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Sample records for improved feed efficiency

  1. Improving feed efficiency in fish using selective breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdal, de Hugues; Komen, Hans; Quillet, Edwige; Chatain, Béatrice; Allal, François; Benzie, John A.H.; Vandeputte, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Improving feed efficiency (FE) is key to reducing production costs in aquaculture and to achieving sustainability for the aquaculture industry. Feed costs account for 30-70% of total production costs in aquaculture; much work has been done on nutritional and husbandry approaches to improve FE but

  2. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  3. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R

    2016-06-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  4. Sequential feeding using whole wheat and a separate protein-mineral concentrate improved feed efficiency in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Même, N; Rideau, N; Roffidal, L; Tukur, H M; Bastianelli, D; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2010-04-01

    The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added

  5. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Supandi, Dadang; Firsoni

    2002-01-01

    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  6. Feed efficiency improvement and aquaculture waste conversion to economically valuable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enang Harris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish farmer cannot reduce feed price, however they can reduce feed cost for fish producing. Feed cost is highly determined by feeding rate (FR; whether in maximum FR or restricted FR, and dissolved oxygen level in water. The present paper reviews a detail explanation concerning both factors on feed efficiency. Amongst other water quality parameters, oxygen is the most important factor and therefore must be closely monitored. Moreover, dissolved oxygen cannot be detected only by visual observation. Biofloc technology and PAS (partitioned aquaculture system can change waste into bacteria and phytoplankton biomass which can be further utilized as fish feed. The major difference between these systems is in the oxygen requirement. This paper also presents some experiment results and preliminary applications in field scale that have been performed in Indonesia.Keywords: feeding rate, oxygen, feed efficiency. ABSTRAKPembudidaya ikan tidak bisa menurunkan harga pakan, tetapi dapat menurunkan biaya pakan untuk memproduksi ikan. Biaya pakan sangat ditentukan oleh feeding rate (FR; apakah ”maksimum FR” atau ”restricted FR”, dan oksigen terlarut dalam air. Dalam artikel ini diuraikan secara rinci mengenai pengaruh kedua faktor tersebut terhadap efisiensi pakan. Oksigen merupakan faktor yang paling penting di antara kualitas air, oleh karena itu kadar oksigen terlarut harus diukur. Oksigen terlarut tidak dapat dideteksi dengan panca indera manusia. Teknologi biofloc dan PAS (partitioned aquaculture system mampu mengubah limbah jadi bakteri dan fitoplankton yang siap untuk menjadi makanan ikan. Perbedaannya antara kedua sistem terletak pada kebutuhan oksigen. Artikel ini juga memuat hasil percobaan dan praktik rintisan skala lapangan yang telah dilaksanakan di Indonesia.Kata kunci: feeding rate, oksigen, efisiensi pakan.

  7. Genetic variance and covariance and breed differences for feed intake and average daily gain to improve feed efficiency in growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K J; Bormann, J M; Weaber, R L; MacNeil, M D; Bradford, H L; Freetly, H C; Hales, K E; Moser, D W; Snelling, W M; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A

    2017-04-01

    Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, NE. On-test ADFI and ADG data were recorded over testing periods that ranged from 62 to 148 d. Individual quadratic regressions were fitted for BW on time, and TESTADG was predicted from the resulting equations. We included PWADG in the model to improve estimates of growth and intake parameters; PWADG was derived by dividing gain from weaning weight to yearling weight by the number of days between the weights. Genetic parameters were estimated using multiple-trait REML animal models with TESTADG, ADFI, and PWADG for both sexes as dependent variables. Fixed contemporary groups were cohorts of calves simultaneously tested, and covariates included age on test, age of dam, direct and maternal heterosis, and breed composition. Genetic correlations (SE) between steer TESTADG and ADFI, PWADG and ADFI, and TESTADG and PWADG were 0.33 (0.10), 0.59 (0.06), and 0.50 (0.09), respectively, and corresponding estimates for heifers were 0.66 (0.073), 0.77 (0.05), and 0.88 (0.05), respectively. Indices combining EBV for ADFI with EBV for ADG were developed and evaluated. Greater improvement in feed efficiency can be expected using an unrestricted index versus a restricted index. Heterosis significantly affected each trait contributing to greater ADFI and TESTADG. Breed additive effects were estimated for ADFI, TESTADG, and the efficiency indices.

  8. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait...

  9. Can we improve cow efficiency or manipulate feeding strategies to reduce inputs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most temporal environments, nutrient availability does not match the nutrient requirement of the cow, and for part of the year, nutrient availability is less than what is required to keep a cow at maintenance. Intensively managed agriculture production systems use mechanically harvested feed to ...

  10. Propolis and essential oils additives in the diets improved animal performance and feed efficiency of bulls finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was realized to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils addition on animal performance, feed intake, apparent digestibility and carcass characteristics of bulls finished in feedlot. Thirty bulls (½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nellore were randomly assigned in one of three diets (control – CON, propolis – PRO and essential oils – OIL and kept in feedlot (individual pen during 55 days. CON diet consists of 45% corn silage, 40% concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, limestone and mineral salt and 15% glycerine. The PRO group received same diet that control plus 3 grams to animal day-1 of propolis dry added to the concentrate. The OIL oils group received same diet that control and 3 grams to animal day-1 of essential oils (cashew and castor oils added to the concentrate. Final weight, average daily gain, feed efficiency and hot carcass weightwere better for bulls supplemented with essential oils and propolis than for bulls fed control diet. The feed intake, apparent digestibility, carcass conformation and tissue composition were unaffected by the additives addition. The addition of propolis and essential oils in the diets of bulls finished in feedlot improve animal performance and carcass weight.

  11. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  12. Genetic relationship between feed efficiency and profitability traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce the cost of feeding costs in beef cattle production and thereby improve profitability. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic (co)variances to compare residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) with growth, reproductive and profitability traits ...

  13. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...

  14. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  15. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed.

  16. Genetic improvement of feed intake and methane emissions of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla Pech, Coralia I.V.

    2017-01-01

    Feed costs represent half of the total costs of dairy production. One way to increase profitability of dairy production is to reduce feed costs by improving feed efficiency. As DMI is a trait that varies significantly during and across lactations, it is imperative to

  17. Feed conversion efficiency in aquaculture: do we measure it correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P.; Mailloux, Nicholas A.; Love, David C.; Milli, Michael C.; Cao, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Globally, demand for food animal products is rising. At the same time, we face mounting, related pressures including limited natural resources, negative environmental externalities, climate disruption, and population growth. Governments and other stakeholders are seeking strategies to boost food production efficiency and food system resiliency, and aquaculture (farmed seafood) is commonly viewed as having a major role in improving global food security based on longstanding measures of animal production efficiency. The most widely used measurement is called the ‘feed conversion ratio’ (FCR), which is the weight of feed administered over the lifetime of an animal divided by weight gained. By this measure, fed aquaculture and chickens are similarly efficient at converting feed into animal biomass, and both are more efficient compared to pigs and cattle. FCR does not account for differences in feed content, edible portion of an animal, or nutritional quality of the final product. Given these limitations, we searched the literature for alternative efficiency measures and identified ‘nutrient retention’, which can be used to compare protein and calories in feed (inputs) and edible portions of animals (outputs). Protein and calorie retention have not been calculated for most aquaculture species. Focusing on commercial production, we collected data on feed composition, feed conversion ratios, edible portions (i.e. yield), and nutritional content of edible flesh for nine aquatic and three terrestrial farmed animal species. We estimate that 19% of protein and 10% of calories in feed for aquatic species are ultimately made available in the human food supply, with significant variation between species. Comparing all terrestrial and aquatic animals in the study, chickens are most efficient using these measures, followed by Atlantic salmon. Despite lower FCRs in aquaculture, protein and calorie retention for aquaculture production is comparable to livestock production

  18. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    -hydroxybutyrate were not altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate that palmitic acid is more effective than stearic acid in improving milk fat concentration and yield as well as efficiency of feed conversion to milk. Responses were independent of production level and without changes in body condition score or body weight. Further studies are required to test the consistency of these responses across different types of diets. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential oils improved weight gain, growth and feed efficiency of young dairy calves fed 18 or 20% crude protein starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Falahati, R; Poorhamdollah, M; Heidari, S R; Pezeshki, A

    2018-01-17

    The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO). The EO was supplemented as 1 g/kg of starter DM. Calves were fed ad libitum starter diet and were weaned at day 59 of age, but diets continued until day 80. There were no interactive effects of CP and EO on intake and growth. Pre-weaning feed efficiency tended to be increased for 200P-EO (p = .09). Average daily gain and feed efficiency during pre-weaning period as well as weaning weight were increased (p calves-fed EO (p = .05) and was lower in those fed 180P vs. 200P (p feed efficiency of dairy calves, irrespective of dietary protein content. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pryce, J.E.; Wales, W.J.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hayes, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their

  1. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    methane, can improve feed conversion efficiency, improve animal productivity and is good for the environment. Farmers can reduce their herd's methane production between 5-25% by making changes in their management practices and diet which add to the cost of producing meat and milk (Beauchemin and McGinn, 2010) ...

  2. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-hydroxybutyrates (BHB), Triacylglyceride (TAG) and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and Kleiber Ratio (KR) based on daily feed or dry matter intake (DMI), body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical......-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes...

  3. Between animal variation in biological efficiency as related to residual feed consumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiting, P.; Urff, E.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Production levels in livestock (cattle, pigs and poultry) have been increased considerably, with a correlated increase in gross feed efficiency. However, mature body weight has also increased, leading to higher maintenance costs. Thus, net feed efficiency has been little improved. Breeding for lower

  4. Rumen microbiome from steers differing in feed efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip R Myer

    Full Text Available The cattle rumen has a diverse microbial ecosystem that is essential for the host to digest plant material. Extremes in body weight (BW gain in mice and humans have been associated with different intestinal microbial populations. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbiome of the cattle rumen among steers differing in feed efficiency. Two contemporary groups of steers (n=148 and n=197 were fed a ration (dry matter basis of 57.35% dry-rolled corn, 30% wet distillers grain with solubles, 8% alfalfa hay, 4.25% supplement, and 0.4% urea for 63 days. Individual feed intake (FI and BW gain were determined. Within contemporary group, the four steers within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled (n=16/group from the bivariate distribution of average daily BW gain and average daily FI. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the harvested bovine rumen fluid samples using next-generation sequencing technology. No significant changes in diversity or richness were indicated, and UniFrac principal coordinate analysis did not show any separation of microbial communities within the rumen. However, the abundances of relative microbial populations and operational taxonomic units did reveal significant differences with reference to feed efficiency groups. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in all ruminal groups, with significant population shifts in relevant ruminal taxa, including phyla Firmicutes and Lentisphaerae, as well as genera Succiniclasticum, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Prevotella. This study suggests the involvement of the rumen microbiome as a component influencing the efficiency of weight gain at the 16S level, which can be utilized to better understand variations in microbial ecology as well as host factors that will improve feed efficiency.

  5. Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, S.; Eekelen, van E.A.M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection

  6. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  7. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Keywords: Methane, global warming, greenhouse gas, crossbreeding, residual feed intake, feed efficiency. #Corresponding ... improved production per constant unit, crossbreeding and selection for residual feed intake. ... convert such a measure into kg calf produced per kg CO2 equivalent (CH4 can be converted to a CO2.

  8. Petroleum Processing Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Jenny Loveridge

    2012-09-01

    A series of volatile crude oils was characterized using the Asphaltene Determinator oncolumn precipitation and re-dissolution method developed at Western Research Institute (WRI). Gravimetric asphaltenes and polars fractions from silica gel chromatography separation of the oils were characterized also. A study to define the differences in composition of asphaltenes in refinery desalter rag layer emulsions and the corresponding feed and desalter oils was conducted. Results indicate that the most polar and pericondensed aromatic material in the asphaltenes is enriched in the emulsions. The wax types and carbon number distributions in the two heptaneeluting fractions from the Waxphaltene Determinator separation were characterized by repetitive collection of the fractions followed by high temperature gas chromatography (GC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). High resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) was conducted by researchers at the Florida State University National High Magnetic Field laboratory in a no-cost collaboration with the study.

  9. Effect of monensin and tylosin on average daily gain, feed efficiency and liver abscess incidence in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, E L; Wray, M I; Muller, R D; Grueter, H P; McAskill, J; Young, D C

    1985-11-01

    Fourteen trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding monensin at 33 ppm alone, tylosin at 11 ppm alone and the two feed additives in combination on the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed:gain ratio and the incidence of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle. Monensin reduced feed intake and improved feed efficiency (P less than .05), and had no effect on average daily gain. Tylosin improved average daily gain (P less than .05) and had no effect on daily feed intake. The effect of tylosin on feed efficiency approached significance. The interaction of monensin and tylosin was nonsignificant for daily gain, daily feed intake and feed:gain ratio. Monensin had no effect on liver abscess incidence, while tylosin reduced abscess incidence from 27 to 9%.

  10. Improving efficiency in stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kresten Krarup; Andersen, Ina Trolle; Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm

    2013-01-01

    of the study was to investigate the time efficiency of the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides compared with traditional methods in a practical application, namely the estimation of osteoclast numbers in paws from mice with experimental arthritis and control mice. Tissue slides were scanned...... in a digital slide scanner and the autodisector was applied on the obtained virtual tissue slides. Every slide was partitioned into fields of view, and cells were counted in all of them. Based on the original exhaustive data set comprising 100% of fields of view and covering the total section area...

  11. Genetic relationship between feed efficiency and profitability traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    trait is defined as residual (or nett) feed intake (RFI) (Archer et al., 1998). The advantage of using RFI as an efficiency trait instead of FCR is that RFI is not defined as a ratio trait and that selection to reduce RFI offers an opportunity to reduce feed ... with a standard deviation of R141.28. Table 1: Heritability (on diagonal) and ...

  12. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  13. Genetic parameters for two selection criteria for feed efficiency in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouilhet, L; Gilbert, H; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Larzul, C; Garreau, H

    2013-07-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency can be achieved by genetic selection directly on feed to BW gain ratio or for alternative traits. In the present study, 2 different traits were explored in the growing rabbit and their heritability and genetic correlations with traits recorded between weaning (30 d) and 63 d of age: i) residual feed intake (RFI), to select animals having low ad libitum feed intake independently from their production level, and ii) ADG under restricted feeding (ADGR; with a restriction level of 80% compared with ad libitum feeding of a control group), to select animals having high growth rate despite limited feed intake. To study these traits, 2 rabbit lines were established named i) ConsoResidual line and ii) ADGrestrict line. Under ad libitum or restricted feeding, it comes to select animals that waste less energy for maintenance, metabolism, or activity and retain more for tissue deposition. The selection process was similar in both lines. Data comprised records from generations 0 to 6 for about 1,800 rabbits per line measured for their BW at weaning and 63 d of age (BW63) and their individual feed consumption. Under ad libitum feeding, the heritability estimates were moderate for RFI (0.16 ± 0.05), ADG (0.19 ± 0.05), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 0.22 ± 0.05). The high genetic correlation estimated between RFI and FCR (0.96 ± 0.03) was in accordance with the literature. The genetic correlation between RFI and ADG traits was not significant. Thus, selection for low RFI with ad libitum feeding was confirmed as a potential trait to improve FCR and reduce feed intake, with little effect on ADG. To our knowledge, there is no previous selection experiment on growing rabbits with restricted feeding. Our heritability estimates for ADGR and feed conversion ratio under restricted feeding (FCRR) were moderate (0.22 ± 0.06 and 0.23 ± 0.07, respectively) and had very high negative genetic correlation. Both selection criteria were found with high and

  14. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified...... or body condition score. The net feed intake of HBR sheep was lower than that of LBR sheep (P = 0.02), indicating that under the conditions of our experiment, HBR sheep were actually more feed efficient than LBR sheep. This study was carried out on sheep with steady intakes and in familiar surroundings....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  15. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behavior and temperament with performance, feed efficiency, ultrasound, and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    .26), a moderate genetic correlation with FCR (r(g) = 0.40 +/- 0.26), and a negative genetic correlation with RFI (r(g) = -0.59 +/- 0.45). The results indicate that behavior traits may contribute to the variation in the efficiency of growth of beef cattle, and there are potential correlated responses to selection to improve efficiency. Feeding behavior and temperament may need to be included in the definition of beef cattle breeding goals, and approaches such as the culling of unmanageable cattle and the introduction of correct handling facilities or early life provision of appropriate experiences to improve handling will be useful.

  16. Feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality characteristics of bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    South African Society for Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/sajas.asp. 313. Feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality characteristics of bulls finished on diets containing varied proportions of wheat straw and wet sugar beet pulp. S. Yüksel. 1.

  17. Size allometry in mink (Mustela Vision) selected for feed efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sørensen, K.; Koops, W.J.; Grossman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives were to analyse absolute and relative size of mink at maturity, and to test effects of selection line, sex and interaction on size. For male and female mink selected for high or low feed efficiency, size at 30 weeks was analyzed for body weight, carcass weight, pelt weight, subcutaneous

  18. GATE: Improving the computational efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staelens, S. [UGent-ELIS, St-Pietersnieuwstraat, 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)]. E-mail: steven.staelens@ugent.be; De Beenhouwer, J. [UGent-ELIS, St-Pietersnieuwstraat, 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Kruecker, D. [Institute of Medicine-Forschungszemtrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Maigne, L. [Departement de Curietherapie-Radiotherapie, Centre Jean Perrin, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Rannou, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Ferrer, L. [INSERM U601, CHU Nantes, F-44093 Nantes (France); D' Asseler, Y. [UGent-ELIS, St-Pietersnieuwstraat, 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Buvat, I. [INSERM U678 UPMC, CHU Pitie-Salpetriere, F-75634 Paris (France); Lemahieu, I. [UGent-ELIS, St-Pietersnieuwstraat, 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2006-12-20

    GATE is a software dedicated to Monte Carlo simulations in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). An important disadvantage of those simulations is the fundamental burden of computation time. This manuscript describes three different techniques in order to improve the efficiency of those simulations. Firstly, the implementation of variance reduction techniques (VRTs), more specifically the incorporation of geometrical importance sampling, is discussed. After this, the newly designed cluster version of the GATE software is described. The experiments have shown that GATE simulations scale very well on a cluster of homogeneous computers. Finally, an elaboration on the deployment of GATE on the Enabling Grids for E-Science in Europe (EGEE) grid will conclude the description of efficiency enhancement efforts. The three aforementioned methods improve the efficiency of GATE to a large extent and make realistic patient-specific overnight Monte Carlo simulations achievable.

  19. GATE: Improving the computational efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staelens, S.; De Beenhouwer, J.; Kruecker, D.; Maigne, L.; Rannou, F.; Ferrer, L.; D'Asseler, Y.; Buvat, I.; Lemahieu, I.

    2006-01-01

    GATE is a software dedicated to Monte Carlo simulations in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). An important disadvantage of those simulations is the fundamental burden of computation time. This manuscript describes three different techniques in order to improve the efficiency of those simulations. Firstly, the implementation of variance reduction techniques (VRTs), more specifically the incorporation of geometrical importance sampling, is discussed. After this, the newly designed cluster version of the GATE software is described. The experiments have shown that GATE simulations scale very well on a cluster of homogeneous computers. Finally, an elaboration on the deployment of GATE on the Enabling Grids for E-Science in Europe (EGEE) grid will conclude the description of efficiency enhancement efforts. The three aforementioned methods improve the efficiency of GATE to a large extent and make realistic patient-specific overnight Monte Carlo simulations achievable

  20. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Wales, W J; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F; Hayes, B J

    2014-01-01

    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their breeding objectives by approximating the amount of energy required for milk production, maintenance, etc. However, variation in actual feed intake is currently not captured in dairy selection objectives, although this could be possible by evaluating traits such as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between actual and predicted feed (or energy) intake. As feed intake is expensive to accurately measure on large numbers of cows, phenotypes derived from it are obvious candidates for genomic selection provided that: (1) the trait is heritable; (2) the reliability of genomic predictions are acceptable to those using the breeding values; and (3) if breeding values are estimated for heifers, rather than cows then the heifer and cow traits need to be correlated. The accuracy of genomic prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) and RFI has been estimated to be around 0.4 in beef and dairy cattle studies. There are opportunities to increase the accuracy of prediction, for example, pooling data from three research herds (in Australia and Europe) has been shown to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction of DMI from 0.33 within country to 0.35 using a three-country reference population. Before including RFI as a selection objective, genetic correlations with other traits need to be estimated. Weak unfavourable genetic correlations between RFI and fertility have been published. This could be because RFI is mathematically similar to the calculation of energy balance and failure to account for mobilisation of body reserves correctly may result in selection for a trait that is similar to selecting for reduced (or negative) energy balance. So, if RFI is to become a

  1. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-04-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for

  2. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n ...... of inflammation and SAA supplementation decreased the pro-inflammatory interferon-gamma response and improved protein utilisation, as measured by PU, whereas supplementation with both Trp and SAA improved feed conversion ratio....... interferon-gamma regardless of dietary Trp or day of sampling (P = 0.043). Increasing dietary SAA decreased plasma urea (PU) levels on Days 5, 8 and 14 (P

  3. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  4. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n....../mL, serotype O149 : K91 : K88) on Days 5, 6, and 7 after weaning. Pigs were bled on Days 5, 8 and 14 and subsequently analysed for plasma levels of acute-phase proteins, urea, cytokines (Days 5 and 8 only) and amino acids (Days 5 and 8 only). Increasing Trp (P = 0.036) and SAA (P = 0.028) improved feed...

  5. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  6. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each four heads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05 on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  7. Hot topic: Definition and implementation of a breeding value for feed efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E

    2015-10-01

    A new breeding value that combines the amount of feed saved through improved metabolic efficiency with predicted maintenance requirements is described. The breeding value includes a genomic component for residual feed intake (RFI) combined with maintenance requirements calculated from either a genomic or pedigree estimated breeding value (EBV) for body weight (BW) predicted using conformation traits. Residual feed intake is only available for genotyped Holsteins; however, BW is available for all breeds. The RFI component of the "feed saved" EBV has 2 parts: Australian calf RFI and Australian lactating cow RFI. Genomic breeding values for RFI were estimated from a reference population of 2,036 individuals in a multi-trait analysis including Australian calf RFI (n=843), Australian lactating cow RFI (n=234), and UK and Dutch lactating cow RFI (n=958). In all cases, the RFI phenotypes were deviations from a mean of 0, calculated by correcting dry matter intake for BW, growth, and milk yield (in the case of lactating cows). Single nucleotide polymorphism effects were calculated from the output of genomic BLUP and used to predict breeding values of 4,106 Holstein sires that were genotyped but did not have RFI phenotypes themselves. These bulls already had BW breeding values calculated from type traits, from which maintenance requirements in kilograms of feed per year were inferred. Finally, RFI and the feed required for maintenance (through BW) were used to calculate a feed saved breeding value and expressed as the predicted amount of feed saved per year. Animals that were 1 standard deviation above the mean were predicted to eat 66 kg dry matter less per year at the same level of milk production. In a data set of genotyped Holstein sires, the mean reliability of the feed saved breeding value was 0.37. For Holsteins that are not genotyped and for breeds other than Holsteins, feed saved is calculated using BW only. From April 2015, feed saved has been included as part of

  8. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santana, M. H. A.; Freua, M. C.; Do, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feed lots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle......, were annotated and the biological processes underlying the traits were inferred from Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Our results indicated several putative genomic regions associated with the target...... genetics approach used in this study revealed novel pathways related to feed efficiency traits in beef cattle....

  9. Feeding of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC to growing sheep: 2. Growth rate and feed efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Lubis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of yeast and or filamentous fungi as feed additive to ruminants has been of interest since the late 1980’s. Two fungi species have been commercially produced in the United States, (1 Yea-Sacc containing living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (2 Amaferm bearing Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract. It has been demonstrated and proven that the cultures can enhance rumen development and function in young ruminants. This paper concerns the use of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC as feed additive for young-growing male ‘Garut’ sheep. The A. oryzae was cultured in a media made of mineral-enriched ‘onggok’ flour, a material of tapioca processing waste. The AOFC was prepared gradually by incubating the fungus at room temperature (26 – 300C for 5 days, dried at 400C and ground. The AOFC was added to a commercial concentrate (GT-03 at 0, 5 and 10% (w/w levels, as treatment C0 (control, C1, and C2, respectively. Fifteen growing ‘Garut’ sheep were used and the concentrate feed treatments were randomly allotted based on a randomized block design. Drinking water was available at all time. The amount of feed offered (chopped King grass and concentrates and their refusals were weighed daily and live-weight of sheep was measured once a week in the morning. Daily feces was collected and weighed in the last 10 days of the 14-week experimental period. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, total fiber (NDF, and ash. AOFC supplementation resulted in higher weight gains (P<0.05, which were 94.81; 122.08; and 140.52 g/d for C0, C1, and C2 treatments, respectively. Dry and organic matter, as well as protein intake was also significantly increased by inclusion of AOFC into concentrate diet (P<0.05. The increment in nutrient intake was from increased consumption of concentrates, and not from King grass, however, there was no effect of AOFC supplementation on feed efficiency.

  10. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. Mejoría de la Alimentación Suplementaria en la Conservación de Especies Resumen La alimentaci

  11. Feeding strategies for improving ruminant productivity in areas of fluctuating nutrient supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This publication contains the results of a five-year Coordinated Research Programme aimed at assisting animal nutritionists in tropical and subtropical developing countries in their efforts to develop feeding systems for ruminant livestock. The feeds available have been studied, as have ways in which these may be manipulated to improve the efficiency with which they are used by animals for productive processes. The sixteen papers presented at the final research Coordination Meeting are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved Productivity. Performance of ... Manipulation of ruminal fermentation processes for reducing methane production by ruminants to improve the .... defaunation, improve the protein metabolism and, at the same time, reduce ammonia production and emission ...

  13. Improving radiation use efficiency in greenhouse production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A large increase in agricultural production is needed to feed the increasing world population with their increasing demand per capita. However, growing competition for arable land, water, energy, and the degradation of the environment impose challenges to improve crop production. Hence agricultural production efficiency needs to increase. Greenhouses provide the possibility to create optimal growth conditions for crops, thereby improving production and product quality. Light is the dr...

  14. Fetal and neonatal programming of postnatal growth and feed efficiency in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Ju; Wang, Binggen; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic regulation of protein expression and functions include chromatin remodeling; DNA methylation (occurring at the 5´-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides); and histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination). Like maternal malnutrition, undernutrition during the neonatal period also reduces growth performance and feed efficiency (weight gain:feed intake; also known as weight-gain efficiency) in postweaning pigs by 5-10%, thereby increasing the days necessary to reach the market body-weight. Supplementing functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) and vitamins (e.g., folate) play a key role in activating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and regulating the provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients are beneficial for the dietary treatment of metabolic disorders in offspring with intrauterine growth restriction or neonatal malnutrition. The mechanism-based strategies hold great promise for the improvement of the efficiency of pork production and the sustainability of the global swine industry.

  15. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  16. Analysis of the gut bacterial communities in beef cattle and their association with feed intake, growth, and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, P R; Freetly, H C; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L; Kuehn, L A

    2017-07-01

    The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd. Yet genetic contributions to feed efficiency have been difficult to identify, and differing genetics, feed regimens, and environments among studies contribute to great variation and interpretation of results. With increasing evidence that hosts and their microbiomes interact in complex associations and networks, examining the gut microbial population variation in feed efficiency may lead to partially clarifying the considerable variation in the efficiency of feed utilization. The use of metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing has greatly impacted the study of the ruminant gut. The ability to interrogate these systems at great depth has permitted a greater understanding of the microbiological and molecular mechanisms involved in ruminant nutrition and health. Although the microbial communities of the reticulorumen have been well documented to date, our understanding of the populations within the gastrointestinal tract as a whole is limited. The composition and phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbial community are critical to the overall well-being of the host and must be determined to fully understand the relationship between the microbiomes within segments of the cattle gastrointestinal tract and feed efficiency, ADG, and ADFI. This review addresses recent research regarding the bacterial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle; their association with ADG, ADFI, and feed efficiency

  17. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to 12% of gross energy, however, is lost in the form of methane from ruminants. Methane is also one of the major green house gasses. Methane is produced by bacteria species, collectively called methanogens. Reduction in methane production increases the efficiency of feed utilization in ruminant animals. Manipulation ...

  18. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  19. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    made, are that each system is 100% efficient, and that the levels of production have at least been achieved in some of the experimental work. No allowance has been made for any penalty which the processor may apply to the carcass, the assumption being entirely that the objective is to produce lean meat independently of ...

  20. Use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage: Achievements, result implications, and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of unconventional feed resources holds great relevance to developing countries, where the main constraint to livestock development is the scarcity and fluctuation of the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. There is a serious shortage in concentrated animal feeds such as soybean, cottonseed and groundnut meals, etc. In addition, the human population is increasingly rapidly and arable land is decreasing, due to solid degradation, urbanization and industrialization. Production of grain in developing countries is mostly for human consumption. Novel approaches through the utilization of tree leaves, agro-industrial by-products, aquatic sources are required to bridge the gap between supply and demand of feeds. As the demand for food rises, including that of animal origin, unconventional feed resources including tanninferous plants must play an increasingly important part in the diet of animals, in particular for ruminants in smallholder farming systems in developing countries

  1. Improving meat quality through cattle feed enriched with mate extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa

    The use of plant extracts in animal feeding trials has been considered as a potential alternative to improve the redox stability of meat. Bioactive compounds from plant extracts can provide the antioxidative mechanisms required to improve animal health and welfare and, to protect meat against...... oxidation. Pharmacological properties and antioxidant effects have been associated to the extract of hops and to the extracts of yerba mate. However, the effects of hops and yerba mate as dietary supplement for animal feeding on the metabolic profile and the redox stability of meat have not been reported...... yet. Addition of extract of mate to a standard maize/soy feed at a level of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5% to the diet of feedlot for cattle resulted in an increased level of inosine monophosphate, creatine, carnosine and of conjugated linoleic acid in the fresh meat. The tendency to radical formation in meat...

  2. Exploring a Possible Link between the Intestinal Microbiota and Feed Efficiency in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ursula M; Curião, Tânia; Buzoianu, Stefan G; Prieto, Maria L; Ryan, Tomas; Varley, Patrick; Crispie, Fiona; Magowan, Elizabeth; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Berry, Donagh; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2017-08-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium, and high residual feed intake ([RFI] a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional, and management effects were minimized, to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty-one pigs were ranked according to RFI between weaning and day 126 postweaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, and 10 high). Intestinal microbiota diversity, composition, and predicted functionality were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although no differences in microbial diversity were found, some RFI-associated compositional differences were revealed, principally among members of Firmicutes , predominantly in feces at slaughter (albeit mainly for low-abundance taxa). In particular, microbes associated with a leaner and healthier host (e.g., Christensenellaceae , Oscillibacter , and Cellulosilyticum ) were enriched in low RFI (more feed-efficient) pigs. Differences were also observed in the ileum of low RFI pigs; most notably, Nocardiaceae ( Rhodococcus ) were less abundant. Predictive functional analysis suggested improved metabolic capabilities in these animals, especially within the ileal microbiota. Higher ileal isobutyric acid concentrations were also found in low RFI pigs. Overall, the differences observed within the intestinal microbiota of low RFI pigs compared with that of their high RFI counterparts, albeit relatively subtle, suggest a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE in pigs. IMPORTANCE This study is one of the first to show that differences in intestinal microbiota composition, albeit subtle, may partly explain improved feed efficiency (FE) in low residual feed intake (RFI) pigs. One of the main findings is

  3. Exploring a Possible Link between the Intestinal Microbiota and Feed Efficiency in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ursula M.; Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Prieto, Maria L.; Ryan, Tomas; Varley, Patrick; Crispie, Fiona; Magowan, Elizabeth; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Berry, Donagh; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium, and high residual feed intake ([RFI] a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional, and management effects were minimized, to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty-one pigs were ranked according to RFI between weaning and day 126 postweaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, and 10 high). Intestinal microbiota diversity, composition, and predicted functionality were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although no differences in microbial diversity were found, some RFI-associated compositional differences were revealed, principally among members of Firmicutes, predominantly in feces at slaughter (albeit mainly for low-abundance taxa). In particular, microbes associated with a leaner and healthier host (e.g., Christensenellaceae, Oscillibacter, and Cellulosilyticum) were enriched in low RFI (more feed-efficient) pigs. Differences were also observed in the ileum of low RFI pigs; most notably, Nocardiaceae (Rhodococcus) were less abundant. Predictive functional analysis suggested improved metabolic capabilities in these animals, especially within the ileal microbiota. Higher ileal isobutyric acid concentrations were also found in low RFI pigs. Overall, the differences observed within the intestinal microbiota of low RFI pigs compared with that of their high RFI counterparts, albeit relatively subtle, suggest a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE in pigs. IMPORTANCE This study is one of the first to show that differences in intestinal microbiota composition, albeit subtle, may partly explain improved feed efficiency (FE) in low residual feed intake (RFI) pigs. One of the main findings is

  4. Understanding Millennials to Improve Recruiting Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    efficient recruiting of Millennials . There is not a consistently strong linkage within the command to explain national advertising messaging methodology to...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t UNDERSTANDING MILLENNIALS TO IMPROVE RECRUITING EFFICIENCY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL HEATHER GARRETT...Research Project 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Understanding Millennials to Improve Recruiting Efficiency 5a

  5. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...... to improve the oxidative stability, nutritive value and sensory quality of beef.......Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...

  6. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  7. Efficiency of organic acid preparations for the elimination of naturally occurring Salmonella in feed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Kolar, Veronika; Adler, Andreas; Strnad, Irmengard

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella can enter animal stocks via feedstuffs, thus posing not only an infection risk for animals, but also threatening to contaminate food of animal origin and finally humans. Salmonella contamination in feedstuffs is still a recurring and serious issue in animal production (especially for the poultry sector), and is regularly detected upon self-monitoring by feed companies (self-checks) and official inspections authorities. Operators within the feed chain in certain cases need to use hygienic condition enhancers, such as organic acids, to improve the quality of feed for animal nutrition, providing additional guarantees for the protection of animal and public health. The present study investigated the efficiencies of five organic acid preparations. The acid products were added to three different feed materials contaminated with Salmonella (contamination occurred by recontamination in the course of the production process) at seven different inclusion rates (1-7%) and analysed after 1, 2, and 7 days' exposure time using culture method (tenfold analysis). A reliable standard was established for defining a successful decontamination under the prevailing test conditions: 10 Salmonella-negative results out of 10 tested samples (0/10: i.e. 0 positive samples and 10 negative samples). The results demonstrated that the tested preparations showed significant differences with regard to the reduction in Salmonella contamination. At an inclusion rate of 7% of the feed materials, two out of five acid preparations showed an insufficient, very small, decontamination effect, whereas two others had a relatively large partial effect. Reliable decontamination was demonstrated only for one acid preparation, however, subject to the use of the highest acid concentration.

  8. Infant feeding practices in the Peruvian Amazon: implications for programs to improve feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenyth Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize feeding practices in a community in the Peruvian Amazon and to consider how this information could be used to strengthen programs and policies designed to improve nutrition and reduce child malnutrition in vulnerable communities METHODS: Data from three structured questionnaires were combined to produce a comprehensive depiction of feeding in a sample of 246 infants from birth through 8 months of life in the community of Santa Clara de Nanay near Iquitos, Peru. Breastfeeding initiation practices, exclusive breastfeeding in the first 180 days of life, the introduction of solids, and complementary feeding practices from 6-8 months, were described and related to maternal, infant, and household characteristics, including food insecurity RESULTS: The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 19 days. However, over the first 180 days of life, children were exclusively breastfed on 46.1% of days. Overall, 68.3% of infants received some semi-solid or solid food between 0-6 months and all had received semi-solids by the end of 8 months of age. The proportion of infants consuming a minimally acceptable (frequent and diverse complementary diet was 2.9%, 7.9%, and 16.1% at 6, 7, and 8 months respectively CONCLUSIONS: Although breastfeeding is nearly universal, promotion programs are needed in Santa Clara to 1 delay the introduction of plain water, other non-breast milk liquids, and semi-solid foods; 2 extend the period of exclusive breastfeeding; and 3 increase food diversity and the frequency of feeding during the period of complementary feeding. These results can be used to guide programs and policies to improve nutrition and reduce child malnutrition.

  9. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  11. Modern features of complementary feeding and their efficiency in baby-led feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Duka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Baby-led feeding exists in the practice of pediatrics since 2002. But there are still no clear results on the effectiveness of its implementation and the impact on the health of young children. Particular attention is required to study the effectiveness of introducing complementary feeding. Materials and methods. We analyzed 245 questionnaires of infants with baby-led-feeding. In the questionnaires for mothers, questions were raised about the initiation of the introduction of complementary feeding, its types, the child’s reaction, with the assessment of physical development and the previous diseases. Results. Children with baby-led-feeding have a tendency to late introduction of complementary feeding (from 6 months. It turned out that until this age, the child receives only breast milk, which can’t satisfy the need for important constituent ingredients. They are necessary for the child at this age, and it leads to various metabolic disorders in the form of allergic di­seases, metabolic syndrome, anemia, osteoporosis and others. Particular concern was caused by the fact that children start receiving meat products too late, which naturally leads to the development of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, contrary to the current norms and regulations, we noticed frequent facts of self-consumption of the whole milk itself and fermented milk products made from it (kephir, yoghurt. Conclusions. Based on the study of this question, it was proved that the existing provisions on the introduction of complementary foods with baby-led-feeding require supervision and correction in accordance with the state of children’s health and the existing provisions of the World Health Organization.

  12. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P feed efficiency.

  13. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  14. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows we...

  15. A prototype national cattle evaluation for feed intake and efficiency of Angus cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent development of technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. Goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a ge...

  16. Common challenge in resource efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Motta, Sergio; Peronaci, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency and technology improvements on their own will not achieve the Low Carbon Societies (LCS) goals. Thus, resource efficiency and a circular economy are keys to a low carbon society. Resource efficiency improvement potential has been analysed from the industrial and territorial management perspectives. Exploring synergies between LCS and the larger area of sustainable development and green economy, highlighting co-benefits and trade-offs, is of utmost importance to pave the way to a more equitable and largely participated low carbon transition.

  17. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanak, B.E.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1980-01-11

    A method is described for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  18. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanak, Brant E.; Stephenson, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is a method for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  19. The gain from improved market efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the nineteenth century, when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer...

  20. Feeding broiler breeders to improve their welfare whilst maintaining productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    In the present experiment different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity whilst limiting the growth of broiler breeders to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (CON, commercial control diet; INF, high insoluble fibre content......; and SOF, high soluble fibre content) were each fed to 10 groups of 12 broiler breeder chickens (age: 2 to 15 weeks). Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (e.g. food allocation in week 14: approx. 80, 100, and 130 g/d for CON, INF, and SOF, respectively) with all birds...... of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. This experiment indicates that high fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high ratio of insoluble fibre can reduce stereotypies and may improve the well-being of the birds....

  1. Associations of acute stress and overnight heart rate with feed efficiency in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, J C; Schenkel, F S; Physick-Sheard, P W; Fontoura, A B P; Miller, S P; Tennessen, T; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-03-01

    Proxies have the potential to accelerate feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI); kg dry matter/day) improvement, assisting with the reduction of beef cattle feed costs and environmental impact. Heart rate (HR) (beats per minute (BPM)) is associated with feed efficiency and influenced by autonomic activity and peripheral metabolism, suggesting HR could be used as a proxy for feed efficiency. Objectives were to assess associations between overnight HR, lying patterns and RFI, and between acute stress HR and RFI. Heifer calves (n=107; 408±28 days of age, 341±42.2 kg) and yearling heifers (n=36; 604±92 days of age, 539±52.2 kg) were exposed to a performance test to determine productive performance. Overnight HR (electrode based) and lying patterns (accelerometer based) were monitored on a subgroup of heifer calves (n=40; 20 lowest RFI; 20 highest RFI). In the 10-min acute stress assessment, all heifers were individually exposed to the opening and closing of an umbrella and HR before (HRBEF), in response to (HRMAX), after (HRAFT) and change (HRCHG; HRAFT-HRBEF) as a result of exposure were determined. Using polynomial regression, rate of HR decrease pre-exposure (β 1) and rates of HR increase (β 2) and decrease (β 3, β 4) post-exposure were determined. Heifer calves in the overnight assessment were classified into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and HR means were treated as repeated measures and compared using multiple regression. In the acute stress assessment, heifers were classified within cattle category into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and means and polynomial regression parameters were compared using multiple regression. Low-RFI heifer calves had a lower overnight HR (69.2 v. 72.6 BPM), similar HR change from lying to standing intervals (8.9 v. 9.2 BPM) and similar time lying (61.1% v. 64.5%) compared with high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI heifer calves had a higher absolute HRMAX (162.9 v. 145.7 BPM) and β 2 (-0.34 v. -0.20) than high

  2. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  3. The Gains from Improved Market Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar; Ejrnæs, Mette

    This paper looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the 19th century when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer......, Liverpool, are analyzed. We show that there was a law of one price equilibrium throughout the period but that markets displayed spells of demand- or supply-constrained trade when the law of one price was violated. Over time adjustments back to equilibrium, as measured by the half-life of a shock, become...... faster, violations of the law of one price become smaller and hence less persistent. There were also significant gains from improved market efficiency but that improvement took place after the information ‘regime’ shifted from pre-telegraphic communication to a regime with swift transmission...

  4. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    . The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than......Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas...... in 180 times in comparison with a direct fiber-waveguide coupling. Pros and cons of each configuration are discussed. Fabrication and characterisation results are reported....

  5. Constraints limiting efficient utilization of improved cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfavorable weather conditions and the poor performance of the institutions charged with the responsibility of making these improved inputs readily available to farmers constitute a major barrier to their efficient utilization. It is therefore recommended that there is a need for an effective public – private partnership in the ...

  6. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangfeng; Ju Chenyong; Li Hui

    2005-01-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character

  7. Improving biological efficiency of Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Yield improvement were observed in both pigeon pea and sunflower seed cake supplemented treatments with the highest mycelium vigor (91.65%) and biological ... Keywords: biological efficiency, compost, mycelium vigor, pigeon pea, sunflower seed cake

  8. Feeding behavior improves prediction of dairy cow voluntary feed intake but cannot serve as the sole indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halachmi, I; Ben Meir, Y; Miron, J; Maltz, E

    2016-09-01

    Low-cost feeding-behavior sensors will soon be available for commercial use in dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a feed intake model for the individual dairy cow that includes feeding behavior. In a research farm, the individual cows' voluntary feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored at every meal. A feed intake model was developed based on data that exist in commercial modern farms: 'BW,' 'milk yield' and 'days in milking' parameters were applied in this study. At the individual cow level, eating velocity seemed to be correlated with feed intake (R 2=0.93 to 0.94). The eating velocity coefficient varied among individuals, ranging from 150 to 230 g/min per cow. The contribution of feeding behavior (0.28) to the dry matter intake (DMI) model was higher than the contribution of BW (0.20), similar to the contribution of fat-corrected milk (FCM)/BW (0.29) and not as large as the contribution of FCM (0.49). Incorporating feeding behavior into the DMI model improved its accuracy by 1.3 (38%) kg/cow per day. The model is ready to be implemented in commercial farms as soon as companies introduce low-cost feeding-behavior sensors on commercial level.

  9. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Srisook, S.; Mahankich, S.; Tantikitti, C.; Onkong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM) replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulat...

  10. Supplementation Effect of Herbal and Organic Minerals in Beef Cattle Feed on Consumption, Digestibility, Efficiency and Daily Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Prayitno, CH; Sutardi, TR; Suwarno, Suwarno

    2014-01-01

    . The experiment was conducted in an attempt to study the effect of supplementation of Sapindus rarak, garlic powder and its combinations in beef cattle feed enriched with organic minerals of Cr and Zn on feed consumption, feed digestibility, feed efficiency, daily gain of beef cattle. The study used 16 males Brahman cross cows, which were fed with feeds supplemented with 250 ppm Sapindus rarak powder, 250 ppm Garlic powder, and a combination of 250 ppm garlic-Sapindus rarak enriched with...

  11. Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

    1994-01-01

    The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure that is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid-point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions that are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. Practically identical optimization results are obtained that are independent of the method used to represent the surface. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process is achieved by implementing both of the design procedure improvements.

  12. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  13. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; calving had superior efficiency ratios as cows. Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  14. ‘Spacer stitching’, an innovative material feeding technology for improved thermal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, H.; Rödel, H.; Krzywinski, S.; Hes, L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the problems associated with heat loss occurring at the points of needle insertion. The insulation material at stitching points is compressed by sewing thread tensions and consequently the air entrapped is forced to leave its structure. It results in poor thermal insulation at the points of needle insertions. An innovative material feeding technology, ‘Spacer stitching’ is developed which addresses the state of the art of cold spots with a simpler and much efficient method. A comparison of sewing samples of conventional sewing technology with the spacer stitching is carried out in this research paper to study the improvement in thermal properties.

  15. Linkage of microbial ecology to phenotype: correlation of rumen microbial ecology to cattle's feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Le Luo; Nkrumah, Joshua D; Basarab, John A; Moore, Stephen S

    2008-11-01

    Linkage of rumen microbial structure to host phenotypical traits may enhance the understanding of host-microbial interactions in livestock species. This study used culture-independent PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to investigate the microbial profiles in the rumen of cattle differing in feed efficiency. The analysis of detectable bacterial PCR-DGGE profiles showed that the profiles generated from efficient steers clustered together and were clearly separated from those obtained from inefficient steers, indicating that specific bacterial groups may only inhabit in efficient steers. In addition, the bacterial profiles were more likely clustered within a certain breed, suggesting that host genetics may play an important role in rumen microbial structure. The correlations between the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and feed efficiency traits were also observed. Significantly higher concentrations of butyrate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P = 0.006) were detected in the efficient steers. Our results revealed potential associations between the detectable rumen microbiota and its fermentation parameters with the feed efficiency of cattle.

  16. Metagenomic Analysis of Cecal Microbiome Identified Microbiota and Functional Capacities Associated with Feed Efficiency in Landrace Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Tan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency (FE appears to vary even within closely related pigs, and may be partly affected by the diversity in the composition and function of gut microbes. To investigate the components and functional differences of gut microbiota of low and high FE pigs, high throughput sequencing and de novo metagenomics were performed on pig cecal contents. Pigs were selected in pairs with low and high feed conversion ratio. The microorganisms of individuals with different FE were clustered according to diversity. The genus Prevotella was the most enriched in both groups, and the abundance of species Prevotella sp. CAG:604 was significantly increased in low efficiency individuals compared to that in animals showing high efficiency. In contrast, other differential species, including lactic acid bacteria, were all enriched in the group with good feeding characteristics. Functional analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases demonstrated that differential genes for the metabolism of carbohydrates were most abundant in both groups, but pathways of pyruvate-related metabolism were more intense in pigs with higher FE. All these data indicated that the microbial environment was closely related to the growth traits of pigs, and regulating microbial composition could aid developing strategies to improve FE for pigs.

  17. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  18. Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network Model to Estimate the TPH Removal Efficiency in Soil Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A feed forward artificial neural network (FFANN was developed to predict the efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from a contaminated soil, using soil washing process with Tween 80. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of developed FFANN model for the estimation of   TPH removal. Materials and Methods: Several independent repressors including pH, shaking speed, surfactant concentration and contact time were used to describe the removal of TPH as a dependent variable in a FFANN model. 85% of data set observations were used for training the model and remaining 15% were used for model testing, approximately. The performance of the model was compared with linear regression and assessed, using Root of Mean Square Error (RMSE as goodness-of-fit measure Results: For the prediction of TPH removal efficiency, a FANN model with a three-hidden-layer structure of 4-3-1 and a learning rate of 0.01 showed the best predictive results. The RMSE and R2 for the training and testing steps of the model were obtained to be 2.596, 0.966, 10.70 and 0.78, respectively. Conclusion: For about 80% of the TPH removal efficiency can be described by the assessed regressors the developed model. Thus, focusing on the optimization of soil washing process regarding to shaking speed, contact time, surfactant concentration and pH can improve the TPH removal performance from polluted soils. The results of this study could be the basis for the application of FANN for the assessment of soil washing process and the control of petroleum hydrocarbon emission into the environments.

  19. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  20. Genome-wide association analysis reveals genetic loci and candidate genes for feeding behavior and eating efficiency in Duroc boars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Ding

    Full Text Available Efficient use of feed resources is a challenge in the pork industry because the largest variability in expenditure is attributed to the cost of fodder. Efficiency of feeding is directly related to feeding behavior. In order to identify genomic regions controlling feeding behavior and eating efficiency traits, 338 Duroc boars were used in this study. The Illumina Porcine SNP60K BeadChip was used for genotyping. Data pertaining to individual daily feed intake (DFI, total daily time spent in feeder (TPD, number of daily visits to feeder (NVD, average duration of each visit (TPV, mean feed intake per visit (FPV, mean feed intake rate (FR, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were collected for these pigs. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was acceptable to detect candidate regions association with feeding behavior and eating efficiency traits in pigs. We detected three genome-wide (P < 1.40E-06 and 11 suggestive (P < 2.79E-05 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-trait associations. Six SNPs were located in genomic regions where quantitative trait loci (QTLs have previously been reported for feeding behavior and eating efficiency traits in pigs. Five candidate genes (SERPINA3, MYC, LEF1, PITX2, and MAP3K14 with biochemical and physiological roles that were relevant to feeding behavior and eating efficiency were discovered proximal to significant or suggestive markers. Gene ontology analysis indicated that most of the candidate genes were involved in the development of the hypothalamus (GO:0021854, P < 0.0398. Our results provide new insights into the genetic basis of feeding behavior and eating efficiency in pigs. Furthermore, some significant SNPs identified in this study could be incorporated into artificial selection programs for Duroc-related pigs to select for increased feeding efficiency.

  1. Temporal feeding pattern may influence reproduction efficiency, the example of breeding mares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Benhajali

    Full Text Available Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares, night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares. The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets. Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002 and more fertility (p = 0.024 in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares. Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.

  2. MPACT Subgroup Self-Shielding Efficiency Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimpson, Shane; Liu, Yuxuan; Collins, Benjamin S.; Clarno, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments to improve the efficiency of the MOC solvers in MPACT have yielded effective kernels that loop over several energy groups at once, rather that looping over one group at a time. These kernels have produced roughly a 2x speedup on the MOC sweeping time during eigenvalue calculation. However, the self-shielding subgroup calculation had not been reevaluated to take advantage of these new kernels, which typically requires substantial solve time. The improvements covered in this report start by integrating the multigroup kernel concepts into the subgroup calculation, which are then used as the basis for further extensions. The next improvement that is covered is what is currently being termed as ''Lumped Parameter MOC''. Because the subgroup calculation is a purely fixed source problem and multiple sweeps are performed only to update the boundary angular fluxes, the sweep procedure can be condensed to allow for the instantaneous propagation of the flux across a spatial domain, without the need to sweep along all segments in a ray. Once the boundary angular fluxes are considered to be converged, an additional sweep that will tally the scalar flux is completed. The last improvement that is investigated is the possible reduction of the number of azimuthal angles per octant in the shielding sweep. Typically 16 azimuthal angles per octant are used for self-shielding and eigenvalue calculations, but it is possible that the self-shielding sweeps are less sensitive to the number of angles than the full eigenvalue calculation.

  3. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  4. Efficiency improvements of offline metrology job creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Victor J.; Carlson, Alan; Podlesny, John C.; Knutrud, Paul C.

    1999-06-01

    Progress of the first lot of a new design through the production line is watched very closely. All performance metrics, cycle-time, in-line measurement results and final electrical performance are critical. Rapid movement of this lot through the line has serious time-to-market implications. Having this material waiting at a metrology operation for an engineer to create a measurement job plan wastes valuable turnaround time. Further, efficient use of a metrology system is compromised by the time required to create and maintain these measurement job plans. Thus, having a method to develop metrology job plans prior to the actual running of the material through the manufacture area can significantly improve both cycle time and overall equipment efficiency. Motorola and Schlumberger have worked together to develop and test such a system. The Remote Job Generator (RJG) created job plans for new device sin a manufacturing process from an NT host or workstation, offline. This increases available system tim effort making production measurements, decreases turnaround time on job plan creation and editing, and improves consistency across job plans. Most importantly this allows job plans for new devices to be available before the first wafers of the device arrive at the tool for measurement. The software also includes a database manager which allows updates of existing job plans to incorporate measurement changes required by process changes or measurement optimization. This paper will review the result of productivity enhancements through the increased metrology utilization and decreased cycle time associated with the use of RJG. Finally, improvements in process control through better control of Job Plans across different devices and layers will be discussed.

  5. Energy efficiency in the agricultural and food industry illustrated with the example of the feed production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembicki Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an indicator specifying the amount of saved electric energy thanks to implementation of suitable systems and solutions aimed at reducing the energy consumption in a production plant. Effective use of electric energy or heat energy is intended to reduce the amount of energy required to manufacture products and provide services. Decreased demand for electric energy in the production plant by only a few percent’s may result in considerable savings which in turn assure increased production profitability. If we reduce the energy consumption, it will translate into reduced pollution generated and emitted to the environment. Thanks to this, the plant may limit its negative impact on the surrounding. The feed industry is known to consume much amount of energy for the purposes of production. This energy is intended for pre-processing of substrates, actual production and preparation of ready product to be taken over by the customer. Farmers use fodders to feed their animals. Quality of fodders (feeds and their ingredients determine health of farm animals, which has a direct impact on the quality of products we consume, and consequently on our health. An thorough analysis of feed production plants and reduction of their energy consumption should translate into improved effectiveness. Saved energy allows producing high-quality products and using ingredients of higher quality, which in turn may influence competitiveness of prices of ready products.

  6. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on 'Use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Tanniniferous trees and shrubs are of importance in animal production because they can provide significant protein supplements, but unfortunately the amounts of tannins that they contain vary widely and largely unpredictably, and their effects on animals range from beneficial to toxicity and death. The toxic or antinutritional effects tend to occur in times of stress when a very large proportion of the diet is tanniniferous. With a better understanding of tannin properties and proper management, they could become an invaluable source of protein for strategic supplementation. As the demand for food rises, tanniniferous plants must play an increasingly important part in the diet of animals, in particular for ruminants in smallholder subsistence farming in developing countries. It is therefore critical that techniques be developed to measure and manage the anti-nutritional components that they contain. Keeping the above in mind, a Joint FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques to Develop Simple Tannin Assays for Predicting and Improving the Safety and Efficiency of Feeding Ruminants on Tanniniferous Tree Foliage' has been initiated. In order to provide sound basis for this CRP, an FAO/IAEA Consultants Meeting was held in August 1997 in Vienna, at which the tanniniferous plants to be studied, the analytical methods, the test animals and the animal response evaluation techniques were defined. This publication contains methodologies for the analysis of tannins using chemical-, protein precipitation/binding- and bio-assays recommended by the consultants

  7. Improving efficiency in the radiology department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J.; Perry, Laurie A. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Larson, David B. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The modern radiology department is built around the flow of information. Ordering providers request imaging studies to be performed, technologists complete the work required to perform the imaging studies, and radiologists interpret and report on the imaging findings. As each of these steps is performed, data flow between multiple information systems, most notably the radiology information system (RIS), the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and the voice dictation system. Even though data flow relatively seamlessly, the majority of our systems and processes are inefficient. The purpose of this article is to describe the radiology value stream and describe how radiology informaticists in one department have worked to improve the efficiency of the value stream at each step. Through these examples, we identify and describe several themes that we believe have been crucial to our success. (orig.)

  8. Die Hard - improving the physical quality of extruded fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied

    The present thesis, Die Hard – Improving the Physical Quality of Extruded Fish Feed Pellets, approaches some of the biggest challenges within production of high-performance feed: Oil leakage and pellet strength. Salmon farmers in the aquaculture industry are requesting high energy dense diets...... Application I, and the die technology facilitating an improved pore structure of extruded feed is filed as Patent Application II....

  9. Strategies to improve feeding tolerance in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaro, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    Postnatal growth restriction and failure to thrive is a major issue in preterm, especially extremely low-birth-weight infants. Optimization of enteral nutrition, without increasing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), has thus become a priority for the neonatologist, who often has to face the challenge of interpreting the clinical and prognostic significance of common and aspecific signs of feeding intolerance (FI). The neonatologist often prescribes enteral nutrition as if walking on a tightrope between the purposed attainment of full enteral feeding and the fear of NEC. Despite advances in neonatal intensive care, NEC still remains one of the leading causes of mortality (15-30%) and morbidity in very-low-birth-weight infants. However, the relationship between FI and NEC remains unknown. Feeding intolerance often leads to discontinuation of enteral feeds, delayed attainment of full enteral feeding and prolongation of hospitalization. Strategies aimed at preventing and/or treating episodes of feeding intolerance are diverse and not always supported by scientific evidence.

  10. Effect of source and dose of probiotics and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on intake, feed efficiency, and growth of male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Raman; Bandla, Srinivas

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger and three commercial exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) were tested in vitro to select best source and optimum dose followed by in vivo studies on male buffalo calves. Bacterial (P calves with concentrate supplement (CS). Calves were randomly divided into three groups either without probiotics and EFE (CG) or with probiotics (EG(1)) or probiotics combined with EFE (EG(2)) on wheat straw diet. Organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber digestibility was improved significantly. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were significantly higher (P feed efficiency was 2.6% or 1.6% more (P calves.

  11. Computational efficiency improvements for image colorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Sharma, Gaurav; Aly, Hussein

    2013-03-01

    We propose an efficient algorithm for colorization of greyscale images. As in prior work, colorization is posed as an optimization problem: a user specifies the color for a few scribbles drawn on the greyscale image and the color image is obtained by propagating color information from the scribbles to surrounding regions, while maximizing the local smoothness of colors. In this formulation, colorization is obtained by solving a large sparse linear system, which normally requires substantial computation and memory resources. Our algorithm improves the computational performance through three innovations over prior colorization implementations. First, the linear system is solved iteratively without explicitly constructing the sparse matrix, which significantly reduces the required memory. Second, we formulate each iteration in terms of integral images obtained by dynamic programming, reducing repetitive computation. Third, we use a coarseto- fine framework, where a lower resolution subsampled image is first colorized and this low resolution color image is upsampled to initialize the colorization process for the fine level. The improvements we develop provide significant speedup and memory savings compared to the conventional approach of solving the linear system directly using off-the-shelf sparse solvers, and allow us to colorize images with typical sizes encountered in realistic applications on typical commodity computing platforms.

  12. Genetic parameters of rumination time and feed efficiency traits in primiparous Holstein cows under research and commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Fogh, A; Løvendahl, P

    2017-12-01

    Feed efficiency has the potential to be improved both through feeding, management, and breeding. Including feed efficiency in a selection index is limited by the fact that dry matter intake (DMI) recording is only feasible under research facilities, resulting in small data sets and, consequently, uncertain genetic parameter estimates. As a result, the need to record DMI indicator traits on a larger scale exists. Rumination time (RT), which is already recorded in commercial dairy herds by a sensor-based system, has been suggested as a potential DMI indicator. However, RT can only be a DMI indicator if it is heritable, correlates with DMI, and if the genetic parameters of RT in commercial herd settings are similar to those in research facilities. Therefore, the objective of our study was to estimate genetic parameters for RT and the related traits of DMI in primiparous Holstein cows, and to compare genetic parameters of rumination data between a research herd and 72 commercial herds. The estimated heritability values were all moderate for DMI (0.32-0.49), residual feed intake (0.23-0.36), energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield (0.49-0.70), and RT (0.14-0.44) found in the research herd. The estimated heritability values for ECM were lower for the commercial herds (0.08-0.35) than that for the research herd. The estimated heritability values for RT were similar for the 2 herd types (0.28-0.32). For the research herd, we found negative individual level correlations between RT and DMI (-0.24 to -0.09) and between RT and RFI (-0.34 to -0.03), and we found both positive and negative correlations between RT and ECM (-0.08 to 0.09). For the commercial herds, genetic correlations between RT and ECM were both positive and negative (-0.27 to 0.10). In conclusion, RT was not found to be a suitable indicator trait for feed intake and only a weak indicator of feed efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic variation in the feeding efficiency of maize genotypes evaluated from experiments with fattening bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Barrière, Y.; Emile, J.C.; Hébert, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Genetic variation in the feeding efficiency of maize genotypes was evaluated from experiments with fattening bulls. Maize genotypes were chosen to represent a range of digestibilities from previous experiments with standard sheep. The variation in daily gains observed when bulls were fattened with hybrids of low digestibilities or high energy values was about 65 g per animal. When fed to bulls, the voluntary silage maize intake could be different in hybrids with similar energy values. Thus, d...

  14. Intake and feeding efficiency in feed-lot lambs Consumo e Eficiência Alimentar em Cordeiros Confinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadil Gonçalves Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the intake and feed efficiency in fed-lot sheep as function of the body weight (BW variation. Data from three experiments with 50 feedlot lambs maintained in individual metabolic cages and fed diets composed of 50:50 roughage:concentrate were used. The experiment lasted 120 days; every 21 days the animals were weighed and the dry matter intake and body weight change were daily done. The intake was determined by checking daily the feed offer level and orts. The increased in animals body weight incremented the dry matter intake in 30.8g/kg of body weight/day, but promoted reduction of 0.0318% when the intake was expressed as percentage of BW. In addition, the advance of body weight affected negatively the feed conversion (FC, where animals with BW of 30 kg showed estimated FC of 4.55 of dry matter/kg of BW gain, while animals with BW of 45 kg have would food conversion of 7.03 kg of DM/kg of BW gain.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o consumo e a eficiência alimentar em ovinos confinados em função da variação no peso vivo (PV. Foram utilizados dados de três experimentos com cordeiros em confinamento, 50 animais no total, mantidos em gaiolas individuais para estudos de metabolismo, alimentados com dietas de relação volumoso: concentrado 50:50. Durante o experimento (120 dias, os animais foram monitorados quanto ao consumo diário de matéria seca e à variação de peso vivo, por meio de pesagens realizadas a cada 21 dias. O consumo foi determinado pelo monitoramento diário da oferta de alimento e das sobras. Com o do peso vivo dos animais aumentou o consumo de matéria seca em 29,38g/kg de PV/dia, mas promoveu redução de 0,0318% quando expresso em porcentagem do PV. Além disso, o avanço do PV afetou negativamente a conversão alimentar (CA, de modo que animais com 30kg de PV apresentaram CA estimada de 4,55kg de MS/kg de PV ganho, enquanto animais com peso

  15. Mechanics, hydrodynamics and energetics of blue whale lunge feeding: efficiency dependence on krill density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbogen, J A; Calambokidis, J; Oleson, E; Potvin, J; Pyenson, N D; Schorr, G; Shadwick, R E

    2011-01-01

    Lunge feeding by rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) is associated with a high energetic cost that decreases diving capacity, thereby limiting access to dense prey patches at depth. Despite this cost, rorquals exhibit high rates of lipid deposition and extremely large maximum body size. To address this paradox, we integrated kinematic data from digital tags with unsteady hydrodynamic models to estimate the energy budget for lunges and foraging dives of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), the largest rorqual and living mammal. Our analysis suggests that, despite the large amount of mechanical work required to lunge feed, a large amount of prey and, therefore, energy is obtained during engulfment. Furthermore, we suggest that foraging efficiency for blue whales is significantly higher than for other marine mammals by nearly an order of magnitude, but only if lunges target extremely high densities of krill. The high predicted efficiency is attributed to the enhanced engulfment capacity, rapid filter rate and low mass-specific metabolic rate associated with large body size in blue whales. These results highlight the importance of high prey density, regardless of prey patch depth, for efficient bulk filter feeding in baleen whales and may explain some diel changes in foraging behavior in rorqual whales.

  16. Consistency of feed efficiency ranking and mechanisms associated with inter-animal variation among growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Cohen-Zinder, M; Aharoni, Y; Miron, J; Agmon, R; Halachmi, I; Orlov, A; Haim, A; Tedeschi, L O; Carstens, G E; Johnson, K A; Brosh, A

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated the possible mechanisms for explaining interanimal variation in efficiency of feed utilization in intact male Holstein calves. Additionally, we examined whether the feed efficiency (FE) ranking of calves (n = 26) changed due to age and/or diet quality. Calves were evaluated during three periods (P1, P2, and P3) while fed a high-quality diet (calculated mobilizable energy [ME] of 11.8 MJ/kg DM) during P1 and P3, and a low-quality diet (calculated ME of 7.7 MJ/kg DM) during P2. The study periods were 84, 119, and 127 d, respectively. Initial ages of the calves in P1, P2, and P3 were 7, 11, and 15 mo, respectively, and initial body weight (BW) were 245, 367, and 458 kg, respectively. Individual dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), diet digestibility, and heat production (HP) were measured in all periods. The measured FE indexes were: residual feed intake (RFI), the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), residual gain (RG), residual gain and intake (RIG), the ratio of HP-to-ME intake (HP/MEI), and residual heat production (RHP). For statistical analysis, animals' performance data in each period, were ranked by RFI, and categorized into high-, medium-, and low-RFI groups (H-RFI, M-RFI, and L-RFI). RFI was not correlated with in vivo digestibility, age, BW, BCS, or ADG in all three periods. The L-RFI group had lowest DMI, MEI, HP, retained energy (RE), and RE/ADG. Chemical analysis of the longissimus dorsi muscle shows that the L-RFI group had a higher percentage of protein and a lower percentage of fat compared to the H-RFI group. We suggested that the main mechanism separating L- from H-RFI calves is the protein-to-fat ratio in the deposited tissues. When efficiency was related to kg/day (DMI and ADG) and not to daily retained energy, the selected efficient L-RFI calves deposited more protein and less fat per daily gain than less efficient H-RFI calves. However, when the significant greater heat increment and maintenance energy requirement of

  17. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  18. Feeding on prey increases photosynthetic efficiency in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Krausko, Miroslav; Libiaková, Michaela; Adamec, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    BACKROUND AND AIMS: It has been suggested that the rate of net photosynthesis (AN) of carnivorous plants increases in response to prey capture and nutrient uptake; however, data confirming the benefit from carnivory in terms of increased AN are scarce and unclear. The principal aim of our study was to investigate the photosynthetic benefit from prey capture in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis. Prey attraction experiments were performed, with measurements and visualization of enzyme activities, elemental analysis and pigment quantification together with simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence in D. capensis in response to feeding with fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). Red coloration of tentacles did not act as a signal to attract fruit flies onto the traps. Phosphatase, phophodiesterase and protease activities were induced 24 h after prey capture. These activities are consistent with the depletion of phosphorus and nitrogen from digested prey and a significant increase in their content in leaf tissue after 10 weeks. Mechanical stimulation of tentacle glands alone was not sufficient to induce proteolytic activity. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases in the tentacle mucilage were not detected. The uptake of phosphorus from prey was more efficient than that of nitrogen and caused the foliar N:P ratio to decrease; the contents of other elements (K, Ca, Mg) decreased slightly in fed plants. Increased foliar N and P contents resulted in a significant increase in the aboveground plant biomass, the number of leaves and chlorophyll content as well as AN, maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII). According to the stoichiometric relationships among different nutrients, the growth of unfed D. capensis plants was P-limited. This P-limitation was markedly alleviated by feeding on fruit flies and resulted in improved plant nutrient status and

  19. Improving efficiency in bilateral emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.W.; Turner, P.

    1998-01-01

    When environmental damages from emissions are spatially nonuniform, permit trading has been modeled most often as a 'pollution offset program' in which emission permits are traded between agents, subject to constraints on ambient air quality. To date the institution envisioned to implement such a program involves trading on a bilateral and sequential basis. However, simulation studies indicate that the sequence of trades may alter the outcome and undermine the cost savings from a pollution offset program. This paper identifies a design for the trading institution that tends to overcome this phenomenon and improve the efficiency of equilibria obtained in a simulation model. We model a bilateral trading process for the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions with a stochastic description of the sequence of trades within groups of nations in Europe. When trading takes place between disaggregated, stylistic representations of economic enterprises, rather than between national governments, a significantly greater portion of potential savings is achieved. In fact, under most sets of assumptions, approximate first order stochastic dominance is achieved wherein the more decentralized the trading agents, the greater the expected savings from a trading program. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 31 refs

  20. Improving energy efficiency for local energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Young; Binns, Michael; Yeo, Yeong-Koo; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-period design methodology for heat recovery in local energy systems. • A systematic targeting for minimum utility requirements for urban utility systems. • Integration of industrial waste heat with local energy systems. • A case study providing insights for the heat recovery of discontinuous systems. - Abstract: This study aims to develop a novel design method for reducing the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions of local energy systems, simultaneously considering the recovery of industrial waste heat, and effectively dealing with the non-continuous nature of energy usage and heat recovery. A multi-period concept has been adopted for characterizing the change of heat demand and associated heat recovery in local energy systems which is used for targeting of the minimum energy consumption. In addition, techno-economic analysis is used to provide design guidelines for better heat integration. This design methodology also incorporates the impacts of heat storage and part-load performance of energy production equipment. Opportunities for utilization of low grade heat in process industries have been systematically considered for the minimization of energy generation in local energy systems together with the evaluation of the economic feasibility of such systems for integration of industrial low grade heat with local energy systems. Case studies are used to demonstrate the applicability and practicality of the heat integration methodology developed in this work, and to illustrate how a holistic approach can improve the overall energy efficiency of local energy systems

  1. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  2. The effects of enteral feeding improvement massage on premature infants: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Bang, Kyung-Sook

    2018-01-01

    To prove the effects of an enteral feeding improvement massage for premature infants with regard to their feeding, growing and superior mesentery artery blood flow aspect by a randomised controlled trial. Premature infants have feeding-related problems related to eating and absorbing nutrition due to their immature gastrointestinal function. Studies regarding the effectiveness of premature infants' enteral feeding improvement by tactile stimulation massage are rare. The study group was composed of 55 patients. Of the 55 patients, 26 were randomised into an experimental group and 29 were randomised into a control group. They were all born group received enteral feeding improvement massage twice a day for 14 days, and infants in the control group received a sham exercise. The collected data were analysed by spss 19.0, through t test, chi-square test (Fisher's exact) and ANCOVA. (i) The experimental group had reached the day of full enteral feeding significantly faster. (ii) The experimental group had a higher superior mesentery artery peak velocity (V max ) and lower RI (resistant index). (iii) The experimental group of the feeding-intolerant subgroup had a higher superior mesentery artery V max and V min . (iv) The experimental group had a heavier weight and larger head circumference after 14 days. This study demonstrates that enteral feeding improvement massage can be helpful for achieving earlier full enteral feeding, more increased superior mesentery artery, and faster growing. In particular, it can be a therapeutic, independent and evidence-based nursing intervention for feeding-intolerant premature infants. Neonatal nurses in neonatal intensive care unit can apply enteral feeding improvement massage massage for feeding-intolerant infants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ingestive behavior of Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Marchi Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported relationship between eating behavior and performance in feedlot cattle. The evaluation of behavior traits demands high degree of work and trained manpower, therefore, in recent years has been used an automated feed intake measurement system (GrowSafe System ®, that identify and record individual feeding patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between feeding behavior traits and average daily gain in Nellore calves undergoing feed efficiency test. Date from 85 Nelore males was recorded during the feed efficiency test performed in 2012, at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, Instituto de Zootecnia, São Paulo State. Were analyzed the behavioral traits: time at feeder (TF, head down duration (HD, representing the time when the animal is actually eating, frequency of visits (FV and feed rate (FR calculated as the amount of dry matter (DM consumed by time at feeder (g.min-1. The ADG was calculated by linear regression of individual weights on days in test. ADG classes were obtained considering the average ADG and standard deviation (SD being: high ADG (>mean + 1.0 SD, medium ADG (± 1.0 SD from the mean and low ADG (feed per time (g.min-1 than the low and medium ADG animals. No diferences were observed (P>0.05 among ADG classes for FV, indicating that these traits are not related to each other. These results shows that the ADG is related to the agility in eat food and not to the time spent in the bunk or to the number of visits in a range of 24 hours.

  4. Environmental impacts of genetic improvement of growth rate and feed conversion ratio in fish farming under rearing density and nitrogen output limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Aubin, J.; Komen, H.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, Van J.A.M.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, fish farming faces an increasing demand in fish products, but also various environmental challenges. Genetic improvement in growth rate and feed conversion ratio is known to be an efficient way to increase production and increase efficiency in fish farming. The environmental consequences

  5. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    feed efficiency.

  6. Genetic variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and disease resistance exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Jokumsen, Alfred; Berg, Peer

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test that additive genetic (co)variation for survival, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout. Thirty sires and 30 dams were mated by a partly factorial...... the predicted breeding values for VHS resistance and the predicted breeding values for the body weights, body length, and feed conversion efficiencies. These results demonstrate that additive genetic (co)variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and VHS resistance does exist within the farmed...

  7. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  8. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  9. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  10. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  11. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage

  12. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb

    Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component.

  13. Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices To Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…

  14. Endocannabinoids concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, V M; Foote, A P; Lewis, R M; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

    2016-12-01

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in finishing beef steers. Individual DMI and BW gain were measured on 140 Angus-sired steers for 105 d on a finishing ration. Blood samples were collected on d 84 of the experiment, which was 40 d before slaughter. Variables were analyzed using Pearson CORR procedure of SAS. Mean endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma were 4.48 ± 1.82 ng/mL and 0.44 ± 0.24 ng/mL for AEA and 2-AG, respectively. The AEA concentration was positively correlated with G:F ratio ( = 0.20; = 0.02), indicating that more efficient animals had greater AEA plasma concentrations. In addition, AEA concentration tended to be negatively correlated with the 12th rib fat thickness ( = -0.17; = 0.07); but no correlation was found with USDA-calculated yield grade ( = -0.14; = 0.11), or marbling score ( = 0.05; = 0.54). The concentration of 2-AG was positively correlated with AEA ( = 0.21; = 0.01); however, 2-AG concentration was not correlated with parameters of feed efficiency or carcass composition. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report plasma concentration of endocannabinoids in steers. These results provide evidence that plasma concentration of a key endocannabinoid, AEA, was favorably correlated with feed efficiency and fat thickness in finishing steers.

  15. Impact of including growth, carcass and feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal for combined milk and beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Juga, J

    2017-04-01

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems. The additional breeding goal traits were growth traits (average daily gain of animals in the fattening and rearing periods), carcass traits (fat covering, fleshiness and dressing percentage), mature live weight (LW) of cows and residual feed intake (RFI) traits. A breeding scheme was modeled for Finnish Ayrshire under the current market situation in Finland using the deterministic simulation software ZPLAN+. With the economic values derived for the current production system, the inclusion of growth and carcass traits, while preventing LW increase generated the highest improvement in the discounted profit of the breeding program (3.7%), followed by the scenario where all additional traits were included simultaneously (5.1%). The use of a selection index that included growth and carcass traits excluding LW, increased the profit (0.8%), but reduced the benefits resulted from breeding for beef traits together with LW. A moderate decrease in the profit of the breeding program was obtained when adding only LW to the breeding goal (-3.1%), whereas, adding only RFI traits to the breeding goal resulted in a minor increase in the profit (1.4%). Including beef traits with LW in the breeding goal showed to be the most potential option to improve the profitability of the combined dairy and beef production systems and would also enable a higher rate of self-sufficiency in beef. When considering feed efficiency related traits, the

  16. Improving the efficiency of manuscript selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abrain

    2009-01-01

    previous submittal were taken into account. Option b is suggested as an alternative to obliging authors to declare whether or not their submission was previously rejected by another journal, because they think this could prejudice the evaluation of the new submission. However, I believe that the system I propose here would prevent prejudiced evaluations because authors would have the opportunity to upload the response to reviewer’s comments so that second-round reviewers would have the chance to see both the problems previously de¬tected in the manuscript and the defence offered by authors. Although not a perfect system its benefits would probably outweigh the caveats. Such a system would improve the quality of the final paper and facilitate the work load for second–round reviewers and editors. Indeed, some journals already seem to be implementing a solution which is fairly similar to our proposal, asking authors of rejected papers for permission to forward reviewer reports to the new journal chosen by the authors to submit the revised work (see Hochberg et al., 2009. Proposals to reward or punish reviewers depending on their rapidity to elaborate their reports (Hauser & Fehr, 2007 does not foster accumulated quality improvement. Science quality would undoubtedly gain from making previous information concerning a manuscript’s review available to new reviewers, as in a Bayesian framework of inference (Martin et al., 2005 because starting a new each time, as if previous information did not exist, is simply not an efficient way to proceed in science.

  17. Information technology applications in improving energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Heine, P. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Power systems, Espoo (Finland)); Koski, P. (Motiva, Helsinki (Finland)), email: pertti.koski@motiva.fi

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the project was to study how the different statistical analysis and optimization methods can be applied in the data obtained from data systems and energy measurement databases, in order to increase the energy efficiency in small and medium size industry, in commercial and public sector and in households. The project had two subtasks: (1) Development of analysis techniques and their applications in kWh-metering databases, combined with data from various other databases, like customer data bases, data bases of building authorities etc. The aim is to identify the key technologies of energy efficiency, and their potential. (2) Development of business models for energy saving activities: How to find motivation for increasing energy efficiency, howto divide benefits, how to divide activities between different parties. (orig.)

  18. Ingestive behavior of Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Marchi Maiorano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to describe the ingestive behavior in Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test. The test was performed at the Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte – Instituto de Zootecnia, Sertãozinho, São Paulo State. Twenty-three Nellore and 19 Bonsmara calves, aging 276 ± 19.2 and 278 ± 29.2 days and weighing 246 ± 26.7 and 273 ± 30.7 kg, on average, at the beginning of the test, respectively, were used. Animals were randomly located in individual pens, during four periods of 28 days, being the first period a pre-test adjustment period. Calves were fed twice a day, with the same diet. Daily the amount of food offered was adjusted in order to maintain 5 to 10% of refusals. Dry matter intake (DMI was calculated by the difference between food offered and refusals. Animals were weighed each seven days. Average daily gain (ADG was obtained by linear regression of weights in days in test. Feed conversion was obtained by the DMI:ADG ratio. Ingestive behavior was measured three times, every 28 days, excluding de pre-test period. Observations lasted 24 hours, with records at intervals of five minutes. The behavioral traits analyzed were: bunk attendance duration (BAD, rumination time (RT and idle time (IT expressed in minutes per day. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS 9.3. The model included the fixed effects of period, breed and weight nested in breed. The weight nested in breed effect was significant for all traits analyzed (P<0.05. The breed effect was significant for BAD, RT, IT, e ADG (P<0.05. Nellore calves had higher means for ADG, BAD and RT and lower mean for IT (P<0.05 than Bonsmara calves. There were significant differences among periods for traits ADG, BAD and IT (P<0.05, showing that the animals had greater weight gain at the beginning of the feed efficiency test because they had spent more time feeding and consequently less time in idle. Thus, it is evident that there are differences in

  19. Organisational perspective on market driven efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, R.; Korver, T.; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2004-01-01

    In the report "Market regulation : lessons from other disciplines" of the Dutch Ministery of Economic Affairs, papers are presented of scientists from a wide range of disciplines on different aspects of market regulation. This paper gives an organisational perspective on market driven efficiency

  20. Approaches of Improving University Assets Management Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingliang

    2015-01-01

    University assets management, as an important content of modern university management, is generally confronted with the issue of low efficiency. Currently, to address the problems exposed in university assets management and take appropriate modification measures is an urgent issue in front of Chinese university assets management sectors. In this…

  1. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-12-24

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system.

  2. Integrating Characterization of Smallholders’ Feeding Practices with On-Farm Feeding Trials to Improve Utilization of Crop Residues on Smallholder Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Kashongwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized wheat straw feeding practices in smallholder farms using cross sectional survey and the results informed the design of an experiment to improve the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture treatment. Three diets tested in 49 days’ feeding trial were farmers’ rainy season feeding practice (FP, addition of urea to wheat straw at the time of feeding (USWS, and 14 days’ incubation of straw with urea (UTWS. Yeast culture (15 g/day was mixed with commercial dairy meal at the point of feeding. Survey data identified farmers’ strategies in utilizing crop residues of which most important were improving storage facility (77.6%, adding molasses (54.5%, and buying a shredding machine (45.1%. On-farm feeding trial showed that intake was higher for UTWS than (p<0.05 for USWS while milk yield was higher with FP than (p<0.005 with UTWS or USWS but not different (p≥0.05 between UTWS and USWS. Results imply that farmers feeding practices of crop residues may be improved for dairy cows’ feeding and therefore UTWS could be used to support maintenance and milk production during dry season. Improving farmers feed storage facilities and training on incubation of wheat straw for dairy cattle feeding were recommended.

  3. Improving MCMC Using Efficient Importance Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Liesenfeld, Roman; Richard, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a systematic Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework based upon Efficient Importance Sampling (EIS) which can be used for the analysis of a wide range of econometric models involving integrals without an analytical solution. EIS is a simple, generic and yet accurate Monte-Carlo integration procedure based on sampling densities which are chosen to be global approximations to the integrand. By embedding EIS within MCMC procedures based on Metropolis-Hastings (MH) one can s...

  4. Improving Clinical Efficiency of Military Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    the number of deliveries performed. Productivity is often measured in terms of average length of stay (ALOS), cesarean section rate, case-mix index...woman who has a cesarean section delivery may remain in the hospital for 2 days following surgery while if treated at another hospital, she may stay 4...making units (DMU) (Charnes et al., 1994). DEA also has a history of being used to measure efficiency in MTFs but what this study attempts to do is

  5. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Handling Efficiency Improvement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stennis Space Center (SSC) is NASA’s top annual consumer of cryogenic propellants. Improvements in ground propellant system operations at SSC require having the...

  6. Improving radiation use efficiency in greenhouse production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY

    A large increase in agricultural production is needed to feed the increasing world population with their increasing demand per capita. However, growing competition for arable land, water, energy, and the degradation of the environment impose challenges to improve

  7. Improving radiation use efficiency in greenhouse production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A large increase in agricultural production is needed to feed the increasing world population with their increasing demand per capita. However, growing competition for arable land, water, energy, and the degradation of the environment impose challenges to improve crop

  8. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Solon, Carina; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Masselli Dos Reis, Ivan G; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B; Gobatto, Claudio A; Velloso, Licio A; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an often-used intervention to decrease body mass. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hour cycles of IF result in light caloric restriction, reduced body mass gain, and significant decreases in the efficiency of energy conversion. Here, we study the metabolic effects of IF in order to uncover mechanisms involved in this lower energy conversion efficiency. After 3 weeks, IF animals displayed overeating during fed periods and lower body mass, accompanied by alterations in energy-related tissue mass. The lower efficiency of energy use was not due to uncoupling of muscle mitochondria. Enhanced lipid oxidation was observed during fasting days, whereas fed days were accompanied by higher metabolic rates. Furthermore, an increased expression of orexigenic neurotransmitters AGRP and NPY in the hypothalamus of IF animals was found, even on feeding days, which could explain the overeating pattern. Together, these effects provide a mechanistic explanation for the lower efficiency of energy conversion observed. Overall, we find that IF promotes changes in hypothalamic function that explain differences in body mass and caloric intake.

  9. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90

  10. Process improvement in healthcare: Overall resource efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Kemper, B.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Mandjes, M.; van der Bijl, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a unifying and quantitative conceptual framework for healthcare processes from the viewpoint of process improvement. The work adapts standard models from operation management to the specifics of healthcare processes. We propose concepts for organizational modeling of

  11. Exploration Feeding and Higher Space Allocation Improve Welfare of Growing-Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Herman M; Dirx-Kuijken, Nienke C P M M; Bracke, Marc B M

    2017-04-29

    Lack of environmental enrichment and high stocking densities in growing-finishing pigs can lead to adverse social behaviors directed to pen mates, resulting in skin lesions, lameness, and tail biting. The objective of the study was to improve animal welfare and prevent biting behavior in an experiment with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design on exploration feeding, stocking density, and sex. We kept 550 pigs in 69 pens from 63 days to 171 days of life. Pigs were supplemented with or without exploration feeding, kept in groups of seven (1.0 m²/pig) or nine animals (0.8 m²/pig) and separated per sex. Exploration feeding provided small amounts of feed periodically on the solid floor. Skin lesion scores were significantly lower in pens with exploration feeding ( p = 0.028, p space allowance ( p = 0.005, p = 0.006, p exploration feeding had fewer front skin lesions than females with exploration feeding ( p = 0.022). Pigs with 1.0 m² compared to 0.8 m² per pig had a higher daily gain of 27 g per pig per day ( p = 0.04) and males compared to females had a higher daily gain of 39 g per pig per day ( p = 0.01). These results indicate that exploration feeding might contribute to the development of a more welfare-friendly pig husbandry with intact tails in the near future.

  12. Improved input-legitimacy and efficient policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    a proliferation of attempts to create both more efficient as well as flexible public services. Theories of innovation haw inspired efforts to close the gap between high public expecta-tions and limited public resources. The fact that the innovation agenda is to a large extent inspired by theories and models from......-ours. Empirically, the paper draws on a case study of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality. We have studied a local task force set up to develop a municipal policy for “Citizen – and stakeholder participation”. The members of the taskforce were the local mayor, the city manager, 6 citizens, 6...... local politicians and 2 administrators. The taskforce have experimented with new forms of conversations and facilitated dialogues and in new ways of getting inputs from a broad variety of stakeholders. Moreover, a theatre workshop and an innovation camp have been held as part of the project...

  13. Microarray studies in high and low RFI cattle reveal a potential role for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in regulating feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a heritable feed efficiency measure. Mechanisms underlying variation in feed efficiency are currently poorly understood. To address this issue, two divergent cohorts consisting of High (H) and Low (L) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in forty-eight Angus-si...

  14. Mechanics, Hydrodynamics and Energetics of Blue Whale Lunge Feeding: Efficiency Dependence on Krill Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Wassersug, R. (1993). Convergent and alternative designs for vertebrate suspension feeding. In The Skull : Functional and Evolutionary Mechanisms, Vol. 3 (ed...Theor. Biol. 163, 505- 525. Werth, A. J. (2000). Feeding in marine mammals. In Feeding: Form, Function and Evolution in Tetrapod Vertebrates (ed. K...131 INTRODUCTION Obligate suspension filter feeding occurs across many different lineages of marine vertebrates that demonstrate convergent

  15. Improving hospital efficiency: a process model of organizational change commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Amit; Huising, Ruthanne; Golden, Brian R

    2014-02-01

    Improving hospital efficiency is a critical goal for managers and policy makers. We draw on participant observation of the perioperative coaching program in seven Ontario hospitals to develop knowledge of the process by which the content of change initiatives to increase hospital efficiency is defined. The coaching program was a change initiative involving the use of external facilitators with the goal of increasing perioperative efficiency. Focusing on the role of subjective understandings in shaping initiatives to improve efficiency, we show that physicians, nurses, administrators, and external facilitators all have differing frames of the problems that limit efficiency, and propose different changes that could enhance efficiency. Dynamics of strategic and contested framing ultimately shaped hospital change commitments. We build on work identifying factors that enhance the success of change efforts to improve hospital efficiency, highlighting the importance of subjective understandings and the politics of meaning-making in defining what hospitals change.

  16. Efficient Parallel Strategy Improvement for Parity Games

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2017-01-01

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for solving parity games. While these algorithms are known to solve parity games using a very small number of iterations, experimental studies have found that a high step complexity causes them to perform poorly in practice. In this paper we seek to address this situation. Every iteration of the algorithm must compute a best response, and while the standard way of doing this uses the Bellman-Ford algorithm, we give experimental results that show that o...

  17. Improving Reliability, Security, and Efficiency of Reconfigurable Hardware Systems (Habilitation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziener, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this treatise,  my research on methods to improve efficiency, reliability, and security of reconfigurable hardware systems, i.e., FPGAs, through partial dynamic reconfiguration is outlined. The efficiency of reconfigurable systems can be improved by loading optimized data paths on-the-fly on an

  18. Improvement of the Dehulling Efficiency of Sorghum and Millet using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditioning of grain with heat and moisture is known to loosen the adhesion of the seed coat from the endosperm and therefore improve the dehulling efficiency of some grains such as beans, cowpea and canola. This study investigated the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the improvement of dehulling efficiency of ...

  19. The effects of acute carbohydrate and caffeine feeding strategies on cycling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Hopker, James G; Wiles, Jonathan D; Coleman, Damian A

    2018-04-01

    To assess the effect of carbohydrate and caffeine on gross efficiency (GE), 14 cyclists (V̇O 2max 57.6 ± 6.3 ml.kg -1. min -1 ) completed 4 × 2-hour tests at a submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, counter-balanced crossover design, participants consumed a standardised diet in the 3-days preceding each test and subsequently ingested either caffeine (CAF), carbohydrate (CHO), caffeine+carbohydrate (CAF+CHO) or water (W) during exercise whilst GE and plasma glucose were assessed at regular intervals (~30 mins). GE progressively decreased in the W condition but, whilst caffeine had no effect, this was significantly attenuated in both trials that involved carbohydrate feedings (W = -1.78 ± 0.31%; CHO = -0.70 ± 0.25%, p = 0.008; CAF+CHO = -0.63 ± 0.27%, p = 0.023; CAF = -1.12 ± 0.24%, p = 0.077). Blood glucose levels were significantly higher in carbohydrate ingestion conditions (CHO = 4.79 ± 0.67 mmol·L -1, p feeding strategy should be carefully monitored prior to and during assessment.

  20. Improving preterm infant outcomes: implementing an evidence-based oral feeding advancement protocol in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Mary Z

    2014-10-01

    The ability of a preterm infant to exclusively oral feed is a necessary standard for discharge readiness from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Many of the interventions related to oral feeding advancement currently employed for preterm infants in the NICU are based on individual nursing observations and judgment. Studies involving standardized feeding protocols for oral feeding advancement have been shown to decrease variability in feeding practices, facilitate shortened transition times from gavage to oral feedings, improve bottle feeding performance, and significantly decrease the length of stay (LOS) in the NICU. This project critically evaluated the implementation of an oral feeding advancement protocol in a 74-bed level III NICU in an attempt to standardize the process of advancing oral feedings in medically stable preterm infants. A comprehensive review of the literature identified key features for successful oral feeding in preterm infants. Strong levels of evidence suggested an association between both nonnutritive sucking (NNS) opportunities and standardized feeding advancement protocols with successful oral feeding in preterm infants. These findings prompted a pilot practice change using a feeding advancement protocol and consisted of NNS and standardized oral feeding advancement opportunities. Time to exclusive oral feedings and LOS were compared pre- and postprotocol implementation during more than a 2-month evaluation period. Infants using NNS and the standardized oral feeding advancement protocol had an observed reduction in time to exclusive oral feedings and LOS, although statistical significance was not achieved.

  1. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  2. Endurance exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Cameron J.; Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Carter, Emma E.; Kemp, Graham J.; Thompson, Campbell H.; Tyler, Damian J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Robbins, Peter A.; Clarke, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that a week-long, high-fat diet reduced whole body exercise efficiency in sedentary men by >10% (Edwards LM, Murray AJ, Holloway CJ, Carter EE, Kemp GJ, Codreanu I, Brooker H, Tyler DJ, Robbins PA, Clarke K. FASEB J 25: 1088–1096, 2011). To test if a similar dietary regime would blunt whole body efficiency in endurance-trained men and, as a consequence, hinder aerobic exercise performance, 16 endurance-trained men were given a short-term, high-fat (70% kcal from fat) and a moderate carbohydrate (50% kcal from carbohydrate) diet, in random order. Efficiency was assessed during a standardized exercise task on a cycle ergometer, with aerobic performance assessed during a 1-h time trial and mitochondrial function later measured using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The subjects then underwent a 2-wk wash-out period, before the study was repeated with the diets crossed over. Muscle biopsies, for mitochondrial protein analysis, were taken at the start of the study and on the 5th day of each diet. Plasma fatty acids were 60% higher on the high-fat diet compared with moderate carbohydrate diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in whole body efficiency and no change in mitochondrial function. Endurance exercise performance was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), most probably due to glycogen depletion. Neither diet led to changes in citrate synthase, ATP synthase, or mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3. We conclude that prior exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of short-term, high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency. PMID:21632846

  3. Energy efficiency improvement by gear shifting optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojevic Ivan A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have proved that elements of driver’s behavior related to gear selection have considerable influence on the fuel consumption. Optimal gear shifting is a complex task, especially for inexperienced drivers. This paper presents an implemented idea for gear shifting optimization with the aim of fuel consumption minimization with more efficient engine working regimes. Optimized gear shifting enables the best possible relation between vehicle motion regimes and engine working regimes. New theoretical-experimental approach has been developed using On-Board Diagnostic technology which so far has not been used for this purpose. The matrix of driving modes according to which tests were performed is obtained and special data acquisition system and analysis process have been developed. Functional relations between experimental test modes and adequate engine working parameters have been obtained and all necessary operations have been conducted to enable their use as inputs for the designed algorithm. The created Model has been tested in real exploitation conditions on passenger car with Otto fuel injection engine and On-Board Diagnostic connection without any changes on it. The conducted tests have shown that the presented Model has significantly positive effects on fuel consumption which is an important ecological aspect. Further development and testing of the Model allows implementation in wide range of motor vehicles with various types of internal combustion engines.

  4. Integer programming for improving radiotherapy treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ming; Li, Yi; Kou, Bo; Zhou, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    Patients received by radiotherapy departments are diverse and may be diagnosed with different cancers. Therefore, they need different radiotherapy treatment plans and thus have different needs for medical resources. This research aims to explore the best method of scheduling the admission of patients receiving radiotherapy so as to reduce patient loss and maximize the usage efficiency of service resources. A mix integer programming (MIP) model integrated with special features of radiotherapy is constructed. The data used here is based on the historical data collected and we propose an exact method to solve the MIP model. Compared with the traditional First Come First Served (FCFS) method, the new method has boosted patient admission as well as the usage of linear accelerators (LINAC) and beds. The integer programming model can be used to describe the complex problem of scheduling radio-receiving patients, to identify the bottleneck resources that hinder patient admission, and to obtain the optimal LINAC-bed radio under the current data conditions. Different management strategies can be implemented by adjusting the settings of the MIP model. The computational results can serve as a reference for the policy-makers in decision making.

  5. Integer programming for improving radiotherapy treatment efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ming; Kou, Bo; Zhou, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Patients received by radiotherapy departments are diverse and may be diagnosed with different cancers. Therefore, they need different radiotherapy treatment plans and thus have different needs for medical resources. This research aims to explore the best method of scheduling the admission of patients receiving radiotherapy so as to reduce patient loss and maximize the usage efficiency of service resources. Materials and methods A mix integer programming (MIP) model integrated with special features of radiotherapy is constructed. The data used here is based on the historical data collected and we propose an exact method to solve the MIP model. Results Compared with the traditional First Come First Served (FCFS) method, the new method has boosted patient admission as well as the usage of linear accelerators (LINAC) and beds. Conclusions The integer programming model can be used to describe the complex problem of scheduling radio-receiving patients, to identify the bottleneck resources that hinder patient admission, and to obtain the optimal LINAC-bed radio under the current data conditions. Different management strategies can be implemented by adjusting the settings of the MIP model. The computational results can serve as a reference for the policy-makers in decision making. PMID:28700726

  6. Biofuels done right: land efficient animal feeds enable large environmental and energy benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Bals, Bryan D; Kim, Seungdo; Eranki, Pragnya

    2010-11-15

    There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant biomass available for biofuels. Using less than 30% of total U.S. cropland, pasture, and range, 400 billion liters of ethanol can be produced annually without decreasing domestic food production or agricultural exports. This approach also reduces U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 670 Tg CO₂-equivalent per year, or over 10% of total U.S. annual emissions, while increasing soil fertility and promoting biodiversity. Thus we can replace a large fraction of U.S. petroleum consumption without indirect land use change.

  7. TIG welding power supply with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Володимирович Гулаков

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the influence of the DC component of the welding current during TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas welding is discussed. Known methods of DC current cancellation are reviewed, such as capacitor bank or diode/thyristor network insertion in the secondary circuit of the welding transformer. A new method of controlling the magnitude and shape of the TIG welding current is proposed. The idea is to insert a controlled voltage source in the secondary circuit of the welding transformer. This controlled voltage source is realized using a full-bridge voltage source inverter (VSI. VSI control system design issues are discussed. VSI is controlled by a three-level hysteretic current controller, while current reference is generated using lookup table driven by PLL (Phase Locked Loop locked to the mains frequency. Simulation results are shown. The proposed topology of TIG power supply allows to provide magnitude and shape control of the welding current, with the limitation that its DC component must be zero. Thus, some capabilities of professional AC-TIG welders are obtained using substantially lower cost components: VSI built using high-current low voltage MOSFETs with control system based on 32-bit ARM microcontroller. The use of proposed TIG welding power supply will eliminate the DC component of the welding current, improve welding transformer’s power factor and improve welding technology by increasing the welding arc stability

  8. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  9. Effects of probiotic supplement ( and on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population of weaning rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Lam Phuoc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of single or/and double strains of probiotic supplement on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population in distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT of weaning rabbits. Methods Sixty-four weaning (28 days old New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups with treatments including: basal diet without probiotic supplement (control or supplemented as follows: 1×106 cfu/g B. subtilis (BS group, 1×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (LA group, or 0.5×106 cfu/g B. subtilis plus 0.5×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (BL group. During the research, the male and female rabbits were fed separately. Body weight of the rabbits was recorded at 28, 42, and 70 d of age. Results There was an increase (p<0.05 in body weight gain for the LA group at 42 d. Rabbits fed BL responsed with a greater growth (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 than those fed with no probiotic. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy were higher (p<0.05 in LA and BL groups than those in the control group. Male rabbits had higher (p<0.05 Bacilli spp. and Coliformis spp. in the ileum than female rabbits. Rabbits supplemented with BS had greater (p<0.05 numbers of bacilli in all intestinal segments than those receiving no probiotic, whereas intestinal Lactobacilli populations were greater (p<0.001 in the LA and BL diets compared to control. Average intestinal coliform populations were lowest (p<0.05 in the rabbits supplemented with LA as compared to those fed the control and BS. Conclusion Supplementation of L. acidophilus alone or in combination with B. subtilis at a half of dose could enhance number of gut beneficial bacteria populations, nutrient digestibility, cecal fermentation, feed efficiency, and growth performance, but rabbits receiving only B. subtilis alone were not different from the controls without probiotic.

  10. On-Line Efficiency Improvement of Induction Motor Vector Controlled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Benoudjit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement is an important challenge for electric motor driven systems. For an induction motor, operation under rated conditions (at rated load with rated flux is very efficient. However, in many situations, operation with rated flux causes low efficiency especially at light load ranges. In these applications, induction motor should operate at reduced flux which causes a balance between iron losses and copper losses leading to an improved efficiency. This paper concerns energy optimization, i.e. efficiency improvement is carried out via a controller designed on the basis of imposing the rated power factor, by finding a relationship between rotor flux and torque current component which can optimize the compromise between torque and efficiency in steady state as well as in transient state. Experimental results are presented to prove the effectiveness and validity of the proposed controller.

  11. Improving Defibrillation Efficiency in Area Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent C; Shen, Jay J; Stanley, Ramona; Dahlke, Jeffrey; McPartlin, Sheri; Row, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the young is a rare event but the effects can be devastating. We sought to identify variables that would lead to an improvement in time to defibrillation (TDFB), a previously noted factor significantly influencing survival from cardiac arrest. During the 2013-2014 academic year, the Clark county school district performed quarterly drills to practice the coordinated automated external defibrillator (AED) response. Variables including school, AED carrier, and drill characteristics were measured to determine influence on TDFB. Schools were grouped by TDFB at a cutoff of three minutes. Characteristics were sought for schools with TDFB below three minutes. A mixed regression model taking into account repeated measures was created to determine which variables influenced TDFB. Time to overhead announcement, distance of AED from drill site, and time to setup AED were the variables influencing TDFB with statistical significance (P <.01). This study supports the notion of early recognition, announcement, and close proximity to an AED during a SCA to ensure an early TDFB. These results are consistent with basic life support and the chain of survival tenets of the American Heart Association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Genetic variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and disease resistance exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Jokumsen, Alfred; Berg, Peer

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test that additive genetic (co)variation for survival, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout. Thirty sires and 30 dams were mated by a partly factorial...... mating design. Each sire was mated to two dams, and each dam was mated to two sires, producing 50 viable full-sib families (29 sires, 25 dams). The fish from these families were reared for a 215-day growout period, and were assessed for survival between days 52 and 215, growth rate (i.e., body weight...... the predicted breeding values for VHS resistance and the predicted breeding values for the body weights, body length, and feed conversion efficiencies. These results demonstrate that additive genetic (co)variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and VHS resistance does exist within the farmed...

  13. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Besson

    Full Text Available In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA to calculate the economic (EV and environmental (ENV values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod, annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed, standing stock (Qstock, and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed. ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish and per farm per year (ENV(farm. Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish and ENV(farm were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  14. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  15. A pacifier-activated music player with mother's voice improves oral feeding in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorna, Olena D; Slaughter, James C; Wang, Lulu; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a randomized trial to test the hypothesis that mother's voice played through a pacifier-activated music player (PAM) during nonnutritive sucking would improve the development of sucking ability and promote more effective oral feeding in preterm infants. Preterm infants between 34 0/7 and 35 6/7 weeks' postmenstrual age, including those with brain injury, who were taking at least half their feedings enterally and less than half orally, were randomly assigned to receive 5 daily 15-minute sessions of either PAM with mother's recorded voice or no PAM, along with routine nonnutritive sucking and maternal care in both groups. Assignment was masked to the clinical team. Ninety-four infants (46 and 48 in the PAM intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. The intervention group had significantly increased oral feeding rate (2.0 vs. 0.9 mL/min, P < .001), oral volume intake (91.1 vs. 48.1 mL/kg/d, P = .001), oral feeds/day (6.5 vs. 4.0, P < .001), and faster time-to-full oral feedings (31 vs. 38 d, P = .04) compared with controls. Weight gain and cortisol levels during the 5-day protocol were not different between groups. Average hospital stays were 20% shorter in the PAM group, but the difference was not significant (P = .07). A PAM using mother's voice improves oral feeding skills in preterm infants without adverse effects on hormonal stress or growth.

  16. Beneficial microbial signals from alternative feed ingredients: a way to improve sustainability of broiler production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Immerseel, Filip; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Moore, Robert J; Choct, Mingan; Ducatelle, Richard

    2017-09-01

    More sustainable broiler meat production can be facilitated by the increased use of cheap by-products and local crops as feed ingredients, while not affecting animal performance and intestinal health, or even improving intestinal health, so that antibiotic usage is further reduced. To achieve this, knowledge of the relationship between the taxonomic and functional microbiota composition and intestinal health is required. In addition, the relationship between the novel feed sources, the substrates present in these feed sources, and the breakdown by enzymes and microbial networks can be crucial, because this can form the basis for development of tailored feed-type specific solutions for optimal digestion and animal performance. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Feeding enhances photosynthetic efficiency in the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes talangensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Andrej; Singerová, Lucia; Demko, Viktor; Hudák, Ján

    2009-08-01

    flower. Feeding pitchers with insect larvae increases A(N) of leaf laminae, due to higher nutrient acquisition, with strong correlation with nitrogen concentration, but A(N) of pitchers does not increase, despite increased nitrogen concentration in their tissue. Increased A(N) improves growth and reproduction and is likely to increase the competitive advantage of carnivorous over non-carnivorous plants in nutrient-poor habitats.

  18. PUMPKIN CAKE AND PUMPKIN SLUDGE USE EFFICIENCY IN CHICKEN-ROILERS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrygunov K. I.; Lipova E. A.; Dikusarov V. G.; Soshkin Y. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  19. Improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq3 interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiarong; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Zhou Yunfei; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq 3 interlayer, which is inserted into the hole-transport layer for adjusting the hole-injection and transport, and improving the hole-electron balance. The thin Alq 3 interlayer can effectively influence the electrical performance and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of the devices. The devices with an optimum Alq 3 interlayer exhibit a maximum EL efficiency of around 3.3 cd/A, which is improved by a factor of two over the conventional devices (1.6 cd/A) without the interlayer

  20. Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

  1. Fat-Modified Enteral Formula Improves Feeding Tolerance in Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter, Single-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunfang; Chen, Chuanxi; Zhang, Weixing; Kou, Qiuye; Wu, Shengnan; Zhou, Lixin; Liu, Jiyun; Ma, Gang; Chen, Juan; Chen, Minying; Luo, Hua; Zhang, Xiaofei; Lai, Jianbo; Yu, Zhihui; Yu, Xiaochun; Liao, Wei; Guan, Xiangdong; Ouyang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Improvement of fat digestion and absorption was supposed to relieve feeding intolerance. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect of a fat-modified enteral formula on feeding tolerance in critically ill patients. This trial was conducted in 7 hospitals in China. In total, 144 intensive care unit (ICU) patients with estimated need of enteral nutrition (EN) for at least 5 days were randomly given fat-modified enteral formula containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), carnitine, and taurine (interventional feed group, n = 71) or standard enteral formula (control feed group, n = 73). EN intake, feeding intolerance (diarrhea, vomiting, gastric retention, and abdominal distension) and outcomes (mechanical ventilator-free days of 28 days, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality) were collected. Daily calories and protein intake were increased in the interventional feed group compared with the control feed group ( P feeding intolerance was 42.3% in the interventional feed group and 65.7% in the control feed group ( P feeding intolerance was 11.3%, 18.3%, 14.1%, 25.4%, and 26.1% in the interventional feed group and 31.5%, 32.9%, 34.2%, 34.2%, and 30.4% in the control feed group from study days 1-5 ( P = .0083). Incidence of feeding intolerance without abdominal distention was 32.9% in the interventional feed group and 49.3% in the control feed group ( P = .047), while the incidence of abdominal distension was 26.8% in the interventional feed group and 43.8% in the control feed group ( P = .03). No significant differences existed in outcomes between the 2 groups. The fat-modified enteral formula containing MCT, carnitine, and taurine may improve feeding tolerance in critically ill patients.

  2. Bovine NR1I3 gene polymorphisms and its association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Pâmela A.; Gomes, Rodrigo C.; Santana, Miguel H.A.; Silva, Saulo L.; Leme, Paulo R.; Mudadu, Maurício A.; Regitano, Luciana C.A.; Meirelles, Flávio V.; Ferraz, José B.S.; Fukumasu, Heidge

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Nuclear receptor 1 family I member 3 (NR1I3), also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR), was initially characterized as a key regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, recent biochemical and structural data suggest that NR1I3 is activated in response to metabolic and nutritional stress in a ligand-independent manner. Thus, we prospected the Bovine NR1I3 gene for polymorphisms and studied their association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle. First, 155 purebred Nellore bulls were individually measured for Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and the 25 best (High Feed Efficiency group, HFE) and the 25 worst animals (Low Feed Efficiency group, LFE) were selected for DNA extraction. The entire Bovine NR1I3 gene was amplified and polymorphisms were identified by sequencing. Then, one SNP different between HFE and LFE groups was genotyped in all the 155 animals and in another 288 animals totalizing 443 Nellore bulls genotyped for association of NR1I3 SNPs with feed efficiency traits. We found 24 SNPs in the NR1I3 gene and choose a statistically different SNP between HFE and LFE groups for further analysis. Genotyping of the 155 animals showed a significant association within SNP and RFI (p = 0.04), Residual Intake and BW Gain (p = 0.04) and Dry Matter Intake (p = 0.01). This SNP is located in the 5′flanking promoter region of NR1I3 gene and different alleles alter the binding site for predicted transcriptional factors as HNF4alpha, CREM and c-MYB, leading us to conclude that NR1I3 expression and regulation might be important to feed efficiency. PMID:25606404

  3. Thermal efficiency improvements - an imperative for nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanien, S.; Rouse, S.

    1997-01-01

    A one and a half percent thermal performance improvement of Ontario Hydro's operating nuclear units (Bruce B, Pickering B, and Darlington) means almost 980 GWh are available to the transmission system (assuming an 80% capacity factor). This is equivalent to the energy consumption of 34,000 electrically-heated homes in Ontario, and worth more than $39 million in revenue to Ontario Hydro Nuclear Generation. Improving nuclear plant thermal efficiency improves profitability (more GWh per unit of fuel) and competitiveness (cost of unit energy), and reduces environmental impact (less spent fuel and nuclear waste). Thermal performance will naturally decrease due to the age of the units unless corrective action is taken. Most Ontario Hydro nuclear units are ten to twenty years old. Some common causes for loss of thermal efficiency are: fouling and tube plugging of steam generators, condensers, and heat exchangers; steam leaks in the condenser due to valve wear, steam trap and drain leaks; deposition, pitting, cracking, corrosion, etc., of turbine blades; inadequate feedwater metering resulting from corrosion and deposition. This paper stresses the importance of improving the nuclear units' thermal efficiency. Ontario Hydro Nuclear has demonstrated energy savings results are achievable and affordable. Between 1994 and 1996, Nuclear reduced its energy use and improved thermal efficiency by over 430,000 MWh. Efficiency improvement is not automatic - strategies are needed to be effective. This paper suggests practical strategies to systematically improve thermal efficiency. (author)

  4. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salary Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with high fiber along with alfalfa hay. Results showed feed intake was not significantly different in pre-weaning and throughout the study but after weaning there was significant difference among treatments. Average daily gain of calves was not significantly different during pre-weaning period but during post-weaning and throughout the study there was significant difference among treatments for this trait. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among treatments in pre-weaning and post-weaning periods but it was significantly different during throughout the study. The results of this experiment showed adding fiber to dairy calves ration through both starter concentrate and alfalfa hay may reduce their performance.

  5. Melatonin improves spermatogonial stem cells transplantation efficiency in azoospermic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Administration of melatonin (20 mg/kg simultaneously with transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells in azoospermia mouse testis increases the efficiency of transplantation and improves structural properties of the testes tissue.

  6. A history of industrial statistics and quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Coleman, S.; Greenfield, T.; Stewardson, D.; Montgomery, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed incredible increases in product quality, while in the same period product priced dropped dramatically. These important improvements in quality and efficiency in industry were the result of innovations in management and engineering. But these developments were

  7. Improvement in light-extraction efficiency of light emitting diode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of various microlens parameters such as diameter and area fraction on light-extraction efficiency was systematically studied. Improvement of 4% in extraction efficiency was obtained by employing it on white light emitting diode. The area fraction of microlenses was increased up to 0.34 by reducing the spin speed.

  8. Does automation improve stock market efficiency in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The automation of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) in 2008, among other reforms, was expected to improve the efficiency of the market. The extent of this truism has, however, not been empirically established for the GSE. In this study, we attempt to assess the impact of the automation on the efficiency of the GSE within the ...

  9. A Three-Step Methodology to Improve Domestic Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies have been developed to improve this efficiency. Next to large scale technologies such as windturbine parks, domestic technologies are

  10. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  11. Improvement in light-extraction efficiency of light emitting diode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... parameters such as diameter and area fraction on light-extraction efficiency was systematically studied. Improvement of. 4% in extraction efficiency was obtained by employing it on white light emitting diode. The area fraction .... on feature size due to (i) weak van der Waals destabilizing forces and (ii) high ...

  12. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrouz; Maleknia, Shayan; Heydari, Amir; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB) multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44) cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb) titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds. PMID:26480023

  13. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torkashvand

    Full Text Available Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44 cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  14. Investigation of Improved Methods in Power Transfer Efficiency for Radiating Near-Field Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically small antenna is proposed, firstly. And then several improving power transfer efficiency (PTE methods for wireless power transfer (WPT systems composed of the proposed antenna in the radiating near-field region are investigated. Method one is using a proposed antenna as a power retriever. This WPT system consisted of three proposed antennas: a transmitter, a receiver, and a retriever. The system is fed by only one power source. At a fixed distance from receiver to transmitter, the distance between the transmitter and the retriever is turned to maximize power transfer from the transmitter to the receiver. Method two is using two proposed antennas as transmitters and one antenna as receiver. The receiver is placed between the two transmitters. In this system, two power sources are used to feed the two transmitters, respectively. By adjusting the phase difference between the two feeding sources, the maximum PTE can be obtained at the optimal phase difference. Using the same configuration as method two, method three, where the maximum PTE can be increased by regulating the voltage (or power ratio of the two feeding sources, is proposed. In addition, we combine the proposed methods to construct another two schemes, which improve the PTE at different extent than classical WPT system.

  15. Plasma nitrogen isotopic fractionation and feed efficiency in growing beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheadon, N M; McGee, M; Edwards, G R; Dewhurst, R J

    2014-05-01

    Fractionation of N isotopes occurs in many metabolic reactions which causes tissue proteins to become enriched in ¹⁵N while urea (urine) is depleted in ¹⁵N relative to the diet. We investigated ¹⁵N enrichment of whole plasma and its relationship with feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in growing beef heifers (n 84) offered 2 kg/d of concentrates with grass silage ad libitum. Heifers were on average 299 (SD 48·3) d old and weighed 311 (SD 48·8) kg. Plasma was obtained on day 79 (n 84) of the experiment and from a subset of animals (n 20) on four occasions between days 16 and 79. Silage DM intake (DMI) averaged 4·1 (SD 0·74) kg/d and concentrate DMI was 1·72 kg/d. Mean mid-test live weight was 333 (SD 47·6) kg, daily gain was 0·53 (SD 0·183) kg, FCE (g live-weight gain/g DMI) was 0·09 (SD 0·028) and residual feed intake (RFI) was 0 (SD 0·428). N isotopic fractionation (Δ¹⁵N; plasma δ¹⁵N - diet δ¹⁵N) averaged 3·58 ‰ on day 79 (n 84) and 3·90 ‰ for the subset of heifers. There was no relationship between Δ¹⁵N and RFI. Plasma δ¹⁵N and Δ¹⁵N were related to both FCE (negative) and animal weight (positive) for the whole population, and repeatable for the subset of animals over four time points. These relationships of Δ¹⁵N with FCE and animal weight are consistent with the anticipated negative relationship with N-use efficiency. There is potential to use Δ¹⁵N to provide rapid, low-cost estimates of FCE in cattle.

  16. Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification to improve resource and energy efficiency in syngas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquaniello, G; Salladini, A; Palo, E; Centi, G

    2015-02-01

    Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification is a new process scheme to improve resource and energy efficiency in a well-established and large scale-process like syngas production. Experimentation in a semi industrial-scale unit (20 Nm(3)  h(-1) production) shows that a novel syngas production scheme based on a pre-reforming stage followed by a membrane for hydrogen separation, a catalytic partial oxidation step, and a further step of syngas purification by membrane allows the oxygen-to-carbon ratio to be decreased while maintaining levels of feed conversion. For a total feed conversion of 40 %, for example, the integrated novel architecture reduces oxygen consumption by over 50 %, with thus a corresponding improvement in resource efficiency and an improved energy efficiency and economics, these factors largely depending on the air separation stage used to produce pure oxygen. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma during the finishing period are associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously have shown that plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids (EC) are positively correlated with feed efficiency and leaner carcasses in finishing steers. However, whether the animal growth during the finishing period affects the concentration of EC is unknown. The objective of this study...

  18. Improvement of mammalian cell culture performance through surfactant enabled concentrated feed media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Patrick; McDermott, Sean; Racicot, Christopher; Fann, John C H

    2013-01-01

    The design of basal and feed media in mammalian cell culture is paramount towards ensuring acceptable upstream process performance in various operation modes, especially fed-batch culture. Mammalian cell culture media designs have evolved from the classical formulations designed by Eagle and Ham, to today's formulations designed from continuous improvement and statistical frameworks. Feed media is especially important for ensuring robust cell growth, productivity, and ensuring the product quality of recombinant therapeutics are within acceptable ranges. Numerous studies have highlighted the benefit of various media designs, supplements, and feed addition strategies towards the resulting cell culture process. In this work we highlight the use of a top-down level approach towards feed media design enabled by the use of select surfactants for the targeted enrichment of a chemically defined feed media. The use of the enriched media was able to improve product titers at g/L levels, without adversely impacting the growth of multiple Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines or the product quality of multiple recombinant antibodies. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...... and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issue and analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency and promote research and development in energy efficiency....

  20. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  1. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varman, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification

  2. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.

  3. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Ngoc Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Residual feed intake (RFI is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, candidate genes and biological pathways involved in regulating RFI using Genome-wide association (GWA and pathway analyses. A total of 596 Yorkshire boars with phenotypes for two different measures of RFI (RFI1 and 2 and 60k genotypic data was used. Genome-wide association analysis was performed using a univariate mixed model and 12 and 7 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Several genes such as XIRP2, TTC29, SOGA1, MAS1, GRK5, PROX1, GPR155 and ZFYVE26 were identified as putative candidates for RFI based on their genomic location in the vicinity of these SNPs. Genes located within 50 kilo base pairs of SNPs significantly associated with RFI and RFI2 (q-value ≤ 0.2 were subsequently used for pathway analyses. These analyses were performed by assigning genes to biological pathways and then testing the association of individual pathways with RFI using a Fisher’s exact test. Metabolic pathway was significantly associated with both RFIs. Other biological pathways regulating phagosome, tight junctions, olfactory transduction, and insulin secretion were significantly associated with both RFI traits when relaxed threshold for cut-off p-value was used (p ≤ 0.05. These results implied porcine RFI is regulated by multiple biological mechanisms, although the metabolic processes might be the most important. Olfactory transduction pathway controlling the perception of feed via smell, insulin pathway controlling food intake might be important pathways for RFI. Furthermore, our study revealed key genes and genetic variants that control feed efficiency that could potentially be useful for genetic selection of more feed efficient pigs.

  4. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings in the Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanets, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the results of studies of energy efficiency improvements of the buildings which are constructed under the climatic conditions of the Ural Federal District of the Russian Federation. The relevance of the stated problem is corroborated. The requirements of the existing regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation on energy conservation and energy efficiency in construction are given. The article specifies that energy efficiency in construction refers to a set of measures aimed at the reduction of energy resources which are consumed by buildings and are necessary to maintain the required microclimate parameters indoors. The main modern measures for improving the energy efficiency of buildings are presented, and their application under the climatic conditions of the Urals are analyzed and calculated. Each of the proposed methods is evaluated. Basing on the research results, it is concluded that most of the currently known measures for improving the energy efficiency of buildings are significantly limited in the Ural Federal District due to the small economic effect connected with the complexity and high cost of their implementation and operation, the peculiarities of climatic conditions and the conditions of the population density of the territories or significant ineffectiveness of the measures themselves; the most promising measures for improving the energy efficiency of buildings under the climatic and economic conditions of the Urals are the measures for reducing heat loss through the building envelopes (for improving the heat-insulation characteristics of the applied materials and structures).

  6. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in place to mitigate this effect. The improvement of production efficiency through increased production per constant unit, crossbreeding and genetic improvement may be a cost effective and permanent way of reducing the carbon footprint of beef cattle. Keywords: Methane, global warming, greenhouse gas, crossbreeding, ...

  7. Barriers to efficiency improvement and fuel switching in Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.

    1991-01-01

    Implementing energy efficiency changes requires a wide range measures. Improvements, therefore, require actions at the lowest level of the consumer, through the highest level of the global agencies. Due to the multiplicity of participants, however, barriers to achieving these improvements can arise at every level. The major barriers to improving energy efficiency in developing countries are defined and paths to overcome these challenges are identified. Topics of discussion include: energy consumers; end-use equipment manufacturers; end-use equipment providers; energy carrier producers and distributors; actual/potential cogenerators; financial institutions; government; and international, multilateral and industrialized country funding/aid agencies

  8. Improved Reliability of Single-Phase PV Inverters by Limiting the Maximum Feed-in Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . The CPG control strategy is activated only when the DC input power from PV panels exceeds a specific power limit. It enables to limit the maximum feed-in power to the electric grids and also to improve the utilization of PV inverters. As a further study, this paper investigates the reliability performance...... of the power devices (e.g. IGBTs) used in PV inverters with the CPG control under different feed-in power limits. A long-term mission profile (i.e. solar irradiance and ambient temperature) based stress analysis approach is extended and applied to obtain the yearly electrical and thermal stresses of the power...

  9. Efficiency improvements of public hospitals under a capitation payment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lacalle, Javier; Martín, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    In a context of cost containment and demands for better quality in public health care, payment systems are used as an instrument to promote efficiency improvements in service providers. Andalusia has adopted an original type of risk-adjusted capitation payment mechanism to reimburse public hospitals. This paper presents the main characteristics of the reimbursement mechanism of the Andalusian Health Service highlighting some differences with the mechanisms adopted in other parts of Europe. The paper also explores the evolution of the efficiency and quality of the hospitals after its implementation using the Malmquist index. Results indicate that hospitals have slightly improved their efficiency, particularly urban hospitals, and these improvements are not significantly related to a negative evolution of quality. However, it is not possible to assert to what extent, improvements are the consequence of the new payment system. The organisation of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud and the limited competition between hospitals reduce the effectiveness of the reform.

  10. Efficiency improvement opportunities in TVs: Implications for market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Televisions (TVs) account for a significant portion of residential electricity consumption and global TV shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of TVs that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that TV efficiency will likely improve by over 60% by 2015 with savings potential of 45 terawatt-hours [TW h] per year in 2015, compared to today’s technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost effectiveness of three of them. At least one of these options improves efficiency by at least 20% cost effectively beyond ongoing market trends. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy savings potential from TVs which we estimate to be up to 23 TW h per year in 2015. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the recent TV market transition on TV energy consumption. • We review TV technology options that could be realized in the near future. • We assess the cost-effectiveness of selected energy-efficiency improvement options. • We estimate global electricity savings potential in selected scenarios. • We discuss possible directions of market transformation programs

  11. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  12. A Novel Wideband Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna with Improved Feeding Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marwah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel feeding structure in magneto-electric dipole antenna is proposed and analyzed, which is simpler and better in performance than previous designs, involving differential feeding.  Due to this improved feeding structure, the antenna has achieved an impedance bandwidth of 133.3% ( 0.5 GHz – 2.5 GHz, resulting into an ultra-wide band antenna. The maximum broadside gain 7.5dBi with unidirectional radiation pattern has also been reported for the entire the range of operation. Symmetry in E-plane and H-plane radiation patterns has been observed due to the symmetry in structure and excitation of antenna. The antenna has also been able to achieve cross polarization levels.

  13. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  14. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  15. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  16. Integrated GWAS and Pathway profiling for feed efficiency traits in pigs leads to novel genes and their molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2013-01-01

    . Residual feed intake is a feed efficiency measure and is highly economically important in animal production. In our study, a total of 596 Yorkshire boars had phenotypic and genotypic records. After quality control, 37,915 SNPs were available for GWAS which was implemented in the DMU software package...... by using BioCarta pathway analysis tools and asynaptic_vesicle_trafficking and thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor signaling pathways were identified by using Panther-pathway profiling tools. Several of these pathways such as Wnt, growth hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor signaling...

  17. Context for food-based approaches for improved feeding of infants and children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Barbara J; Abebe, Yewelsew

    2014-12-01

    Regardless of efforts by the health sector and partner organizations, maternal and child malnutrition is still a challenge in Ethiopia. To describe the context of current infant and child feeding patterns in Ethiopia. Feeding patterns, diet content and quality, and nutritional outcomes and feeding practices of mothers of young children are described from literature review of a number of field studies. Protein and energy deficiencies and multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common. Breastfeeding is often prolonged until 2 years of age, with introduction of small amounts of poor-quality complementary foods. Vitamin A and iodine deficiencies have also been problems. Focus group discussions showed that mothers did not believe that animal-source foods are needed.by young children or schoolchildren. However, the Health Extension Program led by the Federal Ministry of Health promotes optimal child feeding as one of the health extension packages. Continued use of germination and fermentation of cereals should be encouraged to increase bioavailability of trace elements. Use of fat in the diet would increase energy density. To improve the situation, extension education, including nutrition and agricultural expertise delivered in aformat understandable to mothers about appropriate complementary feeding, including animal-source foods, is urgently needed, with expansion of governmental and nongovernmental resources.

  18. Maintenance and improvement of dairy feed quality by radiation for distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ryoei; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Osamu; Ando, Sada; Akiyama, Noriaki; Yamada, Akio

    1997-01-01

    With an aim to improve the quality of crude feed and its maintenance, γ-ray radiation was carried out during the steps of preparation and storage of feed and the effects on the fermentation of silage crude feed and mixed feed were investigated. Of the γ-ray radiation significant effects on general constituents in the silage were not observed immediately after the radiation, but it was clear that the contents of fibrous components were apt to increase one month later. The ratio, VBN/TN in the silage decreased with the elevation of radiation dose. Further it was found that radiation at 16 Gy or more is needed to prevent butyric acid fermentation in the silage and aerobic deterioration. In addition, the amount of peroxide lipids was not increased by the γ-radiation, suggesting that no adverse effects on the quality of the feed in silage might be caused by radiation. Thus, it was concluded that γ-radiation in appropriate conditions has favorable influence on silage fermentation. (M.N.)

  19. Linking quality improvement and energy efficiency/waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Moore, N.L.

    1995-04-01

    For some time industry has recognized the importance of both energy efficiency/waste reduction (ee/wr) and quality/manufacturing improvement. However, industry has not particularly recognized that manufacturing efficiency is, in part, the result of a more efficient use of energy. For that reason, the energy efficiency efforts of most companies have involved admonishing employees to save energy. Few organizations have invested resources in training programs aimed at increasing energy efficiency and reducing waste. This describes a program to demonstrate how existing utility and government training and incentive programs can be leveraged to increase ee/wr and benefit both industry and consumers. Fortunately, there are a variety of training tools and resources that can be applied to educating workers on the benefits of energy efficiency and waste reduction. What is lacking is a method of integrating ee/wr training with other important organizational needs. The key, therefore, is to leverage ee/wr investments with other organizational improvement programs. There are significant strides to be made by training industry to recognize fully the contribution that energy efficiency gains make to the bottom line. The federal government stands in the unique position of being able to leverage the investments already made by states, utilities, and manufacturing associations by coordinating training programs and defining the contribution of energy-efficiency practices. These aims can be accomplished by: developing better measures of energy efficiency and waste reduction; promoting methods of leveraging manufacturing efficiency programs with energy efficiency concepts; helping industry understand how ee/wr investments can increase profits; promoting research on the needs of, and most effective ways to, reach the small and medium-sized businesses that so often lack the time, information, and finances to effectively use the hardware and training technologies available.

  20. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  1. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  2. Efficient Generation and Selection of Combined Features for Improved Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Shono, Ahmad N.

    2014-05-01

    This study contributes a methodology and associated toolkit developed to allow users to experiment with the use of combined features in classification problems. Methods are provided for efficiently generating combined features from an original feature set, for efficiently selecting the most discriminating of these generated combined features, and for efficiently performing a preliminary comparison of the classification results when using the original features exclusively against the results when using the selected combined features. The potential benefit of considering combined features in classification problems is demonstrated by applying the developed methodology and toolkit to three sample data sets where the discovery of combined features containing new discriminating information led to improved classification results.

  3. An efficient General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS enabled algorithm for dynamic transit accessibility analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kiavash Fayyaz S

    Full Text Available The social functions of urbanized areas are highly dependent on and supported by the convenient access to public transportation systems, particularly for the less privileged populations who have restrained auto ownership. To accurately evaluate the public transit accessibility, it is critical to capture the spatiotemporal variation of transit services. This can be achieved by measuring the shortest paths or minimum travel time between origin-destination (OD pairs at each time-of-day (e.g. every minute. In recent years, General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS data has been gaining popularity for between-station travel time estimation due to its interoperability in spatiotemporal analytics. Many software packages, such as ArcGIS, have developed toolbox to enable the travel time estimation with GTFS. They perform reasonably well in calculating travel time between OD pairs for a specific time-of-day (e.g. 8:00 AM, yet can become computational inefficient and unpractical with the increase of data dimensions (e.g. all times-of-day and large network. In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm that is computationally elegant and mathematically efficient to address this issue. An open-source toolbox written in C++ is developed to implement the algorithm. We implemented the algorithm on City of St. George's transit network to showcase the accessibility analysis enabled by the toolbox. The experimental evidence shows significant reduction on computational time. The proposed algorithm and toolbox presented is easily transferable to other transit networks to allow transit agencies and researchers perform high resolution transit performance analysis.

  4. An efficient General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) enabled algorithm for dynamic transit accessibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz S., S. Kiavash; Zhang, Guohui

    2017-01-01

    The social functions of urbanized areas are highly dependent on and supported by the convenient access to public transportation systems, particularly for the less privileged populations who have restrained auto ownership. To accurately evaluate the public transit accessibility, it is critical to capture the spatiotemporal variation of transit services. This can be achieved by measuring the shortest paths or minimum travel time between origin-destination (OD) pairs at each time-of-day (e.g. every minute). In recent years, General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data has been gaining popularity for between-station travel time estimation due to its interoperability in spatiotemporal analytics. Many software packages, such as ArcGIS, have developed toolbox to enable the travel time estimation with GTFS. They perform reasonably well in calculating travel time between OD pairs for a specific time-of-day (e.g. 8:00 AM), yet can become computational inefficient and unpractical with the increase of data dimensions (e.g. all times-of-day and large network). In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm that is computationally elegant and mathematically efficient to address this issue. An open-source toolbox written in C++ is developed to implement the algorithm. We implemented the algorithm on City of St. George’s transit network to showcase the accessibility analysis enabled by the toolbox. The experimental evidence shows significant reduction on computational time. The proposed algorithm and toolbox presented is easily transferable to other transit networks to allow transit agencies and researchers perform high resolution transit performance analysis. PMID:28981544

  5. Finishing pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency show small differences in intestinal functionality and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli

    Full Text Available Controversial information is available regarding the feed efficiency-related variation in intestinal size, structure and functionality in pigs. The present objective was therefore to investigate the differences in visceral organ size, intestinal morphology, mucosal enzyme activity, intestinal integrity and related gene expression in low and high RFI pigs which were reared at three different geographical locations (Austria, AT; Northern Ireland, NI; Republic of Ireland, ROI using similar protocols. Pigs (n = 369 were ranked for their RFI between days 42 and 91 postweaning and low and high RFI pigs (n = 16 from AT, n = 24 from NI, and n = 60 from ROI were selected. Pigs were sacrificed and sampled on ~day 110 of life. In general, RFI-related variation in intestinal size, structure and function was small. Some energy saving mechanisms and enhanced digestive and absorptive capacity were indicated in low versus high RFI pigs by shorter crypts, higher duodenal lactase and maltase activity and greater mucosal permeability (P < 0.05, but differences were mainly seen in pigs from AT and to a lesser degree in pigs from ROI. Additionally, low RFI pigs from AT had more goblet cells in duodenum but fewer in jejunum compared to high RFI pigs (P < 0.05. Together with the lower expression of TLR4 and TNFA in low versus high RFI pigs from AT and ROI (P < 0.05, these results might indicate differences in the innate immune response between low and high RFI pigs. Results demonstrated that the variation in the size of visceral organs and intestinal structure and functionality was greater between geographic location (local environmental factors than between RFI ranks of pigs. In conclusion, present results support previous findings that the intestinal size, structure and functionality do not significantly contribute to variation in RFI of pigs.

  6. Medium-chain triglyceride as an alternative of in-feed colistin sulfate to improve growth performance and intestinal microbial environment in newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hung-Che; Lai, Wei-Kang; Lin, Chuan-Shun; Chiang, Shu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-eight newly weaned pigs were given four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. Sixteen to 18 pigs were assigned per replicate and were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 3% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 0 or 40 ppm colistin sulfate (CS) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for 2 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with MCT improved the gain-to-feed ratio during days 3-7 and in the overall period (P environment and the feed utilization efficiency of newly weaned pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. SAGD CO2 mitigation through energy efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis du, D.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reductions achieved using energy efficiency measures in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations was presented. The efficiency of a typical SAGD operation was analyzed using an indexing tool based on the Carnot cycle efficiency to develop an ideal SAGD heat cycle. The benefits of using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology to convert waste heat to electrical power were also investigated. A CO 2 abatement curve was used to identify the economic benefits and costs of various greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. The level of recovered energy was determined in relation to energy prices, capital costs, and carbon penalties in order to determine the most efficient means of decreasing energy usage. The study demonstrated that energy efficiency can be improved by up to 20 percent, and water loss reductions of up to 50 percent can be achieved using cost-effective energy efficiency measures. Results of the study can be used to guide government policy and provide industry with practical tools to benchmark performance and improve efficiencies. 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  8. Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Bragg, Jason; Finnegan, Patrick M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Plaxton, William C; Price, Charles A; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Shane, Michael W; White, Philip J; Raven, John A

    2012-07-01

    Limitation of grain crop productivity by phosphorus (P) is widespread and will probably increase in the future. Enhanced P efficiency can be achieved by improved uptake of phosphate from soil (P-acquisition efficiency) and by improved productivity per unit P taken up (P-use efficiency). This review focuses on improved P-use efficiency, which can be achieved by plants that have overall lower P concentrations, and by optimal distribution and redistribution of P in the plant allowing maximum growth and biomass allocation to harvestable plant parts. Significant decreases in plant P pools may be possible, for example, through reductions of superfluous ribosomal RNA and replacement of phospholipids by sulfolipids and galactolipids. Improvements in P distribution within the plant may be possible by increased remobilization from tissues that no longer need it (e.g. senescing leaves) and reduced partitioning of P to developing grains. Such changes would prolong and enhance the productive use of P in photosynthesis and have nutritional and environmental benefits. Research considering physiological, metabolic, molecular biological, genetic and phylogenetic aspects of P-use efficiency is urgently needed to allow significant progress to be made in our understanding of this complex trait. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  10. Protocol for a feasibility trial for improving breast feeding initiation and continuation: assets-based infant feeding help before and after birth (ABA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Kate; Ingram, Jenny; Clarke, Joanne; Johnson, Debbie; Trickey, Heather; Thomson, Gill; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sitch, Alice; Dykes, Fiona; Feltham, Max G; Darwent, Kirsty; MacArthur, Christine; Roberts, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding improves the health of mothers and infants; the UK has low rates, with marked socioeconomic inequalities. While trials of peer support services have been effective in some settings, UK trials have not improved breast feeding rates. Qualitative research suggests that many women are alienated by the focus on breast feeding. We propose a change from breast feeding-focused interactions to respecting a woman’s feeding choices, inclusion of behaviour change theory and an increased intensity of contacts in the 2 weeks after birth when many women cease to breast feed. This will take place alongside an assets-based approach that focuses on the positive capability of individuals, their social networks and communities. We propose a feasibility study for a multicentre randomised controlled trial of the Assets feeding help Before and After birth (ABA) infant feeding service versus usual care. Methods and analysis A two-arm, non-blinded randomised feasibility study will be conducted in two UK localities. Women expecting their first baby will be eligible, regardless of feeding intention. The ABA infant feeding intervention will apply a proactive, assets-based, woman-centred, non-judgemental approach, delivered antenatally and postnatally tailored through face-to-face contacts, telephone and SMS texts. Outcomes will test the feasibility of delivering the intervention with recommended intensity and duration to disadvantaged women; acceptability to women, feeding helpers and professionals; and feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial (RCT), detailing recruitment rates, willingness to be randomised, follow-up rates at 3 days, 8 weeks and 6 months, and level of outcome completion. Outcomes of the proposed full trial will also be collected. Mixed methods will include qualitative interviews with women/partners, feeding helpers and health service staff; feeding helper logs; and review of audio-recorded helper–women interactions to assess

  11. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented....... The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented...

  12. The effect of different feed restriction programs on reproductive performance, efficiency, frame size, and uniformity in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Coon, C N

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feed restriction programs on breeder reproductive performance. In experiment 1, every day (ED), skip-a-day (SK), 4-3, and 5-2 programs were compared. Diets did not differ, and feed intake was identical in all groups. Four hundred twenty pullets were reared on each program. At 21 wk, 80 breeders from each program were individually housed to record performance parameters. Body weight and frame size were larger in ED pullets than SK, 4-3, or 5-2 despite equal intakes. Hens fed ED reached sexual maturity at a younger age than other groups. Hens fed ED also produced more total and settable eggs than SK hens. Egg weight was heavier in 5-2 hens than in ED with 4-3 and SK intermediate. Efficiency of feed utilization was best in ED hens. In experiment 2 the same programs were tested, but pullets were reared to reach equal BW. One hundred seventy-five pullets were reared on each program, of which 60 were housed. Feed intake was greater for SK, 4-3, and 5-2 than ED pullets to reach the same BW. Frame size did not differ, indicating that BW was the cause of differences in experiment 1. In experiment 2, differences in performance were attenuated but not eliminated by feeding to reach equal BW, suggesting that metabolic factors aside from BW are altered by feeding programs. The 5-2 produced larger eggs than ED with the trend among programs being identical to that in experiment 1. These results suggest that metabolic changes such as increased lipogenesis or alterations in body composition may result in larger eggs in feeding programs that include off-feed days. Mortality, fertility, and hatchability were not affected by feeding programs in either experiment. Body composition analysis indicated the importance of total lean protein mass as a threshold for the onset of sexual maturity. Programs like SK are less efficient than ED and may result in reduced performance.

  13. Engineering crassulacean acid metabolism to improve water-use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Hartwell, James; Weston, David J; Schlauch, Karen A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2014-05-01

    Climatic extremes threaten agricultural sustainability worldwide. One approach to increase plant water-use efficiency (WUE) is to introduce crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. Such a task requires comprehensive systems-level understanding of the enzymatic and regulatory pathways underpinning this temporal CO2 pump. Here we review the progress that has been made in achieving this goal. Given that CAM arose through multiple independent evolutionary origins, comparative transcriptomics and genomics of taxonomically diverse CAM species are being used to define the genetic 'parts list' required to operate the core CAM functional modules of nocturnal carboxylation, diurnal decarboxylation, and inverse stomatal regulation. Engineered CAM offers the potential to sustain plant productivity for food, feed, fiber, and biofuel production in hotter and drier climates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does frenotomy improve breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to critically examine the existing literature regarding the effectiveness of tongue-tie division in infants with ankyloglossia, using the new grades of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) rating system. A clinical question was structured according to patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome, as follows: in infants with poor breast-feeding and ankyloglossia (patient), does frenotomy (intervention), compared to lactation support alone (comparison), improve feeding (outcome)? An electronic literature search was systematically conducted from databases including PubMed, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Igaku Chuo Zasshi), CINAHL, and Cochrane Library using the key words "ankyloglossia," "tongue-tie," "frenotomy," and/or "breast-feeding" in English and equivalent terms in Japanese. The literature search yielded four randomized clinical trials, and 12 observational studies for analysis. The quality of the literature was rated in regard to the two most important outcomes (sucking/latching, and nipple pain) and five less important outcomes (milk supply/milk production, continuation of breast-feeding, weight gain, adverse events, and dyad distress) in accordance with the GRADE system. Evidence levels of the most important outcomes were rated either A (strong evidence) or B (moderate evidence), and less important outcomes were rated C (weak evidence); every outcome consistently showed a favorable effect of frenotomy on breast-feeding. The literature review supported an overall moderate quality of evidence for the effectiveness of frenotomy for the treatment of breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia. No major complications from frenotomy were reported. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Effect of simplified feeding based only on wheat bran and brewer’s grain on rabbit performance and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Cherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simplified diets are based on maximum incorporation of fodder and/or by-products into animal feed, thus minimizing the formulation and the costs. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of feeding fattening rabbits with a simplified diet composed of only two agro-industrial by-products inexpensive and locally available: brewer’s grain and wheat bran. At weaning (35 days, 68 rabbits were divided into two identical groups (mean weight = 833 g and housed in individual cages until slaughter (77 days. Each of the two groups (B0 and SF was fed ad libitum either a commercial pelleted feed (control, or a simplified pelleted  experimental diet "SF" containing 72% wheat bran and 27% brewer’s grain. The feed conversion was within the standards and similar in the two groups (3.55 on average. The growth rate and feed intake of B0 group were 12% higher (P <0.001 than that of the SF group (35.2g vs 31.2 and 128.3 vs 113 g/d. The cold carcass yield and the carcass weight were respectively higher (P <0.001 by 4 units and by 9% in the control group. The carcass of SF group was less fatty (perirenal fat: -23%, inguinal fat: -41% and scapular fat:-14%. The economic efficiency was 40% better for SF diet with almost 50 Algerian Dinar more benefit (/kg of meat.

  16. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  17. Supply Chain Management for Improved Energy Efficiency: Review and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a key resource for economic and social development, providing substantial benefits to different stakeholders, ranging from the entities which develop energy efficient measures to everyone in society. In addition to cost savings, multiple benefits can be achieved by supporting a better alignment between energy issues and strategic business priorities: e.g., improved competitiveness, profitability, quality, etc. Thus, energy efficiency can be a strategic advantage, not just a marginal issue, for companies. However, most firms, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs, face many problems and, in some cases, hostility when trying to effectively implement energy efficiency actions. The most dominant barriers are the access to capital and the lack of awareness (especially in terms of life cycle cost effects. The supply chain viewpoint represents one of the main opportunities for overcoming those barriers and improving energy performance even for weaker companies. Since the current literature on energy efficiency and practical approaches to ensure energy efficiency mainly focus on energy performance on a single-firm basis, this paper aims to provide a systematic review of papers on the integration of energy efficiency in supply chain design and management published in academic journal, thereby defining potential research streams to close the gaps in the literature. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on specific aspects of sustainable or on green supply chain management; however, to the best of our knowledge, no review has focused on the energy efficiency issue. Firstly, the present paper shows how considering energy consumption in supply chain management can contribute to more energy-efficient processes from a systemic point of view. Then, the review methodology used is defined and the sampled papers are analyzed and categorized based on the different approaches they propose. From these

  18. Efficiency Improvement and Quality Initiatives Application in Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ajtene Avdullahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions in today’s economy have no longer the luxury to improve profit simply by increasing revenue. These firms, due to the significant measuring reductions in the financial services industry needed to improve operational efficiencies and merely support existing processes with fewer resources. This paper explains the benefits of Lean, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management and Lean Six Sigma that have improved organization's performance, by cutting costs and waste, improving their products or services, increasing profitability as well as enhancing customer satisfaction. The applicability of quality management practices in financial institutions in Kosovo is presented and also their efficiency and effectiveness. By analyzing data from Raiffeisen Bank Kosovo, this paper highlights the benefits of Individual and Micro companies customer segment as the result of organizational change and successful application of quality initiatives from financial institutions in Kosovo.

  19. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    EW-201013) Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Air Conditioning Efficiency November 2016 This document has been cleared for public...December 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 10-C-0027-A Cost and Performance Report. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved...distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This project involved a field demonstration of subsurface thermal energy storage for

  20. Primary genome scan to identify putative quantitative trait loci for feedlot growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Li, C; Marques, E; Crews, D H; Bartusiak, R; Murdoch, B; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A; Moore, S S

    2007-12-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle are economically relevant traits. The study was conducted to identify QTL for feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle by using genotype information from 100 microsatellite markers and 355 SNP genotyped across 400 progeny of 20 Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls. Traits analyzed include feedlot ADG, daily DMI, feed-to-gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F)], and residual feed intake (RFI). A mixed model with sire as random and QTL effects as fixed was used to generate an F-statistic profile across and within families for each trait along each chromosome, followed by empirical permutation tests to determine significance thresholds for QTL detection. Putative QTL for ADG (chromosome-wise P < 0.05) were detected across families on chromosomes 5 (130 cM), 6 (42 cM), 7 (84 cM), 11 (20 cM), 14 (74 cM), 16 (22 cM), 17 (9 cM), 18 (46 cM), 19 (53 cM), and 28 (23 cM). For DMI, putative QTL that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (93 cM), 3 (123 cM), 15 (31 cM), 17 (81 cM), 18 (49 cM), 20 (56 cM), and 26 (69 cM) in the across-family analyses. Putative across-family QTL influencing F:G that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 3 (62 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (27 cM), 11 (16 cM), 16 (30 cM), 17 (81 cM), 22 (72 cM), 24 (55 cM), and 28 (24 cM). Putative QTL influencing RFI that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (90 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (22 cM), 8 (80 cM), 12 (89 cM), 16 (41 cM), 17 (19 cM), and 26 (48 cM) in the across-family analyses. In addition, a total of 4, 6, 1, and 8 chromosomes showed suggestive evidence (chromosome-wise, P < 0.10) for putative ADG, DMI, F:G, and RFI QTL, respectively. Most of the QTL detected across families were also detected within families, although the locations across families were not necessarily the locations within families, which is

  1. Scaling production and improving efficiency in DEA: an interactive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödder, Wilhelm; Kleine, Andreas; Dellnitz, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    DEA models help a DMU to detect its (in-)efficiency and to improve activities, if necessary. Efficiency is only one economic aim for a decision-maker; however, up- or downsizing might be a second one. Improving efficiency is the main topic in DEA; the long-term strategy towards the right production size should attract our attention as well. Not always the management of a DMU primarily focuses on technical efficiency but rather is interested in gaining scale effects. In this paper, a formula for returns to scale (RTS) is developed, and this formula is even applicable for interior points of technology. Particularly, technical and scale inefficient DMUs need sophisticated instruments to improve their situation. Considering RTS as well as efficiency, in this paper, we give an advice for each DMU to find an economically reliable path from its actual situation to better activities and finally to most productive scale size (mpss), perhaps. For realizing this path, we propose an interactive algorithm, thus harmonizing the scientific findings and the interests of the management. Small numerical examples illustrate such paths for selected DMUs; an empirical application in theatre management completes the contribution.

  2. Efficiency-optimal power partitioning for improved partial load efficiency of electric drives

    OpenAIRE

    Béthoux, Olivier; Laboure, Eric; Remy, Ghislain; Berthelot, Éric

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, the global power conversion efficiency is improved for a fault-tolerant drive architecture.The fault-tolerant architecture is obtained by combination of a 3-phase open-end winding machine anda 3H-bridge inverter. This combination offers more degrees of freedom for the control strategy than aclassical 3-leg inverter. This paper demonstrates that the additional degree of freedom of this powersystem can be exploited for efficiency optimization purposes in n...

  3. Efficient Work Team Scheduling: Using Psychological Models of Knowledge Retention to Improve Code Writing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pelosi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development teams and programmers must retain critical information about their work during work intervals and gaps in order to improve future performance when work resumes. Despite time lapses, project managers want to maximize coding efficiency and effectiveness. By developing a mathematically justified, practically useful, and computationally tractable quantitative and cognitive model of learning and memory retention, this study establishes calculations designed to maximize scheduling payoff and optimize developer efficiency and effectiveness.

  4. Adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, T A; van Heugten, E; Trottier, N L

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid, upon catabolism, results in intermediates that bear a structural similarity to lysine degradation products. The objectives of this research were to determine whether adipic acid affects lysine concentrations in plasma and to evaluate whether adipic acid improves the efficiency of lysine utilization in pigs. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on plasma amino acid concentrations (plasma collected on d 7). In Exp. 2, nursery pigs (n = 56) were fed (for a period of 15 d) either a control diet or the same diet but deficient in either lysine, threonine, or tryptophan with or without supplemental adipic acid to assess the effects of adipic acid on the efficiency of amino acid utilization. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid increased plasma lysine (by 18%) but not alpha-amino adipic acid, an intermediate in lysine degradation. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adipic acid did not increase the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, or tryptophan. The lack of effects on alpha-amino adipic acid in Exp. 1 and the lack of a positive effect on the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, and tryptophan suggest that adipic acid does not inhibit the mitochondrial uptake of lysine and(or) its degradation in the mitochondrion. It is concluded that feeding adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization.

  5. Codon-optimized antibiotic resistance gene improves efficiency of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... native gentamicin resistance gene, suggesting that codon optimization improved translation efficiency of the marker gene and ... to be taken into account when exogenous transgenes are expressed in Frankia cells. [Kucho K, Kakoi K, ..... gene coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a versatile ...

  6. Energy efficiency improvements in ammonia production--perspectives and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiqul, Islam; Weber, Christoph; Lehmann, Bianca; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the energy consumption and energy saving potential for a major energy-intensive product in the chemical industry-ammonia, based on technologies currently in use and possible process improvements. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part, mainly references to various ammonia production technologies are given. Energy consumption, emissions and saving potentials are discussed in the second part. Thereby, the situation in Europe, the US and India is highlighted and various data sources are compared. In the third part of the paper, a novel approach for modeling energy efficiency improvements is described that accounts for uncertainties and unobserved heterogeneity in the production processes. Besides new investments, revamping investments are also included in the modeling and the development of the production stock is accounted for. Finally, in the fourth part, this approach is applied to the modeling of energy efficiency improvements and CO 2 emission reductions in ammonia production. Thereby, considerable improvements in specific energy use and CO 2 emissions are found in the reference scenario, yet under the assumption of high oil and gas prices, a partial switch to coal based technologies is expected which lowers notably the CO 2 efficiency. Introduction of a CO 2 penalty under a certificate trading or other regime is on contrary found to foster energy efficiency and the use of low carbon technologies

  7. Does Competition Improve Public School Efficiency? A Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Kaustav; Grimes, Paul W.; Rogers, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    Advocates for educational reform frequently call for policies to increase competition between schools because it is argued that market forces naturally lead to greater efficiencies, including improved student learning, when schools face competition. Researchers examining this issue are confronted with difficulties in defining reasonable measures…

  8. Codon-optimized antibiotic resistance gene improves efficiency of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Success rate of transient transformation and cell growth in selective culture were significantly increased by use of fgmR instead of a native gentamicin resistance gene, suggesting that codon optimization improved translation efficiency of the marker gene and increased antibiotic resistance. Our result shows that similarity in ...

  9. Numerical Processing Efficiency Improved in Experienced Mental Abacus Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…

  10. Improved efficiency of budesonide nebulization using surface-active agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstra, M. P.; Schaefer, N. C.; Duiverman, E. J.; LeSouef, P. N.; Devadason, S. G.

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to improve the efficiency of nebulised budesonide using surface-active agents. Cationic, anionic, and nonionic detergents were added to commercial budesonide suspension, and the particle size distribution during nebulization was measured using both cascade impaction and laser

  11. Low Impedance Voice Coils for Improved Loudspeaker Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    -mode technology, can be designed to much lower loads. A thorough analysis of the loudspeaker efficiency is presented and its relation to the voice coil fill factor is described. A new parameter, the drivers mass ratio, is introduced and it indicates how much a fill factor optimization will improve a driver’s...

  12. A Novel Feed-Forward Modeling System Leads to Sustained Improvements in Attention and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ashley F; Rose, Maya; Norris, Troy; Gordon, Eric

    2016-01-28

    This study tested a novel feed-forward modeling (FFM) system as a nonpharmacological intervention for the treatment of ADHD children and the training of cognitive skills that improve academic performance. This study implemented a randomized, controlled, parallel design comparing this FFM with a nonpharmacological community care intervention. Improvements were measured on parent- and clinician-rated scales of ADHD symptomatology and on academic performance tests completed by the participant. Participants were followed for 3 months after training. Participants in the FFM training group showed significant improvements in ADHD symptomatology and academic performance, while the control group did not. Improvements from FFM were sustained 3 months later. The FFM appeared to be an effective intervention for the treatment of ADHD and improving academic performance. This FFM training intervention shows promise as a first-line treatment for ADHD while improving academic performance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Strategies for Increasing Buffalo Productivity through Improvement in Feed and Genetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalid Talib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is indigenous livestock of Asia, classified as beef buffaloes that evolve in Southeast Asia and China and dairy buffaloes exist in Indo-Pakistan and Mediteranian. In Indonesia, beef buffaloes are known as swamp buffalo and there are seven new buffalo breeds namely Pampangan, Sumbawa, Moa, Toraya, Simelue, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. Buffaloes are reared in extensive traditional system characterized by low growth rate and reproduction ability due to feed shortage and high inbreeding rate. Feed improvements in female is required to get dry matter intake 2.5-2.7% of body weight (BW that consist of 70% roughage and 30% concentrates, will show a clear sign of estrus. In the male when feed consumption is 2.7-3.5% of BW; it will perform growth rate of 0.6 kg/head/day. Genetic improvement is conducted through selection based on BW in certain ages, reproduction ability and parents without recessive alleles. Distribution of proven bulls and their sperm in outbreeding system would improve the production and reproduction performance, reduce inbreeding level and increase breeding farmer’s income. It is expected that in the long term, the population of buffaloes in Indonesia will increase.

  14. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  15. Efficient Adoption and Assessment of Multiple Process Improvement Reference Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Jeners

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of reference models such as CMMI, COBIT or ITIL support IT organizations to improve their processes. These process improvement reference models (IRMs cover different domains such as IT development, IT Services or IT Governance but also share some similarities. As there are organizations that address multiple domains and need to coordinate their processes in their improvement we present MoSaIC, an approach to support organizations to efficiently adopt and conform to multiple IRMs. Our solution realizes a semantic integration of IRMs based on common meta-models. The resulting IRM integration model enables organizations to efficiently implement and asses multiple IRMs and to benefit from synergy effects.

  16. Improving Nutrition Outcomes for Infants Grams With a Progressive, Evidenced-Based Enteral Feeding Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoene, Melissa K; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2018-03-30

    Growth is essential for very low birth weight infants. The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to evaluate the impact of a new standardized, evidenced-based feeding protocol for infants born < 1500 g in correlation with growth and clinical outcomes. Growth and nutrition data was reviewed from 2 groups of infants born < 1500 g within a level III newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Epoch 1 infants (N = 32) received care following initial implementation of a standardized enteral feeding protocol. Epoch 2 infants (N = 32) received care following aggressive modification of this initial protocol based on newly available literature that promotes earlier initiation and advancement of enteral feedings. Epoch 2 infants weighed more at 36 weeks (2562 vs 2304 g) with higher discharge weight percentiles (32nd vs 15th percentile). Epoch 2 infants started and achieved full enteral feedings earlier (day of life 1 vs 4; 7 vs 22, P < 0.0001) and required less days of parenteral nutrition (5.5 vs 17.5 days, P < 0.0001), with indwelling central line for parenteral access (6 vs 17.5). There were no differences in retinopathy of prematurity (17% control vs 19% study), oxygen requirement at 36 weeks (22% epoch 1 vs 43%), necrotizing enterocolitis (3% epoch 1 vs 0%), intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, periventricular leukomalacia, or death. In this sample of very low birth weight infants, a progressive standardized, evidence-based feeding protocol was associated with improved growth without increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Evaluation of programs to improve complementary feeding in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of complementary feeding programs is needed to enhance knowledge on what works, to document responsible use of resources, and for advocacy. Evaluation is done during program conceptualization and design, implementation, and determination of effectiveness. This paper explains the role of evaluation in the advancement of complementary feeding programs, presenting concepts and methods and illustrating them through examples. Planning and investments for evaluations should occur from the beginning of the project life cycle. Essential to evaluation is articulation of a program theory on how change would occur and what program actions are required for change. Analysis of program impact pathways makes explicit the dynamic connections in the program theory and accounts for contextual factors that could influence program effectiveness. Evaluating implementation functioning is done through addressing questions about needs, coverage, provision, and utilization using information obtained from process evaluation, operations research, and monitoring. Evaluating effectiveness is done through assessing impact, efficiency, coverage, process, and causality. Plausibility designs ask whether the program seemed to have an effect above and beyond external influences, often using a nonrandomized control group and baseline and end line measures. Probability designs ask whether there was an effect using a randomized control group. Evaluations may not be able to use randomization, particularly for programs implemented at a large scale. Plausibility designs, innovative designs, or innovative combinations of designs sometimes are best able to provide useful information. Further work is needed to develop practical designs for evaluation of large-scale country programs on complementary feeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Process efficiency. Redesigning social networks to improve surgery patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarth, Chandrika N; Gloor, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to improve throughput of the surgery patient flow process of a Boston area teaching hospital. A social network analysis was conducted in an effort to demonstrate that process efficiency gains could be achieved through redesign of social network patterns at the workplace; in conjunction with redesign of organization structure and the implementation of workflow over an integrated information technology system. Key knowledge experts and coordinators in times of crisis were identified and a new communication structure more conducive to trust and knowledge sharing was suggested. The new communication structure is scalable without compromising on coordination required among key roles in the network for achieving efficiency gains.

  19. Colostrum replacer feeding regimen, addition of sodium bicarbonate, and milk replacer: the combined effects on absorptive efficiency of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R G; Cabral, M A; Chapman, C E; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2014-01-01

    Eighty Holstein and Holstein cross dairy calves were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments within each block to examine the effect of a colostrum replacer (CR) feeding regimen, supplementation of CR with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and provision of a milk replacer (MR) feeding on IgG absorption. Calves were offered a CR containing 184.5g/L of IgG in either 1 feeding at 0h (within 30 min of birth), with or without 30g of NaHCO3, with or without a feeding of MR at 6h of age, or 2 feedings of CR (123g of IgG at 0h with or without 20g of NaHCO3 and 61.5g of IgG at 6h with or without 10g of NaHCO3), with or without a MR feeding at 12h. Therefore, treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR; (2) 2 feedings of CR; (3) 1 feeding of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (4) 2 feedings of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (5) 1 feeding of CR + MR feeding; (6) 2 feedings of CR + MR feeding; (7) 1 feeding of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding; and (8) 2 feedings of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h after birth and were analyzed for IgG via radial immunoassay. Results indicated that CR feeding schedule, MR feeding, and the interactions CR × Na, CR × MR, and CR × Na × MR were similar for 24-h serum IgG, apparent efficiency of absorption, or area under the curve. Serum IgG at 24h, apparent efficiency of absorption, and area under the curve were decreased with addition of NaHCO3 compared with calves not supplemented with NaHCO3. These data indicate that supplementation of CR with NaHCO3 is not beneficial to IgG absorption and feeding MR within 6h of CR feeding does not affect IgG absorption. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A genome-wide association scan in pig identifies novel regions associated with feed efficiency trait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Kadlecová, Veronika; Hornshøj, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    and to study the genetic architecture of the trait. After quality control, a total of 30,847 SNPs that could be mapped to the 18 porcine autosomes (SSC) following the pig genome assembly 10.2, were used in the analyses. Deregressed estimated breeding value was used as the response variable. A total of 3......Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an economically important trait in pigs and feed accounts for a significant proportion of the costs involved in pig production. In this study we used a high density SNP chip panel, Porcine SNP60 BeadChip, to identify association between FCR and SNP markers...

  1. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-01-01

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths (λ=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range (λ=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution

  2. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-03-31

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths ({lambda}=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range ({lambda}=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution.

  3. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  4. Improved Outcomes with an Outpatient Multidisciplinary Intensive Feeding Therapy Program Compared with Weekly Feeding Therapy to Reduce Enteral Tube Feeding Dependence in Medically Complex Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin; VanDahm, Kelly; Stevens, Lindsay M; Khan, Soofia; Urich, Jennifer; Iurilli, Janet; Linos, Elizabeth; Williams, Dana I

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of feeding disorders in medically complex children is estimated to be as high as 80%. Enteral tube nutrition (ETN) is commonly used for nutritional support in children with feeding disorders. Adverse consequences of ETN include medical complications, psychosocial problems, and higher healthcare costs. We used a retrospective cohort controlled study design to compare outcomes of our outpatient multidisciplinary intensive feeding therapy (IFT) program to our traditional therapy (TT) of single-discipline, once weekly feeding therapy to reduce ETN dependence in medically complex young children. Children in the IFT cohort experienced a median reduction in ETN dependence of 49% (34.5-58.5%) compared with a median reduction of 0% (0-25%) for TT (p > 0.0001). Almost half of the IFT cohort no longer required ETN by the conclusion of the 5-week program. Medically complex young children (median age 26 months) successfully reduce or eliminate ETN in an outpatient multidisciplinary intensive feeding program.

  5. Endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition on crossbreed steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma a...

  6. Growth and food conversion efficiency in the fish Etroplus suratensis in relation to different feeding levels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    . Utilization of gross protein energy at maintenance level was 33.97% which was equivalent to the rate of utilization of gross total energy. The optimum feeding level for effective growth under laboratory conditions was 10% live body weight/day...

  7. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feed intake and measures of efficiency with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feed intake and efficiency of growth are economically important traits of beef cattle. This study determined the relationships of daily DMI, feed:gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F) and therefore increases as the efficiency of gain decreases and vice versa, residual feed intake (RFI), and partial efficiency of growth (efficiency of ADG, PEG) with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle. Residual feed intake was calculated from phenotypic regression (RFIp) or genetic regression (RFIg) of ADG and metabolic BW on DMI. An F1 half-sib pedigree file containing 28 sires, 321 dams, and 464 progeny produced from crosses between Alberta Hybrid cows and Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls was used. Families averaged 20 progeny per sire (range = 3 to 56). Performance, ultrasound, and DMI data was available on all progeny, of which 381 had carcass data. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were obtained using SAS and ASREML software, respectively. Differences in RFIp and RFIg, respectively, between the most and least efficient steers (i.e., steers with the lowest PEG) were 5.59 and 6.84 kg of DM/d. Heritabilities for DMI, F:G, PEG, RFIp, and RFIg were 0.54 +/- 0.15, 0.41 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.16, 0.21 +/- 0.12, and 0.42 +/- 0.15, respectively. The genetic (r = 0.92) and phenotypic (r = 0.97) correlations between RFIp and RFIg indicated that the 2 indices are very similar. Both indices of RFI were favorably correlated phenotypically (P 0.50), but only DMI had strong genetic (r = 0.87 +/- 0.10) and phenotypic (r = 0.65) correlations with metabolic BW. Generally, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with carcass merit were not different from zero, except genetic correlations of RFI with ultrasound and carcass LM area and carcass lean yield and phenotypic correlations of RFI with backfat thickness (P < 0.01). Daily DMI had moderate to high phenotypic (P < 0.01) and genetic correlations with all the ultrasound and carcass traits

  8. Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

    1992-01-01

    The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure which is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit (ADI) methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions which are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process was achieved by implementing both of the design improvements.

  9. Improving the efficiency of patient throughput via centralized inpatient scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Mark W

    2010-01-01

    Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center implemented a centralized scheduling system in order to increase efficiency and throughput, improve customer satisfaction, improve communication between departments,and create a single schedule (IP/ED/OP) per modality. Most resistance for the change came from technologists, so a formal design team was established for each modality, which included a core information systems (IS) team member,the lead technologist of the modality, and the technologist most able to influence the other technologists who might be resistant to change. Overall,throughput increased by 3.14% post-implementation of the inpatient scheduling software.

  10. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  11. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: IX. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and cow efficiency ratios based on harvest, carcass, and wholesale cut weight outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2018-03-06

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least one calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned three calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment at 240 d of age until three calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual BW gain (RG) of heifers that subsequently became dams were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. The correlation between RFI and DMI was large and positive (r = 0.67; P cow efficiency ratios that included harvest weight, carcass weight, or weight of trimmed wholesale cuts as measures of output ranged from -0.05 (P > 0.10) to -0.17 (P cows. Correlations of RG with life cycle and actual lifetime cow efficiency ratios ranged from 0.08 (P > 0.10) to 0.23 (P cows. The correlations were stronger when cow salvage value was included in the measures of cow efficiency. Correlations of DMI and mid-test metabolic BW (MMW) with life cycle cow efficiency ratios that did not include cow salvage value as output ranged from -0.15 (P cow efficiency ratios varied from -0.20 (P cow efficiency ratios. Correlations of RFI with carcass grade, backfat thickness, marbling score, and kidney fat of progeny indicated that heifers with superior RFI would tend to produce leaner offspring.

  12. New approaches for improving energy efficiency in the Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Mello Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has been promoting energy efficiency measures for industry since the eighties but with very limited returns, as shown in this paper. The governments of some other countries dedicated much more effort and funds for this area and reached excellent results. The institutional arrangements and types of programmes adopted in these countries are briefly evaluated in the paper and provide valuable insights for several proposals put forward here to make more effective the Brazilian government actions directed to overcome market barriers and improve energy efficiency in the local industry. The proposed measures include the creation of Industrial Assessment Centres and an executive agency charged with the coordination of all energy efficiency programmes run by the Federal government. A large share of the Brazilian industry energy consumption comes from energy-intensive industrial branches. According to a recent survey, most of them have substantial energy conservation potentials. To materialize a fair amount of them, voluntary targets concerning energy efficiency gains should start to be negotiated between the Government and associations representing these industrial branches. Credit facilities and tax exemptions for energy-efficient equipment’s should be provided to stimulate the interest of the entrepreneurs and the setting-up of bolder targets.

  13. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  14. Improving crop nutrient efficiency through root architecture modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Improving crop nutrient efficiency becomes an essential consideration for environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture. Plant growth and development is dependent on 17 essential nutrient elements, among them, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important mineral nutrients. Hence it is not surprising that low N and/or low P availability in soils severely constrains crop growth and productivity, and thereby have become high priority targets for improving nutrient efficiency in crops. Root exploration largely determines the ability of plants to acquire mineral nutrients from soils. Therefore, root architecture, the 3-dimensional configuration of the plant's root system in the soil, is of great importance for improving crop nutrient efficiency. Furthermore, the symbiotic associations between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi/rhizobial bacteria, are additional important strategies to enhance nutrient acquisition. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the current understanding of crop species control of root architecture alterations in response to nutrient availability and root/microbe symbioses, through gene or QTL regulation, which results in enhanced nutrient acquisition. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P lipid content was greater (P lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  16. Feeding efficiency of Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in different experimental substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Balasubramanian, T.; Iyer, H.K.; Kutty, M.K.

    substrata which affect the preying efficiency and the differences in the degree of adaptation of the two species. The study indicates that silt and clay adversely affect the preying efficiency of both the species, especially in higher concentrations...

  17. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  18. Long-term efficacy of a tongue tie service in improving breast feeding rates: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Jennifer; Yardley, Iain; Upadhyaya, Manasvi

    2018-02-01

    Breast feeding rates in England at 3months of age are approximately 17% for exclusive breast-feeding and 55% for breast-feeds supplemented with formula. Tongue-tie (TT) in infants is cited as a significant cause of difficulty with maintaining breast-feeding. Early treatment and support can improve breast-feeding and allow infants to benefit from the many long-term benefits of breast-feeding. Our aim was to determine BF rates in infants 3months after attending our tongue-tie clinic (TTC). Institutional ethical approval and study approval were obtained. Patients attending the TTC from May to July 2016 were included. Telephone contact was made 3months postprocedure to establish current behaviour. Symptom resolution was recorded as complete resolution (CR), moderate resolution (MoR), or minimal resolution (MiR). Feeding pattern was either exclusively BF or combined breast and formula feeds or exclusively formula fed. 100 infants were included with complete follow-up data on 87 (87% response rate). Median age at release of TT was 17 (2-88) days without any recurrence. Status at 3months was CR (n=70, 80%); MoR (n=13, 15%), and MiR (n=4, 5%). 43 (49%) were exclusively BF, 36 (41%) were supplementing BF with some formula (2/3 by choice and 1/3 owing to insufficient milk production), and 8 (10%) were using only formula milk (7 by choice and 2 owing to ongoing feeding difficulties). Of the 17 mothers still experiencing symptoms, 5 were exclusively breast-feeding, and 8 were persisting with combined feeds. Infants attending our tongue-tie clinic achieved both higher exclusive breastfeeding and combined breast and bottle-feeding when compared to national breast-feeding data at 3months of age. This can facilitate the achievement of long-term breastfeeding, exposing infants and mothers to many of the associated benefits. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth, meat and feed efficiency traits of lambs born to ewes submitted to energy restriction during mid-gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, L; Quintans, G; San Julián, R; Ferreira, G; Ithurralde, J; Fierro, S; Pereira, A S C; Baldi, F; Banchero, G E

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the energy restriction of gestation of adult ewes from day 45 to day 115 on lamb live performance parameters, carcass and meat traits. In experiment I, dietary energy was restricted at 70% of the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements, after which ewes were re-fed ad libitum until lambing. In experiment II, dietary energy was restricted at 60% of the ME requirements, and ewes were re-fed to ME requirements until lambing. All ewes grazed together from the end of the restriction periods to weaning. Lambs were weaned and lot fed until slaughter. Feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded, and body fat thickness and ribeye area (REA) were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle. After slaughter, carcass weight and yield, fat depth, carcass and leg length, and frenched rack and leg weights and yields were determined. Muscle fiber type composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color were determined in the longissimus lumborum muscle. In experiment I, energy restriction followed by ad libitum feeding affected lamb birth weight (P0.05) were observed on later BW, REA, BF or carcass traits. Lambs born to non-restricted-fed ewes had higher (Ptypes. For experiment II, energy restriction followed by ME requirements feeding, affected (Penergy restriction during gestation affects the performance of their progeny but the final outcome would depend on the ewe's re-feeding level during late gestation and the capacity of the offspring to compensate the in utero restriction after birth.

  20. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Improving the energy efficiency of mine fan assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Euler

    2015-01-01

    Energy associated with ventilating an underground operation comprises a significant portion of a mine operation's base energy demand and is consequently responsible for a large percentage of the total operating costs. Ventilation systems may account from 25 to 40% of the total energy costs and 40–50% of the energy consumption of a mine operation. Fans are the most important mechanical devices used to ventilate underground mines and the total fan power installed in a single mine operation can easily exceed 10,000 kW. Investigations of a number of mine main fan installations have determined their assemblage to be, in general, very energy inefficient. The author has found that 40–80% of the energy consumed by a main fan is used to overcome the resistance of fan assemblage components. This paper presents how engineering design principles can be applied to improve the performance and efficiency of fan installations, resulting in substantial reductions in power consumption, operating cost and greenhouse gas emissions. A detailed case study is presented to demonstrate that, by designing fan assemblages using proper engineering concepts of fluid physics and industrial ventilation design, main fan systems will operate at efficiencies well above 80–90% (compared to common operating efficiencies of between 20 and 65%), resulting in a drastic reduction in a mine's overall costs and base electrical and energy loads. - Highlights: • Increases in fan assemblage efficiencies with minimum capital investment. • Improved designs for substantial fan power and operating cost savings. • General solutions and tactics for improving existing main fan installations. • Case study presented to demonstrate proper design of fan assemblages.

  2. Improving the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) panels by oil coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elhady, M.S.; Fouad, M.M.; Khalil, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is possible to improve the efficiency of PV panels by increasing the amount of light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the amount of sun light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the power output of the panel. • Coating PV panels with a layer of Labovac oil has to be applied in cold countries and not in hot regions. - Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop a new technique for improving the efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) panels. This technique is done by coating the front surface of the PV panel by a fine layer of oil in order to increase the amount of light transmitted to the panel, and consequently its efficiency. Different types of oils are examined, including both mineral oils and natural oils. In case of mineral oils; vacuum pump oil (Labovac oil), engine oil (Mobil oil) and brake oil (Abro oil) are examined, while in case of natural oils; olive and sunflower oils are examined. An experimental setup has been developed to examine the performance of the PV panels as a function of oil coatings. The experimental setup consists of an artificial sun, the PV panel under investigation, a cooling system and a measuring system to measure the performance of the panel. It has been found that coating the PV panel with a fine layer of Labovac oil, ∼1 mm thick, improves the efficiency of the PV panel by more than 20%, and this is due to the high transmissivity of the Labovac oil compared to other oils. However, the Labovac oil has a drawback which is overheating of the panel due to its high transmissivity. Coating of PV panels with a fine layer of Labovac oil should be done only in cold regions, in order to avoid the heating effect that can decrease the power output of PV panels.

  3. 75 FR 30010 - Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... discuss issues related to unit commitment software. The technical conference will be held from 8 a.m. to 5..., Secretary. Agenda for AD10-12 Staff Technical Conference on Unit Commitment Software Federal Energy...

  4. Representation scaffolds improve diagnostic efficiency in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Leah T; Zottmann, Jan M; Adolf, Christian; Lottspeich, Christian; Then, Cornelia; Wirth, Stefan; Fischer, Martin R; Schmidmaier, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Diagnostic efficiency is important in daily clinical practice as doctors have to face problems within a limited time frame. To foster the clinical reasoning of students is a major challenge in medical education research. Little is known about students' diagnostic efficiency. On the basis of current theories, scaffolds for case representation (statement of the case as far as it is summarised in the mind) could be a promising approach to make the diagnostic reasoning of intermediate medical students more efficient. Clinical case processing of 88 medical students in their fourth and fifth years was analysed in a randomised, controlled laboratory study. Cases dealing with dyspnoea were provided in an electronic learning environment (CASUS). Students could freely choose the time, amount and sequence of clinical information. During the learning phase the intervention group was asked to write down case representation summaries while working on the cases. In the assessment phase diagnostic efficiency was operationalised as the number of correct diagnoses divided by the time spent on diagnosing. Diagnostic efficiency was significantly improved by the representation scaffolding (M = 0.12 [SD = 0.07], M = 0.09 [SD = 0.06] correct cases/time, p = 0.045), whereas accuracy remained unchanged (M = 2.28 [SD = 1.10], M = 2.09 [SD = 1.08], p = 0.52). Both groups screened the same amount of clinical information, but the scaffolding group did this faster (M = 20.8 minutes [SD = 7.15], M = 24.6 minutes [SD = 7.42], p = 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.5). Diagnostic efficiency is an important outcome variable in clinical reasoning research as it corresponds to workplace challenges. Scaffolding for case representations significantly improved the diagnostic efficiency of fourth and fifth-year medical students, most likely because of a more targeted screening of the available information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical

  5. Policy modeling for energy efficiency improvement in US industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We are at the beginning of a process of evaluating and modeling the contribution of policies to improve energy efficiency. Three recent policy studies trying to assess the impact of energy efficiency policies in the United States are reviewed. The studies represent an important step in the analysis of climate change mitigation strategies. All studies model the estimated policy impact, rather than the policy itself. Often the policy impacts are based on assumptions, as the effects of a policy are not certain. Most models only incorporate economic (or price) tools, which recent studies have proven to be insufficient to estimate the impacts, costs and benefits of mitigation strategies. The reviewed studies are a first effort to capture the effects of non-price policies. The studies contribute to a better understanding of the role of policies in improving energy efficiency and mitigating climate change. All policy scenarios results in substantial energy savings compared to the baseline scenario used, as well as substantial net benefits to the U.S. economy

  6. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently

  7. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Kelsea A.; McCormick, Caroline A.; Odt, Christine L.; Weimer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles. PMID:25934629

  9. Different measures of energetic efficiency and their phenotypic relationships with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit in hybrid cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Ammoura, A; Guercio, S; Hansen, C; Li, C; Benkel, B; Murdoch, B; Moore, S S

    2004-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures of energetic efficiency with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit of hybrid cattle (n = 150). Dry matter intake, ME intake (MEI), ADG, metabolic weight (MWT), and FCR during the test averaged 10.29 kg/d (SD = 1.62), 1,185.45 kJ/(kg0.75 x d) (SD = 114.69), 1.42 kg/d (SD = 0.25), 86.67 kg0.75 (SD = 10.21), and 7.27 kg of DM/kg of gain (SD = 1.00), respectively. Residual feed intake averaged 0.00 kg/d and ranged from -2.25 kg/d (most efficient) to 2.61 kg/d (least efficient). Dry matter intake (r = 0.75), MEI (r = 0.83), and FCR (r = 0.62) were correlated with RFI (P 0.5 SD) RFI vs. those with medium (+/-0.5 SD) or low (<0.5 SD) RFI (P < 0.001). Partial efficiency of growth (PEG; energetic efficiency for ADG) was correlated with RFI (r = -0.89, P < 0.001) and was lower (P < 0.001) for high- vs. medium- or low-RFI animals. However, RFI was not related to ADG (r = -0.03), MWT (r = -0.02), relative growth rate (RGR; growth relative to instantaneous body size; r = -0.04), or Kleiber ratio (KR; ADG per unit of MWT; r = -0.004). Also, DMI was correlated (P < 0.01) with ADG (r = 0.66), MWT (r = 0.49), FCR (r = 0.49), PEG (r = -0.52), RGR (r = 0.18), and KR (r = 0.36). Additionally, FCR was correlated (P < 0.001) with ADG (r = -0.63), PEG (r = -0.83), RGR (r = -0.75), and KR (r = -0.73), but not with MWT (r = 0.07). Correlations of measures of efficiency with ultrasound or carcass traits generally were not different from zero except for correlations of RFI, FCR, and PEG, respectively, with backfat gain (r = 0.30, 0.20, and -0.30), ultrasound backfat (r = 0.19, 0.21, and -0.25), grade fat (r = 0.25, 0.19, and -0.27), lean meat

  10. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  11. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-07-16

    Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal's ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (-0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from -0.62 to -0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.

  12. Zilpaterol improves feeding performance and fabrication yield of concentrate-finished cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T E; Gasch, C A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feeding performance and fabrication yield of concentrate-finished cull cows. Three hundred twenty commercial cull cows (2 to 10 yr old) were obtained from ranches in Missouri and South Dakota and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no ZH and 2) a diet that contained ZH. Cows were fed for 75, 88, or 110 d, and all received the control ration until ZH treatments were initiated. Twenty-four days before slaughter, ZH feeding began for the designated treatment pens; cows were fed ZH [8.33 mg/kg (100% DM basis)] for 20 d with a 4-d withdrawal period before slaughter. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between the 2 treatment groups for initial BW or DMI. Final BW (640.5 vs. 619.1 kg), ADG for the last 24 d (2.75 vs. 2.17 kg), and G:F for the last 24 d (0.160 vs. 0.126) were greater (P 0.05) were found for lean or skeletal maturity score, fat thickness, LM area, HCW, or calculated yield grade among the 2 treatment groups. Feeding ZH increased (P0.07) were found for the remaining fabrication yield attributes. The ZH-treated cows had greater (Pfeeding of ZH to concentrate-finished cull cows enhances production efficiencies and can add new value to the cull cow market. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  13. Inter-domain synergism is required for efficient feeding of cellulose chain into active site of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim

    2016-01-01

    systems. TrCel7A consists of catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two...... to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient...

  14. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  15. Evaluation and Improvement of Lighting Efficiency in Working Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lighting is an essential element for modern life, promoting a sense of wellbeing for users. However, bad illumination may produce health problems such as headaches and fatigue, among other vision problems. For that reason, this paper proposes the development of a smartphone-based application to help in lighting evaluation to guarantee the compliance of illumination regulations and to help increase illuminance efficiency, reducing its energy consumption. To perform this evaluation, the smartphone can be used as a lighting measurement tool, evaluating those measurements through an intelligent agent based in rules capable of guiding the decision-making process. As a result, this tool allows the evaluation of the real working environment to guarantee lighting requirements, helping in the prevention of health problems derived from bad illumination and improving the lighting efficiency at the same time.

  16. Bacterial capture efficiency in fluid bloodstream improved by bendable nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhi; Chen, Sheng; Xue, Zhenjie; Zhang, Zhen; Qiao, Xuezhi; Nie, Zongxiu; Han, Dong; Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Tie

    2018-02-06

    Bacterial infectious diseases, such as sepsis, can lead to impaired function in the lungs, kidneys, and other vital organs. Although established technologies have been designed for the extracorporeal removal of bacteria, a high flow velocity of the true bloodstream might result in low capture efficiency and prevent the realization of their full clinical potential. Here, we develop a dialyzer made by three-dimensional carbon foam pre-grafted with nanowires to isolate bacteria from unprocessed blood. The tip region of polycrystalline nanowires is bent readily to form three-dimensional nanoclaws when dragged by the molecular force of ligand-receptor, because of a decreasing Young's moduli from the bottom to the tip. The bacterial capture efficiency was improved from ~10% on carbon foam and ~40% on unbendable single-crystalline nanowires/carbon foam to 97% on bendable polycrystalline nanowires/carbon foam in a fluid bloodstream of 10 cm s -1 velocity.

  17. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  18. Improving crop water use efficiency using carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serraj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity, drought and salinity are among the most important environmental constraints challenging crop productivity in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, especially the rain-fed production systems. The current challenge is to enhance food security in water-limited and/or salt-affected areas for the benefit of resource-poor farmers in developing countries. There is also an increasing need that water use in agriculture should focus on improvement in the management of existing water resources and enhancing crop water productivity. The method based on carbon-13 discrimination in plant tissues has a potentially important role in the selection and breeding of some crop species for increased water use efficiency in some specific environments. Under various water-limited environments, low delta in the plants, indicating low carbon isotope discrimination has been generally associated with high transpiration efficiency (TE). In contrast, for well-watered environments many positive genotypic correlations have been reported between delta and grain yield indicating potential value in selecting for greater delta in these environments. Few studies have been reported on the impact of selection for delta on adaptation and grain yield in saline environments. Studies of the impact of genetic selection for greater and lower delta are currently coordinated by the Soil and water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) is currently on-going on the Selection for Greater Agronomic Water-Use Efficiency in Wheat and Rice using Carbon Isotope Discrimination (D1-20 08). The overall objective of this project is to contribute to increasing the agronomic water-use efficiency of wheat and rice production, where agronomic water-use efficiency is defined as grain yield/total water use including both transpiration and evaporation. The CRP is also aiming at increasing wheat productivity under drought and rice

  19. Simple measurements reveal the feeding history, the onset of reproduction, and energy conversion efficiencies in captive bluefin tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjšček, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

  20. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  1. Condensation heat transfer of a feed-water heater and improvement of its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Kazuhide; Murase, Michio; Baba, Yoshikazu; Aihara, Tsuyoshi

    1995-01-01

    In this study, a condensation heat transfer model, coupled with a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis, was developed. In the heat transfer model, the liquid film flow rate on the heat transfer tubes was calculated by a mass balance equation and the liquid film thickness was calculated from the liquid film flow rate using Nusselt's laminar flow model and Fujii's equation for the steam velocity effect. The model was verified by condensation heat transfer experiments. In the experiments, 112 horizontal, staggered tubes with an outer diameter of 16mm and length of 0.55m were used. The calculated over-all heat transfer coefficients agreed with the data within ±5% under the inlet quality conditions of 13-100%. Based on a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis, an improved feed-water heater with support plates, which have flow holes between the upper and lower tube bundles, was designed. The total heat exchange capacity of the improved feed-water heater increased about 6%. (author)

  2. Chronic Rumex Patientia Seed Feeding Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Rumex patientia (RP, this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic Rumex patientia feeding on alleviation of learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocindiabetic rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, RP-treatedcontrol and -diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered at a dose of 60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, RP-treated groups received RP seed powder mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6% for 4 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found out that regarding initial latency, there was no significant difference among the groups. In addition, diabetic rats developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p<0.01, as it is evident by a lower STL. Furthermore, RP treatment of diabetic rats did produce a significant improvement in retention and recall (p<0.05. Discussion: Taken together, chronic RP feeding could improve retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats

  3. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  4. Indoor climate quality after renovation for improved energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Løck, Sebastian; Kolarik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    before and after the retrofitting. The results showed significant energy savings in all projects. There was a marked difference between expected and measured energy consumption in one building and good agreement in the two others indicating a strong impact of good maintenance and operations on energy......The building sector is responsible for approximately 40 % of the Danish energy consumption. As every year less than 1 % of the building stock is rebuild after demolition of old buildings, improved energy efficiency of existing buildings are in focus. In the late seventies to mid-eighties unwise...

  5. Discontinuous interleaving of parallel inverters for efficiency improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjørn; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Gadgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Interleaved switching of parallel inverters has previously been proposed for efficiency/size improvements of grid connected three-phase inverters. This paper proposes a novel interleaving method which practically eliminates insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses and drastically...... reduces diode reverse recovery losses. The reduction in switching losses are obtained by interleaving two parallel inverter branches so that only one branch conducts the load current at a time. By placing saturable inductors between the parallel branches, soft switching may be obtained, and thereby...

  6. Improving the Efficient of Ernie Turner Center. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredeen, Amy

    2011-03-21

    The objective of this project was to complete the specifications and drawings for a variable speed kitchen exhaust system and the boiler heating system which when implemented will improve the heating efficiency of the building. The design work was focused in two key areas: kitchen ventilation and heating for the Ernie Turner Center building (ETC). RSA completed design work and issued a set of 100% drawings. RSA also worked with a cost estimator to put together a detailed cost estimate for the project. The design components are summarized.

  7. Improving efficiency of NPP software based I and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukhina, A.V.; Bilenko, A.A.; Sitnikov, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers improving efficiency of NPP software based I and C during adjustment and readjustment of its characteristics. The research analyzes impact of transfer function coefficient of digital components on features of frequency - response characteristics, which shall be considered during design of software based I and C. The paper objective was to determine the numerator and denominator dependencies of transfer function of first order high - pass and low - pass digital filters of cut - off frequency, and also to determine dependencies on pulsation coefficient

  8. Fast reactor core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Koji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Itooka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Fast Reactor (FR) core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency were conducted. A heterogeneous MA loaded core was designed based on the 1000MWe-ABR breakeven core. The heterogeneous MA loaded core with Zr-H loaded moderated targets had a better transmutation performance than the MA homogeneous loaded core. The annular pellet rod design was proposed as one of the possible design options for the MA target. It was shown that using annular pellet MA rods mitigates the self-shielding effect in the moderated target so as to enhance the transmutation rate

  9. Transfer efficiency of melamine from feed to milk in lactating dairy cows fed with different doses of melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J S; Wang, J Q; Wei, H Y; Bu, D P; Sun, P; Zhou, L Y

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the transfer efficiency of melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) from feed to milk of lactating cows fed with different doses of melamine. Twenty-four China Holstein dairy cows were divided into 2 blocks according to milk yield (block 1 and block 2 for low- and high-producing cows). Cows of block 1 or block 2 each were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design and each treatment had 6 cows. The cows of treatments 1 to 4 were dosed with melamine at 0 (control), 90 (treatment 1), 270 (treatment 2), and 450 (treatment 3) mg/d per cow, respectively. The trial lasted 19 d. During the first 13 d, cows were fed melamine at the respective treatment levels, and the last 6 d was the clearance period after melamine was withdrawn. The results indicated that the levels of melamine used did not affect milk yield or composition. The mean milk melamine concentration increased during the initial 3 d after melamine feeding in all the melamine-supplemented groups, and then fluctuated slightly over the remaining 10 d of melamine feeding. No melamine was detected in the milk of any groups on d 4 of the clearance period. Milk melamine concentration measured between 3 to 13 d was significantly affected by melamine feeding doses, but was not influenced by milk yield. The transfer efficiency of melamine from feed to milk was not affected by melamine doses (0.95, 0.70, and 0.66% for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively), but was linearly related with milk yield (0.56% for block 1 and 0.95% for block 2, R(2)=0.80). The milk melamine concentration was linearly related with melamine intake (R(2)=0.84). The present study demonstrated that when the daily intake of melamine exceeds 312.7mg/cow, the milk should not be used to produce infant formula powder. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On Training Efficiency and Computational Costs of a Feed Forward Neural Network: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudani, Antonino; Lozito, Gabriele Maria; Riganti Fulginei, Francesco; Salvini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive review on the problem of choosing a suitable activation function for the hidden layer of a feed forward neural network has been widely investigated. Since the nonlinear component of a neural network is the main contributor to the network mapping capabilities, the different choices that may lead to enhanced performances, in terms of training, generalization, or computational costs, are analyzed, both in general-purpose and in embedded computing environments. Finally, a strategy to convert a network configuration between different activation functions without altering the network mapping capabilities will be presented.

  11. Development of Ingredients of the Feed-stuff for Improving Immune system using Centipede grass Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Hyoungwoo; Chung, Byungyeoup; Lee, Seungsik; Lee, Sungbeom

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the this project provides new application areas using naturally occurring flavonoids, cenetpedegrass extracts, for improving immune system and used as ingredients for feed-stuff. In order to provide the immune improving effects of centipedegrass, cell and animal experiments were carried out. Research scope includes determine the effect of centipedegrass extracts on immune functions using LPS-induced RAW cells and found that cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10, which were induced by LPS, were reduced by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT-3, determine the effects of immune stimulating activity of centipedegrass in animals, cenetipedegrass extracts were administrated once a day for 2 weeks. After treated with LPS, immune suppressor, cytokines were down regulated, however, the cytokines in the group pretreated with centipedegrass extracts, were not down regulated as much as non treated group. The overall mechanism of immune stimulating effect of centipedegrass extracts, was that STAT-3 phosphorylation was inhibited by contipedegrass extracts.

  12. Energy efficiency improvement of medical electric tools and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkov Aleksandr S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing volume of applications of various kinds of electric drives in all spheres of human activity, the issues in improving the efficiency of the electromechanical converters of electric energy, one of the most important components of the electric drive (ED, are becoming increasingly important. Such issues include reducing their weight and size, improving the functional characteristics of these devices to increase their operational life and reducing the cost of manufacture. Taking full advantage of these opportunities relates to the AC and DC single-phase commutator motor (SCM, which is widely used in regulated and high-speed motor drives in medical electric hand tools. The SCM is used in machinery where the load torque has a hyperbolic dependence on the rotational speed and the need to work with a large motor overload due to the “soft” mechanical characteristics of such motors.

  13. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  14. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zheng-Wen Zeng; Liu Yi; Baojun Bai

    2004-01-01

    A three-year contract for the project, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364, ''Improving CO 2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'', was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO 2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The project has received a one-year, no-cost extension to September 27, 2005. During this extra time additional deliverables will be (1) the version of MASTER that has been debugged and a foam option added for CO 2 mobility control and (2) adsorption/desorption data on pure component minerals common in reservoir rock that will be used to improve predictions of chemical loss to adsorption in reservoirs. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering October 1, 2003 through March 31, 2004 that comprises the first and second fiscal quarters of the project's third year. During this period of the project several areas have advanced: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried core and pure component granules, foam stability, and high flow rate effects. Presentations and papers included: a papers covered in a previous report was presented at the fall SPE ATCE in Denver in October 2003, a presentation at the Southwest ACS meeting in Oklahoma City, presentation on CO 2 flood basic behavior at the Midland Annual CO 2 Conference December 2003; two papers prepared for the biannual SPE/DOE Symposium on IOR, Tulsa, April 2004; one paper accepted for the fall 2004 SPE ATCE in Houston; and a paper submitted to an international journal Journal of Colloid and Interface Science which is being revised after peer review

  15. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  16. Evaluating the Management System Approach for Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zobel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary environmental management systems (EMS based on the international standard ISO 14001 have become widespread globally in recent years. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of voluntary management systems on energy efficiency in the Swedish manufacturing industry by means of objective industrial energy data derived from mandatory annual environmental reports. The study focuses on changes in energy efficiency over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified companies and non-certified companies. Consideration is given to energy improvement efforts in the companies before the adoption of ISO 14001. The analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for two different industrial energy parameters: electricity and fossil fuel consumption. The results indicate that ISO 14001 adoption and certification has increased energy efficiency regarding the use of fossil fuel. In contrast, no effect of the management systems has been found concerning the use of electricity. The mixed results of this study are only partly in line with the results of previous studies based on perceptions of company representatives.

  17. Restructuring and energy efficiency improvement of the Bulgarian energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumdjian, G.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the national energy economy of Bulgaria implies characteristic features that specify low efficiency as regards power production, ecology and economics. Even the qualitative assessments show that these indices stand far away from the standards established in developed countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, etc. The best starting position for harmful energy efficiency improvement as well as emission reduction must be based on the restructuring of energy economy. The strategy of restructuring and development of energy economy covers the whole integrated national energy flow system 'resources - end user'. The preliminary study shows that energy efficiency can be increased by 25-30% within a period of 6-10 years using the least-cost investment strategy (including the research and development activities expenses). The study covers the existing structure of energy sector. Scenarios are being elaborated for its development and restructuring in respect to: heat production and transfer; electricity generation and transmission; energy consumption and conservation in residential buildings, public buildings and commercial sector; energy consumption in transport sector and agriculture. The approach for identification of the real potential opportunities in relation to the above stated areas is based on mathematical statistics and stochastic differential equations, multicriterial assessments, approach of self organisation systems and demand-side management. (author)

  18. Efficiency Improvements of Antenna Optimization Using Orthogonal Fractional Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Sheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extremely efficient method for antenna design and optimization. Traditionally, antenna optimization relies on nature-inspired heuristic algorithms, which are time-consuming due to their blind-search nature. In contrast, design of experiments (DOE uses a completely different framework from heuristic algorithms, reducing the design cycle by formulating the surrogates of a design problem. However, the number of required simulations grows exponentially if a full factorial design is used. In this paper, a much more efficient technique is presented to achieve substantial time savings. By using orthogonal fractional experiments, only a small subset of the full factorial design is required, yet the resultant response surface models are still effective. The capability of orthogonal fractional experiments is demonstrated through three examples, including two tag antennas for radio-frequency identification (RFID applications and one internal antenna for long-term-evolution (LTE handheld devices. In these examples, orthogonal fractional experiments greatly improve the efficiency of DOE, thereby facilitating the antenna design with less simulation runs.

  19. Improving computational efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations with variance reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.; Davis, A.

    2013-01-01

    CCFE perform Monte-Carlo transport simulations on large and complex tokamak models such as ITER. Such simulations are challenging since streaming and deep penetration effects are equally important. In order to make such simulations tractable, both variance reduction (VR) techniques and parallel computing are used. It has been found that the application of VR techniques in such models significantly reduces the efficiency of parallel computation due to 'long histories'. VR in MCNP can be accomplished using energy-dependent weight windows. The weight window represents an 'average behaviour' of particles, and large deviations in the arriving weight of a particle give rise to extreme amounts of splitting being performed and a long history. When running on parallel clusters, a long history can have a detrimental effect on the parallel efficiency - if one process is computing the long history, the other CPUs complete their batch of histories and wait idle. Furthermore some long histories have been found to be effectively intractable. To combat this effect, CCFE has developed an adaptation of MCNP which dynamically adjusts the WW where a large weight deviation is encountered. The method effectively 'de-optimises' the WW, reducing the VR performance but this is offset by a significant increase in parallel efficiency. Testing with a simple geometry has shown the method does not bias the result. This 'long history method' has enabled CCFE to significantly improve the performance of MCNP calculations for ITER on parallel clusters, and will be beneficial for any geometry combining streaming and deep penetration effects. (authors)

  20. An efficiency improvement in warehouse operation using simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samattapapong, N.

    2017-11-01

    In general, industry requires an efficient system for warehouse operation. There are many important factors that must be considered when designing an efficient warehouse system. The most important is an effective warehouse operation system that can help transfer raw material, reduce costs and support transportation. By all these factors, researchers are interested in studying about work systems and warehouse distribution. We start by collecting the important data for storage, such as the information on products, information on size and location, information on data collection and information on production, and all this information to build simulation model in Flexsim® simulation software. The result for simulation analysis found that the conveyor belt was a bottleneck in the warehouse operation. Therefore, many scenarios to improve that problem were generated and testing through simulation analysis process. The result showed that an average queuing time was reduced from 89.8% to 48.7% and the ability in transporting the product increased from 10.2% to 50.9%. Thus, it can be stated that this is the best method for increasing efficiency in the warehouse operation.

  1. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve...... the N use efficiency in barley, we are developing a new generation of genetically modified plants based on the concept of cisgenesis. In this approach, plants are transformed only with their own genetic material. The genes encoding the cytosolic isoform of the glutamine synthetase (GS1...... into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  2. An Online Respiratory Quotient-Feedback Strategy of Feeding Yeast Extract for Efficient Arachidonic Acid Production by Mortierella alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortierella alpina (M. alpina is well known for arachidonic acid (ARA production. However, low efficiency and unstableness are long existed problems for industrial production of ARA by M. alpina due to the lack of online regulations. The aim of the present work is to develop an online-regulation strategy for efficient and stable ARA production in industry. The strategy was developed in 50 L fermenters and then applied in a 200 m3 fermenter. Results indicated that yeast extract (YE highly increased cell growth in shake flask, it was then used in bioreactor fermentation by various feeding strategies. Feeding YE to control respiratory quotient (RQ at 1.1 during 0–48 h and at 1.5 during 48–160 h, dry cell weight, and ARA titer reached 53.1 and 11.49 g/L in 50 L fermenter, which were increased by 79.4 and 36.9% as compared to that without YE feeding, respectively. Then, the online RQ-feedback strategy was applied in 200 m3 bioreactor fermentation and an average ARA titer of 16.82 g/L was obtained from 12 batches, which was 41.0% higher than the control batches. This is the first report on successful application of online RQ-feedback control of YE in ARA production, especially in an industrial scale of 200 m3 fermentation. It could be applied to other industrial production of microbial oil by oleaginous microorganisms.

  3. Assembly Line Efficiency Improvement by Using WITNESS Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, A. S. H. M.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.

    2018-03-01

    In the nowadays-competitive world, efficiencies and the productivity of the assembly line are essential in manufacturing company. This paper demonstrates the study of the existing production line performance. The actual cycle time observed and recorded during the working process. The current layout was designed and analysed using Witness simulation software. The productivity and effectiveness for every single operator are measured to determine the operator idle time and busy time. Two new alternatives layout were proposed and analysed by using Witness simulation software to improve the performance of production activities. This research provided valuable and better understanding of production effectiveness by adjusting the line balancing. After analysing the data, simulation result from the current layout and the proposed plan later been tabulated to compare the improved efficiency and productivity. The proposed design plan has shown an increase in yield and productivity compared to the current arrangement. This research has been carried out in company XYZ, which is one of the automotive premises in Pahang, Malaysia.

  4. Improving thermoelectric energy harvesting efficiency by using graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at enhancing the efficiency of a thermoelectric (TE energy harvesting system by using a thick graphene layer. This method is a simple yet effective way to increase the temperature gradient across a conventional TE module by accelerating heat dissipation on the cold side of the system. Aqueous dispersions of graphene were used to prepare a 112-μm thick graphene layer on the cold side of the TE system with aluminum as the substrate material. The maximum efficiency of the proposed system was improved by 25.45 %, as compared to the conventional TE system, which does not have a graphene layer. Additionally, the proposed system shows very little performance deterioration (2.87 % in the absence of enough air flow on the cold side of the system, compared to the case of the conventional system (10.59 %. Hence, the proposed system, when coupled with the latest research on high performance TE materials, presents a groundbreaking improvement in the practical application of the TE energy harvesting systems.

  5. Improving thermoelectric energy harvesting efficiency by using graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Kim, In-Ho; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2016-05-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing the efficiency of a thermoelectric (TE) energy harvesting system by using a thick graphene layer. This method is a simple yet effective way to increase the temperature gradient across a conventional TE module by accelerating heat dissipation on the cold side of the system. Aqueous dispersions of graphene were used to prepare a 112-μm thick graphene layer on the cold side of the TE system with aluminum as the substrate material. The maximum efficiency of the proposed system was improved by 25.45 %, as compared to the conventional TE system, which does not have a graphene layer. Additionally, the proposed system shows very little performance deterioration (2.87 %) in the absence of enough air flow on the cold side of the system, compared to the case of the conventional system (10.59 %). Hence, the proposed system, when coupled with the latest research on high performance TE materials, presents a groundbreaking improvement in the practical application of the TE energy harvesting systems.

  6. Effects of different feeding levels on moulting, growth, food conversion efficiency and biochemical composition of the prawn, metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    food/g prawn/day represented the maintenance, optimum and maximum feeding levels Specific dynamic action increased twice at the observed maximum feeding level (20%) than at optimum feeding level (12%), indicating that the energy cost of converting food...

  7. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  8. Prediction of Genomic Breeding Values for feed efficiency and related traits in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Janss, Luc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    .31-0.32 for DFI and RFI, respectively, and approx. 1.5% higher than that of GBLUP method. However , BPL models are more biased than GBLUP method for both traits and use of different power parameters has no effect on predictive ability of the models. Partitioning of genetic variance showed that SNP groups either...... by position (intron, exon, downstream, upstream and 5’UTR) or by function (missense and protein-altering) have similar average explained variance per SNP, except 3’UTR SNPs which explain approx. 3 times more variance then SNPs in the other groups. This study supports use of BPL models for both GWAS...... with different power parameters to investigate genetic architecture of RFI, to predict genomic breeding values, and to partition genetic variances for different SNP groups. Data were 1272 Duroc pigs with both genotypic and phenotypic records for RFI as well as daily feed intake (DFI). The gene mapping confirmed...

  9. Improving water resources management efficiency for cranberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, A. N.; Bigah, Y.; Gumiere, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water needs vary significantly from one plant to another and unlike many other plants cranberry is a very sensitive to weather conditions. This inherent sensitivity requires irrigation for protection against frost and excessive heat when the air temperature falls below 0o C and rises above 25o C, respectively. In addition, cranberry fields require significant amount of water as fields require about 406 mm of water to ease the harvesting process. Lastly, fields need icing for protection during winter months and that requires maintaining almost 203 mm of water above cranberry plants for at least three consecutive days. The intensive use of water for cranberry production has triggered several water management projects, particularly in Canada, the second largest producer in the world. The outcomes of these projects have improved water management to a point where nowadays most cranberry farms recycle water in a closed circuit during the production cycle, especially during the harvesting and icing phases. However, up till now very little effort had been put into assessing the efficiency of the recycling system such that a question remained: how much does a closed circuit system contribute to reducing the annual water use? The objective of this project is to assess water use for cranberry production and associated management efficiency of two different recycling systems located within watersheds under slightly different climatic conditions. The methodological approach is based on the development of a mathematical model capable of simulating water needs for a wide range of climatic conditions and over an extended period of time (e.g., 30 years). The outcome of this project has potential to further improve our understanding of the inter-annual dynamics of water needs and supply and ultimately improved recycling systems.

  10. Implementing electronic handover: interventions to improve efficiency, safety and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamid, Sharifah Munirah; Lee, Desmond Xue-Yuan; Wong, Hei Man; Chuah, Matthew Bingfeng; Wong, Yu Jun; Narasimhalu, Kaavya; Tan, Thuan Tong; Low, Su Ying

    2016-10-01

    Effective handovers are critical for patient care and safety. Electronic handover tools are increasingly used today to provide an effective and standardized platform for information exchange. The implementation of an electronic handover system in tertiary hospitals can be a major challenge. Previous efforts in implementing an electronic handover tool failed due to poor compliance and buy-in from end-users. A new electronic handover tool was developed and incorporated into the existing electronic medical records (EMRs) for medical patients in Singapore General Hospital (SGH). There was poor compliance by on-call doctors in acknowledging electronic handovers, and lack of adherence to safety rules, raising concerns about the safety and efficiency of the electronic handover tool. Urgent measures were needed to ensure its safe and sustained use. A quality improvement group comprising stakeholders, including end-users, developed multi-faceted interventions using rapid PDSA (P-Plan, D-Do, S-Study, A-Act ) cycles to address these issues. Innovative solutions using media and online software provided cost-efficient measures to improve compliance. The percentage of unacknowledged handovers per day was used as the main outcome measure throughout all PDSA cycles. Doctors were also assessed for improvement in their knowledge of safety rules and their perception of the electronic handover tool. An electronic handover tool complementing daily clinical practice can be successfully implemented using solutions devised through close collaboration with end-users supported by the senior leadership. A combined 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' approach with regular process evaluations is crucial for its long-term sustainability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Phenotypically divergent classification of preweaned heifer calves for feed efficiency indexes and their correlations with heat production and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, J M; Coelho, S G; Machado, F S; Azevedo, R A; Lima, J A M; Carneiro, J C; Lage, C F A; Ferreira, A L; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Campos, M M

    2018-03-07

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess if there is phenotypical divergence for feed efficiency (FE) during the preweaning phase; (2) if FE is correlated with heat production (HP) measured by the face mask method or (3) by surface skin temperature via thermography, and (4) whether these methods are applicable to preweaned calves. Holstein × Gyr heifer calves (n = 36, birth body weight = 32.4 ± 6.6 kg) were enrolled and on trial between 4 and 12 wk of age and were classified into 2 residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG) groups: high efficiency (HE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 9) and low efficiency (LE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 8). Calves were fed milk (6 L/d) and solid feed (95% starter and 5% chopped Tifton 85 hay, as fed). Growth was monitored weekly and feed intake (milk and solid feed) daily, during the whole period. Gas exchanges (O 2 consumption and production of CO 2 and CH 4 ) were obtained using a face mask at 45 ± 5 d of age and HP was estimated. Maximum temperatures were measured at 7 sites with an infrared camera at 62 ± 7 d of age. There was divergence in RFI and RG. Respectively, HE and LE calves had RFI of -0.14 and 0.13 kg/d, and RG of 0.05 and -0.07 kg/d. Dry matter intake was 15% lower in HE-RFI compared with LE-RFI, but no differences were observed in average daily weight gain. Within the RG test, no differences were observed in dry matter intake or average daily gain. The HE-RFI calves consumed less O 2 (L/d) and produced less CO 2 (L/d). Heart rate and HP were lower for HE-RFI calves compared with LE-RFI. Residual feed intake was correlated with HP (r = 0.48), O 2 consumption (r = 0.48), CO 2 production (r = 0.48), and heart rate (r = 0.40). No differences were observed in HP and gas exchanges between RG groups. Methane production was null in both groups. Eye temperature measured by thermography was 0.5°C greater in HE-RG than LE-RG calves. Differences in skin temperature between HE and LE calves were not observed at

  12. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-04-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by-products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  13. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod ( through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B. Laconi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control, CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea, CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses, CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum. Analysis of proximate and Van Soest’s fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates. Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (pCAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05 of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01 with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05. It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the nutritive value of cocoa pod.

  14. High Level Waste Feed Delivery AZ-101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC

  15. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC with sunflower meal (SFM, partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and ration C containing both CSC + SFM was fed to calves of group C. The feed intake of calves belonging to group C was the highest (5.7 ± 2.3 kg followed by group B (5.5 ± 1.3 kg and group A (5.2 ± 2.0 kg. Average daily body weight gain was 0.73 ± 0.1, 0.72 ± 0.2 and 0.71 ± 0.1 kg for groups A, B and C, respectively. Calves fed SFM gained numerically less than the calves fed CSC but higher than SFM+ CSC. Feed conversion ratio was 7.1 ± 0.4, 7.7 ± 0.7 and 8.0 ± 0.6, for calves of groups A, B and C, respectively. Dressing percentage averaged 51.5 ± 1.3, 52.1 ± 1.2 and 52.3 ± 0.8 for the respective rations. However, the differences in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentages among calves of three groups were non significant. Considering the cost of feed and average growth, the cost of per kg body weight gain was 38, 30 and 37 rupees for the groups A, B and C, respectively. The lowest cost was observed in SFM based ration (B that was about 19% less than ration containing CSC. Results indicated that for fattening of crossbred calves the use of SFM is as efficient as CSC but more economical and can successfully replace CSC in fattening rations.

  16. 75 FR 30387 - Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and Procedures for Staff... planning models and software. The technical conference will be held from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. (EDT) on June... on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov . A free Webcast of this event is available...

  17. Effect of postweaning heifer development system on average daily gain, pregnancy rates, and subsequent feed efficiency as a pregnant heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springman, S A; Nielson, H R; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2017-12-01

    A 3-yr study utilized 300 Angus-based, spring-born heifers to evaluate postweaning heifer development systems on gain, reproductive performance, and feed efficiency as a pregnant heifer. Heifers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to graze corn residue (CR), upland range (RANGE), or were fed 1 of 2 diets in a drylot differing in energy levels: high (DLHI) or low (DLLO). Heifers developed on DLHI and DLLO were managed within the drylot for 166 d in yr 1, 150 d in yr 2, and 162 d in yr 3. Heifers developed on RANGE grazed winter range for an equivalent amount of days each yr as the DLHI and DLLO heifers. Heifers assigned to CR grazed for 103 d in yr 1, 84 d in yr 2, and 97 d in yr 3 before being transported to graze winter range for the remainder of the treatment period. All heifers were managed as a single group following the treatment period. Artificial insemination and natural mating were utilized during breeding. Percent of mature BW prior to the breeding season was greater ( = 0.02) for DLHI (67%) compared with RANGE (59%) and CR (58%). Pregnancy rates to AI were not different ( = 0.51) among treatments (59 ± 6%), and final pregnancy rates were also not different (87 ± 4%, = 0.54). A subset of AI-pregnant heifers from each treatment were placed in a Calan gate feeding system. Heifers were allowed a 20-d acclimation period before beginning the 90 d trial at approximately 170 d in gestation. Heifers were offered ad libitum hay; amount offered was recorded daily and orts collected weekly. Initial BW was not different ( = 0.58) among treatments (459 ± 11 kg). Body weight at the end of the trial (497 ± 17 kg) was also not different ( = 0.41). Intake was not different ( = 0.33), either as DMI (10.00 ± 1.07 kg) or residual feed intake (0.018 ± 0.190). There was no difference in ADG ( = 0.36, 0.42 ± 0.23 kg/d) among treatments. Although the total development cost was not different among treatments ( = 0.99), there was a $41 difference ( feed efficiency as a

  18. Strategies for improving water use efficiency of livestock production in rain-fed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Haileslassie, A; Duncan, A J; de Boer, I J M

    2015-05-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall water use efficiency of agriculture. Previous studies have reported significant variation in livestock water productivity (LWP) within and among farming systems. Underlying causes of this variation in LWP require further investigation. The objective of this paper was to identify the factors that explain the variation in LWP within and among farming systems in Ethiopia. We quantified LWP for various farms in mixed-crop livestock systems and explored the effect of household demographic characteristics and farm assets on LWP using ANOVA and multilevel mixed-effect linear regression. We focused on water used to cultivate feeds on privately owned agricultural lands. There was a difference in LWP among farming systems and wealth categories. Better-off households followed by medium households had the highest LWP, whereas poor households had the lowest LWP. The variation in LWP among wealth categories could be explained by the differences in the ownership of livestock and availability of family labor. Regression results showed that the age of the household head, the size of the livestock holding and availability of family labor affected LWP positively. The results suggest that water use efficiency could be improved by alleviating resource constraints such as access to farm labor and livestock assets, oxen in particular.

  19. Improving The Efficiency Of Ammonia Electrolysis For Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Ramasamy

    Given the abundance of ammonia in domestic and industrial wastes, ammonia electrolysis is a promising technology for remediation and distributed power generation in a clean and safe manner. Efficiency has been identified as one of the key issues that require improvement in order for the technology to enter the market phase. Therefore, this research was performed with the aim of improving the efficiency of hydrogen production by finding alternative materials for the cathode and electrolyte. 1. In the presence of ammonia the activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) followed the trend Rh>Pt>Ru>Ni. The addition of ammonia resulted in lower rates for HER for Pt, Ru, and Ni, which have been attributed to competition from the ammonia adsorption reaction. 2. The addition of ammonia offers insight into the role of metal-hydrogen underpotential deposition (M-Hupd) on HER kinetics. In addition to offering competition via ammonia adsorption it resulted in fewer and weaker M-Hupd bonds for all metals. This finding substantiates the theory that M-Hupd bonds favor HER on Pt electrocatalyst. However, for Rh results suggest that M-Hupd bond may hinder the HER. In addition, the presence of unpaired valence shell electrons is suggested to provide higher activity for HER in the presence of ammonia. 3. Bimetals PtxM1-x (M = Ir, Ru, Rh, and Ni) offered lower overpotentials for HER compared to the unalloyed metals in the presence of ammonia. The activity of HER in the presence of ammonia follows the trend Pt-Ir>Pt-Rh>Pt-Ru>Pt-Ni. The higher activity of HER is attributed to the synergistic effect of the alloy, where ammonia adsorbs onto the more electropositive alloying metal leaving Pt available for Hupd formation and HER to take place. Additionally, this supports the theory that the presence of a higher number of unpaired electrons favors the HER in the presence of ammonia. 4. Potassium polyacrylate (PAA-K) was successfully used as a substitute for aqueous KOH for ammonia

  20. Stepwise hydrolysis to improve carbon releasing efficiency from sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ling; Yu, Tiantian; Fu, Bo; Liu, He

    2017-08-01

    Based on thermal alkaline hydrolysis (TAH), a novel strategy of stepwise hydrolysis was developed to improve carbon releasing efficiency from waste activated sludge (WAS). By stepwise increasing hydrolysis intensity, conventional sludge hydrolysis (the control) was divided into four stages for separately recovering sludge carbon sources with different bonding strengths, namely stage 1 (60 °C, pH 6.0-8.0), stage 2 (80 °C, pH 6.0-8.0), stage 3 (80 °C, pH 10.0) and stage 4 (90 °C, pH 12.0). Results indicate stepwise hydrolysis could enhance the amount of released soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) for almost 2 times, from 7200 to 14,693 mg/L, and the released carbon presented better biodegradability, with BOD/COD of 0.47 and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) yield of 0.37 g VFAs/g SCOD via anaerobic fermentation. Moreover, stepwise hydrolysis also improved the dewaterability of hydrolyzed sludge, capillary suction time (CST) reducing from 2500 to 1600 s. Economic assessment indicates stepwise hydrolysis shows less alkali demand and lower thermal energy consumption than those of the control. Furthermore, results of this study help support the concepts of improving carbon recovery in wastewater by manipulating WAS composition and the idea of classifiably recovering the nutrients in WAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation pasteurization of poultry feed: Preliminary results of feeding tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsa, J.; Guenter, B.

    1992-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as a vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it would directly offset the cost of treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. The results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed. 10 refs, 8 tabs

  2. Effect of feeding frequency on the reproductive efficiency of two species of Triatoma with different epidemiological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In Triatominae, reproductive efficiency is an important factor influencing population dynamics, and a useful parameter in measuring a species' epidemiological significance as a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909. The reproductive efficiency of triatomines is affected by food availability; hence, we measured and compared the effects of feeding frequency on the reproductive parameters of Triatoma patagonica (Del Ponte, 1929 and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1934, and the effects of starvation on T. patagonica. Methods Couples from both species were fed weekly, or every 3 weeks; in addition, females in couples of T. patagonica were not fed. Each couple was observed weekly and reproductive efficiency was assessed on the following parameters: fecundity (eggs/female, fertility (eggs hatched/eggs laid, initiation and end of oviposition, initiation of mating, number of matings/week, and number of reproductive weeks. Relative meal size index (RMS, blood consumption index (CI, and E values (eggs/mg blood were also calculated. Results Changes in feeding frequency affected the reproductive parameters of T. patagonica only, with a decrease in fecundity and number of reproductive weeks for those fed every 3 weeks, or not fed. The reproductive period, RMS index, and CI were lower for T. patagonica than T. infestans. However, despite the lower fecundity of T. patagonica, this species required less blood to produce eggs, with an E values of 2 compared to 2.94 for T. infestans. Conclusions Our results suggest that the differences in fecundity observed between species reflect the availability of food in their natural ecotopes.

  3. Complementary feeding messages that target cultural barriers enhance both the use of lipid-based nutrient supplements and underlying feeding practices to improve infant diets in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keriann H; Muti, Monica; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Madzima, Rufaro C; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Supplementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LiNS) is promoted as an approach to prevent child undernutrition and growth faltering. Previous LiNS studies have not tested the effects of improving the underlying diet prior to providing LiNS. Formative research was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to develop feeding messages to improve complementary feeding with and without LiNS. Two rounds of Trials of Improved Practices were conducted with mothers of infants aged 6-12 months to assess the feasibility of improving infant diets using (1) only locally available resources and (2) locally available resources plus 20 g of LiNS as Nutributter®/day. Common feeding problems were poor dietary diversity and low energy density. Popular improved practices were to process locally available foods so that infants could swallow them and add processed local foods to enrich porridges. Consumption of beans, fruits, green leafy vegetables, and peanut/seed butters increased after counselling (P < 0.05). Intakes of energy, protein, vitamin A, folate, calcium, iron and zinc from complementary foods increased significantly after counselling with or without the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). Intakes of fat, folate, iron, and zinc increased only (fat) or more so (folate, iron, and zinc) with the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). While provision of LiNS was crucial to ensure adequate intakes of iron and zinc, educational messages that were barrier-specific and delivered directly to mothers were crucial to improving the underlying diet. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Calves (n = 236) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples we...

  5. Improving weather radar estimates of rainfall using feed-forward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschl, Reinhard; Randeu, Walter L; Teschl, Franz

    2007-05-01

    In this paper an approach is described to improve weather radar estimates of rainfall based on a neural network technique. Other than rain gauges which measure the rain rate R directly on the ground, the weather radar measures the reflectivity Z aloft and the rain rate has to be determined over a Z-R relationship. Besides the fact that the rain rate has to be estimated from the reflectivity many other sources of possible errors are inherent to the radar system. In other words the radar measurements contain an amount of observation noise which makes it a demanding task to train the network properly. A feed-forward neural network with Z values as input vector was trained to predict the rain rate R on the ground. The results indicate that the model is able to generalize and the determined input-output relationship is also representative for other sites nearby with similar conditions.

  6. Danish energy efficiency policy: revisited and future improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, Mikael; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten (Ea Energy Analyses (Denmark)); Larsen, Anders; Juel Hansen, Morten (Roskilde Univ., Dept. of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde (Denmark)); Bach, Peter (Danish Energy Authority, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO{sub 2} emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Dept. of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde Univ.) and 4-Fact was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: - Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? - Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? - Will the current instrument portfolio be able to meet the required reduction in final energy consumption (goal for 2013) and in primary energy consumption (with goals in 2011 and 2020) as planned by parliament? Recommendations were made on how to improve and develop the portfolio using cost effectiveness as well as organisational clarity as criteria in developing the recommendations. The evaluation was completed in December 2008, and this paper presents the main findings and proceeds to discuss the issues from an EU perspective.

  7. Challenges in biobutanol production: How to improve the efficiency?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Veronica; Paekkilae, Johanna; Muurinen, Esa; Keiski, Riitta L. [Mass and Heat Transfer Process Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, POB 4300, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Ojamo, Heikki [Bioprocess Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, POB 4300, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    There is an increasing interest in the production of chemicals and fuels from renewable resources due to the continuing price increase of fossil resources, the insecurity of the availability of fossil resources in the future, and additionally environmental concerns and legislations. Biobutanol may be produced by the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. This paper reviews the biobutanol production bringing up the problems and challenges to overcome. The aim of the paper is to help in finding opportunities to make the process feasible in the near future. The analysis stresses the idea of improving the efficiency of the fermentation stage by altering the up (pretreatment of the raw material) and downstream (product recovery and purification) processes. The paper also explores the biobutanol production from the biorefinery perspective. Finally the review brings up the important role of research in developing and implementing the production of biobutanol by the ABE fermentation. (author)

  8. Leanergy(TM): how lean manufacturing can improve energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become a competitive issue for industrial companies. The evolution of energy prices and regulation will make this issue even more important in the future. For several years, the energy-intensive chemical industry has been implementing corrective actions. Helped by the absorption of base load energy consumption by larger production volumes, specific energy consumption (KWh per production unit) has been significantly reduced in recent years. However, most plants have reached the end of their first action plan based on improving the utilities performance. The Leanergy(TM) method developed by the consultancy company Okavango-energy, is a structured approach based on lean manufacturing which widens the scope of saving sources to process and operations. Starting from the analysis of actual production requirements, Okavango is able to adjust consumption to minimum requirements and so remove any energy consumption that does not contribute to the added value creation.

  9. Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Taichen [Chung-Hua Institute for Economic Research, Taipei (China); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-08-15

    This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the ''expenditure approach''. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance. (author)

  10. Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien Taichen [Chung-Hua Institute for Economic Research, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tcchien@hotmail.com; Hu Jinli [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan (China)

    2008-08-15

    This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the 'expenditure approach'. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance.

  11. Teleglaucoma: improving access and efficiency for glaucoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Faazil; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Sogbesan, Enitan; Pasquale, Louis R; Damji, Karim F

    2013-01-01

    Teleglaucoma is the application of telemedicine for glaucoma. We review and present the current literature on teleglaucoma; present our experience with teleglaucoma programs in Alberta, Canada and Western Australia; and discuss the challenges and opportunities in this emerging field. Teleglaucoma is a novel area that was first explored a little over a decade ago and early studies highlighted the technical challenges of delivering glaucoma care remotely. Advanced technologies have since emerged that show great promise in providing access to underserviced populations. Additionally, these technologies can improve the efficiency of healthcare systems burdened with an increasing number of patients with glaucoma, and a limited supply of ophthalmologists. Additional benefits of teleglaucoma systems include e-learning and e-research. Further work is needed to fully validate and study the cost and comparative effectiveness of this approach relative to traditional models of healthcare.

  12. Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien Taichen; Hu Jinli

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the 'expenditure approach'. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance

  13. Improved efficiency of budesonide nebulization using surface-active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, A M; Heijstra, M P; Schaefer, N C; Duiverman, E J; Lesouëf, P N; Devadason, S G

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to improve the efficiency of nebulised budesonide using surface-active agents. Cationic, anionic, and nonionic detergents were added to commercial budesonide suspension, and the particle size distribution during nebulization was measured using both cascade impaction and laser diffraction. Our results showed that the emitted dose was increased after addition of cationic (p < 0.001) and nonionic detergents (p < 0.01) compared with the commercial formulation alone. The respirable fraction was increased for all detergent formulations (p < 0.001) compared with the commercial formulation. We concluded that cationic and nonionic detergent increased the total output of budesonide from the Sidestream. All detergent formulations increased the respirable fraction of nebulized budesonide.

  14. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  15. Evaluation of economic efficiency of process improvement in food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we make gains in process by the three fundamental ways. First, we define or redefine our process in a strategic sense. Second, once defined or redefined, we commence process operations and use process control methods to target and stabilize our process. Third, we use process improvement methods, as described in this paper, along with process control to fully exploit our process management and/or technology. Process improvement is focused primarily in our subprocesses and sub-subprocesses. Process leverage is the key to process improvement initiatives. This means that small improvements of the basic manufacturing operations can have (with the assumption of mass repetition of the operation a big impact on the functioning of the whole production unit. The complexity within even small organizations, in people, products, and processes, creates significant challenges in effectively and efficiently using these initiatives tools. In this paper we are going to place process purposes in the foreground and initiatives and tools in the background as facilitator to help accomplish process purpose. Initiatives and tools are not the ends we are seeking; result/outcomes in physical, economics, timeliness, and customer service performance matter. In the paper process boundaries (in a generic sense are set by our process purpose and our process definition. Process improvement is initiated within our existing process boundaries. For example, in a fast-food restaurant, if we define our cooking process around a frying technology, then we provide process improvements within our frying technology. On the other hand, if we are considering changing to a broiling technology, then we are likely faced with extensive change, impacting our external customers, and a process redefinition may be required. The result / aim of the paper are based on the example of the process improving of a food packaging quality. Specifically, the integration of two approaches

  16. Improving the energy efficiency of industrial refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin-Sik; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2016-01-01

    Various retrofit design options are available for improving the energy efficiency and economics of industrial refrigeration systems. This study considers a novel retrofit option using a mixed refrigerant (MR) in refrigeration cycles designed for use with a pure refrigerant (PR). In this way energy savings can be realized by switching refrigerants without requiring extensive and expensive reconfiguration of equipment. Hence, the aim here is to test the common thinking that equipment should always be extensively reconfigured when switching from pure to mixed refrigerants. To determine the most energy-efficient operating conditions for each refrigeration design an optimization framework is utilized linking a process simulator with an external optimization method. A case study is presented to demonstrate how the proposed process modeling and optimization framework can be applied and to illustrate the economic benefits of using the retrofit design options considered here. For the case considered in this paper, savings of shaft power required for the refrigeration cycle can be achieved from 16.3% to 27.2% when the pure refrigerant is replaced with mixed refrigerants and operating conditions are re-optimized. - Highlights: • Design methods for the design of refrigeration cycles in retrofit cases. • Consideration of mixed refrigerants to the existing multi-level pure-refrigerant cycles. • Optimization of refrigeration cycles with integrated use of a process simulator with an optimizer.

  17. Improving robustness and computational efficiency using modern C++

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterno, M; Kowalkowski, J; Green, C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the C++ programming language has been the dominant programming language for experimental HEP. The publication of ISO/IEC 14882:2011, the current version of the international standard for the C++ programming language, makes available a variety of language and library facilities for improving the robustness, expressiveness, and computational efficiency of C++ code. However, much of the C++ written by the experimental HEP community does not take advantage of the features of the language to obtain these benefits, either due to lack of familiarity with these features or concern that these features must somehow be computationally inefficient. In this paper, we address some of the features of modern C+-+, and show how they can be used to make programs that are both robust and computationally efficient. We compare and contrast simple yet realistic examples of some common implementation patterns in C, currently-typical C++, and modern C++, and show (when necessary, down to the level of generated assembly language code) the quality of the executable code produced by recent C++ compilers, with the aim of allowing the HEP community to make informed decisions on the costs and benefits of the use of modern C++.

  18. Improving routing efficiency through intermediate target based geographic routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Fei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The greedy strategy of geographical routing may cause the local minimum problem when there is a hole in the routing area. It depends on other strategies such as perimeter routing to find a detour path, which can be long and result in inefficiency of the routing protocol. In this paper, we propose a new approach called Intermediate Target based Geographic Routing (ITGR to solve the long detour path problem. The basic idea is to use previous experience to determine the destination areas that are shaded by the holes. The novelty of the approach is that a single forwarding path can be used to determine a shaded area that may cover many destination nodes. We design an efficient method for the source to find out whether a destination node belongs to a shaded area. The source then selects an intermediate node as the tentative target and greedily forwards packets to it, which in turn forwards the packet to the final destination by greedy routing. ITGR can combine multiple shaded areas to improve the efficiency of representation and routing. We perform simulations and demonstrate that ITGR significantly reduces the routing path length, compared with existing geographic routing protocols.

  19. Improving Remote Species Identification through Efficient Training Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. Baldeck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant species identification and mapping based on remotely-sensed spectral signatures is a challenging task with the potential to contribute enormously to ecological studies. Success in this task rests upon the appropriate collection and use of costly field-based training data, and researchers are in need of ways to improve collection efficiency based on quantitative evidence. Using imaging spectrometer data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory for hundreds of field-identified tree crowns in Kruger National Park, South Africa, we developed woody plant species classification models and evaluated how classification accuracy increases with increasing numbers of training crowns. First, we show that classification accuracy must be estimated while respecting the crown as the basic unit of data; otherwise, accuracy will be overestimated and the amount of training data needed to perform successful classification will be underestimated. We found that classification accuracy and the number of training crowns needed to perform successful classification varied depending on the number and spectral separability of species in the model. We also used a modified Michaelis-Menten function to describe the empirical relationship between training crowns and model accuracy, and show how this function may be useful for predicting accuracy. This framework can assist researchers in designing field campaigns to maximize the efficiency of field data collection, and thus the amount of biodiversity information gained from remote species identification models.

  20. Environmental impacts of genetic improvement in growth rate and feed conversion in fish farming under density and nitrogen limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Aubin, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, H.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vandeputte, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental impacts can be attributed to fish farming and there is a need to explore new ways of reducing environmental impacts, such as fish genetic improvement. The environmental consequences of genetic improvement in thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were

  1. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flenet Francis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  2. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  3. Efficiency improvement of technological preparation of power equipment manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milukov, I. A.; Rogalev, A. N.; Sokolov, V. P.; Shevchenko, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Competitiveness of power equipment primarily depends on speeding-up the development and mastering of new equipment samples and technologies, enhancement of organisation and management of design, manufacturing and operation. Actual political, technological and economic conditions cause the acute need in changing the strategy and tactics of process planning. At that the issues of maintenance of equipment with simultaneous improvement of its efficiency and compatibility to domestically produced components are considering. In order to solve these problems, using the systems of computer-aided process planning for process design at all stages of power equipment life cycle is economically viable. Computer-aided process planning is developed for the purpose of improvement of process planning by using mathematical methods and optimisation of design and management processes on the basis of CALS technologies, which allows for simultaneous process design, process planning organisation and management based on mathematical and physical modelling of interrelated design objects and production system. An integration of computer-aided systems providing the interaction of informative and material processes at all stages of product life cycle is proposed as effective solution to the challenges in new equipment design and process planning.

  4. Efficiency improvement of flat plate solar collector using reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himangshu Bhowmik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar collectors are the main components of a solar heating system. The collectors collect the sun’s energy, transform this radiation into heat, and then transfer this heat into a fluid, water or air, which has many household or industrial applications. This paper introduces a new technology to improve the performance of the solar thermal collectors. The solar reflector used here with the solar collector to increase the reflectivity of the collector. Thus, the reflector concentrates both direct and diffuse radiation of the sun toward the collector. To maximize the intensity of incident radiation, the reflector was allowed to change its angle with daytime. The radiations coming from the sun’s energy were converted into heat, and then this heat was transferred to the collector fluid, water. A prototype of a solar water heating system was constructed and obtained the improvement of the collector efficiency around 10% by using the reflector. Thus, the present solar water heating systems having the best thermal performance compared to the available systems.

  5. Comparative Study of Milk Production and Feed Efficiency Based on Farmers Best Practices and National Research Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lestari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare local dairy farmer ration formula with national research council in producing higher feed efficiency and milk production. This study had two stages. The first stage was in vitro study of dairy farmer rations which have different raw materials (R3, R4, and R5 with NRC based ration (R2 and Demo Farm ration (R1. The variables measured in this stage were proximate composition, volatile fatty acid, ammonia, dry matter and organic matter digestibility. The first stage used a randomized block design with five treatments, three groups of ruminal fluid, and three replications. The second stage used nine lactating cows with three periods of lactation (one, three, and other and used a randomized block design with three treatments, three groups, and one replication. Parameters measured were dry matter intake, manure score, milk production, body weight gain, body condition score, and technical and economical efficiencies. The first stage result showed that R1, R2, and R3 were three best rations in nutrient composition and fermentability (ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations were optimum for microbial growth and high digestibility, so in conclusion those three rations were the best rations and should be compared by in vivo method. The result of the second stage showed that all tested rations were not significantly different in milk production, performance and efficiency, so in conclusion those three rations have the same quality.

  6. Do breath gas measurements hold the key to unlocking the genetics of feed efficiency in dairy cows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Difford, Gareth; de Haas, Yvette; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    for DMI and then used to predict breeding values for DMI along using other highly correlated traits like milk yield, body weight and chest width. Recent interest in greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), has seen the development of tools for measuring gas concentrations in the breath of the cow during...... has been exploited to predict CH4 production from DMI to aid in CH4 related research. Here we turn this idea around and assess the effectivity of CH4 and Carbon dioxide breath measurements for the prediction of DMI and feed efficiency in Dutch and Danish Holstein cattle. Preliminary results indicate...... a strong positive genetic correlation of 0.75 between CH4 production and DMI and a strong negative genetic correlation of -0.68 between CH4 concentration and RFI. Through the use of genomic tools we assess the added benefit of these strong correlations with large scale breath measurements...

  7. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in

  8. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    Typical manufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiency of 12-15%; and 14% efficiency is the bare minimum for achieving a profit. In work performed at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA, 5 10-486-577 1)--a US Department of Energy national laboratory that conducts unclassified scientific research and is managed by the University of California--scientist Scott McHugo has obtained keen insights into the impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from polycrystalline silicon. The solar cell market is potentially vast, according to Berkeley Lab. Lightweight solar panels are highly beneficial for providing electrical power to remote locations in developing nations, since there is no need to build transmission lines or truck-in generator fuel. Moreover, industrial nations confronted with diminishing resources have active programs aimed at producing improved, less expensive solar cells. 'In a solar cell, there is a junction between p-type silicon and an n-type layer, such as diffused-in phosphorous', explained McHugo, who is now with Berkeley Lab's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. 'When sunlight is absorbed, it frees electrons, which start migrating in a random-walk fashion toward that junction. If the electrons make it to the junction; they contribute to the cell's output of electric current. Often, however, before they reach the junction, they recombine at specific sites in the crystal' (and, therefore, cannot contribute to current output). McHugo scrutinized a map of a silicon wafer in which sites of high recombination appeared as dark regions. Previously, researchers had shown that such phenomena occurred not primarily at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline material, as might be expected, but more often at dislocations in the crystal. However, the dislocations themselves were not the problem. Using a unique heat treatment technique, McHugo performed electrical measurements to investigate the material

  9. Increasing feed efficiency and reducing methane emissions using genomics: An international approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic technology (including SNP arrays and next-generation sequencing) is a powerful driver for the genetic improvement of livestock. Phenotype recording can now, to an extent, be partitioned from selection, and even limited to several thousand animals. Rapid development of new technologies and pr...

  10. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume contains appendixes on pump design, cavitation damage, performance testing, hydraulics, two-phase flow in pumps, flow stability, and rotor dynamics.

  11. Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves the control of secondary experimental meningococcal infection in flu-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Bourdet-Sicard, Raphaëlle; Taha, Muhamed-Kkeir

    2018-04-10

    The use of probiotics to improve anti-microbial defence, such as for influenza infections, is increasingly recommended. However, no data are available on the effect of probiotics on flu-associated secondary bacterial infections. There is strong evidence of a spatiotemporal association between influenza virus infection and invasive Neisseria meningitidis. We thus investigated the effect of feeding mice Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1518 in a mouse model of sequential influenza-meningococcal infection. We intranasally infected BALB/c mice with a strain of influenza A virus (IAV) H3N2 that was first adapted to mice. Seven days later, a secondary bacterial infection was induced by intranasal administration of bioluminescent N. meningitidis. During the experiment, mice orally received either L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 or PBS as a control. The effect of L. paracasei administration on secondary bacterial infection by N. meningitidis was evaluated. Oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 reduced the weight loss of infected mice and lowered the bioluminescent signal of infecting meningococci. This improvement was associated with higher recruitment of inflammatory myeloid cells, such as interstitial monocytes and dendritic cells, to the lungs. Our data highlight the role of the gut-lung axis. L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 may boost the defence against IAV infection and secondary bacterial infection, which should be further studied and validated in clinical trials.

  12. Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves immune control of influenza infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Serafini, Nicolas; Derrien, Muriel; Boucinha, Lilia; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Taha, Muhamed-Kkeir

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections such as flu cause severe morbidity and mortality and are among the leading causes of death in children and adults worldwide. Commensal microbiota is critical for orchestrating tissue homeostasis and immunity in the intestine. Probiotics represent an interesting source of immune modulators and several clinical studies have addressed the potential beneficial effects of probiotics against respiratory infections. Therefore, we have investigated the mechanisms of protection conferred by L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 strain in a mouse model of influenza infection. Notably, local myeloid cells accumulation is generated in the lungs after seven days feeding with L. paracasei prior to viral infection. L. paracasei-fed mice showed reduced susceptibility to the influenza infection, associated with less accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lungs, faster viral clearance and general health improvement. Interestingly, Allobaculum was significantly increased in L. paracasei-fed mice 7 days after influenza infection, even if the gut microbiota composition was not altered overall. L. paracasei-purified peptidoglycan partially recapitulated the protective phenotype observed with the entire bacteria. Collectively, our results demonstrate that oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 modulates lung immunity was associated with an improved control of influenza infection. These results further extend the beneficial role for certain lactobacilli to alleviate the burden of respiratory tract infections. PMID:28931041

  13. Bronchodilation improves endurance but not muscular efficiency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Hester; Postma, Dirkje S.; Grevink, Rene; Roemer, Willem; ten Hacken, Nick

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that bronchodilator treatment not only improves hyperinflation and endurance capacity but also muscular efficiency in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to demonstrate that tiotropium and salmeterol improve muscular efficiency compared with placebo.

  14. 75 FR 45623 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice Establishing Date for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... conferences regarding models and software related to wholesale electricity markets and planning: \\1\\ \\1\\ Notice of Technical Conference to Discuss Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved...

  15. Improving feeding and growth of HIV-positive children through nutrition training of frontline health workers in Tanga, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Mlunde, Linda B; Urassa, David P; Poudel, Krishna C; Ubuguyu, Omary S; Mkopi, Namala P; Leyna, Germana H; Kessy, Anna T; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-04-04

    Nutrition training can boost competence of health workers to improve children's feeding practices. In this way, child undernutrition can be ameliorated in general populations. However, evidence is lacking on efficacy of such interventions among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive children. We aimed to examine the efficacy of a nutrition training intervention to improve midlevel providers' (MLPs) nutrition knowledge and feeding practices and the nutrition statuses of HIV-positive children in Tanga, Tanzania. This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 16 out of 32 care and treatment centers (CTCs) in Tanga. Eight CTCs were assigned to the intervention arm and a total of 16 MLPs received nutrition training and provided nutrition counseling and care to caregivers of HIV-positive children. A total of 776 pairs of HIV-positive children and their caregivers were recruited, of whom 397 were in the intervention arm. Data were analyzed using instrumental variable random effects regression with panel data to examine the efficacy of the intervention on nutrition status through feeding practices. Mean nutrition knowledge scores were higher post-training compared to pre-training among MLPs (37.1 vs. 23.5, p children of the intervention arm. Feeding frequency and dietary diversity improved following the intervention and a 6 months follow-up (p feeding frequency and dietary diversity were associated with a 0.15-unit and a 0.16-unit respectively decrease in the child underweight (p children attending CTCs in Tanga, Tanzania. Caregivers' feeding practices also improved, which in turn led to a modest weight gain among HIV-positive children. To sustain weight gain, efforts should be made to also improve households' food security and caregivers' education in addition to inservice nutrition trainings. The protocol was registered on 15/02/2013, before the recruitment at ISRCTN trial registry with the trial registration number: ISRCTN65346364.

  16. Improving efficiency (optimization) of CIGS thin film solar cell using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jsc ,Voc , FF and Quantum efficiency (QE) decrease due to absorption of electrons of electrons to the surface of back connection and their participation in recomposition. Efficiency increases from 20.3399% to 21.3721% by increasing impurity density of absorbent layer and efficiency increases to 28.9266% and the quantum ...

  17. REHEARSAL Using Patient-Specific Simulation to Improve Endovascular Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Mathew; Doyle, Adam; Hislop, Sean; Glocker, Roan; Armstrong, Paul; Singh, Michael; Illig, Karl A

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether rehearsal using patient-specific information loaded onto an endovascular simulator prior to carotid stenting improves procedural efficiency and outcomes. Patients scheduled for carotid artery stenting who had adequate preoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging were considered for enrollment. After obtaining informed consent, patients were randomized to control versus rehearsal groups. Those in the rehearsal group had their CT scans loaded into an endovascular simulator (Angio Mentor) followed by case rehearsal by the attending on the simulator within 24 hours prior to the procedure; control patients underwent routine carotid stenting without rehearsal. Contrast usage, fluoroscopy time, and timing of procedural steps were recorded by a blinded observer during the actual case to determine benefit. Fifteen patients were enrolled, with 6 patients randomized to the rehearsal group and 9 to the control. All measures showed improvement in the rehearsal group: Mean contrast volume (59.2 vs 76.9 mL), fluoroscopy time (11.4 vs 19.4 minutes), overall operative time (31.9 vs 42.5 minutes), time to common carotid sheath placement (17.0 vs 23.3 minutes), and total carotid sheath dwell time (14.9 vs 19.2 minutes) were all lower (more favorable) in the rehearsal group. The study was terminated early due to the lack of simulator access, and all P values were thus greater than .05 due to the lack of power. No strokes or other adverse events occurred in either group. Case-specific simulator rehearsal using patient-specific imaging prior to carotid stenting is associated with numerically less contrast usage, operative time, and radiation exposure, although this study was underpowered.

  18. Modeling of Glass Making Processes for Improved Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. Seward III

    2003-03-31

    The overall goal of this project was to develop a high-temperature melt properties database with sufficient reliability to allow mathematical modeling of glass melting and forming processes for improved product quality, improved efficiency and lessened environmental impact. It was initiated by the United States glass industry through the NSF Industry/University Center for Glass Research (CGR) at Alfred University [1]. Because of their important commercial value, six different types/families of glass were studied: container, float, fiberglass (E- and wool-types), low-expansion borosilicate, and color TV panel glasses. CGR member companies supplied production-quality glass from all six families upon which we measured, as a function of temperature in the molten state, density, surface tension, viscosity, electrical resistivity, infrared transmittance (to determine high temperature radiative conductivity), non-Newtonian flow behavior, and oxygen partial pres sure. With CGR cost sharing, we also studied gas solubility and diffusivity in each of these glasses. Because knowledge of the compositional dependencies of melt viscosity and electrical resistivity are extremely important for glass melting furnace design and operation, these properties were studied more fully. Composition variations were statistically designed for all six types/families of glass. About 140 different glasses were then melted on a laboratory scale and their viscosity and electrical resistivity measured as a function of temperature. The measurements were completed in February 2003 and are reported on here. The next steps will be (1) to statistically analyze the compositional dependencies of viscosity and electrical resistivity and develop composition-property response surfaces, (2) submit all the data to CGR member companies to evaluate the usefulness in their models, and (3) publish the results in technical journals and most likely in book form.

  19. Subreflector extension for improved efficiencies in Cassegrain antennas - GTD/PO analysis. [Geometrical Theory of Diffraction/Physical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    1986-01-01

    Both offset and symmetric Cassegrain reflector antennas are used in satellite and ground communication systems. It is known that the subreflector diffraction can degrade the performance of these reflectors. A geometrical theory of diffraction/physical optics analysis technique is used to investigate the effects of the extended subreflector, beyond its optical rim, on the reflector efficiency and far-field patterns. Representative numerical results are shown for an offset Cassegrain reflector antenna with different feed illumination tapers and subreflector extensions. It is observed that for subreflector extensions as small as one wavelength, noticeable improvements in the overall efficiencies can be expected. Useful design data are generated for the efficiency curves and far-field patterns.

  20. Retrofit of ammonia plant for improving energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjeshahi, M.H.; Ghasemian Langeroudi, E.; Tahouni, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform a retrofit study of an ammonia plant, in purpose of improving energy efficiency. As a common practice, one can divide an ammonia plant into two parts: the hot-end and the cold-end. In the hot section, two different options are investigated that both lead to a threshold condition and achieve maximum energy saving. The first option covers only process-to-process energy integration, while the second option considers some modification in the convection section of the primary reformer through a new arrangement of the heating coils. Thus, a considerable reduction in cooling water, HP steam and fuel gas consumption is achieved. In the cold section, retrofit study is dominated by reducing the amount of shaft work or power consumption in the refrigeration system. Application of the Combined Pinch and Exergy Analysis revealed that part of the shaft work, which was originally being used, was inefficient and could have been avoided in a well-integrated design. Therefore, by proposing optimum refrigeration levels, reasonable saving (15%) in power consumption was observed without the need for new investment

  1. Improve the efficiency of PEMFC using neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Joo; Shim, Chulmuu

    2010-01-01

    The water management is one of the most critical issues for PEMFC commercialization. In order to make a proper scheme for water management, the information of water distribution and behavior is very important. But the visualization is difficult due to metallic coverage. Recently, neutron imaging has joined the canon of diagnostic methods for fuel cell research and is applied worldwide with qualitative and quantitative results. In this investigation, we prepared 3-parallel serpentine single PEMFC. The active area is 250 mm 2 and channel size is 1 Χ 1 mm, respectively. Distribution and transport of water in an operating PEMFC were observed as functions of flow directions and differential pressures between anode and cathodes. This investigation was performed at BST-2, Nest. The collimation ratio is 600 and neutron fluence of BST-2 is 7.2 Χ 10 6 n/s, respectively. Neutron image was captured by A-Si detector with 1 sec expsosure time. The PEMFC has different performances for each differential pressure and flow directions. When the neutron images are compared with operating conditions, the distribution and behavior of water are different. Total water fraction is increased and then decreases as the current density increases. This situation is similar trend for the flow directions. It is shown that neutron imaging technique is powerful tool to visualize the PEMFC and the water distribution and behavior of an operating PEMFC helps improve the efficiency of PEMFC

  2. Process Cycle Efficiency Improvement Through Lean: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Mohanram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is an applied methodology of scientific, objective techniques that cause work tasks in a process to be performed with a minimum of non-value adding activities resulting in greatly reduced wait time, queue time, move time, administrative time, and other delays. This work addresses the implementation of lean principles in a construction equipment company. The prime objective is to evolve and test several strategies to eliminate waste on the shop floor. This paper describes an application of value stream mapping (VSM. Consequently, the present and future states of value stream maps are constructed to improve the production process by identifying waste and its sources. A noticeable reduction in cycle time and increase in cycle efficiency is confirmed. The production flow was optimized thus minimizing several non-value added activities/times such as bottlenecking time, waiting time, material handling time, etc. This case study can be useful in developing a more generic approach to design lean environment.

  3. Electronic Equipment Proposal to Improve the Photovoltaic Systems Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mena, J. E.; Juárez Morán, L. A.; Díaz Reyes, J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports a new technique proposal to improve the photovoltaic systems. It was made to design and implement an electronic system that will detect, capture, and transfer the maximum power of the photovoltaic (PV) panel to optimize the supplied power of a solar panel. The electronic system works on base technical proposal of electrical sweeping of electric characteristics using capacitive impedance. The maximum power is transformed and the solar panel energy is sent to an automotive battery. This electronic system reduces the energy lost originated when the solar radiation level decreases or the PV panel temperature is increased. This electronic system tracks, captures, and stores the PV module's maximum power into a capacitor. After, a higher voltage level step-up circuit was designed to increase the voltage of the PV module's maximum power and then its current can be sent to a battery. The experimental results show that the developed electronic system has 95% efficiency. The measurement was made to 50 W, the electronic system works rightly with solar radiation rate from 100 to 1,000 W m - 2 and the PV panel temperature rate changed from 1 to 75°C. The main advantage of this electronic system compared with conventional methods is the elimination of microprocessors, computers, and sophisticated numerical approximations, and it does not need any small electrical signals to track the maximum power. The proposed method is simple, fast, and it is also cheaper.

  4. Improving efficiency assessments using additive data envelopment analysis models: an application to contrasting dairy farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Diomedes Soteriades

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying holistic indicators to assess dairy farm efficiency is essential for sustainable milk production. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been instrumental for the calculation of such indicators. However, ‘additive’ DEA models have been rarely used in dairy research. This study presented an additive model known as slacks-based measure (SBM of efficiency and its advantages over DEA models used in most past dairy studies. First, SBM incorporates undesirable outputs as actual outputs of the production process. Second, it identifies the main production factors causing inefficiency. Third, these factors can be ‘priced’ to estimate the cost of inefficiency. The value of SBM for efficiency analyses was demonstrated with a comparison of four contrasting dairy management systems in terms of technical and environmental efficiency. These systems were part of a multiple-year breeding and feeding systems experiment (two genetic lines: select vs. control; and two feeding strategies: high forage vs. low forage, where the latter involved a higher proportion of concentrated feeds where detailed data were collected to strict protocols. The select genetic herd was more technically and environmentally efficient than the control herd, regardless of feeding strategy. However, the efficiency performance of the select herd was more volatile from year to year than that of the control herd. Overall, technical and environmental efficiency were strongly and positively correlated, suggesting that when technically efficient, the four systems were also efficient in terms of undesirable output reduction. Detailed data such as those used in this study are increasingly becoming available for commercial herds through precision farming. Therefore, the methods presented in this study are growing in importance.

  5. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid B. Grigg

    2003-10-31

    The second annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies have been undertaken with the intention to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Many items presented in this report are applicable to other interest areas: e.g. gas injection and production, greenhouse gas sequestration, chemical flooding, reservoir damage, etc. Major areas of studies include reduction of CO{sub 2} mobility to improve conformance, determining and understanding injectivity changes in particular injectivity loses, and modeling process mechanisms determined in the first two areas. Interfacial tension (IFT) between a high-pressure, high-temperature CO{sub 2} and brine/surfactant and foam stability are used to assess and screen surfactant systems. In this work the effects of salinity, pressure, temperature, surfactant concentration, and the presence of oil on IFT and CO{sub 2} foam stability were determined on the surfactant (CD1045{trademark}). Temperature, pressure, and surfactant concentration effected both IFT and foam stability while oil destabilized the foam, but did not destroy it. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) can be used as a sacrificial and an enhancing agent. This work indicates that on Berea sandstone CLS concentration, brine salinity, and temperature are dominant affects on both adsorption and desorption and that adsorption is not totally reversible. Additionally, CLS adsorption was tested on five minerals common to oil reservoirs; it was found that CLS concentration, salinity, temperature, and mineral type had significant effects on adsorption. The adsorption density from most to least was: bentonite > kaolinite > dolomite > calcite > silica. This work demonstrates the extent of dissolution and precipitation from co-injection of CO{sub 2} and

  6. Performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraputra, Chuttchaval; Tiptipakorn, Supun

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators. The proposed regenerative brake recycles the energy loss of a dynamic brake and feeds into the grid while an elevator inverter is operating in the braking mode. According to field measurement of energy consumption, it reveals that the efficiency can be improved as much as 18%. The prototype of a regenerative brake 12 kW, 400V, 3ϕ is developed and tested on an elevator simulator. It is shown that it can transfer energy out of a DC capacitor before the dynamic brake kicks in. Further, an economic analysis is provided to carry out the payback period and the present worth equivalent to confirm economic feasibility.

  7. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  8. Improving the exergy efficiency of a cryogenic air separation unit as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, L.V. van der

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cryogenic air separation as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle. ► Considerable improvements in the exergy efficiency of a two-column design. ► Heating the separation products using heat of compression. ► Improving heat integration of the columns using heat-integrated distillation stages. - Abstract: The efficiency of a two-column cryogenic ASU (air separation unit) that is part of an IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) can be increased significantly by making better use of the heat of compression and by improving the heat integration of the distillation columns. The rational exergy efficiency of the ASU, which is defined as the desired increase in exergy content of the products divided by the amount of work that is added to the process, can be increased from 35% to over 70%. The exergy destruction per amount of feed is reduced with 1.6 kJ/mol air, corresponding to a 0.74% increase in the net electric efficiency of the IGCC. The efficiencies are expected to increase even further because the full potential of using heat-integrated distillation columns is not yet achieved.

  9. Comparison of four feed proteases for improvement of nutritive value of poultry feather meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Yu, S; Plumstead, P

    2012-01-01

    in the production of cost-effective feather by-products for use as feed and fertilizers. The current study examined 4 commercial feed proteases from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1, Aspergillus niger, and Serratia proteamaculans HY-3 used to hydrolyze chicken feather under different conditions...

  10. Improving infant and young child feeding practices through nutrition education with local resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Irmgard; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Reinbott, Anika; Krawinkel, Michael B; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Poor nutritional status in early infancy is associated with growth faltering and increased risk for morbidity. Main causes for undernutrition are a diet poor in quality and quantity, feeding practices, and hygiene. Programmes emphasize on affordable ways for improving diets for low-income families. Little is known about the period needed for behaviour changes. Longitudinal studies were conducted in Malawi and Cambodia looking at infant and young child feeding as well as growth of children below two years. At baseline 6-9 months old children and their caregivers participating in a nutrition education(NE) program of FAO were invited. The recruited children were matched by age (days) and sex with children living in an area without NE (control). Baseline data was collected prior the NE carried out by trained volunteers twice a month based on locally adopted teaching materials. The children and their caregivers were visited every three months for a total period of 12 months. At baseline the mean age of the children in Malawi was 227 days, all breastfed (n = 149). In Cambodia the mean age was 230 days and 90% of them were still breastfed (n = 96). The mean HAZ was -1.53 in Malawi and -0.87 in Cambodia. Minimum acceptable diet(MAD) was received by 42% and 34% of the children in the intervention areas of Malawi and Cambodia respectively. After three months MAD was achieved by 88% in Malawi and 45% in Cambodia. The rates in the control area in Malawi increased as well from 22% at baseline to 52% three months later. A similar change could be observed in Cambodia with 28% of the children receiving MAD at baseline and 38% three months later. Hygiene behaviour was one focus of the NE in both countries. In Malawi soap usage before feeding the child increased to 32% (p< 0.001), and before food preparation to 33% (both p < 0.001). Also washing before eating the food increased to 22%. In the control area no significant changes in terms of soap usage could be observed. In

  11. Genetic parameters for different measures of feed efficiency and related traits in boars of three pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    ) to 0.67 (LL) for BF, and from 0.13 (DD) to 0.19 (YY) for body conformation. Feeding behavior traits including DFI, number of visits to feeder per day (NVD), total time spent eating per day (TPD), feed intake rate (FR), feed intake per visit (FPV), and time spent eating per visit (TPV) were moderately...

  12. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus ( Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis leaf meal (ELM supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05 while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05. Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05 with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05 while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.

  13. Influence of Different Food Commodities on Life History, Feeding Efficiency, and Digestive Enzymatic Activity of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Bahram; Borzoui, Ehsan; Majd, Shadi; Mozaffar Mansouri, Seyed

    2017-10-01

    The life history, feeding indices, and digestive enzymatic activity of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were studied on flours of 10 commodities (artificial diet, barley, cowpea, maize, millet, rice, sorghum, soybean, triticale, and wheat) at 30 ± 1°C, relative humidity 75 ± 5% (12 h photophase). The maximum survival rate of immature stages was on artificial diet (75%), and the minimum rate was on soybean flour (30%). The duration of immature stages was significantly longer on soybean flour (33.3 ± 0.6 days) than on other tested flours of commodities. Record for the highest fecundity of this insect was on artificial diet (418.9 ± 9.1 eggs/female) and the lowest was on soybean flour (121.5 ± 7.0 eggs/female). The results showed that fourth instar of T. castaneum reared on soybean flour had the lowest relative growth rate (RGR; 0.141 ± 0.011 mg/mg/d) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (34.59 ± 0.009%). The amylolytic activity of fourth instar was the highest when larvae were fed on barley flour (8.97 ± 0.25 mU/min/larva) and the lowest when they were fed on wheat flour (1.64 ± 0.23 mU/min/larva). Larvae exhibited a single strong band of amylolytic activity among different flours of commodities; the lowest and highest intensity was for larvae fed on wheat and barley flours, respectively. The zymogram of the general protease activity showed four main bands, which the first band was unique for triticale- and artificial diet-fed larvae. The results of this study indicated that soybean flour was the most unsuitable food for feeding and development of T. castaneum. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. A reduced feed cost (N)/Kg weight gain, highest revenueand least cost-benefit rato were obtained from reduced from birds on D3. Keywords: Broiler chicks, feed restriction, Growth performance, Economy of production. Animal Research International ...

  15. The effect of feeding dairy heifers diets with and without supplemental phosphorus on growth, reproductive efficiency, health, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K

    2011-12-01

    The phosphorus requirements for dairy heifers (0.20-0.35%) and endogenous concentrations (0.20-35%) of P in feeds fed to dairy heifers are similar, suggesting that the need for supplemental P in dairy heifer diets may be minimal. Because long-term P feeding studies on dairy heifers are unavailable, 183 Holstein heifers and 182 backcross Holstein × Jersey heifers were offered diets with (SP=0.40% of dry matter) and without (NP=0.30% of dry matter) supplemental P from 4 to 22 mo of age in a replicated pen design. Forty-eight pens of 8 heifers each were split evenly by breed and treatment group. Heifers were evaluated for body weight (BW), external bone/frame growth, dystocia, calf BW, reproductive efficiency, and first-lactation performance. Growth phase data were analyzed using pen-based statistical models, and lactation data were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, heifer pen, sire, sire birth year, and days in milk. Heifers fed NP had similar average daily gain from 170 to 410 and from 410 to 650 d of age compared with heifers fed SP. At 22 mo of age, heifers fed NP did not differ in BW, hip height, hip width, body length, heart girth, cannon bone circumference, or pelvic area compared with heifers fed SP. Blood P concentrations between heifers fed SP or NP did not differ at 8 or 18 mo of age, and heifers fed SP excreted more P (29.2 vs. 24.2g/d) than heifers fed NP. As heifers, services per conception and age at pregnancy were not different between heifers fed NP or SP. At parturition, heifers fed NP or SP had similar dystocia scores and calves were similar in BW. Complete first-lactation data (305 d) were available for 333 primiparous cows, and cows fed NP as heifers produced similar milk, fat, and protein compared with cows fed SP as heifers. Days open, days in milk at first breeding, and services per conception also were similar for primiparous cows fed NP or SP as heifers. No growth, reproductive, or lactation

  16. Improving smallholder cattle reproductive efficiency in Cambodia to address expanding regional beef demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, L; Ashley, K; Young, J R; Suon, S; Thomson, P C; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with cattle reproductive output in rural smallholder farms in Cambodia in order to determine the main causes of reproductive failure and design efficient interventions for improvement. The majority of the nation's beef is produced on smallholder farms where productivity is constrained by poor animal reproductivity reflected in the recent livestock population decline of approximately 13 % from 2009 to 2013. Farmers (n = 240) from 16 villages from five provinces were surveyed in mid-2015 to determine their baseline knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) associated with cattle reproduction. In addition, 16 case studies from three of these provinces were conducted to provide a more detailed assessment of current cattle reproductive husbandry practices. In order to assess the reproductive impact of previously implemented interventions, an endpoint KAP survey and longitudinal health and husbandry study from three Cambodian provinces conducted between 2008 and 2013 were also analysed. Three multivariable prediction models (two KAP and one longitudinal) identified the following significant factors associated with the reproductive outcomes 'number of calves born' or probability that cows 'gave birth': target feeding (P = 0.074), growing vegetables (P = 0.005), attitudes towards cattle vaccination (P = 0.010), improving bull selection (P = 0.032), local breed use (P = 0.005), number of joining attempts (P meat demand in South-East Asia and China.

  17. Maternal feeding with walnuts (Juglans regia improves learning and memory in their adult pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Shekaari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Walnut (Juglans Regia is a domestic fruit of Iran. Walnut kernel (WK has many beneficial constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamin E. Scientific studies have shown that fatty acids and vitamin E can modulate learning and memory processes. The aim of the present work was to study effects of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation on learning and memory in adult rat offsprings. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: control (fed with ordinary food, 20 g daily, gestation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during pregnancy, and gestation and lactation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during gestation and lactation. Morris water maze test was performed for their adult offsprings. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in learning and memory of rat offsprings between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These data may indicate that feeding mothers with WK results in improvement in learning and memory of their offsprings.

  18. Mutation breeding in sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) for improving plant as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    1998-01-01

    Mutation breeding using gamma irradiation in sorghum was aimed at improving the quality and production of sorghum plant as ruminant feed. Seeds of local sorghum variety Keris with moisture of about 14% were irradiated with gamma rays from Cobalt-60 source using the dose levels up to 0.5 kgy. The MI plant were grown in Pasar Jumat, the M2 and M3 were grown in Citayam experimental station. The M2 plants were harvested 40 days after sowing by cutting plants 20 cm above ground surface. Two weeks later observations for the ability of plants to produce new buds (buds variable). The plants green products in green products in from of their dry weight (product variable) were collected 40 days after harvesting and drying process in oven at 105 0 C for 24 hours. Plant selections with intensity of 20% were done for the bud variable among samples of M2 plants. Selection responses in the M3 were found to vary from the lowest at 0.5 kgy population (R s = 0.8507). The share of genetic factors to selection responses in bud variable varied from 7.25% at 0,5 kgy population to 22.35% at 0.3 kgy population. Selection for bud variable gave directly impact in increasing product variable in the M3. (author)

  19. How to improve the hygienic quality of forages for horse feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Virginie; Garon, David; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Lanier, Caroline; Bouchart, Valérie; Gallard, Yves; Blanchet, Benoît; Diquélou, Sylvain; Personeni, Emmanuelle; Ourry, Alain

    2012-03-15

    Improving the hygienic quality of forages for horse nutrition seems to be a reasonable target for decreasing the prevalence of pulmonary diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of different agricultural practices on the main aero-allergens contained in forages, including breathable dust, fungi, mycotoxins and pollens. Results showed that the late harvest of hay, a second crop or a haylage production provides a good alternative to increase hygienic quality by reducing fungi contamination and breathable dust content. Barn drying of hay, while having no effect on breathable dust, similarly reduced fungi contamination. In contrast, when hay was harvested at a lower dry mass content (750 g DM kg⁻¹ versus 850 g DM kg⁻¹), both breathable dust and fungi contaminations were increased, which could at least be reversed by adding propionic acid just before baling. Zearalenone was detected in different hays, and even in one case, in breathable dust. Overall, our data suggest that different approaches can be used to increase forage hygienic quality for horse feeding and thus reduce their exposure to factors involved in equine pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Potential energy efficiency improvements in Swedish energy intensive industries using an Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2014-01-01

    Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes (EEOS) as suggested in the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) could help remove barriers to energy efficiency. However, despite the fact that such schemes have been successfully implemented and proven cost-effective in several Member States, not all countries are convinced of their potential benefits. In this paper, we investigate the policy instruments that Sweden has introduced or is planning to introduce for achieving increased industrial efficiency unde...

  1. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  2. Intensive nutrition education with or without supplementary feeding improves the nutritional status of moderately-malnourished children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S K; Fuchs, G J; Mahmud, Zeba; Ara, Gulshan; Islam, Sumaya; Shafique, Sohana; Akter, Syeda Sharmin; Chakraborty, Barnali

    2005-12-01

    This prospective randomized trial was carried out to test the efficacy of a specific intervention for reducing the extent of their malnutrition and to change behaviour of mothers relating to child-feeding practices, care-giving, and health-seeking practices under the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP). The study was conducted in rural Bangladesh among 282 moderately-malnourished (weight-for-age between 61% and 75% of median of the National Center for Health Statistics standard) children aged 6-24 months. Mothers of the first intervention group received intensive nutrition education (INE group) twice a week for three months. The second intervention group received the same nutrition education, and their children received additional supplementary feeding (INE+SF group). The comparison group received nutrition education from the community nutrition promoters twice a month according to the standard routine service of BINP. The children were observed for a further six months. After three months of interventions, a significantly higher proportion of children in the INE and INE+SF groups improved (37% and 47% respectively) from moderate to mild or normal nutrition compared to the comparison group (18%) (p nutritional status of children in the intervention groups improved further from moderate to mild or normal nutrition compared to the comparison group (59% and 86% vs 30%, p nutrition education and supplementation given were highly effective, more children improved from moderate malnutrition to mild or normal nutritional status despite a higher incidence of morbidity. The frequency of child feeding and home-based complementary feeding improved significantly (p nutrition education significantly improves the status of moderately-malnourished children with or without supplementary feeding.

  3. THE IMPACTS OF FASTING PERIODS ON FOOD INTAKE, GROWTH RATE, COMPENSATORY GROWTH, AND EFFICIENCY OF FEED UTILIZATION IN BLUE TILAPIA (Oreochromis aureus REARED IN BRACKISH WATER PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priadi Setyawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus has known as euryhaline species refers to wide range of salinity tolerance. The pure population or hybrid with other strain of tilapia can be a good candidate in marginal coastal land use. Tilapia is the most important aquaculture species in Indonesia. Refers to FAO 2010, Indonesia is the third biggest of tilapia production after China and Egypt. One of the main problems in aquaculture is their feed as the major cost in fish farming. Various techniques had carried out to reduce of feed cost such as improving fish quality, sex reversal and feed management. This research aimed to determine of compensatory growth in tilapia as one technique in feed management. Fry obtained from natural spawning in freshwater pond. Acclimatization in 20 ppt made in aquarium for 4 days after one month reared in hapas. Fish reared in 2 m x 1 m hapas with five treatments and three replications. This research had conducted at brackish water pond in Yogyakarta. The treatments is A: one day fasting and six days feeding (1/6, B: 2/5, C: 3/4, D: 4/3 and E is control. Results showed that the biggest of average weight gain is treatment of E (68.36 g followed by A (66.38 g, B (62.44 g, C (43.56 g, and D (27.30 g respectively. One-way ANOVAs analysis with 95% of interval confidences continued with Tukey’s Pairwaise comparison showed that nothing significant different between E, A, and B. The biggest of daily growth rate and specific growth rate is E (0.75 g/day and 4.68 %bw/day followed by A (0.73 g/day and 4.65 %bw/day; B (0.69 g/day and 4.58 %bw/day; C (0.48 g/day and 4.18% bw/day and D (0.29 g/day and 3.65% bw/day respectively. Survival rate of A is 73.00% followed by E. 72.00%, C. 71.00%, D. 69.69%, and B. 67.00% respectively. Feed conversion ratio of D is 0.83 followed by C (0.87, B (0.98, A (1.16, and E (1.41. Food efficiency ratio of D is 127.06% followed by C (118.75%, B (106.09%, A (88.87%, and E (73.38%. These

  4. A case report on a patient suffering from recurrent vomiting episodes, whose condition improved markedly during pregnancy and breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlsson Bodil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The normal physiology of the gastrointestinal tract has been only cursorily examined. Consequently, the pathophysiology of disturbances of the gastrointestinal functions is poorly known. Recurrent vomiting is one of many functional conditions for which it is difficult to find an explanation and to treat. In the following a case is described of a patient presenting with recurrent vomiting episodes, whose condition improved spontaneously during pregnancy and breast feeding. Case presentation A woman with recurrent vomiting episodes over several years was examined by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. This showed a non-peristaltic ventricle. Treatment with the procinetic drug cisapride (Prepulsid® improved the peristalsis and reduced the symptoms. During pregnancy and breast feeding, she was free of symptoms, in spite of having discontinued her medication with cisapride (Prepulsid®. Conclusion The fact that the patient improved during pregnancy and breast feeding, would seem to indicate the involvement of factors in the physiology of pregnancy and breast feeding that are of importance for gastric motility. This deserves further investigation.

  5. Multitargeted Feeding Strategies Improve Nutrition Outcome and Are Associated With Reduced Pneumonia in a Level 1 Trauma Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny C; Williams, George W; Kozar, Rosemary A; Kao, Lillian S; Mueck, Krislynn M; Emerald, Andrew D; Villegas, Natacha C; Moore, Laura J

    2017-03-01

    Factors impeding delivery of adequate enteral nutrition (EN) to trauma patients include delayed EN initiation, frequent surgeries and procedures, and postoperative ileus. We employed 3 feeding strategies to optimize EN delivery: (1) early EN initiation, (2) preoperative no nil per os feeding protocol, and (3) a catch-up feeding protocol. This study compared nutrition adequacy and clinical outcomes before and after implementation of these feeding strategies. All trauma patients aged ≥18 years requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 days and receiving EN were included. Patients who sustained nonsurvivable injuries, received parenteral nutrition, or were readmitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were excluded. EN data were collected until patients received an oral diet or were discharged from the ICU. The improvement was quantified by comparing nutrition adequacy and outcomes between April 2014-May 2015 (intervention) and May 2012-June 2013 (baseline). The intervention group (n = 118) received significantly more calories (94% vs 75%, P feeding strategies resulted in a significant increase in nutrition adequacy and a significant reduction in pneumonia.

  6. A Pacifier-Activated Music Player With Mother’s Voice Improves Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorna, Olena D.; Slaughter, James C.; Wang, Lulu; Stark, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We conducted a randomized trial to test the hypothesis that mother’s voice played through a pacifier-activated music player (PAM) during nonnutritive sucking would improve the development of sucking ability and promote more effective oral feeding in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants between 34 0/7 and 35 6/7 weeks’ postmenstrual age, including those with brain injury, who were taking at least half their feedings enterally and less than half orally, were randomly assigned to receive 5 daily 15-minute sessions of either PAM with mother’s recorded voice or no PAM, along with routine nonnutritive sucking and maternal care in both groups. Assignment was masked to the clinical team. RESULTS: Ninety-four infants (46 and 48 in the PAM intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. The intervention group had significantly increased oral feeding rate (2.0 vs 0.9 mL/min, P < .001), oral volume intake (91.1 vs 48.1 mL/kg/d, P = .001), oral feeds/day (6.5 vs 4.0, P < .001), and faster time-to-full oral feedings (31 vs 38 d, P = .04) compared with controls. Weight gain and cortisol levels during the 5-day protocol were not different between groups. Average hospital stays were 20% shorter in the PAM group, but the difference was not significant (P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: A PAM using mother’s voice improves oral feeding skills in preterm infants without adverse effects on hormonal stress or growth. PMID:24534413

  7. Quasi-Resonant Absorption for Quantum Efficiency Improvement in Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quasi-resonant absorption has been demonstrated to enhance the quantum efficiency of devices across the spectrum, but specifically it is a challenge in the UV...

  8. An Improved, Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Bisphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of bisphenols is described by condensation of substituted phenols with corresponding cyclic ketones in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a catalyst in extremely high purity and yields.

  9. Improvement in light-extraction efficiency of light emitting diode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) to obtain the microlenses. Dimension of these microlenses was measured to be the order of 1–2 μ m. The effect of various microlens parameters such as diameter and area fraction on light-extraction efficiency was systematically studied.

  10. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  11. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zhengwen Zeng; Baojun Bai; Yi Liu

    2004-09-27

    The third annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies were designed to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Chapter 1 describes the behavior at low concentrations of the surfactant Chaser International CD1045{trademark} (CD) versus different salinity, pressure and temperature. Results of studies on the effects of pH and polymer (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide?HPAM) and CO{sub 2} foam stability after adsorption in the core are also reported. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) transport mechanisms through sandstone, description of the adsorption of CD and CD/CLS onto three porous media (sandstone, limestone and dolomite) and five minerals, and the effect of adsorption on foam stability are also reported. In Chapter 2, the adsorption kinetics of CLS in porous Berea sandstone and non-porous minerals are compared by monitoring adsorption density change with time. Results show that adsorption requires a much longer time for the porous versus non-porous medium. CLS adsorption onto sandstone can be divided into three regions: adsorption controlled by dispersion, adsorption controlled by diffusion and adsorption equilibrium. NaI tracer used to characterize the sandstone had similar trends to earlier results for the CLS desorption process, suggesting a dual porosity model to simulate flow through Berea sandstone. The kinetics and equilibrium test for CD adsorption onto five non-porous minerals and three porous media are reported in Chapter 3. CD adsorption and desorption onto non-porous minerals can be established in less than one hour with adsorption densities ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg of CD per g of mineral in decreasing order of montmorillonite, dolomite, kaolinite, silica and calcite. The surfactant adsorption onto three porous media takes

  12. Novel feed including bioactive compounds from winery wastes improved broilers' redox status in blood and tissues of vital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makri, Sotiria; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Stagos, Dimitrios; Chamokeridou, Theodora; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Mpesios, Anastasios; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Goulas, Panagiotis; Komiotis, Dimitrios; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there is a great interest in the production of animal feed with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to examine the potential antioxidant effects of a feed supplemented with grape pomace (GP), a winery by-product with high environmental load, in chickens. Broilers of 15 days post birth were separated into two groups fed either with standard diet or with diet supplemented with GP for 35 days. Blood and tissues collections were performed after feeding for 15 and 35 days with the experimental diet (i.e. at 30 and 50 days post birth). Free radical toxicity markers, namely thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and rate of H 2 O 2 decomposition were determined in blood and tissues of vital organs. The results indicated that feed supplemented with GP decreased oxidative stress-induced toxic effects and improved chickens' redox status, and so it may also improve their wellness and productivity. On the other hand, this exploitation of GP may solve problems of environmental pollution in areas with wineries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Predictive control strategy of a gas turbine for improvement of combined cycle power plant dynamic performance and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar; Wang, Jihong; Khalil, Ashraf; Limhabrash, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy for implementing model predictive control (MPC) to a large gas turbine power plant as a part of our research progress in order to improve plant thermal efficiency and load-frequency control performance. A generalized state space model for a large gas turbine covering the whole steady operational range is designed according to subspace identification method with closed loop data as input to the identification algorithm. Then the model is used in developing a MPC and integrated into the plant existing control strategy. The strategy principle is based on feeding the reference signals of the pilot valve, natural gas valve, and the compressor pressure ratio controller with the optimized decisions given by the MPC instead of direct application of the control signals. If the set points for the compressor controller and turbine valves are sent in a timely manner, there will be more kinetic energy in the plant to release faster responses on the output and the overall system efficiency is improved. Simulation results have illustrated the feasibility of the proposed application that has achieved significant improvement in the frequency variations and load following capability which are also translated to be improvements in the overall combined cycle thermal efficiency of around 1.1 % compared to the existing one.

  14. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    European partners contributed to the attempt to develop the energy flow calculation model designed for said spa into a numerical planning tool with broad applicability to other technical boundary conditions. This aim could not yet be fully achieved with the given means, by virtue of the fact that huge differences exist among spas, regarding technical design (sometimes accumulations of ad-hoc solutions to past technical problems) as well as characteristic energy demand of the various functional units of the investigated facilities. What could be achieved, though, was a better understanding how the communication between clients and consultants shall be conducted and what steps have to be taken in order to reach the original goal in a subsequent project. Furthermore, it was the ideational aim of our work to set up a network of established players, capable of influencing national developments, and make it a proponent of the envisaged improvements in their home countries and beyond. Among the recommended measures to improve on the energy management of existing thermal spas, on the one hand, there are those that only specialized knowledge can reveal or the proper application of which only painstaking monitoring and calculation can ascertain and which, therefore, will not easily be at the hand of many planners. These include, for example, combining geothermal heat with advanced heating technology (gas condensing boiler, cogeneration plant) for peak load conditions, deciding on the kind of advanced technology to be used (condensing boiler or cogeneration plus heat pump), making consistent said technology with the temperature control system (e.g. substitution of bypass design of heat exchanger control by volume flow control); introducing solar energy, in particular, has to be carefully designed. On the other hand, there are some improvements to be called for, which are meaningful and applicable even as belated additions, and in cases would, on top of this, be obvious to most non

  15. An international effort to improve feed efficiency and reduce methane emissions in dairy cows through genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing international demand for high quality dairy and meat products as well as greater awareness of climate change has put pressure on the livestock industry to deliver quality products while reducing its environmental impact. Enteric methane from cattle is a major contributor to greenhouse gas...

  16. The Multiple Benefits of Measures to Improve Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel; Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    Understanding the barriers to, and enablers for, energy efficiency requires targeted information and analysis. This report is a summary of four detailed studies providing new insights on how to promote efficiency in selected priority areas. It complements initiatives such as the so-called energy...... in a scenario where the price of carbon dioxide equivalents was USD 70 per tonne. • In absolute terms, the energy supply and industry sectors show the highest reductions in greenhouse gas emissions attributable to energy efficiency. In relative terms, it is the transport sector that shows the highest levels...... of emission reductions. • The three mitigation scenarios considered suggest that the higher the carbon price, the greater the energy savings, and the larger the economic growth and employment benefits. • While G20 countries account for about 90 percent of total emission reductions in the three mitigation...

  17. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  18. Improving Energy Efficiency in Industrial Solutions – Walk the Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Dieter; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Holst, Jens-Christian

    2011-01-01

    and removing sulfur dioxide and other acidic gas components present in the off-gas stream by using dry absorbents and additional electrical power. Advantage in the impact category of acidification potential (by desulfurization) is a trade-off to disadvantages in global warming and resource depletion potential......This paper describes the outline of the energy efficiency and environmental care policy and management at Siemens Industry Solutions Division. This environmental policy coherently embraces strategic planning, eco-design of energy-efficient industrial processes and solutions, design evaluation...

  19. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  20. Improvement of efficiency droop in resonance tunneling LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaowang; Wang, Wang N.; Shields, Philip A.; Denchitcharoen, Somyod; Causa, Federica; Allsopp, Duncan E. W.

    2008-08-01

    A resonance tunnelling LED structure having a high efficiency, low droop and negligible wavelength shift with current is reported in this study. The LED structure contains a thick InGaN bottom spacer between an n-GaN contact layer and a multiple quantum well (MQW) active region, and a thin InGaN top spacer between the MQW and an AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL). The observed high efficiency and negligible wavelength shift with applied current are attributed to the thick InGaN bottom spacer that nucleates V-pits and acts as a strain control layer for the MQW. The thick InGaN layer also provides an electron reservoir for efficient electron tunnelling injection into the MQW and reduces the electropotential difference between the n-emitter and the p-emitter, to suppress current leakage at high driving current and reduce droop. The top InGaN spacer was designed to act as a magnesium back-diffusion barrier and strain relief layer from EBL so as to obtain high efficiency.

  1. Innovative financing for energy-efficiency improvements. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepper, M.; Schwartz, H.K.; Feder, J.M.; Smith, D.C.; Green, R.H.; Williams, J.; Sherman, J.L.; Carroll, M.

    1982-01-01

    The use of utility-assisted financing, tax-exempt financing, bank financing, leasing, and joint venture financing to promote energy efficiency investments for each of three different categories of buildings (multifamily, commercial, and industrial) is discussed in separate chapters. (MCW)

  2. Improving Farmers' Efficiency in Rice Production In Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the effects of extension services on farmers' efficiency and productivity in rice production in Kano State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from 126 rice farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Stochastic production frontier function was estimated to ascertain the effects of ...

  3. Shuttle vector system for Methanococcus maripaludis with improved transformation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Alison D; Smith, Sarah E; Chong, James P J

    2011-04-01

    We have identified an open reading frame and DNA element that are sufficient to maintain shuttle vectors in Methanococcus maripaludis. Strain S0001, containing ORF1 from pURB500 integrated into the M. maripaludis genome, supports a significantly smaller shuttle vector, pAW42, and a 7,000-fold increase in transformation efficiency for pURB500-based vectors.

  4. Improving the efficiency of deconvolution algorithms for sound source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lylloff, Oliver Ackermann; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    of the unknown acoustic source distribution and the beamformer's response to a point source, i.e., point-spread function. A significant limitation of deconvolution is, however, an additional computational effort compared to beamforming. In this paper, computationally efficient deconvolution algorithms...

  5. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  6. Policies for improving energy efficiency in the European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    According to EC forecasts, if energy efficiency could be increased 1% annually until 2010, two-thirds of the potential energy saving in the EU could be achieved. This would comply with 40% of the EU's Kyoto obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% on the 1990 level by 2010-12, by cutting

  7. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Heating and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    FINAL REPORT Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Heating and Air Conditioning Efficiency ESTCP Project EW-201013 NOVEMBER 2016 Ronald...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 10-C-0027-A Air Conditioning...This project involved a field demonstration of subsurface thermal energy storage for improving the geothermal heat pump air conditioning efficiency

  8. Improved method of degassing of feed water at Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, G.K.; Agrawal, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Kota) processes 450 MT/hr of feed water as the source of deuterium using water/hydrogen sulphide exchange process for the production of heavy water. Plant design has limited the ingress of dissolved oxygen in feed water to 0.2 ppm. However, even this low limit on dissolved oxygen has been found unacceptable during plant operation as over an operational period of 3-4 years accumulation of sulphur due to oxidation of hydrogen sulphide on exchange tower trays poses major operational problems. This paper discusses the results of nitrogen injection used for reducing the ingress of dissolved oxygen in the feed water system of the plant. (author)

  9. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter...... the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake...

  10. Feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows: Repeatability, variation in digestion and metabolism of energy and nitrogen, and ruminal methanogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Crump, P M; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study repeatability and sources of variation in feed conversion efficiency [FCE, milk kg/kg dry matter intake (DMI)] of lactating cows in mid to late lactation. Trials 1 and 2 used 16 cows (106 to 368 d in milk) grouped in 8 pairs of 1 high- and 1 low-FCE cow less than 16 d in milk apart. Trial 1 determined the repeatability of FCE during a 12-wk period. Trial 2 quantified the digestive and metabolic partitioning of energy and N with a 3-d total fecal and urine collection and measurement of CH4 and CO2 emission. Trial 3 studied selected ruminal methanogens in 2 pairs of cows fitted with rumen cannulas. Cows received a single diet including 28% corn silage, 27% alfalfa silage, 17% crude protein, and 28% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). In trial 1, mean FCE remained repeatedly different and averaged 1.83 and 1.03 for high- and low-FCE cows, respectively. In trial 2, high-FCE cows consumed 21% more DMI, produced 98% more fat- and protein-corrected milk, excreted 42% less manure per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, but emitted the same daily amount of CH4 and CO2 compared with low-FCE cows. Percentage of gross energy intake lost in feces was higher (28.6 vs. 25.9%), but urinary (2.76 vs. 3.40%) and CH4 (5.23 vs. 6.99%) losses were lower in high- than low-FCE cows. Furthermore, high-FCE cows partitioned 15% more of gross energy intake toward net energy for maintenance, body gain, and lactation (37.5 vs. 32.6%) than low-FCE cows. Lower metabolic efficiency and greater heat loss in low-FCE cows might have been associated in part with greater energy demand for immune function related to subclinical mastitis, as somatic cell count was 3.8 fold greater in low- than high-FCE cows. As a percentage of N intake, high-FCE cows tended to have greater fecal N (32.4 vs. 30.3%) and had lower urinary N (32.2 vs. 41.7%) and greater milk N (30.3 vs. 19.1%) than low-FCE cows. In trial 3, Methanobrevibacter spp. strain AbM4 was less prevalent in

  11. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage

    2014-01-01

    implied porcine RFI is regulated by multiple biological mechanisms, although the metabolic processes might be the most important. Olfactory transduction pathway controlling the perception of feed via smell, insulin pathway controlling food intake might be important pathways for RFI. Furthermore, our study....... Metabolic pathway was significantly associated with both RFIs. Other biological pathways regulating phagosome, tight junctions, olfactory transduction, and insulin secretion were significantly associated with both RFI traits when relaxed threshold for cut-off p-value was used (p ≤ 0.05). These results...

  12. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. TeamSTEPPS Improves Operating Room Efficiency and Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weld, Lancaster R; Stringer, Matthew T; Ebertowski, James S; Baumgartner, Timothy S; Kasprenski, Matthew C; Kelley, Jeremy C; Cho, Doug S; Tieva, Erwin A; Novak, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of TeamSTEPPS on operating room efficiency and patient safety. TeamSTEPPS consisted of briefings attended by all health care personnel assigned to the specific operating room to discuss issues unique to each case scheduled for that day. The operative times, on-time start rates, and turnover times of all cases performed by the urology service during the initial year with TeamSTEPPS were compared to the prior year. Patient safety issues identified during postoperative briefings were analyzed. The mean case time was 12.7 minutes less with TeamSTEPPS (P safety issues declined from an initial rate of 16% to 6% at midyear and remained stable (P operating room efficiency and diminished patient safety issues in the operating room. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Improving efficiencies of irrigation and nitrogen uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Three years of field studies and lysimeter experiments on irrigated wheat had the objective of finding ways of managing irrigation and N fertilization to minimize losses and reduce contamination of groundwater. Applied N had significant positive effects on crop-water consumptive use. The highest N losses occurred during early growth. Irrigation had little effect on N loss when it was practiced efficiently. Under the prevailing conditions, it is recommended that no N be applied to wheat at planting, in order to limit N losses by leaching caused by the high precipitation that usually occurs during early development when crop-N requirements are small. No more than 120 kg N ha -1 should be applied in total to minimize groundwater pollution and maximize N-uptake efficiency and economic returns. Also, for economic and environmental reasons, irrigation should be limited to 80% of the total requirement and to depths of 40 to 60 mm. (author)

  15. Trust As a Means of Improving Corporate Governance and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Chami; Connel Fullenkamp

    2002-01-01

    Agency problems within the firm are a significant hindrance to efficiency. We propose trust between coworkers as a superior alternative to the standard tools used to mitigate agency problems: increased monitoring and incentive-based pay. We show how trust induces employees to work harder, relative to those at firms that use the standard tools. In addition, we show that employees at trusting firms have higher job satisfaction, and that these firms enjoy lower labor cost and higher profits. Fin...

  16. Effect of fiber-based creep feed on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency in nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Knight, M H; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Six Angus crossbred cow-calf pairs (653 +/- 35 kg and 157 +/- 10 kg initial BW for cows and calves, respectively) were used to evaluate the influence of a fiber-based creep feed on intake, ruminal fermentation, digestion characteristics, and microbial efficiency in nursing beef calves. Cow-calf pairs were stratified by calf age and assigned randomly to one of two treatments: control (no supplement) or supplemented. Supplemented calves received 0.9 kg of a 49% soy hulls, 44% wheat middlings, 6% molasses, and 1% limestone supplement (DM basis) daily. All calves were cannulated in the rumen and duodenum and given ad libitum access to chopped brome hay (Bromus inermus L; 7.43% CP, 40.96% ADF, and 63.99% NDF; DM basis). Supplementation was initiated on May 1 (88 +/- 10.3 d calf age). Three sampling periods were conducted throughout the study (June 14 to 25, July 5 to 16, and August 9 to 20). Supplement and forage were offered at 0800 daily. Total, hay, and milk OM intakes of nursing calves were not affected by supplementation (2,014 vs. 2,328 +/- 288.8, 1,486 vs. 1,029 +/- 3,06.9, and 528 vs. 575 +/- 87.0 g/d, respectively). Milk OM intake was less (P 0.40) total-tract OM digestibility during June and August; however, during July, total-tract OM digestibility was lower (P = 0.03) for the control calves. Ruminal ammonia concentration, total VFA, and butyrate molar proportion increased (P effects on OM intake, total-tract OM digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics in nursing beef calves.

  17. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  18. The effectiveness of targeted feeding assistance to improve the nutritional intake of elderly dysphagic patients in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L; Cotter, D; Hickson, M

    2008-12-01

    Dysphagic older patients are prescribed texture modified food or fluids as treatment. The present study aimed to determine whether targeted feeding assistance using trained volunteers increased oral intake in elderly dysphagic patients. Individualized feeding assistance was given to patients who were diagnosed with dysphagia by a speech and language therapist. Data were collected between 08.00 h and 16.00 h and compared with previously collected data from dysphagic patients who received no targeted feeding assistance. The group with targeted assistance (n = 16) had higher intakes of energy and protein from both meals and supplements combined compared to the controls (n = 30); mean difference = 2327 kJ (554 kcal) (95% CI = 1294-3360 kJ; P nutritional supplements only, median difference = 1205 kJ (287 kcal) (95% CI = 613-1273 kJ; P = 0.0002) and 15 g protein (95% CI 6.9-15 g; P Nutritional intake can be improved by targeted feeding assistance in hospitalized elderly dysphagic patients on texture modified diets.

  19. Method of improving photoelectric efficiency for laser power beaming based on photovoltaic cell layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beibei; Li, Xiaojiang

    2017-02-01

    In accordance with the high impact of the uneven distribution of laser beam power on the photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic cell (PV) array, a method based on PV layout optimization is proposed to improve the photovoltaic efficiency. First of all, a mathematical model of series-parallel PV array is built, and by analyzing the influencing factors on photovoltaic efficiency, the idea and scheme to improve the photovoltaic efficiency based on PV layout optimization is provided; then, the MATLAB/Simulink simulation tool is used to simulate the effects of improving photoelectric efficiency. The simulation results show that compared to the traditional PV array, the optimized PV array can obtain higher photovoltaic efficiency, and compared to the situation with uneven temperature distribution, the array efficiency has higher efficiency under even temperature distribution.

  20. Using Hybrid Algorithm to Improve Intrusion Detection in Multi Layer Feed Forward Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Loye Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The need for detecting malicious behavior on a computer networks continued to be important to maintaining a safe and secure environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of multilayer feed forward neural network architecture to the ability of detecting abnormal behavior in networks. This involved building, training, and…

  1. Extrusion-cooking to improve the animal feed quality of broad beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicki, L.; Wojcik, S.; Plaur, K.; Zuilichem, van D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extrusion-cooking of broad beans with a single-screw extruder has been investigated. Attention was focused on process requirements as well as on the nutritional effects of extrusion-cooked broad beans in a chicken feed formulation. The optimal thermal process conditions required for a product of

  2. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine ...

  3. Tools for improving feeding strategies in a SBR with several species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Pedro; Ramírez Cabrera, Héctor; Rodríguez, Julio C

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes feeding strategies in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) with the objective of reaching a given (low) substrate level as quickly as possible for a given volume of water. Inside the SBR, several species compete for a single substrate, which leads to a minimal time control problem in which the control variable is the feeding rate. Following Gajardo et al. (2008) SIAM J Control Optim 47(6):2827-2856, we allow the control variable to be a bounded measurable function of time combined with possible impulses associated with instantaneous dilutions. For this problem, the extremal trajectories of the singular arc type are characterized as the strategies used to maintain the substrate at a constant level. Since this optimization problem is difficult to solve, this characterization provides a valuable tool for investigating the optimality of various feeding strategies. Our aim is thus to illustrate the use of this tool by proposing potential optimal feeding strategies, which may then be compared with other more intuitive strategies. This aim was accomplished via several numerical experiments in which two specific strategies are compared.

  4. Prediction of Improved Performance of Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactor by Periodic Modulation of the Feed Rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staněk, Vladimír; Hanika, Jiří; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Stavárek, Petr; Tukač, V.; Lederer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 251-257 ISSN 1451-9372 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA/039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : trickle bed * feed modulation * catalytic reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  5. LEAN SIX SIGMA TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE OPHTHALMOLOGY CLINIC EFFICIENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulla, Thomas A; Tatikonda, Mohan V; ElMaraghi, Yehya A; Hussain, Rehan M; Hill, Amanda L; Clary, Julie M; Hattab, Eyas

    2017-07-18

    Ophthalmologists serve an increasing volume of a growing elderly population undergoing increasingly complex outpatient medical care, including extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. The resulting prolonged patient visit times ("patient flow times") limit quality, patient and employee satisfaction, and represent waste. Lean Six Sigma process improvement was used in a vitreoretinal practice to decrease patient flow time, demonstrating that this approach can yield significant improvement in health care. Process flow maps were created to determine the most common care pathways within clinic. Three months' visits from the electronic medical record system, which tracks patient task times at each process step in the office were collected. Care tasks and care pathways consuming the greatest time and variation were identified and modified. Follow-up analysis from 6 weeks' visits was conducted to assess improvement. Nearly all patients took one of five paths through the office. Patient flow was redesigned to reduce waiting room time by having staff members immediately start patients into one of those five paths; staffing was adjusted to address high demand tasks, and scheduling was optimized around derived predictors of patient flow times. Follow-up analysis revealed a statistically significant decline in mean patient flow time by 18% and inpatient flow time SD by 4.6%. Patient and employee satisfaction scores improved. Manufacturing industry techniques, such as Lean and Six Sigma, can be used to improve patient care, minimize waste, and enhance patient and staff satisfaction in outpatient clinics.

  6. Expected Improvements in Work Truck Efficiency Through Connectivity and Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, Kevin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-12

    This presentation focuses on the potential impact of connected and automated technologies on commercial vehicle operations. It includes topics such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program and the Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Initiative. It also describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research findings pertaining to the potential energy impacts of connectivity and automation and stresses the need for integration and optimization to take advantage of the benefits offered by these transformative technologies while mitigating the potential negative consequences.

  7. Low-protein solid feed improves the utilization of milk replacer for protein gain in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Alferink, S J J; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-11-01

    This study was designed to quantify the contribution of low-protein solid feed (SF) intake, in addition to milk replacer, to protein and energy retention in veal calves. Because of potential interactions between milk replacer and SF, occurring at either the level of digestion or postabsorption, this contribution might differ from that in calves fed either SF or milk replacer alone. Forty-eight Holstein Friesian male calves, 55±0.3 kg of body weight (BW), were divided across 16 groups of 3 calves each. Groups were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 incremental levels of SF intake: 0, 9, 18, or 27 g of DM of SF/kg of BW(0.75) per day. The SF mixture consisted of 25% chopped wheat straw, 25% chopped corn silage, and 50% nonpelleted concentrate (on a DM basis). Each group was housed in a respiration chamber for quantification of energy and N balance at each of 2 BW: at 108±1.1 kg and at 164±1.6 kg. The milk replacer supply was 37.3g of DM/kg of BW(0.75) per day at 108 kg of BW and 40.7 g of DM/kg of BW(0.75) per day at 164 kg of BW, irrespective of SF intake. Within a chamber, each calf was housed in a metabolic cage to allow separate collection of feces and urine. Indirect calorimetry and N balance data were analyzed by using regression procedures with SF intake-related variables. Nitrogen excretion shifted from urine to feces with increasing SF intake. This indicates a higher gut entry rate of urea and may explain the improved N utilization through urea recycling, particularly at 164 kg of BW. At 108 kg of BW, the gross efficiency of N retention was 61% for calves without SF, and it increased with SF intake by 5.4%/g of DM of SF per day. At 164 kg of BW, this efficiency was 49% for calves without SF, and it increased by 9.9%/g of DM of SF per day. The incremental efficiency of energy retention, representing the increase in energy retained per kilojoule of extra digestible energy intake from SF, was 41% at 108 kg of BW and 54% at 164 kg of BW. Accordingly, the apparent

  8. Layout design in order to improve efficiency in manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Tarigan, U.; Nasution, T. H.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted at the company that produces bobbins and ream type cigarette paper. Problems that found on the production process is the back and forth (back tracking) movement. Back and forth (back tracking) movement extending the total distance moved by the material and increase the total moment of transfer materials thus reducing the efficiency of the transfer of materials in the production process. The purpose of this study is to give design for the layout of production facilities in the company, so that the expected production produced by the company can reach the targets set by the management company. The method used in this research is the Graph-Based Construction and Travel Chart Method. The results of the analysis of the proposed layout with Graph-Based Construction was selected with a total value that is equal to the moment of transfer of 780 758 m / year. This result is better than the actual layout in the amount of 1,021,038.12 meters / year and the results of the method Travel Alternative Chart I of 826.236,60 meters/year, Alternative II of 1.004.433,56 meters / year, and Alternative III for 828,467.12 meters/year. The design layout of Graph-Based Construction material increases the transfer efficiency for 23.53%. With this layout proposal, expected production capacity will be increased along with the shortening of the distance of the displacement that must be passed by the material to be processed.

  9. System solution to improve energy efficiency of HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, L.; Becerra, R.; Salts, N. P.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    According to recent surveys, heating and air conditioning systems account for over 45% of the total energy usage in US households. Three main types of HVAC systems are available to homeowners: (1) fixed-speed systems, where the compressor cycles on and off to match the cooling load; (2) multi-speed (typically, two-speed) systems, where the compressor can operate at multiple cooling capacities, leading to reduced cycling; and (3) variable-speed systems, where the compressor speed is adjusted to match the cooling load of the household, thereby providing higher efficiency and comfort levels through better temperature and humidity control. While energy consumption could reduce significantly by adopting variable-speed compressor systems, the market penetration has been limited to less than 10% of the total HVAC units and a vast majority of systems installed in new construction remains single speed. A few reasons may explain this phenomenon such as the complexity of the electronic circuitry required to vary compressor speed as well as the associated system cost. This paper outlines a system solution to boost the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of a traditional single-speed unit through using a low power electronic converter that allows the compressor to operate at multiple low capacity settings and is disabled at high compressor speeds.

  10. Nuclear turbine efficiency improvement by wet steam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Morson, A.; Markytan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the turbine used at the nuclear power plant are operated at environment of wet steam, which composes of a big factor of its inner loss in comparison with those of the thermal power plant. If an analytical method predictable on behavior of the wet steam is established, it could be upgraded efficiency of the turbine and also reliability against corrosion formed by moisture. This study, therefore, aims at understanding of physical property of the wet steam flow scarcely known at present, development of an optimum turbine cascade design tool reflected by the property, development of a turbine cascade design reducible of steam loss due to wet steam by using the tool, and development on a method of removing moisture in the turbine to its outer portion. For the tool, a new three dimensional flow numerical analysis is necessary to be developed, to aim at accurately and numerically understanding of the behavior of wet steam. As this study is in advancing now, by using a turbine cascade optimized on the wet steam flow and a developed moisture removing apparatus, about 0.6 % of upgrading in turbine efficiency can be predicted in comparison with that of the advanced aero-cascade of the GE Corporation. (G.K.)

  11. Gender and relative economic efficiency in improved cassava farms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational level and extension contact were positive and significant at 5% for both gender farmer groups. Credit was negative but significant at 5% amongst female farmer groups. Gender participation in improved new cassava showed that those energy sapping operations were dominated by male folk while light operation ...

  12. Pathways to improving the N efficiency of grazing bovines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Schulte, R.P.O.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production has been identified as a major source of nitrogen (N) losses. Therefore, it is important to reduce N output through animal excretions by improving N utilisation by the animal. The objective of this paper is to identify pathways for producing grass-based diets that maximise

  13. Improving the efficiency and sustainability of disinfection at a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Alice Water Treatment Plant (AWTP) has several operating problems, which often result in poor turbidity removal and inadequate disinfection residual. Some progress has been made in upgrading the skills of plant operators, but the plant performance has failed to improve because of faulty equipment, a shortage of ...

  14. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  15. Exploring why junk foods are 'essential' foods and how culturally tailored recommendations improved feeding in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavle, Justine A; Mehanna, Sohair; Saleh, Gulsen; Fouad, Mervat A; Ramzy, Magda; Hamed, Doaa; Hassan, Mohamed; Khan, Ghada; Galloway, Rae

    2015-07-01

    In Egypt, the double burden of malnutrition and rising overweight and obesity in adults mirrors the transition to westernized diets and a growing reliance on energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. This study utilized the trials of improved practices (TIPs) methodology to gain an understanding of the cultural beliefs and perceptions related to feeding practices of infants and young children 0-23 months of age and used this information to work in tandem with 150 mothers to implement feasible solutions to feeding problems in Lower and Upper Egypt. The study triangulated in-depth interviews (IDIs) with mothers participating in TIPs, with IDIs with 40 health providers, 40 fathers and 40 grandmothers to gain an understanding of the influence and importance of the role of other caretakers and health providers in supporting these feeding practices. Study findings reveal high consumption of junk foods among toddlers, increasing in age and peaking at 12-23 months of age. Sponge cakes and sugary biscuits are not perceived as harmful and considered 'ideal' common complementary foods. Junk foods and beverages often compensate for trivial amounts of food given. Mothers are cautious about introducing nutritious foods to young children because of fears of illness and inability to digest food. Although challenges in feeding nutritious foods exist, mothers were able to substitute junk foods with locally available and affordable foods. Future programming should build upon cultural considerations learned in TIPs to address sustainable, meaningful changes in infant and young child feeding to reduce junk foods and increase dietary quality, quantity and frequency. © 2014 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Qualification of standard membrane-feeding assay with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and potential improvements for future assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Miura

    Full Text Available Vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission are of increasing interest and a robust functional assay to measure this activity would promote their development by providing a biologically relevant means of evaluating potential vaccine candidates. Therefore, we aimed to qualify the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA. The assay measures the transmission-blocking activity of antibodies by feeding cultured P. falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles mosquitoes in the presence of the test antibodies and measuring subsequent mosquito infection. The International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline Q2(R1 details characteristics considered in assay validation. Of these characteristics, we decided to qualify the SMFA for Precision, Linearity, Range and Specificity. The transmission-blocking 4B7 monoclonal antibody was tested over 6 feeding experiments at several concentrations to determine four suitable concentrations that were tested in triplicate in the qualification experiments (3 additional feeds to evaluate Precision, Linearity and Range. For Specificity, 4B7 was tested in the presence of normal mouse IgG. We determined intra- and inter-assay variability of % inhibition of mean oocyst intensity at each concentration of 4B7 (lower concentrations showed higher variability. We also showed that % inhibition was dependent on 4B7 concentration and the activity is specific to 4B7. Since obtaining empirical data is time-consuming, we generated a model using data from all 9 feeds and simulated the effects of different parameters on final readouts to improve the assay procedure and analytical methods for future studies. For example, we estimated the effect of number of mosquitoes dissected on variability of % inhibition, and simulated the relationship between % inhibition in oocyst intensity and % inhibition of prevalence of infected mosquitos at different mean oocysts in the control. SMFA is one of the few biological assays used in

  17. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    The ever-present need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation motivates this investigation of a novel ignition technology for internal combustion engine applications. Advanced engines can achieve higher efficiencies and reduced emissions by operating in regimes with diluted fuel-air mixtures and higher compression ratios, but the range of stable engine operation is constrained by combustion initiation and flame propagation when dilution levels are high. An advanced ignition technology that reliably extends the operating range of internal combustion engines will aid practical implementation of the next generation of high-efficiency engines. This dissertation contributes to next-generation ignition technology advancement by experimentally analyzing a prototype technology as well as developing a numerical model for the chemical processes governing microwave-assisted ignition. The microwave-assisted spark plug under development by Imagineering, Inc. of Japan has previously been shown to expand the stable operating range of gasoline-fueled engines through plasma-assisted combustion, but the factors limiting its operation were not well characterized. The present experimental study has two main goals. The first goal is to investigate the capability of the microwave-assisted spark plug towards expanding the stable operating range of wet-ethanol-fueled engines. The stability range is investigated by examining the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure as a metric for instability, and indicated specific ethanol consumption as a metric for efficiency. The second goal is to examine the factors affecting the extent to which microwaves enhance ignition processes. The factors impacting microwave enhancement of ignition processes are individually examined, using flame development behavior as a key metric in determining microwave effectiveness. Further development of practical combustion applications implementing microwave

  18. Improving energy efficiency in industrial solutions - Walk the talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, D. (Siemens AG. Industry Solutions Div., Erlangen (Germany)); Finkbeiner, M. (Technische Univ. Berlin (TUB). Sustainable Engineering, Berlin (Germany)); Holst, J.-C.; Walachowicz, F. (Siemens AG. Corporate Technology, Berlin (Germany)); Irving Olsen, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU). Management Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    This paper describes the outline of the energy efficiency and environmental care policy and management at Siemens Industry Solutions Division. This environmental policy coherently embraces strategic planning, eco-design of energy-efficient industrial processes and solutions, design evaluation and finally communication of both environmental and economic performance of solutions to customers. One of the main tools supporting eco-design and evaluation and controlling of derived design solutions is the so called 'Eco-Care-Matrix' (ECM). The ECM simply visualizes the eco-efficiency of solutions compared to a given baseline. In order to prevent from 'green washing' criticism and to ensure 'walk the talk' attitude the ECM should be scientifically well-founded using appropriate and consistent methodology. The vertical axis of an ECM illustrates the environmental performance and the horizontal axis describes the economical customer benefit of one or more green solutions compared to a defined reference solution. Different scientific approaches for quantifying the environmental performance based on life cycle assessment methodology are discussed especially considering the ISO standards 14040/14044:2006. Appropriate ECM application is illustrated using the example of the Siemens MEROS technology (Maximized Emission Reduction of Sintering) for the steel industry. MEROS is currently the most modern and powerful system for cleaning off-gas in sinter plants. As an environmental technology MEROS is binding and removing sulfur dioxide and other acidic gas components present in the off-gas stream by using dry absorbents and additional electrical power. Advantage in the impact category of acidification potential (by desulfurization) is a trade-off to disadvantages in global warming and resource depletion potential caused by use of electricity. Representing different impacts, indicator results for impact categories with different tendencies have to be

  19. Can we improve the identification of cold homes for targeted home energy-efficiency improvements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Emma J.; Wilkinson, Paul; Hong, Sung H.; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which homes with low indoor-temperatures can be identified from dwelling and household characteristics. Design: Analysis of data from a national survey of dwellings, occupied by low-income households, scheduled for home energy-efficiency improvements. Setting: Five urban areas of England: Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle and Southampton. Methods: Half-hourly living-room temperatures were recorded for two to four weeks in dwellings over the winter periods November to April 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Regression of indoor on outdoor temperatures was used to identify cold-homes in which standardized daytime living-room and/or nighttime bedroom-temperatures were o C (when the outdoor temperature was 5 o C). Tabulation and logistic regression were used to examine the extent to which these cold-homes can be identified from dwelling and household characteristics. Results: Overall, 21.0% of dwellings had standardized daytime living-room temperatures o C, and 46.4% had standardized nighttime bedroom-temperatures below the same temperature. Standardized indoor-temperatures were influenced by a wide range of household and dwelling characteristics, but most strongly by the energy efficiency (SAP) rating and by standardized heating costs. However, even using these variables, along with other dwelling and household characteristics in a multi-variable prediction model, it would be necessary to target more than half of all dwellings in our sample to ensure at least 80% sensitivity for identifying dwellings with cold living-room temperatures. An even higher proportion would have to be targeted to ensure 80% sensitivity for identifying dwellings with cold-bedroom temperatures. Conclusion: Property and household characteristics provide only limited potential for identifying dwellings where winter indoor temperatures are likely to be low, presumably because of the multiple influences on home heating, including personal choice and

  20. Improving IC process efficiency with critical materials management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kathy L.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2003-06-01

    The management of critical materials in a high technology manufacturing facility is crucial to obtaining consistently high production yield. This is especially true in an industry like semiconductors where the success of the product is so dependent on the integrity of the critical production materials. Bar code systems, the traditional management tools, are voluntary, defeatable, and do not continuously monitor materials when in use. The significant costs associated with mis-management of chemicals can be captured with a customized model resulting in highly favorable ROI"s for the NOWTrak RFID chemical management system. This system transmits reliable chemical data about each individual container and generates information that can be used to increase wafer production efficiency and yield. The future of the RFID system will expand beyond the benefits of chemical management and into dynamic IC process management

  1. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A.

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs

  2. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  3. FORSCOM installation characterization and ranking for water efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Q.K.; McMordie, K.L.; Di Massa, F.V. [and others

    1995-05-01

    On March 11, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902-Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation at Federal Facilities. Section 302 of the Executive Order calls for energy and water prioritization surveys of federal facilities to be conducted. The surveys will be used to establish priorities for conducting comprehensive facility audits. In response to the requirements of the Executive Order, the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to initiate a broad study of the water savings potential at each of its major installations. This report provides an assessment of the water, sewer, energy (for hot water production and pumping), and associated cost savings potential at ten of the major FORSCOM installations. This assessment is meant to be a {open_quotes}first pass{close_quotes} estimate of the water savings potential, to assist FORSCOM in prioritizing installations for detailed water audits and potential water efficient retrofits. In addition, the end uses (toilets, sinks, showerheads, irrigation, etc.) with the greatest water savings potential are identified at each installation. This report is organized in the following manner. Following this Introduction, Section 2 provides important background information pertaining to the water analysis. Section 3 describes the methodology employed in the analysis, and Section 4 summarizes the study results. Section 5 prioritizes the installations based on both water/sewer savings and cost associated with water, sewer, and energy savings. Section 6 provides recommendations on where to start detailed water audits, as well as other recommendations. References are listed in Section 7. The appendices provide specific information on the analysis results and methodology, along with a discussion of special issues.

  4. Application of gold nanoparticles for improved drug efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, K. O.; Bankole, M. T.; Abdulkareem, A. S.; Abubakre, O. K.; Ubaka, A. U.

    2017-09-01

    Due to increasing resistance of microorganisms towards current antibiotics, there is a need for new or enhanced antibiotics. Nanotechnology is a technology that enhances the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in area of medical applications, especially as a drug carrier for targeted drug delivery. In this research, AuNPs was synthesized using biological method via bioreduction of Piper guineense aqueous leaf extract on tetra gold chloride, characterized using UV-Vis spectrophometer, DLS, TEM/EDS and FTIR. The synthesized AuNPs was covalently functionalized with polyethylene glycol and encapsulated with Lincomycin and in vitro dissolution methods was used to evaluate the potential performance of the formulated nanodrug. The nanodrug has highest release efficiency at the 9th minutes (23.4 mg ml-1 for 40 °C) and (29.5 mg ml-1 for 60 °C) compared with the non-nanodrug. The antibacterial potential of the nanodrug was seen on the gram-positive bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes with highest inhibitions of 18 mm (at 40 °C) and 16 mm (at 60 °C) for S. aureus, and 16 mm for S. pyogenes (both at 40 °C and 60 °C). The bacteria growth inhibition continued and lasted for 15 min, while that of non-nanodrug lasted for 9 min with lesser growth inhibition compared to the formulated nanodrug. This work shows that the presence of the AuNPs increased the release efficiency of lincomycin even at a lower concentration and also bacteria growth inhibition thereby suggesting the effectiveness of the nanodrug formulation.

  5. Improving phosphorus use efficiency: a complex trait with emerging opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sigrid; Gaxiola, Roberto; Schilling, Rhiannon; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; López-Arredondo, Damar; Wissuwa, Matthias; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Rouached, Hatem

    2017-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential nutrients for plants, and is indispensable for plant growth and development. P deficiency severely limits crop yield, and regular fertilizer applications are required to obtain high yields and to prevent soil degradation. To access P from the soil, plants have evolved high- and low-affinity Pi transporters and the ability to induce root architectural changes to forage P. Also, adjustments of numerous cellular processes are triggered by the P starvation response, a tightly regulated process in plants. With the increasing demand for food as a result of a growing population, the demand for P fertilizer is steadily increasing. Given the high costs of fertilizers and in light of the fact that phosphate rock, the source of P fertilizer, is a finite natural resource, there is a need to enhance P fertilizer use efficiency in agricultural systems and to develop plants with enhanced Pi uptake and internal P-use efficiency (PUE). In this review we will provide an overview of continuing relevant research and highlight different approaches towards developing crops with enhanced PUE. In this context, we will summarize our current understanding of root responses to low phosphorus conditions and will emphasize the importance of combining PUE with tolerance of other stresses, such as aluminum toxicity. Of the many genes associated with Pi deficiency, this review will focus on those that hold promise or are already at an advanced stage of testing (OsPSTOL1, AVP1, PHO1 and OsPHT1;6). Finally, an update is provided on the progress made exploring alternative technologies, such as phosphite fertilizer. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prior-knowledge-independent equalization to improve battery uniformity with energy efficiency and time efficiency for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shumei; Qiang, Jiaxi; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    To improve battery uniformity as well as energy efficiency and time efficiency, a SOC (state of charge)-based equalization by AGA (adaptive genetic algorithm) is proposed on basis of two-stage DC/DC converters. The simulation results indicate that compared with FLC (fuzzy logic controller) equalization, the standard deviation of final SOC is improved by 78.7% while energy efficiency is improved by 6.01% and equalization time is decreased by 20% for AGA equalization of extreme dispersion. Additionally, AGA improves the battery uniformity by 30.77% with shortening equalization time by 16.29% and saving energy loss by 1.51% compared with FLC for equalization of regular dispersion. For further validation, the equalization optimization is verified by experiment based on the data-driven parameter identification method which is used to enhance the real-time capability of AGA. For AGA equalization of extreme dispersion, the standard deviation of final SOC is just 0.41% while equalization time prolongs only 14 min and energy efficiency is decreased by 0.81% compared with simulation results. Moreover, not only the standard deviation of final SOC is just 0.28% but also the energy efficiency is decreased by 0.69% and equalization time prolongs by 10.4 min compared with the simulation results for equalization of regular dispersion. - Highlights: • Issues of over equalization, time consumption and energy loss are addressed. • A SOC-based equalization is proposed based on adaptive genetic algorithm. • The equalization aims to improve battery uniformity, efficiency of energy and time. • Data-driven parameter identification is used to enhance the real-time capability.

  7. Innovative semielliptical seismic pattern improving line-change efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walus, Artur; Gucma, Lucjan; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a new method for conducting turns by vessels towing seismic cables. A comparison was made between the traditional way of turning to indicate the advantages of the proposed pattern. In order to improve the overview of the complete geometry of a towed streamer system, a model of marine seismic research quality coefficients was applied. The turning method was tested onboard a seismic vessel towing eight streamers of 6 km in length. A significant reduction of time required for line-change was achieved (up to 45 % depending on ocean current speed and direction, speed of the vessel, skills of navigating team). The introduced quality coefficient of geophysical research works is based on the mathematical model of positions deviation of streamers geophones with relation to their idealized position. The model was created to be used while the vessel is on a steady course to improve the quality of acquired data; however, it was found useful during line changes as well.

  8. Grinding efficiency improvement of hydraulic cylinders parts for mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to find out ways to improve parts treatment and components of mining equipment on the example of hydraulic cylinders parts, used as pillars for mine roof supports, and other actuator mechanisms. In the course of the research work methods of machine retaining devices design were used, the scientific approaches for the selection of progressive grinding schemes were applied; theoretical and practical experience in the design and production of new constructions of grinding tools was used. As a result of this work it became possible to create a progressive construction of a machine retaining device for grinding of large parts of hydraulic cylinders, to apply an effective scheme of rotary abrasive treatment, to create and implement new design of grinding tools by means of grains with controllable shape and orientation. Implementation of the results obtained in practice will improve the quality and performance of repairing and manufacturing of mining equipment.

  9. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  10. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g║=2.0028 and g┴=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  11. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g || =2.0028 and g perpendicular =1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  12. Design to improve photoelectric efficiency for photovoltaic cell array for laser power beaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Beibei

    2017-02-01

    Photovoltaic cell (PV) array is a photovoltaic conversion device for laser power beaming, and uneven distribution of laser beam energy will have negative influence on the photovoltaic efficiency of PV array. In order to improve the photovoltaic efficiency under uneven laser irradiation, an optimized and efficient parallel-series PV array is designed. Based on the mathematical model and MATLB/Simulink simulation model of PV array , the influencing factors of photovoltaic efficiency are analyzed, and the concept and scheme to improve the photovoltaic efficiency of parallel-series PV array are proposed. Finally, compared with typical PV array, the effects improving efficiency of optimized array is simulated and analyzed. The simulation results show that under uneven laser irradiation, the optimized parallel-series PV array can obtain higher photovoltaic efficiency.

  13. Improving the performance and energy-efficiency of virtual memory

    OpenAIRE

    Karakostas, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory improves programmer productivity, enhances process security, and increases memory utilization. However, virtual memory requires an address translation from the virtual to the physical address space on every memory operation. Page-based implementations of virtual memory divide physical memory into fixed size pages, and use a per-process page table to map virtual pages to physical pages. The hardware key component for accelerating address translation is the Translation Lookasi...

  14. Improving the efficiency of plasma heat treatment of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabdrakhmanov, Az T; Israphilov, I H; Galiakbarov, A T; Samigullin, A D; Gabdrakhmanov, Al T

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective way of the plasma hardening the surface layer at the expense combined influence of the plasma jet and a cold air flow. After that influence occurs a distinctive by plasma treatment microstructure with increased microhardness (an increase of 35%) and depth. There is proposed an improved design of the vortex tube for receiving the air flow with a temperature of 20 C to - 120C. (paper)

  15. Improved Efficient, Nearly Orthogonal, Nearly Balanced Mixed Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Institute of Aeronautics. Her research interests include the following subjects: Multicriteria Decision Making Methods, Problem Structuring Methods (PSM) and OR Education. Her email address is carmen@ita.br. 3616 ...randomization, replication, and control to allow the analyst to make statistically valid inferences about the behavior of a system. As noted by... making restrictive or unwarranted assumptions. Fortunately, recent advances in DoE is expanding the design portfolio available to analysts, improving

  16. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  17. 76 FR 41790 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice Establishing Date for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... discuss opportunities for increasing real-time and day- ahead market efficiency through improved software...

  18. 75 FR 27341 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... resources and demand resources (DR, DG, and storage) in planning software. Additional issues to be discussed... Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical Conference To Discuss Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software May 7, 2010. Take notice that Commission...

  19. Inclusion of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody to backgrounding diets on performance, feed efficiency, in vitro fermentation, and the acute-phase response of growing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-01-01

    In Exp. 1, individual performance and daily DMI was measured on 70 crossbred weaned calves during a 70-d period using a GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada) at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center Feed Efficiency Facility (FEF). Calves were fed a low-concentrate (LC) growing diet, blocked by weight and sex, and then randomly assigned to pens to receive either no additional supplement (CON; n = 35) or receive a supplement of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody (aPLA2) at an inclusion rate of 0.6% of the diet DM (n = 35). After the 70-d feed efficiency (FE) trial (Phase 1), calves were loaded into a commercial livestock trailer and were driven for approximately 1,600 km during 24 h. Upon return to the FEF (Phase 2), calves were relocated to the same pens and groups and received the same diets and treatments for 28 d. Blood samples from each calf were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 relative to initiation of transportation and were analyzed for determination of concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin. In Phase 1, initial BW (242.0 ± 3.7 kg; P = 0.92), BW at d 70 (313.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.79), and ADG (1.01 ± 0.02 kg; P = 0.95) were similar between treatments. However, daily DMI was greater (P = 0.01) for CON (9.18 ± 0.15 kg) than aPLA2 (8.53 ± 0.15 kg). In addition, residual feed intake was greater (P = 0.002) for CON (0.389 ± 0.110 kg/d) than aPLA2 calves (-0.272 ± 0.110 kg/d). In Phase 2, after transportation, there were no differences between treatments on BW loss due to transportation shrink (26.0 ± 0.6 kg; P = 0.86), BW at d 28 (339.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.72), ADG (1.28 ± 0.03 kg/d; P = 0.72), G:F (0.164 ± 0.004; P = 0.83), and concentrations of plasma haptoglobin (0.08 ± 0.02 mg/mL; P = 0.41). However, concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin were greater (P calves (14.3 ± 0.3 mg/dL) compared to aPLA2 calves (13.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL). In Exp. 2, the effects of aPLA2 inclusion on LC and

  20. Improving the efficiency of boron application on the vineyards during NPK fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomadov, Andy; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Kalinitchenko, Valeriy; Minkina, Tatiana; Sushkova, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The effect of different doses and time of boron fertilization on growth and development of grape plants were studied on the soils of Terek-Kumskiy sands of Chechen Republic, Russian Federation. The studies have shown that sandy soils of pilot area have a low content of main macronutrients except of potassium. The boron content in the sandy soils varies within wide limits and characterizes this soil as lack of boron content especially in water-soluble boron distribution through the soil profile. It was developed a technique for roots feeding of grapes for the first time, that allows to control chemical processes the NPK uptake by plant roots. The studied process realized by implementation of optimum amount of boron in plant-available form, introduced in a certain phase of plants growth. It helps to improve the efficiency of nitrogen, phosphate, potassium using. It was found that boron improves the movement of growth substances and ascorbic acid from the leaves to the fertile parts and cannot be replaced by other nutrients. The plants need of boron throughout the growing season. Boron plays an important role in cell division and protein synthesis is an essential component of cell membranes. The use of boric acid as a fertilizer to increase the number of ovaries on grape plants, stimulating the formation of new points of stems and root growth, increased the number of shoots, improved growth, increased the sugar content of the grapes and taste of the fruit, which is a result of more active uptake of boron by grapes. The optimal dose of boron fertilization on the sandy soil and the comparative agroecological and economic evaluation of its application presented in the research. The use of boron fertilizers allowed to increase the sugar content, acidity, tasting score grapes up to 12-38%. The greatest effect of boron fertilization achieved by application to the phase start of sap flow in a dose of 3 kg/ha in the background N90P90K90. The developed technique for sandy

  1. Car Assembly Line Efficiency Improvement by Lean Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawassalung, Suwalee; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed to increase the efficiency of actual working time to compare to design standard time ratio (DSTR) as per analysing process of Lean System of the assembly line in a car manufacturer in Thailand. Currently, the case study factory and its group of factories, which have many branches all over the world, have competed with each other on quality, delivered time and production cost. The production cost which can reduce without affecting quality and acceptable by clients is the manpower cost. The index of competition is DSTR. The factory now has DSTR of 6.13 and DSTR of the assembly department is 4.24 which is very high comparing to other departments. The low DSTR indicates that the factory has good quality. The ways to solve the problem are to apply the following tools, i.e. Lean principle, Value Stream Mapping (VSM), Waste Analysis and ECRS. After implementing the above tools, the results showed that DSTR decreased from 4.24 to 4.06 or 4.25%.

  2. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  3. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Whi Kong

    Full Text Available As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE, shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group. The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004 but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30 from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P < 0.001. Over 1800 proteins were identified, of which 152 were different (P < 0.05 by at least 1.3 fold and ≤ 15 fold between the high and low FE phenotypes. Data were analyzed for a modified differential expression (DE metric (Phenotypic Impact Factors or PIF and interpretation of protein expression data facilitated using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P < 0.00001. Within the top up and down 5% PIF molecules in the dataset, there were 15 mitoproteome proteins up-regulated and only 5 down-regulated in the high FE phenotype. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation as the number 1 and 5 differentially expressed canonical pathways (up-regulated in high FE in the proteomic dataset. Upstream analysis (based on DE of downstream molecules predicted that insulin receptor, insulin like growth receptor 1, nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2, AMP activated protein kinase (α subunit, progesterone and triiodothyronine would be activated in the high FE phenotype whereas rapamycin independent companion of target of rapamycin, mitogen

  4. Use of Bacillus subtilis isolates from Tua-nao towards nutritional improvement of soya bean hull for monogastric feed application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongputtisin, P; Khanongnuch, C; Kongbuntad, W; Niamsup, P; Lumyong, S; Sarkar, P K

    2014-09-01

    Soya bean hull (SBH) is a cheap and high-fibre content feed ingredient that obtained after soya bean oil extraction. Microbial fermentation was expected to improve SBH qualities before applying to animals, especially monogastric animals. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis MR10 and TK8 that were isolated from Tua-nao, a traditional fermented soya bean in northern Thailand, were used for fermented soya bean hull (FSBH) production. Both could easily grow at 37°C in SBH as the sole substrate. MR10 produced the highest β-mannanase activity (400 U g(-1) SBH) on day 2, while TK8 produced the highest cellulase activity (14·5 U g(-1) SBH) on day 3. After fermentation, the nutritional quality of SBH was obviously improved by an increase in soluble sugars, soluble proteins, crude protein and crude lipid, and a decrease in the content of raffinose family oligosaccharides. Scavenging activity (%) of SBH against ABTS radical cation was also increased from 14 to 27 and 20% by MR10 and TK8 fermentation, respectively. According to the GRAS property of these both strains and various improvements of nutritional values, the fermented SBH proved to be a potential feed ingredient, especially for the monogastric animals. Normally, soya bean hull has been recognized as only a worthless by-product from soya bean oil production process because of its low utilizable nutrients. Our study introduced an alternative way to utilize this worthless residue using biotechnological knowledge. The nutritional quality of soya bean hull was improved by microbial fermentation. Fermented soya bean hull can be used as a cheap, safe and high-nutrient feed ingredient for livestock production, especially monogastric animals, to promote their growth performances, instead of using antibiotics in some regions of the world. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Role of Social Support in Improving Infant Feeding Practices in Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuria, Altrena G; Martin, Stephanie L; Egondi, Thaddeus; Bingham, Allison; Thuita, Faith M

    2016-03-01

    We designed and tested an intervention that used dialogue-based groups to engage infants' fathers and grandmothers to support optimal infant feeding practices. The study's aim was to test the effectiveness of increased social support by key household influencers on improving mothers' complementary feeding practices. Using a quasi-experimental design, we enrolled mothers, fathers, and grandmothers from households with infants 6-9 months old in 3 rural communities (1 intervention arm with fathers, 1 intervention arm with grandmothers, and 1 comparison arm) in western Kenya. We engaged 79 grandmothers and 85 fathers in separate dialogue groups for 6 months from January to July 2012. They received information on health and nutrition and were encouraged to provide social support to mothers (defined as specific physical actions in the past 2 weeks or material support actions in the past month). We conducted a baseline household survey in December 2011 in the 3 communities and returned to the same households in July 2012 for an endline survey. We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and logistic regression to evaluate the intervention. We surveyed 554 people at baseline (258 mothers, 165 grandmothers, and 131 fathers) and 509 participants at endline. The percentage of mothers who reported receiving 5 or more social support actions (of a possible 12) ranged from 58% to 66% at baseline in the 3 groups. By endline, the percentage had increased by 25.8 percentage points (P=.002) and 32.7 percentage points (P=.001) more in the father and the grandmother intervention group, respectively, than in the comparison group. As the number of social support actions increased in the 3 groups, the likelihood of a mother reporting that she had fed her infant the minimum number of meals in the past 24 hours also increased between baseline and endline (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.30; P=.047). When taking into account the interaction effects of

  6. Incentives and technologies for improving irrigation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Djuma, Hakan; Giannakis, Elias; Eliades, Marinos

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to set water prices that provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently. These new water pricing policies need to consider cost recovery of water services, including financial, environmental and resource cost. Prices were supposed to have been set by 2010. So far the record has been mixed. The European Commission has sent reasoned opinions to a number of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden) requesting them to adjust their national legislation to include all water services. Unbalanced water pricing may negatively affect the agricultural sector, especially in the southern EU countries, which are more dependent on irrigation water for production. The European Commission is funding several projects that aim to reduce the burden of increasing water prices on farmers by developing innovative technologies and decision support systems that will save water and increase productivity. The FP7 ENORASIS project (grant 282949) has developed a new integrated irrigation management decision support platform, which include high-resolution, ensemble weather forecasting, a GIS widget for the location of fields and sensors and a comprehensive decision support and database management software package to optimize irrigation water management. The field component includes wireless, solar-powered soil moisture sensors, small weather stations, and remotely controlled irrigation valves. A mobile App and a web-package are providing user-friendly interfaces for farmers, water companies and environmental consultants. In Cyprus, agricultural water prices have been set to achieve a cost recovery rate of 54% (2010). The pricing policy takes in consideration the social importance and financial viability of the agricultural sector, an important flexibility provided by the Water Framework Directive. The new price was set at 0.24 euro per m3 for water supply

  7. Improving animal productivity by supplementary feeding of multi-nutrient blocks, controlling internal parasites and enhancing utilization of alternate feed resources. A publication prepared under the framework of an RCA with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    A major constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. Providing adequate good quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is, and will continue to be, a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. The increase in population and rapid growth in world economies will lead to an enormous increase in demand for animal products, a large part of which will be from developing countries. Future hopes of feeding the millions and safeguarding their food security will depend on the enhanced and efficient utilization of alternative feed resources that cannot be used as food for humans. In addition, a large area of land in the world is degraded, barren or marginal and the amount is increasing every year. This also calls for identification and introduction of new and lesser-known plants capable of growing in poor soils, which can play a vital role in the control of soil erosion in addition to providing food and feed. In developing countries, livestock are fed mainly on low quality roughages, including natural grazing and agro-industrial by-products, such as cereal straws/stovers, sugarcane byproducts and other similar feeds, all of which contain large quantities of ligno-cellulosic material. These feeds are deficient in protein, energy, minerals and vitamins. In addition, at certain times of the year, the quality of grazing and browse deteriorates substantially due to seasonal influences, and livestock, productivity consequently declines, and in the case of lactation ceases, unless supplements are offered. Addition of foliage from tree leaves or supplementation with seed meals, or for ruminants' urea in the form of urea-molasses multinutrient blocks, can improve the utilization of low quality roughages mainly through the supply of nitrogen to the rumen microbes. Attempts to increase the productivity of ruminants in developing

  8. Accountability feedback assessments for improving efficiency of nuclear regulatory institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, Jean; Shwageraus, Eugene; Weightman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Accident demonstrated the need of assessing and strengthening institutions involved in nuclear safety, including the accountability of regulators. There are a few problems hindering the path towards a greater understanding of accountability systems, the ensemble of mechanisms holding to account the nuclear regulator on behalf of the public. There is no consensus on what it should deliver and no systematic assessment method exists. This article proposes a method of assessing institutions based on defence in depth concepts and inspired from risk-assessment techniques used for nuclear safety. As a first step in testing the proposal, it presents a simple Monte-Carlo simulation, illustrating some of the workings of the method of assessment and demonstrating the kind of results it will be able to supply. This on-going work will assist policy-makers take better informed decisions about the size, structure and organisation of a nuclear regulator and the cost-effective funding of its accountability system. It will assist in striking a balance between efficiency and resilience of regulatory decision-making processes. It will also promote the involvement of stakeholders and allow them to have a more meaningful impact on regulatory decisions, thereby enhancing the robustness of the regulatory system and potentially trust and confidence. - Highlights: •A general introduction to regulatory accountability is given. •A definition of an effective accountability system is proposed. •A method to assess accountability systems is proposed. •A simplified simulation of a regulatory system demonstrates the method’s capabilities.

  9. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in

  11. Mechanistic Understanding of Microbial Plugging for Improved Sweep Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Bryant; Larry Britton

    2008-09-30

    Microbial plugging has been proposed as an effective low cost method of permeability reduction. Yet there is a dearth of information on the fundamental processes of microbial growth in porous media, and there are no suitable data to model the process of microbial plugging as it relates to sweep efficiency. To optimize the field implementation, better mechanistic and volumetric understanding of biofilm growth within a porous medium is needed. In particular, the engineering design hinges upon a quantitative relationship between amount of nutrient consumption, amount of growth, and degree of permeability reduction. In this project experiments were conducted to obtain new data to elucidate this relationship. Experiments in heterogeneous (layered) beadpacks showed that microbes could grow preferentially in the high permeability layer. Ultimately this caused flow to be equally divided between high and low permeability layers, precisely the behavior needed for MEOR. Remarkably, classical models of microbial nutrient uptake in batch experiments do not explain the nutrient consumption by the same microbes in flow experiments. We propose a simple extension of classical kinetics to account for the self-limiting consumption of nutrient observed in our experiments, and we outline a modeling approach based on architecture and behavior of biofilms. Such a model would account for the changing trend of nutrient consumption by bacteria with the increasing biomass and the onset of biofilm formation. However no existing model can explain the microbial preference for growth in high permeability regions, nor is there any obvious extension of the model for this observation. An attractive conjecture is that quorum sensing is involved in the heterogeneous bead packs.

  12. Streamlining cardiovascular clinical trials to improve efficiency and generalisability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannad, Faiez; Pfeffer, Marc A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Bonds, Denise E; Borer, Jeffrey S; Calvo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Fiore, Louis; Lund, Lars H; Madigan, David; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Meyers, Catherine M; Rosenberg, Yves; Simon, Tabassome; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Zalewski, Andrew; Zariffa, Nevine; Temple, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Controlled trials provide the most valid determination of the efficacy and safety of an intervention, but large cardiovascular clinical trials have become extremely costly and complex, making it difficult to study many important clinical questions. A critical question, and the main objective of this review, is how trials might be simplified while maintaining randomisation to preserve scientific integrity and unbiased efficacy assessments. Experience with alternative approaches is accumulating, specifically with registry-based randomised controlled trials that make use of data already collected. This approach addresses bias concerns while still capitalising on the benefits and efficiencies of a registry. Several completed or ongoing trials illustrate the feasibility of using registry-based controlled trials to answer important questions relevant to daily clinical practice. Randomised trials within healthcare organisation databases may also represent streamlined solutions for some types of investigations, although data quality (endpoint assessment) is likely to be a greater concern in those settings. These approaches are not without challenges, and issues pertaining to informed consent, blinding, data quality and regulatory standards remain to be fully explored. Collaboration among stakeholders is necessary to achieve standards for data management and analysis, to validate large data sources for use in randomised trials, and to re-evaluate ethical standards to encourage research while also ensuring that patients are protected. The rapidly evolving efforts to streamline cardiovascular clinical trials have the potential to lead to major advances in promoting better care and outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bheekhee, H.; Hulman, B.; Boodoo, A.A.; Ramnauth, R.K.; Lam Heung Yuen, R.; Fakim, R.; Dobee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  14. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green

  15. Improvement of Rice Straw for Ruminant Feed Through Unconventional Alkali Treatment and Supplementation of Various Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNO Suwandyastuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical treatments were conducted to increase the utilization of rice straw as feed for ruminant animals. Various sources of protein, minerals and energy should be added to improve the nutritive value of feeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The objective of the first experiments was to study the effect of chemical treatment on the ruminal fermentation products in cattle. Unconventional alkali treatment made from filtrate of a 10% rice hulls ash solution enriched with urea and minerals (treatment 1 increased volatile fatty acid (VFA production, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS. The maximum values of NH3-N production and rumen microbial protein synthesis were reached at 4 hours after incubation, while VFA was reached at 6 hours. The second experiment was conducted to study the increase of nutritive value of rice straw previously treated in experiment 1 through supplementation with various protein sources. Protein sources from the residues of vegetative oil production such as coconut, peanut and soybean showed higher responses compared to soy-sauce making residue and tofu making residue. The protein effluent production was highest (2.19 g/d at a VFA/NH3-N ration of 37.74 (r = 0.912. It can be recommended that protein sources from agro-industrial wastes can be used to increase the nutritive value and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 82-85 (2010Key Words: rice straw, rumen, fermentation

  16. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming.

  17. Advancing rig design: latest rig technologies improving efficiency and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenaway, R.

    1997-12-01

    Recent advances in drilling rig technologies that improve the ways for finding oil and natural gas, and are also solving some safety and transportation problems, have been reviewed. The coiled tubing drilling rig developed by joint venture TransOcean Ensign Drilling Technology was one of the innovations described. It is able to run a three-and-a-quarter inch coiled tubing, the only system capable of doing this in a land-based application. Tesco Corporation`s new casing drilling rig, which is expected to lower the cost of moving the rig, and Brinkerhoff Drilling`s new generation modular (NGM)-rig, claimed to be the most mobile rig in North America, are other new developments worthy of note. Tesco`s casing drilling rig has the potential to reduce drilling costs by as much as 30 to 40 per cent, while the NGM-rig could reduce rig mobilization time by 50 to 80 per cent, and the number of wells drilled by the same rig could increase by 20 per cent, due to the NGM-rig`s versatility and flexibility.

  18. Improving efficiency of a regional stand alone bone bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Jonathan M; Rowan, Clare H; Davidson, Helen; Millar, Ciara; McAlinden, M Gavan

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of a stand-alone Bone Bank in our Regional Orthopaedic Hospital has improved the availability of femoral head allograft. Benninger et al. (Bone Joint J 96-B:1307-1311, 2014), demonstrated their institutions bank to be cost effective despite a 30 % discard rate for harvested allograft. We sought to audit our own discard rates and subsequent cost-effectiveness of our bone bank. Donor recruitment. Before approaching a potential donor, our establishment's nurse specialists review their clinical notes and biochemical laboratory results, available on a regional Electronic Care Records. They view femoral head architecture on radiographs against set criteria, Patient Archive and Communication system (SECTRA, Sweden). In total 1383 femoral heads were harvested, 247 were discarded giving an overall rate of 17.9 %. The most common reasons for discard of harvested graft was a positive microbiology/bacteriology result, n = 96 (38.9 %). After a rise in discard rates in 2007, we have steadily reduced our discard rates since 2006/2007 (28.2 %), 2008/2009 (17 %), 2010/2011 (14.8 %), and finally to 10.3 % in 2012/2013. In the current financial year, our cost to harvest, test, store and release a femoral head is £ 610. With a structured donor recruitment process and unique pre-operative radiographic analysis we have successfully reduced our discard rates bi-annually making our bone bank increasingly cost-effective.

  19. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  20. NANOSTRUCTURING AS A WAY FOR THERMOELECTRIC EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Bochkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of thermoelectric energy conversion is proved. Perspectives of nanostructures usage as thermoelectric materials are shown. The authors have systematized and generalized the methods and investigation results of bulk nanostructure thermoelectrics based on Bi-Sb-Te solid solutions. Ways of nanoparticles fabrication and their subsequent sintering into a bulk sample, results of structure study of the received materials are shown by methods of electronic microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy, results of mechanical properties investigation. Methods of manufacturing suggested with the authors’ participation and properties of thermoelectric nanocomposites, fabricated with addition of fullerene, thermally split graphite, graphene and molybdenum disulphide are discussed. Methods for prevention of recrystallization, measurement methods of thermoelectric properties of studied nanothermoelectrics are considered, including electric and thermal conductivities, thermoemf and the figure of merit. Factors that influence on thermoelectric figure of merit, including the tunneling of carriers through interfaces between nanograins, the additional phonon scattering on nanograin borders and the energy filtration of carriers through barriers have been theoretically investigated. Mechanisms and ways for improvement of the figure of merit are determined. Experimental confirmation for thermoelectric figure of merit increase is received. Physical mechanisms of thermoelectric figure of merit increase are shown by perceptivity of nanostructures utilization. The growth of thermoelectric figure of merit means an expansion of areas for rational application of thermoelectric energy generation and thermoelectric cooling.