... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Methods Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Results Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%; an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%; higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96% and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs. Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%. The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. Conclusions An
Oduola Ayo MJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice household surveys were conducted. The intervention strategy consisted of training a core group of mothers ("mother trainers" in selected communities on the correct treatment of malaria and distributing a newly developed treatment guideline to each household. "Mother trainers" disseminated the educational messages about malaria and the use of the guideline to their communities. Results Knowledge of cause, prevention and treatment of malaria increased with the one-year intervention. Many, (70.4% of the respondents stated that they used the guideline each time a child was treated for malaria. There was a significant increase in the correct use of chloroquine from 2.6% at baseline to 52.3% after intervention among those who treated children at home in the intervention arm compared with 4.2% to 12.7% in the control arm. The correctness of use was significantly associated with use of the guideline. The timeliness of commencing treatment was significantly earlier in those who treated febrile children at home using chloroquine than those who took their children to the chemist or health facility (p Conclusion The use of the guideline with adequate training significantly improved correctness of malaria treatment with chloroquine at home. Adoption of this mode of intervention is recommended to improve compliance with drug use at home. The applicability for deploying artemisinin-based combination therapy at the community level needs to be investigated.
Hetzel, Manuel W; Iteba, Nelly; Makemba, Ahmed; Mshana, Christopher; Lengeler, Christian; Obrist, Brigit; Schulze, Alexander; Nathan, Rose; Dillip, Angel; Alba, Sandra; Mayumana, Iddy; Khatib, Rashid A; Njau, Joseph D; Mshinda, Hassan
Prompt access to effective treatment is central in the fight against malaria. However, a variety of interlinked factors at household and health system level influence access to timely and appropriate treatment and care. Furthermore, access may be influenced by global and national health policies. As a consequence, many malaria episodes in highly endemic countries are not treated appropriately. The ACCESS Programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in a rural Tanzanian setting. The programme's strategy is based on a set of integrated interventions, including social marketing for improved care seeking at community level as well as strengthening of quality of care at health facilities. This is complemented by a project that aims to improve the performance of drug stores. The interventions are accompanied by a comprehensive set of monitoring and evaluation activities measuring the programme's performance and (health) impact. Baseline data demonstrated heterogeneity in the availability of malaria treatment, unavailability of medicines and treatment providers in certain areas as well as quality problems with regard to drugs and services. The ACCESS Programme is a combination of multiple complementary interventions with a strong evaluation component. With this approach, ACCESS aims to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive access framework and to inform and support public health professionals and policy-makers in the delivery of improved health services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt access to effective treatment is central in the fight against malaria. However, a variety of interlinked factors at household and health system level influence access to timely and appropriate treatment and care. Furthermore, access may be influenced by global and national health policies. As a consequence, many malaria episodes in highly endemic countries are not treated appropriately. Project The ACCESS Programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in a rural Tanzanian setting. The programme's strategy is based on a set of integrated interventions, including social marketing for improved care seeking at community level as well as strengthening of quality of care at health facilities. This is complemented by a project that aims to improve the performance of drug stores. The interventions are accompanied by a comprehensive set of monitoring and evaluation activities measuring the programme's performance and (health impact. Baseline data demonstrated heterogeneity in the availability of malaria treatment, unavailability of medicines and treatment providers in certain areas as well as quality problems with regard to drugs and services. Conclusion The ACCESS Programme is a combination of multiple complementary interventions with a strong evaluation component. With this approach, ACCESS aims to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive access framework and to inform and support public health professionals and policy-makers in the delivery of improved health services.
to allow prompt and accurate treatment of malaria in areas out .... It is essential to seek medical advice promptly if ... Not ideal for machine operators, drivers or those that work at heights .... with food that contains oil e.g. chips, bread and butter.
Malaria is the most serious parasitic infection. At our institution over a two year period there were treatment errors in 18% (n=3) of cases. The aim of this multidisciplinary study was to ensure appropriate and timely treatment of malaria by implementation of a cluster of interventions: reconfiguration of existing guidelines, provision of prescribing information; delivery of education sessions to front-line staff and enabling rapid access to medication. Staff feedback was assessed through a questionnaire. Perceived benefits gained included awareness of guidelines (91%, n= 39), how to diagnose (81%, n =35), how to treat (86%, n=37), that treatment must be prompt (77%, n=33) and where to find treatment out of hours (84%, n=36). ‘Others’ perceived benefits (5% n= 2) noted referred to treatment in pregnancy. Going forward, a programme of on-going staff education, repeated audits of guideline compliance and promotion of reporting of medication errors should help ensure that these benefits are sustained
Tasie Nnenna G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of utilization of malaria treatment services will depend on provision of treatment services that different population groups of consumers prefer and would want to use. Treatment of malaria in Nigeria is still problematic and this contributes to worsening burden of the disease in the country. Therefore this study explores the socio-economic and geographic differences in consumers' preferences for improved treatment of malaria in Southeast Nigeria and how the results can be used to improve the deployment of malaria treatment services. Methods This study was undertaken in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria in three rural and three urban areas. A total of 2,250 randomly selected householders were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Preferences were elicited using both a rating scale and ranking of different treatment provision sources by the respondents. A socio-economic status (SES index was used to examine for SES differences, whilst urban-rural comparison was used to examine for geographic differences, in preferences. Results The most preferred source of provision of malaria treatment services was public hospitals (30.5%, training of mothers (19% and treatment in Primary healthcare centres (18.1%. Traditional healers (4.8% and patent medicine dealers (4.2% were the least preferred strategies for improving malaria treatment. Some of the preferences differed by SES and by a lesser extent, the geographic location of the respondents. Conclusion Preferences for provision of improved malaria treatment services were influenced by SES and by geographic location. There should be re-invigoration of public facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, in addition to improving the financial and geographic accessibility of such facilities. Training of mothers should be encouraged but home management will not work if the quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy
Jukes, Matthew; Dubeck, Margaret; Brooker, Simon; Wolf, Sharon
There is less quality evidence on how malaria may affect cognitive abilities and educational achievement or on how schools can tackle the problem of malaria among school children. A randomised trial among Sri Lankan children showed that weekly malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine can improve school examination scores. The Health and Literacy…
Okeke, Theodora A
A caretaker training programme was carried out in Ugwuogo-Nike, a rural area in south-east Nigeria, based on formative research within the community. A training of trainers workshop was organized for 30 leaders of women groups who subsequently trained other mothers in their group. Community information activities, which lasted for a period of eight months, included the use of posters, drama group and jingles. The programme was evaluated using the quantitative and qualitative methods that were employed at baseline, which included community survey and focus group discussions (FGDs). For the community survey, households with children under five years of age were identified and provided the sampling frame, from which 300 households were chosen using the systematic sampling method. The target population for the FGDs were caretakers of children under five years. Post-intervention evaluation of the programme showed significant (pmanagement of malaria and referral practices for severe malaria. Those who correctly reported that mosquitoes were the cause of malaria rose markedly from 39.7% to 88.7%. Knowledge of symptoms of mild and severe malaria also increased significantly. Only 1.5% of caretakers were aware of the correct dose of anti-malarial before intervention, but this increased to 41.5%. The impact of intervention brought about a dramatic change in the practice of taking severely ill children, especially those with convulsion, to a traditional healer. A minority (6.7%) of caretakers took a severely ill child to a traditional healer as against 60% pre-intervention. There was also a significant increase in use of formal health facilities for the treatment of severely ill children. The study findings support the view that training of mothers to recognize, treat appropriately and refer severe cases of malaria is feasible and may lead to a reduction in the incidence of severe disease.
Morey, Edward R; Sharma, Vijaya R; Mills, Anne
A logit model is used to estimate provider choice from six types by malaria patients in rural Nepal. Patient characteristics that influence choice include travel costs, income category, household size, gender, and severity of malaria. Income effects are introduced by assuming the marginal utility of money is a step function of expenditures on the numeraire. This method of incorporating income effects is ideally suited for situations when exact income data is not available. Significant provider characteristics include wait time for treatment and wait time for laboratory results. Household willingness to pay (wtp) is estimated for increasing the number of providers and for providing more sites with blood testing capabilities. Wtp estimates vary significantly across households and allow one to assess how much different households would benefit or lose under different government proposals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Private outlets are the main suppliers of uncomplicated malaria treatment in Africa. However, they are so numerous that they are difficult for governments to influence and regulate. This study's objective was to evaluate a low-cost outreach education (vendor-to-vendor programme to improve the private sector's compliance with malaria guidelines in Bungoma district, Kenya. The cornerstone of the programme was the district's training of 73 wholesalers who were equipped with customized job aids for distribution to small retailers. Methods Six months after training the wholesalers, the programme was evaluated using mystery shoppers. The shoppers posed as caretakers of sick children needing medication at 252 drug outlets. Afterwards, supervisors assessed the outlets' knowledge, drug stocks, and prices. Results The intervention seems to have had a significant impact on stocking patterns, malaria knowledge and prescribing practices of shops/kiosks, but not consistently on other types of outlets. About 32% of shops receiving job aids prescribed to mystery shoppers the approved first-line drug, sulfadoxine-pyremethamine, as compared to only 3% of the control shops. In the first six months, it is estimated that 500 outlets were reached, at a cost of about $8000. Conclusions Changing private sector knowledge and practices is widely acknowledged to be slow and difficult. The vendor-to-vendor programme seems a feasible district-level strategy for achieving significant improvements in knowledge and practices of shops/kiosks. However, alternate strategies will be needed to influence pharmacies and clinics. Overall, the impact will be only moderate unless national policies and programmes are also introduced.
Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L
. Most patients treated for P. falciparum malaria should be admitted to hospital for at least 24 h as patients can deteriorate suddenly, especially early in the course of treatment. In specialised units seeing large numbers of patients, outpatient treatment may be considered if specific protocols for patient selection and follow up are in place. 10. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria should be treated with an artemisinin combination therapy (Grade 1A). Artemether-lumefantrine (Riamet(®)) is the drug of choice (Grade 2C) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim(®)) is an alternative. Quinine or atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone(®)) can be used if an ACT is not available. Quinine is highly effective but poorly-tolerated in prolonged treatment and should be used in combination with an additional drug, usually oral doxycycline. 11. Severe falciparum malaria, or infections complicated by a relatively high parasite count (more than 2% of red blood cells parasitized) should be treated with intravenous therapy until the patient is well enough to continue with oral treatment. Severe malaria is a rare complication of P. vivax or P. knowlesi infection and also requires parenteral therapy. 12. The treatment of choice for severe or complicated malaria in adults and children is intravenous artesunate (Grade 1A). Intravenous artesunate is unlicensed in the EU but is available in many centres. The alternative is intravenous quinine, which should be started immediately if artesunate is not available (Grade 1A). Patients treated with intravenous quinine require careful monitoring for hypoglycemia. 13. Patients with severe or complicated malaria should be managed in a high-dependency or intensive care environment. They may require haemodynamic support and management of: acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute kidney injury, seizures, and severe intercurrent infections including Gram-negative bacteraemia/septicaemia. 14. Children with
Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends that malaria be confirmed by parasitological diagnosis before treatment using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT. Despite this, many health workers in malaria endemic countries continue to diagnose malaria based on symptoms alone. This study evaluates interventions to help bridge this gap between guidelines and provider practice. A stratified cluster-randomized trial in 42 communities in Enugu state compared 3 scenarios: Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs with basic instruction (control; RDTs with provider training (provider arm; and RDTs with provider training plus a school-based community intervention (provider-school arm. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients treated according to guidelines, a composite indicator requiring patients to be tested for malaria and given treatment consistent with the test result. The primary outcome was evaluated among 4946 (93% of the 5311 patients invited to participate. A total of 40 communities (12 in control, 14 per intervention arm were included in the analysis. There was no evidence of differences between the three arms in terms of our composite indicator (p = 0.36: stratified risk difference was 14% (95% CI -8.3%, 35.8%; p = 0.26 in the provider arm and 1% (95% CI -21.1%, 22.9%; p = 0.19 in the provider-school arm, compared with control. The level of testing was low across all arms (34% in control; 48% provider arm; 37% provider-school arm; p = 0.47. Presumptive treatment of uncomplicated malaria remains an ingrained behaviour that is difficult to change. With or without extensive supporting interventions, levels of testing in this study remained critically low. Governments and researchers must continue to explore alternative ways of encouraging providers to deliver appropriate treatment and avoid the misuse of valuable medicines.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350752.
Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nick P J
In the SEAQUAMAT trial, parenteral artesunate was shown to be associated with a considerably lower mortality than quinine, and is now the recommended treatment for severe malaria in low-transmission areas and in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. A trial is underway to establish its role in African children. The development of artesunate suppositories may provide the means to treat patients with severe disease in remote rural settings, potentially buying the time needed to reach a health care facility. The increasing availability of basic intensive care facilities in developing countries also has the potential to further reduce mortality.
Nov 5, 2007 ... consequences of malaria treatment pattern and management strategies in an urban center. Questionnaires were issued ... anopheles mosquitoes as malaria vector are some of the factors militating against prevention and proper management of the .... bush clearing, drainage and gutter control in preventing.
Hansen, K. S.; Lesner, T. H.; Østerdal, L. P.
Background: Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice of...... seeking care for malaria in the private sector. © 2016 The Author(s)....
Rajakaruna, R S; Weerasinghe, M; Alifrangis, M
was applied taking all response variables as binary outcome. RESULTS: Vendors' knowledge on antimalarials was poor with 58% of the vendors being unaware of the government malaria drug policy in the country. Also, the advice provided to customers buying antimalarials was limited. However, the majority......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment is particularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge about antimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use of antimalarials...... and improve adherence to the government's malaria drug policy. Results of a study on the knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka, mostly in malarious areas are presented. METHODS: Data on awareness of government's malaria drug policy, practice of issuing...
strategy need to be established. Therefore, this study aimed at determining barriers to prompt malaria treatment among this vulnerable age group in Mpika district. Objective: To determine the barriers to prompt malaria treatment among children under five years of age with malaria in Mpika district. Study design: This was an ...
Mbonye, A.K.; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Magnussen, Pascal
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non-randomized comm......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non......-randomized community trial was implemented in 21 community clusters (intervention) and four clusters where health units provided routine IPTp (control). The primary outcome measures were access and adherence to IPTp, number of malaria episodes, prevalence of anaemia, and birth weight. Numbers of live births, abortions......, still births, and maternal and child deaths were secondary endpoints. FINDINGS: 1404 (67.5%) of 2081 with the new delivery system received two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus 281 (39.9%) of 704 with health units (P malaria episodes decreased from 906 (49...
major strategies for reducing the burden of malaria, therefore ... children. The incidence of history of fever, indicative of malaria in children of the respondents within one ... interventions for the control of childhood malaria. ..... Yellow eyes. 20.
Beatrice I. Amboko
Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN in Kenya. This study describes documented clinical features, laboratory investigations and treatment of malaria in children (2–59 months and adherence to national guidelines. Results A total of 13,014 children had a malaria diagnosis on admission to the five hospitals between March, 2014 and February, 2016. Their median age was 24 months (IQR 12–36 months. The proportion with a diagnostic test for malaria requested was 11,981 (92.1 %. Of 10,388 patients with malaria test results documented, 8050 (77.5 % were positive and anti-malarials were prescribed in 6745 (83.8 %. Malaria treatment was prescribed in 1613/2338 (69.0 % children with a negative malaria result out of which only 52 (3.2 % had a repeat malaria test done as recommended in national guidelines. Documentation of clinical features was good across all hospitals, but quinine remained the most prescribed malaria drug (47.2 % of positive cases although a transition to artesunate (46.1 % was observed. Although documented clinical features suggested approximately half of positive malaria patients were not severe cases artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed on admission in only 3.7 % cases. Conclusions Despite improvements in inpatient malaria care, high rates of presumptive treatment for test negative children and likely
Free treatment, rapid malaria diagnostic tests and malaria village workers can hasten progress toward achieving the malaria related millennium development goals: the Médecins Sans Frontières experience from Chad, Sierra-Leone and Mali
Full Text Available Halving the burden of malaria by 2015 and ensuring that 80% of people with malaria receive treatment is among the health related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Despite political momentum toward achieving this target, progress is slow and many with malaria (particularly in poor and rural communities in Africa are still without access to effective treatment. Finding ways to improve access to anti-malarial treatment in Africa is essential to achieve the malaria related and other MDG targets. During its work in Chad, Sierra Leone and Mali in the period 2004 to 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières showed that it was possible to significantly improve access to effective malaria treatment through: i the removal of health centre level user fees for essential healthcare for vulnerable population groups, ii the introduction of free community based treatment for children using malaria village workers to diagnose and treat simple malaria in communities where geographical and financial barriers limited access to effective malaria care, iii the improved diagnosis and treatment of malaria using rapid diagnosis tests and artemisinin based combination therapy, at both health facilities and in the community. This paper describes and discusses these strategies and their related impact.
The feasibility, patterns of use and acceptability of using mobile phone text-messaging to improve treatment adherence and post-treatment review of children with uncomplicated malaria in western Kenya.
Otieno, Gabriel; Githinji, Sophie; Jones, Caroline; Snow, Robert W; Talisuna, Ambrose; Zurovac, Dejan
Trials evaluating the impact of mobile phone text-messaging to support management of acute diseases, such as malaria, are urgently needed in Africa. There has been however a concern about the feasibility of interventions that rely on access to mobile phones among caregivers in rural areas. To assess the feasibility and inform development of an intervention to improve adherence to malaria medications and post-treatment review, mobile phone network, access, ownership and use among caregivers in western Kenya was assessed. A cross-sectional survey based on outpatient exit interviews was undertaken among caregivers of children with malaria at four trial facilities. The main outcomes were proportions of caregivers that have mobile signal at home; have access to mobile phones; are able to read; and use text-messaging. Willingness to receive text-message reminders was also explored. Descriptive analyses were performed. Of 400 interviewed caregivers, the majority were female (93.5%), mothers of the sick children (87.8%) and able to read (97.3%). Only 1.7% of caregivers were without any education. Nearly all (99.8%) reported access to a mobile signal at home. 93.0% (site range: 89-98%) had access to a mobile phone within their household while 73.8% (site range: 66-78%) possessed a personal phone. Among caregivers with mobile phone access, 93.6% (site range: 85-99%) used the phone to receive text-messages. Despite only 19% having electricity at home nearly all (99.7%) caregivers reported that they would be able to have permanent phone access to receive text-messages in the next 28 days. Willingness to receive text-message reminders was nearly universal (99.7%) with 41.7% of caregivers preferring texts in English, 32.3% in Kiswahili and 26.1% in Dholuo. Despite concerns that the feasibility of text-messaging interventions targeting caregivers may be compromised in rural high malaria risk areas in Kenya, very favourable conditions were found with respect to mobile network
Background The recent introduction of mobile phones into the rural Bandarban district of Bangladesh provided a resource to improve case detection and treatment of patients with malaria. Methods During studies to define the epidemiology of malaria in villages in south-eastern Bangladesh, an area with hypoendemic malaria, the project recorded 986 mobile phone calls from families because of illness suspected to be malaria between June 2010 and June 2012. Results Based on phone calls, field workers visited the homes with ill persons, and collected blood samples for malaria on 1,046 people. 265 (25%) of the patients tested were positive for malaria. Of the 509 symptomatic malaria cases diagnosed during this study period, 265 (52%) were detected because of an initial mobile phone call. Conclusion Mobile phone technology was found to be an efficient and effective method for rapidly detecting and treating patients with malaria in this remote area. This technology, when combined with local knowledge and field support, may be applicable to other hard-to-reach areas to improve malaria control. PMID:23374585
children who presented with malaria symptoms at the same clinic and tested positive or ... phagocytes immunity and induce anti-inflammatory immune response ...... treatment gap, Malawi will be ready to submit a validation request for virtual .... Conclusions. Vaccination and quarantine are the important disease preventive.
A cost-effectiveness analysis of provider interventions to improve health worker practice in providing treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments and donors all over Africa are searching for sustainable, affordable and cost-effective ways to improve the quality of malaria case management. Widespread deficiencies have been reported in the prescribing and counselling practices of health care providers treating febrile patients in both public and private health facilities. Cameroon is no exception with low levels of adherence to national guidelines, the frequent selection of non-recommended antimalarials and the use of incorrect dosages. This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing two different provider training packages, alongside rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, designed to equip providers with the knowledge and practical skills needed to effectively diagnose and treat febrile patients. The overall aim is to target antimalarial treatment better and to facilitate optimal use of malaria treatment guidelines. Methods/Design A 3-arm stratified, cluster randomized trial will be conducted to assess whether introducing RDTs with provider training (basic or enhanced is more cost-effective than current practice without RDTs, and whether there is a difference in the cost effectiveness of the provider training interventions. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients attending facilities that report a fever or suspected malaria and receive treatment according to malaria guidelines. This will be measured by surveying patients (or caregivers as they exit public and mission health facilities. Cost-effectiveness will be presented in terms of the primary outcome and a range of secondary outcomes, including changes in provider knowledge. Costs will be estimated from a societal and provider perspective using standard economic evaluation methodologies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877
Kremsner, P G; Looareesuwan, S; Chulay, J D
Safe and effective new drugs are needed for treatment of malaria. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial combination that has recently become available in many countries. Data from clinical trials evaluating atovaquone/proguanil for treatment of malaria were reviewed. In 10 open-label clinical trials, treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria with 1000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride (or the equivalent based on body weight in patients proguanil has been used to provide radical cure of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections prior to initiation of placebo-controlled trials of malaria prophylaxis. Recurrent parasitemia occurred within 28 days in 0 of 99 subjects who subsequently received prophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil and 1 of 81 subjects who subsequently received placebo. Atovaquone/proguanil is also effective for treatment of malaria caused by the other three Plasmodium species that cause malaria in humans. For treatment of vivax malaria, therapy with primaquine in addition to atovaquone/proguanil is needed to prevent relapse from latent hepatic hypnozoites. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a safe and effective combination for treatment of malaria.
age are accessing prompt malaria treatment at health facilities. ... been mentioned include cultural beliefs about the cause, treatment or ..... Factors Perceived by Caretakers as Barriers to Health. Care for ... Asia Pacific J Public Health. 2001 ...
Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Somé, Jerome W; Vosti, Stephen A; Brown, Kenneth H; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Zinéwindé P; Guissou, Rosemonde M; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco
Background: Supplementing young children’s diets with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) may prevent growth restriction, but the optimal amount of zinc to include in these products is uncertain. Objectives: To assess zinc-related functional responses among young Burkinabe children who received LNS without or with varied amounts of zinc, and to compare these outcomes among children who do or do not receive LNS and selected health services. Methods: In a partially masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 34 communities were assigned to immediate (II) or non-intervention (NI) cohorts. 2469 eligible II children were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups to receive LNS containing 0, 5 or 10 mg zinc (and placebo tablet) or LNS without zinc and 5 mg zinc tablet from 9 to 18 months of age. The daily ration of LNS was 20 g which provided 118 kcal along with 20 other micronutrients in addition to zinc. Weekly morbidity surveillance was conducted at children’s homes; malaria treatment was provided for confirmed malaria, and ORS for reported diarrhea. Children in NI (n = 797) received neither supplements nor illness treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were measured in all children. Results: Reported adherence was 97 ± 5% for LNS and tablets. Mean baseline Hb was 89 ± 15 g/L, and 91% were anemic (Hb <110 g/L). At 18 months, change in Hb was greater in II cohort than NI (+8 vs -1 g/L, p<0.0001), but 79% of II were still anemic (vs. 91% in NI). During the 9 month follow-up in the II cohort, the incidence of diarrhea and malaria was 1.15 ± 1.18 and 0.55 ± 0.54 episodes per 100 child-days, respectively and did not differ by intervention group. At baseline, mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ), weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) and MUAC were -1.21 ± 1.10, -0.99 ± 1.05 and 133 ± 12 mm, respectively, in all groups combined. Mean length, weight and MUAC were significantly greater
Bawate, Charles; Callender-Carter, Sylvia T; Nsajju, Ben; Bwayo, Denis
adherence to new treatment guidelines. Adherence to malaria treatment guidelines in Uganda is sub-optimal. There is an urgent need for deliberate interventions to improve adherence to these guidelines. Possible interventions to be explored should include: provision of job aides and improved access to laboratory services. There is also a need for continuous medical educational sessions for health workers, especially those at higher-level facilities and higher cadres, on adherence to guidelines in management of fever, including management of other causes of fever.
Patel, Samir N; Kain, Kevin C
Increases in international travel and escalating drug resistance have resulted in a growing number of travelers at risk of contracting malaria. Drug resistance and intolerance to standard agents such as chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and mefloquine has highlighted the need for new antimalarials. The recently licensed fixed combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone) is a promising new agent to prevent and treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Randomized controlled trials have shown that atovaquone/proguanil is well tolerated and efficacious for the prevention and treatment of drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. Atovaquone/proguanil is active against the liver stage of P. falciparum malaria parasites and when used as a prophylactic agent it can be discontinued shortly after leaving malaria-endemic areas, offering a clear advantage for drug adherence.
Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine
Introduction Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care (ANC) clinics is recommended for malaria endemic countries. The vast biomedical literature on malaria prevention focuses more on the epidemiological...... of the recommended interventions. Objective To review literature on policy advances, achievements, constraints and challenges to malaria IPTp implementation, emphasising its operational feasibility in the context of health-care financing, provision and uptake, resource constraints and psychosocial factors in Africa...... discriminatory socio-cultural values on and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy guidelines on essential ANC services; implementing IPTp, bednets, HIV...
Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu
Intravenous artesunate improves survival in severe malaria, but clinical trial data from nonendemic countries are scarce. The TropNet severe malaria database was analyzed to compare outcomes of artesunate vs quinine treatment. Artesunate reduced parasite clearance time and duration of intensive...
Oluyomi F. Bamiselu
healthcare workers (60.6 % compared to those in private facilities (27.3 %. Availability of antimalarial medicine was the main factor that influenced treatment prescription in both healthcare settings (p = 0.27. However, drug promotion by manufactures (45.8 % has a major influence on private healthcare workers’ prescription practice. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate significant difference between public and private healthcare workers on adherence to national malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines. Interventions to improve private sector engagement in implementation of the guidelines, training and supply of recommended antimalarial medicines should be intensified.
Li, Wei; Han, Le Qiang; Guo, Yan Jun; Sun, Jing
Malaria is the main health risk for Chinese expatriates working in Niger. Health education is a recommended intervention for prevention of malaria among non-immune travellers and expatriate workers. It is urgent to develop an effective and feasible way for these populations to obtain information about the prevention and treatment of malaria. An individually randomized, unblinded, controlled trial was used to evaluate the effectiveness of using WeChat official accounts for health education to improve malaria health literacy among Chinese expatriates in Niger. A total 1441 participants completed a baseline malaria health literacy questionnaire and were randomly assigned to an intervention or comparison group in a ratio of 1:1. From July to October 2014, 50 malaria prevention and treatment messages were sent to the intervention group; 50 health news messages were concurrently sent to the control group. Both groups completed the malaria health literacy questionnaire again 4 months after the start of the education intervention. A questionnaire addressing satisfaction with the health education programme was completed by the intervention group. Malaria morbidity data for 2013 and 2014 were also collected. At baseline, participant health literacy rates were 58.29, 62, 54, and 34% for skills, knowledge, practice, and attitude, respectively. After the intervention, rates for all four aspects of malaria literacy were above 70%. There was greater change in knowledge, attitude, practice, skills, and overall health literacy among the intervention group compared with the controls, with a statistically significant difference (p WeChat health education programme with over 80% stating that they would continue to follow the programme. The present health education intervention, via a WeChat official account, for the prevention and treatment of malaria among non-immune travellers and expatriate workers proved to be an effective, sustainable, feasible, and well accepted strategy for
Jacklin F Mosha
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over diagnosis of malaria contributes to improper treatment, wastage of drugs and resistance to the few available drugs. This paper attempts to estimate the rates of over diagnosis of malaria among children attending dispensaries in rural Tanzania and examines the potential cost implications of improving the quality of diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The magnitude of over diagnosis of malaria was estimated by comparing the proportion of outpatient attendees of all ages clinically diagnosed as malaria to the proportion of attendees having a positive malaria rapid diagnostic test over a two month period. Pattern of causes of illness observed in a or=5 year age group in the lower transmission site (RR 14.0 95%CI 8.2-24.2. In the low transmission site the proportion of morbidity attributable to malaria was substantially lower in <2 year old cohort compared to children seen at routine care system. (0.08% vs 28.2%; p<0.001. A higher proportion of children were diagnosed with ARI in the <2 year old cohort compared to children seen at the routine care system ( 42% vs 26%; p<0.001. Using a RDT reduced overall drug and diagnostic costs by 10% in the high transmission site and by 15% in the low transmission site compared to total diagnostic and drug costs of treatment based on clinical judgment in routine health care system. IMPLICATIONS: The introduction of RDTs is likely to lead to financial savings. However, improving diagnosis to one disease may lead to over diagnosis of another illness. Quality improvement is complex but introducing RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria is a good start.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria places a significant burden on the limited resources of many low income countries. Knowing more about why and where people seek treatment will enable policy makers to better allocate the limited resources. This study aims to better understand what influences treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in one such low-income country context, Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods Two culturally, linguistically and demographically different regions in PNG were selected as study sites. A cross sectional household survey was undertaken in both sites resulting in the collection of data on 928 individuals who reported suffering from malaria in the previous four weeks. A probit model was then used to identify the factors determining whether or not people sought treatment for presumptive malaria. Multinomial logit models also assisted in identifying the factors that determined where people sought treatments. Results Results in this study build upon findings from other studies. For example, while distance in PNG has previously been seen as the primary factor in influencing whether any sort of treatment will be sought, in this study cultural influences and whether it was the first, second or even third treatment for a particular episode of malaria were also important. In addition, although formal health care facilities were the most popular treatment sources, it was also found that traditional healers were a common choice. In turn, the reasons why participants chose a particular type of treatment differed according to the whether they were seeking an initial or subsequent treatments. Conclusions Simply bringing health services closer to where people live may not always result in a greater use of formal health care facilities. Policy makers in PNG need to consider within-country variation in treatment-seeking behaviour, the important role of traditional healers and also ensure that the community fully understands the potential implications
Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim
Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.
Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.
Tawiah, Theresa; Malam, Keziah; Kwarteng, Anthony; Bart-Plange, Constance; Febir, Lawrence; Aubyn, Vivian; Obermann, Konrad; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asante, Kwaku Poku
Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) enhances patient management and reduces costs associated with the inappropriate use of antimalarials. Despite its proven clinical effectiveness, mRDT is not readily available at licensed chemical shops in Ghana. Therefore, in order to improve the use of mRDT, there is the need to understand the willingness to pay for and sell mRDT. This study assessed patients' willingness to pay and licensed chemical operators' (LCS) willingness to sell mRDTs. The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South District of Ghana. Contingent valuation method using the dichotomous approach was applied to explore patient's willingness to pay. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were used to obtain information from licensed chemical operators' willingness to sell. Majority 161 (97%) of the customers were willing to pay for mRDT while 100% of licensed chemical operators were also willing to sell mRDT. The average lowest amount respondents were willing to pay was Ghana cedis (GH¢) 1.1 (US$ 0.26) and an average highest amount of GH¢ 2.1 (US$ 0.49). LCS operators were willing to sell the test kit at an average lowest price of GH¢1 (US$ 0.23) and average highest price of GH¢2 (US$ 0.47). Community members were willing to pay for mRDT and LCS operators are willing to sell mRDTs. However, the high cost of the mRDT is likely to prevent the widespread use of mRDT. There is a clear need to find system-compatible ways to subsidize the use of mRDT via National Health Insurance scheme.
Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…
WHO malaria expert, Dr. Charlotte Rasmussen, discusses anti-malarial drug resistance in Vietnam. Created: 6/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 6/5/2017.
Kimura, Masatsugu; Teramoto, Isao; Chan, Chim W; Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Kongere, James; Kagaya, Wataru; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Asada, Ryoko; Isozumi, Rie; Kaneko, Akira
Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference filter was deployed in some malaria-endemic countries. However, it has not been widely adopted because: (1) the lamp was weak as an excitation light and the set-up did not work well under unstable power supply; and, (2) the staining of samples was frequently inconsistent. The halogen lamp was replaced by a low-cost, blue light-emitting diode (LED) lamp. Using a reformulated AO solution, the staining protocol was revised to make use of a concentration gradient instead of uniform staining. To evaluate this new AO diagnostic system, a pilot field study was conducted in the Lake Victoria basin in Kenya. Without staining failure, malaria infection status of about 100 samples was determined on-site per one microscopist per day, using the improved AO diagnostic system. The improved AO diagnosis had both higher overall sensitivity (46.1 vs 38.9%: p = 0.08) and specificity (99.0 vs 96.3%) than the Giemsa method (N = 1018), using PCR diagnosis as the standard. Consistent AO staining of thin blood films and rapid evaluation of malaria parasitaemia with the revised protocol produced superior results relative to the Giemsa method. This AO diagnostic system can be set up easily at low cost using an ordinary light microscope. It may supplement rapid diagnostic tests currently used in clinical settings in malaria-endemic countries, and may be considered as an inexpensive tool for case surveillance in malaria-eliminating countries.
Olumese Peter E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and prompt treatment including appropriate home-based treatment of malaria is a major strategy for malaria control. A major determinant of clinical outcome in case management is compliance and adherence to effective antimalarial regimen. Home-based malaria treatment with inappropriate medicines is ineffective and there is insufficient evidence on how this contributes to the outcome of severe malaria. This study evaluated the effects of pre-hospital antimalarial drugs use on the presentation and outcome of severe malaria in children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods Two hundred and sixty-eight children with a median age of 30 months comprising 114 children with cerebral malaria and 154 with severe malarial anaemia (as defined by WHO were prospectively enrolled. Data on socio-demographic data, treatments given at home, clinical course and outcome of admission were collected and analysed. Results A total of 168 children had treatment with an antimalarial treatment at home before presenting at the hospital when there was no improvement. There were no significant differences in the haematocrit levels, parasite counts and nutritional status of the pre-hospital treated and untreated groups. The most commonly used antimalarial medicine was chloroquine. Treatment policy was revised to Artemesinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT in 2005 as a response to unacceptable levels of therapeutic failures with chloroquine, however chloroquine use remains high. The risk of presenting as cerebral malaria was 1.63 times higher with pre-hospital use of chloroquine for treatment of malaria, with a four-fold increase in the risk of mortality. Controlling for other confounding factors including age and clinical severity, pre-hospital treatment with chloroquine was an independent predictor of mortality. Conclusion This study showed that, home treatment with chloroquine significantly impacts on the outcome of severe malaria. This finding
Full Text Available Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District.A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively.Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata.The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors.
Williams, Holly Ann; Durrheim, David; Shretta, Rima
Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to commonly used antimalarials, such as chloroquine, has resulted in many endemic countries considering changing their malaria treatment policy. Identifying and understanding the key influences that affect decision-making, and factors that facilitate or undermine policy implementation, is critical for improving the policy process and guiding resource allocation during this process. A historical review of archival documents from Malaŵi and data obtained from in-depth policy studies in four countries (Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya and Peru) that have changed malaria treatment policy provides important lessons about decision-making, the policy cycle and complex policy environment, while specifically identifying strategies successfully employed to facilitate policy-making and implementation. Findings from these country-level studies indicate that the process of malaria drug policy review should be institutionalized in endemic countries and based on systematically collected data. Key stakeholders need to be identified early and engaged in the process, while improved communication is needed on all levels. Although malaria drug policy change is often perceived to be a daunting task, using these and other proven strategies should assist endemic countries to tackle this challenge in a systematic fashion that ensures the development and implementation of the rational malaria drug policy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt access to effective malaria treatment is central to the success of malaria control worldwide, but few fevers are treated with effective anti-malarials within 24 hours of symptoms onset. The last two decades saw an upsurge of initiatives to improve access to effective malaria treatment in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence suggests that the poorest populations remain least likely to seek prompt and effective treatment, but the factors that prevent them from accessing interventions are not well understood. With plans under way to subsidize ACT heavily in Kenya and other parts of Africa, there is urgent need to identify policy actions to promote access among the poor. This paper explores access barriers to effective malaria treatment among the poorest population in four malaria endemic districts in Kenya. Methods The study was conducted in the poorest areas of four malaria endemic districts in Kenya. Multiple data collection methods were applied including: a cross-sectional survey (n = 708 households; 24 focus group discussions; semi-structured interviews with health workers (n = 34; and patient exit interviews (n = 359. Results Multiple factors related to affordability, acceptability and availability interact to influence access to prompt and effective treatment. Regarding affordability, about 40 percent of individuals who self-treated using shop-bought drugs and 42 percent who visited a formal health facility reported not having enough money to pay for treatment, and having to adopt coping strategies including borrowing money and getting treatment on credit in order to access care. Other factors influencing affordability were seasonality of illness and income sources, transport costs, and unofficial payments. Regarding acceptability, the major interrelated factors identified were provider patient relationship, patient expectations, beliefs on illness causation, perceived effectiveness of treatment, distrust in
Improving malaria treatment and prevention in India by aiding district managers to manage their programmes with local information: a trial assessing the impact of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling on programme outcomes.
Valadez, Joseph J; Devkota, Baburam; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Meherda, Pramod; Sonal, G S; Dhariwal, Akshay; Davis, Rosemary
This paper reports the first trial of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) assessing associations between access to LQAS data and subsequent improvements in district programming. This trial concerns India's approach to addressing an increase in malaria-attributable deaths by training community health workers to diagnose, treat and prevent malaria, while using LQAS to monitor sub-district performance and make programme improvements. The Ministry of Health introduced LQAS into four matched high malaria burden districts (Annual Parasite Incidence >5) (N > 5 million). In each sub-district, we sampled four populations in three 6-monthly surveys: households, children LQAS results appeared to support district managers to increase coverage in underperforming areas, especially for vertical strategies in the presence of diligent managers. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking behaviours in Abeokuta, south-west Nigeria. ... Self-diagnosis for the disease was more common (60.8%) among the participants, compared to other measures; seeking laboratory test (26.5%) and clinical diagnosis (9.1%). A good proportion of the ...
and practices related to its prevention and treatment among the women of. Kuje Area ... five in Kuje had poor knowledge of the cause of malaria and its prevention method, and ... serious that every 30 seconds, an under- five child ... Zα = percentage point of normal distribution .... Up to 60 - 70% of the population had either.
communities, health system, and workforce.8 The financial loss due to malaria annually is estimated ... in the form of treatment costs, prevention, loss of productivity and earning due to days lost from illness etc which whittle away Nigeria's prospects for development.9 .... combine the herbal medicine with orthodox drugs.
Mangham, Lindsay J; Cundill, Bonnie; Achonduh, Olivia A; Ambebila, Joel N; Lele, Albertine K; Metoh, Theresia N; Ndive, Sarah N; Ndong, Ignatius C; Nguela, Rachel L; Nji, Akindeh M; Orang-Ojong, Barnabas; Wiseman, Virginia; Pamen-Ngako, Joelle; Mbacham, Wilfred F
To investigate the quality of malaria case management in Cameroon 5 years after the adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Treatment patterns were examined in different types of facility, and the factors associated with being prescribed or receiving an ACT were investigated. A cross-sectional cluster survey was conducted among individuals of all ages who left public and private health facilities and medicine retailers in Cameroon and who reported seeking treatment for a fever. Prevalence of malaria was determined by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in consenting patients attending the facilities and medicine retailers. Among the patients, 73% were prescribed or received an antimalarial, and 51% were prescribed or received an ACT. Treatment provided to patients significantly differed by type of facility: 65% of patients at public facilities, 55% of patients at private facilities and 45% of patients at medicine retailers were prescribed or received an ACT (P = 0.023). The odds of a febrile patient being prescribed or receiving an ACT were significantly higher for patients who asked for an ACT (OR = 24.1, P < 0.001), were examined by the health worker (OR = 1.88, P = 0.021), had not previously sought an antimalarial for the illness (OR = 2.29, P = 0.001) and sought treatment at a public (OR = 3.55) or private facility (OR = 1.99, P = 0.003). Malaria was confirmed in 29% of patients and 70% of patients with a negative result were prescribed or received an antimalarial. Malaria case management could be improved. Symptomatic diagnosis is inefficient because two-thirds of febrile patients do not have malaria. Government plans to extend malaria testing should promote rational use of ACT; though, the introduction of rapid diagnostic testing needs to be accompanied by updated clinical guidelines that provide clear guidance for the treatment of patients with negative test results. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
yield and encapsulation efficiency were ~92% and 93% for Precirol® ATO 5/Transcutol® HP batch, then 81% and 95% for tallow fat/Transcutol® HP batch while LUM was amorphous in NLC matrix. In vitro AL release from liquisolid compacts revealed initial burst release and subsequent sustained release. Liquisolid tablet compacts formulated with Precirol® ATO 5/Transcutol® HP-AL4 achieved higher LUM release in simulated intestinal fluid (84.32% than tallow fat/Transcutol® HP-BL3 (77.9%. Non-Fickian (anomalous diffusion and super case II transport were the predominant mechanisms of drug release. Equal parasitemia reduction was observed for both batches of tablet compacts (~92%, superior to the reduction obtained with commercial antimalarial formulations: Coartem® tablets (86% and chloroquine phosphate tablets (66%. No significant difference (P<0.05 in parasite reduction between double (4/24 mg/kg and single (2/12 mg/kg strength doses of AL compacts was observed. Our result highlights that AL could be formulated in much lower doses (4/24 mg/kg, for once-in-two days oral administration to improve patient compliance, which is currently not obtainable with conventional AL dosage forms. Keywords: malaria, artemisinin-based combination therapy, antiplasmodial activity, liquisolid compacts, nanostructured lipid carriers
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria treatment-seeking practices vary worldwide and Bangladesh is no exception. Individuals from 88 villages in Rajasthali were asked about their treatment-seeking practices. A portion of these households preferred malaria treatment from the National Control Programme, but still a large number of households continued to use drug vendors and approximately one fourth of the individuals surveyed relied exclusively on non-control programme treatments. The risks of low-control programme usage include incomplete malaria treatment, possible misuse of anti-malarial drugs, and an increased potential for drug resistance. Methods The spatial patterns of treatment-seeking practices were first examined using hot-spot analysis (Local Getis-Ord Gi statistic and then modelled using regression. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression identified key factors explaining more than 80% of the variation in control programme and vendor treatment preferences. Geographically weighted regression (GWR was then used to assess where each factor was a strong predictor of treatment-seeking preferences. Results Several factors including tribal affiliation, housing materials, household densities, education levels, and proximity to the regional urban centre, were found to be effective predictors of malaria treatment-seeking preferences. The predictive strength of each of these factors, however, varied across the study area. While education, for example, was a strong predictor in some villages, it was less important for predicting treatment-seeking outcomes in other villages. Conclusion Understanding where each factor is a strong predictor of treatment-seeking outcomes may help in planning targeted interventions aimed at increasing control programme usage. Suggested strategies include providing additional training for the Building Resources across Communities (BRAC health workers, implementing educational programmes, and addressing economic factors.
Ceccato, P.; Trzaska, S.; Perez, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; del Corral, J.; Cousin, R.; Blumenthal, M. B.; Connor, S.; Thomson, M. C.
Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use, and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular Meningitis and Malaria. In this paper we present the new and improved products that have been developed for monitoring dust, temperature, rainfall and vectorial capacity model for monitoring and forecasting risks of Meningitis and Malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.
Ceccato, Pietro; Trzaska, Sylwia; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Kalashnikova, Olga; del Corral, John; Cousin, Remi; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Bell, Michael; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.
Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular meningitis and malaria. In this paper, we present the new and improved products that have been developed for: (i) estimating dust aerosol for forecasting risks of meningitis and (ii) for monitoring temperature and rainfall and integrating them into a vectorial capacity model for forecasting risks of malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map Room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.
... less than the risk of catching this infection. Chloroquine has been the drug of choice for protecting against malaria. But because of resistance, it is now only suggested for use in areas where Plasmodium vivax , P. oval , and ...
... bites you, the parasite can get into your blood. The parasite lays eggs, which develop into more parasites. They ... cells until you get very sick. Because the parasites live in the blood, malaria can also be spread through other ways. ...
Makemba Ahmed M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Africa, the private retail sector has been recognised as an important source of antimalarial treatment, complementing formal health services. However, the quality of advice and treatment at private outlets is a widespread concern, especially with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs. As a result, ACTs are often deployed exclusively through public health facilities, potentially leading to poorer access among parts of the population. This research aimed at assessing the performance of the retail sector in rural Tanzania. Such information is urgently required to improve and broaden delivery channels for life-saving drugs. Methods During a comprehensive shop census in the districts of Kilombero and Ulanga, Tanzania, we interviewed 489 shopkeepers about their knowledge of malaria and malaria treatment. A complementary mystery shoppers study was conducted in 118 retail outlets in order to assess the vendors' drug selling practices. Both studies included drug stores as well as general shops. Results Shopkeepers in drug stores were able to name more malaria symptoms and were more knowledgeable about malaria treatment than their peers in general shops. In drug stores, 52% mentioned the correct child-dosage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP compared to only 3% in general shops. In drug stores, mystery shoppers were more likely to receive an appropriate treatment (OR = 9.6, but at an approximately seven times higher price. Overall, adults were more often sold an antimalarial than children (OR = 11.3. On the other hand, general shopkeepers were often ready to refer especially children to a higher level if they felt unable to manage the case. Conclusion The quality of malaria case-management in the retail sector is not satisfactory. Drug stores should be supported and empowered to provide correct malaria-treatment with drugs they are allowed to dispense. At the same time, the role of general shops
Hanson Kara G
Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Methods Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. Results A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Conclusions Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for
Patouillard, Edith; Hanson, Kara G; Goodman, Catherine A
In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only) and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for Malaria, which aims to increase consumer access to artemisinin
Argaw, Mesele D; Woldegiorgis, Asfawesen Gy; Abate, Derebe T; Abebe, Mesfin E
Malaria is a major public health problem and still reported among the 10 top causes of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. More than one-third of the people sought treatment from the private health sector. Evaluating adherences of health care providers to standards are paramount importance to determine the quality and the effectiveness of service delivery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of public private mix (PPM) approach in improving quality of malaria case management among formal private providers. A retrospective data analysis was conducted using 2959 facility-months data collected from 110 PPM for malaria care facilities located in Amhara, Dire Dawa, Hareri, Oromia, Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples and Tigray regions. Data abstraction formats were used to collect and collate the data on quarterly bases. The data were manually cleaned and analysed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. To claim statistical significance non-parametric McNemar test was done and decision accepted at P < 0.05. From April 2012-September 2015, a total of 873,707 malaria suspected patients were identified, of which one-fourth (25.6 %) were treated as malaria cases. Among malaria suspected cases the proportion of malaria investigation improved from recorded in first quarter 87.7-100.0 % in last quarter (X(2) = 66.84, P < 0.001). The majority (96.0 %) were parasitologically-confirmed cases either by using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. The overall slid positivity rate was 25.1 % of which half (50.7 %) were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and slightly lower than half (45.2 %) for Plasmodium vivax; the remaining 8790 (4.1 %) showed mixed infections of P. falciparum and P. vivax. Adherence to appropriate treatment using artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was improved from 47.8 % in the first quarter to 95.7 % in the last quarter (X(2) = 12.89, P < 0.001). Similarly, proper patient management using chloroquine (CQ) was improved
BACKGROUND: Achieving adequate antimalarial drug exposure is essential for curing malaria. Day 7 blood or plasma lumefantrine concentrations provide a simple measure of drug exposure that correlates well with artemether-lumefantrine efficacy. However, the 'therapeutic' day 7 lumefantrine concentr......BACKGROUND: Achieving adequate antimalarial drug exposure is essential for curing malaria. Day 7 blood or plasma lumefantrine concentrations provide a simple measure of drug exposure that correlates well with artemether-lumefantrine efficacy. However, the 'therapeutic' day 7 lumefantrine......-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to define therapeutic day 7 lumefantrine concentrations and identify patient factors that substantially alter these concentrations. A systematic review of PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov and conference proceedings identified all relevant studies...... lumefantrine concentrations ≥200 ng/ml and high cure rates in most uncomplicated malaria patients. Three groups are at increased risk of treatment failure: very young children (particularly those underweight-for-age); patients with high parasitemias; and patients in very low transmission intensity areas...
Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; de Lima, Alzemar Alves; Freitag, Elci Marlei; dos Santos, Tatiana Marcondes; do Nascimento Filha, Maria Teixeira; dos Santos Júnior, Alcides Procópio Justiniano; da Silva, Josiane Mendes; Rodrigues, Aline de Freitas; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando
In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc), currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT). The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23577276
Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa
Full Text Available In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc, currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC, was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT. The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trials of intermittent preventive treatment against malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP have shown a positive, albeit variable, protective efficacy against clinical malaria episodes. The impact of IPTi in different epidemiological settings and over time is unknown and predictions are hampered by the lack of knowledge about how IPTi works. We investigated mechanisms proposed for the action of IPTi and made predictions of the likely impact on morbidity and mortality. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a comprehensive, individual-based, stochastic model of malaria epidemiology to simulate recently published trials of IPTi using SP with site-specific characteristics as inputs. This baseline model was then modified to represent hypotheses concerning the duration of action of SP, the temporal pattern of fevers caused by individual infections, potential benefits of avoiding fevers on immunity and the effect of sub-therapeutic levels of SP on parasite dynamics. The baseline model reproduced the pattern of results reasonably well. None of the models based on alternative hypotheses improved the fit between the model predictions and observed data. Predictions suggest that IPTi would have a beneficial effect across a range of transmission intensities. IPTi was predicted to avert a greater number of episodes where IPTi coverage was higher, the health system treatment coverage lower, and for drugs which were more efficacious and had longer prophylactic periods. The predicted cumulative benefits were proportionately slightly greater for severe malaria episodes and malaria-attributable mortality than for acute episodes in the settings modelled. Modest increased susceptibility was predicted between doses and following the last dose, but these were outweighed by the cumulative benefits. The impact on transmission intensity was negligible. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of trial results can be accounted for by differences between
Umeano-Enemuoh, Jane C; Uzochukwu, Benjamim; Ezumah, Nkoli; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Wiseman, Virginia; Onwujekwe, Obinna
It has been widely acknowledged that well-planned and executed communication programmes can contribute to achieving malaria prevention and treatment goals. This however requires a good understanding of current sources and roles of information used by both health workers and communities. The study aimed at determining health workers' and community members' sources, value and use of information on malaria prevention and treatment in Nigeria. Qualitative data was collected from six selected communities (three urban and three rural) in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. A total of 18 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 179 community members and 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health workers in public and private health facilities were used to collect data on where people receive treatment for malaria and access information on malaria. The FGDS and IDIs also provided data on the values, uses and effects of information and communication on malaria treatment seeking and provision of services. The findings revealed that the major sources of information on malaria for health workers and community members were advertisements in the mass media, workshops and seminars organized by donor agencies, facility supervision, posters, other health workers, television and radio adverts. Community involvement in the design and delivery of information on malaria control was seen as a strong strategy for improving both consumer and provider knowledge. Information from the different sources catalyzed appropriate provision and consumption of malaria treatment amongst health workers and community members. Health workers and consumers receive information on malaria prevention and treatment from multiple sources of communication and information, which they find useful. Harnessing these information sources to encourage consistent and accurate messages around malaria prevention and treatment is a necessary first step in the design and implementation of malaria communication and behaviour change
of malaria among pregnant women in riverine community in Bayelsa State, ... at high risk of the effects of malaria infection and need special protective .... mentioned maintenance of clean environment, as other methods of preventing malaria.
Hansen, Kristian S; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal
was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) performed by CHWs in two areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. CHWs were trained to perform mRDTs and treat children with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT......) in the intervention arm while CHWs offered treatment based on presumptive diagnosis in the control arm. Data on the proportion of children with fever 'appropriately treated for malaria with ACT' were captured from a randomised trial. Health sector costs included: training of CHWs, community sensitisation, supervision...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective case management is central to reducing malaria mortality and morbidity worldwide, but only a minority of those affected by malaria, have access to prompt effective treatment. In Kenya, the Division of Malaria Control is committed to ensuring that 80 percent of childhood fevers are treated with effective anti-malarial medicines within 24 hours of fever onset, but this target is largely unmet. This review aimed to document evidence on access to effective malaria treatment in Kenya, identify factors that influence access, and make recommendations on how to improve prompt access to effective malaria treatment. Since treatment-seeking patterns for malaria are similar in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, the findings presented in this review have important lessons for other malaria endemic countries. Methods Internet searches were conducted in PUBMED (MEDLINE and HINARI databases using specific search terms and strategies. Grey literature was obtained by soliciting reports from individual researchers working in the treatment-seeking field, from websites of major organizations involved in malaria control and from international reports. Results The review indicated that malaria treatment-seeking occurs mostly in the informal sector; that most fevers are treated, but treatment is often ineffective. Irrational drug use was identified as a problem in most studies, but determinants of this behaviour were not documented. Availability of non-recommended medicines over-the-counter and the presence of substandard anti-malarials in the market are well documented. Demand side determinants of access include perception of illness causes, severity and timing of treatment, perceptions of treatment efficacy, simplicity of regimens and ability to pay. Supply side determinants include distance to health facilities, availability of medicines, prescribing and dispensing practices and quality of medicines. Policy level factors are around
... Featured Diseases & Conditions Food Allergy HIV/AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find ... To Volunteer for Vaccine Research Studies Volunteer for Malaria Vaccine Research Volunteer Profiles Q&A: Vaccine Clinical ...
Full Text Available Objective: To assess people ’s knowledge about malaria treatment which is one of the main components of the roll back malaria (RBM programme instituted on the African Continent with the aim of bringing the disease under control. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2009, involving 3 171 adult women who were selected from households using systematic sampling methods. Quantitative information such as age, educational level, marital status, occupation, number of children and knowledge of malaria were obtained using structured and semi-structured questionnaires, while qualitative information was obtained using focussed and in-depth group discussions to complement quantitative data. Results: The modes of approach to malaria treatment were 41.1% (1 302, 36.0% (1 143, 10.7% (339 and 0.5% (15 would attend hospital/clinic, buy drugs from pharmacy/chemist shop, take traditional herbs, and take no action respectively. Factors that were found to increase the level of knowledge about antimalarial drugs among the respondents were increasing educational level, being married compared to singles, having children and increasing family income (P 0.05. Knowledge about artemisinin combined therapy (ACT was less than 15% similar with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT; home-based management for malaria (HBMM was not in place. Conclusions: The drug component of the RBM programme in the community should be reviewed and appropriate amends instituted in order to ensure efficiency of the overall malaria control programme in the community.
Background: Despite the rapid expansion of malaria into highland areas of Ethiopia and the movement of malaria inexperienced people to endemic areas, there is no enough information about how highland communities perceive malaria. Objective: To assess communities' awareness of malaria and its mosquito vector in ...
management, addressing treatment, monitoring for parasite drug resistance, and the impact of drug resistance on ... at all levels of healthcare delivery and ... System (DHS) based on primary healthcare .... intramuscular artesunate, artemether,.
Full Text Available Malaria in pregnancy is a public health problem for endemic countries. Economic evaluations of malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy are needed to guide health policies.This analysis was carried out in the context of a trial of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP, where both intervention groups received an insecticide treated net through the antenatal clinic (ANC in Mozambique. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP on maternal clinical malaria and neonatal survival was estimated. Correlation and threshold analyses were undertaken to assess the main factors affecting the economic outcomes and the cut-off values beyond which the intervention is no longer cost-effective. In 2007 US$, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for maternal malaria was 41.46 US$ (95% CI 20.5, 96.7 per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY averted. The ICER per DALY averted due to the reduction in neonatal mortality was 1.08 US$ (95% CI 0.43, 3.48. The ICER including both the effect on the mother and on the newborn was 1.02 US$ (95% CI 0.42, 3.21 per DALY averted. Efficacy was the main factor affecting the economic evaluation of IPTp-SP. The intervention remained cost-effective with an increase in drug cost per dose up to 11 times in the case of maternal malaria and 183 times in the case of neonatal mortality.IPTp-SP was highly cost-effective for both prevention of maternal malaria and reduction of neonatal mortality in Mozambique. These findings are likely to hold for other settings where IPTp-SP is implemented through ANC visits. The intervention remained cost-effective even with a significant increase in drug and other intervention costs. Improvements in the protective efficacy of the intervention would increase its cost-effectiveness. Provision of IPTp with a more effective, although more expensive drug than SP may still remain a cost-effective public health measure to prevent malaria in pregnancy
Mbonye, A.K.; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
The main objective of this study was to assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilisers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to pregnant women. The study w...
Suswardany, Dwi Linna; Sibbritt, David W; Supardi, Sudibyo; Pardosi, Jerico F; Chang, Sungwon; Adams, Jon
The level of traditional medicine use, particularly Jamu use, in Indonesia is substantial. Indonesians do not always seek timely treatment for malaria and may seek self-medication via traditional medicine. This paper reports findings from the first focused analyses of traditional medicine use for malaria in Indonesia and the first such analyses worldwide to draw upon a large sample of respondents across high-risk malaria endemic areas. A sub-study of the Indonesia Basic Health Research/Riskesdas Study 2010 focused on 12,226 adults aged 15 years and above residing in high-risk malaria-endemic provinces. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine the significant associations for traditional medicine use for malaria symptoms. Approximately one in five respondents use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms and the vast majority experiencing multiple episodes of malaria use traditional medicine alongside free antimalarial drug treatments. Respondents consuming traditional medicine for general health/common illness purposes every day (odds ratio: 3.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.93 4.79), those without a hospital in local vicinity (odds ratio: 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10 1.57), and those living in poorer quality housing, were more likely to use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms. A substantial percentage of those with malaria symptoms utilize traditional medicine for treating their malaria symptoms. In order to promote safe and effective malaria treatment, all providing malaria care in Indonesia need to enquire with their patients about possible traditional medicine use.
Msyamboza, K. P.; Savage, E. J.; Kazembe, P. N.; Gies, S.; Kalanda, G.; D'Alessandro, U.; Brabin, B. J.
To evaluate the impact of a 2-year programme for community-based delivery of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine (SP) on intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy coverage, antenatal clinic attendance and pregnancy outcome. Fourteen intervention and 12 control villages in the catchment areas of
dividing and are far more noticeable than the small amount of clear cyto- plasm surrounding them (Figs 10.6a & 10.6b). Mature schizonts contain 8...edema Same as P. vivax 16 10 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Figure 10.38 Transmission electron micrograph of...mesangiopathic glo- merulonephropathy caused by quartan malaria, deposition of immune complexes may be demonstrated by electron or immunofluorescence microscopy
Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Faiz, M. Abul; Ruangveerayut, Ronnatrai; Maude, Richard; Rahman, M. Ridwanur; Roberts, L. Jackson; Moore, Kevin; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hoque, M. Gofranul; Hasan, Mahatab Uddin; Lee, Sue J.; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Newton, Paul N.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.
Objective Markers of oxidative stress are reported to be increased in severe malaria. It has been suggested that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in treatment. We studied the efficacy and safety of parenteral N-acetylcysteine as an adjunct to artesunate treatment of severe falciparum malaria. Design A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial on the use of high dose intravenous NAC as adjunctive treatment to artesunate. Setting A provincial hospital in Western Thailand and a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Patients One hundred and eight adult patients with severe falciparum malaria. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive N-acetylcysteine or placebo as adjunctive treatment to intravenous artesunate. Measurements and main results A total of 56 patients were treated with NAC and 52 received placebo. NAC had no significant effect on mortality, lactate clearance times (p=0.74) or coma recovery times (p=0.46). Parasite clearance time was increased from 30h (range 6h to 144h) to 36h (range 6h to 120h) (p=0.03), but this could be explained by differences in admission parasitemia. Urinary F2-isoprostane metabolites, measured as a marker of oxidative stress, were increased in severe malaria compared to patients with uncomplicated malaria and healthy volunteers. Admission red cell rigidity correlated with mortality, but did not improve with NAC. Conclusion Systemic oxidative stress is increased in severe malaria. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine had no effect on outcome in patients with severe falciparum malaria in this setting. PMID:19114891
Background: Malaria and HIV-1 infection cause significant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV-1 increases risk for malaria with the risk increasing as immunity declines.The effect of HIV-1 infection on antimalarial treatment outcome is still inconclusive. Objective: To compare antimalarial treatment outcome ...
Mbonye, Anthony K.; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian S.; Cundill, Bonnie; Chandler, Clare; Clarke, Siân E.
Background Inappropriate treatment of malaria is widely reported particularly in areas where there is poor access to health facilities and self-treatment of fevers with anti-malarial drugs bought in shops is the most common form of care-seeking. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. Methods A cluster-randomized trial of introducing mRDTs in registered drug shops was implemented in 20 geographical clusters of drug shops in Mukono district, central Uganda. Ten clusters were randomly allocated to the intervention (diagnostic confirmation of malaria by mRDT followed by ACT) and ten clusters to the control arm (presumptive treatment of fevers with ACT). Treatment decisions by providers were validated by microscopy on a reference blood slide collected at the time of consultation. The primary outcome was the proportion of febrile patients receiving appropriate treatment with ACT defined as: malaria patients with microscopically-confirmed presence of parasites in a peripheral blood smear receiving ACT or rectal artesunate, and patients with no malaria parasites not given ACT. Findings A total of 15,517 eligible patients (8672 intervention and 6845 control) received treatment for fever between January-December 2011. The proportion of febrile patients who received appropriate ACT treatment was 72·9% versus 33·7% in the control arm; a difference of 36·1% (95% CI: 21·3 – 50·9), pshop vendors adhered to the mRDT results, reducing over-treatment of malaria by 72·6% (95% CI: 46·7– 98·4), pshop vendors using presumptive diagnosis (control arm). Conclusion Diagnostic testing with mRDTs compared to presumptive treatment of fevers implemented in registered drug shops substantially improved appropriate
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion
Cohen, Justin M; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pothin, Emilie; Eisele, Thomas P; Gething, Peter W; Eckhoff, Philip A; Moonen, Bruno; Schapira, Allan; Smith, David L
There is a long history of considering the constituent components of malaria risk and the malaria transmission cycle via the use of mathematical models, yet strategic planning in endemic countries tends not to take full advantage of available disease intelligence to tailor interventions. National malaria programmes typically make operational decisions about where to implement vector control and surveillance activities based upon simple categorizations of annual parasite incidence. With technological advances, an enormous opportunity exists to better target specific malaria interventions to the places where they will have greatest impact by mapping and evaluating metrics related to a variety of risk components, each of which describes a different facet of the transmission cycle. Here, these components and their implications for operational decision-making are reviewed. For each component, related mappable malaria metrics are also described which may be measured and evaluated by malaria programmes seeking to better understand the determinants of malaria risk. Implementing tailored programmes based on knowledge of the heterogeneous distribution of the drivers of malaria transmission rather than only consideration of traditional metrics such as case incidence has the potential to result in substantial improvements in decision-making. As programmes improve their ability to prioritize their available tools to the places where evidence suggests they will be most effective, elimination aspirations may become increasingly feasible.
Mbonye, A K; Schultz Hansen, K; Bygbjerg, I C
whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilizers can administer IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to pregnant women, reach those at greatest risk of malaria, and increase access and compliance with IPTp. STUDY DESIGN...... of the intervention on access to malaria treatment, antenatal care, other services and related costs. RESULTS: More women (67.5%) received two doses of SP through the community approach compared with health units (39.9%; P... in the community had sought malaria treatment (70.3%), suggesting the possibility that the novel approach had a positive impact on care seeking for malaria. Similarly, utilization of antenatal care, insecticide-treated nets and delivery care by women in the community was high. The total costs per woman receiving...
Mbonye, Anthony; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bygbjerg, Ib
whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilizers can administer IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to pregnant women, reach those at greatest risk of malaria, and increase access and compliance with IPTp. Study design...... of the intervention on access to malaria treatment, antenatal care, other services and related costs. Results: More women (67.5%) received two doses of SP through the community approach compared with health units (39.9%; P... in the community had sought malaria treatment (70.3%), suggesting the possibility that the novel approach had a positive impact on care seeking for malaria. Similarly, utilization of antenatal care, insecticide-treated nets and delivery care by women in the community was high. The total costs per woman receiving...
Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine
and other discriminatory socio-cultural values on pregnancy; target users, perceptions and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy guidelines on essential...... and cost-effectiveness analyses of the randomised controlled trials carried out in selected geographical settings. Such studies fail to elucidate the economic, psychosocial, managerial, organization and other contextual systemic factors influencing the operational effectiveness, compliance and coverage...... in Africa. RESULTS: The importance of IPTp in preventing unnecessary anaemia, morbidity and mortality in pregnancy and improving childbirth outcomes is highly acknowledged, although the following factors appear to be the main constraints to IPTp service delivery and uptake: cost of accessing ANC; myths...
Katherine E Halliday
Full Text Available Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the benefits of alternative school-based malaria interventions or how the impacts of interventions vary according to intensity of malaria transmission. We investigated the effect of intermittent screening and treatment (IST for malaria on the health and education of school children in an area of low to moderate malaria transmission.A cluster randomised trial was implemented with 5,233 children in 101 government primary schools on the south coast of Kenya in 2010-2012. The intervention was delivered to children randomly selected from classes 1 and 5 who were followed up for 24 months. Once a school term, children were screened by public health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, and children (with or without malaria symptoms found to be RDT-positive were treated with a six dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL. Given the nature of the intervention, the trial was not blinded. The primary outcomes were anaemia and sustained attention. Secondary outcomes were malaria parasitaemia and educational achievement. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. During the intervention period, an average of 88.3% children in intervention schools were screened at each round, of whom 17.5% were RDT-positive. 80.3% of children in the control and 80.2% in the intervention group were followed-up at 24 months. No impact of the malaria IST intervention was observed for prevalence of anaemia at either 12 or 24 months (adjusted risk ratio [Adj.RR]: 1.03, 95% CI 0.93-1.13, p = 0.621 and Adj.RR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.90-1.11, p = 0.953 respectively, or on prevalence of P. falciparum infection or scores of classroom attention. No effect of IST was observed on educational achievement in the older class, but an apparent negative effect was seen on spelling scores in
Ngarivhume, Talkmore; Van't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; de Jong, Joop T V M; Van der Westhuizen, Jan H
Because about 50% of the Zimbabwean population is at risk of contracting malaria each year, the majority of people, especially in rural areas, use traditional plant-based medicines to combat malaria. This explorative ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to document how malaria is conceptualized and diagnosed by traditional healers, and to record the medicinal plants used in the prevention and treatment of malaria, their mode of preparation and administration. The research was conducted in three villages in Headman Muzite׳s area and in Chiriga village. These villages are located in the Chipinge district in the Manicaland Province in Zimbabwe.Traditional healers were selected with the assistance of the headman of the Muzite area and a representative of the Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers Association. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 traditional healers from four villages in the Chipinge district in Zimbabwe. In total, 28 plants from 16 plant families are used by the healers who manage malaria with medicinal plants. The most cited plant is Cassia abbreviata Oliv. (Leguminosae) followed by Aristolochia albida Duch (Aristolociaceae) and Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae). Roots (55.3%) are the most common part used. Most of the plant parts used to treat malaria are stored as dried powders in closed bottles. The powders are soaked in hot or cold water and the water extract is taken as the active medicine. The healers consider their medicinal knowledge as a spiritual family heritage. Only 25% of the healers refer the malaria patients that do not respond to their treatment to hospital - they believe evil spirits cause their remedies to failure and they would rather try a different plant or perform a cleansing ceremony. Local knowledge of medicinal plants in the treatment of malaria still exists in all four villages surveyed and traditional healers appear to play an important role in primary health care services in this remote rural area in
000 deaths. The burden was heaviest in WHO African. Region where an estimated 90% of all malaria death occurred and in children aged under 5 years, who accounted for 10% of all ... account for the number of deaths due to malaria. This cannot be .... therefore asking patient to bear the cost of admission in hospitals may ...
Khan, M.A.; Smego Jr, R.A.; Razi, S.T.; Beg, M.A.
The increasing prevalence of multi-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide is a serious public health threat to the global control of malaria, especially in poor countries like Pakistan. In many countries chloroquine-resistance is a huge problem, accounting for more than 90% of malaria cases. In Pakistan, resistance to chloroquine is on the rise and reported in up to 16- 62% of Plasmodium falciparum. Four to 25% of Plasmodium falciparum also reported to be resistant to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and several cases of delayed parasite clearance have been observed in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria treated with quinine. In this article we have introduced the concept of artemisinin- based combination therapy (ACT) and emphasize the use of empiric combination therapy for all patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria to prevent development of drug resistance and to obtain additive and synergistic killing of parasite. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp. IPTp consists in the administration of a single curative dose of an efficacious anti-malarial drug at least twice during pregnancy – regardless of whether the woman is infected or not. The drug is administered under supervision during antenatal care visits. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is the drug currently recommended by the WHO. While SP-IPTp seems an adequate strategy, there are many issues still to be explored to optimize it. This paper reviewed data on IPTp efficacy and discussed how to improve it. In particular, the determination of both the optimal number of doses and time of administration of the drug is essential, and this has not yet been done. As both foetal growth and deleterious effects of malaria are maximum in late pregnancy women should particularly be protected during this period. Monitoring of IPTp efficacy should be applied to all women, and not only to primi- and secondigravidae, as it has not been definitively established that multigravidae are not at risk for malaria morbidity and mortality. In HIV-positive women, there is an urgent need for specific information on drug administration patterns (need for higher doses, possible interference with sulpha-based prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. Because of the growing level of resistance of parasites to SP, alternative drugs for IPTp are urgently needed. Mefloquine is presently one of the most attractive options because of its long half life, high efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa and safety during pregnancy. Also, efforts should be made to increase IPTp coverage by improving the practices of health care workers, the motivation of women and their perception of malaria complications in pregnancy. Because IPTp
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively, household interviews (n = 400, both sides and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2% than in Vietnam (1.8% and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90% in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is
Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P
and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria...... was associated with socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental factors, but more especially with household ownership of ITNs. These results will contribute to the current debate on identifying new approaches for scaling-up prevention interventions and effective case management, as well as selection of priority...
Abdulla, Salim; Achan, Jane; Adam, Ishag
Background: Gametocytes are responsible for transmission of malaria from human to mosquito. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) reduces post-treatment gametocyte carriage, dependent upon host, parasite and pharmacodynamic factors. The gametocytocidal properties of antimalarial drugs are importa...
Matangila, Junior R; Mitashi, Patrick; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel A; Lutumba, Pascal T; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a proven malaria control strategy in infants and pregnancy. School-aged children represent 26 % of the African population, and an increasing percentage of them are scholarized. Malaria is causing 50 % of deaths in this age group and malaria control efforts may shift the malaria burden to older age groups. Schools have been suggested as a platform for health interventions delivery (deworming, iron-folic acid, nutrients supplementation, (boost-)immunization) and as a possible delivery system for IPT in schoolchildren (IPTsc). However, the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IPTsc is limited and the optimal therapeutic regimen remains controversial. A systematic search for studies reporting efficacy and safety of IPT in schoolchildren was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials and WHO/ICTRP database, and abstracts from congresses with the following key words: intermittent, preventive treatment AND malaria OR Plasmodium falciparum AND schoolchildren NOT infant NOT pregnancy. Five studies were identified. Most IPTsc regimes demonstrated substantial protection against malaria parasitaemia, with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) given monthly having the highest protective effect (PE) (94 %; 95 % CI 93-96). Contrarily, SP did not provide any PE against parasitaemia. However, no IPT regimen provided a PE above 50 % in regard to anaemia, and highest protection was provided by SP+ amodiaquine (AQ) given four-monthly (50 %; 95 % CI 41-53). The best protection against clinical malaria was observed in children monthly treated with DP (97 %; 95 % CI 87-98). However, there was no protection when the drug was given three-monthly. No severe adverse events were associated with the drugs used for IPTsc. IPTsc may reduce the malaria-related burden in schoolchildren. However, more studies assessing efficacy of IPT in particular against malaria-related anaemia and clinical malaria in schoolchildren must be conducted.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Uganda; and it is the leading cause of anaemia among pregnant women and low birth weight in infants. Previous studies have noted poor quality of care in the private sector. Thus there is need to explore ways of improving quality...... of care in the private sector that provides almost a half of health services in Uganda. METHODS: A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 within 57 parishes in Mukono district, central Uganda. The selected parishes had a minimum of 200 households and at least one registered drug shop, pharmacy...... the factors that most influenced correct treatment of fever in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Treatment of fever during pregnancy was poor in this study setting. These data highlight the need to develop interventions to improve patient safety and quality of care for pregnant women in the private health sector...
Seck, Mame Cheikh; Thwing, Julie; Fall, Fatou Ba; Gomis, Jules Francois; Deme, Awa; Ndiaye, Yaye Die; Daniels, Rachel; Volkman, Sarah K; Ndiop, Medoune; Ba, Mady; Ndiaye, Daouda
Malaria transmission in Senegal is highly stratified, from low in the dry north to moderately high in the moist south. In northern Senegal, along the Senegal River Valley and in the Ferlo semi-desert region, annual incidence is less than five cases per 1000 inhabitants. Many nomadic pastoralists have permanent dwellings in the Ferlo Desert and Senegal River Valley, but spend dry season in the south with their herds, returning north when the rains start, leading to a concern that this population could contribute to ongoing transmission in the north. A modified snowball sampling survey was conducted at six sites in northern Senegal to determine the malaria prevention and treatment seeking practices and parasite prevalence among nomadic pastoralists in the Senegal River Valley and the Ferlo Desert. Nomadic pastoralists aged 6 months and older were surveyed during September and October 2014, and data regarding demographics, access to care and preventive measures were collected. Parasite infection was detected using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy (thin and thick smears) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular barcodes were determined by high resolution melting (HRM). Of 1800 participants, 61% were male. Sixty-four percent had at least one bed net in the household, and 53% reported using a net the night before. Only 29% had received a net from a mass distribution campaign. Of the 8% (142) who reported having had fever in the last month, 55% sought care, 20% of whom received a diagnostic test, one-third of which (n = 5) were reported to be positive. Parasite prevalence was 0.44% by thick smear and 0.50% by PCR. None of the molecular barcodes identified among the nomadic pastoralists had been previously identified in Senegal. While access to and utilization of malaria control interventions among nomadic pastoralists was lower than the general population, parasite prevalence was lower than expected and sheds doubt on the perception that they are a
Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Banegas, Engels Ilich; Mendoza, Meisy; Diaz, Cesar; Bucheli, Sandra Tamara Mancero; Fontecha, Gustavo A; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Goldman, Ira; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Zambrano, Jose Orlinder Nicolas
Chloroquine (CQ) is officially used for the primary treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the municipality of Puerto Lempira, Gracias a Dios, Honduras was evaluated using the Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization protocol with a follow-up of 28 days. Sixty-eight patients from 6 months to 60 years of age microscopically diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were included in the final analysis. All patients who were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) cleared parasitemia by day 3 and acquired no new P. falciparum infection within 28 days of follow-up. All the parasite samples sequenced for CQ resistance mutations (pfcrt) showed only the CQ-sensitive genotype (CVMNK). This finding shows that CQ remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Gracias a Dios, Honduras.
Johansson, Emily White
Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have great potential to improve quality care and rational drug use in malaria-endemic settings although studies have shown common RDT non-compliance. Yet, evidence has largely been derived from limited hospital settings in few countries. This article reviews a PhD thesis that analyzed national surveys from multiple sub-Saharan African countries to generate large-scale evidence of malaria diagnosis practices and its determinants across different contexts. Design A mixed-methods approach was used across four studies that included quantitative analysis of national household and facility surveys conducted in multiple sub-Saharan African countries at the outset of new guidelines (Demographic and Health Surveys and Service Provision Assessments). Qualitative methods were used to explore reasons for quantitative findings in select settings. Results There was low (17%) and inequitable test uptake across 13 countries in 2009–2011/12, with greater testing at hospitals than at peripheral clinics (odds ratio [OR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.69) or community health workers (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.23–0.43) (Study I). Significant variation was found in the effect of diagnosis on antimalarial use at the population level across countries (Uganda OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66–1.06; Mozambique OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.33–5.39) (Study II). A Malawi national facility census indicated common compliance to malaria treatment guidelines (85% clients with RDT-confirmed malaria prescribed first-line treatment), although other fever assessments were not often conducted and there was poor antibiotic targeting (59% clients inappropriately prescribed antibiotics). RDT-negative patients had 16.8 (95% CI: 8.6–32.7) times higher odds of antibiotic overtreatment than RDT-positive patients conditioned by cough or difficult breathing complaints (Study III). In Mbarara (Uganda), health workers reportedly prescribed antimalarials to RDT
Emily White Johansson
Full Text Available Background: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have great potential to improve quality care and rational drug use in malaria-endemic settings although studies have shown common RDT non-compliance. Yet, evidence has largely been derived from limited hospital settings in few countries. This article reviews a PhD thesis that analyzed national surveys from multiple sub-Saharan African countries to generate large-scale evidence of malaria diagnosis practices and its determinants across different contexts. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used across four studies that included quantitative analysis of national household and facility surveys conducted in multiple sub-Saharan African countries at the outset of new guidelines (Demographic and Health Surveys and Service Provision Assessments. Qualitative methods were used to explore reasons for quantitative findings in select settings. Results: There was low (17% and inequitable test uptake across 13 countries in 2009–2011/12, with greater testing at hospitals than at peripheral clinics (odds ratio [OR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.69 or community health workers (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.23–0.43 (Study I. Significant variation was found in the effect of diagnosis on antimalarial use at the population level across countries (Uganda OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66–1.06; Mozambique OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.33–5.39 (Study II. A Malawi national facility census indicated common compliance to malaria treatment guidelines (85% clients with RDT-confirmed malaria prescribed first-line treatment, although other fever assessments were not often conducted and there was poor antibiotic targeting (59% clients inappropriately prescribed antibiotics. RDT-negative patients had 16.8 (95% CI: 8.6–32.7 times higher odds of antibiotic overtreatment than RDT-positive patients conditioned by cough or difficult breathing complaints (Study III. In Mbarara (Uganda, health workers reportedly prescribed antimalarials to
net, eating or keeping garlic in pocket, while more than half (67.1%) of the participants had no information about ... malaria is transmitted and how people protect themselves from the ..... wrong beliefs could hamper prevention and control of the.
Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.
Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density a...
Uzochukwu Benjamin S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria places a great burden on households, but the extent to which this is tilted against the poor is unclear. However, the knowledge of the level of the burden of malaria amongst different population groups is vital for ensuring equitable control of malaria. This paper examined the inequities in occurrence, economic burden, prevention and treatment of malaria. Methods The study was undertaken in four malaria endemic villages in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. An asset-based index was used to categorize the households into socio-economic status (SES quartiles: least poor; poor; very poor; and most poor. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the statistical significance of the SES differences in incidence, length of illness, ownership of treated nets, expenditures on treatment and prevention. Results All the SES quartiles had equal exposure to malaria. The pattern of health seeking for all the SES groups was almost similar, but in one of the villages the most poor, very poor and poor significantly used the services of patent medicine vendors and the least poor visited hospitals. The cost of treating malaria was similar across the SES quartiles. The average expenditure to treat an episode of malaria ranged from as low as 131 Naira ($1.09 to as high as 348 Naira ($2.9, while the transportation expenditure to receive treatment ranged from 26 Naira to 46 Naira (both less than $1. The level of expenditure to prevent malaria was low in the four villages, with less than 5% owning untreated nets and 10.4% with insecticide treated nets. Conclusion Malaria constitutes a burden to all SES groups, though the poorer socio-economic groups were more affected, because a greater proportion of their financial resources compared to their income are spent on treating the disease. The expenditures to treat malaria by the poorest households could lead to catastrophic health
Mokuolu Olugbenga A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP is currently the recommended regimen for prevention of malaria in pregnancy in endemic areas. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of IPT-SP in the prevention of maternal and placental malaria in parturient mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria, where the risk of malaria is present all year round. Method During a larger study evaluating the epidemiology of congenital malaria, the effect of malaria prophylaxis was examined in 983 parturient mothers. Five hundred and ninety eight mothers (60.8% received IPT-SP, 214 (21.8% received pyrimethamine (PYR and 171 (17.4% did not take any chemoprophylactic agent (NC. Results The prevalence of maternal parasitaemia in the IPT-SP, PYR and NC groups was 10.4%, 15.9% and 17% respectively (p = 0.021. The prevalence of placental parasitaemia was 10.5% in the IPT-SP, 16.8% PYR and 17% NC groups, respectively (p = 0.015. The prevalence of maternal anaemia (haematocrit Conclusion IPT-SP is effective in preventing maternal and placental malaria as well as improving pregnancy outcomes among parturient women in Ibadan, Nigeria. The implementation of the recently adopted IPT-SP strategy should be pursued with vigour as it holds great promise for reducing the burden of malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria.
Donath Samuel Tarimo
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate community knowledge and perceptions on the management of nonmalarial fevers under reduced malaria burden and the implications on the uptake of artmetherlumefantrine (ALu for malaria treatment. Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out in Morogoro Municipality in March 2015 to examine community knowledge and perceptions on the management of fever among underfives and effectiveness of ALu for malaria treatment. Household members were interviewed on knowledge of common childhood illnesses, recognition of fever symptom, and illnesses that present with fever; under-fives with a history of fever and malaria test and use of antimalarials in the last two weeks. Notion of whether every fever is due to malaria and the perceived effectiveness of ALu for malaria treatment was also assessed. Results: Fever was reported in 1 146 (69.2% under-fives, with malaria being the commonest illness (81.8% which was highly associated with fever (92.1%; other conditions associated with fever were respiratory (60.0% and gastroenteric (47.8% conditions. Malaria test was positive in 257/1 140 (22.5% under-fives; however 23.2% received ALu. The large majority (84.6% had the notion that not all fevers are due to malaria. About two thirds (63.4% believed that ALu has reduced fever episodes; however only about a half (54.6% rated ALu as being very effective. More than two thirds (70.4% of the respondents would prefer to continue using ALu as a 1st line drug. Conclusions: Fever is still a major health problem recognized to be associated with not only malaria. There is a need for continuous public education that ALu is still effective.
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate treatment seeking behaviour and the prevalence of treatment delay of malaria patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with malaria patients along the ThailandMyanmar border in Tak province, Thailand. Results: Most of patients (70.0% were treated for fever before receiving treatment at a malaria clinic or public hospital. The sources of initial treatments were self-treatment (64.0%, malaria clinics (20.0%, public hospital (11.0%, sub-district health promotion hospital (3.3%, and malaria posts (1.1%. Prevalence of patients delayed more than one day after onset of symptoms was 79.4%, but doctor delay of more than one day occurred in only 1.3%. The prevalence of treatment delay (total delay of more than one day was 79.6%. Patient delay and treatment delay were found to be significantly higher among hill tribe than Thai subjects (P=0.004 and 0.003, respectively but, there was no significant association between ethnicity and doctor delay (P=0.669. Conclusion: Patient delay in seeking treatment is a major problem along the ThailandMyanmar border in Tak province, especially in hill tribe people. Self-treatment accounted for most of initial treatment sought by patients.
Anabwani, G; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B
Malaria is a major cause of pediatric mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide estimates of mortality among children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria range from 1 to 2 million deaths per year. Management of malaria is increasingly difficult because of the global spread of drug-resistant strains of P. falciparum. There is an urgent need for safe and effective new therapies to treat multidrug-resistant malaria. This open label, randomized trial compared atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride with halofantrine for treatment of acute, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in children age 3 to 12 years (84 patients per group). Study drug dosages were adjusted by weight (approximately 20 and 8 mg/kg daily for three doses for atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride and 8 mg/kg every 6 h for three doses for halofantrine). Patients were monitored by serial clinical and laboratory assessments for 28 days after starting treatment. Both regimens were effective (cure rate, 93.8% for atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride and 90.4% for halofantrine) and produced prompt defervescence. Mean parasite clearance times were 50.2 h for halofantrine and 64.9 h for atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride. More adverse experiences were reported in children treated with halofantrine (119) than with atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (73). In Kenyan children the combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride has efficacy comparable with that of halofantrine for treatment of acute uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria and is associated with a lower rate of adverse events.
Adam, Ishag; Magzoub, Mamoun; Osman, Maha E
-sulfamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine (AS+SMP f) administered at time intervals of 12 hours for a 24-hour therapy was compared with the efficacy of the same drug given as a loose combination (AS+SMP l) with a dose interval of 24 hours for 3 days for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. RESULTS...... of the patients. CONCLUSION: both regimens of AS+SMP were effective and safe for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. Due to its simplicity, the fixed dose one-day treatment regimen may improve compliance and therefore may be the preferred choice....
Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is associated with a high mortality rate, and long-term neurocognitive impairment in approximately one third of survivors. Adjunctive therapies that modify the pathophysiological processes involved in CM may improve outcome over anti-malarial therapy alone. PPARγ agonists have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects in a variety of disease models. Here we report that adjunctive therapy with PPARγ agonists improved survival and long-term neurocognitive outcomes in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA experimental model of CM. Compared to anti-malarial therapy alone, PPARγ adjunctive therapy administered to mice at the onset of CM signs, was associated with reduced endothelial activation, and enhanced expression of the anti-oxidant enzymes SOD-1 and catalase and the neurotrophic factors brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in the brains of infected mice. Two months following infection, mice that were treated with anti-malarials alone demonstrated cognitive dysfunction, while mice that received PPARγ adjunctive therapy were completely protected from neurocognitive impairment and from PbA-infection induced brain atrophy. In humans with P. falciparum malaria, PPARγ therapy was associated with reduced endothelial activation and with induction of neuroprotective pathways, such as BDNF. These findings provide insight into mechanisms conferring improved survival and preventing neurocognitive injury in CM, and support the evaluation of PPARγ agonists in human CM.
Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Wright, Colin W; Willcox, Merlin L; Gilbert, Ben
In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Narrative review. There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine) and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds). The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.
Methods: One hundred and four patients who said they were not cured after home management of malaria were studied. Giemsa stained blood smears were examined qualitatively and quantitatively using thin and thick films to confirm specie and determine parasite density. Nine symptoms (fever, headache, loss of appetite, ...
is a general risk for malaria within the population, there is an increased vulnerability ... optimal IPTp-SP uptake within the context of high ... in Sub- Saharan African countries in 2010, the average coverage of at ... three step stratified sampling method. Stratification ... estimates were independently observed from recent births ...
Full Text Available This was a retrospective study done on 110 patients hospitalized with P. vivax malaria in three medical college hospitals, one in the union territory of Chandigarh and the other two in Gujarat, that is, Ahmedabad and Surat. The clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome were recorded. As per WHO criteria for severity, 19 of 110 patients had severe disease—six patients had clinical jaundice with hepatic dysfunction, three patients had severe anemia, three had spontaneous bleeding, two had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and one had cerebral malaria, hyperparasitemia, renal failure, circulatory collapse, and metabolic acidosis. All patients with severe P. vivax malaria survived, but one child with cerebral malaria had neurological sequelae. There was wide variation in the antimalarial treatment received at the three centres. Plasmodium vivax malaria can no longer be considered a benign condition. WHO guidelines for treatment of P. vivax malaria need to be reinforced.
Singh, Mrigendra P; Saha, Kalyan B; Chand, Sunil K; Anvikar, Anup
To determine household factors associated with treatment seeking for malaria. The study was carried out in four districts of Madhya Pradesh with different malaria endemicity. A total of 1470 households were interviewed in which at least one member suffered from microscopically confirmed malaria in the 3 months preceding the survey. Socio-demographic, economic, cultural characteristics, their health beliefs, knowledge and practices regarding malaria and choice of treatment seeking were explored. A total of 764 households were from high-endemic and 706 from low-endemic areas. More than half of household heads were illiterate; most are farmers. Approximately 46% sought treatment for malaria from unqualified informal providers; 19% from qualified private health practitioners and 35% from government health providers. Analysis revealed that household's area of residence, education, occupation, ethnicity, use of preventive measures, economic status, knowledge and practices, distance and delayed treatment seeking was strongly associated with the type of healthcare providers selected. Demand for formal health services among the poor, illiterate, tribal population living in remote areas is low. Accessible and affordable health services and a sensitisation programme to increase the demand for formal providers are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Health experts say controlling malaria is crucial if the three East African nations are to achieve the UN Millennium. Development Goal of halving the incidence of infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS by 2015. Looking ahead:Prevention and treatment. Improved malaria prediction will be an.
The International Journal of Malaria and Tropical Diseases (IJMTD) (formally known was the Journal of Malaria in Africa and the Tropics (JMAT) is a publication of the malariologists and researchers in tropical diseases. Its aim is to educate, improved the practice of malaria treatment, stimulate research, encourage academic ...
Vyas, Siddharth; Genis, Vladimir; Friedman, Gary
This paper investigates the feasibility of a cost effective high gradient magnetic separation based device for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a blood sample. The design utilizes magnetic properties of hemozoin present in malaria-infected red blood cells (mRBCs) in order to separate and concentrate them inside a microfluidic channel slide for easier examination under the microscope. The design consists of a rectangular microfluidic channel with multiple magnetic wires positioned on top of and underneath it along the length of the channel at a small angle with respect to the channel axis. Strong magnetic field gradients, produced by the wires, exert sufficient magnetic forces on the mRBCs in order to separate and concentrate them in a specific region small enough to fit within the microscope field of view at magnifications typically required to identify the malaria parasite type. The feasibility of the device is studied using a model where the trajectories of the mRBCs inside the channel are determined using first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) solved numerically using a multistep ODE solver available within MATLAB. The mRBCs trajectories reveal that it is possible to separate and concentrate the mRBCs in less than 5 min, even in cases of very low parasitemia (1–10 parasites/µL of blood) using blood sample volumes of around 3 µL employed today. - Highlights: • A simple and cost-effective design is presented to improve the diagnosis of malaria. • The design is studied using a computational model. • It is possible to concentrate malaria-infected cells in a small area. • This can improve slide-examination and the efficiency of microscopists. • This can improve diagnosis of low-parasitemia and asymptomatic malaria.
Vyas, Siddharth, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Engineering Technology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Genis, Vladimir [Department of Engineering Technology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Friedman, Gary [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)
This paper investigates the feasibility of a cost effective high gradient magnetic separation based device for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a blood sample. The design utilizes magnetic properties of hemozoin present in malaria-infected red blood cells (mRBCs) in order to separate and concentrate them inside a microfluidic channel slide for easier examination under the microscope. The design consists of a rectangular microfluidic channel with multiple magnetic wires positioned on top of and underneath it along the length of the channel at a small angle with respect to the channel axis. Strong magnetic field gradients, produced by the wires, exert sufficient magnetic forces on the mRBCs in order to separate and concentrate them in a specific region small enough to fit within the microscope field of view at magnifications typically required to identify the malaria parasite type. The feasibility of the device is studied using a model where the trajectories of the mRBCs inside the channel are determined using first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) solved numerically using a multistep ODE solver available within MATLAB. The mRBCs trajectories reveal that it is possible to separate and concentrate the mRBCs in less than 5 min, even in cases of very low parasitemia (1–10 parasites/µL of blood) using blood sample volumes of around 3 µL employed today. - Highlights: • A simple and cost-effective design is presented to improve the diagnosis of malaria. • The design is studied using a computational model. • It is possible to concentrate malaria-infected cells in a small area. • This can improve slide-examination and the efficiency of microscopists. • This can improve diagnosis of low-parasitemia and asymptomatic malaria.
Elhassan, I M; Satti, G H; Ali, A E
The efficacy of artemether (a qinghaosu derivative) administered intramuscularly for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was compared to quinine in an open randomized trial including 54 patients in eastern Sudan, where chloroquine resistance is common. The artemether treatment (5 d...
Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul
Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas sleep under insecticide-treated bednets, are treated for malaria illness and anaemia, and receive chemoprevention with an effective antimalarial drug during the second and third trimesters. Objectives To assess the effects of malaria chemoprevention given to pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas on substantive maternal and infant health outcomes. We also summarised the effects of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, and preventive regimens for Plasmodium vivax. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and reference lists up to 1 June 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any antimalarial drug regimen for preventing malaria in pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas compared to placebo or no intervention. In the mother, we sought outcomes that included mortality, severe anaemia, and severe malaria; anaemia, haemoglobin values, and malaria episodes; indicators of malaria infection, and adverse events. In the baby, we sought foetal loss, perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality; preterm birth and birthweight measures; and indicators of malaria infection. We included regimens that were known to be effective against the malaria parasite at the time but may no longer be used because of parasite drug resistance. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RR), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD); both are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We
Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H; Perera, D
Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases is one of the basic elements of the current global malaria control strategy. In order to provide this service to people in rural areas there is a need for new cost-effective approaches. To ensure that such new approaches are acceptable to the target...... substantially from the establishment of more village treatment centers. To ensure the long-term sustainability of these type of facilities it is necessary to assess the feasibility of charging a user fee and establishing multi-purpose clinics. Government policies and administrative procedures will need...
Magnussen, P; Ndawi, B; Sheshe, A K
. Chloroquine (25 mg/kg given over 3 days) was used for treatment. Malariometric surveys on children aged 7-15 years (mean 10 years) were conducted once a year (1995-1997). Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 100% of infections and the parasite prevalence varied between 32.7 and 35.3% from 1995 to 1997......A school health programme in Mwera Division, Pangani District included treatment of malaria attacks occurring in children during school time. A combination of symptoms (headache, muscle/joint pains, feeling feverish) and oral temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C was used for the diagnosis of malaria...
indirect cost accounts for 71 percent of total cost of a malaria episode. While cost of malaria ... 2007; 14:70-79]. Introduction. Malaria ... episodes outside the formal health system, which can be a substantial ... in southern Ghana) of people live below the poverty line  .... ¢4,000 (US$1.07) for male and female respectively.
Fitri, Fanny; Aldila, Dipo
Malaria is a kind of a vector-borne disease. That means this disease needs a vector (in this case, the anopheles mosquito) to spread. In this article, a mathematical model for malaria disease spread will be discussed. The model is constructed as a seven-dimensional of a non-linear ordinary differential equation. The interventions of treatment for infected humans and use of repellent are included in the model to see how these interventions could be considered as alternative ways to control the spread of malaria. Analysis will be made of the disease-free equilibrium point along with its local stability criteria, construction of the next generation matrix which followed with the sensitivity analysis of basic reproduction number. We found that both medical treatment and repellent intervention succeeded in reducing the basic reproduction number as the endemic indicator of the model. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to give a better interpretation of the analytical results.
Halliday Katherine E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of
Full Text Available It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line
Yaw A Afrane
Full Text Available Currently, intensive malaria control programs are being implemented in Africa to reduce the malaria burden. Clinical malaria data from hospitals are valuable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating the impacts of these interventions. However, the reliability of hospital-based data for true malaria incidence is often questioned because of diagnosis accuracy issues and variation in access to healthcare facilities among sub-groups of the population. This study investigated how diagnosis and treatment practices of malaria cases in hospitals affect reliability of hospital malaria data.The study was undertaken in health facilities in western Kenya. A total of 3,569 blood smears were analyzed after being collected from patients who were requested by clinicians to go to the hospital's laboratory for malaria testing. We applied several quality control measures for clinical malaria diagnosis. We compared our slide reading results with those from the hospital technicians. Among the 3,390 patients whose diagnoses were analyzed, only 36% had clinical malaria defined as presence of any level of parasitaemia and fever. Sensitivity and specificity of clinicians' diagnoses were 60.1% (95% CI: 61.1-67.5 and 75.0% (95% CI: 30.8-35.7, respectively. Among the 980 patients presumptively treated with an anti-malarial by the clinicians without laboratory diagnosis, only 47% had clinical malaria.These findings revealed substantial over-prescription of anti-malarials and misdiagnosis of clinical malaria. More than half of the febrile cases were not truly clinical malaria, but were wrongly diagnosed and treated as such. Deficiency in malaria diagnosis makes health facility data unreliable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating impacts of malaria interventions. Improving malaria diagnosis should be a top priority in rural African health centers.
Wieten, Rosanne W; Harting, Janneke; Biemond, Pieter M; Grobusch, Martin P; van Vugt, Michèle
Malaria is a potentially lethal illness for which preventive measures are not optimally used among all travellers. Travellers visiting friends and relatives in their country of origin (VFRs) are known to use chemoprophylaxis less consistently compared to tourist travellers. In this study, factors explaining the low use of chemoprophylaxis were pursued to contribute to improving uptake of preventive measures among VFRs. Following in-depth interviews with Ghanaians living in Amsterdam, a questionnaire was developed to assess which behavioural determinants were related to taking preventive measures. The questionnaire was administered at gates of departing flights from Schiphol International Airport, Amsterdam (the Netherlands) to Kotoka International Airport, Accra (Ghana). In total, 154 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. Chemoprophylaxis had been started by 83 (53.9%) and bought by 93 (60.4%) travellers. Pre-travel advice had been obtained by 104 (67.5%) travellers. Those who attended the pre-travel clinic and those who incorrectly thought they had been vaccinated against malaria were more likely to use preventive measures. Young-, business- and long-term travellers, those who had experienced malaria, and those who thought curing malaria was easier than taking preventive tablets were less likely to use preventive measures. Almost half of the VFRs travelling to West Africa had not started chemoprophylaxis; therefore, there is room for improvement. Risk reduction strategies could aim at improving attendance to travel clinics and focus on young-, business and long term travellers and VFRs who have experienced malaria during consultation. Risk reduction strategies should focus on improving self-efficacy and conceptions of response efficacy, including social environment to aim at creating the positive social context needed.
Background Malaria is a potentially lethal illness for which preventive measures are not optimally used among all travellers. Travellers visiting friends and relatives in their country of origin (VFRs) are known to use chemoprophylaxis less consistently compared to tourist travellers. In this study, factors explaining the low use of chemoprophylaxis were pursued to contribute to improving uptake of preventive measures among VFRs. Methods Following in-depth interviews with Ghanaians living in Amsterdam, a questionnaire was developed to assess which behavioural determinants were related to taking preventive measures. The questionnaire was administered at gates of departing flights from Schiphol International Airport, Amsterdam (the Netherlands) to Kotoka International Airport, Accra (Ghana). Results In total, 154 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. Chemoprophylaxis had been started by 83 (53.9%) and bought by 93 (60.4%) travellers. Pre-travel advice had been obtained by 104 (67.5%) travellers. Those who attended the pre-travel clinic and those who incorrectly thought they had been vaccinated against malaria were more likely to use preventive measures. Young-, business- and long-term travellers, those who had experienced malaria, and those who thought curing malaria was easier than taking preventive tablets were less likely to use preventive measures. Conclusion Almost half of the VFRs travelling to West Africa had not started chemoprophylaxis; therefore, there is room for improvement. Risk reduction strategies could aim at improving attendance to travel clinics and focus on young-, business and long term travellers and VFRs who have experienced malaria during consultation. Risk reduction strategies should focus on improving self-efficacy and conceptions of response efficacy, including social environment to aim at creating the positive social context needed. PMID:24107150
Ranque, S; Marchou, B; Malvy, D; Adehossi, E; Laganier, R; Tissot-Dupont, H; Lotte, A; Dydymsky, S; Durant, J; Stahl, J-P; Bosseray, A; Gaillat, J; Sotto, A; Cazorla, C; Ragneau, J-M; Brouqui, P; Delmont, J
Data about anti-malarial drugs prescription practices in Europe and the safety of imported malaria treatments are scanty. In 1999, a French consensus development conference published guidelines for the prevention and treatment of imported P. falciparum malaria. The impact of these guidelines has not been evaluated. To investigate the impact of these guidelines on the prescription of anti-malarials, and to evaluate the incidence of acute drug events (ADEs) leading to discontinuation of treatment. Cross-sectional survey. Members of the medical staff in 14 French infectious and tropical disease wards completed a standardized form for each patient treated for imported malaria in 2001. A propensity score matching technique was used to estimate the risk of ADEs leading to discontinuation of the regimen. In the 474 patients studied, quinine was the first-line anti-malarial most often prescribed. Only 3% of patients received halofantrine. Mefloquine was associated with a RR of 4.9 (95%CI 3.2-7.4, p guidelines have been taken into account. Mefloquine was associated with a substantial risk of discontinuing the treatment because of ADEs. This is a serious limitation for the use of mefloquine in the treatment of out-patients with imported malaria.
Dynamics of malaria transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes following treatment of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic carriers: results of a cluster-randomized study of community-wide screening and treatment, and a parallel entomology study.
Tiono, Alfred B; Guelbeogo, Moussa W; Sagnon, N Falé; Nébié, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Mukhopadhyay, Amitava; Hamed, Kamal
In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are asymptomatic and constitute a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. Two studies were run in parallel in Burkina Faso to evaluate the impact of systematic identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum, detected by rapid diagnostic test, on disease transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes. A clinical study assessed the incidence of symptomatic malaria episodes with a parasite density >5,000/μL after three screening and treatment campaigns ~1 month apart before the rainy season; and an entomological study determined the effect of these campaigns on malaria transmission as measured by entomological inoculation rate. The intervention arm had lower prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of asexual parasites and lower prevalence of gametocyte carriers during campaigns 2 and 3 as compared to the control arm. During the entire follow-up period, out of 13,767 at-risk subjects, 2,516 subjects (intervention arm 1,332; control arm 1,184) had symptomatic malaria. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the incidence of first symptomatic malaria episode with a parasite density >5,000/μL showed that, in the total population, the two treatment arms were similar until Week 11-12 after campaign 3, corresponding with the beginning of the malaria transmission season, after which the probability of being free of symptomatic malaria was lower in the intervention arm (logrank p entomological inoculation rate was comparable in both arms, with September peaks in both indices. Community screening and targeted treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum had no effect on the dynamics of malaria transmission, but seemed to be associated with an increase in the treated community's susceptibility to symptomatic malaria episodes after the screening campaigns had finished. These results highlight the importance of further
Ekene K. Nwaefuna
Full Text Available Malaria infections undetectable by microscopy but detectable by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR (submicroscopic malaria are common in endemic areas like Ghana. Submicroscopic malaria has been linked with severe pregnancy outcomes as well as contributing to malaria transmission. In this cross-sectional study 872 consenting pregnant women (gestation ≥ 20 weeks were recruited from 8 hospitals in Central Region, Ghana, between July and December 2009. Malaria infection was detected by microscopy and PCR. Haemoglobin was measured and anaemia was defined as haemoglobin lower than 11 g/dL. Majority of the women, 555 (63.6%, were Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnancy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP users while 234 (36.4% were nonusers. The prevalence of malaria by microscopy was 20.9% (182/872 and 9.7% (67/688 of microscopy negative women had submicroscopic malaria. IPTp-SP usage significantly (odds ratio = 0.13, 95% confidence interval = 0.07–0.23, p=0.005 reduced the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria as more nonusers (51/234 than users (16/454 were PCR positive. After controlling for other variables the effect of IPTp-SP remained statistically significant (odds ratio = 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.02–0.22, p=0.006. These results suggest that Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine is useful in the reduction of submicroscopic malaria in pregnancy.
Flaherty, Gerard T; Walden, Lucas M; Townend, Michael
Few studies have examined emergency self treatment (EST) antimalarial prescribing patterns. 110 physician-members of the Travel Medicine Society of Ireland and British Global and Travel Health Association participated in this study. There was a trend towards the prescription of EST for travel to remote low-risk malaria areas; for long-term residents living in low-risk areas; and for frequent travellers to low-risk areas. This study provides insights into the use of EST in travellers' malaria. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Gaillard, Tiphaine; Briolant, Sébastien; Madamet, Marylin; Pradines, Bruno
Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails. However, doxycycline is not used in young children under 8 years of age due to its contraindication due to the risk of yellow tooth discolouration and dental enamel hypoplasia. Doxycycline was developed after tetracycline and was labelled with the same side-effects as the earlier tetracyclines. However, recent studies report little or no effects of doxycycline on tooth staining or dental enamel hypoplasia in children under 8 years of age. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended the use of doxycycline for the treatment of acute and chronic Q fever and tick-borne rickettsial diseases in young children. It is time to rehabilitate doxycycline and to recommend it for malaria treatment in children under 8 years of age.
Conclusions: Haemolysis is commonly associated with the class of artemisinin drugs when used for the treatment of severe malaria. Potential causes of this safety issue are discussed. Although no deaths attributed to haemolysis have been reported so far, this safety issue may lead to life-threatening anaemia and is particularly worrying for regions where safe blood products are not readily available.
Kabaghe, Alinune N; Phiri, Mphatso D; Phiri, Kamija S; van Vugt, Michèle
Prompt and effective malaria treatment are key in reducing transmission, disease severity and mortality. With the current scale-up of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) coverage, there is need to focus on challenges affecting implementation of the intervention. Routine indicators focus on utilization and coverage, neglecting implementation quality. A health system in rural Malawi was assessed for uncomplicated malaria treatment implementation in children. A cross-sectional health facility survey was conducted in six health centres around the Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district using a health system effectiveness approach to assess uncomplicated malaria treatment implementation. Interviews with health facility personnel and exit interviews with guardians of 120 children under 5 years were conducted. Health workers appropriately prescribed an ACT and did not prescribe an ACT to 73% (95% CI 63-84%) of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) positive and 98% (95% CI 96-100%) RDT negative children, respectively. However, 24% (95% CI 13-37%) of children receiving artemisinin-lumefantrine had an inappropriate dose by weight. Health facility findings included inadequate number of personnel (average: 2.1 health workers per 10,000 population), anti-malarial drug stock-outs or not supplied, and inconsistent health information records. Guardians of 59% (95% CI 51-69%) of children presented within 24 h of onset of child's symptoms. The survey presents an approach for assessing treatment effectiveness, highlighting bottlenecks which coverage indicators are incapable of detecting, and which may reduce quality and effectiveness of malaria treatment. Health service provider practices in prescribing and dosing anti-malarial drugs, due to drug stock-outs or high patient load, risk development of drug resistance, treatment failure and exposure to adverse effects.
Conteh, Lesong; Sicuri, Elisa; Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Obonyo, Benson; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Biao, Prosper; Masika, Paul; Matovu, Fred; Otieno, Peter; Gosling, Roly D.; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Aponte, John J.; Egan, Andrea; Schellenberg, David; Macete, Eusebio; Slutsker, Laurence; Newman, Robert D.; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Tanner, Marcel
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) has been shown to decrease clinical malaria by approximately 30% in the first year of life and is a promising malaria control strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa which can be delivered alongside the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI).
Eggelte Teunis A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP has been adopted as policy by many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on the post-implementation effectiveness of this measure are scarce. Methods Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed among women delivering at a district hospital in rural southern Ghana in the year 2000 when pyrimethamine chemoprophylaxis was recommended (n = 839 and in 2006 (n = 226, approximately one year after the implementation of IPTp-SP. Examinations were performed in an identical manner in 2000 and 2006 including the detection of placental Plasmodium falciparum infection by microscopy, histidine-rich protein 2, and PCR. Results In 2006, 77% of the women reported to have taken IPTp-SP at least once (26%, twice; 24%, thrice. In 2006 as compared to 2000, placental P. falciparum infection was reduced by 43–57% (P P = 0.0009, and median birth weight was 130 g higher (P = 0.02. In 2006, likewise, women who had taken ≥ 1 dose of IPTp-SP revealed less infection and anaemia and their children tended to have higher birth weights as compared to women who had not used IPTp-SP. However, placental P. falciparum infection was still observed in 11% (microscopy to 26% (PCR of those women who had taken three doses of IPTp-SP. Conclusion In southern Ghana, placental malaria and maternal anaemia have declined substantially and birth weight has increased after the implementation of IPTp-SP. Likely, these effects can further be increased by improving IPTp-SP coverage and adherence. However, the remnant prevalence of infection in women having taken three doses of IPTp-SP suggests that additional antimalarial measures are needed to prevent malaria in pregnancy in this region.
Wright Colin W
Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Methods Narrative review. Results There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. Conclusions More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds. The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.
This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally. Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). Date Released: 4/18/2008.
Andrew M Moon
Full Text Available In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO published updated guidelines emphasizing and expanding recommendations for a parasitological confirmation of malaria before treating with antimalarials. This study aimed to assess differences in historic (2007-2008 (cohort 1 and recent (2011-2012 (cohort 2 hospital cohorts in the diagnosis and treatment of febrile illness in a low malaria prevalence area of northern Tanzania.We analyzed data from two prospective cohort studies that enrolled febrile adolescents and adults aged ≥13 years. All patients received quality-controlled aerobic blood cultures and malaria smears. We compared patients' discharge diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes to assess changes in the treatment of malaria and bacterial infections.In total, 595 febrile inpatients were enrolled from two referral hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Laboratory-confirmed malaria was detected in 13 (3.2% of 402 patients in cohort 1 and 1 (0.5% of 193 patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.041. Antimalarials were prescribed to 201 (51.7% of 389 smear-negative patients in cohort 1 and 97 (50.5% of 192 smear-negative patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.794. Bacteremia was diagnosed from standard blood culture in 58 (14.5% of 401 patients in cohort 1 compared to 18 (9.5% of 190 patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.091. In cohort 1, 40 (69.0% of 58 patients with a positive blood culture received antibacterials compared to 16 (88.9% of 18 patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.094. In cohort 1, 43 (10.8% of the 399 patients with known outcomes died during hospitalization compared with 12 (6.2% deaths among 193 patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.073.In a setting of low malaria transmission, a high proportion of smear-negative patients were diagnosed with malaria and treated with antimalarials despite updated WHO guidelines on malaria treatment. Improved laboratory diagnostics for non-malaria febrile illness might help to curb this practice.
Conclusion: Care givers were generally satisfied with malaria case management of under-fives at PHC facilities in Jos North LGA. While such studies are fraught with methodological difficulties as well as issues of validity of measurement, patient satisfaction studies have the potential for stimulating improvements in quality ...
Win, Aung Ye Naung; Maung, Thae Maung; Wai, Khin Thet; Oo, Tin; Thi, Aung; Tipmontree, Rungrawee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit
Migration flows and the emerging resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) create programmatic challenges to meeting the AD 2030 malaria elimination target in Myanmar. The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) targeted migrant workers based mainly on the stability of their worksites (categories 1: permanent work-setting; categories 2 and 3: less stable work-settings). This study aims to assess the migration patterns, malaria treatment-seeking preferences, and challenges encountered by mobile/migrant workers at remote sites in a malaria-elimination setting. A mixed-methods explanatory sequential study retrospectively analysed the secondary data acquired through migrant mapping surveys (2013-2015) in six endemic regions (n = 9603). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to ascertain the contributing factors. A qualitative strand (2016-2017) was added by conducting five focus-group discussions (n = 50) and five in-depth interviews with migrant workers from less stable worksites in Shwegyin Township, Bago Region. The contiguous approach was used to integrate quantitative and qualitative findings. Among others, migrant workers from Bago Region were significantly more likely to report the duration of stay ≥ 12 months (63% vs. 49%) and high seasonal mobility (40% vs. 35%). Particularly in less stable settings, a very low proportion of migrant workers (17%) preferred to seek malaria treatment from the public sector and was significantly influenced by the worksite stability (adjusted OR = 1.4 and 2.3, respectively for categories 2 and 1); longer duration of stay (adjusted OR = 3.5); and adjusted OR malaria messages, knowledge of malaria symptoms and awareness of means of malaria diagnosis. Qualitative data further elucidated their preference for the informal healthcare sector, due to convenience, trust and good relations, and put migrant workers at risk of substandard care. Moreover, the
Iyamah, P C; Idu, M
Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries, where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium and the adverse side effects of the existing anti-malarial drugs have necessitated the search for novel, well tolerated and more efficient antimalarial drugs. This ethnomedicinal study surveyed the different types of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria with the intent of identifying plants that are traditionally employed in the treatment of malaria across geopolitical boundaries. Data were collected from 79 respondents composed of 50 traditional herbsellers and 29 herbal practitioners using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using frequency and percentages. Of the 79 respondents interviewed, 24% were males while 76% were females. A total of 156 species belonging to 60 families were reported being used to treat malaria in the study area. Fabaceae was the most represented family having fourteen (14) plant species. Of the plants identified during the survey, Azadirachta indica was the species of highest relative frequency of citation (RFC - 1.0). The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves (50.50%) and Decoction was the main method of preparation. Analysis of regional plant occurrence revealed that South-Western Nigeria represented the region with the highest plant occurrence (60.7%) followed by South-South (24%) and South-East (15.3%). Regional occurrence of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria is reported here for the first time. This study has documented a great diversity of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria. Extracts prepared strictly according to the practitioners' recipes should therefore be screened for antiplasmodial activity and toxicity by in vitro and in vivo standard
Ye, Yazoume; Madise, Nyovani; Ndugwa, Robert; Ochola, Sam; Snow, Robert W
In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of malaria transmission across rapidly proliferating urban centres and recommendations for its prevention or management remain poorly defined. This paper presents the results of an investigation into infection prevalence and treatment of recent febrile events among a slum population in Nairobi, Kenya. In July 2008, a community-based malaria parasite prevalence survey was conducted in Korogocho slum, which forms part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. Interviewers visited 1,069 participants at home and collected data on reported fevers experienced over the preceding 14 days and details on the treatment of these episodes. Each participant was tested for malaria parasite presence with Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and microscopy. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the period prevalence of reported fever episodes and treatment behaviour. Of the 1,069 participants visited, 983 (92%) consented to be tested. Three were positive for Plasmodium falciparum using RDT; however, all were confirmed negative on microscopy. Microscopic examination of all 953 readable slides showed zero prevalence. Overall, from the 1,004 participants who have data on fever, 170 fever episodes were reported giving a relatively high period prevalence (16.9%, 95% CI:13.9%-20.5%) and higher among children below five years (20.1%, 95%CI:13.8%-27.8%). Of the fever episodes with treatment information 54.3% (95%CI:46.3%-62.2%) were treated as malaria using mainly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or amodiaquine, including those managed at a formal health facility. Only four episodes were managed using the nationally recommended first-line treatment, artemether-lumefantrine. The study could not demonstrate any evidence of malaria in Korogocho, a slum in the centre of Nairobi. Fever was a common complaint and often treated as malaria with anti-malarial drugs. Strategies, including testing for malaria parasites to reduce the inappropriate
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of malaria transmission across rapidly proliferating urban centres and recommendations for its prevention or management remain poorly defined. This paper presents the results of an investigation into infection prevalence and treatment of recent febrile events among a slum population in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods In July 2008, a community-based malaria parasite prevalence survey was conducted in Korogocho slum, which forms part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. Interviewers visited 1,069 participants at home and collected data on reported fevers experienced over the preceding 14 days and details on the treatment of these episodes. Each participant was tested for malaria parasite presence with Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT and microscopy. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the period prevalence of reported fever episodes and treatment behaviour. Results Of the 1,069 participants visited, 983 (92% consented to be tested. Three were positive for Plasmodium falciparum using RDT; however, all were confirmed negative on microscopy. Microscopic examination of all 953 readable slides showed zero prevalence. Overall, from the 1,004 participants who have data on fever, 170 fever episodes were reported giving a relatively high period prevalence (16.9%, 95% CI:13.9%–20.5% and higher among children below five years (20.1%, 95%CI:13.8%–27.8%. Of the fever episodes with treatment information 54.3% (95%CI:46.3%–62.2% were treated as malaria using mainly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or amodiaquine, including those managed at a formal health facility. Only four episodes were managed using the nationally recommended first-line treatment, artemether-lumefantrine. Conclusion The study could not demonstrate any evidence of malaria in Korogocho, a slum in the centre of Nairobi. Fever was a common complaint and often treated as malaria with anti-malarial drugs. Strategies
Howard, Natasha; Durrani, Naeem; Sanda, Sanda; Beshir, Khalid; Hallett, Rachel; Rowland, Mark
Falciparum malaria is a significant problem for Afghan refugees in Pakistan. Refugee treatment guidelines recommended standard three-day chloroquine treatment (25 mg/kg) for first episodes and extended five-day treatment (40 mg/kg) for recrudescent infections, based on the assumption that a five-day course would more likely achieve a cure. An in-vivo randomized controlled trial was conducted among refugees with uncomplicated falciparum malaria to determine whether five-day treatment (CQ40) was more effective than standard treatment (CQ25). 142 falciparum patients were recruited into CQ25 or CQ40 treatment arms and followed up to 60 days with regular blood smears. The primary outcome was parasitological cure without recrudescence. Treatment failures were retreated with CQ40. PCR genotyping of 270 samples, from the same and nearby sites, was used to support interpretation of outcomes. 84% of CQ25 versus 51% of CQ40 patients experienced parasite recrudescence during follow-up (adjusted odds ratio 0.17, 95%CI 0.08-0.38). Cure rates were significantly improved with CQ40, particularly among adults. Fever clearance time, parasite clearance time, and proportions gametocytaemic post-treatment were similar between treatment groups. Second-line CQ40 treatment resulted in higher failure rates than first-line CQ40 treatment. CQ-resistance marker pfcrt 76T was found in all isolates analysed, while pfmdr1 86Y and 184Y were found in 18% and 37% of isolates respectively. CQ is not suitable for first-line falciparum treatment in Afghan refugee communities. The extended-dose CQ regimen can overcome 39% of resistant infections that would recrudesce under the standard regimen, but the high failure rate after directly observed treatment demonstrates its use is inappropriate.
Subhani, F.A.; Shaheen, S.; Nawaz, M.A.
Introduction: Every year more than one billion persons in the world suffer from malaria. It kills about 1-3 million people in the world per year. In Pakistan estimated burden of malaria is 1.6 million cases each year. As most of people belong to poor socioeconomic group, it is essential that cost effective remedial measures must be taken. Moreover judicious use of antimalarials is required to avoid development of resistance. Objective: To determine the frequency of types of malaria and frequency of cases responding to chloroquine as first line treatment in vivax malaria in children of Northern Punjab of Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: From Jun 2011 to Sept 2012 at Combined Military Hospital Gujranwala in children reporting from surrounding areas both rural and urban with clinical suspicion of malaria. Materials and Methods: During the study period, 175 children were admitted with clinical suspicion of malaria. Out of which 102 were smear positive for malarial parasites, 13 cases were excluded from the study as they lost to follow up, leaving a total of 89 children in the study. Patients under study remained admitted till the fever settled and malarial parasites were negative on smear. Chloroquine was used as first line treatment in cases with vivax malaria. On discharge from hospital, parents of children were advised fortnightly follow up for 28 days. Results: Out of 89 children approx 54% were males and 46% were females. Mean age of participants was 5.91 years. The minimum age was 1 year and maximum 11 years (SD +- 3.09) out of the 89 cases, 84 (94.3%) had vivax malaria, 2 (2.24%) had falciparum malaria and 3 (3.37%) had mixed infection. Our study showed that 79 (94%) cases of vivax malaria fully responded to chloroquine, 5 (6%) cases treated with Chloroquine reported with relapse. Conclusion: Chloroquine is still the drug of choice in vivax malaria. (author)
Looareesuwan, S; Wilairatana, P; Glanarongran, R; Indravijit, K A; Supeeranontha, L; Chinnapha, S; Scott, T R; Chulay, J D
Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria has been reported in several geographical areas. The P. vivax life-cycle includes dormant hepatic parasites (hypnozoites) that cause relapsing malaria weeks to years after initial infection. Curative therapy must therefore target both the erythrocytic and hepatic stages of infection. Between July 1997 and June 1998, we conducted an open-label study in Thailand to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a sequential regimen of combination atovaquone (1000 mg) and proguanil hydrochloride (400 mg), once daily for 3 days, followed by primaquine (30 mg daily for 14 days) for treatment of vivax malaria. All 46 patients who completed the 3-day course of atovaquone-proguanil cleared their parasitaemia within 2-6 days. During a 12-week follow-up period in 35 patients, recurrent parasitaemia occurred in 2. Both recurrent episodes occurred 8 weeks after the start of therapy, consistent with relapse from persistent hypnozoites rather than recrudescence of persistent blood-stage parasites. The dosing regimen was well tolerated. Results of this trial indicate that atovaquone-proguanil followed by primaquine is safe and effective for treatment of vivax malaria.
Doku, David Teye; Zankawah, Mumuni Mukaila; Adu-Gyamfi, Addae Boateng
The burden of malaria in terms of morbidity and mortality is huge is Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pregnant women. Among the measures to curb down this burden include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and effective case management. These strategies were adopted by Ghana and implemented since 2003; however, there is still high dropout rate in IPT coverage. This study sought to investigate factors contributing to high dropout rate between IPT1 and IPT3 in the Tamale Metropolis, one of the health facilities with the highest IPT dropout rates in Ghana. Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among pregnant women, antenatal care (ANC) health workers and heads of health facilities to investigate factors which account for dropout rate of intermittent treatment of malaria. Shortage of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), inadequate supply of portable water for administration of SP, unavailability of IPT during outreach services, lack of knowledge by ANC staff about the dropout rate in their area of jurisdiction and poor attitude of some health workers were identified as barriers to achieving high IPT3 coverage. Late ANC visit, provider and logistical barriers account for the women's missed opportunities to prevent malaria in pregnancy through IPT. Addressing the above barriers will contribute to saving lives and ensuring progress towards the goal of combating malaria as well as reducing maternal, neonatal and child mortalities.
Wieten, Rosanne W; Harting, Janneke; Biemond, Pieter M; Grobusch, Martin P; van Vugt, Mich?le
Background Malaria is a potentially lethal illness for which preventive measures are not optimally used among all travellers. Travellers visiting friends and relatives in their country of origin (VFRs) are known to use chemoprophylaxis less consistently compared to tourist travellers. In this study, factors explaining the low use of chemoprophylaxis were pursued to contribute to improving uptake of preventive measures among VFRs. Methods Following in-depth interviews with Ghanaians living in ...
Anthonia Ukamaka Chinweuba
Full Text Available This cross-sectional descriptive survey investigated determinants of malaria prevention and treatment seeking behaviours of pregnant undergraduates resident in university hostels, South-East Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to enrol 121 accessible and consenting undergraduates with self-revealed and noticeable pregnancy residing in twenty-three female hostels of four university campuses in Enugu State, Nigeria. Structured interview guide developed based on reviewed literature and WHO-recommended malaria prevention and treatment measures was used to collect students’ self-report data on malaria preventive health behaviours, sick role behaviours, and clinic use using mixed methods. The WHO-recommended malaria prevention measures were sparingly used. Some believed that pregnancy does not play any role in a woman’s reaction to malaria infection. Only 41 (50.6% visited a hospital for screening and treatment. Thirty-four (28.1% used antimalaria medicine bought from chemist shop or over-the-counter medicines, while 33 (27.3% used untreated net. The students were more likely to complete their antimalaria medicine when they were sick with malaria infection than for prevention (p=0.0186. Knowledge, academic schedule, cultural influence on perception and decision-making, and accessibility of health facility were key determinants of the women’s preventive and treatment seeking behaviours. Health education on malaria prevention and dangers of drug abuse should form part of orientation lectures for all freshmen. University health centres should be upgraded to provide basic antenatal care services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and prompt effective case management are important components of any malaria elimination strategy. Tafea Province, Vanuatu has a rich history of traditional practices and beliefs, which have been integrated with missionary efforts and the introduction of modern constructions of health. Gaining a detailed knowledge of community perceptions of malarial symptomatology and treatment-seeking behaviours is essential in guiding effective community participation strategies for malaria control and elimination. Method An ethnographic study involving nine focus group discussions (FGD, 12 key informant interviews (KII and seven participatory workshops were carried out on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Villages in areas of high and low malaria transmission risk were selected. Four ni-Vanuatu research officers, including two from Tanna, were trained and employed to conduct the research. Data underwent thematic analysis to examine treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of malaria. Results Malaria was perceived to be a serious, but relatively new condition, and in most communities, identified as being apparent only after independence in 1980. Severe fever in the presence of other key symptoms triggered a diagnosis of malaria by individuals. Use of traditional or home practices was common: perceived vulnerability of patient and previous experience with malaria impacted on the time taken to seek treatment at a health facility. Barriers to health care access and reasons for delay in care-seeking included the availability of health worker and poor community infrastructure. Conclusion Due to programme success of achieving low malaria transmission, Tafea province has been identified for elimination of malaria by 2012 in the Government of Vanuatu Malaria Action Plans (MAP. An effective malaria elimination programme requires interactions between the community and its leaders, malaria workers and health providers for success in
Full Text Available In most countries where malaria is endemic, P. falciparum malaria is on the rise. This is primarily due to the spread of drug-resistant strains. Drug resistance is mediated by spontaneous changes in the parasite genome that allow resistant parasites to escape the action of the drugs. The spread of drug resistance increases the transmission of malaria parasites. The consequences for the populations at risk are profound both in terms of consequences for health and economy. In order to halt the progression of drug resistance, we need to change the way antimalarials are used. As in tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, we must use a combination of drugs for the treatment of malaria. Taking into account the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the various anti-malarial agents, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT seems to be the best option. This strategy should be used in conjunction with early diagnosis and appropriate vector control measures to achieve reduction in the emergence and spread of drug resistance.
Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal
Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.
Suleman, Sultan; Beyene Tufa, Takele; Kebebe, Dereje; Belew, Sileshi; Mekonnen, Yimer; Gashe, Fanta; Mussa, Seid; Wynendaele, Evelien; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart
Medicinal plants have always been an integral part of different cultures in Ethiopia in the treatment of different illnesses including malaria and related symptoms. However, due to lack of proper documentation, urbanization, drought, acculturation and deforestation, there is an increased risk of losing this traditional knowledge. Hence, the use of the indigenous knowledge should be well documented and validated for potential future use. To gather and document information on medicinal plants which are used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Ethiopia. First, an ethnomedicinal survey of plants was conducted in 17 districts of Jimma zone, the Oromia national regional state of Ethiopia. Jimma zone is malarious and rich in natural flora. A total of 115 traditional healers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire containing personal data of the respondents, and information on medicinal plants used to treat malaria and related symptoms. In addition, a literature search using Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and HINARI was conducted on the indigenous use, in-vitro/in-vivo anti-malarial activity reports, and the chemical characterization of medicinal plants of Ethiopia used against malaria. From ethnomedicinal survey, a total of 28 species of plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Jimma Zone were collected, identified and documented. In addition, the literature search revealed that 124 medicinal plant species were reported to be traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia. From both ethnomedicinal survey and the literature search, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the most represented families and Allium sativum L., Carica papaya L., Vernonia amygdalina Del., Lepidium sativum L. and Croton macrostachyus Del. were the most frequently reported plant species for their anti-malarial use. The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves. About 54% of the
Giha, Hayder A; ElGhazali, Gehad; Nasr, Amre
In malaria, drug resistance and treatment failure (TF) are not synonymous, although are escalating together. Over 9 years of surveillances for malaria morbidity and TF in Daraweesh village in eastern Sudan (1991-2004), 136 donors (15-78 years) from 43 households, treated for 278 malaria episodes ...
School-based diagnosis and treatment of malaria by teachers using rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy: experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of the Learner Treatment Kit, southern Malawi.
Mphwatiwa, Treza; Witek-McManus, Stefan; Mtali, Austin; Okello, George; Nguluwe, Paul; Chatsika, Hard; Roschnik, Natalie; Halliday, Katherine E; Brooker, Simon J; Mathanga, Don P
Training teachers to diagnose uncomplicated malaria using malaria rapid diagnostic tests and treat with artemisinin-based combination therapy has the potential to improve the access of primary school children (6-14 years) to prompt and efficient treatment for malaria, but little is known about the acceptability of such an intervention. This qualitative study explored experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of a programme of school-based malaria case management via a first-aid kit-the Learner Treatment Kit (LTK)-implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Zomba district, Malawi. From 29 primary schools where teachers were trained to test and treat school children for malaria using the LTK, six schools were purposively selected on the basis of relative intervention usage (low, medium or high); school size and geographical location. In total eight focus group discussions were held with school children, parents and guardians, and teachers; and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at the school, district and national levels. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The LTK was widely perceived by respondents to be a worthwhile intervention, with the opinion that trained teachers were trusted providers of malaria testing and treatment to school children. Benefits of the programme included a perception of improved access to malaria treatment for school children; decreased school absenteeism; and that the programme supported broader national health and education policies. Potential barriers to successful implementation expressed included increased teacher workloads, a feeling of inadequate supervision from health workers, lack of incentives and concerns for the sustainability of the programme regarding the supply of drugs and commodities. Training teachers to test for and treat uncomplicated malaria in schools was well received by both users and implementers alike, and
Lucy C Okell
Full Text Available Mass treatment as a means to reducing P. falciparum malaria transmission was used during the first global malaria eradication campaign and is increasingly being considered for current control programmes. We used a previously developed mathematical transmission model to explore both the short and long-term impact of possible mass treatment strategies in different scenarios of endemic transmission. Mass treatment is predicted to provide a longer-term benefit in areas with lower malaria transmission, with reduced transmission levels for at least 2 years after mass treatment is ended in a scenario where the baseline slide-prevalence is 5%, compared to less than one year in a scenario with baseline slide-prevalence at 50%. However, repeated annual mass treatment at 80% coverage could achieve around 25% reduction in infectious bites in moderate-to-high transmission settings if sustained. Using vector control could reduce transmission to levels at which mass treatment has a longer-term impact. In a limited number of settings (which have isolated transmission in small populations of 1000-10,000 with low-to-medium levels of baseline transmission we find that five closely spaced rounds of mass treatment combined with vector control could make at least temporary elimination a feasible goal. We also estimate the effects of using gametocytocidal treatments such as primaquine and of restricting treatment to parasite-positive individuals. In conclusion, mass treatment needs to be repeated or combined with other interventions for long-term impact in many endemic settings. The benefits of mass treatment need to be carefully weighed against the risks of increasing drug selection pressure.
Osarfo, Joseph; Tagbor, Harry; Cairns, Matthew
parasitaemia were randomised to receive DHA-PPQ or ASAQ over 3 days. Women were followed up on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 42 after treatment start and at delivery for parasitological, haematological, birth outcomes and at 6-week post-partum to ascertain the health status of the babies. Parasitological.......4)]. ITT analysis gave similar results. PCR to distinguish recrudescence and reinfection was unsuccessful. DHA-PPQ recipients had fewer adverse events of vomiting, dizziness, and general weakness compared to ASAQ. Both drugs were well-tolerated, and there was no excess of adverse birth outcomes. CONCLUSION......: DHA-PPQ was non-inferior to ASAQ for treatment of malaria infection during pregnancy. No safety concerns were identified. Our findings contribute to growing evidence that DHA-PPQ is useful for control of malaria in pregnancy....
Bell, Andrew S.; Huijben, Silvie; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Sim, Derek G.; Chan, Brian H. K.; Nelson, William A.; Read, Andrew F.
The evolution of drug resistant Plasmodium parasites is a major challenge to effective malaria control. In theory, competitive interactions between sensitive parasites and resistant parasites within infections are a major determinant of the rate at which parasite evolution undermines drug efficacy. Competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated hosts slows the spread of resistance; competitive release following treatment enhances it. Here we report that for the murine model Plasm...
Menya, Diana; Logedi, John; Manji, Imran; Armstrong, Janice; Neelon, Brian; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme
In high-resource settings, 'pay-for-performance' (P4P) programs have generated interest as a potential mechanism to improve health service delivery and accountability. However, there has been little or no experimental evidence to guide the development or assess the effectiveness of P4P incentive programs in developing countries. In the developing world, P4P programs are likely to rely, at least initially, on external funding from donors. Under these circumstances, the sustainability of such programs is in doubt and needs assessment. We describe a cluster-randomized controlled trial underway in 18 health centers in western Kenya that is testing an innovative incentive strategy to improve management of an epidemiologically and economically important problem--diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The incentive scheme in this trial promotes adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines for laboratory confirmation of malaria before treatment, a priority area for the Ministry of Health. There are three important innovations that are unique to this study among those from other resource-constrained settings: the behavior being incentivized is quality of care rather than volume of service delivery; the incentives are applied at the facility-level rather than the individual level, thus benefiting facility infrastructure and performance overall; and the incentives are designed to be budget-neutral if effective. Linking appropriate case management for malaria to financial incentives has the potential to improve patient care and reduce wastage of expensive antimalarials. In our study facilities, on average only 25% of reported malaria cases were confirmed by laboratory diagnosis prior to the intervention, and the total treatment courses of antimalarials dispensed did not correspond to the number of cases reported. This study will demonstrate whether facility rather than individual incentives are compelling enough to improve case management, and whether these incentives lead to
Tagbor, Harry; Cairns, Matthew; Bojang, Kalifa
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in pregnancy is threatened in parts of Africa by the emergence and spread of resistance to SP. Intermittent screening with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and treatment of positive women...... with malaria parasitemia between routine antenatal clinics (310 vs 182 episodes, rate difference: 49.4 per 1,000 pregnancies [95% CI 30.5, 68.3], but the number of hospital admissions for malaria was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite low levels of resistance to SP in the study areas, ISTp......-AL performed as well as IPTp-SP. In the absence of an effective alternative medication to SP for IPTp, ISTp-AL is a potential alternative to IPTp in areas where SP resistance is high. It may also have a role in areas where malaria transmission is low and for the prevention of malaria in HIV positive women...
Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine
Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Mulenga, M; Sukwa, T Y; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B
Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride are blood schizonticides that demonstrate in vitro synergy against drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. When coadministered, they may therefore be effective for the treatment of malaria in regions where there is known or suspected drug resistance. In an open-label, randomized, parallel-group, clinical trial conducted in Zambia, 163 patients (age range, 14 to 54 years) with acute P falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to receive treatment with atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (1000 and 400 mg, respectively, administered orally at 24-hour intervals for 3 doses; n = 82) or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (75/1500 mg administered orally as a single dose; n = 81). Efficacy was assessed by cure rate (the percentage of patients in whom parasitemia was eliminated and did not recur during 28 days of follow-up), parasite clearance time (PCT), and fever clearance time (FCT). Safety was determined by sequential clinical and laboratory assessments over 28 days. Cure rates did not differ significantly between patients treated with atovaquone and proguanil (100%) and those treated with pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (98.8%). Patients in the atovaquone and proguanil group had a significantly shorter FCT than patients in the pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine group (mean, 30.4 vs 44.9 hours; P proguanil was equally effective and as well tolerated as pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated, drug-resistant falciparum malaria in Zambia.
Lucy S Tusting
Full Text Available Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of malaria infection are lower in modern, improved housing compared to traditional housing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.We analysed 15 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and 14 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS conducted in 21 countries in SSA between 2008 and 2015 that measured malaria infection by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT. DHS/MIS surveys record whether houses are built with finished materials (e.g., metal or rudimentary materials (e.g., thatch. This information was used to develop a binary housing quality variable where houses built using finished wall, roof, and floor materials were classified as "modern", and all other houses were classified as "traditional". Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the association between housing quality and prevalence of malaria infection in children aged 0-5 y, adjusting for age, gender, insecticide-treated net (ITN use, indoor residual spraying, household wealth, and geographic cluster. Individual survey odds ratios (ORs were combined to determine a summary OR using a random effects meta-analysis. Of 284,532 total children surveyed, 139,318 were tested for malaria infection using microscopy (n = 131,652 or RDT (n = 138,540. Within individual surveys, malaria prevalence measured by microscopy ranged from 0.4% (Madagascar 2011 to 45.5% (Burkina Faso 2010 among children living in modern houses and from 0.4% (The Gambia 2013 to 70.6% (Burkina Faso 2010 in traditional houses, and malaria prevalence measured by RDT ranged from 0.3% (Senegal 2013-2014 to 61.2% (Burkina Faso 2010 in modern houses and from 1.5% (The Gambia 2013 to 79.8% (Burkina Faso 2010 in traditional houses. Across all surveys, modern housing was associated with a 9% to 14% reduction in the odds of malaria infection (microscopy
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployment to malaria endemic areas. Methods In 2007, a randomized controlled study was performed among a cohort of French soldiers returning from Côte d'Ivoire to assess the feasibility and acceptability of sending a daily short message service (SMS reminder message via mobile device to remind soldiers to take their malaria chemoprophylaxis, and to assess the impact of the daily reminder SMS on chemoprophylaxis compliance. Malaria chemoprophylaxis consisted of a daily dose of 100 mg doxycycline monohydrate, which began upon arrival in Côte d'Ivoire and was to be continued for 28 days following return to France. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by questionnaire. Cohort members were followed for a 28 day period, with compliance assessed by use of an electronic medication monitoring device, from which several indicators were developed: daily proportion of compliant individuals, average number of pills taken, and early discontinuation. Results Among 424 volunteers randomized to the study, 47.6% were assigned to the SMS group and 52.3% to the control group. Approximately 90% of subjects assigned to the SMS group received a daily SMS at midday during the study. Persons of the SMS group agreed more frequently that SMS reminders were very useful and that the device was not annoying. Compliance did not vary significantly between groups across the compliance indicators. Conclusion SMS did not increase malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance above baseline, likely because the persons did not benefit from holidays after the return and stayed together. So the reminder by SMS was noted by all subjects of the study. Another study should be done to confirm these results on soldiers going on holidays from employment after return or with individual
Saint-L?ger, Ad?la?de; Sinadinos, Christopher; Ribas de Pouplana, Llu?s
Malaria remains a major global health problem. Parasite resistance to existing drugs makes development of new antimalarials an urgency. The protein synthesis machinery is an excellent target for the development of new anti-infectives, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) have been validated as antimalarial drug targets. However, avoiding the emergence of drug resistance and improving selectivity to target aaRS in apicomplexan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum, remain crucial challenge...
dose of IPTp despite booking in the second trimester. Malaria in pregnancy occurred significantly more in women who failed to adhere to subsequent doses of IPTp than in those who adhered (24.6% versus 14.3%, respectively; risk ratio =2.5; 95% confidence interval 2.1, 3.0; P<0.001. Similarly, neonatal malaria occurred significantly more in neonates whose mothers did not receive IPTp compared to those whose mothers received at least one dose of IPTp (7.4% versus 3.4%; risk ratio =1.4; 95% confidence interval 0.9, 2.1; P=0.003. Conclusion: More than one half of parturients failed to adhere to prescribed intermittent ¬preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in the major obstetric centers in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria. The very high prevalence of malaria among women who failed to adhere to IPTp and the associated adverse neonatal outcomes demands more pragmatic ways of improving access to, and acceptability of, malaria preventive measures in this area. Keywords: malaria in pregnancy, pregnancy outcome, prevention
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of decreasing malaria transmission intensity make presumptive treatment of malaria an unjustifiable approach in many African settings. The controlled use of anti-malarials after laboratory confirmed diagnosis is preferable in low endemic areas. Diagnosis may be facilitated by malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. In this study, the impact of a government policy change, comprising the provision of RDTs and advice to restrict anti-malarial treatment to RDT-positive individuals, was assessed by describing diagnostic behaviour and treatment decision-making in febrile outpatients Methods Prospective data from Biharamulo and Rubya Designated District Hospital (DDH were collected before and after policy change, in Sumve DDH no new policy was implemented. Diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by RDT; transmission intensity was evaluated by a serological marker of malaria exposure in hospital attendees. Results Prior to policy change, there was no evident association between the actual level of transmission intensity and drug-prescribing behaviour. After policy change, there was a substantial decrease in anti-malarial prescription and an increase in prescription of antibiotics. The proportion of parasite-negative individuals who received anti-malarials decreased from 89.1% (244/274 to 38.7% (46/119 in Biharamulo and from 76.9% (190/247 to 10.0% (48/479 in Rubya after policy change. Conclusion This study shows that an official policy change, where RDTs were provided and healthcare providers were advised to adhere to RDT results in prescribing drugs can be followed by more rational drug-prescribing behaviour. The current findings are promising for improving treatment policy in Tanzanian hospitals.
Deployment and use of mobile phone technology for real-time reporting of fever cases and malaria treatment failure in areas of declining malaria transmission in Muheza district north-eastern Tanzania.
Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Mmbando, Bruno P; Rutta, Acleus S M; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Mayala, Benjamin; Lemnge, Martha M; Michael, Edwin
Early detection of febrile illnesses at community level is essential for improved malaria case management and control. Currently, mobile phone-based technology has been commonly used to collect and transfer health information and services in different settings. This study assessed the applicability of mobile phone-based technology in real-time reporting of fever cases and management of malaria by village health workers (VHWs) in north-eastern Tanzania. The community mobile phone-based disease surveillance and treatment for malaria (ComDSTM) platform, combined with mobile phones and web applications, was developed and implemented in three villages and one dispensary in Muheza district from November 2013 to October 2014. A baseline census was conducted in May 2013. The data were uploaded on a web-based database and updated during follow-up home visits by VHWs. Active and passive case detection (ACD, PCD) of febrile cases were done by VHWs and cases found positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) were given the first dose of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) at the dispensary. Each patient was visited at home by VHWs daily for the first 3 days to supervise intake of anti-malarial and on day 7 to monitor the recovery process. The data were captured and transmitted to the database using mobile phones. The baseline population in the three villages was 2934 in 678 households. A total of 1907 febrile cases were recorded by VHWs and 1828 (95.9%) were captured using mobile phones. At the dispensary, 1778 (93.2%) febrile cases were registered and of these, 84.2% were captured through PCD. Positivity rates were 48.2 and 45.8% by RDT and microscopy, respectively. Nine cases had treatment failure reported on day 7 post-treatment and adherence to treatment was 98%. One patient with severe febrile illness was referred to Muheza district hospital. The study showed that mobile phone-based technology can be successfully used by VHWs in surveillance and timely reporting of fever
Tine, Roger C K; Ndour, Cheikh T; Faye, Babacar
Home-based management of malaria (HMM) may improve access to diagnostic testing and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). In the Sahel region, seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now recommended for the prevention of malaria in children. It is likely that combinations...... of antimalarial interventions can reduce the malaria burden. This study assessed the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of combining SMC and HMM delivered by community health workers (CHWs)....
Shivalli, Siddharudha; Pai, Sudarshan; Akshaya, Kibballi Madhukeshwar; D'Souza, Neevan
Construction sites are potential breeding places for some species of mosquitoes. Construction workers usually stay at the construction sites, thus being extremely susceptible to malaria. For malaria control, a special focus on them is warranted as they often seek treatment from unregulated, private vendors, increasing their risk of exposure to substandard drugs. To elicit the socio-demographic factors associated with comprehensive malaria knowledge (symptoms, mode of spread, and preventive measures) and treatment-seeking pattern (preferred source and type of treatment) among the construction workers in Mangaluru, India; and, to study the association among their comprehensive malaria knowledge, past suffering from malaria (within 1 year) and treatment-seeking pattern. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in nine randomly selected construction sites of Mangaluru, a high-risk city for malaria with an annual parasite incidence of >2/1000/year, from June-September 2012. A sample size of 132 was estimated assuming at least 30% of them have satisfactory malaria knowledge, 10% absolute precision, 95% confidence level, design effect of 1.5 and 10% non-responses. A semi-structured interview schedule was used, and knowledge scores were computed. Multivariate linear (for knowledge score) and logistic regressions (for preferred source and type of treatment) were applied. One hundred and nineteen workers participated in the study (total approached-138). 85% (n = 101) of them were males. Mean knowledge score was 9.95 ± 3.19 (maximum possible score-16). The majority of them were aware of the symptoms and the mode of malaria transmission. However, workers (β = -0.281, p = 0.001), self stated malaria within 1 year (β = 0.276, p workers (AdjOR 7.21, 95% CI 2.3-22.9) and those with self stated malaria within 1 year (AdjOR 11.21, 95% CI 2.38-52.8) showed favorable treatment-seeking pattern. There is an urgent need of intensifying and streamlining of ongoing malaria
Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf
Background: The study assessed aspects of malaria infection, prevention and treatment in a population of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan. Methods: During April and May 2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate malaria prevalence and to assess the use of malaria risk...... ¼ 3.20, 95% CI 1.26–8.16; p ¼ 0.015). Conclusions: The results suggest that educational attainment need not be very advanced to affect practices of malaria prevention and treatment. Primary school attendance was a stronger predictor for use of malaria risk reduction measures than any of the other...... selected background characteristics. Educational attainment, information and communication about malaria prevention and control play a pivotal role in increasing and improving use of malaria risk reduction measures....
Esamai, F; Ayuo, P; Owino-Ongor, W; Rotich, J; Ngindu, A; Obala, A; Ogaro, F; Quoqiao, L; Xingbo, G; Guangqian, L
To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of rectal dihydroartemisinin (DATM--Cotecxin) and intravenous quinine in the treatment of severe malaria in children and adults. Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya between July and November 1998. A total of sixty seven patients aged two to sixty years with severe malaria were studied. This was an open randomised comparative clinical trial. These were parasite clearance time, fever clearance time, efficacy and the side effect profile of the two drugs. The two groups were comparable on admission on the clinical and laboratory parameters. The parasite clearance time was shorter in the rectal DATM group than quinine group. There was no statistical difference on the fever clearance time and cure rates in the two groups. The adverse reaction profile was better with rectal DATM than with quinine, tinnitus observed more in the quinine group. Rectal DATM is faster in parasite clearance than quinine and is a safe and convenient alternative to quinine in the treatment of severe malaria.
Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive
Carlo, Lorena; Bakken, Suzanne; Mamykina, Lena; Kodie, Richmond; Kanter, Andrew S
The maintenance of adequate quantities of antimalarial medicines and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at health facilities in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a challenging task because of poor supply chain management. Antimalarial stock-outs in the communities could lead patients (that need to travel long distances to get medications) to remain untreated, develop severe malaria and die. A prototype to improve the management of health commodities in rural Ghana through the visualization of current stock levels and the forecasting of commodities is proposed.
Kreeftmeijer-Vegter Annemarie R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous (IV artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. In Europe, however, no GMP-manufactured product is available and treatment data in European travellers are scarce. Fortunately, artesunate became available in the Netherlands and Belgium through a named patient programme. This is the largest case series of artesunate treated patients with severe malaria in Europe. Methods Hospitalized patients treated with IV artesunate between November 2007 and December 2010 in the Netherlands and Belgium were retrospectively evaluated. Patient characteristics, treatment and clinical outcome were recorded on a standardized form and mortality, parasite clearance times and the occurrence of adverse events were evaluated. Results Of the 68 treated patients, including 55 with severe malaria, two patients died (2/55 = 3.6%. The mean time to 50% parasite clearance (PCT50, 90% and 99% were 4.4 hours (3.9 - 5.2, 14.8 hours (13.0 - 17.2, and 29.5 hours (25.9 - 34.4 respectively. Artesunate was well tolerated. However, an unusual form of haemolytic anaemia was observed in seven patients. The relationship with artesunate remains uncertain. Conclusions Data from the named patient programme demonstrate that IV artesunate is effective and well-tolerated in European travellers lacking immunity. However, increased attention needs to be paid to the possible development of haemolytic anaemia 2-3 weeks after start of treatment. Treatment of IV artesunate should be limited to the period that IV treatment is required and should be followed by a full oral course of an appropriate anti-malarial drug.
The ability of Macmiror to be eliminated by the kidneys almost completely, without involvement of the liver detoxification reserves, is equally important. An examination of the state of eubiosis in children receiving Macmiror has shown a positive effect of the drug on the intestinal microflora. Based on the individual results of the study and review of the literature data, it was found that Macmiror is one of the most effective and safe drug in the treatment of giardiasis.
Amporfu, Eugenia; Nonvignon, Justice
The Ghanaian health sector has undertaken several policies to help improve the quality of care received by patients. This includes the construction of several health facilities, the increase in the training of health workers, especially nurses, and the introduction of incentive packages (such as salary increase) to motivate health workers. The important question is to what extent does the institutional arrangement between the health facilities and the government as well as between health workers and public health facility administration affect the quality of care? The objective of this study is to find the effect of institutional factors on the quality of care. The institutional factors examined were mainly the extent of decentralization between government and health facilities, as well as between health workers and facility administration, the hiring procedure, and job satisfaction. The study used primary data on former patients from sixty six health facilities in three administrative regions of Ghana: the Northern, the Ashanti and the Greater Accra regions. The quality indicator used was effectiveness of treatment as determined by the patient. Ordered logit regression was run for the indicator with patient and health facility characteristics as well as institutional factors as independent variables. The sample size was 2248. The results showed that the patient's level of formal education had a strong influence on the effectiveness of treatment. In addition, effectiveness of treatment differed according to the administrative region in which the facility was located, and according to the extent of decentralization between health facility and government. The quality of instruments used for treatment, the working conditions for health workers, and job satisfaction had no effect on the effectiveness of treatment. Decentralization, the flow of information from government to health facilities and from health facility administrators to health workers are important in
Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R
polymorphisms associated with resistance to pyrimethamine were identified in 132 (86.3%), to sulfadoxine in 112 (73.7%), to chloroquine in 48 (31.4%), to mefloquine in six (4.3%), and to artemisinin in one (https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/travelers/drugs.html). Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly with antimalarial medications appropriate for the patient's age and medical history, the likely country of malaria acquisition, and previous use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Health care providers should consult the CDC Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria in the United States and contact the CDC's Malaria Hotline for case management advice when needed. Malaria treatment recommendations are available online (https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/diagnosis_treatment) and from the Malaria Hotline (770-488-7788 or toll-free at 855-856-4713). Persons submitting malaria case reports (care providers, laboratories, and state and local public health officials) should provide complete information because incomplete reporting compromises case investigations and efforts to prevent infections and examine trends in malaria cases. Compliance with recommended malaria prevention strategies is low among U.S. travelers visiting friends and relatives. Evidence-based prevention strategies that effectively target travelers who are visiting friends and relatives need to be developed and implemented to reduce the numbers of imported malaria cases in the United States. Molecular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance markers (https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/features/ars.html) has enabled CDC to track, guide treatment, and manage drug resistance in malaria parasites both domestically and internationally. More samples are needed to improve the completeness of antimalarial drug resistance marker analysis; therefore, CDC requests that blood specimens be submitted for all cases diagnosed in the United States.
Full Text Available The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp may be compromised by the spread of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP across Africa. But little information exists on alternative drugs for IPTp or alternative strategies for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Therefore, we have investigated whether screening with a rapid diagnostic test and treatment of those who are positive (IST at routine antenatal clinic attendances is as effective and as safe as SP-IPTp in pregnant women.During antenatal clinic sessions in six health facilities in Ghana held between March 2007 and September 2007, 3333 pregnant women who satisfied inclusion criteria were randomised into three intervention arms (1 standard SP-IPTp, (2 IST and treatment with SP or (3 IST and treatment with amodiaquine+artesunate (AQ+AS. All women received a long-lasting insecticide treated net. Study women had a maximum of three scheduled follow-up visits following enrollment. Haemoglobin concentration and peripheral parasitaemia were assessed between 36 and 40 weeks of gestation. Birth weight was measured at delivery or within 72 hours for babies delivered at home. Parasite prevalence at enrollment in primigravidae and in multigravidae was 29.6% and 10.2% respectively. At 36-40 weeks of gestation the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia was 12.1% in study women overall and was very similar in all treatment groups. The risk of third trimester severe anaemia or low birth weight did not differ significantly between the three treatment groups regardless of gravidity. IST with AQ+AS or SP was not inferior to SP-IPTp in reducing the risk of low birth weight (RD = -1.17[95%CI; -4.39-1.02] for IST-SP vs. SP-IPTp and RD = 0.78[95%CI; -2.11-3.68] for IST-AQAS vs. SP-IPTp; third trimester severe anaemia (RD = 0.29[95%CI; -0.69-1.30] for IST-SP vs. SP-IPTp and RD = -0.36[95%CI;-1.12-0.44] for IST-AQAS vs. SP-IPTp.The results of this study
Conteh, Lesong; Sicuri, Elisa; Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Obonyo, Benson; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Biao, Prosper; Masika, Paul; Matovu, Fred; Otieno, Peter; Gosling, Roly D.; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Aponte, John J.; Egan, Andrea; Schellenberg, David; Macete, Eusebio; Slutsker, Laurence; Newman, Robert D.; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Tanner, Marcel
Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) has been shown to decrease clinical malaria by approximately 30% in the first year of life and is a promising malaria control strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa which can be delivered alongside the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). To date, there have been limited data on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and no published data on cost-effectiveness using other antimalarials. Methods We analysed data from 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using a total of 5 different IPTi drug regimens; SP, mefloquine (MQ), 3 days of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), SP plus 3 days of artesunate (SP-AS3) and 3 days of amodiaquine-artesunate (AQ3-AS3).The cost per malaria episode averted and cost per Disability-Adjusted Life-Year (DALY) averted were modeled using both trial specific protective efficacy (PE) for all IPTi drugs and a pooled PE for IPTi with SP, malaria incidence, an estimated malaria case fatality rate of 1.57%, IPTi delivery costs and country specific provider and household malaria treatment costs. Findings In sites where IPTi had a significant effect on reducing malaria, the cost per episode averted for IPTi-SP was very low, USD 1.36–4.03 based on trial specific data and USD 0.68–2.27 based on the pooled analysis. For IPTi using alternative antimalarials, the lowest cost per case averted was for AQ3-AS3 in western Kenya (USD 4.62) and the highest was for MQ in Korowge, Tanzania (USD 18.56). Where efficacious, based only on intervention costs, IPTi was shown to be cost effective in all the sites and highly cost-effective in all but one of the sites, ranging from USD 2.90 (Ifakara, Tanzania with SP) to USD 39.63 (Korogwe, Tanzania with MQ) per DALY averted. In addition, IPTi reduced health system costs and showed significant savings to households from malaria cases averted. A threshold analysis showed that there is room for the IPTi-efficacy to fall and still
Full Text Available Abstract Background Building on previous acceptability research undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa this article aims to investigate the acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods A questionnaire was administered to mothers whose infants participated in the randomised placebo controlled trial of IPTi. Mothers whose infants participated and who refused to participate in the trial, health workers, community reporters and opinion leaders were interviewed. Men and women from the local community also participated in focus group discussions. Results Respondents viewed IPTi as acceptable in light of wider concern for infant health and the advantages of trial participation. Mothers reported complying with at-home administration of IPTi due to perceived benefits of IPTi and pressure from health workers. In spite of patchy knowledge, respondents also demonstrated a demand for infant vaccinations and considered non-vaccination to be neglect. There is little evidence that IPTi has negative impacts on attitudes to EPI, EPI adherence or existing malaria prevention practices. Conclusion The degree of similarity between findings from the acceptability studies undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa and PNG allows some generalization relating to the implementation of IPTi outside of Africa: IPTi fits well with local health cultures, appears to be accepted easily and has little impact on attitudes towards EPI or malaria prevention. The study adds to the evidence indicating that IPTi could be rolled out in a range of social and cultural contexts.
Freeman, J; Laserson, K F; Petralanda, I; Spielman, A
To determine whether chemotherapy effectively reduces Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in isolated human populations, we followed two abrupt sequential outbreaks of malaria infection among Yanomami Amerindians and modeled the effect of chemotherapy and the consequences if no drug was available. A Macdonald-type mathematical model demonstrated that both outbreaks comprised a single epidemic event linked by an invisible outbreak in vector mosquitoes. The basic reproductive number, R0, from fitted values based on the treated epidemic was 2 during the initial phase of the epidemic, and waned as vector density decreased with the onset of the dry season. In the observed epidemic, 60 (45%) of 132 village residents were affected, and the treated outbreak ended after two months. Although the initial chemotherapy regimen was only marginally effective, the duration of human infectivity was reduced from an expected nine months to two weeks. In the absence of this intervention, the initial R0 value would have been 40, more than 60% of the population would have been infected, and more than 30% would have remained parasitemic until the next rainy season (about six months later). Another outbreak would then have ensued, and malaria probably would have remained endemic in this village. Our simulated placebo treatment permits us to conclude that even partially effective chemotherapeutic interventions, such as those in our study, interrupt serial transmission of P. falciparum among isolated human populations that are exposed to infection seasonally.
Full Text Available Abstract In the high malaria-transmission settings of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal, perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP reduces the incidence of low birth-weight, pre-term delivery, intrauterine growth-retardation and maternal anaemia. However, the public health benefits of IPTp are declining due to SP resistance. The combination of azithromycin and chloroquine is a potential alternative to SP for IPTp. This review summarizes key in vitro and in vivo evidence of azithromycin and chloroquine activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, as well as the anticipated secondary benefits that may result from their combined use in IPTp, including the cure and prevention of many sexually transmitted diseases. Drug costs and the necessity for external financing are discussed along with a range of issues related to drug resistance and surveillance. Several scientific and programmatic questions of interest to policymakers and programme managers are also presented that would need to be addressed before azithromycin-chloroquine could be adopted for use in IPTp.
Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter
BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (S/P) is widely used for treatment of failures following the first line treatment for malaria in Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, it has been recommended as second line therapy by the National Malaria Programme since 1996. In order to monitor any change of the in vivo...... sensitivity, the efficacy of S/P was studied immediately before the introduction of the drug and 6-9 years later. METHODS: Children participating in clinical in vivo studies were given S/P if having late clinical treatment failure following the treatment with quinine, chloroquine, or amodiaquine...
Mutagonda, Ritah F; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary A R; Minzi, Omary M S; Massawe, Siriel N; Asghar, Muhammad; Homann, Manijeh V; Färnert, Anna; Aklillu, Eleni
Pregnancy has considerable effects on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The role of pharmacogenetic variation on anti-malarial drug disposition and efficacy during pregnancy is not well investigated. The study aimed to examine the effect of pharmacogenetics on lumefantrine (LF) pharmacokinetics and treatment outcome in pregnant women. Pregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and treated with artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) at Mkuranga and Kisarawe district hospitals in Coast Region of Tanzania. Day-7 LF plasma concentration and genotyping forCYP2B6 (c.516G>T, c.983T>C), CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5 (*3, *6, *7) and ABCB1 c.4036A4G were determined. Blood smear for parasite quantification by microscopy, and dried blood spot for parasite screening and genotyping using qPCR and nested PCR were collected at enrolment up to day 28 to differentiate between reinfection from recrudescence. Treatment response was recorded following the WHO protocol. In total, 92 pregnant women in their second and third trimester were included in the study and 424 samples were screened for presence of P. falciparum. Parasites were detected during the follow up period in 11 (12%) women between day 7 and 28 after treatment and PCR genotyping confirmed recrudescent infection in 7 (63.3%) women. The remaining four (36.4%) pregnant women had reinfection: one on day 14 and three on day 28. The overall PCR-corrected treatment failure rate was 9.0% (95% CI 4.4-17.4). Day 7 LF concentration was not significantly influenced by CYP2B6, CYP3A4*1B and ABCB1 c.4036A>G genotypes. Significant associations between CYP3A5 genotype and day 7 plasma LF concentrations was found, being higher in carriers of CYP3A5 defective variant alleles than CYP3A5*1/*1 genotype. No significant influence of CYP2B6, CYP3A5 and ABCB1 c.4036A>Genotypes on malaria treatment outcome were observed. However, CYP3A4*1B did affect malaria treatment outcome in
Xia, Shang; Ma, Jin-Xiang; Wang, Duo-Quan; Li, Shi-Zhu; Rollinson, David; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
In China, malaria has been posing a significant economic burden on households. To evaluate malaria economic burden in terms of both direct and indirect costs has its meaning in improving the effectiveness of malaria elimination program in China. A number of study sites (eight counties in five provinces) were selected from the malaria endemic area in China, representing the different levels of malaria incidence, risk classification, economic development. A number of households with malaria cases (n = 923) were surveyed during the May to December in 2012 to collect information on malaria economic burden. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the basic profiles of selected malaria cases in terms of their gender, age group, occupation and malaria type. The malaria economic costs were evaluated by direct and indirect costs. Comparisons were carried out by using the chi-square test (or Z-test) and the Mann-Whitney U test among malaria cases with reference to local/imported malaria patients, hospitalized/out patients, and treatment hospitals. The average cost of malaria per case was 1 691.23 CNY (direct cost was 735.41 CNY and indirect cost was 955.82 CNY), which accounted for 11.1 % of a household's total income. The average costs per case for local and imported malaria were 1 087.58 CNY and 4271.93 CNY, respectively. The average cost of a malaria patient being diagnosed and treated in a hospital at the county level or above (3 975.43 CNY) was 4.23 times higher than that of malaria patient being diagnosed and treated at a village or township hospital (938.80 CNY). This study found that malaria has been posing a significant economic burden on households in terms of direct and indirect costs. There is a need to improve the effectiveness of interventions in order to reduce the impact costs of malaria, especially of imported infections, in order to eliminate the disease in China.
Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.
Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for ≥72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given. PMID:16495259
Karunajeewa, Harin A; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M; Ilett, Kenneth F; Davis, Timothy M E
Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for > or = 72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given.
van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Slutsker, L.; Otieno, Juliana A.; Misore, Ambrose O.; Odondi, J. O.; Rosen, Daniel H.; Kager, Piet A.; Steketee, Rick W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.
OBJECTIVE In 1998, the Kenyan Ministry of Health introduced intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), one treatment dose in the second trimester (16-27 weeks) and one treatment dose between 28 and 34 weeks of gestational age, for the control of malaria in
In a Randomized Controlled Trial of Iron Fortification, Anthelmintic Treatment, and Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria for Anemia Control in Ivorian Children, only Anthelmintic Treatment Shows Modest Benefit
Rohner, F.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Amon, R.J.; Vounatsou, P.; Tschannen, A.B.; N'goran, E.K.; Nindjin, C.; Cacou, M.C.; Té-Bonlé, D.; Aka, H.; Sess, D.E.; Utzinger, J.; Hurrell, R.F.
Anemia is common among children in sub-Saharan Africa and its etiology is multifactorial. Likely causes of anemia are low bioavailability of dietary iron, malaria, and helminth infection. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of iron fortification, intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of
Webb Emily L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual malaria interventions provide only partial protection in most epidemiological situations. Thus, there is a need to investigate whether combining interventions provides added benefit in reducing mortality and morbidity from malaria. The potential benefits of combining IPT in children (IPTc with home management of malaria (HMM was investigated. Methods During the 2008 malaria transmission season, 1,277 children under five years of age resident in villages within the rural Farafenni demographic surveillance system (DSS in North Bank Region, The Gambia were randomized to receive monthly IPTc with a single dose of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP plus three doses of amodiaquine (AQ or SP and AQ placebos given by village health workers (VHWs on three occasions during the months of September, October and November, in a double-blind trial. Children in all study villages who developed an acute febrile illness suggestive of malaria were treated by VHWs who had been taught how to manage malaria with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem™. The primary aims of the project were to determine whether IPTc added significant benefit to HMM and whether VHWs could effectively combine the delivery of both interventions. Results The incidence of clinical attacks of malaria was very low in both study groups. The incidence rate of malaria in children who received IPTc was 0.44 clinical attacks per 1,000 child months at risk while that for control children was 1.32 per 1,000 child months at risk, a protective efficacy of 66% (95% CI -23% to 96%; p = 0.35. The mean (standard deviation haemoglobin concentration at the end of the malaria transmission season was similar in the two treatment groups: 10.2 (1.6 g/dL in the IPTc group compared to 10.3 (1.5 g/dL in the placebo group. Coverage with IPTc was high, with 94% of children receiving all three treatments during the study period. Conclusion Due to the very low incidence of malaria, no firm
Cao, X T; Bethell, D B; Pham, T P; Ta, T T; Tran, T N; Nguyen, T T; Pham, T T; Nguyen, T T; Day, N P; White, N J
Severe malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity for children living in many tropical regions. With the emergence of strains of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to both chloroquine and quinine, alternative antimalarial agents are required. The artemisinin group of compounds are rapidly effective in severe disease when given by intramuscular or intravenous injection. However, these routes of administration are not always available in rural areas. In an open, randomized comparison 109 Vietnamese children, aged between 3 months and 14 years, with severe P.falciparum malaria, were allocated at random to receive artemisinin suppositories followed by mefloquine (n = 37), intramuscular artesunate followed by mefloquine (n = 37), or intravenous quinine followed by pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (n = 35). There were 9 deaths: 2 artemisinin, 4 artesunate and 5 quinine-treated children. There was no difference in fever clearance time, coma recovery, or length of hospital stay among the 3 groups. However, parasite clearance times were significantly faster in artemisinin and artesunate-treated patients than in those who received quinine (P children receiving these drugs had lower peripheral reticulocyte counts by day 5 of treatment than those in the quinine group (P = 0.011). No other adverse effect or toxicity was found. There was no treatment failure in these 2 groups, but 4 patients in the quinine group failed to clear their parasites within 7 d of starting treatment and required alternative antimalarial therapy. Artemisinin suppositories are easy to administer, cheap, and very effective for treating children with severe malaria. In rural areas where medical facilities are lacking these drugs will allow antimalarial therapy to be instituted earlier in the course of the disease and may therefore save lives.
Looareesuwan, S; Chulay, J D; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B
The continuing spread of drug-resistant malaria emphasizes the need for new antimalarial drugs. Atovaquone is a broad-spectrum antiprotozoal drug with a novel mechanism of action, via inhibition of parasite mitochondrial electron transport, and a favorable safety profile. Early studies with atovaquone alone for treatment of malaria demonstrated good initial control of parasitemia but an unacceptable rate of recrudescent parasitemia. Parasites isolated during recrudescence after treatment with atovaquone alone were resistant to atovaquone in vitro. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil is synergistic in vitro, and clinical studies demonstrated enhanced efficacy of the combination compared to either drug alone for treatment of malaria. Malarone, a fixed-dose combination of 250 mg of atovaquone and 100 mg of proguanil hydrochloride, is available in many countries for treatment of acute, uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. At the recommended dose (in adults, four tablets once a day for three days), the overall cure rate was > 98% in more than 500 patients with falciparum malaria. In four randomized, controlled clinical trials, treatment with atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was significantly more effective than mefloquine (Thailand), amodiaquine (Gabon), chloroquine (Peru and the Philippines) or chloroquine plus pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Philippines). In clinical trials where the comparator drug was highly effective, treatment with atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was equally effective. Parasites isolated during recrudescence after treatment with the combination of atovaquone and proguanil were not resistant to atovaquone in vitro. The most commonly reported adverse events in clinical trials (abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and coughing) occurred with similar frequency in patients treated with a comparator drug. Malarone is a safe and effective new agent for treatment of malaria.
Coldiron, Matthew E; Lasry, Estrella; Bouhenia, Malika; Das, Debashish; Okui, Peter; Nyehangane, Dan; Mwanga, Juliet; Langendorf, Celine; Elder, Greg; Salumu, Léon; Grais, Rebecca F
Northern Uganda hosts a large population of refugees from South Sudan, and malaria is one of the major health problems in the area. In 2015, intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTc) was implemented in two refugee camps among children aged 6 months to 14 years. Three distributions of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) were conducted at 8-week intervals. The first dose was directly administered at IPTc distribution sites and the second and third doses were given to caregivers to administer at home. A multi-faceted evaluation was implemented, including coverage surveys, malaria prevalence surveys, reinforced surveillance, and pharmacovigilance. Programme coverage exceeded 90% during all three distributions with a total of 40,611 participants. Compared to same period during the previous year (only available data), the incidence of malaria in the target populations was reduced (IRR 0.73, 95% CI 0.69-0.77 among children under 5 years old; IRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.67-0.72 among children aged 5-14 years). Among those not targeted for intervention, the incidence between the 2 years increased (IRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.42-1.56). Cross-sectional surveys showed a prevalence of parasitaemia (microscopy or PCR) of 12.9-16.4% (95% CI 12.6-19.3) during the intervention, with the highest prevalence among children aged 5-14 years, but with a large increase 8 weeks after the final distribution. A total of 57 adverse events were reported during the intervention period, including one severe adverse event (death from varicella). Adverse events were of mild to moderate severity, and were mainly dermatologic and gastrointestinal. This is the first documentation of an IPTc programme in a refugee camp. The positive impact of DP on the incidence of malaria, together with its favourable safety profile, should lead to further use of IPTc in similar settings. Expanding coverage groups and decreasing intervals between distributions might provide more benefit, but would need to be balanced
Agbodeka, Kodjovi; Gbekley, Holaly E; Karou, Simplice D; Anani, Kokou; Agbonon, Amegnona; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Batawila, Komlan; Simpore, Jacques; Gbeassor, Messanvi
In Togo, malaria constitutes a major public health problem but, until now, the population still mostly relies on herbal medicine for healing. This study aimed to document medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in the Plateau region of the country. Semi-structured questionnaire interviews were used to gather ethnobotanical and sociodemographic data from traditional healers of the study area. A total of 61 plants species belonging to 33 families were found to be in use for malaria therapy in the Plateau region. Caesalpiniaceae were the most represented family with 7 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae with 4 species each. According to the relative frequency of citation (RFC), Newbouldia laevis Seem. (RFC =0.52), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (RFC =0.48), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (RFC =0.43), and Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby (RFC =0.40) were the most cited in the treatment of malaria in the traditional medicine in the Plateau region. The parts of plants used could either be the barks, roots, leaves, or whole plants. The recipes also could be a combination of various species of plants or plant parts. This study highlights the potential sources for the development of new antimalarial drugs from indigenous medicinal plants found in the Plateau region of Togo. Such results could be a starting point for in vitro antimalarial screenings. 61 plants species from 33 families are use for malaria therapy in the Plateau region of TogoThe main families are Caesalpiniaceae Euphorbiaceae and PoaceaeThe most used species are Newbouldia laevis Seem. (RFC = 0.52), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (RFC = 0.48), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (RFC = 0.43), and Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby (RFC = 0.40) Abbreviations Used: RFC: Relative frequency of citation, FC: Frequency of citation, Dec: Decoction, Orl: Oral route, Mac: Maceration, Jui: Juice, Inf: Infusion, Sau: Sauce, Kne: Kneading, Le: Leaves, Rt: Roots, Wp: Whole plant
Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Clarke, Siân
assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1) passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2) a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected...... negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools...
Full Text Available Dari tahun 1979 sampai dengan 1981 dilaksanakan penelitian epidemiologi malaria disuatu daerah hypo-endemis di Kalimantan Selatan. Sebagian dari penelitian yang dilaporkan di sini, menilai hasil penyemprotan rumah dengan DDT yang dilaksanakan secara rutin oleh Dinas Kesehatan Propinsi serta menilai intervensi yang diadakan atas dasar epidemiologi setempat. Daerah transmigrasi Batutungku disemprot secara rutin dan hasilnya dibandingkan dengan Panyipatan, suatu desa yang tidak disemprot. Hasil surveillance menunjukkan bahwa incidence rate tiap tahun selama tiga tahun penelitian di kedua daerah turunnya sama : di Batutungku dari 10,20/00 menjadi 8,70/00 pada tahun 1980 dan 5,30/00 pada tahun 1981, dan di Panyipatan dari 16,60/00 menjadi 14,60/00 pada tahun 1980 dan 7,70/00 pada tahun 1981. Fluktuasi kepadatan An. nigerrimus dan An. peditaeniatus, dua species anopheles yang paling banyak tertangkap di daerah penelitian, juga tidak menunjukkan adanya perbedaan di kedua daerah. Dengan incidence rate dan data entomologis ini, dibuktikan bahwa penyemprotan rumah-rumah di Batutungku tidak efektif. Bahwa di kedua daerah incidence rate tiap tahun menurun, disebabkan oleh ''radical treatment' yang dimulai di kedua daerah sejak Oktober 1979. ''Mass treatment "di dua R W di Batutungku di mana incidence malaria per bulan lebih tinggi daripada lain-lain R W, dapat menekan malaria transmisi.
Komlaga, Gustav; Agyare, Christian; Dickson, Rita Akosua; Mensah, Merlin Lincoln Kwao; Annan, Kofi; Loiseau, Philippe M; Champy, Pierre
Ethnobotanical survey was performed to document medicinal plants employed in the management of malaria in the Bosomtwe and Sekyere East Districts of the Ashanti Region (Ghana), in comparison with the plant ingredients in herbal antimalarial remedies registered by the Ghana Food and Drug Administration. Two hundred and three (203) herbalists from 33 communities within the two districts were interviewed on medicinal plants they use to manage malaria. A literature search was made to determine already documented plants. In addition, 23 finished marketed herbal products indicated for the management of malaria were identified and their labels examined to find out which of the plants mentioned in our survey were listed as ingredients and whether these products are in anyway regulated. Ninety-eight (98) species of plants were cited for the management of malaria. In comparison with literature citations, 12 (12.2%) species were reported for the management of malaria for the first time and 20 (20.4%) others for the first time in Ghana. Twenty-three (23) finished marketed herbal antimalarial products examined contained aerial or underground parts of 29 of the plants cited in our survey as ingredients. Twenty-two (22) of these products have been registered by the Ghana Food and Drugs Authority, four (4) of which were included in the recommended herbal medicine list for treating malaria in Ghana. This study provides new additions to the inventory of medicinal plants used for the management of malaria and reports the commercial availability and regulation of finished marketed labelled herbal products intended for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund
Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans
Ashley Elizabeth A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rectal artesunate has been shown to reduce death and disability from severe malaria caused by delays in reaching facilities capable of providing appropriate treatment. Acceptability of this mode of drug delivery in Laos is not known. In 2009 the acceptability of rectal treatments was evaluated among the general Lao population and Lao doctors in a national survey. Methods A cross sectional survey was performed of 985 households selected through a multi-stage random sampling process from 85 villages in 12/18 provinces and of 315 health staff randomly selected at each administrative level. Results Out of 985 families, 9% had used the rectal route to treat children (the main indication was seizures or constipation. The population considered it less effective than other routes. Other concerns raised included pain (28%, discomfort for children (40% and the possibility of other side effects (20%. Of 300 health staff surveyed (nurses 44%, doctors 66%, only 51% had already used the rectal route with a suppository, mostly to treat fever (76%. Health staff working in provincial hospitals had more experience of using the rectal route than those in urban areas. The majority (92% were keen to use the rectal route to treat malaria although oral and intramuscular routes were preferred and considered to be more efficacious. Discussion and conclusion Use of rectal treatments is uncommon in Laos and generally not considered to be very effective. This view is shared by the population and health care workers. More information and training are needed to convince the population and health staff of the efficacy and advantages of the rectal route for malaria treatment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes.
ter Kuile, F. O.; Nosten, F.; Luxemburger, C.; Kyle, D.; Teja-Isavatharm, P.; Phaipun, L.; Price, R.; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.; White, N. J.
Between 1990 and 1994, a series of prospective studies were conducted to optimize the treatment of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria on the borders of Thailand. The tolerance of various treatment regimens containing either mefloquine 15 mg/kg (M15) or 25 mg/kg (M25) was evaluated in 3673
Kabaghe, Alinune N.; Visser, Benjamin J.; Spijker, Rene; Phiri, Kamija S.; Grobusch, Martin P.; van Vugt, Michèle
The World Health Organization recommends malaria to be confirmed by either microscopy or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment. The correct use of RDTs in resource-limited settings facilitates basing treatment onto a confirmed diagnosis; contributes to speeding up considering a correct
Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Clarke, Siân
actually using insecticide-treated nets. Many patients (25%) had received treatment prior to visiting a health facility, with drug shops and general stores being the main sources of treatment. Some shops dispensed quinine, a second-line drug recommended for complicated malaria. Prescription practices...
Cohee, Lauren M; Laufer, Miriam K
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A-Elbasit, Ishraga E; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Khalil, Insaf F
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine (SP)+chloroquine (CQ) combination treatment against falciparum malaria with SP treatment alone. METHOD: In-vivo study of 254 patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in rural eastern Sudan, where the population is semi...
Ibrahium, A M; Kheir, M M; Osman, M E
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is increasingly being adopted as the first-line treatment for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. In September-November 2005, in New Halfa, eastern Sudan, the efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for the treatment of uncomplicated...... of uncomplicated, P. falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan....
Matovu, F.; Nanyiti, A.; Rutebemberwa, E.
Background: Home and community-based combined treatment of malaria and pneumonia has been promoted in Uganda since mid 2011. The combined treatment is justified given the considerable overlap between the symptoms of malaria and pneumonia among infants. There is limited evidence about the extent to
Nondo, Ramadhani S O; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J; Zacharia, Abdallah; Masimba, Pax J; Kidukuli, Abdul W
Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 × 10(7) erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria.
Ramadhani SO Nondo
Full Text Available Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 Χ 10 7 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day and solvent (5 mL/kg/day were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s. In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria.
Menya, Diana; Platt, Alyssa; Manji, Imran; Sang, Edna; Wafula, Rebeccah; Ren, Jing; Cheruiyot, Olympia; Armstrong, Janice; Neelon, Brian; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme
Inappropriate treatment of non-malaria fevers with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is a growing concern, particularly in light of emerging artemisinin resistance, but it is a behavior that has proven difficult to change. Pay for performance (P4P) programs have generated interest as a mechanism to improve health service delivery and accountability in resource-constrained health systems. However, there has been little experimental evidence to establish the effectiveness of P4P in developing countries. We tested a P4P strategy that emphasized parasitological diagnosis and appropriate treatment of suspected malaria, in particular reduction of unnecessary consumption of ACTs. A random sample of 18 health centers was selected and received a refresher workshop on malaria case management. Pre-intervention baseline data was collected from August to September 2012. Facilities were subsequently randomized to either the comparison (n = 9) or intervention arm (n = 9). Between October 2012 and November 2013, facilities in the intervention arm received quarterly incentive payments based on seven performance indicators. Incentives were for use by facilities rather than as payments to individual providers. All non-pregnant patients older than 1 year of age who presented to a participating facility and received either a malaria test or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) were eligible to be included in the analysis. Our primary outcome was prescription of AL to patients with a negative malaria diagnostic test (n = 11,953). Our secondary outcomes were prescription of AL to patients with laboratory-confirmed malaria (n = 2,993) and prescription of AL to patients without a malaria diagnostic test (analyzed at the cluster level, n = 178 facility-months). In the final quarter of the intervention period, the proportion of malaria-negative patients in the intervention arm who received AL was lower than in the comparison arm (7.3% versus 10.9%). The improvement
Ezeoke Ogochukwu P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of ACT as the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria has concentrated attention on the role of testing in appropriate malaria treatment. There are calls at both national and global level for malaria treatment to be based on test result, but it is still unclear how testing can be incorporated into treatment-seeking and practices of health providers. This study explored community members and health providers’ perceptions and experiences with malaria tests in south east Nigeria. Methods The study was conducted in urban and rural areas of Enugu state in south-eastern Nigeria. A total of 18 focus group discussions with 179 community members including sub-groups of primary caregivers, adult men and adult women aged 15 years and above. Twenty- six (26 In-depth interviews were held with public and private health providers involved in prescribing medicines at public and private health facilities in the study area. Results Both providers and community members were familiar with malaria tests and identified malaria tests as an important step to distinguish malaria from other illnesses with similar symptoms and as a means of delivering appropriate treatment. However, the logic of test-directed treatment was undermined by cost of test and a lack of testing facilities but above all concerns over the reliability of negative test results, with community members and providers observing inconsistencies between results and symptoms, and providers attributing inaccurate results to incompetencies of technicians. Recognition of malaria symptoms was deemed most important in determining the use of antimalarial drugs rather than the result of a malaria test. Conclusion The results highlight important areas of intervention to promote appropriate malaria treatment. If tests are to play a role in patient management, demand and supply side interventions are needed to change people’s attitude towards malaria test
... leading to hypoglycaemia in children could be attributed to poverty, malnutrition, inadequate management of uncomplicated malaria in the health centres as well as late arrival at the hospital. Early laboratory and clinical diagnosis, correct treatment and improved quality management are key strategies for malaria control.
Full Text Available The emergence and spread of drug resistant malaria represents a considerable challenge to controlling malaria. To date, malaria control has relied heavily on a comparatively small number of chemically related drugs, belonging to either the quinoline or the antifolate groups. Only recently have the artemisinin derivatives been used but mostly in south east Asia. Experience has shown that resistance eventually curtails the life-span of antimalarial drugs. Controlling resistance is key to ensuring that the investment put into developing new antimalarial drugs is not wasted. Current efforts focus on research into new compounds with novel mechanisms of action, and on measures to prevent or delay resistance when drugs are introduced. Drug discovery and development are long, risky and costly ventures. Antimalarial drug development has traditionally been slow but now various private and public institutions are at work to discover and develop new compounds. Today, the antimalarial development pipeline is looking reasonably healthy. Most development relies on the quinoline, antifolate and artemisinin compounds. There is a pressing need to have effective, easy to use, affordable drugs that will last a long time. Drug combinations that have independent modes of action are seen as a way of enhancing efficacy while ensuring mutual protection against resistance. Most research work has focused on the use of artesunate combined with currently used standard drugs, namely, mefloquine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and chloroquine. There is clear evidence that combinations improve efficacy without increasing toxicity. However, the absolute cure rates that are achieved by combinations vary widely and depend on the level of resistance of the standard drug. From these studies, further work is underway to produce fixed dose combinations that will be packaged in blister packs. This review will summarise current antimalarial drug developments and outline recent
Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Achan, Jane; Lamorde, Mohammed; Karera-Gonahasa, Carine; Kiragga, Agnes N; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nsobya, Sam; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Merry, Concepta
Severe malaria is a medical emergency associated with high mortality. Adequate treatment requires initial parenteral therapy for fast parasite clearance followed by longer acting oral antimalarial drugs for cure and prevention of recrudescence. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the 42-day parasitological outcomes of severe malaria treatment with intravenous artesunate (AS) or intravenous quinine (QNN) followed by oral artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) in children living in a high malaria transmission setting in Eastern Uganda. We enrolled 300 participants and all were included in the intention to treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar across treatment arms. The median and interquartile range for number of days from baseline to parasite clearance was significantly lower among participants who received intravenous AS (2 (1-2) vs 3 (2-3), P malaria symptoms. In this high transmission setting, we observed adequate initial treatment outcomes followed by very high rates of malaria re-infection post severe malaria treatment. The impact of recurrent antimalarial treatment on the long term efficacy of antimalarial regimens needs to be investigated and surveillance mechanisms for resistance markers established since recurrent malaria infections are likely to be exposed to sub-therapeutic drug concentrations. More strategies for prevention of recurrent malaria infections in the most at risk populations are needed. The study was registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry ( PACTR201110000321348 ).
Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia
As agents for their patients, providers often make treatment decisions on behalf of patients, and their choices can affect health outcomes. However, providers operate within a network of relationships and are agents not only for their patients, but also other health sector actors, such as their employer, the Ministry of Health, and pharmaceutical suppliers. Providers' stated preferences for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria were examined to determine what factors predict their choice of treatment in the absence of information and institutional constraints, such as the stock of medicines or the patient's ability to pay. 518 providers working at non-profit health facilities and for-profit pharmacies and drug stores in Yaoundé and Bamenda in Cameroon and in Enugu State in Nigeria were surveyed between July and December 2009 to elicit the antimalarial they prefer to supply for uncomplicated malaria. Multilevel modelling was used to determine the effect of financial and non-financial incentives on their preference, while controlling for information and institutional constraints, and accounting for the clustering of providers within facilities and geographic areas. 69% of providers stated a preference for artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT), which is the recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon and Nigeria. A preference for ACT was significantly associated with working at a for-profit facility, reporting that patients prefer ACT, and working at facilities that obtain antimalarials from drug company representatives. Preferences were similar among colleagues within a facility, and among providers working in the same locality. Knowing the government recommends ACT was a significant predictor, though having access to clinical guidelines was not sufficient. Providers are agents serving multiple principals and their preferences over alternative antimalarials were influenced by patients, drug company representatives, and other providers working at the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. Intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc combined with timely treatment of malaria related febrile illness at home to reduce parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in children aged between six and 60 months in a coastal community in Ghana. This paper reports persistence of reduced parasitaemia two years into the intervention. The baseline and year-one-evaluation findings were published earlier. Objective The main objective in the second year was to demonstrate whether the two interventions would further reduce parasite prevalence and malaria-related febrile illness in the study population. Methods This was an intervention study designed to compare baseline and evaluation findings without a control group. The study combined home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc aged 6 - 60 months and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria-related illness within 24 hours. All children aged 6 - 60 months received home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine + artesunate, delivered at home by community assistants every four months (6 times in 24 months. Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third and sixth IPTc to the children. The evaluation surveys were done four months after the third and sixth IPTc was given. Results Parasite prevalence which reduced from 25% to 3.0% at year-one evaluation had reduced further from 3% to 1% at year-two-evaluation. At baseline, 13.8% of the children were febrile (axilary temperature of ≥37.5°C compared to 2.2% at year-one-evaluation while 2.1% were febrile at year-two-evaluation. Conclusion The year-two-evaluation result indicates that IPTc given three times in a year (every four months combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, is
Ahorlu, Collins K; Koram, Kwadwo A; Seake-Kwawu, Atsu; Weiss, Mitchell G
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. Intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc) combined with timely treatment of malaria related febrile illness at home to reduce parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in children aged between six and 60 months in a coastal community in Ghana. This paper reports persistence of reduced parasitaemia two years into the intervention. The baseline and year-one-evaluation findings were published earlier. The main objective in the second year was to demonstrate whether the two interventions would further reduce parasite prevalence and malaria-related febrile illness in the study population. This was an intervention study designed to compare baseline and evaluation findings without a control group. The study combined home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc) aged 6 - 60 months and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria-related illness within 24 hours. All children aged 6-60 months received home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine + artesunate, delivered at home by community assistants every four months (6 times in 24 months). Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third and sixth IPTc to the children. The evaluation surveys were done four months after the third and sixth IPTc was given. Parasite prevalence which reduced from 25% to 3.0% at year-one evaluation had reduced further from 3% to 1% at year-two-evaluation. At baseline, 13.8% of the children were febrile (axilary temperature of ≥ 37.5 °C) compared to 2.2% at year-one-evaluation while 2.1% were febrile at year-two-evaluation. The year-two-evaluation result indicates that IPTc given three times in a year (every four months) combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, is effective to reduce malaria parasite prevalence in children aged 6 to 60 months
Steinhardt, Laura C; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Wolkon, Adam; Luka, Madalitso; Luhanga, Misheck; Sande, John; Oyugi, Jessica; Ali, Doreen; Mathanga, Don; Skarbinski, Jacek
Malaria is endemic throughout Malawi, but little is known about quality of malaria case management at publicly-funded health facilities, which are the major source of care for febrile patients. In April-May 2011, we conducted a nationwide, geographically-stratified health facility survey to assess the quality of outpatient malaria diagnosis and treatment. We enrolled patients presenting for care and conducted exit interviews and re-examinations, including reference blood smears. Moreover, we assessed health worker readiness (e.g., training, supervision) and health facility capacity (e.g. availability of diagnostics and antimalarials) to provide malaria case management. All analyses accounted for clustering and unequal selection probabilities. We also used survey weights to produce estimates of national caseloads. At the 107 facilities surveyed, most of the 136 health workers interviewed (83%) had received training on malaria case management. However, only 24% of facilities had functional microscopy, 15% lacked a thermometer, and 19% did not have the first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), artemether-lumefantrine, in stock. Of 2,019 participating patients, 34% had clinical malaria (measured fever or self-reported history of fever plus a positive reference blood smear). Only 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 59%, 76%) of patients with malaria were correctly prescribed an ACT, primarily due to missed malaria diagnosis. Among patients without clinical malaria, 31% (95% CI: 24%, 39%) were prescribed an ACT. By our estimates, 1.5 million of the 4.4 million malaria patients seen in public facilities annually did not receive correct treatment, and 2.7 million patients without clinical malaria were inappropriately given an ACT. Malawi has a high burden of uncomplicated malaria but nearly one-third of all patients receive incorrect malaria treatment, including under- and over-treatment. To improve malaria case management, facilities must at minimum have
Dellavalle, Brian; Staalsoe, Trine; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Anders
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a potentially fatal cerebrovascular disease of complex pathogenesis caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is a physiological gas, similar to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, involved in cellular metabolism, vascular tension, inflammation, and cell death....... HS treatment has shown promising results as a therapy for cardio- and neuro- pathology. This study investigates the effects of fast (NaHS) and slow (GYY4137) HS-releasing drugs on the growth and metabolism of P. falciparum and the development of P. berghei ANKA CM. Moreover, we investigate the role...
Joshi, Vinayak; Agurto, Carla; Barriga, Simon; Nemeth, Sheila; Soliz, Peter; MacCormick, Ian J.; Lewallen, Susan; Taylor, Terrie E.; Harding, Simon P.
Cerebral malaria (CM), a complication of malaria infection, is the cause of the majority of malaria-associated deaths in African children. The standard clinical case definition for CM misclassifies ~25% of patients, but when malarial retinopathy (MR) is added to the clinical case definition, the specificity improves from 61% to 95%. Ocular fundoscopy requires expensive equipment and technical expertise not often available in malaria endemic settings, so we developed an automated software system to analyze retinal color images for MR lesions: retinal whitening, vessel discoloration, and white-centered hemorrhages. The individual lesion detection algorithms were combined using a partial least square classifier to determine the presence or absence of MR. We used a retrospective retinal image dataset of 86 pediatric patients with clinically defined CM (70 with MR and 16 without) to evaluate the algorithm performance. Our goal was to reduce the false positive rate of CM diagnosis, and so the algorithms were tuned at high specificity. This yielded sensitivity/specificity of 95%/100% for the detection of MR overall, and 65%/94% for retinal whitening, 62%/100% for vessel discoloration, and 73%/96% for hemorrhages. This automated system for detecting MR using retinal color images has the potential to improve the accuracy of CM diagnosis.
Ouma Okuma, P.
Malaria vormt een belangrijke bedreiging voor de gezondheid van zwangere vrouwen in Afrika ten zuiden van de Sahara. Peter Okuma onderzocht in Kenya maatregelen om malaria bij zwangere vrouwen te voorkomen. Uit zijn studie blijkt dat vrouwen al voor het begin van de zwangerschap ijzer en foliumzuur
Full Text Available Abstract Parenteral artesunate has been shown to be a superior treatment option compared to parenteral quinine in adults and children with severe malaria. Little evidence, however, is available on long-term safety. Recently, cases of late-onset haemolysis after parenteral treatment with artesunate have been reported in European travellers with imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Therefore, an extended follow-up of adult patients treated for severe imported malaria was started in August 2011 at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Until January 2012, three patients with hyperparasitaemia (range: 14-21% were included for analysis. In all three patients, delayed haemolysis was detected in the second week after the first dose of intravenous artesunate. Reticulocyte production index remained inadequately low in the 7 – 14 days following the first dose of artesunate despite rapid parasite clearance. Post-treatment haemolysis after parenteral artesunate may be of clinical relevance in particular in imported severe malaria characterized by high parasite levels. Extended follow-up of at least 30 days including controls of haematological parameters after artesunate treatment seems to be indicated. Further investigations are needed to assess frequency and pathophysiological background of this complication.
Mbonye, Anthony K.; Lal, Sham; Cundill, Bonnie
questionnaire to capture data on drug shops (n=65) including provider characteristics, knowledge on treatment of malaria, previous training received, type of drugs stocked, reported drug sales, and record keeping practices; and a patient questionnaire to capture data from febrile patients (n=540) exiting drug...
Mbonye, Anthony K; Yanow, Stephanie; Birungi, Josephine
Few women in Uganda access intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Previous studies have shown that high costs, frequent stock-out of drugs, supplies and poor quality of care are the greatest hindrance for women to access health services...
Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Ursing, Johan; Rodrigues, Amabelia
The current guidelines for treatment of malaria include paracetamol to children with fever. No convincing evidence for the beneficial effects of this practice exists. Studies show that time to parasite clearance is significantly longer in children treated with paracetamol, which questions...
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at describing the pattern of outpatient antimalarial drug prescribing in a secondary and a tertiary hospital, and to assess adherence to the National Antimalarial Treatment Guideline (ATG. Methods: An audit of antimalarial prescription files from the two health facilities for a period of six months in 2008 was conducted. Semi structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the doctors and pharmacists on their awareness and knowledge of the National Antimalarial Treatment Guideline. Results: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs were the most prescribed antimalarials. Overall, 81.4% of the total prescriptions contained ACTs, out of which 56.8% were artemether-lumefantrine. However, adherence to the drugs indicated by national guideline within the DU90% was 38.5% for the tertiary and 66.7 % for the secondary hospital. The standard practice of prescribing with generic name was still not adhered to as evidenced in the understudied hospitals. The percentage of health care providers that were aware of the ATG was 88.2% for doctors and 85.1% for pharmacists. However, 13.3% and 52.2% of doctors and pharmacists respectively could not properly list the drugs specified in the guideline. Amodiaquine was the most commonly preferred option for managing children aged 0 – 3 months with malaria infection against the indicated oral quinine.Conclusion: This study showed an increased use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria compared previous reports in Nigeria. This study also highlights the need for periodic in-service quality assurance among health professionals with monitoring of adherence to and assessment of knowledge of clinical guidelines to ensure the practice of evidence based medicine.
Full Text Available Non-malaria febrile illnesses such as bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI are a leading cause of disease and mortality in the tropics. However, there are no reliable, simple diagnostic tests for identifying BSI or other severe non-malaria febrile illnesses. We hypothesized that different infectious agents responsible for severe febrile illness would impact on the host metabolome in different ways, and investigated the potential of plasma metabolites for diagnosis of non-malaria febrile illness.We conducted a comprehensive mass-spectrometry based metabolomics analysis of the plasma of 61 children with severe febrile illness from a malaria-endemic rural African setting. Metabolite features characteristic for non-malaria febrile illness, BSI, severe anemia and poor clinical outcome were identified by receiver operating curve analysis.The plasma metabolome profile of malaria and non-malaria patients revealed fundamental differences in host response, including a differential activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A simple corticosteroid signature was a good classifier of severe malaria and non-malaria febrile patients (AUC 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93. Patients with BSI were characterized by upregulated plasma bile metabolites; a signature of two bile metabolites was estimated to have a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% CI: 80.2-100 and a specificity of 82.9% (95% CI: 54.7-99.9 to detect BSI in children younger than 5 years. This BSI signature demonstrates that host metabolites can have a superior diagnostic sensitivity compared to pathogen-detecting tests to identify infections characterized by low pathogen load such as BSI.This study demonstrates the potential use of plasma metabolites to identify causality in children with severe febrile illness in malaria-endemic settings.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, Pascal
Community delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is one potential option that could mitigate malaria in pregnancy. However, there is concern that this approach may lead to complacency among women with low access to essential care at health units. A non-random...
Greenwood, Brian; Bhasin, Amit; Targett, Geoffrey
Recently, there has been a major increase in financial support for malaria control. Most of these funds have, appropriately, been spent on the tools needed for effective prevention and treatment of malaria such as insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and artemisinin combination therapy. There has been less investment in the training of the scientists from malaria-endemic countries needed to support these large and increasingly complex malaria control programmes, especially in Africa. In 2000, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Gates Malaria Partnership was established to support postgraduate training of African scientists wishing to pursue a career in malaria research. The programme had three research capacity development components: a PhD fellowship programme, a postdoctoral fellowship programme and a laboratory infrastructure programme. During an 8-year period, 36 African PhD students and six postdoctoral fellows were supported, and two research laboratories were built in Tanzania. Some of the lessons learnt during this project--such as the need to improve PhD supervision in African universities and to provide better support for postdoctoral fellows--are now being applied to a successor malaria research capacity development programme, the Malaria Capacity Development Consortium, and may be of interest to other groups involved in improving postgraduate training in health sciences in African universities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Taylor, Walter R J; Cañon, Viviam; White, Nicholas J
Lung involvement in malaria has been recognized for more than 200 hundred years, yet our knowledge of its pathogenesis and management is limited. Pulmonary edema is the most severe form of lung involvement. Increased alveolar capillary permeability leading to intravascular fluid loss into the lungs is the main pathophysiologic mechanism. This defines malaria as another cause of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Pulmonary edema has been described most often in non-immune individuals with Plasmodium falciparum infections as part of a severe systemic illness or as the main feature of acute malaria. P.vivax and P.ovale have also rarely caused pulmonary edema.Clinically, patients usually present with acute breathlessness that can rapidly progress to respiratory failure either at disease presentation or, interestingly, after treatment when clinical improvement is taking place and the parasitemia is falling. Pregnant women are particularly prone to developing pulmonary edema. Optimal management of malaria-induced ALI/ARDS includes early recognition and diagnosis. Malaria must always be suspected in a returning traveler or a visitor from a malaria-endemic country with an acute febrile illness. Slide microscopy and/or the use of rapid antigen tests are standard diagnostic tools. Malaria must be treated with effective drugs, but current choices are few: e.g. parenteral artemisinins, intravenous quinine or quinidine (in the US only). A recent trial in adults has shown that intravenous artesunate reduces severe malaria mortality by a third compared with adults treated with intravenous quinine. Respiratory compromise should be managed on its merits and may require mechanical ventilation.Patients should be managed in an intensive care unit and particular attention should be paid to the energetic management of other severe malaria complications, notably coma and acute renal failure. ALI/ARDS may also be related to a coincidental bacterial
Simmalavong, Nouannipha; Phommixay, Sengkham; Kongmanivong, Phoudaliphone; Sichanthongthip, Odai; Hongvangthong, Bouasy; Gopinath, Deyer; Sintasath, David M
As in other countries of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), the private health sector constitutes a significant avenue where malaria services are provided and presents a unique opportunity for public-private collaboration. In September 2008, a public-private mix (PPM) strategy was launched initially in four northern and southern provinces in Lao PDR to increase access to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), improve quality of care, and collect routine malaria data from the private sector. Throughout the process, key stakeholders were involved in the planning, monitoring and supervision of project sites. Following an initial assessment in 2009, the PPM initiative expanded to an additional 14 district sites to a total of 245 private pharmacies and 16 clinics covering 8 provinces and 22 districts. By June 2016, a total of 317 pharmacies, 30 clinics in 32 districts of the 8 provinces were participating in the PPM network and reported monthly malaria case data. This descriptive study documented the process of initiating and maintaining the PPM network in Lao PDR. Epidemiological data reported through the routine surveillance system from January 2009 to June 2016 were analyzed to illustrate the contribution of case reporting from the private sector. A total of 2,301,676 malaria tests were performed in the PPM districts, which included all the PPM pharmacies and clinics (176,224, 7.7%), proportion of patients tested from 14,102 (4.6%) in 2009 to 29,554 (10.4%) in 2015. Over the same period of 90 months, a total of 246,091 positive cases (10.7%) were detected in PPM pharmacies and clinics (33,565; 13.6%), in the same districts as the PPM sites. The results suggest that the PPM sites contributed to a significant increasing proportion of patients positive for malaria from 1687 (7.4%) in 2009 to 5697 (15.8%) in 2015. Ensuring adequate and timely supplies of RDTs and ACT to PPM sites is critical. Frequent refresher training is
Lwin, Moh Moh; Sudhinaraset, May; San, Aung Kyaw; Aung, Tin
Since 2008 the Sun Primary Health (SPH) franchise programme has networked and branded community health workers in rural Myanmar to provide high quality malaria information and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to compare the malaria knowledge level and health practices of individuals in SPH intervention areas to individuals without SPH intervention This study uses data from a cross-sectional household survey of 1,040 individuals living in eight rural townships to compare the knowledge level of individuals in SPH intervention areas to individuals without SPH intervention. This study found that the presence of a SPH provider in the community is associated with increased malaria knowledge and higher likelihood of going to trained providers for fevers. Furthermore, the study found a dose-response, where the longer the duration of the programme in a community, the greater the community knowledge level. The study suggests that community health workers might have significant impact on malaria-related mortality and morbidity in rural Myanmar.
Nduka, F O; Nwosu, E; Oguariri, R M
Controlling malaria in pregnancy has been an important component of the millennium development goal and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is considered an important tool in controlling malaria among pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the level of compliance to IPT use as well as its effect on malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in south eastern Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears and placental histology were used as diagnostic tools to determine infection rate. Our data show that compliance to IPT use was poor (33%) when compared with non-compliance (67%). Infection rate was significantly lower among IPT users (39%) than in non-users (71%) (X2 = 39.95; P<0.05). Maternal anaemia was also lower in IPT users (4%) than in non-users (18%). Taken together, IPT use appears to be important in reducing infection rate and maternal anaemia. Therefore, its adoption is highly recommended and this could be improved through public enlightenment campaign and adequate funding. PMID:22325819
Full Text Available Abstract Background Past experience and modelling suggest that, in most cases, mass treatment strategies are not likely to succeed in interrupting Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. However, this does not preclude their use to reduce disease burden. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT is preferred to mass drug administration (MDA, as the latter involves massive over-use of drugs. This paper reports simulations of the incremental cost-effectiveness of well-conducted MSAT campaigns as a strategy for P. falciparum malaria disease-burden reduction in settings with varying receptivity (ability of the combined vector population in a setting to transmit disease and access to case management. Methods MSAT incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were estimated in different sub-Saharan African settings using simulation models of the dynamics of malaria and a literature-based MSAT cost estimate. Imported infections were simulated at a rate of two per 1,000 population per annum. These estimates were compared to the ICERs of scaling up case management or insecticide-treated net (ITN coverage in each baseline health system, in the absence of MSAT. Results MSAT averted most episodes, and resulted in the lowest ICERs, in settings with a moderate level of disease burden. At a low pre-intervention entomological inoculation rate (EIR of two infectious bites per adult per annum (IBPAPA MSAT was never more cost-effective than scaling up ITNs or case management coverage. However, at pre-intervention entomological inoculation rates (EIRs of 20 and 50 IBPAPA and ITN coverage levels of 40 or 60%, respectively, the ICER of MSAT was similar to that of scaling up ITN coverage further. Conclusions In all the transmission settings considered, achieving a minimal level of ITN coverage is a “best buy”. At low transmission, MSAT probably is not worth considering. Instead, MSAT may be suitable at medium to high levels of transmission and at moderate ITN coverage
Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J
In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...
Islam, Nazrul; Bonovas, Stefanos; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K
Bangladesh is one of the four major malaria-endemic countries in South-East Asia having approximately 34% of its population at risk of malaria. This paper aims at providing an overview of the malaria situation in this country. Relevant information was retrieved from published articles and reports in PubMed and Google Scholar. Malaria in Bangladesh is concentrated in 13 districts with a prevalence ranging between 3.1% and 36%, and is mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Geographical conditions pose a potential risk for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Resistance to a number of drugs previously recommended for treatment has been reported. Low socio-economic status, poor schooling and close proximity to water bodies and forest areas comprise important risk factors. Despite the significant steps in Long Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN)/Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) coverage in Bangladesh, there are still many challenges including the extension of malaria support to the remote areas of Bangladesh, where malaria prevalence is higher, and further improvements in the field of referral system and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saint-Léger, Adélaïde; Sinadinos, Christopher; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís
Malaria remains a major global health problem. Parasite resistance to existing drugs makes development of new antimalarials an urgency. The protein synthesis machinery is an excellent target for the development of new anti-infectives, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) have been validated as antimalarial drug targets. However, avoiding the emergence of drug resistance and improving selectivity to target aaRS in apicomplexan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum, remain crucial challenges. Here we discuss such issues using examples of known inhibitors of P. falciparum aaRS, namely halofuginone, cladosporin and borrelidin (inhibitors of ProRS, LysRS and ThrRS, respectively). Encouraging recent results provide useful guidelines to facilitate the development of novel drug candidates which are more potent and selective against these essential enzymes.
Karunajeewa, Harin A; Kemiki, Adedayo; Alpers, Michael P; Lorry, Kerry; Batty, Kevin T; Ilett, Kenneth F; Davis, Timothy M
Although suppositories of artemisinin derivatives may be a valuable option for treatment of malaria in children when circumstances prevent oral and parenteral therapy, few confirmatory data have been published. We assessed the safety and efficacy of rectal artesunate in 47 children ages 5 to 10 years with uncomplicated malaria acquired in a hyperendemic area of Papua New Guinea. Thirty were symptomatic and had Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia >2000/microl (Group 1), 12 had and either a parasitemia suppositories were well-tolerated. After 24 h only one child (from Group 1) had persistent parasitemia, and only one (from Group 3) had not defervesced. These two children received intramuscular quinine and recovered uneventfully. Three Group 2 children redeveloped fever and tachycardia at 24 h, but each responded to simple supportive measures and remained aparasitemic. Intrarectal artesunate is safe, effective initial treatment for uncomplicated malaria in children. A transient fever spike can sometimes occur after parasite clearance. We recommend that children with uncomplicated malaria receive two doses of > or =10 mg/kg rectal artesunate within the first 24 h.
Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne
The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition.The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care-seekers obtaining appropriate treatment.Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Perisse, Anne; Velut, Guillaume; Javelle, Emilie; Loarer, Gwion; Michel, Remy; Simon, F
military GPs stationed in the Central African Republic on both the recommendations and prescription of antimalarial drugs. The present study highlights some difficulties in implementing the recommendations in an operational context, notably factors limiting the prescription of DHA-PQ during military deployment (need for ECG monitoring, empty stomach, and lack of habit). Proposals can be made to improve the efficacy, tolerance, and practicability of malaria treatment in the field. The main focus should be a more flexible application of the French DHA-PQ risk management plan in the field, specific training and communication about DHA-PQ use, the generalization of ECG printing equipment in the field, and the switch from DHA-PQ to an alternative artemisinin-based combination therapy during deployments in malaria-endemic areas. © Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1 passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2 a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.
Khatib Rashid A
fixed health facilities only modestly reduced asexual parasitaemia prevalence. ACT is effective for treatment of uncomplicated malaria and should have substantial public health impact on morbidity and mortality, but is unlikely to reduce malaria transmission substantially in much of sub-Saharan Africa where individuals are rapidly re-infected.
Isac da S. F. Lima
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To identify factors associated with timely treatment of malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Malaria, despite being treatable, has proven difficult to control and continues to be an important public health problem globally. Brazil accounted for almost half of the 427 000 new malaria cases notified in the Americas in 2013. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data on all notified malaria cases for the period from 2004 – 2013. Timely treatment was considered to be all treatment started within 24 hours of symptoms onset. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with timely treatment. Results The proportion of cases starting treatment on a timely basis was 41.1%, tending to increase in more recent years (OR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.37 – 1.42 in 2013. Furthermore, people starting within < 24 hours were more likely to: reside in the states of Rondônia (OR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.49 – 1.51 or Acre (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.55 – 1.57; be 0 – 5 years of age (OR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.34 – 1.44 or 6 – 14 years of age (OR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.32 – 1.36; be indigenous (OR = 1.41; 95%CI: 1.37 – 1.45; have a low level of schooling (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.19 – 1.22; and be diagnosed by active detection (OR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.38 – 1.39. Conclusion In the Brazilian Amazon area, individuals were more likely to have timely treatment of malaria if they were young, residing in Acre or Rondônia states, have little schooling, and be identified through active detection. Identifying groups vulnerable to late treatment is important for preventing severe cases and malaria deaths.
Griffiths Ulla K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of treatment cost is essential in assessing cost effectiveness in healthcare. Evidence of the potential impact of implementing available interventions against childhood illnesses in developing countries challenges us to define the costs of treating these diseases. The purpose of this study is to describe the total costs associated with treatment of pneumonia, malaria and meningitis in children less than five years in seven Kenyan hospitals. Methods Patient resource use data were obtained from largely prospective evaluation of medical records and household expenditure during illness was collected from interviews with caretakers. The estimates for costs per bed day were based on published data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using WHO-CHOICE values for costs per bed day. Results Treatment costs for 572 children (pneumonia = 205, malaria = 211, meningitis = 102 and mixed diagnoses = 54 and household expenditure for 390 households were analysed. From the provider perspective the mean cost per admission at the national hospital was US $95.58 for malaria, US $177.14 for pneumonia and US $284.64 for meningitis. In the public regional or district hospitals the mean cost per child treated ranged from US $47.19 to US $81.84 for malaria and US $54.06 to US $99.26 for pneumonia. The corresponding treatment costs in the mission hospitals were between US $43.23 to US $88.18 for malaria and US $ 43.36 to US $142.22 for pneumonia. Meningitis was treated for US $ 189.41 at the regional hospital and US $ 201.59 at one mission hospital. The total treatment cost estimates were sensitive to changes in the source of bed day costs. The median treatment related household payments within quintiles defined by total household expenditure differed by type of facility visited. Public hospitals recovered up to 40% of provider costs through user charges while mission facilities recovered 44% to 100% of costs. Conclusion Treatments cost for
Mitchell, David F; Brown, Annie S; Bouare, Sory Ibrahima; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Norris, Laura; Longhany, Rebecca; Chandonait, Peter J
In the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)-funded Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project (AIRS), end-of-day clean-up operations require the safe disposal of wash water resulting from washing the exterior of spray tanks and spray operators' personal protective equipment. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) programs typically use soak pits - large, in-ground filters - to adsorb, filter and then safely degrade the traces of insecticide found in the wash water. Usually these soak pits are permanent installations serving 30 or more operators, located in a central area that is accessible to multiple spray teams at the end of their workday. However, in remote areas, it is often impractical for teams to return to a central soak pit location for cleanup. To increase operational efficiency and improve environmental compliance, the PMI AIRS Project developed and tested mobile soak pits (MSP) in the laboratory and in field applications in Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, and Ethiopia where the distance between villages can be substantial and the road conditions poor. Laboratory testing confirmed the ability of the easily-assembled MSP to reduce effluent concentrations of two insecticides (Actellic 300-CS and Ficam VC) used by the PMI AIRS Project, and to generate the minimal practicable environmental "footprint" in these remote areas. Field testing in the Mali 2014 IRS campaign demonstrated ease of installation and use, resulted in improved and more consistent standards of clean-up, decreased transportation requirements, improved spray team working conditions, and reduced potential for operator exposure to insecticide. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Mbeye, Nyanyiwe M; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Davies, Mary-Ann; Phiri, Kamija S; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles
Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) prevents opportunistic infections in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children, but estimates of the effectiveness in preventing malaria vary. We reviewed studies that examined the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies on the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria and mortality in children and extracted data on the prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-conferring point mutations. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) from individual studies were combined using random effects meta-analysis; confounder-adjusted estimates were used for cohort studies. The importance of resistance was examined in meta-regression analyses. Three RCTs and four cohort studies with 5039 children (1692 HIV-exposed; 2800 HIV-uninfected; 1486 HIV-infected) were included. Children on CPT were less likely to develop clinical malaria episodes than those without prophylaxis (combined IRR 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.66), but there was substantial between-study heterogeneity (I-squared = 94%, P < 0.001). The protective efficacy of CPT was highest in an RCT from Mali, where the prevalence of antifolate resistant plasmodia was low. In meta-regression analyses, there was some evidence that the efficacy of CPT declined with increasing levels of resistance. Mortality was reduced with CPT in an RCT from Zambia, but not in a cohort study from Côte d'Ivoire. Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment reduces incidence of malaria and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa, but study designs, settings and results were heterogeneous. CPT appears to be beneficial for HIV-infected and HIV-exposed as well as HIV-uninfected children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Abdulla, Salim; Achan, Jane; Adam, Ishag; Alemayehu, Bereket H.; Allan, Richard; Allen, Elizabeth N.; Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Awab, Ghulam Rahim; Barnes, Karen I.; Bassat, Quique; Baudin, Elisabeth; Bjorkman, Anders; Bompart, Francois; Bonnet, Maryline; Borrmann, Steffen; Bousema, Teun; Carrara, Verena I.; Cenci, Fabio; Checchi, Francesco; Cot, Michel; Dahal, Prabin; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Deloron, Philippe; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Dondorp, Arjen; Dorsey, Grant; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Drakeley, Chris J.; Duparc, Stephan; Espie, Emmanuelle; Faiz, Abul; Falade, Catherine O.; Fanello, Caterina; Faucher, Jean-Francois; Faye, Babacar; Filler, Scott; Fofana, Bakary; Fogg, Carole; Gansane, Adama; Gaye, Oumar; Genton, Blaise; Gething, Peter W.; Gonzalez, Raquel; Grandesso, Francesco; Greenwood, Brian; Grivoyannis, Anastasia; Guerin, Philippe J.; Hamed, Kamal; Hatz, Christoph; Hay, Simon I.; Hodel, Eva Maria; Humphreys, Georgina S.; Hwang, Jimee; Janssens, Bart; Jima, Daddi; Juma, Elizabeth; Kachur, S. Patrick; Kager, Piet; Kamya, Moses R.; Kapulu, Melissa; Karema, Corine; Kayentao, Kassoum; Kiechel, Jean R.; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Lameyre, Valerie; Lee, Sue J.; Lell, Bertrand; Lima, Nines; Marsh, Kevin; Martensson, Andreas; Massougbodji, Achille; Mayxay, Mayfong; McGready, Rose; Menan, Herve; Menendez, Clara; Mens, Petra; Meremikwu, Martin; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Moreira, Clarissa; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Nambozi, Michael; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Newton, Paul N.; Ngasala, Billy E.; Nosten, Francois; Nsanzabana, Christian; Offianan, Andre Toure; Oguike, Mary; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Olliaro, Piero; Omar, Sabah A.; Osorio, Lyda; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Penali, Louis K.; Pene, Mbaye; Peshu, Judy; Piola, Patrice; Premji, Zul; Price, Ric N.; Ramharter, Michael; Rombo, Lars; Roper, Cally; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Sagara, Issaka; Sawa, Patrick; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Schramm, Birgit; Shekalaghe, Seif A.; Sibley, Carol H.; Sirima, Sodiomon; Smithuis, Frank; Sow, Doudou; Staedke, Sarah G.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Sutanto, Inge; Sutherland, Colin J.; Swarthout, Todd D.; Syafruddin, Din; Sylla, Khadime; Talisuna, Ambrose O.; Taylor, Walter R.; Temu, Emmanuel A.; ter Kuile, Feiko; Tinto, Halidou; Tjitra, Emiliana; Ursing, Johan; Valecha, Neena; van den Broek, Ingrid; van Herp, Michel; van Vugt, Michele; Ward, Stephen A.; White, Nicholas J.; Winstanley, Peter A.; Woodrow, Charles J.; Yeka, Adoke; Zwang, Julien
Background: Gametocytes are responsible for transmission of malaria from human to mosquito. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) reduces post-treatment gametocyte carriage, dependent upon host, parasite and pharmacodynamic factors. The gametocytocidal properties of antimalarial drugs are important
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drug shops are a major source of care for children in low income countries but they provide sub-standard care. We assessed the feasibility and effect on quality of care of introducing diagnostics and pre-packaged paediatric-dosage drugs for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at drug shops in Uganda. METHODS: We adopted and implemented the integrated community case management (iCCM intervention within registered drug shops. Attendants were trained to perform malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in each fever case and count respiratory rate in each case of cough with fast/difficult breathing, before dispensing recommended treatment. Using a quasi-experimental design in one intervention and one non-intervention district, we conducted before and after exit interviews for drug seller practices and household surveys for treatment-seeking practices in May-June 2011 and May-June 2012. Survey adjusted generalized linear models and difference-in-difference analysis was used. RESULTS: 3759 (1604 before/2155 after household interviews and 943 (163 before/780 after exit interviews were conducted with caretakers of children under-5. At baseline, no child at a drug shop received any diagnostic testing before treatment in both districts. After the intervention, while no child in the non-intervention district received a diagnostic test, 87.7% (95% CI 79.0-96.4 of children with fever at the intervention district drug shops had a parasitological diagnosis of malaria, prior to treatment. The prevalence ratios of the effect of the intervention on treatment of cough and fast breathing with amoxicillin and diarrhoea with ORS/zinc at the drug shop were 2.8 (2.0-3.9, and 12.8 (4.2-38.6 respectively. From the household survey, the prevalence ratio of the intervention effect on use of RDTs was 3.2 (1.9-5.4; Artemisinin Combination Therapy for malaria was 0.74 (0.65-0.84, and ORS/zinc for diarrhoea was 2.3 (1.2-4.7. CONCLUSION: iCCM can be utilized to improve
Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Salinger, Allison; Arguin, Paul M; Desai, Meghna; Tan, Kathrine R
Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications. In the United States, treatment options for uncomplicated, chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in pregnant women are limited to mefloquine or quinine plus clindamycin (1). However, limited availability of quinine and increasing resistance to mefloquine restrict these options. Strong evidence now demonstrates that artemether-lumefantrine (AL) (Coartem) is effective and safe in the treatment of malaria in pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), such as AL, for treatment of uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and is currently considering whether to add ACTs, including AL, as an option for malaria treatment during the first trimester (2,3). This policy note reviews the evidence and updates CDC recommendations to include AL as a treatment option for uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy when other treatment options are unavailable. These updated recommendations reflect current evidence and are consistent with WHO treatment guidelines.
Mishra, Saroj K; Wiese, Lothar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral malaria continues to be a substantial cause of death and disability worldwide. Although many studies deal with cerebral malaria in children, only very few pertain to adults. Presence of multiorgan failure makes the prognosis poor. Various mechanisms in the pathogenesis...... of cerebral malaria and the role of adjuvant therapy will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Artemisinin-based therapies have improved antiparasitic treatment, but in-hospital mortality still remains high, as do neurological sequelae. Several recent studies have given new insights in the pathophysiology...... of cerebral malaria particularly the role of immune mechanisms in disease progression. Recent findings have identified several potential candidates for adjuvant neuroprotective treatment. Recombinant human erythropoietin has shown beneficial effect in experimental cerebral malaria and will soon enter...
Vaughan-Williams Charles H; Raman Jaishree; Raswiswi Eric; Immelman Etienne; Reichel Holger; Gate Kelly; Knight Steve
Abstract Background Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine w...
Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal
Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C
to be excluded as a cause of illness (e.g. prior to treatment with toxic or expensive drugs, or during malaria epidemics). Wherever the effective drugs for the first-line treatment of malaria are cheap (e.g. chloroquine and Fansidar), treatment based on clinical diagnosis alone should prove cost-saving in health...... significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test....... Although the RIT may seem attractive for use in primary health facilities because relatively inexperienced staff can perform them, the high cost of these tests is prohibitive. In holo-endemic areas, use of RIT or microscopical examination of bloodsmears may only be relevant when malaria needs...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done. Results A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34, who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36, who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42 and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45 were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children. Conclusion Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment.
Andrew S Bell
Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistant Plasmodium parasites is a major challenge to effective malaria control. In theory, competitive interactions between sensitive parasites and resistant parasites within infections are a major determinant of the rate at which parasite evolution undermines drug efficacy. Competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated hosts slows the spread of resistance; competitive release following treatment enhances it. Here we report that for the murine model Plasmodium chabaudi, co-infection with drug-sensitive parasites can prevent the transmission of initially rare resistant parasites to mosquitoes. Removal of drug-sensitive parasites following chemotherapy enabled resistant parasites to transmit to mosquitoes as successfully as sensitive parasites in the absence of treatment. We also show that the genetic composition of gametocyte populations in host venous blood accurately reflects the genetic composition of gametocytes taken up by mosquitoes. Our data demonstrate that, at least for this mouse model, aggressive chemotherapy leads to very effective transmission of highly resistant parasites that are present in an infection, the very parasites which undermine the long term efficacy of front-line drugs.
Vestergaard, Lasse S; Ringwald, Pascal
of rational and updated malaria treatment policies, but defining and updating such policies requires a sufficient volume of high-quality drug-resistance data collected at national and regional levels. Three main tools are used for drug resistance monitoring, including therapeutic efficacy tests, in vitro...... additional information about changing patterns of resistance. However, some of the tests are technically demanding, and thus there is a need for more resources for training and capacity building in endemic countries to be able to adequately respond to the challenge of drug resistance.......Reduced sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to formerly recommended cheap and well-known antimalarial drugs places an increasing burden on malaria control programs and national health systems in endemic countries. The high costs of the new artemisinin-based combination treatments underline the use...
Mbonye, Anthony K; Bygbjerg, Ib; Magnussen, Pascal
The impact of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) on malaria in pregnancy is well known. In countries where this policy is implemented, poor access and low compliance to this intervention has been widely reported. A study was designed to assess a new approach to deliver IPT to pregnant women...... through traditional birth attendants (TBAs), drug-shop vendors (DSVs), community reproductive health workers (CRHWs) and adolescent peer mobilisers (APMs); and compared this approach with IPT at health units. We evaluated this approach to assess user perceptions, its acceptability and sustainability....... Results show that the new approach increased access and compliance to IPT. Mean gestational age at first dose of IPT was 21.0 weeks with the community approaches versus 23.1 weeks at health units, P>0.0001. Health units accessed a high proportion of adolescents, 28.4%, versus 25.0% at the new approaches...
Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Ssengooba, Freddie; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart
Although increasing attention is being paid to knowledge translation (KT), research findings are not being utilized to the desired extent. The present study explores the role of evidence, barriers, and factors facilitating the uptake of evidence in the change in malaria treatment policy in Uganda, building on previous work in Uganda that led to the development of a middle range theory (MRT) outlining the main facilitatory factors for KT. Application of the MRT to a health policy case will contribute to refining it. Using a case study approach and mixed methods, perceptions of respondents on whether evidence was available, had been considered and barriers and facilitatory factors to the uptake of evidence were explored. In addition, the respondents' rating of the degree of consistency between the policy decision and available evidence was assessed. Data collection methods included key informant interviews and document review. Qualitative data were analysed using content thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using Excel spreadsheets. The two data sets were eventually triangulated. Evidence was used to change the malaria treatment policy, though the consistency between evidence and policy decisions varied along the policy development cycle. The availability of high-quality and contextualized evidence, including effective dissemination, Ministry of Health institutional capacity to lead the KT process, intervention of the WHO and a regional professional network, the existence of partnerships for KT with mutual trust and availability of funding, tools, and inputs to implement evidence, were the most important facilitatory factors that enhanced the uptake of evidence. Among the barriers that had to be overcome were resistance from implementers, the health system capacity to implement evidence, and financial sustainability. The results agree with facilitatory factors identified in the earlier developed MRT, though additional factors emerged. These
Sahan, Kate; Pell, Christopher; Smithuis, Frank; Phyo, Aung Kyaw; Maung, Sai Maung; Indrasuta, Chanida; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Cheah, Phaik Yeong
The spread of artemisinin-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is a threat to current global malaria control initiatives. Targeted malaria treatment (TMT), which combines mass anti-malarial administration with conventional malaria prevention and control measures, has been proposed as a strategy to tackle this problem. The effectiveness of TMT depends on high levels of population coverage and is influenced by accompanying community engagement activities and the local social context. The article explores how these factors influenced attitudes and behaviours towards TMT in Kayin (Karen) State, Myanmar. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with villagers from study villages (N = 31) and TMT project staff (N = 14) between March and July 2015. Community engagement consisted of a range of activities to communicate the local malaria situation (including anti-malarial drug resistance and asymptomatic malaria), the aims of the TMT project, and its potential benefits. Community engagement was seen by staff as integral to the TMT project as a whole and not a sub-set of activities. Attitudes towards TMT (including towards community engagement) showed that developing trusting relationships helped foster participation. After initial wariness, staff received hospitality and acceptance among villagers. Offering healthcare alongside TMT proved mutually beneficial for the study and villagers. A handful of more socially-mobile and wealthy community members were reluctant to participate. The challenges of community engagement included time constraints and the isolation of the community with its limited infrastructure and a history of conflict. Community engagement had to be responsive to the local community even though staff faced time constraints. Understanding the social context of engagement helped TMT to foster respectful and trusting relationships. The complex relationship between the local context and community engagement complicated evaluation of the community strategy
Choi, Sung Eun; Brandeau, Margaret L; Bendavid, Eran
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: at least 1 million pregnancies among HIV-infected women are complicated by co-infection with malaria annually, leading to increased risk of premature delivery, severe anaemia, delivery of low birth weight infants, and maternal death. Current guidelines recommend either daily cotrimoxazole (CTX) or intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) for HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent malaria and its complications. The cost-effectiveness of CTX compared to IPTp-SP among HIV-infected pregnant women was assessed. A microsimulation model of malaria and HIV among pregnant women in five malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa was constructed. Four strategies were compared: (1) 2-dose IPTp-SP at current IPTp-SP coverage of the country ("2-IPT Low"); (2) 3-dose IPTp-SP at current coverage ("3-IPT Low"); (3) 3-dose IPTp-SP at the same coverage as antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the country ("3-IPT High"); and (4) daily CTX at ART coverage. Outcomes measured include maternal malaria, anaemia, low birth weight (LBW), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Sensitivity analyses assessed the effect of adherence to CTX. Compared with the 2-IPT Low Strategy, women receiving CTX had 22.5% fewer LBW infants (95% CI 22.3-22.7), 13.5% fewer anaemia cases (95% CI 13.4-13.5), and 13.6% fewer maternal malaria cases (95% CI 13.6-13.7). In all simulated countries, CTX was the preferred strategy, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from cost-saving to $3.9 per DALY averted from a societal perspective. CTX was less effective than the 3-IPT High Strategy when more than 18% of women stopped taking CTX during the pregnancy. In malarious regions of sub-Saharan Africa, daily CTX for HIV-infected pregnant women regardless of CD4 cell count is cost-effective compared with 3-dose IPTp-SP as long as more than 82% of women adhere to
Uguru Nkoli P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs has improved the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, any successful control of malaria will depend on socio-economic factors that influence its management in the community. Willingness to pay (WTP is important because consumer responses to prices will influence utilization of services and revenues collected. Also the consumer's attitude can influence monetary valuation with respect to different conditions ex post and ex ante. Methods WTP for RDT for Malaria was assessed by the contingent valuation method using a bidding game approach in rural and urban communities in southeast Nigeria. The ex post WTP was assessed at the health centers on 618 patients immediately following diagnosis of malaria with RDT and the ex ante WTP was assessed by household interviews on 1020 householders with a prior history of malaria. Results For the ex ante WTP, 51% of the respondents in urban and 24.7% in rural areas were willing to pay for RDT. The mean WTP (235.49 naira in urban is higher than WTP (182.05 Naira in rural areas. For the ex post WTP, 89 and 90.7% of the respondents in urban and rural areas respectively were WTP. The mean WTP (372.30 naira in urban is also higher than (296.28 naira in rural areas. For the ex post scenario, the lower two Social Economic Status (SES quartiles were more willing to pay and the mean WTP is higher than the higher two SES while in the ex ante scenario, the higher two SES quartiles were more WTP and with a higher WTP than the lower two SES quartile. Ex ante and ex post WTP were directly dependent on costs. Conclusion The ex post WTP is higher than the ex ante WTP and both are greater than the current cost of RDTs. Urban dwellers were more willing to pay than the rural dwellers. The mean WTP should be considered when designing suitable financial strategies for making RDTs available to communities.
... Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us About Malaria Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Malaria is ... from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. About Malaria Topics FAQs Frequently Asked Question, Incubation period, uncomplicated & ...
Looareesuwan, S; Wilairatana, P; Chalermarut, K; Rattanapong, Y; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B
The increasing frequency of therapeutic failures in falciparum malaria underscores the need for novel, rapidly effective antimalarial drugs or drug combinations. Atovaquone and proguanil are blood schizonticides that demonstrate synergistic activity against multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. In an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in Thailand, adult patients with acute P. falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to treatment with atovaquone and proguanil/hydrochloride (1,000 mg and 400 mg, respectively, administered orally at 24-hr intervals for three doses) or mefloquine (750 mg administered orally, followed 6 hr later by an additional 500-mg dose). Efficacy was assessed by cure rate (the percentage of patients in whom parasitemia was eliminated and did not recur during 28 days of follow-up), parasite clearance time (PCT), and fever clearance time (FCT). Safety was assessed by sequential clinical and laboratory assessments for 28 days. Atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than mefloquine (cure rate 100% [79 of 79] vs. 86% [68 of 79]; P proguanil and mefloquine treatments did not differ with respect to PCT (mean = 65 hr versus 74 hr) or FCT (mean = 59 hr versus 51 hr). Adverse events were generally typical of malaria symptoms and each occurred in proguanil group. Transient elevations of liver enzyme levels occurred more frequently in patients treated with atovaquone/proguanil than with mefloquine, but the differences were not significant and values returned to normal by day 28 in most patients. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil was well tolerated and more effective than mefloquine in the treatment of acute uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria in Thailand.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in remote forested areas in Cambodia. As a national strategy to strengthen community-based malaria control, the Cambodian government has been running the Village Malaria Worker (VMW project since 2001. This study sought to examine the nature and quality of the VMWs' services. Methods Data collection was carried out in February and March 2008 through interviews with one of the two VMWs who takes the lead in malaria control activities in each of the 315 VMW villages (n = 251. The questionnaire addressed 1 the sociodemographic characteristics of VMWs, 2 service quality, 3 actions for malaria prevention and vector control, and 4 knowledge of malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Results VMWs were effective in conducting diagnosis with Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs and prescribing anti-malarials to those who had positive RDT results, skills that they had acquired through their training programmes. However, most other services, such as active detection, explanations about compliance, and follow-up of patients, were carried out by only a small proportion of VMWs. The variety of actions that VMWs took for malaria prevention and vector control was small (average action index score 12.8/23, and their knowledge was very limited with less than 20% of the VMWs giving correct answers to six out of seven questions on malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Knowledge of vector breeding places and malaria transmission were significant determinants of both the quality of VMWs' services and the variety of their actions for malaria prevention and vector control. Conclusions VMWs' services focused primarily on diagnosis and treatment. Their focus needs to be broadened to cover other aspects of malaria control in order to further strengthen community-based malaria control. VMWs' actions and knowledge also need substantial improvement. Strengthening training programmes can help achieve better
Hetzel, Manuel Wolf-Werner
Malaria is the most important parasitic infection in humans, causing an estimated one million deaths annually. Most cases occur in young children in sub-Saharan Africa, supporting the vicious circle of disease and poverty. Current control strategies have so far failed to reduce the disease in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) are effective in preventing malaria episodes and efficacious drugs (such as artemisinin-based combination therapies or ACTs) exis...
Maiga, Amelia W.; Fofana, Bakary; Sagara, Issaka; Dembele, Demba; Dara, Antoine; Traore, Oumar Bila; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dama, Souleymane; Sidibe, Bakary; Kone, Aminatou; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.
Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins by delayed parasite clearance is present in Southeast Asia. Scant data on parasite clearance after artemisinins are available from Africa, where transmission is high, burden is greatest, and artemisinin use is being scaled up. Children 1–10 years of age with uncomplicated malaria were treated with 7 days of artesunate and followed for 28 days. Blood smears were done every 8 hours until negative by light microscopy. Results were compared with a similar study conducted in the same village in 2002–2004. The polymerase chain reaction-corrected cure rate was 100%, identical to 2002–2004. By 24 hours after treatment initiation, 37.0% of participants had cleared parasitemia, compared with 31.9% in 2002–2004 (P = 0.5). The median parasite clearance time was 32 hours. Only one participant still had parasites at 48 hours and no participant presented parasitemia at 72 hours. Artesunate was highly efficacious, with no evidence of delayed parasite clearance. We provide baseline surveillance data for the emergence or dissemination of P. falciparum resistance in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22764287
Kumar, Sahil; Singh, Rajesh K; Patial, Babita; Goyal, Sachin; Bhardwaj, T R
Malaria is a major public health problem all over the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries due to the development of resistance and most deadly infection is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. There is a direct need for the discovery of new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action to treat sensitive and drug-resistant strains of various plasmodia for radical cure of this disease. Traditional compounds such as quinine and related derivatives represent a major source for the development of new drugs. This review presents recent modifications of 4-aminoquinoline and 8-aminoquinolone rings as leads to novel active molecules which are under clinical trials. The review also encompasses the other heterocyclic compounds emerged as potential antimalarial agents with promising results such as acridinediones and acridinone analogues, pyridines and quinolones as antimalarials. Miscellaneous heterocyclics such as tetroxane derivatives, indole derivatives, imidazolopiperazine derivatives, biscationic choline-based compounds and polymer-linked combined antimalarial drugs are also discussed. At last brief introduction to heterocyclics in natural products is also reviewed. Most of them have been under clinical trials and found to be promising in the treatment of drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium and others can be explored for the same purpose.
Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz, Liliana; Maco, Martha; Cobos, Marianela; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Roumy, Vincent
In order to evaluate the antimalarial potential of traditional remedies used in Peru, Indigenous and Mestizo populations from the river Nanay in Loreto were interviewed about traditional medication for the treatment of malaria. The survey took place on six villages and led to the collection of 59 plants. 35 hydro-alcoholic extractions were performed on the 21 most cited plants. The extracts were then tested for antiplasmodial activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (FCR-3), and ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test was also performed in order to assume pharmacological properties. Extracts from 9 plants on twenty-one tested (Abuta rufescens, Ayapana lanceolata, Capsiandra angustifolia, Citrus limon, Citrus paradise, Minquartia guianensis, Potalia resinífera, Scoparia dulcis, and Physalis angulata) displayed an interesting antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)<10 μg/ml) and 16 remedies were active on the ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test. The results give scientific validation to the traditional medical knowledge of the Amerindian and Mestizo populations from Loreto and exhibit a source of potentially active plants. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Djimde Abdoulaye A.
Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010–2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1–10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002–2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010–2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002–2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0 and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003. The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6. Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002–2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting.
Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Maiga, Amelia W; Ouologuem, Dinkorma; Fofana, Bakary; Sagara, Issaka; Dembele, Demba; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dama, Souleymane; Sidibe, Bakary; Doumbo, Ogobara K
Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010-2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1-10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002-2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010-2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002-2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0) and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003). The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6). Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002-2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting. © A.A. Djimde et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.
Wieten, Rosanne W.; Harting, Janneke; Biemond, Pieter M.; Grobusch, Martin P.; van Vugt, Michèle
Malaria is a potentially lethal illness for which preventive measures are not optimally used among all travellers. Travellers visiting friends and relatives in their country of origin (VFRs) are known to use chemoprophylaxis less consistently compared to tourist travellers. In this study, factors
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that over 70% of patients with suspected malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, diagnose and manage their illness at home without referral to a formal health clinic. Of those patients who do attend a formal health clinic, malaria overdiagnosis rates are estimated to range between 30–70%. Methods This paper details an observational cohort study documenting the number and cost of repeat consultations as a result of malaria overdiagnosis at two health care providers in a rural district of Mozambique. 535 adults and children with a clinical diagnosis of malaria were enrolled and followed over a 21 day period to assess treatment regimen, symptoms, number and cost of repeat visits to health providers in patients misdiagnosed with malaria compared to those with confirmed malaria (determined by positive bloodfilm reading. Results Diagnosis based solely on clinical symptoms overdiagnosed 23% of children ( Conclusion Overdiagnosis of malaria results in a greater number of healthcare visits and associated cost for adult patients. Additionally, it is clear that the poorest individuals pay significantly more proportionally for their healthcare making it imperative that the treatment they receive is correct in order to prevent wastage of limited economic resources. Thus, investment in accurate malaria diagnosis and appropriate management at primary level is critical for improving health outcomes and reducing poverty.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still a leading child killer in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, access to prompt and effective malaria treatment, a mainstay of any malaria control strategy, is sub-optimal in many settings. Little is known about obstacles to treatment and community-effectiveness of case-management strategies. This research quantified treatment seeking behaviour and access to treatment in a highly endemic rural Tanzanian community. The aim was to provide a better understanding of obstacles to treatment access in order to develop practical and cost-effective interventions. Methods We conducted community-based treatment-seeking surveys including 226 recent fever episodes in 2004 and 2005. The local Demographic Surveillance System provided additional household information. A census of drug retailers and health facilities provided data on availability and location of treatment sources. Results After intensive health education, the biomedical concept of malaria has largely been adopted by the community. 87.5% (78.2–93.8 of the fever cases in children and 80.7% (68.1–90.0 in adults were treated with one of the recommended antimalarials (at the time SP, amodiaquine or quinine. However, only 22.5% (13.9–33.2 of the children and 10.5% (4.0–21.5 of the adults received prompt and appropriate antimalarial treatment. Health facility attendance increased the odds of receiving an antimalarial (OR = 7.7 but did not have an influence on correct dosage. The exemption system for under-fives in public health facilities was not functioning and drug expenditures for children were as high in health facilities as with private retailers. Conclusion A clear preference for modern medicine was reflected in the frequent use of antimalarials. Yet, quality of case-management was far from satisfactory as was the functioning of the exemption mechanism for the main risk group. Private drug retailers played a central role by complementing existing formal health
Nguta, J M; Mbaria, J M
In Kenya, most people especially in rural areas use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat many diseases including malaria. Malaria is of national concern in Kenya, in view of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to drugs especially chloroquine, which had been effective and affordable. There is need for alternative and affordable therapy. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from medicinal plants and this is evident from the reported antiplasmodial activity. The present study reports on the in vivo antimalarial activity and brine shrimp lethality of five medicinal plants traditionally used to treat malaria in Msambweni district, Kenya. A total of five aqueous crude extracts from different plant parts used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria were evaluated for their in vivo antimalarial activity using Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss mice and for their acute toxicity using Brine shrimp lethality test. The screened crude plant extracts suppressed parasitaemia as follows: Azadirachta indica (L) Burm. (Meliaceae), 3.1%; Dichrostachys cinerea (L) Wight et Arn (Mimosaceae), 6.3%; Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae), 25.1%; Acacia seyal Del. (Mimosaceae) 27.8% and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A.Rich (Tiliaceae) 35.8%. In terms of toxicity, A.indica root bark extract had an LC50 of 285.8 µg/ml and was considered moderately toxic. T.indica stem bark extract and G.trichocarpa root extract had an LC50 of 516.4 and 545.8 µg/ml respectively and were considered to be weakly toxic while A.seyal and D.cinerea root extracts had a LC50>1000 µg/ml and were therefore considered to be non toxic. The results indicate that the aqueous extracts of the tested plants when used alone as monotherapy had antimalarial activity which was significantly different from that of chloroquine (P≤0.05). The results also suggest that the anecdotal efficacy of the above plants reported by the study community is related to synergism of
Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...
Yeka, Adoke; Kigozi, Ruth; Conrad, Melissa D.; Lugemwa, Myers; Okui, Peter; Katureebe, Charles; Belay, Kassahun; Kapella, Bryan K.; Chang, Michelle A.; Kamya, Moses R.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Dorsey, Grant; Rosenthal, Philip J.
Background. In treating malaria in Uganda, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) has been associated with a lower risk of recurrent parasitemia, compared with artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ), but changing treatment practices may have altered parasite susceptibility. Methods. We enrolled 602 children aged 6–59 months with uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 3 health centers in 2013–2014 and randomly assigned them to receive treatment with AS/AQ or AL. Primary outcomes were risks of recurrent parasitemia within 28 days, with or without adjustment to distinguish recrudescence from new infection. Drug safety and tolerability and Plasmodium falciparum resistance–mediating polymorphisms were assessed. Results. Of enrolled patients, 594 (98.7%) completed the 28-day study. Risks of recurrent parasitemia were lower with AS/AQ at all 3 sites (overall, 28.6% vs 44.6%; P AQ (1.73 vs 1.39 g/dL; P = .04). Both regimens were well tolerated; serious adverse events were uncommon (1.7% in the AS/AQ group and 1.0% in the AL group). AS/AQ selected for mutant pfcrt/pfmdr1 polymorphisms and AL for wild-type pfcrt/pfmdr1 polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility. Conclusions. AS/AQ treatment was followed by fewer recurrences than AL treatment, contrasting with older data. Each regimen selected for polymorphisms associated with decreased treatment response. Research should consider multiple or rotating regimens to maintain treatment efficacies. PMID:26597254
Odhiambo, Fredrick; Buff, Ann M; Moranga, Collins; Moseti, Caroline M; Wesongah, Jesca Okwara; Lowther, Sara A; Arvelo, Wences; Galgalo, Tura; Achia, Thomas O; Roka, Zeinab G; Boru, Waqo; Chepkurui, Lily; Ogutu, Bernhards; Wanja, Elizabeth
Malaria accounts for ~21% of outpatient visits annually in Kenya; prompt and accurate malaria diagnosis is critical to ensure proper treatment. In 2013, formal malaria microscopy refresher training for microscopists and a pilot quality-assurance (QA) programme for malaria diagnostics were independently implemented to improve malaria microscopy diagnosis in malaria low-transmission areas of Kenya. A study was conducted to identify factors associated with malaria microscopy performance in the same areas. From March to April 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 42 public health facilities; 21 were QA-pilot facilities. In each facility, 18 malaria thick blood slides archived during January-February 2014 were selected by simple random sampling. Each malaria slide was re-examined by two expert microscopists masked to health-facility results. Expert results were used as the reference for microscopy performance measures. Logistic regression with specific random effects modelling was performed to identify factors associated with accurate malaria microscopy diagnosis. Of 756 malaria slides collected, 204 (27%) were read as positive by health-facility microscopists and 103 (14%) as positive by experts. Overall, 93% of slide results from QA-pilot facilities were concordant with expert reference compared to 77% in non-QA pilot facilities (p malaria diagnosis. Microscopists who had recently completed refresher training and worked in a QA-pilot facility performed the best overall. The QA programme and formal microscopy refresher training should be systematically implemented together to improve parasitological diagnosis of malaria by microscopy in Kenya.
Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Krudsood, Srivicha; Srivilairit, Siripan; Phophak, Nanthaporn; Chonsawat, Putza; Yanpanich, Wimon; Kano, Shigeyuki; Wilairatana, Polrat
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently promoted as a strategy for treating both uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria, targeting asexual blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites. However, the effect of ACT on sexual-stage parasites remains controversial. To determine the clearance of sexual-stage P. falciparum parasites from 342 uncomplicated, and 217 severe, adult malaria cases, we reviewed and followed peripheral blood sexual-stage parasites for 4 wk after starting ACT. All patients presented with both asexual and sexual stage parasites on admission, and were treated with artesunate-mefloquine as the standard regimen. The results showed that all patients were asymptomatic and negative for asexual forms before discharge from hospital. The percentages of uncomplicated malaria patients positive for gametocytes on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were 41.5, 13.1, 3.8, 2.0, and 2.0%, while the percentages of gametocyte positive severe malaria patients on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were 33.6, 8.2, 2.7, 0.9, and 0.9%, respectively. Although all patients were negative for asexual parasites by day 7 after completion of the artesunate-mefloquine course, gametocytemia persisted in some patients. Thus, a gametocytocidal drug, e.g., primaquine, may be useful in combination with an artesunate-mefloquine regimen to clear gametocytes, so blocking transmission more effectively than artesunate alone, in malaria transmission areas.
Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M
. Less than 1.0% of patients were infected with two species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 11.7% of cases. CDC provided diagnostic assistance for 14.2% of confirmed cases and tested 12.0% of P. falciparum specimens for antimalarial resistance markers. Of patients who reported purpose of travel, 57.5% were visiting friends and relatives (VFR). Among U.S. residents for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region was known, 7.8% reported that they initiated and adhered to a chemoprophylaxis drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they had traveled. Thirty-two cases were among pregnant women, none of whom had adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, 17.0% were classified as severe illness, and five persons with malaria died. CDC received 137 P. falciparum-positive samples for the detection of antimalarial resistance markers (although some loci for chloroquine and mefloquine were untestable for up to nine samples). Of the 137 samples tested, 131 (95.6%) had genetic polymorphisms associated with pyrimethamine drug resistance, 96 (70.0%) with sulfadoxine resistance, 77 (57.5%) with chloroquine resistance, three (2.3%) with mefloquine drug resistance, one (html). Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly with antimalarial medications appropriate for the patient's age and medical history, likely country of malaria acquisition, and previous use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Recent molecular laboratory advances have enabled CDC to identify and conduct molecular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance markers (https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/features/ars.html) and improve the ability of CDC to track, guide treatment, and manage drug resistance in malaria parasites both domestically and globally. For this effort to be successful, specimens should be submitted for all cases diagnosed in the United States. Clinicians should consult CDC Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria in the
Aim:To determine household's practices in utilization of home treatment for childhood malaria and explore their implications for improving prompt appropriate care in communities. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to women from randomly selected households with previous month history of childhood malaria in ...
Charles Okot Odongo
Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp is widely used to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. As a monitor for continued effectiveness of this intervention amidst SP resistance, we aimed to assess malaria burden among pregnant women who use or do not use SP-IPTp. In a descriptive cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, 87 women who received two supervised doses of SP-IPTp were followed up until delivery. Controls were pregnant women presenting in early labour without history of SP-IPTp. Histopathological investigation for placental malaria (PM was performed using the Bulmer classification criterion. Thirty-eight of the 87 women returned for delivery and 33 placentas were successfully collected and processed along with 33 placentas from SP nonusers. Overall, 12% (4/33 of the users had evidence of PM compared to 48% (16/33 of nonusers. Among nonusers, 17/33, 8/33, 2/33, and 6/33 had no placental infection, active infection, active-chronic infection, and past-chronic infection, respectively. Among users, respective proportions were 29/33, 2/33, 0/33, and 2/33. No difference in birth weights was apparent between the two groups, probably due to a higher proportion of infections occurring later in pregnancy. Histological evidence here suggests that SP continues to offer substantial benefit as IPTp.
Musuva, Anne; Ejersa, Waqo; Kiptui, Rebecca; Memusi, Dorothy; Abwao, Edward
Since 2004, Kenya's national malaria treatment guidelines have stipulated artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, and since 2014, confirmatory diagnosis of malaria in all cases before treatment has been recommended. A number of strategies to support national guidelines have been implemented in the public and private sectors in recent years. A nationally-representative malaria outlet survey, implemented across four epidemiological zones, was conducted between June and August 2016 to provide practical evidence to inform strategies and policies in Kenya towards achieving national malaria control goals. A total of 17,852 outlets were screened and 2271 outlets were eligible and interviewed. 78.3% of all screened public health facilities stocked both malaria diagnostic testing and quality-assured ACT (QAACT). Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy was available in 70% of public health facilities in endemic areas where it is recommended for treatment. SP was rarely found in the public sector outside of the endemic areas (private sector had lower levels of QAACT (46.7%) and malaria blood testing (20.8%) availability but accounted for majority of anti-malarial distribution (70.6% of the national market share). More than 40% of anti-malarials were distributed by unregistered pharmacies (37.3%) and general retailers (7.1%). QAACT accounted for 58.2% of the total anti-malarial market share, while market share for non-QAACT was 15.8% and for SP, 24.8%. In endemic areas, 74.9% of anti-malarials distributed were QAACT. Elsewhere, QAACT market share was 49.4% in the endemic-prone areas, 33.2% in seasonal-transmission areas and 37.9% in low-risk areas. Although public sector availability of QAACT and malaria diagnosis is relatively high, there is a gap in availability of both testing and treatment that must be addressed. The private sector in Kenya, where the majority of anti
Diarra, Amidou; Nebie, Issa; Tiono, Alfred
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient immune status is thought to affect the efficacy of anti-malarial chemotherapy. This is a subject of some importance, since evidence of immunity-related interactions may influence our use of chemotherapy in populations with drug resistance, as well as assessment...... of the value of suboptimal vaccines. The study aim was to investigate relationship between antibodies and anti-malarial drug treatment outcomes. METHODS: Some 248 children aged 0.5 and 15 years were recruited prior to the high malaria transmission season. Venous blood (5 ml) was obtained from each child...... to measure antibody levels to selected malaria antigens, using ELISA. Blood smears were also performed to assess drug efficacy and malaria infection prevalence. Children were actively followed up to record clinical malaria cases. RESULTS: IgG levels to MSP3 were always higher in the successfully treated...
Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still the global health problems, World Health Organization estimates that malaria causes death of approximately 660.000 in 2010, most of the age of the children in the region of sub-Saharan Africa. World Malaria Day 2013 assigned the theme “Invest in the future. Defeat malaria”. It takes political will and collective action to jointly combat malaria through malaria elimination. Needed more new donors to be involved in global partnerships against malaria. These partnerships exist, one of which is support of funding or facility for malaria endemic countries which do not have sufficient resources to control malaria. A lot of effort has been done or is still in the development stage. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets appropriately can reduce malaria cases. The use of rapid diagnostic test, especially in remote areas and health facility with no microscopy, is very beneficial for patients to get prompt treatment. The control of malaria through integrated vector management is a rational decision making process to optimize the use of resources in the control of vector. Sterile insect technique has a promising prospect and expected to replace the role of chemical insecticides that have negative impact both on the environment and target vector (resistance. Keywords: Malaria, long-lasting insecticidal nets, rapid diagnostic test Abstrak Malaria masih menjadi masalah kesehatan dunia, Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO memperkirakan malaria menyebabkan kurang lebih 660.000 kematian pada tahun 2010, kebanyakan usia anak-anak di wilayah Sub-Sahara Afrika. Pada peringatan hari malaria dunia tahun 2013 ditetapkan tema “Investasi di masa depan. Taklukkan malaria”. Dibutuhkan kemauan politik dan tindakan kolektif untuk bersama-sama memerangi malaria melalui gerakan eliminasi malaria. Diperlukan lebih banyak donor baru untuk turut terlibat dalam kemitraan global melawan malaria. Wujud kemitraan tersebut salah satunya adalah
Background In Southeast Asia, data on malaria treatment-seeking behaviours and related affecting factors are rare. The population of the Wa ethnic in Myanmar has difficulty in accessing formal health care. To understand malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and household-affecting factors of the Wa people, a cross-sectional study carried out in Shan Special Region II, Myanmar. Methods The two methods, questionnaire-based household surveys to household heads and in-depth interviews to key informants, were carried out independently. The proportion of treatment-seeking patterns was calculated. Logistic regression was used to determine affecting factors of treatment-seeking. Qualitative data were analysed by using Text Analysis Markup System. Results Overall, 87.5% of the febrile population sought treatment, but only 32.0% did so within 24 hours. The proportion accessing the retail sector (79.6%) was statistically significant higher (Paffecting factors include health service systems, social and cultural factors in Wa State of Myanmar. PMID:23237576
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sociological and behavioural aspects of malaria, which is essential for an evidence-based design of prevention and control programmes, is lacking in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to fill this knowledge gap by using data from a population-based prevalence survey conducted during July to November 2007, in 13 endemic districts of Bangladesh. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study respondents randomly from 30 mauzas in each district for the socio-behavioural inquiry (n = 9,750. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data in face-to-face interview by trained interviewers, after obtaining informed consent. Results The overall malaria prevalence rate in the 13 endemic districts was found to be 3.1% by the Rapid Diagnostic Test 'FalciVax' (P. falciparum 2.73%, P. vivax 0.16% and mixed infection 0.19%, with highest concentration in the three hill districts (11%. Findings revealed superficial knowledge on malaria transmission, prevention and treatment by the respondents. Poverty and level of schooling were found as important determinants of malaria knowledge and practices. Allopathic treatment was uniformly advocated, but the 'know-do' gap became especially evident when in practice majority of the ill persons either did not seek any treatment (31% or practiced self-treatment (12%. Of those who sought treatment, the majority went to the village doctors and drugstore salespeople (around 40%. Also, there was a delay beyond twenty-four hours in beginning treatment of malaria-like fever in more than half of the instances. In the survey, gender divide in knowledge and health-seeking behaviour was observed disfavouring women. There was also a geographical divide between the high endemic south-eastern area and the low-endemicnorth-eastern area, the former being disadvantaged with respect to different aspects of malaria studied. Conclusion The respondents in this study lacked
AJRH Managing Editor
investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is recommended for malaria prevention in HIV-negative pregnant women, but it is contraindicated in HIV-infected women taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp because of potential added risk of adverse effects associated with taking two antifolate drugs simultaneously. We studied the safety and efficacy of mefloquine (MQ in women receiving CTXp and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 1,071 HIV-infected women from Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania were randomized to receive either three doses of IPTp-MQ (15 mg/kg or placebo given at least one month apart; all received CTXp and a LLITN. IPTp-MQ was associated with reduced rates of maternal parasitemia (risk ratio [RR], 0.47 [95% CI 0.27-0.82]; p=0.008, placental malaria (RR, 0.52 [95% CI 0.29-0.90]; p=0.021, and reduced incidence of non-obstetric hospital admissions (RR, 0.59 [95% CI 0.37-0.95]; p=0.031 in the intention to treat (ITT analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes between groups. Drug tolerability was poorer in the MQ group compared to the control group (29.6% referred dizziness and 23.9% vomiting after the first IPTp-MQ administration. HIV viral load at delivery was higher in the MQ group compared to the control group (p=0.048 in the ATP analysis. The frequency of perinatal mother to child transmission of HIV was increased in women who received MQ (RR, 1.95 [95% CI 1.14-3.33]; p=0.015. The main limitation of the latter finding relates to the exploratory nature of this part of the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: An effective antimalarial added to CTXp and LLITNs in HIV-infected pregnant women can improve malaria prevention, as well as maternal health through reduction in hospital admissions. However, MQ was not well tolerated, limiting its potential for IPTp and indicating the need to find alternatives with
Full Text Available Abstract Following a long period when the effectiveness of existing mono-therapies for antimalarials was steadily declining with no clear alternative, most malaria-endemic countries in Africa and Asia have adopted artemisinin combination therapy (ACT as antimalarial drug policy. Several ACT drugs exist and others are in the pipeline. If properly targeted, they have the potential to reduce mortality from malaria substantially. The major challenge now is to get the drugs to the right people. Current evidence suggests that most of those who need the drugs do not get them. Simultaneously, a high proportion of those who are given antimalarials do not in fact have malaria. Financial and other barriers mean that, in many settings, the majority of those with malaria, particularly the poorest, do not access formal healthcare, so the provision of free antimalarials via this route has only limited impact. The higher cost of ACT creates a market for fake drugs. Addressing these problems is now a priority. This review outlines current evidence, possible solutions and research priorities.
Patterns of treatment for childhood malaria among caregivers and health care providers in Turbo, Colombia = Pautas de tratamiento para la malaria infantil entre los cuidadores y profesionales de la salud en Turbo, Colombia
López de Mesa, Ysabel Polanco
Full Text Available Malaria represents a major cause of death among children in many areas of the world, especially in tropical countries. Colombia constitutes a malaria endemic country in 90% of its territory. This study, undertaken in Turbo (Antioquia, examined care-seeking patterns and barriers to appropriate treatment for Colombian children with fever and /or convulsions, two key symptoms of malaria. The study focused on community perceptions of and responses to febrile illness, using illness narratives as the primary data collection vehicle. The researcher used semi-structured interviews for health narratives with caregivers and health providers. Analyses of 67 illness narratives collected in the course of the study indicated that caregivers, the majority of which are mothers, recognize fever and treat it promptly. They identified fever, chills, headache, vomiting, and weakness as the most frequent symptoms of malaria. Synchronic and diachronic analyses showed that most treatments begin at home. Common home treatments include baths with herbs and use of anti-pyretic drugs. Neither caregivers nor traditional healers conceptualized malaria as a disease that La malaria representa una causa importante de muerte infantil en muchas áreas del mundo, especialmente en países tropicales. Colombia es considerado como un país endémico para malaria en el 90% de su territorio. Este estudio, llevado a cabo en la localidad de Turbo (Antioquia, exploró los patrones de cuidados y las barreras para el tratamiento apropiado en niños colombianos con fiebre y/o convulsiones, dos síntomas claves de la malaria. El estudio se concentró en las percepciones y respuestas de la comunidad ante la enfermedad febril, utilizando narrativas de la enfermedad como vehículo principal de la recolección de datos. El investigador usó entrevistas semi-estructuradas para las narrativas de enfermedad con los cuidadores de los niños y con los proveedores la salud. El análisis de 67
Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O
An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.
Matowo, Nancy S.; Ngowo, Halfan S.; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O.
An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania. PMID:28542335
Jiao, X; Liu, G Y; Shan, C O; Zhao, X; Li, X W; Gathmann, I; Royce, C
One hundred and two Chinese out-patients with naturally acquired, previously untreated, falciparum malaria were selected to evaluate the efficacy of a new combination anti-malaria therapy, CGP 56697 (artemether plus benflumetol). In this open non-comparative trial each patient received a combination of 80 mg artemether and 480 mg benflumetol given orally at 0, 8, 24 and 48 hours (total: 320 mg artemether, 1,920 mg benflumetol). Patients were kept for 28 days in a transmission-free hospital in an area with chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria to prevent reinfection and to aid diagnosis of recrudescence. Progress and possible adverse effects were monitored by blood film parasitology, blood biochemistry assays, urinalysis, ECG and X-ray. Ninety-eight of the 102 patients were shown to be free of infection at 28 days, a 96.1% cure rate. Parasite reduction at 24 hours was 99.4%. Time to effect complete parasite clearance ranged from 24 to 54 hours (median 30 hours). Time for fever clearance ranged from 6 to 78 hours (median 18 hours). Recrudescence was low (3.9%). No significant adverse side-effects were encountered. It is concluded that CGP 56697, a combination anti-malaria therapy of artemether with benflumetol, offered a rapid and highly effective treatment for acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an area of chloroquine-resistant malaria in China.
Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.
Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C
The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0
Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3% while other
Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael
Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.
N S Jimam
Full Text Available Background: Though the fight against malaria continued to be on the increased, the disease still remains a major public health problem in many developing countries, especially in the rural areas. The extent of drug use and its effect is affected among other things by the pattern in which these drugs are prescribed by the health workers. Patients′ assessment of the quality of care depends on their ability to judge whether health care providers are adhering to the defined standard of care, hence it is necessary to assess the views of patients regarding the quality of care they received from the primary health care (PHC centers. Aim: This study aimed at evaluating consumer′s perception of the quality of malaria treatment in PHC centers of Jos and environs. Materials and Methods: Nine PHC centers were selected by multi-stage random sampling, five from Jos North and four from Jos South Local Government Areas of Plateau State. Patients of both sexes within the age range of 18 years and above who visited the PHC centers for malaria treatment were considered eligible to participate in the survey, provided that they were able to understand and respond to the interview questions. A semi-structured interviewer questionnaire which was adapted from previous health survey studies was administered to all the 249 eligible participants. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0 software programmer. Results: The result showed that there were no consistently significant differences (P > 0.05 regarding patient satisfaction between male and female patients across selected items in the various domains, that is, irrespective of respondents′ sex, their perception of the quality of health services rendered by PHCs was similar. Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that there was similar satisfaction level between the male and the female, though some key health services were not readily available in the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The long terminal half life of piperaquine makes it suitable for intermittent preventive treatment for malaria but no studies of its use for prevention have been done in Africa. We did a cluster randomized trial to determine whether piperaquine in combination with either dihydroartemisin (DHA or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is as effective, and better tolerated, than SP plus amodiaquine (AQ, when used for intermittent preventive treatment in children delivered by community health workers in a rural area of Senegal. METHODS: Treatments were delivered to children 3-59 months of age in their homes once per month during the transmission season by community health workers. 33 health workers, each covering about 60 children, were randomized to deliver either SP+AQ, DHA+PQ or SP+PQ. Primary endpoints were the incidence of attacks of clinical malaria, and the incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: 1893 children were enrolled. Coverage of monthly rounds and compliance with daily doses was similar in all groups; 90% of children received at least 2 monthly doses. Piperaquine combinations were better tolerated than SP+AQ with a significantly lower risk of common, mild adverse events. 103 episodes of clinical malaria were recorded during the course of the trial. 68 children had malaria with parasitaemia >3000/microL, 29/671 (4.3% in the SP+AQ group, compared with 22/604 (3.6% in the DHA+PQ group (risk difference 0.47%, 95%CI -2.3%,+3.3%, and 17/618 (2.8% in the SP+PQ group (risk difference 1.2%, 95%CI -1.3%,+3.6%. Prevalences of parasitaemia and the proportion of children carrying Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutations associated with resistance to SP were very low in all groups at the end of the transmission season. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal IPT with SP+PQ in children is highly effective and well tolerated; the combination of two long-acting drugs is likely to impede the emergence of resistant parasites. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00529620.
Full Text Available Malaria is a blood disease caused by the Plasmodium parasites transmitted through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito. Microscopists commonly examine thick and thin blood smears to diagnose disease and compute parasitemia. However, their accuracy depends on smear quality and expertise in classifying and counting parasitized and uninfected cells. Such an examination could be arduous for large-scale diagnoses resulting in poor quality. State-of-the-art image-analysis based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx methods using machine learning (ML techniques, applied to microscopic images of the smears using hand-engineered features demand expertise in analyzing morphological, textural, and positional variations of the region of interest (ROI. In contrast, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN, a class of deep learning (DL models promise highly scalable and superior results with end-to-end feature extraction and classification. Automated malaria screening using DL techniques could, therefore, serve as an effective diagnostic aid. In this study, we evaluate the performance of pre-trained CNN based DL models as feature extractors toward classifying parasitized and uninfected cells to aid in improved disease screening. We experimentally determine the optimal model layers for feature extraction from the underlying data. Statistical validation of the results demonstrates the use of pre-trained CNNs as a promising tool for feature extraction for this purpose.
Zwang, Julien; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Dorsey, Grant; Mårtensson, Andreas A; Karema, Corine; Olliaro, Piero L
Anaemia is common in malaria. It is important to quantitate the risk of anaemia and to distinguish factors related to the natural history of disease from potential drug toxicity. Individual-patient data analysis based on nine randomized controlled trials of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Risk factors for reduced haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anaemia on presentation and after treatment were analysed using mixed effect models. Eight thousand eight hundred ninety-seven patients (77.0% <5 years-old) followed-up through 28 days treated with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT, 90%, n = 7968) or non-ACT. At baseline, under 5's had the highest risk of anaemia (77.6% vs. 32.8%) and higher parasitaemia (43,938 μl) than older subjects (2784 μl). Baseline anaemia increased the risk of parasitological recurrence. Hb began to fall after treatment start. In under 5's the estimated nadir was ~35 h (range 29-48), with a drop of -12.8% from baseline (from 9.8 g/dl to 8.7 g/dl, p = 0.001); in under 15's, the mean Hb decline between day 0-3 was -4.7% (from 9.4 to 9.0 g/dl, p = 0.001). The degree of Hb loss was greater in patients with high pre-treatment Hb and parasitaemia and with slower parasite reduction rates, and was unrelated to age. Subsequently, Hb increased linearly (+0.6%/day) until day 28, to reach +13.8% compared to baseline. Severe anaemia (<5 g/dl, 2 per 1000 patients) was transient and all patients recovered after day 14, except one case of very severe anaemia associated with parasite recurrence at day 28. There was no systematic difference in Hb concentrations between treatments and no case of delayed anaemia. On presentation with acute malaria young children with high parasitaemia have the highest risk of anaemia. The majority of patients experience a drop in Hb while on treatment as early as day 1-2, followed by a linear increase through follow-up. The degree of the early Hb dip is
Full Text Available Abstract Background After adoption of artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ as first-line therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria by the malaria control programme, this study was designed to assess the availability of anti-malarial drugs, treatment practices and acceptability of the new protocol by health professionals, in the urban health facilities and drugstores of Yaoundé city, Cameroon. Methods Between April and August 2005, retrospective and current information was collected by consulting registers and interviewing health practitioners in urban health facilities using a structured questionnaire. Results In 2005, twenty-seven trade-named drugs have been identified in drugstores; quinine tablets (300 mg were the most affordable anti-malarial drugs. Chloroquine was restricted to food market places and no generic artemisinin derivative was available in public health centres. In public health facilities, 13.6% of health professionals were informed about the new guidelines; 73.5% supported the use of AS-AQ as first-line therapy. However, 38.6% apprehended its use due to adverse events attributed to amodiaquine. Malaria treatment was mainly based on the diagnosis of fever. Quinine (300 mg tablets was the most commonly prescribed first-line anti-malarial drug in adults (44.5% and pregnant women (52.5%. Artequin® was the most cited artemsinin-based combination therapy (ACT (9.9%. Medical sales representatives were the main sources of information on anti-malarials. Conclusion The use of AS/AQ was not implemented in 2005 in Yaoundé, despite the wide range of anti-malarials and trade-named artemisinin derivatives available. Nevertheless, medical practitioners will support the use of this combination, when it is available in a paediatric formulation, at an affordable price. Training, information and participation of health professionals in decision-making is one of the key elements to improve adherence to new protocol guidelines. This baseline
... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Malaria Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: NIAID Colorized ... for the disease. Why Is the Study of Malaria a Priority for NIAID? Roughly 3.2 billion ...
Liu, Jenny X; Modrek, Sepideh
In Nigeria, access to malaria diagnostics may be expanded if drug retailers were allowed to administer malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). A 2012 pilot intervention showed that short message service (SMS) reminder messages could boost treatment adherence to RDT results by 10-14% points. This study aimed to replicate the SMS intervention in a different population, and additionally test the effect of an expanded message about anticipated RDT access policy change on customers' acceptability for drug retailers' administration of RDTs. One day after being tested with an RDT, participants who purchased malaria treatment from drug shops were randomized to receive (1) a basic SMS reminder repeating the RDT result and appropriate treatment actions, (2) an expanded SMS reminder additionally saying that the 'government might allow pharmacists/chemists to do RDTs' or (3) no SMS reminders (i.e. control). Using regression analysis, we estimate intent-to-treat (ITT) and treatment effects on the treated for 686 study participants. Results corroborate previous findings that a basic SMS reminder increased treatment adherence [odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% CI 0.96-2.44] and decreased use of unnecessary anti-malarials for RDT-negative adults [OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.39-1.00]. The expanded SMS also increased adherence for adults [OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.97-2.07], but the effects for sick children differed-the basic SMS did not have any measurable impact on treatment adherence [OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.24-3.09] or use of unnecessary anti-malarials [OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.32-1.93], and the expanded SMS actually led to poorer treatment adherence [OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.10-0.66] and increased use of unnecessary anti-malarials [OR = 4.67, 95% CI 1.76-12.43]. Further, the targeted but neutral message in the expanded SMS lowered acceptance for drug retailers' administration of RDTs [OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.10-2.93], counter to what we hypothesized. Future SMS interventions should
DaSilva, Joaquim; Garanganga, Brad; Teveredzi, Vonai; Marx, Sabine M; Mason, Simon J; Connor, Stephen J
Malaria is a major public health problem for countries in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). While the endemicity of malaria varies enormously across this region, many of the countries have districts that are prone to periodic epidemics, which can be regional in their extent, and to resurgent outbreaks that are much more localized. These epidemics are frequently triggered by climate anomalies and often follow periods of drought. Many parts of Southern Africa have suffered rainfall deficit over the past three years and countries expect to see increased levels of malaria when the rains return to more 'normal' levels. Problems with drug and insecticide resistance are documented widely and the region contains countries with the highest rates of HIV prevalence to be found anywhere in the world. Consequently, many communities are vulnerable to severe disease outcomes should epidemics occur. The SADC countries have adopted the Abuja targets for Roll Back Malaria in Africa, which include improved epidemic detection and response, i.e., that 60% of epidemics will be detected within two weeks of onset, and 60% of epidemics will be responded to within two weeks of detection. The SADC countries recognize that to achieve these targets they need improved information on where and when to look for epidemics. The WHO integrated framework for improved early warning and early detection of malaria epidemics has been recognized as a potentially useful tool for epidemic preparedness and response planning. Following evidence of successful adoption and implementation of this approach in Botswana, the SADC countries, the WHO Southern Africa Inter-Country Programme on Malaria Control, and the SADC Drought Monitoring Centre decided to organize a regional meeting where countries could gather to assess their current control status and community vulnerability, consider changes in epidemic risk, and develop a detailed plan of action for the forthcoming 2004-2005 season. The
Full Text Available Maternal mortality is high in developing countries, but there are few data in high-risk groups such as migrants and refugees in malaria-endemic areas. Trends in maternal mortality were followed over 25 years in antenatal clinics prospectively established in an area with low seasonal transmission on the north-western border of Thailand.All medical records from women who attended the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit antenatal clinics from 12(th May 1986 to 31(st December 2010 were reviewed, and maternal death records were analyzed for causality. There were 71 pregnancy-related deaths recorded amongst 50,981 women who attended antenatal care at least once. Three were suicide and excluded from the analysis as incidental deaths. The estimated maternal mortality ratio (MMR overall was 184 (95%CI 150-230 per 100,000 live births. In camps for displaced persons there has been a six-fold decline in the MMR from 499 (95%CI 200-780 in 1986-90 to 79 (40-170 in 2006-10, p<0.05. In migrants from adjacent Myanmar the decline in MMR was less significant: 588 (100-3260 to 252 (150-430 from 1996-2000 to 2006-2010. Mortality from P. falciparum malaria in pregnancy dropped sharply with the introduction of systematic screening and treatment and continued to decline with the reduction in the incidence of malaria in the communities. P. vivax was not a cause of maternal death in this population. Infection (non-puerperal sepsis and P. falciparum malaria accounted for 39.7 (27/68 % of all deaths.Frequent antenatal clinic screening allows early detection and treatment of falciparum malaria and substantially reduces maternal mortality from P. falciparum malaria. No significant decline has been observed in deaths from sepsis or other causes in refugee and migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.
Tarimo, D S; Lwihula, G K; Minjas, J N
Prior to an intervention on improving the quality of malaria case management, we assessed mothers' abilities to recognize nonsevere and severe/complicated malaria in children when a child has fever with other physiological and behavioural symptoms associated with malaria. Malaria was mentioned...... and treatment (89.4%). Poor outcome of treatment was ascribed to incorrect diagnosis and prescription, noncompliance at home and ineffective drugs (62.1%). Most mothers (86.6%) would take antipyretic measures first when a child has fever, and subsequently the majority (92.9%) would seek care at a modern health...... of these findings for chemotherapeutic malaria control in holoendemic areas within the context of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) strategy are discussed....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three
Woelk, Godfrey; Daniels, Karen; Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby
Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO(4 )and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO(4 )than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO(4), and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Translating research knowledge into
Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (MalaroneTM were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15 or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base over a 3 day period (n=14 (phase 1. The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9 or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5 (phase 2. In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] versus 8% [1/13], P<0.0001. In phase 2, atovaquone/proguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.
Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (MalaroneTM were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15 or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base over a 3 day period (n=14 (phase 1. The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9 or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5 (phase 2. In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] versus 8% [1/13], P<0.0001. In phase 2, atovaquone/proguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.
Llanos-Cuentas, A; Campos, P; Clendenes, M; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B
The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone) were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15) or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base) over a 3 day period (n=14) (phase 1). The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9) or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5) (phase 2). In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] vs. 8% [1/13], Pproguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]). There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.
Bankole, A E; Adekunle, A A; Sowemimo, A A; Umebese, C E; Abiodun, O; Gbotosho, G O
The use of plant to meet health-care needs has greatly increased worldwide in the recent times. The search for new plant-derived bioactive agents that can be explored for the treatment of drug-resistant malaria infection is urgently needed. Thus, we evaluated the antimalarial activity of three medicinal plants used in Nigerian folklore for the treatment of malaria infection. A modified Peter's 4-day suppressive test was used to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the plant extracts in a mouse model of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Animals were treated with 250, 500, or 800 mg/kg of aqueous extract. It was observed that of all the three plants studied, Markhamia tomentosa showed the highest chemosuppression of parasites of 73 % followed by Polyalthia longifolia (53 %) at day 4. All the doses tested were well tolerated. Percentage suppression of parasite growth on day 4 post-infection ranged from 1 to 73 % in mice infected with P. berghei and treated with extracts when compared with chloroquine diphosphate, the standard reference drug which had a chemosuppression of 90 %. The percentage survival of mice that received extract ranged from 0 to 60 % (increased as the dose increases to 800 mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, and phenolic compounds in all the three plants tested.
Blair, Silvia; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Marcet, Paula L.; Escalante, Ananias A.; Alexander, Neal; Rojas, Carlos
Plasmodium vivax recurrences help maintain malaria transmission. They are caused by recrudescence, reinfection, or relapse, which are not easily differentiated. A longitudinal observational study took place in Turbo municipality, Colombia. Participants with uncomplicated P. vivax infection received supervised treatment concomitantly with 25 mg/kg chloroquine and 0.25 mg/kg/day primaquine for 14 days. Incidence of recurrence was assessed over 180 days. Samples were genotyped, and origins of recurrences were established. A total of 134 participants were enrolled between February 2012 and July 2013, and 87 were followed for 180 days, during which 29 recurrences were detected. The cumulative incidence of first recurrence was 24.1% (21/87) (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6 to 33.7%), and 86% (18/21) of these events occurred between days 51 and 110. High genetic diversity of P. vivax strains was found, and 12.5% (16/128) of the infections were polyclonal. Among detected recurrences, 93.1% (27/29) of strains were genotyped as genetically identical to the strain from the previous infection episode, and 65.5% (19/29) of infections were classified as relapses. Our results indicate that there is a high incidence of P. vivax malaria recurrence after treatment in Turbo municipality, Colombia, and that a large majority of these episodes are likely relapses from the previous infection. We attribute this to the primaquine regimen currently used in Colombia, which may be insufficient to eliminate hypnozoites. PMID:27185794
Masanja Irene M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to growing antimalarial drug resistance, Tanzania changed malaria treatment policies twice within a decade. First in 2001 chloroquine (CQ was replaced by sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for management of uncomplicated malaria and by late 2006, SP was replaced by artemether-lumefantrine (AL. We assessed health workers’ attitudes and personal practices following the first treatment policy change, at six months post-change and two years later. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2004 among healthcare workers in three districts in South-East Tanzania using semi-structured questionnaires. Attitudes were assessed by enquiring which antimalarial was considered most suitable for the management of uncomplicated malaria for the three patient categories: i children below 5; ii older children and adults; and iii pregnant women. Practice was ascertained by asking which antimalarial was used in the last malaria episode by the health worker him/herself and/or dependants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with reported attitudes and practices towards the new treatment recommendations. Results A total of 400 health workers were interviewed; 254 and 146 in the first and second surveys, respectively. SP was less preferred antimalarial in hospitals and private health facilities (p Conclusion Following changes in malaria treatment recommendations, most health workers did not prefer the new antimalarial drug, and their preferences worsened over time. However, many of them still used the newly recommended drug for management of their own or family members’ malaria episode. This indicates that, other factors than providers’ attitude may have more influence in their personal treatment practices.
Onoka Chima A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of access to intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp in Nigeria is still low despite relatively high antenatal care coverage in the study area. This paper presents information on provider factors that affect the delivery of IPTp in Nigeria. Methods Data were collected from heads of maternal health units of 28 public and six private health facilities offering antenatal care (ANC services in two districts in Enugu State, south-east Nigeria. Provider knowledge of guidelines for IPTp was assessed with regard to four components: the drug used for IPTp, time of first dose administration, of second dose administration, and the strategy for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP administration (directly observed treatment, DOT. Provider practices regarding IPTp and facility-related factors that may explain observations such as availability of SP and water were also examined. Results Only five (14.7% of all 34 providers had correct knowledge of all four recommendations for provision of IPTp. None of them was a private provider. DOT strategy was practiced in only one and six private and public providers respectively. Overall, 22 providers supplied women with SP in the facility and women were allowed to take it at home. The most common reason for doing so amongst public providers was that women were required to come for antenatal care on empty stomachs to enhance the validity of manual fundal height estimation. Two private providers did not think it was necessary to use the DOT strategy because they assumed that women would take their drugs at home. Availability of SP and water in the facility, and concerns about side effects were not considered impediments to delivery of IPTp. Conclusion There was low level of knowledge of the guidelines for implementation of IPTp by all providers, especially those in the private sector. This had negative effects such as non-practice of DOT strategy by most of the providers
regard to tourism, within an area of ~100 000 km2. ... Unfortunately, international funding for .... carriers, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, to interrupt malaria ... education of healthcare workers on malaria diagnosis and treatment.
Active case detection, treatment of falciparum malaria with combined chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and vivax malaria with chloroquine and molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in the Republic of Vanuatu
Rogers William O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum was first described in the Republic of Vanuatu in the early 1980s. In 1991, the Vanuatu Ministry of Health instituted new treatment guidelines for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection consisting of chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy. Chloroquine remains the recommended treatment for Plasmodium vivax. Methods In 2005, cross-sectional blood surveys at 45 sites on Malo Island were conducted and 4,060 adults and children screened for malaria. Of those screened, 203 volunteer study subjects without malaria at the time of screening were followed for 13 weeks to observe peak seasonal incidence of infection. Another 54 subjects with malaria were followed over a 28-day period to determine efficacy of anti-malarial therapy; chloroquine alone for P. vivax and chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for P. falciparum infections. Results The overall prevalence of parasitaemia by mass blood screening was 6%, equally divided between P. falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty percent and 23% of participants with patent P. vivax and P. falciparum parasitaemia, respectively, were febrile at the time of screening. In the incidence study cohort, after 2,303 person-weeks of follow-up, the incidence density of malaria was 1.3 cases per person-year with P. vivax predominating. Among individuals participating in the clinical trial, the 28-day chloroquine P. vivax cure rate was 100%. The 28-day chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine P. falciparum cure rate was 97%. The single treatment failure, confirmed by merozoite surface protein-2 genotyping, was classified as a day 28 late parasitological treatment failure. All P. falciparum isolates carried the Thr-76 pfcrt mutant allele and the double Asn-108 + Arg-59 dhfr mutant alleles. Dhps mutant alleles were not detected in the study sample. Conclusion Peak seasonal malaria prevalence on Malo Island reached hypoendemic levels during the study
Hussain, Mohammad A; Dandona, Lalit; Schellenberg, David
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is a cornerstone of malaria control. In India, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) became the first-line treatment for falciparum malaria and rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) kits were recommended for use at the grass-root level in the new malaria treatment policy (2010). Odisha State contributes about one-fourth of the total Indian malaria burden and 40% of falciparum infection. The present study assessed the health system readiness to deploy RDTs and ACT for malaria control across the State. Data collection was carried out from February to July 2012. Five of Odisha's 30 districts were selected through stratified random sampling, with stratification based on the phased roll-out of ACT and RDT. Two administrative 'blocks' were selected randomly in each district and data collected through health facility, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activist (ASHAs) assessments. Key informant interviews were conducted with individuals involved in the implementation of the malaria control programme. Of the 220 ANMs interviewed, 51.4% had been trained in malaria case management, including the use of ACT and RDT. A high proportion of ANM (80%) and AHSA (77%) had the necessary level of knowledge to be able to use RDT for malaria diagnosis. The proportion of ASHAs trained on malaria case management was 88.9% (209/235). However, 71% of ANM and 55% of ASHAs usually referred falciparum-positive patients to the health facility for treatment, the major reason for referral being the non-availability of drugs at the ANM and ASHA level. The relatively high level of knowledge about how to diagnose and treat malaria at the grass-root level was undermined by the poor availability of RDTs, ACT and primaquine tablets. This was associated with an unnecessarily high referral rate and potential delays in the treatment of this potentially life-threatening infection. Improvements in the supply chain for RDTs and ACT could dramatically
Rahman, Md. Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdel Hamid
Malaria transmission in many part of the world specifically in Bangladesh and southern African countries is unstable and epidemic. An estimate of over a million cases is reported annually. Malaria is heterogeneous, potentially due to variations in ecological settings, socio-economic status, land cover, and agricultural practices. Malaria control only relies on treatment and supply of bed networks. Drug resistance to these diseases is widespread. Vector control is minimal. Malaria control in those countries faces many formidable challenges such as inadequate accessibility to effective treatment, lack of trained manpower, inaccessibility of endemic areas, poverty, lack of education, poor health infrastructure and low health budgets. Health facilities for malaria management are limited, surveillance is inadequate, and vector control is insufficient. Control can only be successful if the right methods are used at the right time in the right place. This paper aims to improve malaria control by developing malaria risk maps and risk models using satellite remote sensing data by identifying, assessing, and mapping determinants of malaria associated with environmental, socio-economic, malaria control, and agricultural factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria control in infants (IPTi consists of the administration of a treatment dose of an anti-malarial drug, usually sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, at scheduled intervals, regardless of the presence of Plasmodium falciparum infection. A pooled analysis of individually randomized trials reported that IPTi reduced clinical episodes by 30%. This study evaluated the effect of IPTi on child survival in the context of a five-district implementation project in southern Tanzania. [Trial registration: clinical trials.gov NCT00152204]. Methods After baseline household and health facility surveys in 2004, five districts comprising 24 divisions were randomly assigned either to receive IPTi (n = 12 or not (n = 12. Implementation started in March 2005, led by routine health services with support from the research team. In 2007, a large household survey was undertaken to assess the impact of IPTi on survival in infants aged two-11 months through birth history interviews with all women aged 13-49 years. The analysis is based on an "intention-to-treat" ecological design, with survival outcomes analysed according to the cluster in which the mothers lived. Results Survival in infants aged two-11 months was comparable in IPTi and comparison areas at baseline. In intervention areas in 2007, 48% of children aged 12-23 months had documented evidence of receiving three doses of IPTi, compared to 2% in comparison areas (P P = 0.31. Conclusion The lack of evidence of an effect of IPTi on survival could be a false negative result due to a lack of power or imbalance of unmeasured confounders. Alternatively, there could be no mortality impact of IPTi due to low coverage, late administration, drug resistance, decreased malaria transmission or improvements in vector control and case management. This study raises important questions for programme evaluation design.
Wang, Ruoxi; Tang, Shangfeng; Yang, Jun; Shao, Tian; Shao, Piaopiao; Liu, Chunyan; Feng, Da; Fu, Hang; Chen, Xiaoyu; Hu, Tao; Feng, Zhanchun
malaria. Village doctors and who served in Type 3 counties were identified as the ones in urgent need of effective training. Three types of training approaches, including electronic material, thematic series and supervision, were proven to be effective in improving local health workers' knowledge. Nevertheless, the coverage of these training approaches was still limited. This study suggests expanding the coverage of training, especially the three particular types of training, to local health workers, particularly to the target populations (village doctors and who served in Type 3 counties). Online training, small group discussion and targeted skill development may be the directions for the future development of training programmes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp is efficacious in reducing the adverse outcomes associated with pregnancy-associated malaria, however uptake of the recommended two doses is low in Tanzania, and little is known of the timepoint during pregnancy at which it is delivered. This study investigated the timing of delivery of IPTp to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC, and the potential determinants of timely uptake. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with staff and pregnant women at antenatal clinics in northeast Tanzania, and antenatal consultations were observed. Facility-based and individual factors were analysed for any correlation with timing of IPTp uptake. Results Almost half the women interviewed first attended ANC during or before the fourth month of gestation, however 86% of these early attendees did not receive IPTp on their first visit. The timing of IPTp delivery complied closely with the national guidelines which stipulate giving the first dose at 20–24 weeks gestation. Uptake of at least one dose of IPTp among women who had reached this gestation age was 67%, although this varied considerably between clinics. At one facility, IPTp was not delivered because SP was out of stock. Conclusion Early uptake of IPTp was found to be hampered by factors external to health worker performance or women's individual preferences. These include insufficient drug stocks and an apparent lack of information to health workers on the reasoning for continued use of SP for IPTp when it has been replaced as a first-line treatment. In addition, an unexpectedly high proportion of women attend antenatal clinics before 20 weeks of pregnancy. While current policy denies the use of IPTp at this time, there is emerging, but incomplete, evidence that malaria in early pregnancy may contribute considerably to the burden of pregnancy-related malaria. Current policy may thus result in a missed opportunity for maximising
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum serve as a reservoir of parasites for malaria transmission. Identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers within a region may reduce the parasite reservoir and influence malaria transmission in that area. Methods Using computer simulation, this analysis explored the impact of community screening campaigns (CSC followed by systematic treatment of P. falciparum asymptomatic carriers (AC with artemether-lumefantrine (AL on disease transmission. The model created by Okell et al (originally designed to explore the impact of the introduction of treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy on malaria endemicity was modified to represent CSC and treatment of AC with AL, with the addition of malaria vector seasonality. The age grouping, relative distribution of age in a region, and degree of heterogeneity in disease transmission were maintained. The number and frequency of CSC and their relative timing were explored in terms of their effect on malaria incidence. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the factors with the greatest impact on the model predictions. Results The simulation showed that the intervention that had the largest effect was performed in an area with high endemicity (entomological inoculation rate, EIR > 200; however, the rate of infection returned to its normal level in the subsequent year, unless the intervention was repeated. In areas with low disease burden (EIR Conclusions Community screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers with AL may reduce malaria transmission significantly. The initial level of disease intensity has the greatest impact on the potential magnitude and duration of malaria reduction. When combined with other interventions (e.g. long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, rapid diagnostic tests, prompt diagnosis and treatment, and, where appropriate, indoor residual spraying the effect of this intervention can be
Cost-effectiveness analysis of the national implementation of integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services in Ghana for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia.
Escribano Ferrer, Blanca; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Gyapong, Margaret; Bruce, Jane; Narh Bana, Solomon A; Narh, Clement T; Allotey, Naa-Korkor; Glover, Roland; Azantilow, Naa-Charity; Bart-Plange, Constance; Sagoe-Moses, Isabella; Webster, Jayne
Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia: the integrated community case management (iCCM) and the community-based health planning and services (CHPS). The aim of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of these strategies under programme conditions. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment given was the effectiveness measure used. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment data was obtained from a household survey conducted 2 and 8 years after implementation of iCCM in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana, respectively. The study population was carers of children under-5 years who had fever, diarrhoea and/or cough in the last 2 weeks prior to the interview. Costs data was obtained mainly from the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP), the Ministry of Health, CHPS compounds and from a household survey. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia was more cost-effective under the iCCM than under CHPS in the Volta Region, even after adjusting for different discount rates, facility costs and iCCM and CHPS utilization, but not when iCCM appropriate treatment was reduced by 50%. Due to low numbers of carers visiting a CBA in the Northern Region it was not possible to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis in this region. However, the cost analysis showed that iCCM in the Northern Region had higher cost per malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia case diagnosed and treated when compared to the Volta Region and to the CHPS strategy in the Northern Region. Integrated community case management was more cost-effective than CHPS for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia when utilized by carers of children under-5 years in the Volta Region. A revision of the iCCM strategy in the Northern Region is needed to improve its cost-effectiveness. Long-term financing
Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Ravony, Harintsoa; Vonimpaisomihanta, Jeanne-Aimée; Raherinjafy, Rogelin; Jahevitra, Martial; Rapelanoro, Rabenja; Rakotomanga, Jean De Dieu Marie; Malvy, Denis; Millet, Pascal; Ménard, Didier
Home management of malaria is recommended for prompt, effective antimalarial treatment in children less than five years of age. Compliance, safety, and effectiveness of the new fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine regimen used to treat suspected malaria were assessed in febrile children enrolled in a 24-month cohort study in two settings in Madagascar. Children with fever were asked to visit community health workers. Presumptive antimalarial treatment was given and further visits were scheduled for follow-up. The primary endpoint was the risk of clinical/parasitologic treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included fever/parasite clearance, change in hemoglobin levels, and frequency of adverse events. The global clinical cure rate was 98.4% by day 28 and 97.9% by day 42. Reported compliance was 83.4%. No severe adverse effects were observed. This study provides comprehensive data concerning the clinical cure rate obtained with artesunate-amodiaquine and evidence supporting the scaling up of home management of malaria. PMID:22302849
Nganda Rhoida Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Tanzania has recently adopted a policy of intermittent presumptive treatment for pregnant women using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP. In addition, there is strong national commitment to increase distribution of insecticide treated nets (ITNs among pregnant women. This study explores the determinants of uptake for both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women and the role that individual knowledge and socio-economic status has to play for each. Methods 293 women were recruited post-partum at Kibaha District Hospital on the East African coast. The haemoglobin level of each woman was measured and a questionnaire administered. Results Use of both interventions was associated with a reduced risk of severe anaemia (Hb Conclusion Individual knowledge of malaria was an important factor for ITN uptake, but not for IPTp-SP use, which was reliant on delivery of information by MCH systems. When both these interventions were used, severe anaemia postpartum was reduced by 69% compared to use of neither, thus providing evidence of effectiveness of these interventions when used in combination.
Full Text Available Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal combined antimalarial regimen in Indonesia should be safe and tolerated by all age groups, effective and rapidly acting for both P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria, short course, good compliance and acceptable, without resistance and/or cross-resistance or , not widely spread use, cost-effective and affordable. Artemisinin derivatives are the best partner drug for combination, with advantages that include: well absorbed, safe and well tolerated, rapidly converted to active metabolite, having very short half-life, broad specificity of action, and extremely potent. Current artemisinin-based combinations which are suitable for Indonesia include: amodiaquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (AQ3+ATS3, mefloquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (MQ3+ATS3, lumefantrine/benflumetol plus artemether given as twice daily dose for 3 days (COARTEMETHER, piperaquine plus dihydroartemisinin given as single daily dose for 2-3 days (PPQ2-3+DHA2-3, and piperaquine plus artemisinin given as single daily dose for 2 days (PPQ2+ATM2. Given the imbalance between rapid development of parasite resistance and slow availability of new effective antimalarial drugs, research and development of antimalarial drugs must be encouraged.
AbstractBackgroundSevere malaria is a medical emergency with high mortality. Prompt achievement of therapeutic concentrations of highly effective anti-malarial drugs reduces the risk of death. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous artesunate in Ugandan adults with severe malaria.MethodsFourteen adults with severe falciparum malaria requiring parenteral therapy were treated with 2.4 mg\\/kg intravenous artesunate. Blood samples were collected after the initial dose and plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin measured by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study was approved by the Makerere University Faculty of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee (Ref2010-015) and Uganda National Council of Science and Technology (HS605) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01122134).ResultsAll study participants achieved prompt resolution of symptoms and complete parasite clearance with median (range) parasite clearance time of 17 (8–24) hours. Median (range) maximal artesunate concentration (Cmax) was 3260 (1020–164000) ng\\/mL, terminal elimination half-life (T1\\/2) was 0.25 (0.1-1.8) hours and total artesunate exposure (AUC) was 727 (290–111256) ng·h\\/mL. Median (range) dihydroartemisinin Cmax was 3140 (1670–9530) ng\\/mL, with Tmax of 0.14 (0.6 – 6.07) hours and T1\\/2 of 1.31 (0.8–2.8) hours. Dihydroartemisinin AUC was 3492 (2183–6338) ng·h\\/mL. None of the participants reported adverse events.ConclusionsPlasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were achieved rapidly with rapid and complete symptom resolution and parasite clearance with no adverse events.
Savic, Rada M; Jagannathan, Prasanna; Kajubi, Richard; Huang, Liusheng; Zhang, Nan; Were, Moses; Kakuru, Abel; Muhindo, Mary K; Mwebaza, Norah; Wallender, Erika; Clark, Tamara D; Opira, Bishop; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Aweeka, Francesca T
Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy. Pharmacokinetic sampling for piperaquine was performed every 4 weeks, and an intensive pharmacokinetic sub-study was performed in 30 women at 28 weeks gestation. Concentration-effect relationships were assessed between exposure to piperaquine; the prevalence of P. falciparum infection during pregnancy; outcomes at delivery including placental malaria, low birthweight, and preterm birth; and risks for toxicity. Simulations of new dosing scenarios were performed. Model-defined piperaquine target venous plasma concentrations of 13.9 ng/ml provided 99% protection from P. falciparum infection during pregnancy. Each 10 day increase in time>target piperaquine concentrations was associated with reduced odds of placental parasitemia (0∙67, P<0.0001), preterm birth (0.74, P<0.01), and low birthweight (0.74, P<0.05), though increases in piperaquine concentrations were associated with QTc prolongation (5 msec increase per 100 ng/ml). Modeling suggests that daily or weekly administration of lower dosages of piperaquine, compared to standard dosing, will maintain piperaquine trough levels above target concentrations with reduced piperaquine peak levels, potentially limiting toxicity. The protective efficacy of IPTp with dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine was strongly associated with higher drug exposure. Studies of the efficacy and safety of alternative dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine IPTp dosing strategies are warranted. NCT02163447.
Full Text Available In Nigeria, nearly 110 million clinical cases of malaria are diagnosed per year, thus being a major public health problem. The problems of resistance resulted in the introduction of the artemisinin based combinations (ACT by the WHO. Artesunate and amodiaquine (AS+AQ is at present the world’s second most widely used ACT. This study is an assessment of the efficacy and safety of Camosunate (a brand of AS+AQ; Geneith Pharmaceutical Ltd., Oshodi, Lagos in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria conducted at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH. A cross-sectional assessment of the efficacy and safety of Camosunate was conducted over a period of one year using 120 patients selected after stratification, by random sampling technique. All recruited patients had slide-proven uncom- plicated malaria and were followed up for 28 days on commencement of Camosunate. Data was collected using a structured interviewer- administered questionnaire and was analysed using SPSS version 15. The overall efficacy of Camosunate was found to be 95.8%. Treatment was well tolerated as testified by the fact that there was no case withdrawal due to adverse drug reaction (ADR or treatment emergent signs and symptoms (TESS. Also no evidence of toxicity was recorded. Camosunate is highly efficacious and well tolerated in this area of Nigeria and justifies its use as a first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria.
Hill, Jenny; Dellicour, Stephanie; Bruce, Jane; Ouma, Peter; Smedley, James; Otieno, Peter; Ombock, Maurice; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Hamel, Mary J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne
Malaria in pregnancy can have devastating consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the WHO prevention strategy for sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent-preventive-treatment (IPTp) with two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and insecticide-treated-nets (ITNs) in pregnancy is low. We
Aponte, John J.; Schellenberg, David; Egan, Andrea; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Carneiro, Ilona; Critchley, Julia; Danquah, Ina; Dodoo, Alexander; Kobbe, Robin; Lell, Bertrand; May, Jürgen; Premji, Zul; Sanz, Sergi; Sevene, Esperanza; Soulaymani-Becheikh, Rachida; Winstanley, Peter; Adjei, Samuel; Anemana, Sylvester; Chandramohan, Daniel; Issifou, Saadou; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Greenwood, Brian; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Macete, Eusebio; Mshinda, Hassan; Newman, Robert D.; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Alonso, Pedro; Menendez, Clara
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a promising strategy for malaria control in infants. We undertook a pooled analysis of the safety and efficacy of IPT in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Africa. METHODS: We pooled data from six double-blind, randomised,
Tawiah, Theresa; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Baiden, Frank
about household cost incurred on transport, drugs, fees, and special food during a period of one week after the health centre visit as well as days unable to work. A decision model approach was used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Univariate and multivariate sensitivity...... (ACT) in all suspected malaria patients. The use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) would make it possible for prescribers to diagnose malaria at point-of-care and better target the use of antimalarials. Therefore, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on the introduction of m......) or clinical judgement (control) was used to measure the effect of mRDTs on appropriate treatment: ‘a child with a positive reference diagnosis prescribed a course of ACT or a child with a negative reference diagnosis not given an ACT’. Cost data was collected from five purposively selected health centres...
Jane Y. Carter
Setting: Six rural health centres in Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional study to observe change in diagnosis and treatment made by clinical officers after laboratory testing in outpatients attending six rural health centres in Kenya. Subject: The diagnosis and treatment of 1134 patients attending outpatient services in six rural health centres were compared before and after basic laboratory testing. Essential clinical diagnostic equipment and laboratory tests were established at each health centre. Clinical officers and laboratory technicians received on-site refresher training in good diagnostic practices and laboratory procedures before the study began. Results: Laboratory tests were ordered on 704 (62.1% patients. Diagnosis and treatment were changed in 45% of tested patients who returned with laboratory results (21% of all patients attending the clinics. 166 (23.5% patients did not return to the clinician for a final diagnosis and management decision after laboratory testing. Blood slide examination for malaria parasites, wet preparations, urine microscopy and stool microscopy resulted in most changes to diagnosis. There was no significant change in drug costs after laboratory testing. The greatest changes in numbers of recorded diseases following laboratory testing was for intestinal worms (53% and malaria (21%. Conclusion: Effective use of basic laboratory tests at primary health care level significantly improves diagnosis and patient treatment. Use of laboratory testing can be readily incorporated into routine clinical practice. On-site refresher training is an effective means of improving the quality of patient care and communication between clinical and laboratory staff.
Wattanakoon, Yupaporn; Chittamas, Sunee; Pornkulprasit, Vichitra; Kanda, Tozo; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Rojanawatsirivej, Chaiporn; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Bunnag, Danai
Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand is multi-drug resistant. In a previous study it was shown that artesunate and mefloquine were effective, as follow up, we monitored the efficacy of this regimen for six years. During 1997-2002, 516 adult male volunteer patients in Chanthaburi Province were enrolled (50 patients in the first year, 400 patients in 1998-2001 and 66 patients in 2002). The symptom complex and parasite count (thick blood film) were monitored on days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dosages used were artesunate (ATS) 150 mg and mefloquine (M) 750 mg at hour 0 and ATS 100 mg and M 500 mg at hour 24. Their ages ranged from 30-35 years and their mean body weights were 54-56 kg. The presenting symptoms were fever 100%, headache 97-100%, anorexia 78-90%, and nausea 28-40%. The geometric mean of parasitemia ranged from 7,357-12,750/mm3. Defervescence in one day was found in 42-76% of patients and 85-100% in 2 days. The sensitivity (S) ranged from 87-94% and RI resistance (recrudescence) ranged from 6-13%. Forty patients demonstrated RI type of response, 37 were cured after being retreated with the same dosage and another 3 patients were cured after the third course of treatment. The aggravated adverse effects included vomiting (8-20%), anorexia (1-41%) and diarrhea (0-16%). These side effects were mild and transient. The efficacy of the artesunate and mefloquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was high. The RI type of response was possibly due to re-infection or multiple broods and not to drug resistance. The adverse effects of anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were mild and transient for mefloquine. The combination can be used as stand by treatment in areas of multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria.
Coverage of intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated nets for the control of malaria during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis and meta-analysis of national survey data, 2009-11
van Eijk, Anna Maria; Hill, Jenny; Larsen, David A.; Webster, Jayne; Steketee, Richard W.; Eisele, Thomas P.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.
Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are especially vulnerable to malaria. Recommended prevention strategies include intermittent preventive treatment with two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and the use of insecticide-treated nets. However, progress with
Even now, malaria treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. There are several principal methods for diagnosing malaria. All these methods have their disadvantages.Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practiced where laboratory tests are not readily available. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria infection. The technique of slide preparation, staining and reading are well known and standardized, and so is the estimate of the parasite density and parasite stages. Microscopy is not always available or feasible at primary health services in limited resource settings due to cost, lack of skilled manpower, accessories and reagents required. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are potential tools for parasite-based diagnosis since the tests are accurate in detecting malaria infections and are easy to use. The test is based on the capture of parasite antigen that released from parasitized red blood cells using monoclonal antibodies prepared against malaria antigen target. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), depend on DNA amplification approaches and have higher sensitivity than microscopy. PCR it is not widely used due to the lack of a standardized methodology, high costs, and the need for highly-trained staff.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Preparatory to a community trial investigating how best to deliver rectal artesunate as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria; local understanding, perceptions of signs/symptoms of severe malaria and treatment-seeking patterns for and barriers to seeking biomedical treatment were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 19 key informant interviews, 12 in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions targeting care-givers, opinion leaders, and formal and informal health care providers were conducted. Monthly fever episodes and danger signs or symptoms associated with severe malaria among under-fives were recorded. Respondents recognized convulsions, altered consciousness and coma, and were aware of their risks if not treated. But, these symptoms were perceived to be caused by supernatural forces, and traditional healers were identified as primary care providers. With some delay, mothers eventually visited a health facility when convulsions were part of the illness, despite pressures against this. Although vomiting and failure to eat/suck/drink were associated with malaria, they were not considered as indicators of danger signs unless combined with another more severe symptom. Study communities were familiar with rectal application of medicines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Communities' recognition and awareness of major symptoms of severe malaria could encourage action, but perceptions of their causes and poor discrimination of other danger signs - vomiting and failure to feed - might impede early treatment. An effective health education targeting parents/guardians, decision-makers/advisors, and formal and informal care providers might be a prerequisite for successful introduction of rectal artemisinins as an emergency treatment. Role of traditional healers in delivering such medication to the community should be explored.
Nondo, Ramadhani Selemani Omari; Moshi, Mainen Julius; Erasto, Paul; Masimba, Pax Jessey; Machumi, Francis; Kidukuli, Abdul Waziri; Heydenreich, Matthias; Zofou, Denis
Malaria is an old life-threatening parasitic disease that is still affecting many people, mainly children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of effective antimalarial drugs played a significant role in the treatment and control of malaria. However, recent information on the emergence of P. falciparum parasites resistant to one of the artemisinin-based combination therapies suggests the need for discovery of new drug molecules. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of extracts, fractions and isolated compound from medicinal plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Tanzania. Dry powdered plant materials were extracted by cold macerations using different solvents. Norcaesalpin D was isolated by column chromatography from dichloromethane root extract of Caesalpinia bonducella and its structure was assigned based on the spectral data. Crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum (3D7), chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum (Dd2, K1) and artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum (IPC 5202 Battambang, IPC 4912 Mondolkiri) strains using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. The results indicated that extracts of Erythrina schliebenii, Holarrhena pubescens, Dissotis melleri and C. bonducella exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Dd2 parasites. Ethanolic root extract of E. schliebenii had an IC 50 of 1.87 μg/mL while methanolic and ethanolic root extracts of H. pubescens exhibited an IC 50 = 2.05 μg/mL and IC 50 = 2.43 μg/mL, respectively. Fractions from H. pubescens and C. bonducella roots were found to be highly active against K1, Dd2 and artemisinin-resistant parasites. Norcaesalpin D from C. bonducella root extract was active with IC 50 of 0.98, 1.85 and 2.13 μg/mL against 3D7, Dd2 and IPC 4912-Mondolkiri parasites, respectively. Antiplasmodial activity of norcaesalpin D and extracts of E. schliebenii, H. pubescens
Chiguzo, A N; Mugo, R W; Wacira, D G; Mwenda, J M; Njuguna, E W
To demonstrate that micro-franchising system is an effective way of improving access to effective health care such as the introduction of first line antimalarias in populations living in underserved rural areas in Kenya. A descriptive study. Child and family wellness (CFW) micro-franchised nurse run clinics in Kenya. In 2007, 39.3% of RDTs carried out were positive for malaria. All malaria positive (RDTs and microscopy) patients received artemether lumefantrine (AL) according to their weight in accordance with the Government approved treatment guidelines. During the same period a total of 3,248 community members were reached with malaria information, however, community expectations took longer to change as patients demanded AL even when the malaria diagnosis was negative. Initially, this led to the dispensing of other antimalarials to patients with malaria like symptoms even with a negative test. This demand decreased with more community education on the importance of the tests. Engaging the private sector though with challenges proved feasible and appropriate in accessing malaria treatment based on clinical diagnosis supported by RDTs to confirm the diagnosis instead of presumptive treatment based on fever. This led to a reduction of antimalarial prescriptions by more than 50%, implying better patient care, rational drug use as well as cost savings on malaria treatment. A micro-franchising system is an effective and sustainable way of improving access to effective health care by populations living in underserved rural areas of Africa. With appropriate supportive training and supervision, the system can adapt to changes in treatment guidelines and to new regimens.
Kemp, K; Akanmori, B D; Adabayeri, V
of peripheral T cells during and after the period of antimalarial treatment. A high proportion of peripheral CD3+ cells had an activated phenotype at and shortly after time of admission (day 0) and initiation of therapy. This activation peaked around day 2, and at this time-point peripheral T cells from......Available evidence suggests that Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes activation and reallocation of T cells, and that these in vivo primed cells re-emerge into the periphery following drug therapy. Here we have examined the cytokine production capacity and susceptibility to programmed cell death...... the patients could be induced to produce cytokines at conditions of limited cytokine response in cells from healthy control donors. Activated CD8hi and TCR-gammadelta+ cells were the primary IFN-gamma producers, whereas CD4+ cells constituted an important source of TNF-alpha. The proportion of apoptotic T...
Humphries, Debbie; Mosites, Emily; Otchere, Joseph; Twum, Welbeck Amoani; Woo, Lauren; Jones-Sanpei, Hinckley; Harrison, Lisa M.; Bungiro, Richard D.; Benham-Pyle, Blair; Bimi, Langbong; Edoh, Dominic; Bosompem, Kwabena; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael
A cross-sectional pilot study of hookworm infection was carried out among 292 subjects from 62 households in Kintampo North, Ghana. The overall prevalence of hookworm infection was 45%, peaking in those 11–20 years old (58.5%). In children, risk factors for hookworm infection included coinfection with malaria and increased serum immunoglobulin G reactivity to hookworm secretory antigens. Risk factors for infection in adults included poor nutritional status, not using a latrine, not wearing shoes, and occupation (farming). Although albendazole therapy was associated with an overall egg reduction rate of 82%, 37 subjects (39%) remained infected. Among those who failed therapy, treatment was not associated with a significant reduction in egg excretion, and nearly one-third had higher counts on repeat examination. These data confirm a high prevalence of low-intensity hookworm infection in central Ghana and its association with poor nutritional status. The high rate of albendazole failure raises concern about emerging resistance. PMID:21540391
Jun 29, 1974 ... Malaria admissions. Cerebral malaria ... Cerebral signs. Haemoglobin below 10 g/100 ml (not all tested). Enlarged tender liver or jaundice, or both ... articl~ by H. Smitskamp and F. H. Wolthuis entitled 'New concepts in treatment of malaria with malignant tertian cerebral involvement' which appeared in the ...
control of malaria in the African Subregion during pregnancy has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). These include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT), use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and access to effective case management for malaria illness and anemia. Keywords: malaria in ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in Swaziland. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative (LSDI sentinel sites in Swaziland. These sentinel sites share borders with Mozambique. A structured questionnaire was administered to 320 randomly selected households. Only one adult person was interviewed per household. The interviewees were the heads of households and in the absence of the heads of households responsible adults above 18 years were interviewed. Results A substantial number of research participants showed reasonable knowledge of malaria, including correct association between malaria and mosquito bites, its potential fatal consequences and correct treatment practices. Almost 90% (n = 320 of the respondents stated that they would seek treatment within 24 hours of onset of malaria symptoms, with health facilities as their first treatment option. Most people (78% perceived clinics and vector control practices as central to treating and preventing malaria disease. Indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage and bed net ownership were 87.2% and 38.8%, respectively. IRS coverage was in agreement with the World Health Organization's (WHO recommendation of more than 80% within the targeted communities. Conclusion Despite fair knowledge of malaria in Swaziland, there is a need for improving the availability of information through the preferred community channels, such as tinkhundlas (districts, as well as professional health routes. This recommendation
Alebie, Getachew; Urga, Befikadu; Worku, Amha
Ethiopia is endowed with abundant medicinal plant resources and traditional medicinal practices. However, available research evidence on indigenous anti-malarial plants is highly fragmented in the country. The present systematic review attempted to explore, synthesize and compile ethno-medicinal research evidence on anti-malarial medicinal plants in Ethiopia. A systematic web search analysis and review was conducted on research literature pertaining to medicinal plants used for traditional malaria treatment in Ethiopia. Data were collected from a total of 82 Ethiopian studies meeting specific inclusion criteria including published research articles and unpublished thesis reports. SPSS Version 16 was used to summarize relevant ethno-botanical/medicinal information using descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, tables, and bar graphs. A total of 200 different plant species (from 71 families) used for traditional malaria treatment were identified in different parts of Ethiopia. Distribution and usage pattern of anti-malarial plants showed substantial variability across different geographic settings. A higher diversity of anti-malarial plants was reported from western and southwestern parts of the country. Analysis of ethno-medicinal recipes indicated that mainly fresh leaves were used for preparation of remedies. Decoction, concoction and eating/chewing were found to be the most frequently employed herbal remedy preparation methods. Notably, anti-malarial herbal remedies were administered by oral route. Information on potential side effects of anti-malarial herbal preparations was patchy. However, some anti-malarial plants were reported to have potentially serious side effects using different local antidotes and some specific contra-indications. The study highlighted a rich diversity of indigenous anti-malarial medicinal plants with equally divergent herbal remedy preparation and use pattern in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in key geographic
Improving uptake and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the context of artemisinin drug resistance containment in eastern Myanmar: an evaluation of incentive schemes among informal private healthcare providers.
Aung, Tin; White, Christopher; Montagu, Dominic; McFarland, Willi; Hlaing, Thaung; Khin, Hnin Su Su; San, Aung Kyaw; Briegleb, Christina; Chen, Ingrid; Sudhinaraset, May
As efforts to contain artemisinin resistance and eliminate Plasmodium falciparum intensify, the accurate diagnosis and prompt effective treatment of malaria are increasingly needed in Myanmar and the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been shown to be safe, feasible, and effective at promoting appropriate treatment for suspected malaria, which are of particular importance to drug resistance containment. The informal private sector is often the first point of care for fever cases in malaria endemic areas across Myanmar and the GMS, but there is little published information about informal private provider practices, quality of service provision, or potential to contribute to malaria control and elimination efforts. This study tested different incentives to increase RDT use and improve the quality of care among informal private healthcare providers in Myanmar. The study randomized six townships in the Mon and Shan states of rural Myanmar into three intervention arms: 1) RDT price subsidies, 2) price subsidies with product-related financial incentives, and 3) price subsidies with intensified information, education and counselling (IEC). The study assessed the uptake of RDT use in the communities by cross-sectional surveys of 3,150 households at baseline and six months post-intervention (6,400 households total, 832 fever cases). The study also used mystery clients among 171 providers to assess quality of service provision across intervention arms. The pilot intervention trained over 600 informal private healthcare providers. The study found a price subsidy with intensified IEC, resulted in the highest uptake of RDTs in the community, as compared to subsidies alone or merchandise-related financial incentives. Moreover, intensified IEC led to improvements in the quality of care, with mystery client surveys showing almost double the number of correct treatment following diagnostic test results as compared to a simple subsidy. Results show
Diggle, Emma; Asgary, Ramin; Gore-Langton, Georgia; Nahashon, Erupe; Mungai, James; Harrison, Rebecca; Abagira, Abdullahi; Eves, Katie; Grigoryan, Zoya; Soti, David; Juma, Elizabeth; Allan, Richard
Conventional diagnosis of malaria has relied upon either clinical diagnosis or microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. These methods, if not carried out exactly, easily result in the over- or under-diagnosis of malaria. The reliability and accuracy of malaria RDTs, even in extremely challenging health care settings, have made them a staple in malaria control programmes. Using the setting of a pilot introduction of malaria RDTs in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya, this study aims to identify and understand perceptions regarding malaria diagnosis, with a particular focus on RDTs, and treatment among community members and health care workers (HCWs). The study was conducted in five districts of Garissa County. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with community members that were recruited from health facilities (HFs) supported by the MENTOR Initiative. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and FGDs with HCWs were also carried out. Interview transcripts were then coded and analysed for major themes. Two researchers reviewed all codes, first separately and then together, discussed the specific categories, and finally characterized, described, and agreed upon major important themes. Thirty-four FGDs were carried out with a range of two to eight participants (median of four). Of 157 community members, 103 (65.6%) were women. The majority of participants were illiterate and the highest level of education was secondary school. Some 76% of participants were of Somali ethnicity. Whilst community members and HCWs demonstrated knowledge of aspects of malaria transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, gaps and misconceptions were identified. Poor adherence to negative RDT results, unfamiliarity and distrust of RDTs, and an inconsistent RDT supply were the main challenges to become apparent in FGDs and IDIs. Gaps in knowledge or incorrect beliefs exist in Greater Garissa and have the potential to act as barriers to complete and correct malaria case
Vaughan-Williams, Charles H; Raman, Jaishree; Raswiswi, Eric; Immelman, Etienne; Reichel, Holger; Gate, Kelly; Knight, Steve
Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine who failed treatment after 28 days, and to determine the prevalence of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. An observational cohort of 49 symptomatic patients, diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria by rapid diagnostic test, had blood taken for malaria blood films and P. falciparum DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following diagnosis, patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) and invited to return to the health facility after 28 days for repeat blood film and PCR. All PCR P. falciparum positive samples were analysed for molecular markers of lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Of 49 patients recruited on the basis of a positive rapid diagnostic test, only 16 were confirmed to have P. falciparum by PCR. At follow-up, 14 were PCR-negative for malaria, one was lost to follow-up and one blood specimen had insufficient blood for a PCR analysis. All 16 with PCR-confirmed malaria carried a single copy of the multi-drug resistant (mdr1) gene, and the wild type asparagine allele mdr1 codon 86 (mdr1 86N). Ten of the 16 samples carried the wild type haplotype (CVMNK) at codons 72-76 of the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt); three samples carried the resistant CVIET allele; one carried both the resistant and wild type, and in two samples the allele could not be analysed. The absence of mdr1 gene copy number variation detected in this study suggests lumefantrine resistance has yet to emerge in Kwa
Vaughan-Williams Charles H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine who failed treatment after 28 days, and to determine the prevalence of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Methods An observational cohort of 49 symptomatic patients, diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria by rapid diagnostic test, had blood taken for malaria blood films and P. falciparum DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Following diagnosis, patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem® and invited to return to the health facility after 28 days for repeat blood film and PCR. All PCR P. falciparum positive samples were analysed for molecular markers of lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Results Of 49 patients recruited on the basis of a positive rapid diagnostic test, only 16 were confirmed to have P. falciparum by PCR. At follow-up, 14 were PCR-negative for malaria, one was lost to follow-up and one blood specimen had insufficient blood for a PCR analysis. All 16 with PCR-confirmed malaria carried a single copy of the multi-drug resistant (mdr1 gene, and the wild type asparagine allele mdr1 codon 86 (mdr1 86N. Ten of the 16 samples carried the wild type haplotype (CVMNK at codons 72-76 of the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt; three samples carried the resistant CVIET allele; one carried both the resistant and wild type, and in two samples the allele could not be analysed. Conclusions The absence of mdr1 gene copy number variation detected in this study
Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund
albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. DESIGN: This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren. Artemether-lumefantrine and albendazole were co...... to measure haemoglobin (Hb), while the code transmission test (CTT), adapted from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), was used to measure sustained attention and recall before-and-after interventions in June 2011 and June 2012. RESULTS: We observed significant malaria parasite prevalence...... and deworming reduced prevalence of anaemia and improved sustained attention and recall in schoolchildren. Best results for sustained attention and recall were seen in Study Arm 2....
Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.
Ege, Sarah; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered the treatment of choice for paediatric anxiety disorders, yet there remains substantial room for improvement in treatment outcomes. This paper examines whether theory and research into the role of information-processing in the underlying psychopat......Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered the treatment of choice for paediatric anxiety disorders, yet there remains substantial room for improvement in treatment outcomes. This paper examines whether theory and research into the role of information-processing in the underlying...... interpretational biases, evidence regarding the effects of CBT on attentional biases is mixed. Novel treatment methods including attention bias modification training, attention feedback awareness and control training, and mindfulness-based therapy may hold potential in targeting attentional biases, and thereby...
Watsierah Carren A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers’ knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers’ knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. Methods A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription, was collected. Results Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100% in public and majority (98.4% in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039 and severe malaria (P P = 0.002 in children and adults
Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe
Full Text Available Neurological and cognitive impairment persist in more than 20% of cerebral malaria (CM patients long after successful anti-parasitic treatment. We recently reported that long term memory and motor coordination deficits are also present in our experimental cerebral malaria model (ECM. We also documented, in a murine model, a lack of obvious pathology or inflammation after parasite elimination, suggesting that the long-term negative neurological outcomes result from potentially reversible biochemical and physiological changes in brains of ECM mice, subsequent to acute ischemic and inflammatory processes. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that acute ECM results in significantly reduced activation of protein kinase B (PKB or Akt leading to decreased Akt phosphorylation and inhibition of the glycogen kinase synthase (GSK3β in the brains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA compared to uninfected controls and to mice infected with the non-neurotrophic P. berghei NK65 (PbN. Though Akt activation improved to control levels after chloroquine treatment in PbA-infected mice, the addition of lithium chloride, a compound which inhibits GSK3β activity and stimulates Akt activation, induced a modest, but significant activation of Akt in the brains of infected mice when compared to uninfected controls treated with chloroquine with and without lithium. In addition, lithium significantly reversed the long-term spatial and visual memory impairment as well as the motor coordination deficits which persisted after successful anti-parasitic treatment. GSK3β inhibition was significantly increased after chloroquine treatment, both in lithium and non-lithium treated PbA-infected mice. These data indicate that acute ECM is associated with abnormalities in cell survival pathways that result in neuronal damage. Regulation of Akt/GSK3β with lithium reduces neuronal degeneration and may have neuroprotective effects in ECM. Aberrant regulation of Akt
Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc involves the administration of a course of anti-malarial drugs at specified time intervals to children at risk of malaria regardless of whether or not they are known to be infected. IPTc provides a high level of protection against uncomplicated and severe malaria, with monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP&AQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus piperaquine being the most efficacious regimens. A key challenge is the identification of a cost-effective delivery strategy.A community randomized trial was undertaken in Jasikan district, Ghana to assess IPTc effectiveness and costs using SP&AQ delivered in three different ways. Twelve villages were randomly selected to receive IPTc from village health workers (VHWs or facility-based nurses working at health centres' outpatient departments (OPD or EPI outreach clinics. Children aged 3 to 59 months-old received one IPT course (three doses in May, June, September and October. Effectiveness was measured in terms of children covered and adherent to a course and delivery costs were calculated in financial and economic terms using an ingredient approach from the provider perspective.The economic cost per child receiving at least the first dose of all 4 courses was US$4.58 when IPTc was delivered by VHWs, US$4.93 by OPD nurses and US$ 5.65 by EPI nurses. The unit economic cost of receiving all 3 doses of all 4 courses was US$7.56 and US$8.51 when IPTc was delivered by VHWs or facility-based nurses respectively. The main cost driver for the VHW delivery was supervision, reflecting resources used for travelling to more remote communities rather than more intense supervision, and for OPD and EPI delivery, it was the opportunity cost of the time spent by nurses in dispensing IPTc.VHWs achieve higher IPTc coverage and adherence at lower costs than facility-based nurses in Jasikan district, Ghana.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119132.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient immune status is thought to affect the efficacy of anti-malarial chemotherapy. This is a subject of some importance, since evidence of immunity-related interactions may influence our use of chemotherapy in populations with drug resistance, as well as assessment of the value of suboptimal vaccines. The study aim was to investigate relationship between antibodies and anti-malarial drug treatment outcomes. Methods Some 248 children aged 0.5 and 15 years were recruited prior to the high malaria transmission season. Venous blood (5 ml was obtained from each child to measure antibody levels to selected malaria antigens, using ELISA. Blood smears were also performed to assess drug efficacy and malaria infection prevalence. Children were actively followed up to record clinical malaria cases. Results IgG levels to MSP3 were always higher in the successfully treated group than in the group with treatment failure. The same observation was made for GLURP but the reverse observation was noticed for MSP1-19. Cytophilic and non-cytophilic antibodies were significantly associated with protection against all three antigens, except for IgG4 to MSP1-19 and GLURP. Conclusion Acquired anti-malarial antibodies may play an important role in the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in younger children more susceptible to the disease.
Kone, Aminatou; Mu, Jianbing; Maiga, Hamma; Beavogui, Abdoul H.; Yattara, Omar; Sagara, Issaka; Tekete, Mamadou M.; Traore, Oumar B.; Dara, Antoine; Dama, Souleymane; Diallo, Nouhoum; Kodio, Aly; Traoré, Aliou; Björkman, Anders; Gil, Jose P.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Wellems, Thomas E.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.
Background. The mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to quinine is not known. In vitro quantitative trait loci mapping suggests involvement of a predicted P. falciparum sodium–hydrogen exchanger (pfnhe–1) on chromosome 13. Methods. We conducted prospective quinine efficacy studies in 2 villages, Kollé and Faladié, Mali. Cases of clinical malaria requiring intravenous therapy were treated with standard doses of quinine and followed for 28 days. Treatment outcomes were classified using modified World Health Organization protocols. Molecular markers of parasite polymorphisms were used to distinguish recrudescent parasites from new infections. The prevalence of pfnhe–1 ms4760–1 among parasites before versus after quinine treatment was determined by direct sequencing. Results. Overall, 163 patients were enrolled and successfully followed. Without molecular correction, the mean adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) was 50.3% (n = 163). After polymerase chain reaction correction to account for new infections, the corrected ACPR was 100%. The prevalence of ms4760–1 increased significantly, from 26.2% (n = 107) before quinine treatment to 46.3% (n = 54) after therapy (P = .01). In a control sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine study, the prevalence of ms4760–1 was similar before and after treatment. Conclusions. This study supports a role for pfnhe–1 in decreased susceptibility of P. falciparum to quinine in the field. PMID:23162138
Full Text Available Community health workers (CHWs play an important role in improving access to services in areas with limited health infrastructure or workforce. Supervision of CHWs by qualified health professionals is the main link between this lay workforce and the formal health system. The quality of services provided by lay health workers is dependent on adequate supportive supervision. It is however one of the weakest links in CHW programs due to logistical and resource constraints, especially in large scale programs. Interventions such as point of care testing using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs require real time monitoring to ensure diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a mobile health technology platform to remotely monitor malaria RDT (mRDT testing by CHWs for quality improvement.As part of a large implementation trial involving mRDT testing by CHWs, we introduced the Fionet system composed of a mobile device (Deki Reader, DR to assist in processing and automated interpretation of mRDTs, which connects to a cloud-based database which captures reports from the field in real time, displaying results in a custom dashboard of key performance indicators. A random sample of 100 CHWs were trained and provided with the Deki Readers and instructed to use it on 10 successive patients. The CHWs interpretation was compared with the Deki Reader's automatic interpretation, with the errors in processing and interpreting the RDTs recorded. After the CHW entered their interpretation on the DR, the DR provided immediate, automated feedback and interpretation based on its reading of the same cassette. The study team monitored the CHW performance remotely and provided additional support.A total of 1251 primary and 113 repeat tests were performed by the 97 CHWs who used the DR. 91.6% of the tests had agreement between the DR and the CHWs. There were 61 (4.9% processing and 52 (4.2% interpretation errors among the primary tests. There was a
Laktabai, Jeremiah; Platt, Alyssa; Menya, Diana; Turner, Elizabeth L; Aswa, Daniel; Kinoti, Stephen; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme
Community health workers (CHWs) play an important role in improving access to services in areas with limited health infrastructure or workforce. Supervision of CHWs by qualified health professionals is the main link between this lay workforce and the formal health system. The quality of services provided by lay health workers is dependent on adequate supportive supervision. It is however one of the weakest links in CHW programs due to logistical and resource constraints, especially in large scale programs. Interventions such as point of care testing using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) require real time monitoring to ensure diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a mobile health technology platform to remotely monitor malaria RDT (mRDT) testing by CHWs for quality improvement. As part of a large implementation trial involving mRDT testing by CHWs, we introduced the Fionet system composed of a mobile device (Deki Reader, DR) to assist in processing and automated interpretation of mRDTs, which connects to a cloud-based database which captures reports from the field in real time, displaying results in a custom dashboard of key performance indicators. A random sample of 100 CHWs were trained and provided with the Deki Readers and instructed to use it on 10 successive patients. The CHWs interpretation was compared with the Deki Reader's automatic interpretation, with the errors in processing and interpreting the RDTs recorded. After the CHW entered their interpretation on the DR, the DR provided immediate, automated feedback and interpretation based on its reading of the same cassette. The study team monitored the CHW performance remotely and provided additional support. A total of 1251 primary and 113 repeat tests were performed by the 97 CHWs who used the DR. 91.6% of the tests had agreement between the DR and the CHWs. There were 61 (4.9%) processing and 52 (4.2%) interpretation errors among the primary tests. There was a tendency
1 million people die in the world from malaria annually, 800,000 of whom are 5 year old children in Sub-Sahara Africa. Further it affects 270 million people. In fact, 110 million develop malaria, 90 million of whom are from Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus WHO has introduced a new world initiative for malaria control to reverse the worsening trend that began in the mid 1970s. In October 1991, 150 officials from 50 African, Asian, and Latin American countries and participants from UN cooperation and development agencies and bilateral agencies attended an interregional conference at the WHO Regional office for Africa in Brazzaville, Congo. It strove to evaluate malaria situations specific to Africa, to update the malaria control plan in Africa, and to contribute to the development of an implementable world strategy. This world strategy needs to consider the local situation and encourage participation of the government and people of affected countries. Further individuals, communities, and various sectors of the national economy including those involved in health, education, development, and agriculture need to participate in malaria control. In addition, for this strategy to work, most countries must strengthen the management and financing of health services to meet their needs. For example, local populations must share local operating costs such as those for essential drugs and mosquito control operations. Community participation must also include personal protection such as impregnated bed nets and environmental measures. Besides malaria control must be integrated into the existing health system at country, provincial, and peripheral levels. In sum, improved case management, control of malaria transmission, and prevention and control of epidemics form the basis for the new strategy.
Bennett, Adam; Avanceña, Anton L V; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Cotter, Chris; Roberts, Kathryn; Gosling, Roly
In malaria elimination settings, all malaria cases must be identified, documented and investigated. To facilitate complete and timely reporting of all malaria cases and effective case management and follow-up, engagement with private providers is essential, particularly in settings where the private sector is a major source of healthcare. However, research on the role and performance of the private sector in malaria diagnosis, case management and reporting in malaria elimination settings is limited. Moreover, the most effective strategies for private sector engagement in malaria elimination settings remain unclear. Twenty-five experts in malaria elimination, disease surveillance and private sector engagement were purposively sampled and interviewed. An extensive review of grey and peer-reviewed literature on private sector testing, treatment, and reporting for malaria was performed. Additional in-depth literature review was conducted for six case studies on eliminating and neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. The private health sector can be categorized based on their commercial orientation or business model (for-profit versus nonprofit) and their regulation status within a country (formal vs informal). A number of potentially effective strategies exist for engaging the private sector. Conducting a baseline assessment of the private sector is critical to understanding its composition, size, geographical distribution and quality of services provided. Facilitating reporting, referral and training linkages between the public and private sectors and making malaria a notifiable disease are important strategies to improve private sector involvement in malaria surveillance. Financial incentives for uptake of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy should be combined with training and community awareness campaigns for improving uptake. Private sector providers can also be organized and better engaged through social
Full Text Available The metacestode (larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE, a very severe and in many cases incurable disease. To date, benzimidazoles such as albendazole and mebendazole are the only approved chemotherapeutical treatment options. Benzimidazoles inhibit metacestode proliferation, but do not act parasiticidal. Thus, benzimidazoles have to be taken a lifelong, can cause adverse side effects such as hepatotoxicity, and are ineffective in some patients. We here describe a newly developed screening cascade for the evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of new compounds that includes assessment of parasiticidal activity. The Malaria Box from Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV, comprised of 400 commercially available chemicals that show in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum, was repurposed. Primary screening was carried out at 10 μM by employing the previously described PGI assay, and resulted in the identification of 24 compounds that caused physical damage in metacestodes. Seven out of these 24 drugs were also active at 1 μM. Dose-response assays revealed that only 2 compounds, namely MMV665807 and MMV665794, exhibited an EC50 value below 5 μM. Assessments using human foreskin fibroblasts and Reuber rat hepatoma cells showed that the salicylanilide MMV665807 was less toxic for these two mammalian cell lines than for metacestodes. The parasiticidal activity of MMV665807 was then confirmed using isolated germinal layer cell cultures as well as metacestode vesicles by employing viability assays, and its effect on metacestodes was morphologically evaluated by electron microscopy. However, both oral and intraperitoneal application of MMV665807 to mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes did not result in any reduction of the parasite load.
Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Gomes, Melba
in the use of the standardised guidelines for the management of malaria, including strict follow-up procedures. Nurses and doctors were randomised to work on intervention or control wards. Personnel in the intervention ward received a small financial incentive ($50 (25 pounds sterling; 35 euros......OBJECTIVE: To test whether strict implementation of a standardised protocol for the management of malaria and provision of a financial incentive for health workers reduced mortality. DESIGN: Randomised controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Paediatric ward at the national hospital in Guinea......-Bissau. All children admitted to hospital with severe malaria received free drug kits. PARTICIPANTS: 951 children aged 3 months to 5 years admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of malaria randomised to normal or intervention wards. INTERVENTIONS: Before the start of the study, all personnel were trained...
Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme
Full Text Available Malaria has a negative impact on health and social and economic life of residents of endemic countries. The ultimate goals of designing new treatment for malaria are to prevent clinical infection, reduce morbidity, and decrease mortality. There are great advances in the understanding of the parasite-host interaction through studies by various scientists. In some of these studies, attempts were made to evaluate the roles of malaria pigment or toxins in the pathogenesis of malaria. Hemozoin is a key metabolite associated with severe malaria anemia (SMA, immunosuppression, and cytokine dysfunction. Targeting of this pigment may be necessary in the design of new therapeutic products against malaria. In this review, the roles of hemozoin in the morbidity and mortality of malaria are highlighted as an essential target in the quest for effective control of clinical malaria.
Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata
Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.
Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul
Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic
Ngarivhume, T.; van 't Klooster, C.I.E.A.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Westhuizen, J.H.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Because about 50% of the Zimbabwean population is at risk of contracting malaria each year, the majority of people, especially in rural areas, use traditional plant-based medicines to combat malaria. This explorative ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to document
Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women's health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women's knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso.The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS. In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women's knowledge about 1 preventive measures, 2 causes and 3 symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%.A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41. About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge
Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Shah, Vaibhav; Kadio, Bernard; Udenigwe, Ogochukwu
Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women's health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women's knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso. The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS). In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women's knowledge about 1) preventive measures, 2) causes and 3) symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%. A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41). About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge of malaria
Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is recommended by WHO to prevent malaria in African pregnant women. The spread of SP parasite resistance has raised concerns regarding long-term use for IPT. Mefloquine (MQ is the most promising of available alternatives to SP based on safety profile, long half-life, and high efficacy in Africa. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of MQ for IPTp compared to those of SP in HIV-negative women.A total of 4,749 pregnant women were enrolled in an open-label randomized clinical trial conducted in Benin, Gabon, Mozambique, and Tanzania comparing two-dose MQ or SP for IPTp and MQ tolerability of two different regimens. The study arms were: (1 SP, (2 single dose MQ (15 mg/kg, and (3 split-dose MQ in the context of long lasting insecticide treated nets. There was no difference on low birth weight prevalence (primary study outcome between groups (360/2,778 [13.0%] for MQ group and 177/1,398 (12.7% for SP group; risk ratio [RR], 1.02 (95% CI 0.86-1.22; p=0.80 in the ITT analysis. Women receiving MQ had reduced risks of parasitemia (63/1,372 [4.6%] in the SP group and 88/2,737 [3.2%] in the MQ group; RR, 0.70 [95% CI 0.51-0.96]; p=0.03 and anemia at delivery (609/1,380 [44.1%] in the SP group and 1,110/2743 [40.5%] in the MQ group; RR, 0.92 [95% CI 0.85-0.99]; p=0.03, and reduced incidence of clinical malaria (96/551.8 malaria episodes person/year [PYAR] in the SP group and 130/1,103.2 episodes PYAR in the MQ group; RR, 0.67 [95% CI 0.52-0.88]; p=0.004 and all-cause outpatient attendances during pregnancy (850/557.8 outpatients visits PYAR in the SP group and 1,480/1,110.1 visits PYAR in the MQ group; RR, 0.86 [0.78-0.95]; p=0.003. There were no differences in the prevalence of placental infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes between groups. Tolerability was poorer in the two MQ groups compared to SP. The most frequently reported related adverse events were dizziness
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Zambia remains a public health and developmental challenge, affecting mostly children under five and pregnant women. In 2002, the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria was changed to artemether-lumefantrine (AL that has proved to be highly efficacious against multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Objective The study objective was to determine whether dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA/PQP had similar efficacy, safety and tolerability as AL for the treatment of children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Ndola, Zambia. Methods Between 2005 and 2006, 304 children (6-59 months old with uncomplicated P. falciparum were enrolled, randomized to AL (101 or DHA/PQP (203 and followed up for 42 days. Outcome of treatment was defined according to the standard WHO classification, i.e. early treatment failure (ETF, late clinical failure (LCF, late parasitological failure (LPF and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. Recurrent infections were genotyped to distinguish between recrudescence and new infection. Results No ETF was observed. At day 28, PCR-uncorrected ACPR was 92% in the DHA/PQP and 74% in the AL arm (OR: 4.05; 95%CI: 1.89-8.74; p Conclusion DHA/PQP was as efficacious, safe and well tolerated in treatment of uncomplicated malaria as AL, though in the latter group more new infections during the follow up were observed. DHA/PQP seems a potential candidate to be used as an alternative first-line or rescue treatment in Zambia. Trial Registration ISRCTN16263443, at http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of
Canavati, Sara E; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Quintero, Cesia E; Nguon, Chea; Ly, Po; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Sintasath, David; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Whittaker, Maxine Anne
Village malaria workers (VMWs) and mobile malaria workers (MMWs) are a critical component of Cambodia's national strategy to eliminate Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Since 2004, VMWs have been providing malaria diagnosis through the use of rapid diagnostic tests and free-of-charge artemisinin-based combination therapy in villages more than 5 km away from the closest health facility. They have also played a key role in the delivery of behaviour change communication interventions to this target population. This study aimed to assess the job performance of VMWs/MMWs, and identify challenges they face, which may impede elimination efforts. A mixed-methods assessment was conducted in five provinces of western Cambodia. One hundred and eighty five VMW/MMW participants were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data was gathered through a total of 60 focus group discussions and 65 in-depth interviews. Data triangulation of the qualitative and quantitative data was used during analysis. Overall, VMWs/MMWs met or exceeded the expected performance levels (80 %). Nevertheless, some performance gaps were identified. Misconceptions regarding malaria transmission and prevention were found among workers. The recommended approach for malaria treatment, directly-observed treatment (DOT), had low implementation rates. Stock-outs, difficulties in reaching out to migrant and mobile populations, insufficient means of transportation and dwindling worker satisfaction also affected job performance. VMW/MMW job performance must be increased from 80 to 100 % in order to achieve elimination. In order to do this, it is recommended for the national malaria programme to eliminate worker malaria knowledge gaps. Barriers to DOT implementation and health system failures also need to be addressed. The VMW programme should be expanded on several fronts in order to tackle remaining performance gaps. Findings from this evaluation are useful to inform the planning of future
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High levels of patient adherence to antimalarial treatment are important in ensuring drug effectiveness. To achieve this goal, it is important to understand levels of patient adherence, and the range of study designs and methodological challenges involved in measuring adherence and interpreting results. Since antimalarial adherence was reviewed in 2004, there has been a major expansion in the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in the public sector, as well as initiatives to make them more widely accessible through community health workers and private retailers. These changes and the large number of recent adherence studies raise the need for an updated review on this topic. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting quantitative results on patient adherence to antimalarials obtained for treatment. RESULTS: The 55 studies identified reported extensive variation in patient adherence to antimalarials, with many studies reporting very high adherence (90-100% and others finding adherence of less than 50%. We identified five overarching approaches to assessing adherence based on the definition of adherence and the methods used to measure it. Overall, there was no clear pattern in adherence results by approach. However, adherence tended to be higher among studies where informed consent was collected at the time of obtaining the drug, where patient consultations were directly observed by research staff, and where a diagnostic test was obtained. CONCLUSION: Variations in reported adherence may reflect factors related to patient characteristics and the nature of their consultation with the provider, as well as methodological variations such as interaction between the research team and patients before and during the treatment. Future studies can benefit from an awareness of the impact of study procedures on adherence outcomes, and the identification of improved measurement methods less dependent on self-report.
Bruxvoort, Katia; Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick; Schellenberg, David
High levels of patient adherence to antimalarial treatment are important in ensuring drug effectiveness. To achieve this goal, it is important to understand levels of patient adherence, and the range of study designs and methodological challenges involved in measuring adherence and interpreting results. Since antimalarial adherence was reviewed in 2004, there has been a major expansion in the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the public sector, as well as initiatives to make them more widely accessible through community health workers and private retailers. These changes and the large number of recent adherence studies raise the need for an updated review on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting quantitative results on patient adherence to antimalarials obtained for treatment. The 55 studies identified reported extensive variation in patient adherence to antimalarials, with many studies reporting very high adherence (90-100%) and others finding adherence of less than 50%. We identified five overarching approaches to assessing adherence based on the definition of adherence and the methods used to measure it. Overall, there was no clear pattern in adherence results by approach. However, adherence tended to be higher among studies where informed consent was collected at the time of obtaining the drug, where patient consultations were directly observed by research staff, and where a diagnostic test was obtained. Variations in reported adherence may reflect factors related to patient characteristics and the nature of their consultation with the provider, as well as methodological variations such as interaction between the research team and patients before and during the treatment. Future studies can benefit from an awareness of the impact of study procedures on adherence outcomes, and the identification of improved measurement methods less dependent on self-report.
Factors associated with chloroquine induced pruritus during malaria treatment in Mozambican University students Factores asociados a la aparición de prurito por cloroquina durante el tratamiento de la malaria en estudiantes universitarios de Mozambique
Full Text Available Introduction: It has been suggested that reductions in chloroquine use may be followed by a resurgence of chloroquine-susceptible falciparum malaria, and chloroquine might once again be an effective treatment choice, which renews the importance of aspects related to its use and misuse. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of chloroquine-induced pruritus and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in Mozambican University students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a private University in Maputo. Students were approached in the classrooms to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, number of previous malaria episodes, utilization of antimalarial drugs, and life prevalence of chloroquine induced pruritus. Results: Among 795 respondents, 77.4% (601/777 reported at least one malaria episode and 73.2% (542/740 had used chloroquine before. The life-prevalence of chloroquine-induced pruritus was 30.1% (158/525. Pruritus tended to be more frequent when chloroquine was used for treatment compared with prophylaxis only (31.2% vs. 10.3%, pIntroducción: Se ha sugerido que la reducción en el uso de la cloroquina puede derivar en el resurgimiento de la malaria falciparum sensible a la cloroquina, por lo que ésta puede volver a ser un tratamiento efectivo de elección, renovando la importancia de aspectos relacionados con su uso y su mal uso. Se pretende estimar la prevalencia de prurito inducido por cloroquina e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a su ocurrencia en estudiantes universitarios de Mozambique. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta transversal en una Universidad privada de Mozambique. Los estudiantes fueron abordados en las aulas para completar un cuestionario autoadministrado, que contenía datos sociodemográficos e información sobre el número de episodios previos de malaria, la utilización de fármacos antipalúdicos y la prevalencia de prurito inducido por
Veninga, CCM; Denig, P; Zwaagstra, R; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM
In the international Drug Education Project, an educational program involving auditing and feedback in peer groups to improve the treatment of asthma and urinary tract infections (UTI) was developed and tested in primary care. Individualized feedback was provided and discussed in 24 Dutch peer
Background In vitro evidence indicates that tetrandrine (TT) can potentiate the action of chloroquine 40-fold against choloquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. The key question emanating from that study is “would tetrandine and chloroquine be highly effective in a live Aotus monkey model with chloroquine-resistant parasites”. This study was designed to closely mimic the pharmacological/anti-malarial activity in man. Methods The Vietnam Smith/RE strain of P. falciparum, which is chloroquine-resistant was used in this study. Previous experimental procedures were followed. Panamanian owl monkeys (Aotus) were inoculated with 5×106 erythrocytes parasitized with the CQ-resistant strain of P. falciparum. Oral drug treatment was with CQ (20 mg/kg) and/or tetrandrine at 15 mg/Kg, 30 mg/Kg or 60 mg/Kg or 25 mg/Kg depending on experimental conditions. Results and Discussion Parasitaemia was cleared rapidly with CQ and TT while CQ treatment alone was ineffective. Recrudescence of malaria occurred after seven days post-infection. However, four animals were treated orally with TT and CQ parasites were cleared. It is likely that monkeys were cured via a combination of both drug and host immune responses. A single Aotus monkey infected with P. falciparum and untreated with drugs, died. No side effects were observed with these drug treatments. Conclusions This combination of chloroquine and tetrandrine forms the basis of a new attack on chloroquine-resistant malaria - one based upon inhibition of the basis of chloroquine resistance, the multiple drug resistance pump. Previous studies demonstrated that the parasite MDR pump was found on parasite membranes using 3H azidopine photoaffinity labelling. Since MDR-based choloroquine resistance is induced by chloroquine, the basis of the action of tetrandrine is the following: 1) tetrandrine inhibits the MDR pump by stimulating MDR ATPase which limits the energy of the pump by depletion of parasite ATP, 2) tetrandrine blocks the
Liu, Yao-Bao; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Wang, Wei-Ming; Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Qi
To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of overseas imported malaria in Jiangsu Province and explore the strategies and priorities in prevention and control, so as to provide the evidence for improving the diagnosis, treatment and management of imported malaria. The data of overseas imported malaria as well as the case epidemiological investigation in Jiangsu Province from July 18, 2011 to June 30, 2012 were collected and analyzed descriptively for the species composition, original countries, population distribution, regional distribution, onset time, diagnosis and treatment, channels to go abroad, and counterparts returned together with the patients. A total of 233 overseas imported malaria cases were reported, and 226 cases (97.0%) were imported from African countries. A total of 208 cases (89.3%) were falciparum malaria, and 224 cases (96.1%) were laboratory-confirmed. The imported malaria cases were young adults who were mainly migrant farmer and skilled male workers. There was no significant seasonal variation for onset time. Totally 145 cases (62.2%) got malaria onset in 20 days after returning home. The median time from onset to seeing doctor was two days and the median time from seeing doctor to being diagnosed was one day. The first visit health facilities by the patients were relatively scattered and the diagnostic health facilities were mainly medical institutions and CDC at the county level and above (220 cases, accounting for 94.4%). The ratio of standard treatment after malaria diagnosis was 100%. A total of 205 cases (88.0%) were workers dispatched to abroad as labor export by the company, and 142 cases (60.9%) cases had counterparts returned together. The situation of overseas imported malaria in Jiangsu Province is severe. It is necessary to further strengthen the professional training and multi-sectoral cooperation, establish the collaborative investigation mechanism for high-risk groups, and take effective prevention and control measures
Full Text Available Treatment of malaria in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART poses significant challenges. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL is one of the artemisisnin-based combination therapies recommended for treatment of malaria. The drug combination is highly efficacious against sensitive and multidrug resistant falciparum malaria. Both artemether and lumefantrine are metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450 enzymes which metabolize the protease inhibitors (PIs and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs used for HIV treatment. Coadministration of NNRTIs and PIs with AL could potentially cause complex pharmacokinetic drug interactions. NNRTI by inducing CYP450 3A4 enzyme and PIs by inhibiting CYP450 3A4 enzymes could influence both artemether and lumefantrine concentrations and their active metabolites dihydroartemisinin and desbutyl-lumefantrine, predisposing patients to poor treatment response, toxicity, and risk for development of resistance. There are scanty data on these interactions and their consequences. Pharmacokinetic studies to evaluate these interactions in the target populations are urgently needed.
Samuels, Aaron M; Awino, Nobert; Odongo, Wycliffe; Abong'o, Benard; Gimnig, John; Otieno, Kephas; Shi, Ya Ping; Were, Vincent; Allen, Denise Roth; Were, Florence; Sang, Tony; Obor, David; Williamson, John; Hamel, Mary J; Patrick Kachur, S; Slutsker, Laurence; Lindblade, Kim A; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna
Most human Plasmodium infections in western Kenya are asymptomatic and are believed to contribute importantly to malaria transmission. Elimination of asymptomatic infections requires active treatment approaches, such as mass testing and treatment (MTaT) or mass drug administration (MDA), as infected persons do not seek care for their infection. Evaluations of community-based approaches that are designed to reduce malaria transmission require careful attention to study design to ensure that important effects can be measured accurately. This manuscript describes the study design and methodology of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate a MTaT approach for malaria transmission reduction in an area of high malaria transmission. Ten health facilities in western Kenya were purposively selected for inclusion. The communities within 3 km of each health facility were divided into three clusters of approximately equal population size. Two clusters around each health facility were randomly assigned to the control arm, and one to the intervention arm. Three times per year for 2 years, after the long and short rains, and again before the long rains, teams of community health volunteers visited every household within the intervention arm, tested all consenting individuals with malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treated all positive individuals with an effective anti-malarial. The effect of mass testing and treatment on malaria transmission was measured through population-based longitudinal cohorts, outpatient visits for clinical malaria, periodic population-based cross-sectional surveys, and entomological indices.
Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP alongside long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN and case management for reducing the risks associated with malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate-to-high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to increasing Plasmodium falciparum resistance to SP, the search for alternative drugs or strategies to control malaria in pregnancy is a priority. We assessed the acceptability among pregnant women and health providers of intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp and IPTp with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP as alternative strategies in the context of an un-blinded clinical trial.Qualitative data were collected through ten focus group discussions with women participating in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate ISTp or IPTp with DP (multi-day regimen versus IPTp with SP (single dose in western Kenya. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 health providers working in the trial facilities and trial staff.Women appreciated the advantages of being tested with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT at every ANC visit (although a few women disliked finger pricks and accepted that they would not receive any antimalarial when tested RDT-negative. There were differences in women's experiences of the efficacy of antimalarials between the trial arms, with more women in the IPTp-SP arm reporting they had experienced malaria episodes. Side effects were experienced among women taking DP and SP. Although women and trial staff reported adherence to the full DP regimen within the trial, health providers were not confident that women would adhere to multi-day regimens in non-trial settings. Health providers recognized the advantages of ISTp in reducing unnecessary exposure to drugs, but lacked confidence in the reliability of RDTs compared to microscopy.Our findings indicate that, within a trial context, ISTp-DP and IPTp
Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C
Prior to policy change from chloroquine (CQ) to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P; Fansidar) we assessed the perception of CQ efficacy and the alternative treatment options for malaria in children among parents/guardians (N=527) of under-fives attending first level health facilities on account...... of fever. It was hypothesized that the long experience with CQ and its antipyretic effect (lacking in S/P) might impede acceptance of S/P for wider use as first-line drug. Malarial fevers in children were most commonly treated with CQ (92.8%), followed by quinine (60.7%) and S/P (28.7%). A 63.2% knew...
A variety of plasma treatments of polymer sufaces for improved adhesion are reviewed: noble and reactive has treatment of fluoropolymers; noble and reactive treatment of polyolefins, and plasma-induced amination of polymer fibers. The plasma induced surface chemical and morphological changer are discussed, as are the mechanisms of adhersion to polymeric adhesives, particularly epoxy. Noble has plasma eching of fluoropolymers produces a partially defluorinated, textured surface. The mechanical interlocking of this textured surface is the primary cause of improved adhsion to epoxy. Reactive has plasma also induce defluorination, but oxygen containing gases cause continual ablation of the fluoropolymer surface. Noble and reactive gas (except for hydrogen) etching of polyolefins results in surface oxidation and imrprove adhesion via hydrogen bonding of these exygen containing groups across the interface. The introduction of amine groups to a polymer surface by ammonia or amine plasma treatment generally results in improved adhesion to epoxy. However, amine-epoxy ring interactions can be severely effected by steric factors due to chemical group surrounding the amine
Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G
In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.
Boubaker, Rim; Hérard Fossati, Annie; Meige, Pierrette; Mialet, Catherine; Ngarambe Buffat, Chantal; Rochat, Jacynthe; Souvannaraj-Blanchant, Manisinh; Uwanyiligira, Mediatrice; Widmer, Francine; Payot, Sylvie; Rochat, Laurence; de Vallière, Serge; D'Acremont, Valérie; Genton, Blaise
There are several possible malaria prevention strategies for travellers. In Switzerland, chemoprophylaxis (CP) is recommended for persons visiting areas highly endemic for malaria and stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for areas with moderate to low risk. To describe the type of malaria prevention prescribed to travel clinic attendees with a specific focus on changes over time following adaptation of recommendations. All pre-travel first consultation data recorded between November 2002 and December 2012 were included. Country-specific malaria preventive recommendations provided and medicines prescribed over time were analysed. In total, 64 858 client-trips were recorded. 91% of travellers planned to visit a malaria endemic country. Among those clients, 42% were prescribed an antimalarial medicine as CP only, 36% as SBET only, and 3% both. Between 2002 and 2012, there was a 16% drop of CP prescription ( P travellers receiving CP, the proportion of those prescribed mefloquine dropped from 82% in 2002 to 46% in 2012 while those prescribed atovaquone-proguanil (AP) increased from 7% to 39%. For those prescribed SBET, the proportion dropped from 46% to 30% for AP and increased from 2% to 61% for artemether-lumefantrine. CP prescription for travellers to India fell from 62% to 5% and SBET prescription increased from 40% to 88% after the change of recommendation from CP to SBET in 2005 for this country. Comparatively, CP prescription for travellers to Senegal, for which no change of recommendation occurred, remained relatively stable between 88% in 2002 and 89% in 2012. This study shows the considerable decline of antimalarial prescription for chemoprophylaxis that occurred over the 10-year period in favour of SBET. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Okello, George; Gerrets, Rene; Zakayo, Scholastica; Molyneux, Sassy; Jones, Caroline
Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is part of a multi-pronged strategy aimed at preventing malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate to high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite being formally adopted as a malaria prevention policy over a decade ago, IPTp coverage has remained low. Recent demands for action have incorporated calls to strengthen IPTp monitoring and evaluation systems, including the use of routine data, to measure coverage, track implementation and identify roadblocks to improving uptake. Concerns about the quality of malaria indicators reported through routine information systems are well recognized, but there are few data on the realities of IPTp recording practices in frontline facilities or their entry into District Health Information Software (DHIS2). Drawing on fieldwork conducted in two malaria endemic sub-counties in Kenya, we explore how local adaptations and innovations employed by health workers and sub-country managers to cope with a range of health system constraints, shape recording practices and in turn, the measurement of IPTp. Data were collected through observations, interviews, and document reviews. Data analysis and interpretation was guided by thematic analysis approach. Measurement of IPTp was undermined by health system constraints such as stock-out of drugs and human resource shortages. Coping strategies adopted by health workers to address these challenges ensured continuity in service delivery and IPTp data generation but had variable consequences on IPTp data quality. Unclear recording and reporting instructions also led to lack of standardization in IPTp data generation. The use of redundant tools created significant data burdens which undermined service delivery in general. There is need to integrate monthly reporting forms so as to remove redundancies which exacerbates workload for health workers and disrupts service delivery. Similarly, data collection instructions in registers and
Kyaw, Shwe Sin; Drake, Tom; Thi, Aung; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Hlaing, Thaung; Smithuis, Frank M; White, Lisa J; Lubell, Yoel
Myanmar has the highest malaria incidence and attributed mortality in South East Asia with limited healthcare infrastructure to manage this burden. Establishing malaria Community Health Worker (CHW) programmes is one possible strategy to improve access to malaria diagnosis and treatment, particularly in remote areas. Despite considerable donor support for implementing CHW programmes in Myanmar, the cost implications are not well understood. An ingredients based micro-costing approach was used to develop a model of the annual implementation cost of malaria CHWs in Myanmar. A cost model was constructed based on activity centres comprising of training, patient malaria services, monitoring and supervision, programme management, overheads and incentives. The model takes a provider perspective. Financial data on CHWs programmes were obtained from the 2013 financial reports of the Three Millennium Development Goal fund implementing partners that have been working on malaria control and elimination in Myanmar. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were undertaken to outline parameter uncertainty and explore changes to programme cost for key assumptions. The range of total annual costs for the support of one CHW was US$ 966-2486. The largest driver of CHW cost was monitoring and supervision (31-60% of annual CHW cost). Other important determinants of cost included programme management (15-28% of annual CHW cost) and patient services (6-12% of annual CHW cost). Within patient services, malaria rapid diagnostic tests are the major contributor to cost (64% of patient service costs). The annual cost of a malaria CHW in Myanmar varies considerably depending on the context and the design of the programme, in particular remoteness and the approach to monitoring and evaluation. The estimates provide information to policy makers and CHW programme planners in Myanmar as well as supporting economic evaluations of their cost-effectiveness.
Full Text Available Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted. The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control
Rochon, Donna; Ross, Michael W; Looney, Carol; Nepal, Vishnu P; Price, Andrea J; Giordano, Thomas P
Although antiretroviral therapy has increased the survival of HIV-positive patients, traditional approaches to improving medication adherence have failed consistently. Acknowledging the role of communication in health behavior, we conducted a qualitative study to learn about patients' HIV treatment adherence experiences and to identify which communication strategies might influence adherence. Findings indicate that five constructs--cultural beliefs/language, stigma, cues to action, self-efficacy, and mood state--are potentially modifiable by improved communication. Results will be used to create a direct marketing campaign targeted to HIV-infected patients. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Malik, M; Hassali, M A A; Shafie, A A; Hussain, A
Despite the availability of standard treatment guidelines for malaria in Pakistan adherence to protocols by prescribers is poor. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to explore the perceptions and knowledge of prescribers in Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities towards adherence to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. A questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 360 prescribers; 64.7% were satisfied with the available antimalarial drugs and 41.3% agreed that antimalarial drugs should only be prescribed after diagnostic testing. Only half the prescribers had the guidelines available in their health facility. Almost all the prescribers (97.7%) agreed that there was a need for more educational programmes about the guidelines. Most prescribers were unaware of the correct standard treatment regimen for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. There were no differences in knowledge between males and females, but prescribers having more experience, practising as general practitioners and working in private health-care facilities possessed significantly better knowledge than their counterparts.
Durrheim, Karen Barnes. Objectives. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) after 5 years of use as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and thus guide the selection of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Design. An open-label ...
Ataíde, Ricardo; Hasang, Wina; Wilson, Danny W; Beeson, James G; Mwapasa, Victor; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Meshnick, Steven R; Rogerson, Stephen J
Pregnant women residing in malaria endemic areas are highly susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum malaria, particularly during their first pregnancy, resulting in low birth weight babies and maternal anaemia. This susceptibility is associated with placental sequestration of parasitised red blood cells expressing pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens. Acquisition of antibodies against these variant surface antigens may protect women and their offspring. Functions of such antibodies may include prevention of placental sequestration or opsonisation of parasitised cells for phagocytic clearance. Here we report the development and optimisation of a new high-throughput flow cytometry-based phagocytosis assay using undifferentiated Thp-1 cells to quantitate the amount of opsonizing antibody in patient sera, and apply this assay to measure the impact of HIV on the levels of antibodies to a pregnancy malaria-associated parasite line in a cohort of Malawian primigravid women. The assay showed high reproducibility, with inter-experimental correlation of r(2) = 0.99. In primigravid women, concurrent malaria infection was associated with significantly increased antibodies, whereas HIV decreased the ability to acquire opsonising antibodies (Mann-Whitney ranksum: p = 0.013). This decrease was correlated with HIV-induced immunosuppression, with women with less than 350 x 10(6) CD4+ T- cells/L having less opsonising antibodies (coef: -11.95,P = 0.002). Levels of antibodies were not associated with protection from low birth weight or anaemia. This flow cytometry-based phagocytosis assay proved to be efficient and accurate for the measurement of Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis-inducing antibodies in large cohorts. HIV was found to affect mainly the acquisition of antibodies to pregnancy-specific malaria in primigravidae. Further studies of the relationship between opsonising antibodies to malaria in pregnancy and HIV are indicated.
Odoh, Uchenna E; Uzor, Philip F; Eze, Chidimma L; Akunne, Theophine C; Onyegbulam, Chukwuma M; Osadebe, Patience O
Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tchouassi David P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. We present a site-specific entomological study of malaria vectors and transmission indices as part of an effort to develop a site for the testing of improved control strategies including possible vaccine trials. Methods Pyrethrum spray catches (PSC, and indoor and outdoor human landing collections of adult female anopheline mosquitoes were carried out over a six-month period (November 2005 - April 2006 at Kpone-on-Sea, a fishing village in southern Ghana. These were morphologically identified to species level and sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex further characterized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum mosquito infectivity and host blood meal sources. Parity rate was examined based on dilatation of ovarian tracheoles following dissection. Results Of the 1233 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae s.l. was predominant (99.5%, followed by An. funestus (0.4% and An. pharoensis (0.1%. All An. gambiae s.l. examined (480 were identified as An. gambiae s.s. with a majority of M molecular form (98.2% and only 1.8% S form with no record of M/S hybrid. A significantly higher proportion of anophelines were observed outdoors relative to indoors (χ2 = 159.34, df = 1, p An. gambiae M molecular form contributed to transmission with a high degree of anthropophily, parity rate and an estimated entomological inoculation rate (EIR of 62.1 infective bites/person/year. The Majority of the infective bites occurred outdoors after 09.00 pm reaching peaks between 12.00-01.00 am and 03.00-04.00 am. Conclusion Anopheles gambiae M molecular form is responsible for maintaining the status quo of malaria in the surveyed site during the study period. The findings provide a baseline for evidence-based planning and implementation of improved malaria interventions. The plasticity observed in
Malaria D:lay still be contracted despite good cOD:lpliance with ... true that prophylaxis is always better than no prophy- laxis, nor is ... If used during pregnancy, a folic acid supplement ... include folate deficiency, agranulocytosis, illegaloblastic.
Full Text Available The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up required to follow the Guidelines suggests that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs will be a large component. This study analyzes the adoption of rapid diagnostic testing in malaria programs supported by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund, the leading international funder of malaria control globally.We analyzed, for the period 2005 to 2010, Global Fund programmatic data for 81 countries on the quantity of RDTs planned; actual quantities of RDTs and artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs procured in 2009 and 2010; RDT-related activities including RDTs distributed, RDTs used, total diagnostic tests including RDTs and microscopy performed, health facilities equipped with RDTs; personnel trained to perform rapid diagnostic malaria test; and grant budgets allocated to malaria diagnosis. In 2010, diagnosis accounted for 5.2% of malaria grant budget. From 2005 to 2010, the procurement plans include148 million RDTs through 96 malaria grants in 81 countries. Around 115 million parasitological tests, including RDTs, had reportedly been performed from 2005 to 2010. Over this period, 123,132 health facilities were equipped with RDTs and 137,140 health personnel had been trained to perform RDT examinations. In 2009 and 2010, 41 million RDTs and 136 million ACTs were purchased. The ratio of procured RDTs to ACTs was 0.26 in 2009 and 0.34 in 2010.Global Fund financing has enabled 81 malaria-endemic countries to adopt WHO guidelines by investing in RDTs for malaria diagnosis, thereby helping improve case management of acute febrile illness in children. However, roll-out of parasitological diagnosis lags behind the roll-out of ACT-based treatment, and will
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp at routine antenatal care (ANC clinics is an important and efficacious intervention to reduce adverse health outcomes of malaria infections during pregnancy. However, coverage for the recommended two IPTp doses is still far below the 80% target in Tanzania. This paper investigates the combined impact of pregnant women's timing of ANC attendance, health workers' IPTp delivery and different delivery schedules of national IPTp guidelines on IPTp coverage. Methods Data on pregnant women's ANC attendance and health workers' IPTp delivery were collected from ANC card records during structured exit interviews with ANC attendees and through semi-structured interviews with health workers in south-eastern Tanzania. Women's timing of ANC visits and health worker's timing of IPTp delivery were analyzed in relation to the different national IPTp schedules and the outcome on IPTp coverage was modelled. Results Among all women eligible for IPTp, 79% received a first dose of IPTp and 27% were given a second dose. Although pregnant women initiated ANC attendance late, their timing was in line with the national guidelines recommending IPTp delivery between 20-24 weeks and 28-32 weeks of gestation. Only 15% of the women delayed to the extent of being too late to be eligible for a first dose of IPTp. Less than 1% of women started ANC attendance after 32 weeks of gestation. During the second IPTp delivery period health workers delivered IPTp to significantly less women than during the first one (55% vs. 73% contributing to low second dose coverage. Simplified IPTp guidelines for front-line health workers as recommended by WHO could lead to a 20 percentage point increase in IPTp coverage. Conclusions This study suggests that facility and policy factors are greater barriers to IPTp coverage than women's timing of ANC attendance. To maximize the benefit of the IPTp intervention, revision of
Full Text Available Vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission are of increasing interest and a robust functional assay to measure this activity would promote their development by providing a biologically relevant means of evaluating potential vaccine candidates. Therefore, we aimed to qualify the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA. The assay measures the transmission-blocking activity of antibodies by feeding cultured P. falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles mosquitoes in the presence of the test antibodies and measuring subsequent mosquito infection. The International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline Q2(R1 details characteristics considered in assay validation. Of these characteristics, we decided to qualify the SMFA for Precision, Linearity, Range and Specificity. The transmission-blocking 4B7 monoclonal antibody was tested over 6 feeding experiments at several concentrations to determine four suitable concentrations that were tested in triplicate in the qualification experiments (3 additional feeds to evaluate Precision, Linearity and Range. For Specificity, 4B7 was tested in the presence of normal mouse IgG. We determined intra- and inter-assay variability of % inhibition of mean oocyst intensity at each concentration of 4B7 (lower concentrations showed higher variability. We also showed that % inhibition was dependent on 4B7 concentration and the activity is specific to 4B7. Since obtaining empirical data is time-consuming, we generated a model using data from all 9 feeds and simulated the effects of different parameters on final readouts to improve the assay procedure and analytical methods for future studies. For example, we estimated the effect of number of mosquitoes dissected on variability of % inhibition, and simulated the relationship between % inhibition in oocyst intensity and % inhibition of prevalence of infected mosquitos at different mean oocysts in the control. SMFA is one of the few biological assays used in
Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Freitas, Letícia Figueira; Osório-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa
To evaluate antimalarial prescriptions according to quality indicators and to describe adverse events reports among pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Descriptive study of medical files of pregnant women 15 years and older, residents in high-risk municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon. Antimalarial medicines were characterized by frequency of prescription, type of plasmodium and health care facilities where prescribing took place, and by possible adverse events. Variables were compared by Pearson's chi-square. A total of 262 medical files were evaluated. Most patients were diagnosed for Plasmodium vivax 71,2%. Chloroquine was the commonest prescribed antimalarial (65.6%). Of P. vivax prescriptions, 9.0%, and 16.2% of P. falciparum prescriptions presented antimalarials not recommended in the official protocol. Prescriptions for P. falciparum , in significantly higher proportion, did not adhere to the official protocol in regard to type of antimalarial and dose/duration of treatment (p = 0,001). They also lacked information on dose and dosing interval (p = 0,004). There were no significant differences among reference centers and basic health care units in respect to the prescribed antimalarials, to prescriptions containing antimalarials not recommended in the official protocol or in respect to lack of dosing information. Chloroquine was the antimalarial most related to the occurrence of adverse events. THE findings indicate that there are flaws in antimalarial prescribing for pregnant women, especially in respect to their adequacy to the official protocol.
Fryauff, David J; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Utz, Gregory; Baird, J Kevin; Koram, Kwadwo A; Binka, Fred; Nkrumah, Francis; Hoffman, Stephen L
Mefloquine (MQ) single dose 20 mg/kg treatment of falciparum malaria was evaluated in 186 children of 6-24 months of age in northern Ghana. There were 15 RII/RIII-type parasitologic failures, all with Day 2 MQ blood levels significantly lower than children whose parasitemias cleared before Day 7 and remained clear through 28 days. Predictors of RII/RIII parasitologic response were vomiting after MQ dosing, Day 2 MQ levels < 500 ng/mL, and undetectable Day 2 levels of the carboxymefloquine metabolite. There were 50 cases of delayed RI parasitologic failure, but 71% of these cases had undetectable Day 28 blood levels of MQ and drug levels in the remaining 29% ranged below the 620 ng/mL level that suppresses MQ sensitive strains of P. falciparum. Drug levels among infants that tolerated MQ well were not associated with age, weight, hemoglobin, parasitemia, and pre-existing symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea. An observed recurrent parasitemia of 34,400 trophozoites/microL against a MQ blood concentration of 550 ng/mL was taken as indication of tolerance to suppressive levels of the drug at this location.
Sailer, Scott L.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Soltys, Mitchel; Cullip, Tim J.; Chen, Jun
the patient's initial fields and boost, respectively. Case illustrations are shown. Conclusions: We have successfully integrated multimodality imaging into our treatment-planning system, and its routine use is increasing. Multimodality imaging holds out the promise of improving treatment planning accuracy and, thus, takes maximum advantage of three dimensional treatment planning systems.
Covington, Elizabeth L.; Chen, Xiaoping; Younge, Kelly C.; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Kessler, Marc L.; Keranen, Wayne; Acosta, Eduardo; Dougherty, Ashley M.; Filpansick, Stephanie E.
The goal of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of Plan‐Checker Tool (PCT) which was created to improve first‐time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase the efficiency of our electronic workflow, and standardize and automate the physics plan review in the treatment planning system (TPS). PCT uses an application programming interface to check and compare data from the TPS and treatment management system (TMS). PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user as part of a plan readiness check for treatment. Prior to and during PCT development, errors identified during the physics review and causes of patient treatment start delays were tracked to prioritize which checks should be automated. Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated, with data extracted with PCT. There was a 60% reduction in the number of patient delays in the six months after PCT release. PCT was successfully implemented for use on all external beam treatment plans in our clinic. While the number of errors found during the physics check did not decrease, automation of checks increased visibility of errors during the physics check, which led to decreased patient delays. The methods used here can be applied to any TMS and TPS that allows queries of the database. PACS number(s): 87.55.‐x, 87.55.N‐, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.tm, 89.20.Bb PMID:27929478
Taxman, Faye S; Walters, Scott T; Sloas, Lincoln B; Lerch, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Mayra
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising practice to increase motivation, treatment retention, and reducing recidivism among offender populations. Computer-delivered interventions have grown in popularity as a way to change behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Motivational Assistance Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) is a three arm, multisite, randomized controlled trial, which examines the impact of Motivational interviewing (MI), a motivational computer program (MC), and supervision as usual (SAU) on addiction treatment initiation, engagement, and retention. Secondary outcomes include drug/alcohol use, probation progress, recidivism (i.e., criminal behavior) and HIV/AIDS testing and treatment among probationers. Participant characteristics are measured at baseline, 2, and 6 months after assignment. The entire study will include 600 offenders, with each site recruiting 300 offenders (Baltimore City, Maryland and Dallas, Texas). All participants will go through standard intake procedures for probation and participate in probation requirements as usual. After standard intake, participants will be recruited and screened for eligibility. The results of this clinical trial will fill a gap in knowledge about ways to motivate probationers to participate in addiction treatment and HIV care. This randomized clinical trial is innovative in the way it examines the use of in-person vs. technological approaches to improve probationer success. NCT01891656. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Background Widespread parasite resistance to first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria leads to introduction of new drug interventions. Introducing such interventions is complex and sensitive because of stakeholder interests and public resistance. To enhance take up of such interventions, health policy communication strategies need to deliver accurate and accessible information to empower communities with necessary information and address problems of cultural acceptance of new interventions. Objectives To explore community understanding of policy changes in first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Kenya; to evaluate the potential role of policy communication in influencing responses to changes in first-line treatment policy. Methods Data collection involved qualitative strategies in a remote district in the Kenyan Coast: in-depth interviews (n = 29), focus group discussions (n = 14), informal conversations (n = 11) and patient narratives (n = 8). Constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Being malaria-prone and remotely located, the district offered an ideal area to investigate whether or not and how policy communication about a matter as critical as change of treatment policy reaches vulnerable populations. Results Three years after initial implementation (2009), there was limited knowledge or understanding regarding change of first-line treatment from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the study district. The print and electronic media used to create awareness about the drug change appeared to have had little impact. Although respondents were aware of the existence of AL, the drug was known neither by name nor as the official first-line treatment. Depending on individuals or groups, AL was largely viewed negatively. The weaknesses in communication strategy surrounding the change to AL included poor choice of communication tools, confusing
Full Text Available Uptake of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP is a clinically-proven method to prevent the adverse outcomes of malaria in pregnancy (MiP for the mother, her foetus, and the neonates. The majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced IPTp policies for pregnant women during the past decade. Nonetheless, progress towards improving IPTp coverage remains dismal, with widespread regional and socioeconomic disparities in the utilisation of this highly cost-effective service. In the present study, our main objective was to measure the prevalence of IPTp uptake in selected malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and to investigate the patterns of IPTp uptake among different educational and wealth categories adjusted for relevant sociodemographic factors. For this study, cross-sectional data on 18,603 women aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. The outcome variable was taking three doses of IPTp-SP in the last pregnancy, defined as adequate by the WHO. According to the analysis, the overall prevalence of taking three doses of IPTp-SP in the latest pregnancy was 29.5% (95% CI = 28.2–30.5, with the prevalence being highest for Ghana (60%, 95% CI = 57.1–62.8, followed by Kenya (37%, 95% CI = 35.3–39.2 and Sierra Leone (31%, 95% CI = 29.2–33.4. Women from non-poor households (richer—20.7%, middle—21.2%, richest—18.1% had a slightly higher proportion of taking three doses of IPTp-SP compared with those from poorest (19.0% and poorer (21.1% households. Regression analysis revealed an inverse association between uptake of IPTp-SP and educational level. With regard to wealth status, compared with women living in the richest households, those in the poorest, poorer, middle, and richer households had significantly higher odds of not taking
Full Text Available In Brazil, malaria remains a disease of major epidemiological importance because of the high number of cases in the Amazonian Region. Plasmodium spp infections during pregnancy are a significant public health problem with substantial risks for the pregnant woman, the foetus and the newborn child. In Brazil, the control of malaria during pregnancy is primarily achieved by prompt and effective treatment of the acute episodes. Thus, to assure rapid diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women with malaria, one of the recommended strategy for low transmission areas by World Health Organization and as part of a strategy by the Ministry of Health, the National Malaria Control Program has focused on integrative measures with woman and reproductive health. Here, we discuss the approach for the prevention and management of malaria during pregnancy in Brazil over the last 10 years (2003-2012 using morbidity data from Malaria Health Information System. Improving the efficiency and quality of healthcare and education and the consolidation of prevention programmes will be challenges in the control of malaria during pregnancy in the next decade.
Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Jung Ah; Yoon, Chang Jin; Hwang, Sung Il; Kang, Heung Sik; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Young Hwan; Hong, Sung Hwan
To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs
Crompton, Peter D; Pierce, Susan K; Miller, Louis H
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum remains a major public health threat, especially among children and pregnant women in Africa. An effective malaria vaccine would be a valuable tool to reduce the disease burden and could contribute to elimination of malaria in some regions of the world. Current malaria vaccine candidates are directed against human and mosquito stages of the parasite life cycle, but thus far, relatively few proteins have been studied for potential vaccine development. The most advanced vaccine candidate, RTS,S, conferred partial protection against malaria in phase II clinical trials and is currently being evaluated in a phase III trial in Africa. New vaccine targets need to be identified to improve the chances of developing a highly effective malaria vaccine. A better understanding of the mechanisms of naturally acquired immunity to malaria may lead to insights for vaccine development.
Romay-Barja, Maria; Ncogo, Policarpo; Nseng, Gloria; Santana-Morales, Maria A; Herrador, Zaida; Berzosa, Pedro; Valladares, Basilio; Riloha, Matilde; Benito, Agustin
Adequate community knowledge about malaria is crucial in order to improve prevention by reducing exposure to the disease. Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children of less than five years of age in Equatorial Guinea. However, information concerning the accuracy of community knowledge is insufficient. This study aimed at assessing the depth of caregivers' knowledge of malaria, their beliefs and attitudes about this disease, and their socioeconomic determinants in the Bata district of Equatorial Guinea. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata, involving 440 houses selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. A combined "Malaria Knowledge Score" was generated based on caregivers' knowledge about transmission, symptoms, prevention, the treatment of children, and best place to seek treatment. Multivariate logistic regressions analyses were performed to assess those factors that are associated with knowledge about malaria. A total of 428 caregivers were interviewed; 255 (59.6%) and 173 (40.4%) lived in urban and rural areas respectively. Significant differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregivers' malaria knowledges and beliefs. Almost 42% of urban and 65% of rural caregivers were unaware as to how malaria is transmitted (OR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.78-4.05). Together with rurality, the factors most significantly associated with the Malaria Knowledge were the level of education of the caregiver and the socioeconomic status of the household. Improvements in educational programs are needed to empower the most vulnerable households such that they can pro-actively implement malaria control measures. This could be achieved by a comprehensive communication strategy aimed at changing individual and community behaviours, and delivered by suitably trained community health workers and indoor residual spraying personnel.
Fenny, Ama P; Hansen, Kristian S; Enemark, Ulrika
of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria....... This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective......INTRODUCTION: The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect...
Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brittenham, Gary M; Adiossan, Lukas G; Righetti, Aurélie A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Diakité, Victorine G; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Wegmüller, Rita
Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria co-exist in tropical regions and both contribute to high rates of anaemia in young children. It is unclear whether iron fortification combined with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria would be an efficacious strategy for reducing anaemia in young children. A 9-month cluster-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out in children aged 12-36 months in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, an area of intense and perennial malaria transmission. The study groups were: group 1: normal diet and IPT-placebo (n = 125); group 2: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified complementary food (CF) with optimised composition providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferrous fumarate 6 days per week (CF-FeFum) and IPT-placebo (n = 126); group 3: IPT of malaria at 3-month intervals, using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine and no dietary intervention (n = 127); group 4: both CF-FeFum and IPT (n = 124); and group 5: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified CF with the composition currently on the Ivorian market providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferric pyrophosphate 6 days per week (CF-FePP) and IPT-placebo (n = 127). The primary outcome was haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Linear and logistic regression mixed-effect models were used for the comparison of the five study groups, and a 2 × 2 factorial analysis was used to assess treatment interactions of CF-FeFum and IPT (study groups 1-4). After 9 months, the Hb concentration increased in all groups to a similar extent with no statistically significant difference between groups. In the 2 × 2 factorial analysis after 9 months, no treatment interaction was found on Hb (P = 0.89). The adjusted differences in Hb were 0.24 g/dl (95 % CI -0.10 to 0.59; P = 0.16) in children receiving IPT and -0.08 g/dl (95 % CI -0.42 to 0.26; P = 0.65) in children receiving CF-FeFum. At baseline, anaemia (Hb
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global Strategy for Malaria Control, one of the basic elements is early detection and prompt treatment of malaria cases, especially in areas where health care facilities are inadequate. Establishing or reviving the existing drug distribution centers (DDC at the peripheral levels of health care can achieve this. The DDCs should be operationally feasible, acceptable by community and technical efficient, particularly in remote hard-core malaria endemic areas. Methods Volunteers from villages were selected for distribution of chloroquine and the selection was made either by villagers or head of the village. The services of the volunteers were absolutely free and voluntary in nature. Chloroquine was provided free of charge to all fever cases. The impact was evaluated based on the changes observed in fever days, fever incidence, parasite incidence and parasite prevalence (proportion of persons harbouring malaria parasite in the community. Comparisons were made between 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of operation in the experimental villages and between the experimental and check areas. Results A total of 411 village volunteers in 378 villages in the experimental community health center with a population of 125,439 treated 88,575 fever cases with a mean annual incidence of 331.8 cases per 1,000 population during the three-year study period. The average morbid days due to fever (AFD was reduced to 1.6 ± 0.1 from 5.9 ± 2.1 in the experimental villages while it remained at 5.0 ± 1.0 in the check villages. There was a significant reduction, (p 0.05. In plain villages that were low endemic, the reductions in AFI and API in experimental villages were statistically significant (p nd and 3rd year when compared with the check area (p 0.0.5. Mortality due to malaria declined by 75% in the experimental villages in the adult age group whereas there was an increasing trend in check villages. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a passive
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in pregnant women has been shown to be associated with low birth weight, stillbirth and mortality in newborns. The WHO has adopted the use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to control malaria, a disease which worsens the plight of pregnant women leading to low birth weight, stillbirths and increased neonatal mortality. The present study assessed the effectiveness of SP and perception of its use in pregnant women in Offinso district (Ashanti Region, Ghana. Method Pregnant women, gestational age 32 weeks prior to term, were studied from November 2006 to October 2007. Their haemoglobin levels (Hb, parasitaemia and other quantitative determinants were assessed. In-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs were used to assess the perception of SP usage and its effectiveness. Results Of the 306 study participants, 92 (30% took one dose, 100 (33% two doses and 114 (37% three doses of SP, respectively. There was significant association between gravidity and SP dosage taken (Pearson χ2 = 18.9, p χ2 = 2.3, p ≥ 0.32. Peripheral parasitaemia was present in 47 (15% of the subjects. There was a poor negative relationship of doses of SP with parasitaemia (r = -0.07, p ≥ 0.24. Mean Hb was 11.3 ± 1.6 g/dl, with 118 (39% of the subjects anaemic (Hb r = 0.15, p Conclusions This study points to the effectiveness of IPTp using SP as an evidence-based measure for control of malaria and malaria-related anaemia in pregnancy. Therefore, the Ghana Health Service should improve current programme strategies to increase the proportion of pregnant women who take three doses of SP, paying attention to improved face-to-face health education, focussed antenatal care and better social mobilization.
Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Jun; Yasuoka, Junko; Ayi, Irene; Jayatilleke, Achini C.; Shrestha, Sabina; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Haque, Syed E.; Yi, Siyan
Background In tropical settings, malaria education at school is potentially useful, but textbook content related to malaria education has so far received little attention. This study aimed to examine whether school textbooks contain sufficient knowledge and skills to help children in primary and lower secondary schools and their family members to cope with malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a descriptive, cross-country study. We collected textbooks that were used by children in grades one to nine from nine countries endemic for malaria: Laos, Cambodia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Niger, Benin, and Ghana. Two reviewers per country identified descriptions about malaria by seeking the term “malaria” or a local word that corresponds to malaria in languages other than English. The authors categorized the identified descriptions according to the content of the descriptions. Additionally, the authors examined whether the identified contents addressed life skill messages. Of a total of 474 textbooks collected, 35 contained descriptions about malaria. The most commonly included content was transmission mode/vector (77.1%), followed by preventive measures (60.0%), epidemiology (57.1%), cause/agent (54.3%), signs/symptoms (37.1%) and treatment (22.9%). Treatment-related content was not included in any textbooks from four countries and textbooks failed to recommend the use of insecticide-treated bed nets in five countries. Very few textbooks included content that facilitated prompt treatment, protection of risk groups, and use of recommended therapy. Conclusion/Significance Textbooks rarely included knowledge and skills that are crucial to protect schoolchildren and their families from malaria. This study identified the need for improvement to textbook contents regarding malaria. PMID:22574203
Cersosimo, Eugenio; Musi, Nicolas
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher in Hispanic/Latino individuals living in the United States compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Many factors contribute to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including biological characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural aspects. The contribution of genetics to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients is becoming increasingly clear, but this inherent risk factor cannot be modified. However, certain socioeconomic and cultural factors, such as reduced access to healthcare, language barriers, cultural beliefs, and lack of cultural competence by the healthcare provider, are modifiable and should be overcome in order to improve the management of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. At the healthcare system level, policies should be put into place to reduce disparities between Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites regarding health insurance coverage and access to healthcare. At the healthcare provider and patient level, cultural beliefs should be taken into consideration when selecting adequate treatment. Overall, type 2 diabetes management should be individualized by identifying the preferred language and level of acculturation for each patient. These considerations are necessary to further improve communication through culturally appropriate educational materials and programs. These strategies may help to overcome the barriers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.
Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry
Kiaco, Kinanga; Teixeira, Joana; Machado, Marta; do Rosário, Virgílio; Lopes, Dinora
Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has posed an obstacle to effective treatment and challenges many malaria control programmes in endemic areas. In Angola, until 2003, chloroquine (CQ) was used as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria. It was replaced initially by amodiaquine and, in 2006, by artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem(®)). Efficacy study of ACT, conducted in Angola between 2004 and 2005, showed a baseline efficacy of ≈99%. 103 malaria patients were enrolled according to WHO proceedings. Patients were followed up with clinical and parasitological evaluations for 28 days, parasite density and identification was evaluated by microscopy, the pfmsp2 were genotyped by nested-PCR, to distinguish parasite recrudescence from new infections; the polymorphisms at codons 86 and 1246 of pfmdr1 gene, and 769 of pfatp6 gene were assessed by PCR-RFLP and sequencing for pfk13-propeller genotype. The cure rate was 91.3%. The obtained results showed that from 103 patients, 12.6% (n = 13) still had parasitaemia 1 day after the treatment was finished. On day 0, of the 94 evaluated samples, wild-type alleles were identified in 73.4% (n = 69) for pfmdr1 N86Y position and only one sample carried the mutant allele (Y) for pfmdr1 1246; 14% of these samples showed increased pfmdr1 copy number; 100% (n = 21) had wild-type allele of k13 gene in all the studied positions. These results showed changes in parasite profile susceptibility to AL in comparison to the baseline data from 2002 to 2004 and on the genotyping characteristics; the clinical outcome after treatment with AL did not link a particular genotype with treatment failure; observed changes do not provide sufficient evidence for a treatment policy change, but they suggest that a carefully monitoring is needed in this area.
Winstanley, Peter; Ward, Stephen
Most malaria control strategies today depend on safe and effective drugs, as they have done for decades. But sensitivity to chloroquine, hitherto the workhorse of malaria chemotherapy, has rapidly declined throughout the tropics since the 1980s, and this drug is now useless in many high-transmission areas. New options for resource-constrained governments are few, and there is growing evidence that the burden from malaria has been increasing, as has malaria mortality in Africa. In this chapter, we have tried to outline the main pharmacological properties of current drugs, and their therapeutic uses and limitations. We have summarised the ways in which these drugs are employed, both in the formal health sector and in self-medication. We have briefly touched on the limitations of current drug development, but have tried to pick out a few promising drugs that are under development. Given that Plasmodium falciparum is the organism that kills, and that has developed multi-drug resistance, we have tended to focus upon it. Similarly, given that around 90% of global mortality from malaria occurs in Africa, there is the tendency to dwell on this continent. We give no apology for placing our emphasis upon the use of antimalarial drugs in endemic populations rather than their use for prophylaxis in travellers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax has a dormant hepatic stage, called the hypnozoite, which can cause relapse months after the initial attack. For 50 years, primaquine has been used as a hypnozoitocide to radically cure P. vivax infection, but major concerns remain regarding the side-effects of the drug and adherence to the 14-day regimen. This study examined the effectiveness of using the directly-observed therapy (DOT method for the radical treatment of P. vivax malaria infection, to prevent reappearance of the parasite within the 90-day follow-up period. Other potential risk factors for the reappearance of P. vivax were also explored. Methods A randomized trial was conducted from May 2007 to January 2009 in a low malaria transmission area along the Thai-Myanmar border. Patients aged ≥ 3 years diagnosed with P. vivax by microscopy, were recruited. All patients were treated with the national standard regimen of chloroquine for three days followed by primaquine for 14 days. Patients were randomized to receive DOT or self-administered therapy (SAT. All patients were followed for three months to check for any reappearance of P. vivax. Results Of the 216 patients enrolled, 109 were randomized to DOT and 107 to SAT. All patients recovered without serious adverse effects. The vivax reappearance rate was significantly lower in the DOT group than the SAT group (3.4/10,000 person-days vs. 13.5/10,000 person-days, p = 0.021. Factors related to the reappearance of vivax malaria included inadequate total primaquine dosage received (P. vivax-genotype infection, and presence of P. falciparum infection during the follow-up period. Conclusions Adherence to the 14-day primaquine regimen is important for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria infection. Implementation of DOT reduces the reappearance rate of the parasite, and may subsequently decrease P. vivax transmission in the area.
Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan
Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Hempel, Casper; Hyttel, Poul; Staalsø, Trine
the effects of EPO treatment in this context. METHODS: The study consisted of two groups of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and two groups of uninfected controls that were either treated with EPO or placebo (n = 4 mice/group). In the terminal phase of murine CM the brains were removed and processed...
Hommerich, Lena; von Oertzen, Christa; Bedu-Addo, George; Holmberg, Ville; Acquah, Patrick A.; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.
Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has been adopted as policy by many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on the post-implementation effectiveness of this measure are scarce. Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed among
Deborah D. DiLiberto
Full Text Available Background: In Uganda, health system challenges limit access to good quality healthcare and contribute to slow progress on malaria control. We developed a complex intervention (PRIME, which was designed to improve quality of care for malaria at public health centres. Objective: Responding to calls for increased transparency, we describe the PRIME intervention's design process, rationale, and final content and reflect on the choices and challenges encountered during the design of this complex intervention. Design: To develop the intervention, we followed a multistep approach, including the following: 1 formative research to identify intervention target areas and objectives; 2 prioritization of intervention components; 3 review of relevant evidence; 4 development of intervention components; 5 piloting and refinement of workshop modules; and 6 consolidation of the PRIME intervention theories of change to articulate why and how the intervention was hypothesized to produce desired outcomes. We aimed to develop an intervention that was evidence-based, grounded in theory, and appropriate for the study context; could be evaluated within a randomized controlled trial; and had the potential to be scaled up sustainably. Results: The process of developing the PRIME intervention package was lengthy and dynamic. The final intervention package consisted of four components: 1 training in fever case management and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs; 2 workshops in health centre management; 3 workshops in patient-centred services; and 4 provision of mRDTs and antimalarials when stocks ran low. Conclusions: The slow and iterative process of intervention design contrasted with the continually shifting study context. We highlight the considerations and choices made at each design stage, discussing elements we included and why, as well as those that were ultimately excluded. Reflection on and reporting of ‘behind the scenes’ accounts of intervention
Peter, Emanuel L; Rumisha, Susan F; Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Minzi, Omary Ms; Mfinanga, Sayoki
Indigenous community of Mkuranga district have been using aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. for treating anemia. However, there have been neither safety nor efficacy studies to validate this medicinal product in anemia. The purpose of this study was to establish efficacy and safety of standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. in anemic adults. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial in which 130 adults' men and women aged 18-50 years were involved after meeting the inclusion criteria. Initially, standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. was prepared using optimized extraction parameters. Stratified randomization was used to randomize participants into four fixed dose groups. The first group received oral dose of 1000ml while the 2nd group was randomized to receive 1500ml orally. The last two groups were given a dose of 2000ml of extract and 200mg ferrous sulphate tablet respectively. Primary endpoint was the actual change of iron status indicators at the end of 30 days follow up period as compared to those recorded at baseline. Adverse effects were assessed at every 10th day scheduled visit. In all arms, HB and hematopoietic parameters were measured using HemoCue hemoglobinometer® (HemoCue, Ängelholm, Sweden) and hematology analyzer® respectively at the trial site. Follow up was done for 30 days. A total of 82 participants were included for analysis. A standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. did not improve iron status in anemic adults in malaria endemic region (P>0.005). However, there was evidence to support the safety of the extract for human consumptions as herbal supplement. Iron and organic acids contents of H. sabdariffa L. extract showed the potential of improving hematopoietic parameters. Studies with bigger sample size are therefore needed to establish the efficacy of the extract when concurrently used with malaria chemoprophylaxis in malaria endemic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caroline O H Jones
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative study to investigate the perceptions and experiences of health workers involved in a a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a novel intervention to improve health worker malaria case-management in 107 government health facilities in Kenya. The intervention involved sending text-messages about paediatric outpatient malaria case-management accompanied by "motivating" quotes to health workers' mobile phones. Ten malaria messages were developed reflecting recommendations from the Kenyan national guidelines. Two messages were delivered per day for 5 working days and the process was repeated for 26 weeks (May to October 2009. The accompanying quotes were unique to each message. The intervention was delivered to 119 health workers and there were significant improvements in correct artemether-lumefantrine (AL management both immediately after the intervention (November 2009 and 6 months later (May 2010. In-depth interviews with 24 health workers were undertaken to investigate the possible drivers of this change. The results suggest high acceptance of all components of the intervention, with the active delivery of information in an on the job setting, the ready availability of new and stored text messages and the perception of being kept 'up to date' as important factors influencing practice. Applying the construct of stages of change we infer that in this intervention the SMS messages were operating primarily at the action and maintenance stages of behaviour change achieving their effect by creating an enabling environment and providing a prompt to action for the implementation of case management practices that had already been accepted as the clinical norm by the health workers. Future trials testing the effectiveness of SMS reminders in creating an enabling environment for the establishment of new norms in clinical practice as well as in providing a prompt to action for the implementation of the new
Cláudia A Zago
Full Text Available Plasmodium chabaudi infection induces a rapid and intense splenic CD4(+ T cell response that contributes to both disease pathogenesis and the control of acute parasitemia. The subsequent development of clinical immunity to disease occurs concomitantly with the persistence of low levels of chronic parasitemia. The suppressive activity of regulatory T (T(reg cells has been implicated in both development of clinical immunity and parasite persistence. To evaluate whether IL-2 is required to induce and to sustain the suppressive activity of T(reg cells in malaria, we examined in detail the effects of anti-IL-2 treatment with JES6-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb on the splenic CD4(+ T cell response during acute and chronic P. chabaudi AS infection in C57BL/6 mice. JES6-1 treatment on days 0, 2 and 4 of infection partially inhibits the expansion of the CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ cell population during acute malaria. Despite the concomitant secretion of IL-2 and expression of high affinity IL-2 receptor by large CD4(+ T cells, JES6-1 treatment does not impair effector CD4(+ T cell activation and IFN-γ production. However, at the chronic phase of the disease, an enhancement of cellular and humoral responses occurs in JES6-1-treated mice, with increased production of TNF-α and parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. Furthermore, JES6-1 mAb completely blocked the in vitro proliferation of CD4(+ T cells from non-treated chronic mice, while it further increased the response of CD4(+ T cells from JES6-1-treated chronic mice. We conclude that JES6-1 treatment impairs the expansion of T(reg cell population during early P. chabaudi malaria and enhances the Th1 cell response in the late phase of the disease.
Domingos Alves Meira
Full Text Available A total of 207 patients with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum were submitted to 5 different treatment schedules with clindamycin from 1981 to 1984: A - 89 patients were treated intravenously and orally, or intramuscularly and orally with 20 mg/kg/day divided into two daily applications for 5 to 7 days; B-40 patients were treated orally with 20 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses for 5 to 7 days; C-27 patients were treated with 20 mg/kg/day intravenously or orally divided into two daily applications for 3 days; D-16 patients were treated orally and/or intravenously with a single daily dose of 20 to 40 mg/kg/day for 5 to 7 days; E-35 patients were treated orally with 5 mg/kg/day divided into two doses for 5 days. Patients were examined daily during treatment and reexamined on the 7th, 24th, 21st, 28th and 35th day both clinically and parasitologically (blood test. Eighty three (40.1% had moderate or severe malaria, and 97 (46.8% had shown resistance to chloroquine or to the combination ofsulfadoxin and pyrimethamine. The proportion of cured patients was higher than 95% among patients submitted to schedules A and B. Side effects were only occasional and of low intensity. Three deaths occurred (1.4%, two of them involving patients whose signs and symptoms were already very severe when treatment was started. Thus, clindamycin proved to be very useful in the treatment of patients with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and we recommend schedule A for moderate and severe cases and Bfor initial cases.
Adjei, G O; Darkwah, A K; Goka, B Q
as having potential negative impact on care-seeking practices and adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Health education messages aimed at improving the response to childhood febrile illness should include other strategic stakeholders, such as decision-makers at the household level. The effectiveness and implementation...
Benelli, Giovanni; Beier, John C
The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control. The majority of National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These methods reduce malaria incidence but generally have little impact on malaria prevalence. In addition to outdoor transmission, growing levels of insecticide resistance in targeted vectors threaten the efficacy of LLINs and IRS. Larvicidal treatments can be useful, but are not recommended for rural areas. The research needed to improve the quality and delivery of mosquito vector control should focus on (i) optimization of processes and methods for vector control delivery; (ii) monitoring of vector populations and biting activity with reliable techniques; (iii) the development of effective and eco-friendly tools to reduce the burden or locally eliminate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases; (iv) the careful evaluation of field suitability and efficacy of new mosquito control tools to prove their epidemiological impact; (v) the continuous monitoring of environmental changes which potentially affect malaria vector populations; (vi) the cooperation among different disciplines, with main emphasis on parasitology, tropical medicine, ecology, entomology, and ecotoxicology. A better understanding of behavioral ecology of malaria vectors is required. Key ecological obstacles that limit the effectiveness of vector control include the variation in mosquito behavior, development of insecticide resistance