACTOR, EFFICIENCY AND RETURN TO SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwijatenaya I.B.M.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of production factors on the sweet corn production, the efficiency of sweet corn farming, and the return to scale of sweet corn production. The sampling technique was taken by proportionate stratified random sampling method with the sample number of 57 people while the analyzer used was the program of Frointer 4.1c. The results show that the production factors of the land farm, seed, and fertilizer have a positive and significant effect on sweet corn production. On the other hand, labor production factors have a positive but not significant effect on sweet corn production. It also found that technical efficiency, price efficiency, and economic efficiency of sweet corn farming in Muara Wis Sub-district of Kutai Kartanegara Regency are not efficient yet. The return to scale of sweet corn yield has an increasing return to scale condition.

  6. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  7. Eco-efficiency analysis methodology on the example of the chosen polyolefins production

    OpenAIRE

    K. Czaplicka-Kolarz; D. Burchart-Korol; P. Krawczyk

    2010-01-01

    the chosen polyolefins production. The article presents also main tools of eco-efficiency analysis: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Net Present Value (NPV).Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of LCA and NPV of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) production, eco-efficiency analysis is conducted.Findings: In this article environmental and economic performance of the chosen polyolefins production was presented. The basis phases of eco-efficiency methodology...

  8. Shikimic acid production in Escherichia coli: From classical metabolic engineering strategies to omics applied to improve its production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shikimic acid (SA is an intermediate of the SA pathway that is present in bacteria and plants. SA has gained great interest because it is a precursor in the synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate (OSF, an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of diverse seasonal influenza viruses, the avian influenza virus H5N1, and the human influenza virus H1N1. For the purposes of OSF production, SA is extracted from the pods of Chinese star anise plants (Illicium spp., yielding up to 17% of SA (dry basis content. The high demand for OSF necessary to manage a major influenza outbreak is not adequately met by industrial production using SA from plants sources. As the SA pathway is present in the model bacteria Escherichia coli, several intuitive metabolically engineered strains have been applied for its successful overproduction by biotechnological processes, resulting in strains producing up to 71 g/L of SA, with high conversion yields of up to 0.42 (mol SA/mol Glc, in both batch and fed-batch cultures using complex fermentation broths, including glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract. Global transcriptomic analyses have been performed in SA producing strains, resulting in the identification of possible key target genes for the design of a rational strain improvement strategy. Because possible target genes are involved in the transport, catabolism and interconversion of different carbon sources and metabolic intermediates outside the central carbon metabolism and SA pathways, as genes involved in diverse cellular stress responses, the development of rational cellular strain improvement strategies based on omics data constitutes a challenging task to improve SA production in currently overproducing engineered strains. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic engineering strategies that have been applied for the development of efficient SA producing strains, as the perspective of omics analysis has focused on further strain improvement

  9. An Efficiency Model For Hydrogen Production In A Pressurized Electrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoglie, Cecilia; Lauretta, Ricardo

    2010-09-15

    The use of Hydrogen as clean fuel at a world wide scale requires the development of simple, safe and efficient production and storage technologies. In this work, a methodology is proposed to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen in a self pressurized electrolyzer connected to separate containers that store each of these gases. A mathematical model for Hydrogen production efficiency is proposed to evaluate how such efficiency is affected by parasitic currents in the electrolytic solution. Experimental set-up and results for an electrolyzer are also presented. Comparison of empirical and analytical results shows good agreement.

  10. THE EFFECT OF EXTERNAL TRANSPORT ON ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anna Orynycz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In several our publications energetic efficiency of biofuel production was defined as a ratio of the amount of energy obtained in a form of biofuel to the sum of energy contributions necessary to conduct production processes on all the production stages. It was also shown that such a definition enables subsequent inclusion of production steps due to additivity of reciprocals of energetic efficiency determined separately for each step. In the present work, several scenarios of the transport of biomass between plantation and industrial facility converting biomass into biofuel are considered, appropriate values of energetic efficiency are computed and compared. The analysis is confined to biodiesel production based on rapeseed. The results show substantial differences caused by various approaches to that stage of transport.

  11. Improving biological efficiency of Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Yield improvement were observed in both pigeon pea and sunflower seed cake supplemented treatments with the highest mycelium vigor (91.65%) and biological ... Keywords: biological efficiency, compost, mycelium vigor, pigeon pea, sunflower seed cake

  12. Studies for Improving Productive Efficiency and Immune System Response of Aged Female Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabek, E.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed in animal house Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas. The objective of this study was to overcome decrease productive efficiency and immune system response as a result of advanced of female Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) and multiple the production period of females studying the effect of three methods of force rest and their effect on physiological and endocrinological changes associated with each of procedure used. Three hundred birds were used, 240 female and 120 males (50 weeks of age). Females were at 44% hen day (HD) egg production. The birds randomly divided into four groups, 60 females and 30 males in each treatment which divided into three replicate of 20 females and 10 males in each. The first group was fed a layer diet, plus 2% zinc oxide (20,000 ppm) for 14 days. The second group was fed a commercial layer diet containing 8 mg / birds / day tamoxifen for 14 days. The third group was force molted by the California method (fed withdrawal by removing the diet 10 days then feed for 7 days corn). The fourth group fed the layer diet and served as the control. The results obtained showed significant increase in body weight, egg production, egg weight, shell weight, hatchability percent, fertility percent, embryonic mortality percent, hatching weight percent mortality percent, carcass relative weight, kidney relative weight, intestine relative weight, intestine length, proventriculus relative weight, ovary relative weight, oviduct relative weight, oviduct length, femur breaking strength, tibia breaking strength, packed cell volume, globulin, phosphorus concentration, triglyceride, estrogen hormone, aldosterone hormone and significant decrease in heart relative weight, albumin to globulin ratio, GOT, testosterone hormone, T 3 , T 4 , Heamaglutination inhibition test in treated groups than control group. While gizzard relative weight, femur relative weight, tibia relative weight, femur ash, tibia

  13. Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of margin approach. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... and systematized to the management of production costs of agricultural products, the proposed definition ...

  14. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays

  15. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays.

  16. Pervaporation membrane bioreactor with permeate fractional condensation and mechanical vapor compression for energy efficient ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Senqing; Xiao, Zeyi; Li, Minghai; Li, Sizhong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Pervaporation membrane bioreactor with permeate partial condensation and mechanical vapor compression is developed for an energy efficient ethanol production. - Highlights: • PVMBR-MVC for energy efficient ethanol production. • Process separation factor of 20–44 for ethanol achieved by fractional condensation. • Energy production of 20.25 MJ and hourly energy production of 56.25 kJ/h achieved. • Over 50% of energy saved in PVMBR-MVC compared with PVMBR-LTC. • Integrated heat pump with COP of 7–9 for the energy recovery of the permeate. - Abstract: Improved process separation factor and heat integration are two key issues to increase the energy efficiency of ethanol production in a pervaporation membrane bioreactor (PVMBR). A PVMBR with permeate fractional condensation and mechanical vapor compression was developed for energy efficient ethanol production. A condensation model based on the mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium in the partial vacuum condenser was developed for predicting the purification performance of the permeate vapor. Three runs of ethanol fermentation-pervaporation experiment were carried out and ethanol concentration of higher than 50 wt% could be achieved in the final condensate, with the separation factor of the process for ethanol increased to 20. Ethanol production could be enhanced in the bioreactor and 17.1 MJ of the energy could be produced in per liter of fermentation broth, owing to 27.0 MJ/kg heating value of the recovered ethanol. Compared with the traditional pervaporation process with low temperature condensation for ethanol production, 50% of the energy would be saved in the process. The energy consumption would be further reduced, if the available energy of the permeate vapor was utilized by integrating the mechanical vapor compression heat pump.

  17. Essays on pig production efficiency and farmers' financial decisions under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Labajova, Katarina.

    2018-01-01

    Recent structural changes in agricultural production towards fewer, but larger, units pose challenges for farmers in decision making about practical production and about managerial practices to increase efficiency, which are vital for farm productivity and profitability. In studies using mathematical programming and econometric models, this thesis evaluated farm-specific characteristics related to the individual technical efficiency (TE) of each input and output factor and of managerial chara...

  18. Options to improve energy efficiency for educational building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Mafruha

    The cost of energy is a major factor that must be considered for educational facility budget planning purpose. The analysis of energy related issues and options can be complex and requires significant time and detailed effort. One way to facilitate the inclusion of energy option planning in facility planning efforts is to utilize a tool that allows for quick appraisal of the facility energy profile. Once such an appraisal is accomplished, it is then possible to rank energy improvement options consistently with other facility needs and requirements. After an energy efficiency option has been determined to have meaningful value in comparison with other facility planning options, it is then possible to utilize the initial appraisal as the basis for an expanded consideration of additional facility and energy use detail using the same analytic system used for the initial appraisal. This thesis has developed a methodology and an associated analytic model to assist in these tasks and thereby improve the energy efficiency of educational facilities. A detailed energy efficiency and analysis tool is described that utilizes specific university building characteristics such as size, architecture, envelop, lighting, occupancy, thermal design which allows reducing the annual energy consumption. Improving the energy efficiency of various aspects of an educational building's energy performance can be complex and can require significant time and experience to make decisions. The approach developed in this thesis initially assesses the energy design for a university building. This initial appraisal is intended to assist administrators in assessing the potential value of energy efficiency options for their particular facility. Subsequently this scoping design can then be extended as another stage of the model by local facility or planning personnel to add more details and engineering aspects to the initial screening model. This approach can assist university planning efforts to

  19. Methodical Approach to Diagnostics of Efficiency of Production Economic Activity of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Andrii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.

  20. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-01-01

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths (λ=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range (λ=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution

  1. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varman, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification

  2. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.

  3. Serum-free Erythroid Differentiation for Efficient Genetic Modification and High-Level Adult Hemoglobin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naoya; Demirci, Selami; Haro-Mora, Juan J; Fujita, Atsushi; Raines, Lydia N; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2018-06-15

    In vitro erythroid differentiation from primary human cells is valuable to develop genetic strategies for hemoglobin disorders. However, current erythroid differentiation methods are encumbered by modest transduction rates and high baseline fetal hemoglobin production. In this study, we sought to improve both genetic modification and hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells in vitro . To model therapeutic strategies, we transduced human CD34 + cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lentiviral vectors and compared erythropoietin-based erythroid differentiation using fetal-bovine-serum-containing media and serum-free media. We observed more efficient transduction (85%-93%) in serum-free media than serum-containing media (20%-69%), whereas the addition of knockout serum replacement (KSR) was required for serum-free media to promote efficient erythroid differentiation (96%). High-level adult hemoglobin production detectable by electrophoresis was achieved using serum-free media similar to serum-containing media. Importantly, low fetal hemoglobin production was observed in the optimized serum-free media. Using KSR-containing, serum-free erythroid differentiation media, therapeutic adult hemoglobin production was detected at protein levels with β-globin lentiviral transduction in both CD34 + cells and PBMCs from sickle cell disease subjects. Our in vitro erythroid differentiation system provides a practical evaluation platform for adult hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells following genetic manipulation.

  4. Variable cross-section windings for efficiency improvement of electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, P. Yu; Bazarov, A. A.; Tabachinskiy, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    Implementation of energy-saving technologies in industry is impossible without efficiency improvement of electric machines. The article considers the ways of efficiency improvement and mass and dimensions reduction of electric machines with electronic control. Features of compact winding design for stators and armatures are described. Influence of compact winding on thermal and electrical process is given. Finite element method was used in computer simulation.

  5. Improving the efficiency of CHO cell line generation using glutamine synthetase gene knockout cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Hatfield, Christopher C; Shaw, Margaret M; Frye, Christopher C

    2012-04-01

    Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with their unique characteristics, have become a major workhorse for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins, one of the major challenges in CHO cell line generation (CLG) is how to efficiently identify those rare, high-producing clones among a large population of low- and non-productive clones. It is not unusual that several hundred individual clones need to be screened for the identification of a commercial clonal cell line with acceptable productivity and growth profile making the cell line appropriate for commercial application. This inefficiency makes the process of CLG both time consuming and laborious. Currently, there are two main CHO expression systems, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-based methotrexate (MTX) selection and glutamine synthetase (GS)-based methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, that have been in wide industrial use. Since selection of recombinant cell lines in the GS-CHO system is based on the balance between the expression of the GS gene introduced by the expression plasmid and the addition of the GS inhibitor, L-MSX, the expression of GS from the endogenous GS gene in parental CHOK1SV cells will likely interfere with the selection process. To study endogenous GS expression's potential impact on selection efficiency, GS-knockout CHOK1SV cell lines were generated using the zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology designed to specifically target the endogenous CHO GS gene. The high efficiency (∼2%) of bi-allelic modification on the CHO GS gene supports the unique advantages of the ZFN technology, especially in CHO cells. GS enzyme function disruption was confirmed by the observation of glutamine-dependent growth of all GS-knockout cell lines. Full evaluation of the GS-knockout cell lines in a standard industrial cell culture process was performed. Bulk culture productivity improved two- to three-fold through the use of GS-knockout cells as parent cells. The selection stringency was

  6. The Effects of Coal Switching and Improvements in Electricity Production Efficiency and Consumption on CO2 Mitigation Goals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the average CO2 emission for a person in China is only about 1/4 that of a person in the US, the government of China still made a commitment to ensure that CO2 emissions will reach their peak in 2030 because of the ever-increasing pressure of global warming. In this work, we examined the effects of coal switching, efficiency improvements in thermal power generation and the electricity consumption of economic activities on realizing this goal. An improved STIRPAT model was developed to create the scenarios. In order to make the estimated elasticities more consistent with different variables selected to construct the formulation, a double-layer STIRPAT model was constructed, and by integrating the two equations obtained by regressing the series in each layer, we finally got the equation to describe the long-run relationship among CO2 emissions (Ic, the share of coal in overall energy consumption (FMC, coal intensity of thermal power generation (CIp and electricity intensity of GDP (EIelec. The long term elasticities represented by the equation show that the growth of CO2 emissions in China is quite sensitive to FMC, CIp and EIelec. After that, five scenarios were developed in order to examine the effects of China’s possible different CO2 emission reduction policies, focusing on improving FMC, CIp and EIelec respectively. Through a rigorous analysis, we found that in order to realize the committed CO2 emissions mitigating goal, China should obviously accelerate the pace in switching from coal to low carbon fuels, coupled with a consistent improvement in electricity efficiency of economic activities and a slightly slower improvement in the coal efficiency of thermal power generation.

  7. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact...... production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesiswas to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process...... of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative fermentation technologies for enzyme production were identified in the open literature. Their mass transfer capabilities and their energy efficiencies were...

  8. Productivity improvement: Implementation and analysis of clustering technique in manufacturing of timing gearbox cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is an indicator of efficiency with which resources, both human and material, are transformed into useful services and goods. The vital purpose of the prevailing work was to analyze the factors involved in the improvement of productivity in all its types such as material, capital, labor, machine and total productivity at the plant. This was obtained by decreasing the manufacturing cost per component by reducing its cycle time and increasing the monthly production rate. The experimentation revealed that using proposed processes and improved tooling, monthly production rate has increased by 16.2% due to reduced cycle time, the number of defected components i.e. rejection rate has reduced up to 2%. A reduction of 6.78% in manufacturing cost per component was recorded. Tooling cost has reduced by more than 12%. Saving up to 50% in inspection cost has been recorded due to close dimensional tolerances and high surface finish achieved on components. An increase of 4.84% was recorded in total productivity.

  9. The Energy Efficiency of Hot Water Production by Gas Water Heaters with a Combustion Chamber Sealed with Respect to the Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Czerski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigative results of the energy efficiency of hot water production for sanitary uses by means of gas-fired water heaters with the combustion chamber sealed with respect to the room in single-family houses and multi-story buildings. Additionally, calculations were made of the influence of pre-heating the air for combustion in the chimney and air supply system on the energy efficiency of hot water production. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics software was used for calculation of the heat exchange in this kind of system. The studies and calculations have shown that the use of gas water heaters with a combustion chamber sealed with respect to the room significantly increases the efficiency of hot water production when compared to traditional heaters. It has also been proven that the pre-heating of combustion air in concentric chimney and air supply ducts essentially improves the energy efficiency of gas appliances for hot water production.

  10. Resource use efficiency in small-scale rice production in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production function for rice, elasticity of production, return to scale, marginal productivity and level of efficiency of inputs used in rice production were determined. ... With the exception of fertilizer that was over-utilized, all other inputs were underutilized with ratios of marginal value products to unit prices greater than unity ...

  11. Relationships of efficiency to reproductive disorders in Danish milk production: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L G; Bruun, J; Coelli, T; Agger, J F; Lund, M

    2004-01-01

    Relationships of various reproductive disorders and milk production performance of Danish dairy farms were investigated. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated using data collected in 1998 from 514 Danish dairy farms. Measures of farm-level milk production efficiency relative to this production frontier were obtained, and relationships between milk production efficiency and the incidence risk of reproductive disorders were examined. There were moderate positive relationships between milk production efficiency and retained placenta, induction of estrus, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and induction of birth. Inclusion of reproductive management variables showed that these moderate relationships disappeared, but directions of coefficients for almost all those variables remained the same. Dystocia showed a weak negative correlation with milk production efficiency. Farms that were mainly managed by young farmers had the highest average efficiency scores. The estimated milk losses due to inefficiency averaged 1142, 488, and 256 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow, respectively, for low-, medium-, and high-efficiency herds. It is concluded that the availability of younger cows, which enabled farmers to replace cows with reproductive disorders, contributed to high cow productivity in efficient farms. Thus, a high replacement rate more than compensates for the possible negative effect of reproductive disorders. The use of frontier production and efficiency/inefficiency functions to analyze herd data may enable dairy advisors to identify inefficient herds and to simulate the effect of alternative management procedures on the individual herd's efficiency.

  12. Environmental policy and the energy efficiency of vertically differentiated consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzeskot, Magdalena; Haupt, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We analyse optimal environmental policies in a market that is vertically differentiated in terms of the energy efficiency of products. Considering energy taxes, subsidies to firms for investment in more eco-friendly products, and product standards, we are particularly interested in how distributional goals in addition to environmental goals shape the choice of policy instruments. We find that an industry-friendly government levies an energy tax to supplement a lax product standard, but shies away from subsidies to firms. By contrast, a consumer-friendly government relies heavily on a strict product standard and additionally implements a moderate subsidy to firms, but avoids energy taxes. - Highlights: ► We analyse how distributional goals shape environmental policy. ► Firms invest in the energy efficiency of their products and compete in prices. ► An industry-friendly government implements an energy tax and a lax product standard. ► A consumer-friendly government chooses a subsidy to firms instead of an energy tax. ► A consumer-friendly government implements a strict energy efficiency standard

  13. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FAO publication, Livestock's Long Shadow, indicated that livestock is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas production thereby creating the perception that livestock is a major cause of global warming. Methane (CH4) makes up 16% of total world gas emissions and is the second most important ...

  14. Measuring efficiency and productivity growth of new technology-based firms in business incubators: the Portuguese case study of Madan Parque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, A; Santos, J

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators can play a major role in helping to turn a business idea into a technology-based organization that is economically efficient. However, there is a shortage in the literature regarding the efficiency evaluation and productivity evolution of the new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in the incubation scope. This study develops a model based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology, which allows the incubated NTBFs to evaluate and improve the efficiency of their management. Moreover, the Malmquist index is used to examine productivity change. The index is decomposed into multiple components to give insights into the root sources of productivity change. The proposed model was applied in a case study with 13 NTBFs incubated. From that study, we conclude that inefficient firms invest excessively in research and development (R&D), and, on average, firms have a productivity growth in the period of study.

  15. Measuring Efficiency and Productivity Growth of New Technology-Based Firms in Business Incubators: The Portuguese Case Study of Madan Parque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, A.; Santos, J.

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators can play a major role in helping to turn a business idea into a technology-based organization that is economically efficient. However, there is a shortage in the literature regarding the efficiency evaluation and productivity evolution of the new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in the incubation scope. This study develops a model based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology, which allows the incubated NTBFs to evaluate and improve the efficiency of their management. Moreover, the Malmquist index is used to examine productivity change. The index is decomposed into multiple components to give insights into the root sources of productivity change. The proposed model was applied in a case study with 13 NTBFs incubated. From that study, we conclude that inefficient firms invest excessively in research and development (R&D), and, on average, firms have a productivity growth in the period of study. PMID:25874266

  16. Measuring Efficiency and Productivity Growth of New Technology-Based Firms in Business Incubators: The Portuguese Case Study of Madan Parque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators can play a major role in helping to turn a business idea into a technology-based organization that is economically efficient. However, there is a shortage in the literature regarding the efficiency evaluation and productivity evolution of the new technology-based firms (NTBFs in the incubation scope. This study develops a model based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA methodology, which allows the incubated NTBFs to evaluate and improve the efficiency of their management. Moreover, the Malmquist index is used to examine productivity change. The index is decomposed into multiple components to give insights into the root sources of productivity change. The proposed model was applied in a case study with 13 NTBFs incubated. From that study, we conclude that inefficient firms invest excessively in research and development (R&D, and, on average, firms have a productivity growth in the period of study.

  17. IT support of energy-sensitive product development. Energy-efficient product and process innovations in production engineering. Virtual product development for energy-efficient products and processes; IT-Unterstuetzung zur energiesensitiven Produktentwicklung. Energieeffiziente Produkt- und Prozessinnovationen in der Produktionstechnik. Handlungsfeld virtuelle Produktentwicklung fuer energieeffiziente Produkte und Prozesse (PE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Thomas; Ruenger, Gudula; Steger, Daniel; Xu, Haibin

    2010-07-07

    The development of low-cost, energy-saving and resources-saving products is increasingly important. Thecalculation of the life cycle cost is an important basis for this. For this, it is necessary to extract empirical, decision-relevant data from IT systems of product development (e.g. product data management systems) and operation (e.g. enterprise resource planning systems), and to give the planner appropriate methods for data aggregation. Life cycle data are particularly important for optimising energy efficiency, which may be achieved either by enhanced productivity at constant energy consumption or by reduced energy consumption at constant productivity. The report presents an IT view of the product development process. First, modern methods of product development are analysed including IT support and IT systems. Requirements on IT systems are formulated which enable energy efficiency assessment and optimisation in all phases of product development on the basis of the IT systems used. IT systems for energy-sensitive product development will support the construction engineer in the development of energy-efficient products. For this, the functionalities of existing PDM systems must be enhanced by methods of analysis, synthesis and energy efficiency assessment. Finally, it is shown how the methods for analyzing energy-relevant data can be integrated in the work flow.

  18. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjian

    1987-01-01

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  19. Measuring improvement in energy efficiency of the US cement industry with the ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.; Zhang, G. [Department of Economics, Duke University, Box 90097, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The lack of a system for benchmarking industrial plant energy efficiency represents a major obstacle to improving efficiency. While estimates are sometimes available for specific technologies, the efficiency of one plant versus another could only be captured by benchmarking the energy efficiency of the whole plant and not by looking at its components. This paper presents an approach used by ENERGY STAR to implement manufacturing plant energy benchmarking for the cement industry. Using plant-level data and statistical analysis, we control for factors that influence energy use that are not efficiency, per se. What remains is an estimate of the distribution of energy use that is not accounted for by these factors, i.e., intra-plant energy efficiency. By comparing two separate analyses conducted at different points in time, we can see how this distribution has changed. While aggregate data can be used to estimate an average rate of improvement in terms of total industry energy use and production, such an estimate would be misleading as it may give the impression that all plants have made the same improvements. The picture that emerges from our plant-level statistical analysis is more subtle; the most energy-intensive plants have closed or been completely replaced and poor performing plants have made efficiency gains, reducing the gap between themselves and the top performers, whom have changed only slightly. Our estimate is a 13 % change in total source energy, equivalent to an annual reduction of 5.4 billion/kg of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions.

  20. Does energy efficiency improve technological change and economic growth in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Calì, Massimiliano; Velde, Dirk Willem te

    2016-01-01

    Does a trade-off exist between energy efficiency and economic growth? This question underlies some of the tensions between economic and environmental policies, especially in developing countries that often need to expand their industrial base to grow. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing the relationship between energy efficiency and economic performance at the micro- (total factor productivity) and macro-level (countries' economic growth). It uses data on a large sample of manufacturing firms across 29 developing countries to find that lower levels of energy intensity are associated with higher total factor productivity for the majority of these countries. The results are robust to a variety of checks. Suggestive cross-country evidence points towards the same relation measured at the macro-level as well. - Highlights: •Total factor productivity is an accurate proxy of technological change. •Energy efficiency triggers total factor productivity especially in manufacturing. •Technological change via energy efficiency in manufacturing is an engine of growth.

  1. Technological measures to improve automotive product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  2. METHODS FOR IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF WELL ROD PUMP UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNMAN1 Vladimir E.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of oil production energy efficiency improvement of good rod pumps by utilization of kinetic energy of the downward moving rod in capacitor bank is proposed. A mathematical model of the system is developed. Criteria of reduction of the peak values of current, consuming power and elimination of oscillations are obtained. It is shown that the developed system is capable of reducing the consumption of current twice and the peak power by three times. Thus it is possible to reduce operational and capital costs by reducing the cross-section of the feeder cables and decreasing the power of input transformers and diesel generator set if autonomous feeding of pumping units is used

  3. Improvement in light-extraction efficiency of light emitting diode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of various microlens parameters such as diameter and area fraction on light-extraction efficiency was systematically studied. Improvement of 4% in extraction efficiency was obtained by employing it on white light emitting diode. The area fraction of microlenses was increased up to 0.34 by reducing the spin speed.

  4. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  5. High Resolution Separations and Improved Ion Production and Transmission in Metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O.; Page, Jason S.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tang, Keqi; Ding, Jie; Shen, Yufeng; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-03-31

    The goal of metabolomics experiments is the detection and quantitation of as many sample components as reasonably possible in order to identify “features” that can be used to characterize the samples under study. When utilizing electrospray ionization to produce ions for analysis by mass spectrometry (MS), it is imperative that metabolome sample constituents be efficiently separated prior to ion production, in order to minimize the phenomenon of ionization suppression. Similarly, optimization of the MS inlet can lead to increased measurement sensitivity. This review will focus on the role of high resolution liquid chromatography (LC) separations in conjunction with improved ion production and transmission for LC-MS-based metabolomics.

  6. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary methionine supplementation at varying levels on the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey was investigated. Four Isocaloric and Isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diets were supplemented with 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% respectively.

  7. Labour productivity and resource use efficiency amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined labour productivity and resource efficiency amongst smallholder cocoa farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. A purposive random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 60 cocoa farmers from three agricultural zones in the State. The analytical techniques used involve inferential statistics like means, ...

  8. Strategies of Production Control as Tools of Efficient Management of Production Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budynek, Mateusz; Celińska, Elżbieta; Dybikowska, Adrianna; Kozak, Monika; Ratajczak, Joanna; Urban, Jagoda; Materne, Karolina

    2016-03-01

    The paper discusses the problem of principle methods of production control as a strategy supporting the production system and stimulating efficient solutions in respect management in production enterprises. The article describes MRP, ERP, JIT, KANBAN and TOC methods and focuses on their main goals, principles of functioning as well as benefits resulting from their application. The methods represent two diverse strategies of production control, i.e. pull and push strategies. Push strategies are used when the plans apply to the first and principle part of production and are based on the demand forecasts. Pull strategies are used when all planning decisions apply to the final stage and depend on the actual demand or orders from customers.

  9. Improving the ecohydrological and economic efficiency of Small Hydropower Plants with water diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Tron, Stefania; Niayifar, Amin; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Water exploitation for energy production from Small Hydropower Plant (SHP) is increasing despite human pressure on freshwater already being very intense in several countries. Preserving natural rivers thus requires deeper understanding of the global (i.e., ecological and economic) efficiency of flow-diversion practice. In this work, we show that the global efficiency of SHP river intakes can be improved by non-proportional flow-redistribution policies. This innovative dynamic water allocation defines the fraction of water released to the river as a nonlinear function of river runoff. Three swiss SHP case studies are considered to systematically test the global performance of such policies, under both present and future hydroclimatic regimes. The environmental efficiency is plotted versus the economic efficiency showing that efficient solutions align along a (Pareto) frontier, which is entirely formed by non-proportional policies. On the contrary, other commonly used distribution policies generally lie below the Pareto frontier. This confirms the existence of better policies based on non-proportional redistribution, which should be considered in relation to implementation and operational costs. Our results recommend abandoning static (e.g., constant-minimal-flow) policies in favour of non-proportional dynamic ones towards a more sustainable use of the water resource, also considering changing hydroclimatic scenarios.

  10. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  11. Jevons' Paradox revisited: The evidence for backfire from improved energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with William Stanley Jevons in 1865, a number of authors have claimed that economically justified energy-efficiency improvements will increase rather than reduce energy consumption. 'Jevons Paradox' is extremely difficult to test empirically, but could have profound implications for energy and climate policy. This paper summarises and critiques the arguments and evidence that have been cited in support of Jevons' Paradox, focusing in particular on the work of Len Brookes and Harry Saunders. It identifies some empirical and theoretical weaknesses in these arguments, highlights the questions they raise for economic orthodoxy and points to some interesting parallels between these arguments and those used by the 'biophysical' school of ecological economics. While the evidence in favour of 'Jevons Paradox' is far from conclusive, it does suggest that economy-wide rebound effects are larger than is conventionally assumed and that energy plays a more important role in driving productivity improvements and economic growth than is conventionally assumed

  12. IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF BISCUIT PRODUCTION PROCESS THROUGH LEAN SIX-SIGMA AT PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mukti Almansur

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze waste or loss using the 7-waste approach and value added/non value added activities in the production process at PT. XYZ. This research also aims to evaluate the production process capability and sigma values at PT. XYZ and used DMAIC technique (Define, Measure, Analysis, Improvement, and Control from Lean Six-sigma with an analysis using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. The results of the research obtained the values of Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE of 47.29%, CTQ (Critical to Quality and process capability value in the form of Cpm (Capability Index for each process stage and yield. Line-5 has DPMO (Defects per Million Opportunities value of 29,632,607 with a Sigma Score 3.39, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis analysis resulted in recommendations for improvement at each process stage.Keywords: process cycle efficiency, biscuit, lean six-sigma, CTQ, CpmABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan melakukan analisis tingkat pemborosan (waste/loss dengan menggunakan pendekatan 7 waste dan value added/non value added activity dalam proses produksi di PT. XYZ. Selanjutnya, melakukan evaluasi terhadap nilai kapabilitas proses produksi dan nilai sigma di PT. XYZ. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analysis, Improvement, and Control dari Lean Six Sigma dengan Analisis menggunakan menggunakan alat Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Hasil Penelitian mendapati nilai Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE 47.29%, CTQ (Critical to Quality dan nilai kapabilitas proses berupa Cpm (Capability Index setiap tahapan proses dan Yield. Line-5 memiliki DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunities sebesar 29632.607 dengan Sigma Score 3.39 Sigma, analisis FMEA(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis menghasilkan rekomendasi perbaikan di setiap tahapan proses.Kata kunci: process cycle efficiency, biskuit, lean six sigma, CTQ, Cpm

  13. Barriers to efficiency improvement and fuel switching in Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.

    1991-01-01

    Implementing energy efficiency changes requires a wide range measures. Improvements, therefore, require actions at the lowest level of the consumer, through the highest level of the global agencies. Due to the multiplicity of participants, however, barriers to achieving these improvements can arise at every level. The major barriers to improving energy efficiency in developing countries are defined and paths to overcome these challenges are identified. Topics of discussion include: energy consumers; end-use equipment manufacturers; end-use equipment providers; energy carrier producers and distributors; actual/potential cogenerators; financial institutions; government; and international, multilateral and industrialized country funding/aid agencies

  14. Performance of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for mapping gross primary productivity against remotely sensed sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Mei; Zhou, Yanlian; Ju, Weimin; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang, Leiming; Liu, Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Estimating terrestrial gross primary production is an important task when studying the carbon cycle. In this study, the ability of a two-leaf light use efficiency model to simulate regional gross primary production in China was validated using satellite Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument - 2 sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data. The two-leaf light use efficiency model was used to estimate daily gross primary production in China's terrestrial ecosystems with 500-m resolution for the period from 2007 to 2014. Gross primary production simulated with the two-leaf light use efficiency model was resampled to a spatial resolution of 0.5° and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. During the study period, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model exhibited similar spatial and temporal patterns in China. The correlation coefficient between sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and monthly gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was significant (pproduction simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model were similar in spring and autumn in most vegetated regions, but dissimilar in winter and summer. The spatial variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was similar in spring, summer, and autumn. The proportion of spatial variations of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and annual gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model explained by ranged from 0.76 (2011) to 0.80 (2013) during the study period. Overall, the two-leaf light use efficiency model was capable of capturing spatial and temporal variations in gross primary production in China. However, the model needs further improvement to better simulate gross primary production in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving Energy Efficiency In Thermal Oil Recovery Surface Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy Nadella, Narayana

    2010-09-15

    Thermal oil recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and In-situ Combustion are being used for recovering heavy oil and bitumen. These processes expend energy to recover oil. The process design of the surface facilities requires optimization to improve the efficiency of oil recovery by minimizing the energy consumption per barrel of oil produced. Optimization involves minimizing external energy use by heat integration. This paper discusses the unit processes and design methodology considering thermodynamic energy requirements and heat integration methods to improve energy efficiency in the surface facilities. A design case study is presented.

  16. Improving the layout of recycling centres by use of lean production principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Erik; Björkman, Mats; Eklund, Mats; Eklund, Jörgen; Engkvist, Inga-Lill

    2011-06-01

    There has been increased focus on recycling in Sweden during recent years. This focus can be attributed to external environmental factors such as tougher legislation, but also to the potential gains for raw materials suppliers. Recycling centres are important components in the Swedish total recycling system. Recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection where visitors can bring, sort and discard worn products as well as large-sized, hazardous, and electrical waste. The aim of this paper was to identify and describe the main flows and layout types at Swedish recycling centres. The aim was also to adapt and apply production theory for designing and managing recycling centre operations. More specifically, this means using lean production principles to help develop guidelines for recycling centre design and efficient control. Empirical data for this research was primarily collected through interviews and questionnaires among both visitors and employees at 16 Swedish recycling centres. Furthermore, adapted observation protocols have been used in order to explore visitor activities. There was also close collaboration with a local recycling centre company, which shared their layout experiences with the researchers in this project. The recycling centres studied had a variety of problems such as queues of visitors, overloading of material and improper sorting. The study shows that in order to decrease the problems, the recycling centres should be designed and managed according to lean production principles, i.e. through choosing more suitable layout choices with visible and linear flows, providing better visitor information, and providing suitable technical equipment. Improvements can be achieved through proper planning of the layout and control of the flow of vehicles, with the result of increased efficiency and capacity, shorter visits, and cleaner waste fractions. The benefits of a lean production mindset include increased visitor capacity, waste

  17. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  18. Roots, plant production and nutrient use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, de P.; Noordwijk, van M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of roots in obtaining high crop production levels as well as a high nutrient use efficiency is discussed. Mathematical models of diffusion and massflow of solutes towards roots are developed for a constant daily uptake requirement. Analytical solutions are given for simple and more

  19. Improving domestic wastewater treatment efficiency with constructed wetland microbial fuel cells: Influence of anode material and external resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; Puigagut, Jaume

    2018-08-01

    For the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the operation of constructed wetlands as microbial fuel cells (CW-MFCs) for both the improvement of wastewater treatment efficiency and the production of energy. However, there is still scarce information on design and operation aspects to maximize CW-MFCs efficiency, especially for the treatment of real domestic wastewater. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of treatment efficiency improvement carried out by membrane-less MFCs simulating a core of a shallow un-planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. The influence of the external resistance (50, 220, 402, 604 and 1000Ω) and the anode material (graphite and gravel) on treatment efficiency improvement were addressed. To this purpose, 6 lab-scale membrane-less MFCs were set-up and loaded in batch mode with domestic wastewater for 13weeks. Results showed that 220Ω was the best operation condition for maximising MFCs treatment efficiency, regardless the anode material employed. Gravel-based anode MFCs operated at closed circuit showed ca. 18%, 15%, 31% and 25% lower effluent concentration than unconnected MFCs to the COD, TOC, PO 4 -3 and NH 4 + -N, respectively. Main conclusion of the present work is that constructed wetlands operated as MFCs is a promising strategy to improve domestic wastewater treatment efficiency. However, further studies at pilot scale under more realistic conditions (such as planted systems operated under continuous mode) shall be performed to confirm the findings here reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving health and energy efficiency through community-based housing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Crane, Julian; Chapman, Ralph; Fougere, Geoff

    2011-12-01

    Houses designed for one climate and cultural group may not be appropriate for other places and people. Our aim is to find cost-effective ways to improve the characteristics of older homes, ill-fitted for New Zealand's climate, in order to improve the occupants' health. We have carried out two community randomised trials, in partnership with local communities, which have focused on retrofitted insulation and more effective heating and have two other studies under way, one which focuses on electricity vouchers and the other on housing hazard remediation. The Housing, Insulation and Health Study showed that insulating 1,350 houses, built before insulation was required, improved the occupants' health and well being as well as household energy efficiency. In the Housing, Heating and Health Study we investigated the impact of installing more effective heating in insulated houses for 409 households, where there was a child with doctor-diagnosed asthma. Again, the study showed significant results in the intervention group; indoor temperatures increased and levels of NO(2) were halved. Children reported less poor health, lower levels of asthma symptoms and sleep disturbances by wheeze and dry cough. Children also had fewer days off school. Improving the energy efficiency of older housing leads to health improvements and energy efficiency improvements. Multidisciplinary studies of housing interventions can create compelling evidence to support policies for sustainable housing developments which improve health.

  1. Biomass production efficiency controlled by management in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campioli, M.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bilcke, J.; Ceschia, E.; Chapin, F.S. III; Ciais, P.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Malhi, Y.; Obersteiner, M.; Olefeldt, D.; Papale, D.; Piao, S.L.; Peñuelas, J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Wang, X.; Zenone, T.; Janssens, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plants acquire carbon through photosynthesis to sustain biomass production, autotrophic respiration and production of non-structural compounds for multiple purposes. The fraction of photosynthetic production used for biomass production, the biomass production efficiency, is a key determinant of the

  2. Improving the energy efficiency of mine fan assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Euler

    2015-01-01

    Energy associated with ventilating an underground operation comprises a significant portion of a mine operation's base energy demand and is consequently responsible for a large percentage of the total operating costs. Ventilation systems may account from 25 to 40% of the total energy costs and 40–50% of the energy consumption of a mine operation. Fans are the most important mechanical devices used to ventilate underground mines and the total fan power installed in a single mine operation can easily exceed 10,000 kW. Investigations of a number of mine main fan installations have determined their assemblage to be, in general, very energy inefficient. The author has found that 40–80% of the energy consumed by a main fan is used to overcome the resistance of fan assemblage components. This paper presents how engineering design principles can be applied to improve the performance and efficiency of fan installations, resulting in substantial reductions in power consumption, operating cost and greenhouse gas emissions. A detailed case study is presented to demonstrate that, by designing fan assemblages using proper engineering concepts of fluid physics and industrial ventilation design, main fan systems will operate at efficiencies well above 80–90% (compared to common operating efficiencies of between 20 and 65%), resulting in a drastic reduction in a mine's overall costs and base electrical and energy loads. - Highlights: • Increases in fan assemblage efficiencies with minimum capital investment. • Improved designs for substantial fan power and operating cost savings. • General solutions and tactics for improving existing main fan installations. • Case study presented to demonstrate proper design of fan assemblages.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Kermeli, Katerina; Galitsky, Christina

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, typically at 20 to 40% of operational costs, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity

  4. Efficiency Improvement of HIT Solar Cells on p-Type Si Wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chun-You; Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Hsiao, Hao-Tse; Yang, Po-Chuan; Wang, Chih-Ming; Pan, Yen-Chih

    2013-11-22

    Single crystal silicon solar cells are still predominant in the market due to the abundance of silicon on earth and their acceptable efficiency. Different solar-cell structures of single crystalline Si have been investigated to boost efficiency; the heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) structure is currently the leading technology. The record efficiency values of state-of-the art HIT solar cells have always been based on n-type single-crystalline Si wafers. Improving the efficiency of cells based on p-type single-crystalline Si wafers could provide broader options for the development of HIT solar cells. In this study, we varied the thickness of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous Si layer to improve the efficiency of HIT solar cells on p-type Si wafers.

  5. An Improved Supplier Driven Packaging Design and Development Method for Supply Chain Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabpour, Vahid; Oghazi, Pejvak; Olsson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    and satisfaction in interaction with the product and packaging system. It also proposes a supply chain focused packaging design and development method to better satisfy supply chain needs placed on packaging. An extensive literature review was conducted, and a Tetra Pak derived case study was developed......Packaging and the role it plays in supply chain efficiency are overlooked in most design and development research. An opportunity exists to meet the needs of supply chains to increase efficiency. This research presents three propositions on how to reduce the gap between supply chain needs....... The propositions were formulated and became the basis for improving Tetra Pak's existing packaging design and development method by better integrating supply chain needs. This was accomplished by using an expanded operational life cycle perspective that includes the entire supply chain. The resulting supply chain...

  6. Efficient recombinant production of prodigiosin in Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eDomröse

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens and several other bacteria produce the red-colored pigment prodigiosin which possesses bioactivities as an antimicrobial, anticancer and immunosuppressive agent. Therefore, there is a great interest to produce this natural compound. Efforts aiming at its biotechnological production have so far largely focused on the original producer and opportunistic human pathogen S. marcescens. Here, we demonstrate efficient prodigiosin production in the heterologous host Pseudomonas putida. Random chromosomal integration of the 21 kb prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster of S. marcescens in P. putida KT2440 was employed to construct constitutive prodigiosin production strains. Standard cultivation parameters were optimized such that titers of 94 mg/L culture were obtained upon growth of P. putida at 20 °C using rich medium under high aeration conditions. Subsequently, a novel, fast and effective protocol for prodigiosin extraction and purification was established enabling the straightforward isolation of prodigiosin from P. putida growth medium. In summary, we describe here a highly efficient method for the heterologous biosynthetic production of prodigiosin which may serve as a basis to produce large amounts of this bioactive natural compound and may provide a platform for further in-depth studies of prodiginine biosynthesis.

  7. Molecular improvement of alfalfa for enhanced productivity and adaptability in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Stacy D; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Acharya, Surya

    2017-10-18

    Due to an expanding world population and increased buying power, the demand for ruminant products such as meat and milk is expected to grow substantially in coming years, and high levels of forage crop production will therefore be a necessity. Unfortunately, urbanization of agricultural land, intensive agricultural practices, and climate change are all predicted to limit crop production in the future, which means that the development of forage cultivars with improved productivity and adaptability will be essential. Because alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage crops, it has been the target of much research in this field. In this review, we discuss progress that has been made towards the improvement of productivity, abiotic stress tolerance, and nutrient-use efficiency, as well as disease and pest resistance, in alfalfa using biotechnological techniques. Furthermore, we consider possible future priorities and avenues for attaining further enhancements in this crop as a means of contributing to the realization of food security in a changing environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Energy and environment efficiency analysis based on an improved environment DEA cross-model: Case study of complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, ZhiQiang; Dong, JunGen; Han, YongMing; Zhu, QunXiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved environment DEA cross-model method is proposed. •Energy and environment efficiency analysis framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. •This proposed method is efficient in energy-saving and emission reduction of complex chemical processes. -- Abstract: The complex chemical process is a high pollution and high energy consumption industrial process. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and evaluate the energy and environment efficiency of the complex chemical process. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of decision-making units (DMUs). However, the traditional DEA method usually cannot genuinely distinguish the effective and inefficient DMU due to its extreme or unreasonable weight distribution of input and output variables. Therefore, this paper proposes an energy and environment efficiency analysis method based on an improved environment DEA cross-model (DEACM) method. The inputs of the complex chemical process are divided into energy and non-energy inputs. Meanwhile, the outputs are divided into desirable and undesirable outputs. And then the energy and environment performance index (EEPI) based on the cross evaluation is used to represent the overall performance of each DMU. Moreover, the improvement direction of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of each inefficiency DMU is quantitatively obtained based on the self-evaluation model of the improved environment DEACM. The results show that the improved environment DEACM method has a better effective discrimination than the original DEA method by analyzing the energy and environment efficiency of the ethylene production process in complex chemical processes, and it can obtain the potential of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of ethylene plants, especially the improvement direction of inefficient DMUs to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission.

  9. A METHODOLOGY FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY OF THE EXISTING SHIPBUILDING PROCESS USING MODERN PRODUCTION CONCEPTs AND THE AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venesa Stanić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, shipyards have been facing difficulties in controlling operational costs. To maintain continual operation of all of the facilities, a shipyard must analyze ways of utilizing present production systems for assembling interim vessel products as well as other types of industrial constructions. In the past, new machines continuously improved shipbuilding processes, including software and organizational restructuring, but management continued to search for a modern technological concept that will provide higher productivity, greater profit and overall reduction in costs. In the article the authors suggest implementing Design for Production, Design for Maintainability and Group Technology principles using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to apply to multi criteria decision making methods as an efficient tool for maintaining international competitiveness in the modern shipbuilding industry. This novel methodology is implemented through four phases. In the first phase, the present situation analysis is suggested for a real shipyard by establishing closest relations among production lines. The second phase presents a constraint analysis that must be evaluated when developing the design solution. The third phase involves generating a typical number of selected alternatives of the Design for Production, Design for Maintainability and Group Technology principles. In the fourth phase, the optimal design solution is selected using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. The solution incorporating this modern methodology will improve productivity, profit and lead to decreasing operational costs.

  10. Improving Eco-Efficiency through Waste Reduction beyond the Boundaries of a Firm: Evidence from a Multiplant Case in the Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido J. L. Micheli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To pursue eco-efficiency, one of the most important principles is the sustainable use of resources. The challenge in resource use improvement lies in a clear assessment of resource utilization. However, this evaluation is currently performed within the scope of a company and such an approach is not sustainable anymore in a world with increasingly complex production systems. This paper provides a decision support system (DSS to disclose where wastes absorb resource capacity of a whole production system beyond the boundaries of a firm. In this way, an intervention priority plan can be established to effectively improve the eco-efficiency of production systems by considering interactions among players of a multiplant or supply chain context. An implementation of the DSS is proposed for the ceramic industry to test it and explore the potential benefits. Results confirm that the DSS can effectively enable different actors to understand how significant inter-firm saving opportunities can be identified.

  11. Residential carbon dioxide emissions in Canada. Impact of efficiency improvements and fuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugursal, V.I.; FUng, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of improving house envelope, heating system and appliance efficiencies, and fuel substitution on the atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide in the Canadian residential sector is studied based on simulation studies. The findings clearly indicate that improving appliance efficiency reduces the overall end-use energy consumption in the residential sector as well as the associated carbon dioxide emissions. However, the magnitude of the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions as a result of improving only appliance efficiencies is quite small. Significantly larger reductions can be obtained by improving house envelopes and heating/cooling systems in addition to improving appliance efficiencies. Fuel substitution for space and domestic hot water heating can also present a potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions depending on the fuel substitution scenario adopted. (author)

  12. Does Automation Improve Stock Market Efficiency? Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Justice T.; Pomaa-Berko, Maame; Adom, Philip Kofi

    2012-01-01

    As a burgeoning capital market in an emerging economy, automation of the stock market is regarded as a major step towards integrating the financial market as a conduit for economic growth. The automation of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) in 2008 is expected among other things to improve the efficiency of the market. This paper therefore investigates the impact of the automation on the efficiency of the GSE within the framework of the weak-form Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) using daily mar...

  13. Prior-knowledge-independent equalization to improve battery uniformity with energy efficiency and time efficiency for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shumei; Qiang, Jiaxi; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    To improve battery uniformity as well as energy efficiency and time efficiency, a SOC (state of charge)-based equalization by AGA (adaptive genetic algorithm) is proposed on basis of two-stage DC/DC converters. The simulation results indicate that compared with FLC (fuzzy logic controller) equalization, the standard deviation of final SOC is improved by 78.7% while energy efficiency is improved by 6.01% and equalization time is decreased by 20% for AGA equalization of extreme dispersion. Additionally, AGA improves the battery uniformity by 30.77% with shortening equalization time by 16.29% and saving energy loss by 1.51% compared with FLC for equalization of regular dispersion. For further validation, the equalization optimization is verified by experiment based on the data-driven parameter identification method which is used to enhance the real-time capability of AGA. For AGA equalization of extreme dispersion, the standard deviation of final SOC is just 0.41% while equalization time prolongs only 14 min and energy efficiency is decreased by 0.81% compared with simulation results. Moreover, not only the standard deviation of final SOC is just 0.28% but also the energy efficiency is decreased by 0.69% and equalization time prolongs by 10.4 min compared with the simulation results for equalization of regular dispersion. - Highlights: • Issues of over equalization, time consumption and energy loss are addressed. • A SOC-based equalization is proposed based on adaptive genetic algorithm. • The equalization aims to improve battery uniformity, efficiency of energy and time. • Data-driven parameter identification is used to enhance the real-time capability.

  14. An analysis of the productivity and technical efficiency of smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used the stochastic frontier production function to analyse the productivity and technical efficiency of 4 different agricultural production systems in Ethiopia; namely, irrigated seasonal farms on traditional irrigation systems, irrigated seasonal farms on modern communal irrigation systems, rainfed seasonal farms for ...

  15. STRATEGIES OF PRODUCTION CONTROL AS TOOLS OF EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz BUDYNEK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of principle methods of production control as a strategy supporting the production system and stimulating efficient solutions in respect management in production enterprises. The article describes MRP, ERP, JIT, KANBAN and TOC methods and focuses on their main goals, principles of functioning as well as benefits re-sulting from their application. The methods represent two diverse strategies of production control, i.e. pull and push strategies. Push strategies are used when the plans apply to the first and principle part of production and are based on the demand forecasts. Pull strategies are used when all planning decisions apply to the final stage and depend on the actual demand or orders from customers.

  16. Improving the Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells upon Addition of Polyvinylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the efficiency improvement of organic solar cells (OPVs based on the low energy gap polyfluorene derivative, APFO-3, and the soluble C60 fullerene PCBM, upon addition of a residual amount of poly (4-vinylpyridine (PVP. We find that the addition of 1% by weight of PVP with respect to the APFO-3 content leads to an increase of efficiency from 2.4% to 2.9%. Modifications in the phase separation details of the active layer were investigated as a possible origin of the efficiency increase. At high concentrations of PVP, the blend morphology is radically altered as observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. Although the use of low molecular weight additives is a routine method to improve OPVs efficiency, this report shows that inert polymers, in terms of optical and charge transport properties, may also improve the performance of polymer-based solar cells.

  17. Gender-sensitive Value Chain Intervention Improved Profit Efficiency among Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato Producers in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocher Temesgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rwanda Super Foods project sought to develop a value chain for processed orange-fleshed sweetpotato products to respond to farmer concerns over lack of markets. This study used data collected from five districts in rural Rwanda under supper food project between August and September 2014. The study applied a stochastic profit frontier model to data collected from 846 households growing sweetpotato, among which 327 were value chain participants; 312 were “spillover” households that received planting material from participant households, and the remainder control households with no project links. Results showed that average level of profit efficiency in sweetpotato production systems is 55%; suggesting that an estimated 45% of profit is lost due to the combined effect of technical, allocative and scale inefficiency. The profit efficiency of participant households was 64% compared to 20% of the control households. Moreover, the profit efficiency of the female beneficiary, female spillover, and male beneficiary households was found to be 55%, 70%, and 90% against 17% for male control households, respectively. Findings suggest that an orange-fleshed sweetpotato based value chain intervention can enhance the profit efficiency of the poor and disadvantageous households, if designed with special attention to women’s needs. Thus, polices and programs aiming at improving the livelihood of smallholder should be designed targeting women and resource poor.

  18. Potentials for Improvement of Resource Efficiency in Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing: A Case Study Based on Material Flow Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xuan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable resource use by manufacturing companies is driven by resource scarcity, environmental awareness, and cost savings potentials. To address these issues, Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA has been developed and applied as an effective environmental management tool. Within MFCA’s general allocation, the accounts of products and losses are overrated by weight or volume. However, such a method is incompatible with Printed Circuit Board (PCB manufacturing because of industry characteristics in which primary inputs and products are measured by area. Based on MFCA, this case study systematically established several linear cost calculation models along the production process for capturing the actual waste flows as well as performing cost-benefit analysis. The recognition of previously ignored losses offered the incentive to find appropriate indicators to conduct cost-benefit analysis on hotspots for losses. Loss identification and analysis indicated that machining and wiring are the necessities and priorities of process optimization for resource efficiency improvement measures. Therefore, this research could not only advance the achievement of a profitable and sustainable production while improving resource efficiency at the source but could also provide support for decision making in PCB manufacturing.

  19. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  20. pYEMF, a pUC18-derived XcmI T-vector for efficient cloning of PCR products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jingsong; Ye, Chunjiang

    2011-03-01

    A 1330-bp DNA sequence with two XcmI cassettes was inserted into pUC18 to construct an efficient XcmI T-vector parent plasmid, pYEMF. The large size of the inserted DNA fragment improved T-vector cleavage efficiency, and guaranteed good separation of the molecular components after restriction digestion. The pYEMF-T-vector generated from parent plasmid pYEMF permits blue/white colony screening; cloning efficiency analysis showed that most white colonies (>75%) were putative transformants which carried the cloning product. The sequence analysis and design approach presented here will facilitate applications in the fields of molecular biology and genetic engineering.

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT OF DEPOSIT WELDING AND GAS LASER CUTTING TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BIMETALLIC TOOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlachenko Oleg Vasil’evich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deposit welding is the application of a layer of metal on the surface of a product using fusion welding. In this paper, we consider the method of improving the technology of gas laser cutting, which makes it possible to achieve a high productivity of manufacturing a bimetallic tool. The present paper is concerned with the advantages of gas laser cutting which allows to consider this particular process of separating materials as highly-productive, low-waste, and advanced method of removing allowances of weld-deposit high-speed steel on the working surfaces of bimetallic tool. Urgency of the use of deposit welding and gas laser cutting to improve the efficiency of production of bimetallic tool is shown. The comparative analysis of gas-laser cutting and other cutting methods is given according to the geometrical parameters of cutting and surface quality. Analysis of the results of experimental studies has confirmed the high technological attractiveness and economic efficiency of manufacturing composite structures of punches and matrices when applying deposit welding of cutting parts with high-speed steels. The cost of dimensional processing of the welded cutting part is reduced by 4 to 6 times, while the manufacturing time is reduced by 6 to 12 times.

  2. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity; La consommation des sources d'energie: utilisations finales, efficacite et productivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.M. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie (CNRS- UPMF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  3. Improving Productivity via QWL Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Marion T.; Hansen, Gary B.

    1980-01-01

    Gives a brief history of productivity improvement legislation in the United States and of the development and demise of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life (QWL). Describes existing productivity and QWL centers, including their locations, scope, services, and activities, and urges greater support at the federal level.…

  4. Strategies to improve the efficiency and utility of multidisciplinary team meetings in urology cancer care: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Sevdalis, Nick; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A

    2014-09-08

    The prevalence of multidisciplinary teams (MDT) for the delivery of cancer care is increasing globally. Evidence exists of benefits to patients and healthcare professionals. However, MDT working is time and resource intensive. This study aims to explore members' views on existing practices of urology MDT working, and to identify potential interventions for improving the efficiency and productivity of the MDT meeting. Members of urology MDTs across the UK were purposively recruited to participate in an online survey. Survey items included questions about the utility and efficiency of MDT meetings, and strategies for improving the efficiency of MDT meetings: treating cases by protocol, prioritising cases, and splitting the MDT into subspeciality meetings. 173 MDT members participated (Oncologists n = 77, Cancer Nurses n = 54, Urologists n = 30, other specialities n = 12). 68% of respondents reported that attending the MDT meeting improves efficiency in care through improved clinical decisions, planning investigations, helping when discussing plans with patients, speciality referrals, documentation/patient records. Participants agreed that some cases including low risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and localised, low-grade prostate cancer could be managed by pre-agreed pathways, without full MDT review. There was a consensus that cases at the MDT meeting could be prioritised by complexity, tumour type, or the availability of MDT members. Splitting the MDT meeting was unpopular: potential disadvantages included loss of efficiency, loss of team approach, unavailability of members and increased administrative work. Key urology MDT members find the MDT meeting useful. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness may be possible by prioritising cases or managing some low-risk cases according to previously agreed protocols. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness of such strategies on MDT meetings, cancer care pathways and patient outcomes in clinical

  5. AN ESTIMATION OF TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF GARLIC PRODUCTION IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Hussain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the technical efficiency of farmers in garlic production in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Data was randomly collected from 110 farmers using multistage sampling technique. Maximum likelihood estimation technique was used to estimate Cob-Douglas frontier production function. The analysis revealed that the estimated mean technical efficiency was 77 percent indicating that total output can be further increased with efficient use of resources and technology. The estimated gamma value was found to be 0.93 which shows 93% variation in garlic output due to inefficiency factors. The analysis further revealed that seed rate, tractor hours, fertilizer, FYM and weedicides were positive and statistically significant production factors. The results also show that age and education were statistically significant inefficiency factors, age having positive and education having negative relationship with the output of garlic. This study suggests that in order to increase the production of garlic by taking advantage of their high efficiency level, the government should invest in the research and development aspects for introducing good quality seeds to increase garlic productivity and should organize training programs to educate farmers about garlic production.

  6. Energy productivity and efficiency of the ‘gher’ (prawn-fish-rice) farming system in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Barmon, Basanta K.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Gher’ farming is a unique system that incorporates the joint operation of three enterprises: freshwater prawn, fish and HYV rice, and is expanding rapidly in the coastal regions of Bangladesh because of its proven high income earning potential. In this paper, the sustainability of this system is evaluated by analysing its performance in terms of energy use by applying a stochastic distance function approach which revealed interesting and unexpected results. The prawn enterprise which is the key income earning component is found to be technically inefficient while the rice enterprise is found to be efficient. The net energy balance and the energy use efficiency of the ‘gher’ farming system is estimated at 18,510 MJ ha −1 and 1.72 respectively. The ‘gher’ farmers are operating at a very high level of technical (energy) efficiency (92%). Diversification amongst enterprises is associated with technical (energy) inefficiency. However, larger operation size enhances efficiency. The key policy implication is that the ‘gher’ farming system can be sustained in the long run provided that productivity from the rice enterprise remains high. Also, policies to support the expansion of ‘gher’ farm sizes will improve efficiency. -- Highlights: ► Sustainability of gher farming system is evaluated in terms of energy use. ► The prawn enterprise is technically inefficient while rice enterprise is efficient. ► The net energy balance is 18,510 MJ ha -1 and energy use efficiency is 1.72. ► The overall technical (energy) efficiency is very high (92%). ► The gher farming system can be sustained if rice productivity remains high.

  7. An Alginate/Cyclodextrin Spray Drying Matrix to Improve Shelf Life and Antioxidant Efficiency of a Blood Orange By-Product Extract Rich in Polyphenols: MMPs Inhibition and Antiglycation Activity in Dysmetabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Lauro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate and β-cyclodextrin were used to produce easily dosable and spray-dried microsystems of a dried blood orange extract with antidysmetabolic properties, obtained from a by-product fluid extract. The spray-dried applied conditions were able to obtain a concentrate dried extract without the loss of AOA and with TPC and TMA values of 35–40% higher than that of the starting material. They were also effective in producing microparticles with 80–100% of encapsulation efficiency. The 2% sodium alginate was capable of improving the extract shelf life, while the beta-cyclodextrin (1 : 1 molar ratio with dried extract prolonged the extract antioxidant efficiency by 6 hours. The good inhibition effect of the dried extract on the AGE formation and the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity is presumably due to a synergic effect exerted by both anthocyanin and bioflavonoid extract compounds and was improved by the use of alginate and cyclodextrin.

  8. An Alginate/Cyclodextrin Spray Drying Matrix to Improve Shelf Life and Antioxidant Efficiency of a Blood Orange By-Product Extract Rich in Polyphenols: MMPs Inhibition and Antiglycation Activity in Dysmetabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Crascì, Lucia; Giannone, Virgilio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Fabroni, Simona; Sansone, Francesca; Rapisarda, Paolo; Panico, Anna Maria; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Alginate and β -cyclodextrin were used to produce easily dosable and spray-dried microsystems of a dried blood orange extract with antidysmetabolic properties, obtained from a by-product fluid extract. The spray-dried applied conditions were able to obtain a concentrate dried extract without the loss of AOA and with TPC and TMA values of 35-40% higher than that of the starting material. They were also effective in producing microparticles with 80-100% of encapsulation efficiency. The 2% sodium alginate was capable of improving the extract shelf life , while the beta-cyclodextrin (1 : 1 molar ratio with dried extract) prolonged the extract antioxidant efficiency by 6 hours. The good inhibition effect of the dried extract on the AGE formation and the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity is presumably due to a synergic effect exerted by both anthocyanin and bioflavonoid extract compounds and was improved by the use of alginate and cyclodextrin.

  9. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently

  10. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently.

  11. Improving wheat productivity through source and timing of nitrogen fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.T.; Khan, A.; Afridi, M.Z.; Arif, M.; Khan, M.J.; Farhatullah; Jan, D.; Saeed, M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is critical for the improved production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and can be achieved through source and timing of N application. Thus, an experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of KPK Agricultural University Peshawar during 2005-06 to test the effects of sources and timing of N application on yield and yield components of wheat. Nitrogen sources were ammonium (NH/sub 4/) and nitrate (NO/sub 3/) applied at the rate of 100 kg ha/sup -1/ at three different stages i.e., at sowing (S1), tillering (S2) and boot stage (S3). Ammonium N increased yield component but did not affect the final grain yield. Split N application at sowing, tillering and boot stages had increased productive tillers m-2, and thousand grains weight, whereas grain yield was higher when N was applied at tillering and boot stages. Nitrogen fertilization increased 20% grain yield compared to control regardless of N application time. It was concluded from the experiment that split application of NH/sub 4/-N performed better than full dose application and/or NO/sub 3/-N for improved wheat productivity and thus, is recommended for general practice in agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar. (author)

  12. The bases for optimisation of scheduled repairs and tests of safety systems to improve the NPP productive efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilej, D.V.; Vasil'chenko, S.V.; Vlasenko, N.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    In the frames of risk-informed approaches the paper proposed the theoretical bases for methods of optimisation of scheduled repairs and tests of safety systems at nuclear power plants. The optimisation criterion is the objective risk function minimising. This function depends on the scheduled repairs/tests periodicity and the allowed time to bring the system channel to a state of non-operability. The main optimisation direct is to reduce the repair time with the purpose of enhancement of productive efficiency

  13. Interaction between output efficiency and environmental efficiency : evidence from the textile industry in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Lei; Folmer, Henk; Bu, Maoliang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efficiency improvement has played a crucial role in the theory and practice of stimulating clean production. This paper analyzes the interaction between environmental efficiency and output efficiency, particularly whether they reinforce each other or compete with each other, on the

  14. Efficiency improvement opportunities for personal computer monitors. Implications for market transformation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Displays account for a significant portion of electricity consumed in personal computer (PC) use, and global PC monitor shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of PC monitors that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that PC monitor efficiency will likely improve by over 40 % by 2015 with saving potential of 4.5 TWh per year in 2015, compared to today's technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of three of them, at least one of which improves efficiency by at least 20 % cost effectively beyond the ongoing market trends. We assess the potential for further improving efficiency taking into account the recent development of universal serial bus-powered liquid crystal display monitors and find that the current technology available and deployed in them has the potential to deeply and cost effectively reduce energy consumption by as much as 50 %. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy saving potential from PC monitors which we estimate to be 9.2 TWh per year in 2015.

  15. Improving itaconic acid production through genetic engineering of an industrial Aspergillus terreus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuenian; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yueming; Li, Xia; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-11

    Itaconic acid, which has been declared to be one of the most promising and flexible building blocks, is currently used as monomer or co-monomer in the polymer industry, and produced commercially by Aspergillus terreus. However, the production level of itaconic acid hasn't been improved in the past 40 years, and mutagenesis is still the main strategy to improve itaconate productivity. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial A. terreus strains to increase itaconic acid production. In this study, the genes closely related to itaconic acid production, including cadA, mfsA, mttA, ATEG_09969, gpdA, ATEG_01954, acoA, mt-pfkA and citA, were identified and overexpressed in an industrial A. terreus strain respectively. Overexpression of the genes cadA (cis-aconitate decarboxylase) and mfsA (Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter) enhanced the itaconate production level by 9.4% and 5.1% in shake flasks respectively. Overexpression of other genes showed varied effects on itaconate production. The titers of other organic acids were affected by the introduced genes to different extent. Itaconic acid production could be improved through genetic engineering of the industrially used A. terreus strain. We have identified some important genes such as cadA and mfsA, whose overexpression led to the increased itaconate productivity, and successfully developed a strategy to establish a highly efficient microbial cell factory for itaconate protuction. Our results will provide a guide for further enhancement of the itaconic acid production level through genetic engineering in future.

  16. Improving animal productivity by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA and FAO have run a joint programme for 30 years to assist national agricultural research systems in member states to develop, test and apply nuclear and related techniques for improving the productivity of livestock. Applications of nuclear technologies for improving livestock productivity include: use of radioimmunoassay in animal nutrition researches, animal production, and evaluating feeding and management systems through reproductive performance in a field. Geographic coverage and the type of livestock studies are: grazing animals (cattle, goats and sheep) in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as buffalo production in Asia. 6 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Efficient Adoption and Assessment of Multiple Process Improvement Reference Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Jeners

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of reference models such as CMMI, COBIT or ITIL support IT organizations to improve their processes. These process improvement reference models (IRMs cover different domains such as IT development, IT Services or IT Governance but also share some similarities. As there are organizations that address multiple domains and need to coordinate their processes in their improvement we present MoSaIC, an approach to support organizations to efficiently adopt and conform to multiple IRMs. Our solution realizes a semantic integration of IRMs based on common meta-models. The resulting IRM integration model enables organizations to efficiently implement and asses multiple IRMs and to benefit from synergy effects.

  18. A Boiler Room in a 600-Bed Hospital Complex: Study, Analysis, and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos Fraile

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of energy efficiency is to use less energy to provide the same service. In hospitals, energy efficiency offers a powerful and cost-effective tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fuel consumption, and also running costs. Over a six-month period, the six gas-fired boilers that provide both a hospital’s heat and hot water were monitored. Analysis of the data obtained led to several actions being implemented in the hospital boiler room control system to improve the efficiency of the heat production system. Comparative studies were conducted, during similar weather periods, of the performance of the hospital’s hot water production system before and after the controls were implemented. Results indicate that the control actions applied proved to be effective. Finally; the paper offers a financial; primary energy saving and CO2 reduction analysis that points to a 3,434.00 €/week savings in natural gas consumption; and a cut in CO2 emissions of 20.3 tons/week; as compared to the reference facility.

  19. Data-Mining – A Valuable Managerial Tool for Improving Power Plants Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danubianu Mirela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy and environment are top priorities for the EU’s Europe 2020 Strategy. Both fields imply complex approaches and consistent investment. The paper presents an alternative to large investments to improve the efficiencies of existing (outdated power installations: namely the use of data-mining techniques for analysing existing operational data. Data-mining is based upon exhaustive analysis of operational records, inferring high-value information by simply processing records with advanced mathematical / statistical tools. Results can be: assessment of the consistency of measurements, identification of new hardware needed for improving the quality of data, deducing the most efficient level for operation (internal benchmarking, correlation of consumptions with power/ heat production, of technical parameters with environmental impact, scheduling the optimal maintenance time, fuel stock optimization, simulating scenarios for equipment operation, anticipating periods of maximal stress of equipment, identification of medium and long term trends, planning and decision support for new investment, etc. The paper presents a data mining process carried out at the TERMICA - Suceava power plant. The analysis calls for a multidisciplinary approach, a complex team (experts in power&heat production, mechanics, environmental protection, economists, and last but not least IT experts and can be carried out with lower expenses than an investment in new equipment. Involvement of top management of the company is essential, being the driving force and motivation source for the data-mining team. The approach presented is self learning as once established, the data-mining analytical, modelling and simulation procedures and associated parameter databases can adjust themselves by absorbing and processing new relevant information and can be used on a long term basis for monitoring the performance of the installation, certifying the soundness of managerial measures taken

  20. INTEGRATED COST MODEL FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hajduova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All processes in the company play important role in ensuring functional integrated management system. We point out the importance of need for a systematic approach to the use of quantitative, but especially statistical methods for modelling the cost of the improvement activities that are part of an integrated management system. Development of integrated management systems worldwide leads towards building of systematic procedures of implementation maintenance and improvement of all systems according to the requirements of all the sides involved.Methodology: Statistical evaluation of the economic indicators of improvement costs and the need for a systematic approach to their management in terms of integrated management systems have become a key role also in the management of processes in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. The aim of this publication is to highlight the importance of proper implementation of statistical methods in the process of improvement costs management in the integrated management system of current market conditions and document the legitimacy of a systematic approach in the area of monitoring and analysing indicators of improvement with the aim of the efficient process management of company. We provide specific example of the implementation of appropriate statistical methods in the production of copper wire in a company Cu Drôt, a.s. This publication also aims to create a model for the estimation of integrated improvement costs, which through the use of statistical methods in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. is used to support decision-making on improving efficiency.Findings: In the present publication, a method for modelling the improvement process, by an integrated manner, is proposed. It is a method in which the basic attributes of the improvement in quality, safety and environment are considered and synergistically combined in the same improvement project. The work examines the use of sophisticated quantitative, especially

  1. EFFICIENCY OF RAW MATERIAL INVENTORIES IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE of CV. FIVA FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artadi Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and number of processed food industries have slightly increased; as a result, the companies must compete to maximize their profits by conducting their efficient production process. CV. Fiva Food is one of the companies in the field of processed foods, especially in processed meat that has implemented supply chain management. It is necessary for the company to take measurements of its performance and efficiency for the entire supply chain such as procurement of raw materials. The purposes of this study were to analyze the performance of the company's supply chain and determine the most efficient  method of procurement for its raw materials as well as and to provide recommendations for the company to improve its performance of entire supply chain. This study used SCOR in analyzing the performance of supply chain and EOQ and POQ method to be compared with the method that the company uses to determine which method of procurement for raw materials is the most efficient one. The result showed that based on the matrix, the company's performance is unfavorable when it was compared to the benchmark performance of inventory days of supply. In addition, this study showed that the POQ method produces the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp6.647.015 for raw materials of MDM whereas EOQ method produced the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp222.153,78 for raw materials of FQ85CL. Keywords: performance suppy chain, SCOR, fiva food, EOQ, POQ

  2. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  3. Improved biomass and lipid production in Synechocystis sp. NN using industrial wastes and nano-catalyst coupled transesterification for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaharraj, Kalimuthu; Karpagam, Rathinasamy; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Moorthy, Innasi Muthu Ganesh; Arumugam, Muthu; Varalakshmi, Perumal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the improved biomass (1.6 folds) and lipid (1.3 folds) productivities in Synechocystis sp. NN using agro-industrial wastes supplementation through hybrid response surface methodology-genetic algorithm (RSM-GA) for cost-effective methodologies for biodiesel production was achieved. Besides, efficient harvesting in Synechocystis sp. NN was achieved by electroflocculation (flocculation efficiency 97.8±1.2%) in 10min when compared to other methods. Furthermore, different pretreatment methods were employed for lipid extraction and maximum lipid content of 19.3±0.2% by Synechocystis sp. NN was attained by ultrasonication than microwave and liquid nitrogen assisted pretreatment methods. The highest FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) conversion of 36.5±8.3mg FAME/g biomass was obtained using titanium oxide as heterogeneous nano-catalyst coupled whole-cell transesterification based method. Conclusively, Synechocystis sp. NN may be used as a biodiesel feedstock and its fuel production can be enriched by hybrid RSM-GA and nano-catalyst technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FY 1998 annual summary report on photon measuring/processing techniques. Development of the techniques for high-efficiency production processes; 1998 nendo foton keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu seisan process gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objectives are set to develop the techniques for energy-efficient laser-aided processing; techniques for high-precision, real-time measurement to improve quality control for production processes and increase their efficiency; and the techniques for generating/controlling photon of high efficiency and quality as the laser beam sources therefor, in order to promote energy saving at and improve efficiency of production processes consuming large quantities of energy, e.g., welding, joining, surface treatment and production of fine particles. The R and D themes are microscopic processing technology: simulation technology for laser welding phenomena; microscopic processing technology: synthesis of technology for quantum dot functional structures; in-situ status measuring technology: fine particle elements and size measurement technology; high-power all-solid-state laser technology: efficient rod type LD-pumping laser modules and pumping chamber of a slab-type laser; tightly-focusing all-solid-state laser technology: improvement of E/O efficiency of laser diode, high-quality nonlinear crystal growth technology and fabrication technology for nonlinear crystal; and comprehensive investigation of photonics engineering: high-efficiency harmonic generation technology. (NEDO)

  5. Molecular improvements in microbial α-amylases for enhanced stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Madhavan, Aravind; Beevi, Ummalyma Sabeela; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Abraham, Amith; Pandey, Ashok; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-12-01

    α-Amylases is one of the most important industrial enzyme which contributes to 25% of the industrial enzyme market. Though it is produced by plant, animals and microbial source, those from microbial source seems to have potential applications due to their stability and economic viability. However a large number of α-amylases from different sources have been detailed in the literature, only few numbers of them could withstand the harsh industrial conditions. Thermo-stability, pH tolerance, calcium independency and oxidant stability and starch hydrolyzing efficiency are the crucial qualities for α-amylase in starch based industries. Microbes can be genetically modified and fine tuning can be done for the production of enzymes with desired characteristics for specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from microorganisms, their heterologous production and the recent molecular strategies which help to improve the properties of this industrial enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of ownership structure on bank productivity and efficiency: Evidence from semi-parametric Malmquist Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study employs the state of the art bias-corrected Malmquist Productivity Index method to examine the sources of efficiency and productivity of the foreign and domestic banks operating in the Malaysian banking sector. The preferred methodology enables us to isolate efforts to catch up to the frontier (efficiency change from shifts in the frontier (technological change [TECHCH]. The results indicate that the Malaysian banking sector has exhibited productivity progress mainly attributed to technological progress. The empirical findings suggest that both the domestic and foreign banks have exhibited productivity progress albeit at different quantum attributed mainly to progress in TECHCH.

  7. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  8. Productivity Improvement for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    organization and the likely positions or types of work that will be required of the engineer in the future. There should therefore, be a balance of...Mall, P., Improving Total Productivity, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978. Miller, R.B., Participative Management-Quality of Worklife and Job Enrichment...Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1977. Hughes Aircraft Co., R & D Productivity-Study Report, Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City , California, 1974

  9. Enhanced lipid productivity and photosynthesis efficiency in a Desmodesmus sp. mutant induced by heavy carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangrong; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Cheng; Wang, Jufang; Li, Wenjian; Hu, Qiang; Li, Fuli

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular green microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 can produce more than 50% total lipid of cell dry weight under high light and nitrogen-limitation conditions. After irradiation by heavy (12)C(6+) ion beam of 10, 30, 60, 90 or 120 Gy, followed by screening of resulting mutants on 24-well microplates, more than 500 mutants were obtained. One of those, named D90G-19, exhibited lipid productivity of 0.298 g L(-1)⋅d(-1), 20.6% higher than wild type, likely owing to an improved maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosynthesis under stress. This work demonstrated that heavy-ion irradiation combined with high-throughput screening is an effective means for trait improvement. The resulting mutant D90G-19 may be used for enhanced lipid production.

  10. Improving the efficiency of thermal power equipment based on technologies using surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Zueva, O. S.

    2015-10-01

    The formation of deposits on the functional surfaces of the equipment of heating systems and their corrosion are one of the major energetic problems. To improve the operational efficiency of thermal power equipment, surface-active agents (surfactants) are widely used, which are applied for the treatment of the working surfaces before use, during use, to prevent the parking corrosion, as well as while performing periodic chemical cleanings of power equipment. The tests have been performed, and the technology of application of Auge Neo Ac 56 acid product (MAHIM, Kazan) has been developed, designed to remove mineral deposits and scale from cooling and boiler systems without mechanical influence on them and without disassembly of technological equipment.

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  12. Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

    1994-01-01

    The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure that is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid-point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions that are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. Practically identical optimization results are obtained that are independent of the method used to represent the surface. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process is achieved by implementing both of the design procedure improvements.

  13. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, Reid B.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year contract, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364 ''Improving CO 2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs,'' was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO 2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering January 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002 that covers the second and third fiscal quarters of the project's first year. Paper SPE 75178, ''Cost Reduction and Injectivity Improvements for CO 2 Foams for Mobility Control,'' has been presented and included in the proceedings of the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. During these two quarters of the project we have been working in several areas: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, producer survey on injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried and reservoir core

  14. Evaluating and predicting the effectiveness of farmland consolidation on improving agricultural productivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yeting; Jin, Xiaobin; Xiang, Xiaomin; Gan, Le; Yang, Xuhong; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhou, Yinkang

    2018-01-01

    Food security has always been a focus issue in China. Farmland consolidation (FC) was regarded as a critical way to increase the quantity and improve the quality of farmland to ensure food security by Chinese government. FC projects have been nationwide launched, however few studies focused on evaluating the effectiveness of FC at a national scale. As such, an efficient way to evaluate the effectiveness of FC on improving agricultural productivity in China will be needed and it is critical for future national land consolidation planning. In this study, we selected 7505 FC projects completed between 2006 and 2013 with good quality Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as samples to evaluate the effectiveness of FC. We used time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer NDVI from 2001 to 2013, to extract four indicators to characterize agricultural productivity change of 4442 FC projects completed between 2006 and 2010, i.e., productivity level (PL), productivity variation (PV), productivity potential (PP), and multi-cropping index (MI). On this basis, we further predicted the same four characteristics for 3063 FC projects completed between 2011 and 2013, respectively, using Support Vector Machines (SVM). We found FC showed an overall effective status on improving agricultural productivity between 2006 and 2013 in China, especially on upgrading PL and improving PP. The positive effect was more prominent in the southeast and eastern China. It is noteworthy that 27.30% of all the 7505 projects were still ineffective on upgrading PL, the elementary improvement of agricultural productivity. Finally, we proposed that location-specific factors should be taken into consideration for launching FC projects and diverse financial sources are also needed for supporting FC. The results provide a reference for government to arrange FC projects reasonably and to formulate land consolidation planning in a proper way that better improve the effectiveness of FC.

  15. Evaluating and predicting the effectiveness of farmland consolidation on improving agricultural productivity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaomin; Gan, Le; Yang, Xuhong; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhou, Yinkang

    2018-01-01

    Food security has always been a focus issue in China. Farmland consolidation (FC) was regarded as a critical way to increase the quantity and improve the quality of farmland to ensure food security by Chinese government. FC projects have been nationwide launched, however few studies focused on evaluating the effectiveness of FC at a national scale. As such, an efficient way to evaluate the effectiveness of FC on improving agricultural productivity in China will be needed and it is critical for future national land consolidation planning. In this study, we selected 7505 FC projects completed between 2006 and 2013 with good quality Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as samples to evaluate the effectiveness of FC. We used time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer NDVI from 2001 to 2013, to extract four indicators to characterize agricultural productivity change of 4442 FC projects completed between 2006 and 2010, i.e., productivity level (PL), productivity variation (PV), productivity potential (PP), and multi-cropping index (MI). On this basis, we further predicted the same four characteristics for 3063 FC projects completed between 2011 and 2013, respectively, using Support Vector Machines (SVM). We found FC showed an overall effective status on improving agricultural productivity between 2006 and 2013 in China, especially on upgrading PL and improving PP. The positive effect was more prominent in the southeast and eastern China. It is noteworthy that 27.30% of all the 7505 projects were still ineffective on upgrading PL, the elementary improvement of agricultural productivity. Finally, we proposed that location-specific factors should be taken into consideration for launching FC projects and diverse financial sources are also needed for supporting FC. The results provide a reference for government to arrange FC projects reasonably and to formulate land consolidation planning in a proper way that better improve the effectiveness of FC

  16. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  17. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangfeng; Ju Chenyong; Li Hui

    2005-01-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character

  18. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Ju, Chenyong; Li, Hui

    2005-02-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character.

  19. International benchmaking: Supplying the information for product efficiency policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siderius, H.P.; Jeffcott, S.; Blok, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the development of effective product efficiency policy, the critical element for policy makers is comprehensive, independent information. However, easily accessible, reliable information on the energy performance of products and policies is often scarce within a particular market, and rarer still

  20. Improving ethanol productivity through self-cycling fermentation of yeast: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chae, Michael; Sauvageau, Dominic; Bressler, David C

    2017-01-01

    The cellulosic ethanol industry has developed efficient strategies for converting sugars obtained from various cellulosic feedstocks to bioethanol. However, any further major improvements in ethanol productivity will require development of novel and innovative fermentation strategies that enhance incumbent technologies in a cost-effective manner. The present study investigates the feasibility of applying self-cycling fermentation (SCF) to cellulosic ethanol production to elevate productivity. SCF is a semi-continuous cycling process that employs the following strategy: once the onset of stationary phase is detected, half of the broth volume is automatically harvested and replaced with fresh medium to initiate the next cycle. SCF has been shown to increase product yield and/or productivity in many types of microbial cultivation. To test whether this cycling process could increase productivity during ethanol fermentations, we mimicked the process by manually cycling the fermentation for five cycles in shake flasks, and then compared the results to batch operation. Mimicking SCF for five cycles resulted in regular patterns with regards to glucose consumption, ethanol titer, pH, and biomass production. Compared to batch fermentation, our cycling strategy displayed improved ethanol volumetric productivity (the titer of ethanol produced in a given cycle per corresponding cycle time) and specific productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per cellular biomass) by 43.1 ± 11.6 and 42.7 ± 9.8%, respectively. Five successive cycles contributed to an improvement of overall productivity (the aggregate amount of ethanol produced at the end of a given cycle per total processing time) and the estimated annual ethanol productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per year) by 64.4 ± 3.3 and 33.1 ± 7.2%, respectively. This study provides proof of concept that applying SCF to ethanol production could significantly increase productivities, which will help strengthen the

  1. Fumarate Production by Torulopsis glabrata: Engineering Heterologous Fumarase Expression and Improving Acid Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulai Chen

    Full Text Available Fumarate is a well-known biomass building block compound. However, the poor catalytic efficiency of fumarase is one of the major factors preventing its widespread production. To address this issue, we selected residues 159HPND162 of fumarase from Rhizopus oryzae as targets for site-directed mutagenesis based on molecular docking analysis. Twelve mutants were generated and characterized in detail. Kinetic studies showed that the Km values of the P160A, P160T, P160H, N161E, and D162W mutants were decreased, whereas Km values of H159Y, H159V, H159S, N161R, N161F, D162K, and D162M mutants were increased. In addition, all mutants displayed decreased catalytic efficiency except for the P160A mutant, whose kcat/Km was increased by 33.2%. Moreover, by overexpressing the P160A mutant, the engineered strain T.G-PMS-P160A was able to produce 5.2 g/L fumarate. To further enhance fumarate production, the acid tolerance of T.G-PMS-P160A was improved by deleting ade12, a component of the purine nucleotide cycle, and the resulting strain T.G(△ade12-PMS-P160A produced 9.2 g/L fumarate. The strategy generated in this study opens up new avenues for pathway optimization and efficient production of natural products.

  2. Case Study Analysing Potentials to Improve Material Efficiency in Manufacturing Supply Chains, Considering Circular Economy Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja T. Braun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to decouple economic growth from global material consumption it is necessary to implement material efficiency strategies at the level of single enterprises and their supply chains, and to implement circular economy aspects. Manufacturing firms face multiple implementation challenges like cost limitations, competition, innovation and stakeholder pressure, and supplier and customer relationships, among others. Taking as an example a case of a medium-sized manufacturing company, opportunities to realise material efficiency improvements within the company borders—on the supply chain and by using circular economy measures—are assessed. Deterministic calculations and simulations, performed for the supply chain of this company, show that measures to increase material efficiency in the supply chain are important. However, they need to be complemented by efforts to return waste and used products to the economic cycle, which requires rethinking the traditional linear economic system.

  3. Jevons' Paradox revisited: The evidence for backfire from improved energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, Steve [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.r.sorrell@sussex.ac.uk

    2009-04-15

    Beginning with William Stanley Jevons in 1865, a number of authors have claimed that economically justified energy-efficiency improvements will increase rather than reduce energy consumption. 'Jevons Paradox' is extremely difficult to test empirically, but could have profound implications for energy and climate policy. This paper summarises and critiques the arguments and evidence that have been cited in support of Jevons' Paradox, focusing in particular on the work of Len Brookes and Harry Saunders. It identifies some empirical and theoretical weaknesses in these arguments, highlights the questions they raise for economic orthodoxy and points to some interesting parallels between these arguments and those used by the 'biophysical' school of ecological economics. While the evidence in favour of 'Jevons Paradox' is far from conclusive, it does suggest that economy-wide rebound effects are larger than is conventionally assumed and that energy plays a more important role in driving productivity improvements and economic growth than is conventionally assumed.

  4. Jevons' Paradox revisited. The evidence for backfire from improved energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, Steve [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Beginning with William Stanley Jevons in 1865, a number of authors have claimed that economically justified energy-efficiency improvements will increase rather than reduce energy consumption. 'Jevons Paradox' is extremely difficult to test empirically, but could have profound implications for energy and climate policy. This paper summarises and critiques the arguments and evidence that have been cited in support of Jevons' Paradox, focusing in particular on the work of Len Brookes and Harry Saunders. It identifies some empirical and theoretical weaknesses in these arguments, highlights the questions they raise for economic orthodoxy and points to some interesting parallels between these arguments and those used by the 'biophysical' school of ecological economics. While the evidence in favour of 'Jevons Paradox' is far from conclusive, it does suggest that economy-wide rebound effects are larger than is conventionally assumed and that energy plays a more important role in driving productivity improvements and economic growth than is conventionally assumed. (author)

  5. Improving IC process efficiency with critical materials management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kathy L.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2003-06-01

    The management of critical materials in a high technology manufacturing facility is crucial to obtaining consistently high production yield. This is especially true in an industry like semiconductors where the success of the product is so dependent on the integrity of the critical production materials. Bar code systems, the traditional management tools, are voluntary, defeatable, and do not continuously monitor materials when in use. The significant costs associated with mis-management of chemicals can be captured with a customized model resulting in highly favorable ROI"s for the NOWTrak RFID chemical management system. This system transmits reliable chemical data about each individual container and generates information that can be used to increase wafer production efficiency and yield. The future of the RFID system will expand beyond the benefits of chemical management and into dynamic IC process management

  6. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  7. Feeding strategies for improving ruminant productivity in areas of fluctuating nutrient supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This publication contains the results of a five-year Coordinated Research Programme aimed at assisting animal nutritionists in tropical and subtropical developing countries in their efforts to develop feeding systems for ruminant livestock. The feeds available have been studied, as have ways in which these may be manipulated to improve the efficiency with which they are used by animals for productive processes. The sixteen papers presented at the final research Coordination Meeting are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Efficient production and secretion of bovine beta-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazebrouck, Stéphane; Pothelune, Laetitia; Azevedo, Vasco; Corthier, Gérard; Wal, Jean-Michel; Langella, Philippe

    2007-04-06

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are attractive tools to deliver therapeutic molecules at the mucosal level. The model LAB Lactococcus lactis has been intensively used to produce and deliver such heterologous proteins. However, compared to recombinant lactococci, lactobacilli offer some advantages such as better survival in the digestive tract and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we compared different strategies to optimize the production of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major cow's milk allergen, in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. Using a nisin-inducible plasmid system, we first showed that L. casei BL23 strain could efficiently secrete a reporter protein, the staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc), with the lactococcal signal peptide SPUsp45 fused to its N-terminus. The fusion of SPUsp45 failed to drive BLG secretion but led to a 10-fold increase of intracellular BLG production. Secretion was significantly improved when the synthetic propeptide LEISSTCDA (hereafter called LEISS) was added to the N-terminus of the mature moiety of BLG. Secretion rate of LEISS-BLG was 6-fold higher than that of BLG alone while intracellular production reached then about 1 mg/L of culture. The highest yield of secretion was obtained by using Nuc as carrier protein. Insertion of Nuc between LEISS and BLG resulted in a 20-fold increase in BLG secretion, up to 27 microg/L of culture. Furthermore, the lactococcal nisRK regulatory genes were integrated into the BL23 chromosome. The nisRK insertion allowed a decrease of BLG synthesis in uninduced cultures while BLG production increased by 50% after nisin induction. Moreover, modification of the induction protocol led to increase the proportion of soluble BLG to around 74% of the total BLG production. BLG production and secretion in L. casei were significantly improved by fusions to a propeptide enhancer and a carrier protein. The resulting recombinant strains will be further tested for their ability to modulate the immune response

  9. Efficient production and secretion of bovine β-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are attractive tools to deliver therapeutic molecules at the mucosal level. The model LAB Lactococcus lactis has been intensively used to produce and deliver such heterologous proteins. However, compared to recombinant lactococci, lactobacilli offer some advantages such as better survival in the digestive tract and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we compared different strategies to optimize the production of bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG, a major cow's milk allergen, in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. Results Using a nisin-inducible plasmid system, we first showed that L. casei BL23 strain could efficiently secrete a reporter protein, the staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc, with the lactococcal signal peptide SPUsp45 fused to its N-terminus. The fusion of SPUsp45 failed to drive BLG secretion but led to a 10-fold increase of intracellular BLG production. Secretion was significantly improved when the synthetic propeptide LEISSTCDA (hereafter called LEISS was added to the N-terminus of the mature moiety of BLG. Secretion rate of LEISS-BLG was 6-fold higher than that of BLG alone while intracellular production reached then about 1 mg/L of culture. The highest yield of secretion was obtained by using Nuc as carrier protein. Insertion of Nuc between LEISS and BLG resulted in a 20-fold increase in BLG secretion, up to 27 μg/L of culture. Furthermore, the lactococcal nisRK regulatory genes were integrated into the BL23 chromosome. The nisRK insertion allowed a decrease of BLG synthesis in uninduced cultures while BLG production increased by 50% after nisin induction. Moreover, modification of the induction protocol led to increase the proportion of soluble BLG to around 74% of the total BLG production. Conclusion BLG production and secretion in L. casei were significantly improved by fusions to a propeptide enhancer and a carrier protein. The resulting recombinant strains will be further tested

  10. Geothermal source heat pumps under energy services companies finance scheme to increase energy efficiency and production in stockbreeding facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borge-Diez, David; Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Pérez-Molina, Clara; López-Rey, África

    2015-01-01

    In Europe energy services are underutilized in terms of their potential to improve energy efficiency and reduce external energy dependence. Agricultural and stockbreeding sectors have high potential to improve their energy efficiency. This paper presents an energy model for geothermal source heat pumps in stockbreeding facilities and an analysis of an energy services business case. The proposed solution combines both energy cost reduction and productivity increases and improves energy services company financing scheme. CO 2 emissions drop by 89%, reducing carbon footprint and improving added value for the product. For the two different evaluated scenarios, one including winter heating and one including heating and cooling, high IRR (internal return rate) values are obtained. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the IRR ranges from 10.25% to 22.02%, making the investment attractive. To make the research highly extensible, a sensitivity analysis for different locations and climatic conditions is presented, showing a direct relationship between financial parameters and climatic conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed showing that initial fuel cost and initial investment are the most decisive in the financial results. This work proves that energy services based on geothermal energy can be profitable in these sectors and can increase sustainability, reduce CO 2 emissions and improve carbon footprint. - Highlights: • Geothermal heat pumps are studied to promote industrial energy services. • Geothermal energy in farming facilities improves global competitiveness. • Research shows profitability of low enthalpy geothermal energy services. • Climatic conditions sensitivity analysis reveals IRR ranges from 10.25% to 22.02%. • Added market value for the product as carbon footprint reduction, are achieved

  11. Improvement of organic meat products nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Žilytė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research: to improve the food value indicators of cold-smoked organic meat and implement the quality requirements, which are raised for a national meat products of the company X. To answer the purpose it has been created a new recipe for cold-smoked sausage and cold-smoked minced sausage by using the produced meat in the farm X. It has been evaluated the compliance of the national products quality with the index of food value of improved cold-smoked meat products. It has bee...

  12. Simulation Modeling of Intelligent Control Algorithms for Constructing Autonomous Power Supply Systems with Improved Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimazov Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of supplying autonomous robots by solar batteries. Low efficiency of modern solar batteries is a critical issue for the whole industry of renewable energy. The urgency of solving the problem of improved energy efficiency of solar batteries for supplying the robotic system is linked with the task of maximizing autonomous operation time. Several methods to improve the energy efficiency of solar batteries exist. The use of MPPT charge controller is one these methods. MPPT technology allows increasing the power generated by the solar battery by 15 – 30%. The most common MPPT algorithm is the perturbation and observation algorithm. This algorithm has several disadvantages, such as power fluctuation and the fixed time of the maximum power point tracking. These problems can be solved by using a sufficiently accurate predictive and adaptive algorithm. In order to improve the efficiency of solar batteries, autonomous power supply system was developed, which included an intelligent MPPT charge controller with the fuzzy logic-based perturbation and observation algorithm. To study the implementation of the fuzzy logic apparatus in the MPPT algorithm, in Matlab/Simulink environment, we developed a simulation model of the system, including solar battery, MPPT controller, accumulator and load. Results of the simulation modeling established that the use of MPPT technology had increased energy production by 23%; introduction of the fuzzy logic algorithm to MPPT controller had greatly increased the speed of the maximum power point tracking and neutralized the voltage fluctuations, which in turn reduced the power underproduction by 2%.

  13. Efficient Work Team Scheduling: Using Psychological Models of Knowledge Retention to Improve Code Writing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pelosi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development teams and programmers must retain critical information about their work during work intervals and gaps in order to improve future performance when work resumes. Despite time lapses, project managers want to maximize coding efficiency and effectiveness. By developing a mathematically justified, practically useful, and computationally tractable quantitative and cognitive model of learning and memory retention, this study establishes calculations designed to maximize scheduling payoff and optimize developer efficiency and effectiveness.

  14. Morphological regulation of Aspergillus niger to improve citric acid production by chsC gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowen; Wu, Hefang; Zhao, Genhai; Li, Zhemin; Wu, Xihua; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Zhiming

    2018-04-02

    The mycelial morphology of Aspergillus niger, a major filamentous fungus used for citric acid production, is important for citric acid synthesis during submerged fermentation. To investigate the involvement of the chitin synthase gene, chsC, in morphogenesis and citric acid production in A. niger, an RNAi system was constructed to silence chsC and the morphological mutants were screened after transformation. The compactness of the mycelial pellets was obviously reduced in the morphological mutants, with lower proportion of dispersed mycelia. These morphological changes have caused a decrease in viscosity and subsequent improvement in oxygen and mass transfer efficiency, which may be conducive for citric acid accumulation. All the transformants exhibited improvements in citric acid production; in particular, chsC-3 showed 42.6% higher production than the original strain in the shake flask. Moreover, the high-yield strain chsC-3 exhibited excellent citric acid production potential in the scale-up process.The citric acid yield and the conversion rate of glucose of chsC-3 were both improved by 3.6%, when compared with that of the original strain in the stirred tank bioreactor.

  15. Improvement of production layout based on optimum production balancing scale results by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhsan, Siregar; Ulina Anastasia Sipangkar, Tri; Prasetio, Aji

    2017-09-01

    This research was conducted at a make to order production system company which is engaged in the car body of the vehicle. One of the products produced is dump truck which is one kind of transportation for the transport of goods equipped with hydraulics to facilitate goods’ loading and unloading process. The company has 7 work stations with different cycle times. Companies often experience delays in order delivery. The production process on the production floor has not been done optimally where there is a build up of work in process in some work centres. The build up of work in process (WIP) products is seen in the welding and painting stations. Stacking that occurs on the production line may cause the company to be liable for damages due to delays in product completion. The WIP occurs due to unbalanced paths can be seen from the variance of cycle time of each station is very diverse. The time difference of each work element is due to the allocation of work elements to each work centre unevenly. On the basis of the allocation of uneven work elements, the dump truck assembly line is made. The analysis is done by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method to do the balancing of production line. The result of layout improvement by using systematic layout planning (SLP) method is change the composition of the work centre from 7 into 4 work centre which enables the movement of material to be more effective and efficient so that it can get an efficient and effective production trajectory and can solve existing problems. The result of the track balancing is then used as a guide in constructing a new layout based on the balancing result with the most optimum method.

  16. Efficient perturbation theory to improve the density matrix renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrito, Emanuele; Ran, Shi-Ju; Ferris, Andrew J.; McCulloch, Ian P.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2017-02-01

    The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is one of the most powerful numerical methods available for many-body systems. It has been applied to solve many physical problems, including the calculation of ground states and dynamical properties. In this work, we develop a perturbation theory of the DMRG (PT-DMRG) to greatly increase its accuracy in an extremely simple and efficient way. Using the canonical matrix product state (MPS) representation for the ground state of the considered system, a set of orthogonal basis functions {| ψi> } is introduced to describe the perturbations to the ground state obtained by the conventional DMRG. The Schmidt numbers of the MPS that are beyond the bond dimension cutoff are used to define these perturbation terms. The perturbed Hamiltonian is then defined as H˜i j= ; its ground state permits us to calculate physical observables with a considerably improved accuracy compared to the original DMRG results. We benchmark the second-order perturbation theory with the help of a one-dimensional Ising chain in a transverse field and the Heisenberg chain, where the precision of the DMRG is shown to be improved O (10 ) times. Furthermore, for moderate L the errors of the DMRG and PT-DMRG both scale linearly with L-1 (with L being the length of the chain). The linear relation between the dimension cutoff of the DMRG and that of the PT-DMRG at the same precision shows a considerable improvement in efficiency, especially for large dimension cutoffs. In the thermodynamic limit we show that the errors of the PT-DMRG scale with √{L-1}. Our work suggests an effective way to define the tangent space of the ground-state MPS, which may shed light on the properties beyond the ground state. This second-order PT-DMRG can be readily generalized to higher orders, as well as applied to models in higher dimensions.

  17. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diddi, Saurabh [Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Government of India (India); Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant,and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one-star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security, and environment

  18. Energy-efficient buildings: Does the marketplace work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    For a variety of reasons, U.S. households, businesses, manufacturers, and government agencies all fail to take full advantage of cost-effective, energy-efficiency opportunities. Despite a growing environmental ethic among Americans and a concern for energy independence, consumers in this country are underinvesting in technologies, products, and practices that would cut their energy bills. The result is a large untapped potential for improving energy productivity, economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and energy security. The thesis of this paper is that the marketplace for energy efficiency, in general, is not operating perfectly, and the marketplace for energy-efficient buildings, in particular, is flawed. The reasons for underinvestments in cost-effective, energy efficiency are numerous and complicated. They also vary from sector to sector: the principal causes of energy inefficiencies in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation are not the same as the causes of inefficiencies in homes and office buildings, although there are some similarities. One of the reasons for these differences is that the structure of marketplace for delivering new technologies and products in each sector differs. Energy-efficiency improvements in the buildings sector is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, since most of the energy consumed in buildings comes from the burning of fossil fuels. This paper therefore begins by describing energy use and energy trends in the U.S. buildings sector. Characteristics of the marketplace for delivering energy efficiency technologies and products are then described in detail, arguing that this marketplace structure significantly inhibits rapid efficiency improvements.

  19. Production and efficiency of large wildland fire suppression effort: A stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hari; Calkin, David E; Hand, Michael S

    2016-01-15

    This study examines the production and efficiency of wildland fire suppression effort. We estimate the effectiveness of suppression resource inputs to produce controlled fire lines that contain large wildland fires using stochastic frontier analysis. Determinants of inefficiency are identified and the effects of these determinants on the daily production of controlled fire line are examined. Results indicate that the use of bulldozers and fire engines increase the production of controlled fire line, while firefighter crews do not tend to contribute to controlled fire line production. Production of controlled fire line is more efficient if it occurs along natural or built breaks, such as rivers and roads, and within areas previously burned by wildfires. However, results also indicate that productivity and efficiency of the controlled fire line are sensitive to weather, landscape and fire characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  1. Measuring Efficiency of Knowledge Production in Health Research Centers Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): A Case Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad Meskarpour; Nasiri, Taha; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Anabad, Hosein Amini; Ardakan, Payman Mahboobi

    2016-11-01

    Efficiency analysis is necessary in order to avoid waste of materials, energy, effort, money, and time during scientific research. Therefore, analyzing efficiency of knowledge production in health areas is necessary, especially for developing and in-transition countries. As the first step in this field, the aim of this study was the analysis of selected health research center efficiency using data envelopment analysis (DEA). This retrospective and applied study was conducted in 2015 using input and output data of 16 health research centers affiliated with a health sciences university in Iran during 2010-2014. The technical efficiency of health research centers was evaluated based on three basic data envelopment analysis (DEA) models: input-oriented, output-oriented, and hyperbolic-oriented. The input and output data of each health research center for years 2010-2014 were collected from the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHE) profile and analyzed by R software. The mean efficiency score in input-oriented, output-oriented, and hyperbolic-oriented models was 0.781, 0.671, and 0.798, respectively. Based on results of the study, half of the health research centers are operating below full efficiency, and about one-third of them are operating under the average efficiency level. There is also a large gap between health research center efficiency relative to each other. It is necessary for health research centers to improve their efficiency in knowledge production through better management of available resources. The higher level of efficiency in a significant number of health research centers is achievable through more efficient management of human resources and capital. Further research is needed to measure and follow the efficiency of knowledge production by health research centers around the world and over a period of time.

  2. Evaluation of energy efficiency of various biogas production and utilization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane; Owende, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilizatio