WorldWideScience

Sample records for improve allocation decisions

  1. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Allocation decisions in network industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, Friedel [Europa-Universitaet Viadrina Frankfurt, Lehrstuhl Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Wirtschaftstheorie (Mikrooekonomie), Postfach 1786 15207 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, I want to propagate a new analytical tool: The usage of Menu Auctions for modelling complicated auctions, negotiations, rent seeking, etc. is advocated, because, contrary to 'normal' auctions and bargaining models, an arbitrary number of additional aspects can be taken into account. After concentrating on 'Truthful Equilibria' [Bernheim, B.D., Whinston, M.D., 1986. Menu auctions, resource allocation, and economic influence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1-31.] a certain broad class of Menu Auctions show unique and efficient allocations. Under an additional concavity condition even the equilibrium bids are unique. Two examples are discussed: the privatisation of a state-owned industry and the buying of wholesale electricity (concluding contracts with a number of producers) by a utility. These examples also serve to trace the sources of 'non-concavities' which can prevent the uniqueness of bids and can provide the auctioneer with incentives to exclude bidders from the competition. (author)

  3. Administrative Decision Making and Resource Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardy, Susan; Sardy, Hyman

    This paper considers selected aspects of the systems analysis of administrative decisionmaking regarding resource allocations in an educational system. A model of the instructional materials purchase system is presented. The major components of this model are: environment, input, decision process, conversion structure, conversion process, output,…

  4. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  5. Improving the blood supply chain: simulation and optimisation models to support collection, production and location-allocation decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Muriel, Andres

    2016-01-01

    This thesis introduces and studies different problems in the blood supply chain. The problems are focused on aspects less frequently studied in the literature such as the exploitation of the different collection and production alternatives, consideration of multiple products and uncertainty in demand and supply. These important features can be found in different decision levels, including daily collections, annual planning and at the strategic level when the blood supply chain is designed. Fo...

  6. Decision support system for health care resources allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaa, Abderrazak; Nouicer, Amina; Tari, AbdelKamel; Tarik, Ramtani; Abdellah, Ouhab

    2017-06-01

    A study about healthcare resources can improve decisions regarding the allotment and mobilization of medical resources and to better guide future investment in the health sector. The aim of this work was to design and implement a decision support system to improve medical resources allocation of Bejaia region. To achieve the retrospective cohort study, we integrated existing clinical databases from different Bejaia department health sector institutions (an Algerian department) to collect information about patients from January 2015 through December 2015. Data integration was performed in a data warehouse using the multi-dimensional model and OLAP cube. During implementation, we used Microsoft SQL server 2012 and Microsoft Excel 2010. A medical decision support platform was introduced, and was implemented during the planning stages allowing the management of different medical orientations, it provides better apportionment and allotment of medical resources, and ensures that the allocation of health care resources has optimal effects on improving health. In this study, we designed and implemented a decision support system which would improve health care in Bejaia department to especially assist in the selection of the optimum location of health center and hospital, the specialty of the health center, the medical equipment and the medical staff.

  7. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts...... information categories affect their decision making. Hence, this has implications for how the potential value of environmental information is to be assessed. Finally, experimental studies as a methodology seem to be better suited to indicate actual effects of different types of information on decision making...... and information material from these companies in which environmental information was included in varying degrees. The overall conclusion is that the qualitative environmental information affects short term allocation decisions, hence indicating a risk reduction potential of environmental information comparable...

  8. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  9. Communication of bed allocation decisions in a critical care unit and accountability for reasonableness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swota Alissa H

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication may affect perceptions of fair process for intensive care unit bed allocation decisions through its impact on the publicity condition of accountability for reasonableness. Methods We performed a qualitative case study to describe participant perceptions of the communication of bed allocation decisions in an 18-bed university affiliated, medical-surgical critical care unit at Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre. Interviewed participants were 3 critical care physicians, 4 clinical fellows in critical care, 4 resource nurses, 4 "end-users" (physicians who commonly referred patients to the unit, and 3 members of the administrative staff. Median bed occupancy during the study period (Jan-April 2003 was 18/18; daily admissions and discharges (median were 3. We evaluated our description using the ethical framework "accountability for reasonableness" (A4R to identify opportunities for improvement. Results The critical care physician, resource nurse, critical care fellow and end-users (trauma team leader, surgeons, neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists functioned independently in unofficial "parallel tracks" of bed allocation decision-making; this conflicted with the official designation of the critical care physician as the sole authority. Communication between key decision-makers was indirect and could exclude those affected by the decisions; notably, family members. Participants perceived a lack of publicity for bed allocation rationales. Conclusion The publicity condition should be improved for critical care bed allocation decisions. Decision-making in the "parallel tracks" we describe might be unavoidable within usual constraints of time, urgency and demand. Formal guidelines for direct communication between key participants in such circumstances would help to improve the fairness of these decisions.

  10. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  11. Decision tables and rule engines in organ allocation systems for optimal transparency and flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.; Deijl, W. van der; Smits, J.M.M.; Rahmel, A.O.; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Organ allocation systems have become complex and difficult to comprehend. We introduced decision tables to specify the rules of allocation systems for different organs. A rule engine with decision tables as input was tested for the Kidney Allocation System (ETKAS). We compared this rule engine with

  12. Car allocation between household heads in car deficient households : A decision model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, Renni; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers car allocation choice behaviour in car-deficient households explicitly in the context of an activity-scheduling process, focusing on work activities. A decision tree induction method is applied to derive a decision tree for the car allocation decision in automobile deficient

  13. The benefit of using additional hydrological information from earth observations and reanalysis data on water allocation decisions in irrigation districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, Alexander; López, Patricia; Werner, Micha; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological information on water availability and demand is vital for sound water allocation decisions in irrigation districts, particularly in times of water scarcity. However, sub-optimal water allocation decisions are often taken with incomplete hydrological information, which may lead to agricultural production loss. In this study we evaluate the benefit of additional hydrological information from earth observations and reanalysis data in supporting decisions in irrigation districts. Current water allocation decisions were emulated through heuristic operational rules for water scarce and water abundant conditions in the selected irrigation districts. The Dynamic Water Balance Model based on the Budyko framework was forced with precipitation datasets from interpolated ground measurements, remote sensing and reanalysis data, to determine the water availability for irrigation. Irrigation demands were estimated based on estimates of potential evapotranspiration and coefficient for crops grown, adjusted with the interpolated precipitation data. Decisions made using both current and additional hydrological information were evaluated through the rate at which sub-optimal decisions were made. The decisions made using an amended set of decision rules that benefit from additional information on demand in the districts were also evaluated. Results show that sub-optimal decisions can be reduced in the planning phase through improved estimates of water availability. Where there are reliable observations of water availability through gauging stations, the benefit of the improved precipitation data is found in the improved estimates of demand, equally leading to a reduction of sub-optimal decisions.

  14. TESTING MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS FOR MORE TRANSPARENT RESOURCE-ALLOCATION DECISION MAKING IN COLOMBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Jaramillo, Hector Eduardo; Goetghebeur, Mireille; Moreno-Mattar, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, Colombia experienced an important institutional transformation after the establishment of the Health Technology Assessment Institute (IETS), the disbandment of the Regulatory Commission for Health and the reassignment of reimbursement decision-making powers to the Ministry of Health and Social Protection (MoHSP). These dynamic changes provided the opportunity to test Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) for systematic and more transparent resource-allocation decision-making. During 2012 and 2013, the MCDA framework Evidence and Value: Impact on Decision Making (EVIDEM) was tested in Colombia. This consisted of a preparatory stage in which the investigators conducted literature searches and produced HTA reports for four interventions of interest, followed by a panel session with decision makers. This method was contrasted with a current approach used in Colombia for updating the publicly financed benefits package (POS), where narrative health technology assessment (HTA) reports are presented alongside comprehensive budget impact analyses (BIAs). Disease severity, size of population, and efficacy ranked at the top among fifteen preselected relevant criteria. MCDA estimates of technologies of interest ranged between 71 to 90 percent of maximum value. The ranking of technologies was sensitive to the methods used. Participants considered that a two-step approach including an MCDA template, complemented by a detailed BIA would be the best approach to assist decision-making in this context. Participants agreed that systematic priority setting should take place in Colombia. This work may serve as the basis to the MoHSP on its interest of setting up a systematic and more transparent process for resource-allocation decision-making.

  15. INDIRECT COSTS ALLOCATION AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a research on the changes occurred inside the accounting system of agricultural organisations in the transitional period. Changes of structure and accounting information system being results of privatisation processes were analysed. The introduction of modern methods in the preparation of relevant management information represents one of the preconditions for development of the privatised agricultural organisation during the transition period. Information prepared by the accounting, especially adapted to management requirements, is essential for rational decision making. Modern management system of reporting is fundamental task of management and a precondition for securing competitive production in agricultural industry. For this reason, it is necessary to define areas of responsibility and to enable application of a modern techniques for calculating expenses. The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the specialised use of accounting information by managers and to develop methods of management reporting in agricultural organisations. We propose an emphasis upon the application of modern management accounting techniques rather than financial accounting reporting approach. We support the contention that the need for high-quality management accounting is not debatable and tend to explain how and why accounting information is developed for the individual parts of a business entity, that is for each department or enterprise of an agricultural organisation. The responsibility accounting system should be introduced in agricultural business entities within our conditions, especially in larger organisations, as a measure of securing competitive production. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between direct and indirect expenses and of using appropriate methods to allocate expenses among departments or enterprises. The research is based on information directly received from the largest agricultural companies in the area of

  16. Optimal static allocation decisions in the presence of portfolio insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Goltz, Felix; Martellini, Lionel; Şimşek, Koray Deniz; Simsek, Koray Deniz

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to determine what fraction a myopic risk-averse investor should allocate to investment strategies with convex exposure to stock market returns in a general economy with stochastically time-varying interest rates and equity risk premium. Our conclusion is that typical investors should optimally allocate a sizable fraction of their portfolio to such portfolio insurance strategies, and the associated utility gains are significant. While the fact that static investors w...

  17. Decision Making for Healthcare Resource Allocation: Joint v. Separate Decisions on Interacting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Helen; Gray, Alastair

    2018-05-01

    Standard guidance for allocating healthcare resources based on cost-effectiveness recommends using different decision rules for independent and mutually exclusive alternatives, although there is some confusion around the definition of "mutually exclusive." This paper reviews the definitions used in the literature and shows that interactions (i.e., non-additive effects, whereby the effect of giving 2 interventions simultaneously does not equal the sum of their individual effects) are the defining feature of mutually exclusive alternatives: treatments cannot be considered independent if the costs and/or benefits of one treatment are affected by the other treatment. The paper then identifies and categorizes the situations in which interventions are likely to have non-additive effects, including interventions targeting the same goal or clinical event, or life-saving interventions given to overlapping populations. We demonstrate that making separate decisions on interventions that have non-additive effects can prevent us from maximizing health gained from the healthcare budget. In contrast, treating combinations of independent options as though they were "mutually exclusive" makes the analysis more complicated but does not affect the conclusions. Although interactions are considered by the World Health Organization, other decision makers, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), currently make independent decisions on treatments likely to have non-additive effects. We propose a framework by which interactions could be considered when selecting, prioritizing, and appraising healthcare technologies to ensure efficient, evidence-based decision making.

  18. The Role of Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultation in Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel; Hurst, Samia; Danis, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions about the allocation and rationing of medical interventions likely occur in all health care systems worldwide. So far very little attention has been given to the question of what role ethics consultation and ethics committees could or should play in questions of allocation at the hospital level. Objectives and Methods This article argues for the need for ethics consultation in rationing decisions using empirical data about the status quo and the inherent nature of bedside rationing. Subsequently, it introduces a 4-stage process for establishing and conducting ethics consultation in rationing questions with systematic reference to core elements of procedural justice. Results Qualitative and quantitative findings show a significant demand for ethics consultation expressed directly by doctors, as well as additional indirect evidence of such a need as indicated by ethically challenging circumstances of inconsistent and structurally disadvantaging rationing decisions. To address this need, we suggest 4 stages for establishing and conducting ethics consultation in rationing questions we recommend: (1) training, (2) identifying actual scarcity-related problems at clinics, (3) supporting decision-making, and (4) evaluation. Conclusion This process of ethics consultation regarding rationing decisions would facilitate the achievement of several practical goals: (i) encouragement of an awareness and understanding of ethical problems in bedside rationing, (ii) encouragement of achieving efficiency along with rationing, (iii) reinforcement of consistency in inter- and intraindvidual decision-making, (iv) encouragement of explicit reflection and justification of the prioritization criteria taken into consideration, (v) improvement in internal (in-house) and external transparency, and (vi) prevention of the misuse of the corresponding consulting structures. PMID:20706163

  19. Many-objective robust decision making for water allocation under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Ludwig, Fulco; Huang, He Qing; Werners, Saskia E.

    2017-01-01

    Water allocation is facing profound challenges due to climate change uncertainties. To identify adaptive water allocation strategies that are robust to climate change uncertainties, a model framework combining many-objective robust decision making and biophysical modeling is developed for large

  20. From efficacy to equity: Literature review of decision criteria for resource allocation and healthcare decisionmaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guindo, L.A.; Wagner, M.; Baltussen, R.; Rindress, D.; van Til, Janine Astrid; Kind, P.; Goetghebeur, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Resource allocation is a challenging issue faced by health policy decisionmakers requiring careful consideration of many factors. Objectives of this study were to identify decision criteria and their frequency reported in the literature on healthcare decisionmaking. Method An extensive

  1. Capital Allocation and Delegation of Decision-Making Authority within Firms

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Graham; Campbell R. Harvey; Manju Puri

    2011-01-01

    We survey more than 1,000 CEOs and CFOs to understand how capital is allocated, and decision-making authority is delegated, within firms. We find that CEOs are least likely to share or delegate decision-making authority in mergers and acquisitions, relative to delegation of capital structure, payout, investment, and capital allocation decisions. We also find that CEOs are more likely to delegate decision authority when the firm is large or complex. Delegation is less likely when the CEO is pa...

  2. Factors influencing resource allocation decisions and equity in the health system of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, A D; Zwi, A B

    2009-05-01

    Allocation of financial resources in the health sector is often seen as a formula-driven activity. However, the decision to allocate a certain amount of resources to a particular health jurisdiction or facility may be based on a broader range of factors, sometimes not reflected in the existing resource allocation formula. This study explores the 'other' factors that influence the equity of resource allocation in the health system of Ghana. The extent to which these factors are, or can be, accounted for in the resource allocation process is analysed. An exploratory design focusing on different levels of the health system and diverse stakeholders. Data were gathered through semi-structured qualitative interviews with health authorities at national, regional and district levels, and with donor representatives and local government officials in 2003 and 2004. The availability of human resources for health, local capacity to utilize funds, donor involvement in the health sector, and commitment to promote equity have considerable influence on resource allocation decisions and affect the equity of funding allocations. However, these factors are not accounted for adequately in the resource allocation process. This study highlights the need for a more transparent resource allocation system in Ghana based on needs, and takes into account key issues such as capacity constraints, the inequitable human resource distribution and donor-earmarked funding.

  3. A Decision Theory Approach to College Resource Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Charles W.

    Current budgeting techniques are reviewed in relation to their application to higher education, including (1) incremental budgeting, where decisions are based primarily upon former levels of expenditures, (2) zero-based budgeting, involving the establishment and ranking of "decision packages", (3) Planning and Programming Budgeting…

  4. Effect of False Confidence on Asset Allocation Decisions of Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarn Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether false confidence, as characterized by a high level of personal mastery and a low level of intelligence (IQ, results in frequent investor trading and subsequent investor wealth erosion across time. Using the National Longitudinal Survey (NLSY79, change in wealth and asset allocation across time is modeled as a function of various behavioral, socio-economic and demographic variables drawn from prior literature.  Findings of this research reveal that false confidence is indeed a predictor of trading activity in individual investment assets, and it also has a negative impact on individual wealth creation across time.

  5. An improved risk-explicit interval linear programming model for pollution load allocation for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bisheng; Qian, Xin; Yao, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Although the risk-explicit interval linear programming (REILP) model has solved the problem of having interval solutions, it has an equity problem, which can lead to unbalanced allocation between different decision variables. Therefore, an improved REILP model is proposed. This model adds an equity objective function and three constraint conditions to overcome this equity problem. In this case, pollution reduction is in proportion to pollutant load, which supports balanced development between different regional economies. The model is used to solve the problem of pollution load allocation in a small transboundary watershed. Compared with the REILP original model result, our model achieves equity between the upstream and downstream pollutant loads; it also overcomes the problem of greatest pollution reduction, where sources are nearest to the control section. The model provides a better solution to the problem of pollution load allocation than previous versions.

  6. Synchronous Condenser Allocation for Improving System Short Circuit Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2018-01-01

    With converter-based renewable energy sources increasingly integrated into power systems and conventional power plants gradually phased out, future power systems will experience reduced short circuit strength. The deployment of synchronous condensers can serve as a potential solution. This paper...... presents an optimal synchronous condenser allocation method for improving system short circuit ratio at converter point of common coupling using a modified short circuit analysis approach. The total cost of installing new synchronous condensers is minimized while the system short circuit ratios...

  7. Decision tables and rule engines in organ allocation systems for optimal transparency and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Murk; van der Deijl, Wilfred; Smits, Jacqueline M; Rahmel, Axel O; de Vries Robbé, Pieter F; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2011-05-01

    Organ allocation systems have become complex and difficult to comprehend. We introduced decision tables to specify the rules of allocation systems for different organs. A rule engine with decision tables as input was tested for the Kidney Allocation System (ETKAS). We compared this rule engine with the currently used ETKAS by running 11,000 historical match runs and by running the rule engine in parallel with the ETKAS on our allocation system. Decision tables were easy to implement and successful in verifying correctness, completeness, and consistency. The outcomes of the 11,000 historical matches in the rule engine and the ETKAS were exactly the same. Running the rule engine simultaneously in parallel and in real time with the ETKAS also produced no differences. Specifying organ allocation rules in decision tables is already a great step forward in enhancing the clarity of the systems. Yet, using these tables as rule engine input for matches optimizes the flexibility, simplicity and clarity of the whole process, from specification to the performed matches, and in addition this new method allows well controlled simulations. © 2011 The Authors. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  8. WORK ALLOCATION IN COMPLEX PRODUCTION PROCESSES: A METHODOLOGY FOR DECISION SUPPORT

    OpenAIRE

    de Mello, Adriana Marotti; School of Economics, Business and Accounting at the University of São Paulo; Marx, Roberto; Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo; Zilbovicius, Mauro; Polytechnic School – University of São Paulo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the development of a Methodology of Decision Support for Work Allocation in complex production processes. It is known that this decision is frequently taken empirically and that the methodologies available to support it are few and restricted in terms of its conceptual basis. The study of Times and Motion is one of these methodologies, but its applicability is restricted in cases of more complex production processes. The method presented here was developed as a result of...

  9. Corticosterone-mediated reproductive decisions: sex allocation, the cost of reproduction and maternal fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Oliver P.

    2007-01-01

    Managing reproductive investment within the scope of an individual’s energetic condition is required to maximize fitness. To be successful, individuals must make the correct decisions about when to reproduce, when to abandon an attempt, how many resources to invest in current and future attempts and where those resources should be allocated. These reproductive decisions therefore involve complex life-history trade-offs between an individual’s condition and current reproduction, future reprodu...

  10. Decision-theoretic methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.; El-Bassioni, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating reliability and risk to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner, based on a set of global safety criteria which are not rigid. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm; the multiobjective optimization, which is performed on a PRA model and reliability cost functions, serves as the guiding principle for reliability and risk allocation. The concept of noninferiority is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation and preference assessment are discussed

  11. Simulating Water Allocation and Cropping Decisions in Yemen’s Abyan Delta Spate Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Jin-Uk Marchant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture employs more Yemenis than any other sector and spate irrigation is the largest source of irrigation water. Spate irrigation however is growing increasingly difficult to sustain in many areas due to water scarcity and unclear sharing of water amongst users. In some areas of Yemen, there are no institutionalised water allocation rules which can lead to water related disputes. Here, we propose a proof-of-concept model to evaluate the impacts of different water allocation patterns to assist in devising allocation rules. The integrated model links simple wadi flow, diversion, and soil moisture-yield simulators to a crop decision model to evaluate impacts of different water allocation rules and their possible implications on local agriculture using preliminary literature data. The crop choice model is an agricultural production model of irrigation command areas where the timing, irrigated area and crop mix is decided each month based on current conditions and expected allocations. The model is applied to Yemen’s Abyan Delta, which has the potential to be the most agriculturally productive region in the country. The water allocation scenarios analysed include upstream priority, downstream priority, equal priority (equal sharing of water shortages, and a user-defined mixed priority that gives precedence to different locations based on the season. Once water is distributed according to one of these allocation patterns, the model determines the profit-maximising plant date and crop selection for 18 irrigated command areas. This aims to estimate the impacts different water allocation strategies could have on livelihoods. Initial results show an equal priority allocation is the most equitable and efficient, with 8% more net benefits than an upstream scenario, 10% more net benefits than a downstream scenario, and 25% more net benefits than a mixed priority.

  12. [Strategic decisions in public psychiatric institutions: a proposed method for resource analysis and allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, Pierre; Chierici, Piero; Durang, Xavier; Salvador, Nathalie; Lopez, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Because of its sector-based organization and extra-hospital care, public psychiatry has a unique position in healthcare. This paper describes the tools and procedures used to analyze and allocate the resources of the "Centre Hospitalier Alpes-Isère", a hospital serving a catchment population of 530,000 adults. A consensus-based approach was used to validate the selected indicators and included the participation of a geographer. Five levels of resource allocation were identified and classified using a decision tree. At each level, the relevant authorities and criteria were identified as key components of the decision-making process. This paper describes the first three levels of care provision. Focusing on adult care, a comparative assessment of the resources allocated to general psychiatric care and specialist care was conducted, in addition to a comparative assessment of the resources allocated to each of the hospital's four local centers. Geographical accessibility to extramural facilities was also assessed. A study of the characteristics of each general psychiatry clinic revealed significant disparities. The paper highlights several issues: the poor knowledge of psychiatric epidemiological data relating to the population within the catchment area, the difficulty of assessing non-consolidated data or indicators from multiple sources, and the limited and partial nature of geographical data for characterizing and evaluating health care in the hospital's peripheral clinics. Several studies are currently underway to assess the operational effectiveness of the tools and procedures used to analyze and allocate resources.

  13. Application of goal programming to decision problem on optimal allocation of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Sangduk; Narita, Masakuni

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an optimal planning in a multiple objective decision-making problem of allocating radiation workers to workplaces associated with occupational exposure. The model problem is formulated with the application of goal programming which effectively followed up diverse and conflicting factors influencing the optimal decision. The formulation is based on the data simulating the typical situations encountered at the operating facilities such as nuclear power plants where exposure control is critical to the management. Multiple goals set by the decision-maker/manager who has the operational responsibilities for radiological protection are illustrated in terms of work requirements, exposure constraints of the places, desired allocation of specific personnel and so on. Test results of the model are considered to indicate that the model structure and its solution process can provide the manager with a good set of analysis of his problems in implementing the optimization review of radiation protection during normal operation. (author)

  14. Many-objective robust decision making for water allocation under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ludwig, Fulco; Huang, He Qing; Werners, Saskia E

    2017-12-31

    Water allocation is facing profound challenges due to climate change uncertainties. To identify adaptive water allocation strategies that are robust to climate change uncertainties, a model framework combining many-objective robust decision making and biophysical modeling is developed for large rivers. The framework was applied to the Pearl River basin (PRB), China where sufficient flow to the delta is required to reduce saltwater intrusion in the dry season. Before identifying and assessing robust water allocation plans for the future, the performance of ten state-of-the-art MOEAs (multi-objective evolutionary algorithms) is evaluated for the water allocation problem in the PRB. The Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (Borg MOEA), which is a self-adaptive optimization algorithm, has the best performance during the historical periods. Therefore it is selected to generate new water allocation plans for the future (2079-2099). This study shows that robust decision making using carefully selected MOEAs can help limit saltwater intrusion in the Pearl River Delta. However, the framework could perform poorly due to larger than expected climate change impacts on water availability. Results also show that subjective design choices from the researchers and/or water managers could potentially affect the ability of the model framework, and cause the most robust water allocation plans to fail under future climate change. Developing robust allocation plans in a river basin suffering from increasing water shortage requires the researchers and water managers to well characterize future climate change of the study regions and vulnerabilities of their tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How much water flows? Examining water allocations using a mobile decision lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickert, G. E.; Gober, P.; Bradford, L. E.; Phillips, P.; Ross, J.

    2016-12-01

    Management of freshwater resources is a complex and multifaceted issues. Big challenges like scarcity, conflicts over water use and access, and ecosystem degradation are widespread around the world. These issues reflects ineffective past practices and signals the need for a fundamental change. Previous actions to mitigate these problems have been incremental rather than innovative, in part because of inherent conservatism in the water management community and an inability to experiment with water allocations in a safe environment. The influence of transboundary water policies was tested using a mobile decision lab which examined three theory areas: limited territorial sovereignty, absolute territorial sovereignty, and shared risk. The experiment allowed people engaged in the water sector to allocate incoming flows to different sectors: agriculture, municipal, industrial and environmental flows in two flow scenarios; slight shortage and extreme water shortage, and to pass on the remaining water to downstream regions. Mandatory sharing 50% of the natural flows between provinces (i.e. limited territorial sovereignty) achieved the most equitable allocation based on water units and points across the three regions. When there were no allocation rules (i.e. absolute territorial sovereignty) the downstream region received significantly less water (e.g. 8-11%. p affect on the amount of water flowing through the region. It is also notable that most participants sought a trade-off of water allocations, minimizing the allocations to agriculture and industry and prioritizing the municipal sector particularity under the severe drought scenario.

  16. Decision Makers' Allocation of Home-Care Therapy Services: A Process Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Jeff; Egan, Mary; Rappolt, Susan; Berg, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore decision-making processes currently used in allocating occupational and physical therapy services in home care for complex long-stay clients in Ontario. Method: An exploratory study using key-informant interviews and client vignettes was conducted with home-care decision makers (case managers and directors) from four home-care regions in Ontario. The interview data were analyzed using the framework analysis method. Results: The decision-making process for allocating therapy services has four stages: intake, assessment, referral to service provider, and reassessment. There are variations in the management processes deployed at each stage. The major variation is in the process of determining the volume of therapy services across home-care regions, primarily as a result of financial constraints affecting the home-care programme. Government funding methods and methods of information sharing also significantly affect home-care therapy allocation. Conclusion: Financial constraints in home care are the primary contextual factor affecting allocation of therapy services across home-care regions. Given the inflation of health care costs, new models of funding and service delivery need to be developed to ensure that the right person receives the right care before deteriorating and requiring more costly long-term care. PMID:24403672

  17. Decision maker perceptions of resource allocation processes in Canadian health care organizations: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Davidson, Alan; Urquhart, Bonnie; Gibson, Jennifer L; Peacock, Stuart; Donaldson, Cam

    2013-07-02

    Resource allocation is a key challenge for healthcare decision makers. While several case studies of organizational practice exist, there have been few large-scale cross-organization comparisons. Between January and April 2011, we conducted an on-line survey of senior decision makers within regional health authorities (and closely equivalent organizations) across all Canadian provinces and territories. We received returns from 92 individual managers, from 60 out of 89 organizations in total. The survey inquired about structures, process features, and behaviours related to organization-wide resource allocation decisions. We focus here on three main aspects: type of process, perceived fairness, and overall rating. About one-half of respondents indicated that their organization used a formal process for resource allocation, while the others reported that political or historical factors were predominant. Seventy percent (70%) of respondents self-reported that their resource allocation process was fair and just over one-half assessed their process as 'good' or 'very good'. This paper explores these findings in greater detail and assesses them in context of the larger literature. Data from this large-scale cross-jurisdictional survey helps to illustrate common challenges and areas of positive performance among Canada's health system leadership teams.

  18. Ethical issues faced by clinician/managers in resource-allocation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux-Charles, L; Meslin, E M; Aird, C; Baker, R; Leatt, P

    1993-01-01

    This article explores the ethical issues faced by clinicians with management responsibilities (clinician/managers) when making decisions related to resource allocation and utilization at a Canadian teaching hospital. Using a focus group method, 28 individuals participated in four homogeneous groups that included nurse managers, managers from other professional groups, and physician managers. Ethical issues that recurred throughout the discussions included fairness, concern with preventing harm, consumer/patient choice, balancing needs of different groups of patients, conflict between financial incentives and patient needs, and professional autonomy. The particular issue of conflict is analyzed from two perspectives--a theory of professional-bureaucratic roles and of obligation--that illustrate how both management and philosophical issues are related. The findings suggest that decentralizing resource allocation and utilization decisions does raise ethical issues for clinician/managers and that a better understanding of these issues can be obtained using an interdisciplinary perspective.

  19. Quality uncertainty and allocation of decision rights in the European protected designation of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Martino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some issue in the governance of the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO. The PDO systems are the outcomes of both farmers and consumers expectations and connect the valorisation of the agricultural and rural resources of given territories to the quality of typical products. A critical point in the governance of the PDO systems is represented by the connection between the quality strategies and the uncertainty. The paper argues that the PDO systems can be thought of as strictly coordinated subsystems in which the ex post governance play a critical role in coping with quality uncertainty. The study suggests that the society's inducements given raise to complex organizational systems in which the allocation of decision rights to PDO collective organizations play a major role. The empirical analysis is carried out by examining ten Italian PDO systems in order to identify the decision rights allocated.

  20. Collective Decision Mechanisms and Efficient Stock Market Allocations: Existence of a Participation Equilibrium.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Robert; Suchanek, Gerry L

    1984-01-01

    The recent literature on economies with an incomplete set of markets has been devoted to the study of the efficiency properties of collective stockholder decision mechanisms for guiding the behavior of firms when the restrictive Ekern-Wilson spanning condition is not satisfied. The results have been essentially negative; a majority voting rule and controlling interest rules will not yield efficient equilibrium allocations in general. However, in a recent paper, Helpman and Razin (1978) sugges...

  1. Work, family, and happiness : essays on interdependencies within families, life events, and time allocation decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pouwels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate how today’s work and family life influence people’s happiness – or the lack thereof. We contribute to the research agenda by focusing on three underexplored issues in the literature, namely i) interdependencies within families, ii) life events, and iii) time allocation decisions. Using data of the Dutch Time Competition Survey 2003 and the German Socio-Economic Panel 1984 – 2005 (GSOEP), this thesis shows that the happiness of partners in marital relationships is...

  2. Fast Allocation and Deallocation with an Improved Buddy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Demaine, Erik D.; Munro, J. Ian

    2005-01-01

    We propose several modifications to the binary buddy system for managing dynamic allocation of memory blocks whose sizes are powers of two. The standard buddy system allocates and deallocates blocks in Theta(lg n) time in the worst case (and on an amortized basis), where n is the size of the memo...

  3. Influence of biases in numerical magnitude allocation on human prosocial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Franka, Mustafa; Mediratta, Saniya; Ramachandaran, Sanjeev; Lobo, Rhannon; Malhotra, Paresh A; Roberts, R E; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade neuroscientific research has attempted to probe the neurobiological underpinnings of human prosocial decision making. Such research has almost ubiquitously employed tasks such as the dictator game or similar variations (i.e., ultimatum game). Considering the explicit numerical nature of such tasks, it is surprising that the influence of numerical cognition on decision making during task performance remains unknown. While performing these tasks, participants typically tend to anchor on a 50:50 split that necessitates an explicit numerical judgement (i.e., number-pair bisection). Accordingly, we hypothesize that the decision-making process during the dictator game recruits overlapping cognitive processes to those known to be engaged during number-pair bisection. We observed that biases in numerical magnitude allocation correlated with the formulation of decisions during the dictator game. That is, intrinsic biases toward smaller numerical magnitudes were associated with the formulation of less favorable decisions, whereas biases toward larger magnitudes were associated with more favorable choices. We proceeded to corroborate this relationship by subliminally and systematically inducing biases in numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers using a visuo-vestibular stimulation paradigm. Such subliminal alterations in numerical magnitude allocation led to proportional and corresponding changes to an individual's decision making during the dictator game. Critically, no relationship was observed between neither intrinsic nor induced biases in numerical magnitude on decision making when assessed using a nonnumerical-based prosocial questionnaire. Our findings demonstrate numerical influences on decisions formulated during the dictator game and highlight the necessity to control for confounds associated with numerical cognition in human decision-making paradigms. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate that intrinsic biases in numerical magnitude

  4. Initial Provincial Allocation and Equity Evaluation of China’s Carbon Emission Rights—Based on the Improved TOPSIS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s largest carbon emitter, China considers carbon emissions trading to be an important measure in its national strategy for energy conservation and emissions reduction. The initial allocation of China’s carbon emissions rights at the provincial level is a core issue of carbon emissions trading. A scientific and reasonable distinction between the carbon emission rights of provinces is crucial for China to achieve emissions reduction targets. Based on the idea of multi-objective decision-making, this paper uses the improved Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method to allocate China’s initial carbon emission rights to the provinces and uses the Gini coefficient sub-group decomposition method to evaluate the fairness of the allocation results. First, the results of a theoretical distribution show that in the initial allocation of carbon emission rights, a large proportion of China’s provinces have large populations and high energy use, such as Shandong Province, Jiangsu Province, Hebei Province and Henan Province; the provinces with a small proportion of the initial allocation of carbon emissions consist of two municipalities, Beijing and Shanghai, as well as Hainan Province, which is dominated by tourism. Overall, the initial allocation of carbon emission rights in the northern and eastern regions constituted the largest proportion, with the south-central region and the northwest region being the second largest and the southwest region being the smallest. Second, the difference between the theoretical allocation and the actual allocation of carbon emission rights in China was clear. The energy consumption of large provinces and provinces dominated by industry generally had a negative difference (the theoretical allocation of carbon emissions was less than the actual value, while Qinghai, dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry, showed a positive balance (the theoretical allocation of

  5. A decision aid tool for equity issues analysis in emission permit allocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Waaub, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The general intention of global climate agreements is to stabilize greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere which contribute to climate change. Climate models indicate that the global average temperature will increase by about 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100 compared to the 1990 level. This study assumed the participation of all countries, including developing countries, to achieve a global GHG stabilization target. It examined international cooperation mechanisms such as permit trading to achieve global economic efficiency. The study proposed a decision aid tool that provides relevant information on various equitable permit allocation schemes. A dynamic multicriterion model was presented to share the global quantity of permits among 15 regions. Multiple definitions of equity were considered. A realistic simulation of the World-MARKAL energy model was conducted to demonstrate the potential application of the scheme in international negotiations. The goal was to propose a range of permit allocations for each country in order to restrict the number of possibilities and guide negotiations. A model of the global reduction scenario makes it possible to determine cost effective solutions and to calculate reduction costs. Equity issues related to permit allocations were also addressed along with permit allocations and net reduction costs for each region. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix

  6. A decision model to allocate protective safety barriers and mitigate domino effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Jochen; Talarico, Luca; Reniers, Genserik; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model to support decision-makers about where to locate safety barriers and mitigate the consequences of an accident triggering domino effects. Based on the features of an industrial area that may be affected by domino accidents, and knowing the characteristics of the safety barriers that can be installed to stall the fire propagation between installations, the decision model can help practitioners in their decision-making. The model can be effectively used to decide how to allocate a limited budget in terms of safety barriers. The goal is to maximize the time-to-failure of a chemical installation ensuring a worst case scenario approach. The model is mathematically stated and a flexible and effective solution approach, based on metaheuristics, is developed and tested on an illustrative case study representing a tank storage area of a chemical company. We show that a myopic optimization approach, which does not take into account knock-on effects possibly triggered by an accident, can lead to a distribution of safety barriers that are not effective in mitigating the consequences of a domino accident. Moreover, the optimal allocation of safety barriers, when domino effects are considered, may depend on the so-called cardinality of the domino effects. - Highlights: • A model to allocate safety barriers and mitigate domino effects is proposed. • The goal is to maximize the escalation time of the worst case scenario. • The model provides useful recommendations for decision makers. • A fast metaheuristic approach is proposed to solve such a complex problem. • Numerical simulations on a realistic case study are shown

  7. Allocating health care: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision making, or the veil of ignorance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, S D

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that rationing health care is unavoidable, and that it requires moral reasoning, how should we allocate limited health care resources? This question is difficult because our pluralistic, liberal society has no consensus on a conception of distributive justice. In this article I focus on an alternative: Who shall decide how to ration health care, and how shall this be done to respect autonomy, pluralism, liberalism, and fairness? I explore three processes for making rationing decisions: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision making, and applications of the veil of ignorance. I evaluate these processes as examples of procedural justice, assuming that there is no outcome considered the most just. I use consent as a criterion to judge competing processes so that rationing decisions are, to some extent, self-imposed. I also examine the processes' feasibility in our current health care system. Cost-utility analysis does not meet criteria for actual or presumed consent, even if costs and health-related utility could be measured perfectly. Existing structures of government cannot creditably assimilate the information required for sound rationing decisions, and grassroots efforts are not representative. Applications of the veil of ignorance are more useful for identifying principles relevant to health care rationing than for making concrete rationing decisions. I outline a process of decision making, specifically for health care, that relies on substantive, selected representation, respects pluralism, liberalism, and deliberative democracy, and could be implemented at the community or organizational level.

  8. Risk and reliability allocation to risk control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The risk allocation procedure is used as an analytical model to support the optimal decision making for reliability/availability improvement planning. Both levels of decision criteria, the plant risk measures and plant performance indices, are used in risk allocation procedure. Decision support system uses the multi objective decision making concept. (author) [sl

  9. What Factors Do Allied Health Take Into Account When Making Resource Allocation Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Haylee; Sturgess, Tamica; Philip, Kathleen; Markham, Donna; Martin, Jennifer; Walsh, Jill; Hubbard, Wendy; Haines, Terry

    2017-09-12

    Allied health comprises multiple professional groups including dietetics, medical radiation practitioners, occupational therapists, optometrists and psychologists. Different to medical and nursing, Allied health are often organized in discipline specific departments and allocate budgets within these to provide services to a range of clinical areas. Little is known of how managers of allied health go about allocating these resources, the factors they consider when making these decisions, and the sources of information they rely upon. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors that allied health consider when making resource allocation decisions and the sources of information they are based upon. Four forums were conducted each consisting of case studies, a large group discussion and two hypothetical scenarios to elicit data. A thematic content analysis commenced during post-forum discussions of key factors by forum facilitators. These factors were then presented to an expert working party for further discussion and refinement. Transcripts were generated of all data recordings and a detailed thematic analysis was undertaken by one author to ensure coded data matched the initial thematic analysis. Twelve factors affecting the decision-making of allied health managers and clinicians were identified. One of these factors was disendorsed by the expert working party. The 11 remaining factors can be considered to be key decision-making principles that should be consistently applied to resource allocation. These principles were clustered into three overarching themes of readiness, impact and appropriateness. Understanding these principles now means further research can be completed to more effectively integrate research evidence into health policy and service delivery, create partnerships among policy-makers, managers, service providers and researchers, and to provide support to answer difficult questions that policy-makers, managers and service providers

  10. A method for systematic resource allocation for improved nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doboe, L.; Golay, M.; Todreas, N.; Li, F.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was made on plant improvement investments in terms of the methods and criteria used in cooperation with the staffs of a group of nuclear power plants, aiming to understand better the methods used within US nuclear power plants for allocating investments. Cost analyses were being used the authors translated the process into a mathematical format. A spectrum of practices, ranging from use of informal power relationship-based processes to format benefit was found among different organizations. Cost-based processes structured to take into account a broad range of decision factors. Factors such as cost results, risk aversion and required uncertainty premiums were included in the treatment. Ultimately, competing investments can be ranked using the method presented in order of their return upon investment at an equivalent level of uncertainty. A method for ranking the attractiveness of nuclear power plant investments is presented which takes into account consistently factors of return upon investment, uncertainty and decision-maker risk aversion. Hopefully its use will result in improved decisions. (M.N.)

  11. A portfolio decision analysis approach to support energy research and development resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, Margaret; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Bates, Matthew E.; Bridges, Todd S.; Summers, Jeffrey; Linkov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Research sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) aims to facilitate a clean and independent energy future for the nation. Strategic planning for energy research and development (R&D) can be complex and dynamic, in part due to federal budgetary constraints and volatility. Managing R&D funding to advance energy technologies, in spite of these challenges, is a crucial component of the nation's long term energy policy. This study demonstrates a portfolio decision analysis (PDA) approach to support R&D resource allocation decisions for the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's Carbon Capture and Storage R&D program. A multi-attribute value model uses technology readiness levels (TRLs) and other metrics to represent the overall objectives of the R&D program in order to evaluate alternative research portfolios given limited funding. Mathematical optimization identifies efficient funding allocations for each technology program area to maximize the multi-attribute value generated from the total budget. This is especially useful for responding to externally imposed budget changes. As the case study demonstrates, explicitly funding the most value-generating options leads to greater expected R&D programmatic value than typical strategies of equal or proportional distributions of a budget change among technology program areas. - Highlights: • Decision analysis can minimize the effect of a budget decrement on an R&D program. • Greater expected benefits are yielded by differentially funding technologies. • Budget scenario testing illustrates factors that influence value generation. • Coordinating with US DOE bridges gap between decision research and practice.

  12. Resource allocation decision modeling for a Louisiana Public Benefit Fund program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model is developed to value energy efficiency improvement programs in Louisiana proposed to be delivered through a Public Benefits Fund. A uniform 1 mill/kW h non-bypassable surcharge on the electric rates of all electricity users is proposed to be distributed for low-income bill assistance, low-income weatherization, and energy efficiency programs across the residential and commercial sector of Louisiana. The economic and environmental impact of the energy improvement programs is coupled to a stochastic linear program to specify the resource allocation subject to policy and system constraints. The model is illustrated through a realistic policy scenario. (Author)

  13. Optimal Waste Load Allocation Using Multi-Objective Optimization and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Saberi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing demand for water, depletion of resources of acceptable quality, and excessive water pollution due to agricultural and industrial developments has caused intensive social and environmental problems all over the world. Given the environmental importance of rivers, complexity and extent of pollution factors and physical, chemical and biological processes in these systems, optimal waste-load allocation in river systems has been given considerable attention in the literature in the past decades. The overall objective of planning and quality management of river systems is to develop and implement a coordinated set of strategies and policies to reduce or allocate of pollution entering the rivers so that the water quality matches by proposing environmental standards with an acceptable reliability. In such matters, often there are several different decision makers with different utilities which lead to conflicts. Methods/Materials: In this research, a conflict resolution framework for optimal waste load allocation in river systems is proposed, considering the total treatment cost and the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD violation characteristics. There are two decision-makers inclusive waste load discharges coalition and environmentalists who have conflicting objectives. This framework consists of an embedded river water quality simulator, which simulates the transport process including reaction kinetics. The trade-off curve between objectives is obtained using the Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm which these objectives are minimization of the total cost of treatment and penalties that must be paid by discharges and a violation of water quality standards considering BOD parameter which is controlled by environmentalists. Thus, the basic policy of river’s water quality management is formulated in such a way that the decision-makers are ensured their benefits will be provided as far as possible. By using MOPSO

  14. A System Dynamics Model to Improve Water Resources Allocation in the Conchos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, J. R.; Valdes, J. B.; Stewart, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Conchos river located in Chihuahua state on a semiarid region is the most important Mexican river contributing water deliveries to USA as established by the Water treaty of 1944 signed between Mexico and USA. Historically, Mexico has delivered to UNITED STATES 550 Hm3 (445,549.5 ACF) per year of water since the treaty was established, which is 25% above the yearly water volume Mexico is required to deliver. The Conchos river has contributed with 54% of the historic Mexican water treaty deliveries to the UNITED STATES, which represents the highest percentage of the 6 Mexican rivers considered on the water treaty. However, during drought situations the basin has proven to be vulnerable, for instance, because of the severe drought of the 90's, several cities in 1992 on Chihuahua state where declared disaster areas, and from 1992 to 2001 Mexico had accumulated a water treaty deficit of 2111.6 Hm3 (1,710,586 ACF). This has conduced to economic, social, and political difficulties in both countries. Because of the cited problematic and considering the poor understanding of the relationship between water supply and demand factors on the basin, a decision support system (DSS) has been developed aimed to improve the decision making process related with the water resources allocation process. This DSS has been created using System Dynamics (SD). It is a semi-distributed model and is running on monthly time step basis. For both the short and long term, three important water resources management strategies have been evaluated: several water allocation policies from reservoirs to water users; bulk water rights transfers inside and outside Irrigation Districts; and improvement of water distribution efficiencies. The model results have provided very useful regard to gain more quantitative understanding of the different strategies being implemented. They have also indicated that the different water resources alternatives change its degree of importance according to the

  15. Horizontal Allocation of Decision Rights for On-Premise Applications and Software-as-a-Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till; Brown, Carol V.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses a major gap in our knowledge about the allocation of information technology (IT) decision rights between business and IT units at the application level, including the governance of applications delivered on-premise versus those delivered with a software-as-a-service (SaaS......) model. Building on the findings from a multicase qualitative study of organizations that had adopted the same SaaS application, we draw on three theoretical lenses (agency theory, transaction cost economics, and knowledge-based view) to develop a theoretically grounded model with three organization......-level factors, three application-level factors, and application-level IT governance. Hypotheses derived from the model, as well as a set of differential hypotheses about factor influences due to on-premise versus SaaS delivery, are tested with survey responses from 207 firms in which application...

  16. Improved TOPSIS decision model for NPP emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin; Liu Feng; Huang Lian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,an improved decision model is developed for its use as a tool to respond to emergencies at nuclear power plants. Given the complexity of multi-attribute emergency decision-making on nuclear accident, the improved TOPSIS method is used to build a decision-making model that integrates subjective weight and objective weight of each evaluation index. A comparison between the results of this new model and two traditional methods of fuzzy hierarchy analysis method and weighted analysis method demonstrates that the improved TOPSIS model has a better evaluation effect. (authors)

  17. A Multi-layer Dynamic Model for Coordination Based Group Decision Making in Water Resource Allocation and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xingnan; Li, Chenming; Wang, Jianying

    Management of group decision-making is an important issue in water source management development. In order to overcome the defects in lacking of effective communication and cooperation in the existing decision-making models, this paper proposes a multi-layer dynamic model for coordination in water resource allocation and scheduling based group decision making. By introducing the scheme-recognized cooperative satisfaction index and scheme-adjusted rationality index, the proposed model can solve the problem of poor convergence of multi-round decision-making process in water resource allocation and scheduling. Furthermore, the problem about coordination of limited resources-based group decision-making process can be solved based on the effectiveness of distance-based group of conflict resolution. The simulation results show that the proposed model has better convergence than the existing models.

  18. Improving accountability in vaccine decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, James Kenneth; Black, Steven; Rappuoli, Rino

    2017-11-01

    Healthcare decisions, in particular those affecting entire populations, should be evidence-based and taken by decision-makers sharing broad alignment with affected stakeholders. However, criteria, priorities and procedures for decision-making are sometimes non-transparent, frequently vary considerably across equivalent decision-bodies, do not always consider the broader benefits of new health-measures, and therefore do not necessarily adequately represent the relevant stakeholder-spectrum. Areas covered: To address these issues in the context of the evaluation of new vaccines, we have proposed a first baseline set of core evaluation criteria, primarily selected by members of the vaccine research community, and suggested their implementation in vaccine evaluation procedures. In this communication, we review the consequences and utility of stakeholder-centered core considerations to increase transparency in and accountability of decision-making procedures, in general, and of the benefits gained by their inclusion in Multi-Criteria-Decision-Analysis tools, exemplified by SMART Vaccines, specifically. Expert commentary: To increase effectiveness and comparability of health decision outcomes, decision procedures should be properly standardized across equivalent (national) decision bodies. To this end, including stakeholder-centered criteria in decision procedures would significantly increase their transparency and accountability, support international capacity building to improve health, and reduce societal costs and inequity resulting from suboptimal health decision-making.

  19. Improving Allocation And Management Of The Health Workforce In Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Fiona J; Musonda, Mutinta; Mwila, Jere; Prust, Margaret Lippitt; Vosburg, Kathryn Bradford; Fink, Günther; Berman, Peter; Rockers, Peter C

    2017-05-01

    Building a health workforce in low-income countries requires a focused investment of time and resources, and ministries of health need tools to create staffing plans and prioritize spending on staff for overburdened health facilities. In Zambia a demand-based workload model was developed to calculate the number of health workers required to meet demands for essential health services and inform a rational and optimized strategy for deploying new public-sector staff members to the country's health facilities. Between 2009 and 2011 Zambia applied this optimized deployment policy, allocating new health workers to areas with the greatest demand for services. The country increased its health worker staffing in districts with fewer than one health worker per 1,000 people by 25.2 percent, adding 949 health workers to facilities that faced severe staffing shortages. At facilities that had had low staffing levels, adding a skilled provider was associated with an additional 103 outpatient consultations per quarter. Policy makers in resource-limited countries should consider using strategic approaches to identifying and deploying a rational distribution of health workers to provide the greatest coverage of health services to their populations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. The Role of Integrated Modelling and Assessment for Decision-Making: Lessons from Water Allocation Issues in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; El Sawah, S.; Hamilton, S.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated modelling and assessment (IMA) is best regarded as a process that can support environmental decision-making when issues are strongly contested and uncertainties pervasive. To be most useful, the process must be multi-dimensional and phased. Principally, it must be tailored to the problem context to encompass diverse issues of concern, management settings and stakeholders. This in turn requires the integration of multiple processes and components of natural and human systems and their corresponding spatial and temporal scales. Modellers therefore need to be able to integrate multiple disciplines, methods, models, tools and data, and many sources and types of uncertainty. These dimensions are incorporated into iteration between the various phases of the IMA process, including scoping, problem framing and formulation, assessing options and communicating findings. Two case studies in Australia are employed to share the lessons of how integration can be achieved in these IMA phases using a mix of stakeholder participation processes and modelling tools. One case study aims to improve the relevance of modelling by incorporating stakeholder's views of irrigated viticulture and water management decision making. It used a novel methodology with the acronym ICTAM, consisting of Interviews to elicit mental models, Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models, Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process, an All-encompassing conceptual model, and computational Models of stakeholder decision making. The second case uses a hydro-economic river network model to examine basin-wide impacts of water allocation cuts and adoption of farm innovations. The knowledge exchange approach used in each case was designed to integrate data and knowledge bearing in mind the contextual dimensions of the problem at hand, and the specific contributions that environmental modelling was thought to be able to make.

  1. Representing a Model Using Data Mining Approach for Maximizing Profit with Considering Product Assortment and Space Allocation Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Ansari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of which products to stock among numerous competing products and how much space to allocate to those products are central decisions for retailers. This study aimed to apply data mining approach so that, we got needed information from large datasets of sale transactions to find the relations between products and to make product assortments. Thus, we represented a model for product assortment and space allocation. Research population was transactional data of a store, the sample included transactional data of one-month period in the time series. Data were collected in October and November, 2015 from Shaghayegh store. 525 transactions with regard to 79 different products were analyzed. Based on the result 10 product assortments formed although some products were allocated to more than 1 product category. By solving profit equation and finding volume increase indices we allocated spaces for each product assortment.

  2. Assessing and Improving Performance: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Priority Setting and Resource Allocation in a Canadian Health Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William; Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Urquhart, Bonnie; Bryan, Stirling

    2017-08-22

    In order to meet the challenges presented by increasing demand and scarcity of resources, healthcare organizations are faced with difficult decisions related to resource allocation. Tools to facilitate evaluation and improvement of these processes could enable greater transparency and more optimal distribution of resources. The Resource Allocation Performance Assessment Tool (RAPAT) was implemented in a healthcare organization in British Columbia, Canada. Recommendations for improvement were delivered, and a follow up evaluation exercise was conducted to assess the trajectory of the organization's priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) process 2 years post the original evaluation. Implementation of RAPAT in the pilot organization identified strengths and weaknesses of the organization's PSRA process at the time of the original evaluation. Strengths included the use of criteria and evidence, an ability to reallocate resources, and the involvement of frontline staff in the process. Weaknesses included training, communication, and lack of program budgeting. Although the follow up revealed a regression from a more formal PSRA process, a legacy of explicit resource allocation was reported to be providing ongoing benefit for the organization. While past studies have taken a cross-sectional approach, this paper introduces the first longitudinal evaluation of PSRA in a healthcare organization. By including the strengths, weaknesses, and evolution of one organization's journey, the authors' intend that this paper will assist other healthcare leaders in meeting the challenges of allocating scarce resources. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  3. Aggregate assessments support improved operational decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.

    2003-01-01

    At Darlington Nuclear aggregate assessment of plant conditions is carried out in support of Operational Decision Making. This paper discusses how aggregate assessments have been applied to Operator Workarounds leading to improved prioritisation and alignment of work programs in different departments. As well, aggregate assessment of plant and human performance factors has been carried out to identify criteria which support conservative decision making in the main control room during unit transients. (author)

  4. A new hybrid decision framework for prioritizing funding allocation to Iran's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, M.; Alighaleh, S.; Hafezi, R.; Omranievardi, M.

    2017-01-01

    With the historic nuclear agreement now in effect, Iran's energy sector expects a new transformation to spark back into life. The government seeks to recover the years of backwardness by capital injections and attract foreign cash into the sector long starved of investment. In this respect, an appropriate and convenient resource allocation scheme in a long-term perspective is vital to keep Iran's position as a major energy supplier. This study develops a new hybrid multi-criteria decision-making model through integrating fuzzy Analytical hierarchy process with the Cumulative belief degree model to effectively evaluate energy alternatives for investment in Iran. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process adds more benefits to the integrated model by providing the fuzzy pairwise comparison to identify weights of criteria while the Cumulative belief degree approach offers higher quality results of overall experts' opinions since it can deal with the missing values. STEEP analysis is also used to ensure capturing influential factors in five categories: social, technological, economic, environmental, and political. As a real application, the proposed methodology is applied to prioritize major energy resources for investment in Iran. Results indicate that natural gas is the ideal option for receiving the highest funding priority followed by solar and oil. - Highlights: • A new hybrid multi-criteria decision making method is proposed. • Cumulative belief degree model is combined with fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. • Utilization of STEEP analysis to capture all influential parameters. • Evaluation of Iran's energy sector to prioritize alternatives for investment. • Natural gas is Iran's best energy investment option followed by solar and oil.

  5. Sustainability-Oriented Financial Resource Allocation in a Project Portfolio through Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomeda Dobrovolskienė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern portfolio theory attempts to maximize the expected return of a portfolio for a given level of portfolio risk, or equivalently minimize risk for a given level of expected return. The reality, however, shows that, when selecting projects to a portfolio and allocating resources in the portfolio, an increasing number of organizations take into account other aspects as well. As a result of the sole purpose (risk-return, it offers only a partial solution for a sustainable organization. Existing project portfolio selection and resource allocation methods and models do not consider sustainability. Therefore, the aim of this article is to develop a sustainability-oriented model of financial resource allocation in a project portfolio by integrating a composite sustainability index of a project into Markowitz’s classical risk-return scheme (mean-variance model. The model was developed by applying multi-criteria decision-making methods. The practicability of the model was tested by an empirical study in a selected construction company. The proposed sustainability-oriented financial resource allocation model could be used in allocating financial resources in any type of business. The use of the model would not only help organisations to manage risk and achieve higher return but would also allow carrying out sustainable projects, thereby promoting greater environmental responsibility and giving more consideration to the wellbeing of future generations. Moreover, the model allows quantifying the impact of the integration of sustainability into financial resource allocation on the return of a portfolio.

  6. A Web-based graphical user interface for evidence-based decision making for health care allocations in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Nadine; Leight, Margo; Berube, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Background The creation of successful health policy and location of resources increasingly relies on evidence-based decision-making. The development of intuitive, accessible tools to analyse, display and disseminate spatial data potentially provides the basis for sound policy and resource allocation decisions. As health services are rationalized, the development of tools such graphical user interfaces (GUIs) is especially valuable at they assist decision makers in allocating resources such that the maximum number of people are served. GIS can used to develop GUIs that enable spatial decision making. Results We have created a Web-based GUI (wGUI) to assist health policy makers and administrators in the Canadian province of British Columbia make well-informed decisions about the location and allocation of time-sensitive service capacities in rural regions of the province. This tool integrates datasets for existing hospitals and services, regional populations and road networks to allow users to ascertain the percentage of population in any given service catchment who are served by a specific health service, or baskets of linked services. The wGUI allows policy makers to map trauma and obstetric services against rural populations within pre-specified travel distances, illustrating service capacity by region. Conclusion The wGUI can be used by health policy makers and administrators with little or no formal GIS training to visualize multiple health resource allocation scenarios. The GUI is poised to become a critical decision-making tool especially as evidence is increasingly required for distribution of health services. PMID:18793428

  7. Decentralisation and health services delivery in Tanzania: Analysis of decision space in planning, allocation, and use of financial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigume, Ramadhani; Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter

    2018-04-01

    While decentralisation of health systems has been on the policy agenda in low-income and middle-income countries since the 1970s, many studies have focused on understanding who has more decision-making powers but less attention is paid to understand what those powers encompass. Using the decision space approach, this study aimed to understand the amount of decision-making space transferred from the central government to institutions at the periphery in the decentralised health system in Tanzania. The findings of this study indicated that the decentralisation process in Tanzania has provided authorities with a range of decision-making space. In the areas of priority setting and planning, district health authorities had moderate decision space. However, in the financial resource allocation and expenditure of funds from the central government, the districts had narrow decision-making space. The districts, nevertheless, had wider decision-making space in mobilising and using locally generated financial resources. However, the ability of the districts to allocate and use locally generated resources was constrained by bureaucratic procedures of the central government. The study concludes that decentralisation by devolution which is being promoted in the policy documents in Tanzania is yet to be realised at the district and local levels. The study recommends that the central government should provide more space to the decentralised district health systems to incorporate locally defined priorities in the district health plans. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  9. Dynamic Optimization for IPS2 Resource Allocation Based on Improved Fuzzy Multiple Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maokuan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study mainly focuses on resource allocation optimization for industrial product-service systems (IPS2. The development of IPS2 leads to sustainable economy by introducing cooperative mechanisms apart from commodity transaction. The randomness and fluctuation of service requests from customers lead to the volatility of IPS2 resource utilization ratio. Three basic rules for resource allocation optimization are put forward to improve system operation efficiency and cut unnecessary costs. An approach based on fuzzy multiple linear regression (FMLR is developed, which integrates the strength and concision of multiple linear regression in data fitting and factor analysis and the merit of fuzzy theory in dealing with uncertain or vague problems, which helps reduce those costs caused by unnecessary resource transfer. The iteration mechanism is introduced in the FMLR algorithm to improve forecasting accuracy. A case study of human resource allocation optimization in construction machinery industry is implemented to test and verify the proposed model.

  10. Improvement of Statistical Decisions under Parametric Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Nechval, Konstantin N.; Purgailis, Maris; Berzins, Gundars; Rozevskis, Uldis

    2011-10-01

    A large number of problems in production planning and scheduling, location, transportation, finance, and engineering design require that decisions be made in the presence of uncertainty. Decision-making under uncertainty is a central problem in statistical inference, and has been formally studied in virtually all approaches to inference. The aim of the present paper is to show how the invariant embedding technique, the idea of which belongs to the authors, may be employed in the particular case of finding the improved statistical decisions under parametric uncertainty. This technique represents a simple and computationally attractive statistical method based on the constructive use of the invariance principle in mathematical statistics. Unlike the Bayesian approach, an invariant embedding technique is independent of the choice of priors. It allows one to eliminate unknown parameters from the problem and to find the best invariant decision rule, which has smaller risk than any of the well-known decision rules. To illustrate the proposed technique, application examples are given.

  11. Designing evaluation studies to optimally inform policy: what factors do policy-makers in China consider when making resource allocation decisions on healthcare worker training programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shishi; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Spencer, Julia; Coker, Richard James; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2018-02-23

    In light of the gap in evidence to inform future resource allocation decisions about healthcare provider (HCP) training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the considerable donor investments being made towards training interventions, evaluation studies that are optimally designed to inform local policy-makers are needed. The aim of our study is to understand what features of HCP training evaluation studies are important for decision-making by policy-makers in LMICs. We investigate the extent to which evaluations based on the widely used Kirkpatrick model - focusing on direct outcomes of training, namely reaction of trainees, learning, behaviour change and improvements in programmatic health indicators - align with policy-makers' evidence needs for resource allocation decisions. We use China as a case study where resource allocation decisions about potential scale-up (using domestic funding) are being made about an externally funded pilot HCP training programme. Qualitative data were collected from high-level officials involved in resource allocation at the national and provincial level in China through ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions consisting of ten participants each. Data were analysed manually using an interpretive thematic analysis approach. Our study indicates that Chinese officials not only consider information about the direct outcomes of a training programme, as captured in the Kirkpatrick model, but also need information on the resources required to implement the training, the wider or indirect impacts of training, and the sustainability and scalability to other settings within the country. In addition to considering findings presented in evaluation studies, we found that Chinese policy-makers pay close attention to whether the evaluations were robust and to the composition of the evaluation team. Our qualitative study indicates that training programme evaluations that focus narrowly on direct training

  12. Risk-based decision making for staggered bioterrorist attacks : resource allocation and risk reduction in "reload" scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaster, Michelle Nicole; Gay, David M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ehlen, Mark Andrew (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Boggs, Paul T.; Ray, Jaideep

    2009-10-01

    Staggered bioterrorist attacks with aerosolized pathogens on population centers present a formidable challenge to resource allocation and response planning. The response and planning will commence immediately after the detection of the first attack and with no or little information of the second attack. In this report, we outline a method by which resource allocation may be performed. It involves probabilistic reconstruction of the bioterrorist attack from partial observations of the outbreak, followed by an optimization-under-uncertainty approach to perform resource allocations. We consider both single-site and time-staggered multi-site attacks (i.e., a reload scenario) under conditions when resources (personnel and equipment which are difficult to gather and transport) are insufficient. Both communicable (plague) and non-communicable diseases (anthrax) are addressed, and we also consider cases when the data, the time-series of people reporting with symptoms, are confounded with a reporting delay. We demonstrate how our approach develops allocations profiles that have the potential to reduce the probability of an extremely adverse outcome in exchange for a more certain, but less adverse outcome. We explore the effect of placing limits on daily allocations. Further, since our method is data-driven, the resource allocation progressively improves as more data becomes available.

  13. Research on the Rural Express Alliance based on ANP improved profit Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yufeng; Zhang, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Online shopping platform in rural distribution difficulties, leading to rural online shopping market and logistics market development is slow. At present, China Post and other private courier companies are not possible to do. So we need to build distribution alliances. Reasonable profit allocation mechanism is the key to the stable development of this distribution alliance. So we proposed the Shapley Value Method and the ANP Improved Model to allocate profits. Finally, the rationality of the method is proved by numerical analysis before and after using the corrected Shapley Value.

  14. A new way to improve the robustness of complex communication networks by allocating redundancy links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunhui; Zhuo Yue; Tang Jieying; Long Keping; Peng Yunfeng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the robustness of complex communication networks on allocating redundancy links. The protecting key nodes (PKN) strategy is proposed to improve the robustness of complex communication networks against intentional attack. Our numerical simulations show that allocating a few redundant links among key nodes using the PKN strategy will significantly increase the robustness of scale-free complex networks. We have also theoretically proved and demonstrated the effectiveness of the PKN strategy. We expect that our work will help achieve a better understanding of communication networks. (paper)

  15. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Masood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective

  16. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sara; Kadir, Masood; Fatmi, Zafar

    2007-01-23

    Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective decision making is required to make financial allocations based on real

  17. Improved learning in U.S. history and decision competence with decision-focused curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacobson

    Full Text Available Decision making is rarely taught in high school, even though improved decision skills could benefit young people facing life-shaping decisions. While decision competence has been shown to correlate with better life outcomes, few interventions designed to improve decision skills have been evaluated with rigorous quantitative measures. A randomized study showed that integrating decision making into U.S. history instruction improved students' history knowledge and decision-making competence, compared to traditional history instruction. Thus, integrating decision training enhanced academic performance and improved an important, general life skill associated with improved life outcomes.

  18. Proposal Allocation Ratio as a Moderator of Interpersonal Responsibility Effects on Hostile Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Gong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders’ hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders’ rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders’ rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five.

  19. Proposal Allocation Ratio as a Moderator of Interpersonal Responsibility Effects on Hostile Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xinyu; Xia, Ling-Xiang; Sun, Yanlin; Guo, Lei; Carpenter, Vanessa C.; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Yunli

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders’ hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders’ rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders’ rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five. PMID:29184518

  20. Improving Adolescent Judgment and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Donald F.; Knight, Danica K.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Human judgment and decision making (JDM) has substantial room for improvement, especially among adolescents. Increased technological and social complexity “ups the ante” for developing impactful JDM interventions and aids. Current explanatory advances in this field emphasize dual processing models that incorporate both experiential and analytic processing systems. According to these models, judgment and decisions based on the experiential system are rapid and stem from automatic reference to previously stored episodes. Those based on the analytic system are viewed as slower and consciously developed. These models also hypothesize that metacognitive (self-monitoring) activities embedded in the analytic system influence how and when the two systems are used. What is not included in these models is the development of an intersection between the two systems. Because such an intersection is strongly suggested by memory and educational research as the basis of wisdom/expertise, the present paper describes an Integrated Judgment and Decision-Making Model (IJDM) that incorporates this component. Wisdom/expertise is hypothesized to contain a collection of schematic structures that can emerge from the accumulation of similar episodes or repeated analytic practice. As will be argued, in comparisons to dual system models, the addition of this component provides a broader basis for selecting and designing interventions to improve adolescent JDM. Its development also has implications for generally enhancing cognitive interventions by adopting principles from athletic training to create automated, expert behaviors. PMID:24391350

  1. Using Computer Simulation Method to Improve Throughput of Production Systems by Buffers and Workers Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of computer simulation methods to support decision making regarding intermediate buffer allocations in a series-parallel production line. The simulation model of the production system is based on a real example of a manufacturing company working in the automotive industry. Simulation experiments were conducted for different allocations of buffer capacities and different numbers of employees. The production system consists of three technological operations with intermediate buffers between each operation. The technological operations are carried out using machines and every machine can be operated by one worker. Multi-work in the production system is available (one operator operates several machines. On the basis of the simulation experiments, the relationship between system throughput, buffer allocation and the number of employees is analyzed. Increasing the buffer capacity results in an increase in the average product lifespan. Therefore, in the article a new index is proposed that includes the throughput of the manufacturing system and product life span. Simulation experiments were performed for different configurations of technological operations.

  2. Nonprofit Decision Making and Resource Allocation: The Importance of Membership Preferences, Community Needs, and Interorganizational Ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, William T.; Johnson, Margaret A.; Bonjean, Charles M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a study of community service organizations (n=12) and their communities indicate that distribution of volunteer funds and time was unrelated to community needs as measured by objective indicators. The most important determinants of resource allocation are members' perceptions of the severity of problems and their willingness to work in…

  3. Work, family, and happiness : essays on interdependencies within families, life events, and time allocation decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate how today’s work and family life influence people’s happiness – or the lack thereof. We contribute to the research agenda by focusing on three underexplored issues in the literature, namely i) interdependencies within families, ii) life events, and iii) time allocation

  4. An improved model for the oPtImal Measurement Probes Allocation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterle, C., E-mail: claudio.sterle@unina.it [Consorzio CREATE/Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’Informazione, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, A.C. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); De Tommasi, G. [Consorzio CREATE/Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’Informazione, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The problem of optimally allocating the probes of a diagnostic system is tackled. • The problem is decomposed in two consecutive optimization problems. • Two original ILP models are proposed and sequentially solved to optimality. • The proposed ILP models improve and extend the previous work present in literature. • Real size instances have been optimally solved with very low computation time. - Abstract: The oPtImal Measurement Probes Allocation (PIMPA) tool has been recently proposed in [1] to maximize the reliability of a tokamak diagnostic system against the failure of one or more of the processing nodes. PIMPA is based on the solution of integer linear programming (ILP) problems, and it minimizes the effect of the failure of a data acquisition component. The first formulation of the PIMPA model did not support the concept of individual slots. This work presents an improved ILP model that addresses the above mentioned problem, by taking into account all the individual probes.

  5. An improved model for the oPtImal Measurement Probes Allocation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterle, C.; Neto, A.C.; De Tommasi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The problem of optimally allocating the probes of a diagnostic system is tackled. • The problem is decomposed in two consecutive optimization problems. • Two original ILP models are proposed and sequentially solved to optimality. • The proposed ILP models improve and extend the previous work present in literature. • Real size instances have been optimally solved with very low computation time. - Abstract: The oPtImal Measurement Probes Allocation (PIMPA) tool has been recently proposed in [1] to maximize the reliability of a tokamak diagnostic system against the failure of one or more of the processing nodes. PIMPA is based on the solution of integer linear programming (ILP) problems, and it minimizes the effect of the failure of a data acquisition component. The first formulation of the PIMPA model did not support the concept of individual slots. This work presents an improved ILP model that addresses the above mentioned problem, by taking into account all the individual probes.

  6. A Fuzzy Max–Min Decision Bi-Level Fuzzy Programming Model for Water Resources Optimization Allocation under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongfeng Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water competing conflict among water competing sectors from different levels should be taken under consideration during the optimization allocation of water resources. Furthermore, uncertainties are inevitable in the optimization allocation of water resources. In order to deal with the above problems, this study developed a fuzzy max–min decision bi-level fuzzy programming model. The developed model was then applied to a case study in Wuwei, Gansu Province, China. In this study, the net benefit and yield were regarded as the upper-level and lower-level objectives, respectively. Optimal water resource plans were obtained under different possibility levels of fuzzy parameters, which could deal with water competing conflict between the upper level and the lower level effectively. The obtained results are expected to make great contribution in helping local decision-makers to make decisions on dealing with the water competing conflict between the upper and lower level and the optimal use of water resources under uncertainty.

  7. Can decision rules simulate carbon allocation for years with contrasting and extreme weather conditions? A case study for three temperate beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Verbeeck, Hans; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The allocation of carbohydrates to different tree processes and organs is crucial to understand the overall carbon (C) cycling rate in forest ecosystems. Decision rules (DR) (e.g. functional balances and source-sink relationships) are widely used to model C allocation in forests. However, standard...... allocation and wood growth at beech stands with contrasting climate and standing stock. However, the allocation model required high quality GPP input and errors (even modest) in GPP resulted in large errors in the growth of the tree organs lowest in the modelled sink hierarchy (woody organs). The ability...

  8. An AHP decision making model for optimal allocation of energy subsidy among socio-economic subsectors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Ameli, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) decision model for sectoral allocation of energy subsidy based on several criteria. With determination of priorities for these criteria through questionnaire and AHP method, the overall rank of these criteria that have the most influence on distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic sub-sectors, are as the following: inflation, economic growth, labor intensity, distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic levels, energy intensity and social cost of air pollution. According to the model, the first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector and the last priority is related to transportation sector. Investigating the impact of changing priority of the criteria on overall results indicates that the socio-economic sub sectors’ ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria. - Highlights: ► Commerce subsector is the best sub sector with an overall priority score of 0.331. ► The first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector. ► When we increase the priority of each criterion first time, then overall rank of the outcome has little changing. ► The socio-economic sub sectors' ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria.

  9. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  10. Improving representation of nitrogen uptake, allocation, and carbon assimilation in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, B.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen is the most important nutrient limiting plant carbon assimilation and growth, and is required for production of photosynthetic enzymes, growth and maintenance respiration, and maintaining cell structure. The forecasted rise in plant available nitrogen through atmospheric nitrogen deposition and the release of locked soil nitrogen by permafrost thaw in high latitude ecosystems is likely to result in an increase in plant productivity. However a mechanistic representation of plant nitrogen dynamics is lacking in earth system models. Most earth system models ignore the dynamic nature of plant nutrient uptake and allocation, and further lack tight coupling of below- and above-ground processes. In these models, the increase in nitrogen uptake does not translate to a corresponding increase in photosynthesis parameters, such as maximum Rubisco capacity and electron transfer rate. We present an improved modeling framework implemented in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) for dynamic plant nutrient uptake, and allocation to different plant parts, including leaf enzymes. This modeling framework relies on imposing a more realistic flexible carbon to nitrogen stoichiometric ratio for different plant parts. The model mechanistically responds to plant nitrogen uptake and leaf allocation though changes in photosynthesis parameters. We produce global simulations, and examine the impacts of the improved nitrogen cycling. The improved model is evaluated against multiple observations including TRY database of global plant traits, nitrogen fertilization observations and 15N tracer studies. Global simulations with this new version of CLM4.5 showed better agreement with the observations than the default CLM4.5-CN model, and captured the underlying mechanisms associated with plant nitrogen cycle.

  11. A Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation Approach to Improving Resource Allocations for School Systems. Administering for Change Program. A Professional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sanford

    This dissertation begins with a description of some methods employed in making public-sector resource-allocation decisions, with conclusions on the appropriateness of each method for evaluating the ongoing programs of a school system. The second section has been rewritten and published as "A Comprehensive Theory of Cost-Effectiveness" (EA 002…

  12. Strategic Decision Games: Improving Strategic Intuition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeFoor, John E

    2007-01-01

    .... Joint doctrine recognizes intuition but overwhelmingly emphasizes analytical methods. The joint community has ample guidance and receives training and education in support of analytical decision making...

  13. Simultaneous allocation of distributed resources using improved teaching learning based optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwar, Neeraj; Gupta, Nikhil; Niazi, K.R.; Swarnkar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous allocation of distributed energy resources in distribution networks. • Annual energy loss reduction is optimized using a multi-level load profile. • A new penalty factor approach is suggested to check node voltage deviations. • An improved TLBO is proposed by suggesting several modifications in standard TLBO. • An intelligent search is proposed to enhance the performance of solution technique. - Abstract: Active and reactive power flow in distribution networks can be effectively controlled by optimally placing distributed resources like shunt capacitors and distributed generators. This paper presents improved variant of Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) to efficiently and effectively deal with the problem of simultaneous allocation of these distributed resources in radial distribution networks while considering multi-level load scenario. Several algorithm specific modifications are suggested in the standard form of TLBO to cope against the intrinsic flaws of this technique. In addition, an intelligent search approach is proposed to restrict the problem search space without loss of diversity. This enhances the overall performance of the proposed method. The proposed method is investigated on IEEE 33-bus, 69-bus and 83-bus test distribution systems showing promising results

  14. A new R-SWAT Decision Making Framework for the Efficient Allocation of Best Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    UDIAS MOINELO ANGEL; MALAGO ANNA; REYNAUD ARNAUD; PASTORI MARCO; VIGIAK OLGA; BOURAOUI Faycal

    2015-01-01

    The work presents and illustrates the application of R-SWAT-DM, a new R framework designed for Decision Making (DM), related to the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs), for restoring and protecting the good ecological status of freshwater bodies. R-SWAT-DM combines the use of the SWAT watershed model, the spatial representation of BMPs and an economic component. The SWAT model served as the nonpoint source pollution estimator for current conditions (base line) as well as for sc...

  15. Essays on household time allocation decisions in a collective household model

    OpenAIRE

    Silvennoinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    This thesis considers the consequences of traditional division of labour in households in a setting where spouses are allowed to have distinct preferences. This approach leads to different results compared to the traditional unitary approach and is better equipped to take into consideration gender related issues of household decision making. The thesis consists of three theoretical essays where the household production theory is applied in the collective household model. The first essay ...

  16. Big-Data Based Decision-Support Systems to Improve Clinicians’ Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosan, Don; Samore, Matthew; Jones, Makoto; Livnat, Yarden; Clutter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Complex clinical decision-making could be facilitated by using population health data to inform clinicians. In two previous studies, we interviewed 16 infectious disease experts to understand complex clinical reasoning. For this study, we focused on answers from the experts on how clinical reasoning can be supported by population-based Big-Data. We found cognitive strategies such as trajectory tracking, perspective taking, and metacognition has the potential to improve clinicians’ cognition to deal with complex problems. These cognitive strategies could be supported by population health data, and all have important implications for the design of Big-Data based decision-support tools that could be embedded in electronic health records. Our findings provide directions for task allocation and design of decision-support applications for health care industry development of Big data based decision-support systems. PMID:27990498

  17. Big-Data Based Decision-Support Systems to Improve Clinicians' Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosan, Don; Samore, Matthew; Jones, Makoto; Livnat, Yarden; Clutter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Complex clinical decision-making could be facilitated by using population health data to inform clinicians. In two previous studies, we interviewed 16 infectious disease experts to understand complex clinical reasoning. For this study, we focused on answers from the experts on how clinical reasoning can be supported by population-based Big-Data. We found cognitive strategies such as trajectory tracking, perspective taking, and metacognition has the potential to improve clinicians' cognition to deal with complex problems. These cognitive strategies could be supported by population health data, and all have important implications for the design of Big-Data based decision-support tools that could be embedded in electronic health records. Our findings provide directions for task allocation and design of decision-support applications for health care industry development of Big data based decision-support systems.

  18. Harnessing Scientific and Technological Advances to Improve Equity in Kidney Allocation Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambur, A R; Audry, B; Antoine, C; Suberbielle, C; Glotz, D; Jacquelinet, C

    2017-12-01

    We reported that current assignment of HLA-DQ is a barrier to organ allocation. Here we simulated the impact of incorporating HLA-DQ antigens and antibodies as A/B and αβ allelic variants, respectively, on calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) and probability of finding potential compatible donors (PCD). A cohort of 1224 donors and 2075 sensitized candidates was analyzed using HLA-DQαβ allelic (study) versus serologic (current practice) nomenclature. A significant (p < 10 -4 ) decrease in cPRA was observed with higher impact for male versus female, and first transplant versus retransplant (p < 10 -4 ), affecting mostly patients with moderate cPRA (30-80%). Consequently, the number of patients qualifying for 100% cPRA points according to the United Network for Organ Sharing-Kidney Allocation System decreased by 37%. More critically, by using allelic versus serologic nomenclature for HLA-DQ, the number of PCDs for all patients was increased, with male and first-transplant patients showing a higher expansion compared with female and retransplants. Patients of blood group O showed the highest benefit. The goal of reporting unacceptable antigens is to improve accuracy of virtual crossmatching and increase the likelihood of finding immunologically compatible donors. Our simulation provides strong support for the need to re-evaluate the use of allele typing and how HLA-DQ antigens and antibodies are incorporated into allocation policies to ensure equity. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Demand driven decision support for efficient water resources allocation in irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Niels; Grießbach, Ulrike Ulrike; Röhm, Patric; Stange, Peter; Wagner, Michael; Seidel, Sabine; Werisch, Stefan; Barfus, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions, such as longer dry spells in the summer months, may have an increasing impact on the agriculture in Saxony (Eastern Germany). For this reason, and, additionally, declining amounts of rainfall during the growing season the use of irrigation will be more important in future in Eastern Germany. To cope with this higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from the optimized agronomic response at farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) which provide the estimated yield subject to the minimum amount of irrigation water. These functions take into account the different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. By applying mathematical interpolation and optimization techniques, the SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different constraints, for instance variable and fix costs or the producer price. This generic approach enables the computation for both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance Irrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies for an effective and efficient utilization of water in order to meet future demands. The prototype is implemented as a web-based decision support system and it is based on a service-oriented geo-database architecture.

  20. How do sex ratios in China influence marriage decisions and intra-household resource allocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maria

    2016-06-01

    This article examines how imbalanced sex ratios influence marriage decisions and household bargaining. Using data from the 1982 Chinese census, the traditional "availability ratio" is modified to reflect the degree to which men tend to marry women from different cohorts. This ratio reflects the average tendency of men to prefer women who are close in age to women who are several years younger than them by weighting cohort sizes using the proportion of people in the population who marry someone born in a different cohort. Given that men generally marry younger women, this ratio varies independently of the size of one's own birth cohort. Yet, the ratio fluctuates considerably across individuals, as the sizes of birth cohorts in China vary across time and regions. This enables us to examine how variability in such ratios may influence marriage decisions and household bargaining. The findings suggest that women exercise greater bargaining power once married. Results indicate that as women become scarcer in the marriage market, they have healthier sons. Men also delay marriage, and consume less tobacco and alcohol. This paper also highlights how sensitive findings may be to using this modified weighted availability ratio rather than a traditional unweighted availability ratio.

  1. Develop feedback system for intelligent dynamic resource allocation to improve application performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Ann C.; Brandt, James M.; Tucker, Thomas (Open Grid Computing, Inc., Austin, TX); Thompson, David

    2011-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia Level II milestone 'Develop feedback system for intelligent dynamic resource allocation to improve application performance'. This milestone demonstrates the use of a scalable data collection analysis and feedback system that enables insight into how an application is utilizing the hardware resources of a high performance computing (HPC) platform in a lightweight fashion. Further we demonstrate utilizing the same mechanisms used for transporting data for remote analysis and visualization to provide low latency run-time feedback to applications. The ultimate goal of this body of work is performance optimization in the face of the ever increasing size and complexity of HPC systems.

  2. Looking for Ms. Right: Allocating Attention to Facilitate Mate Choice Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly D. Suschinsky

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Through various signals, the human body provides information that may be used by receivers to make decisions about mate value. Here, we investigate whether there exists a complementary psychological system designed to selectively attend to these signals in order to choose, and direct effort toward the acquisition of, a potential mate. We presented young men with three images of the same woman (six women in total simultaneously, varying the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR of each image while holding other traits constant. While participants chose their preferred image, we monitored visual attention using an infrared eye-tracker. We found that participants focused their attention selectively on body regions known to provide reproductive information in a manner consistent with the research hypothesis: Reproductively relevant body regions, especially the head and breasts, received the most visual attention. Likewise, images with lower WHRs and reproductively relevant regions in images with lower WHRs received the most visual attention and were chosen as most attractive. Finally, irrespective of WHR size, participants fixated more often and for longer durations on the images that they selected as most attractive.

  3. Integrated Berth Allocation-Quay Crane Assignment Problem: Reformulations, Improved Constraints and Computational Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Røpke, Stefan; Pacino, Dario

    ,74% 63,0 X 7,97% 600* 68,0 67,9 0,19% 600 8 56,1 56,1 0,00% 51,3 X 9,42% 600* 56,1 55,8 0,59% 600* 9 75,1 75,0 0,13% 74,9 X 0,33% 600* 75,1 75,0 0,15% 600* BACAP can also be formulated as Generalized Set Partitioning Problem (GSPP). The model is an extension of the BAP formulation in [2] where we add new...... problem (BAP) and the quay crane assignment problem (QCAP). Such integrated problem is known in the literature ([1]) as the Berth Allocation and Crane Assignment Problem (BACAP). The state-of-the-art [1] models this problem using two decision variables X_ij and Y_ij, representing respectively the partial...... since start-time variables S_i are integrated into objective function. Inequality (1) is based on the following two observations. First, if vessel i berths before vessel j (X_ij=1), then the start time of vessel j (Sj) should be larger than the start time of vessel i plus its minimum expected processing...

  4. Strategic facility planning improves capital decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, J R

    2001-03-01

    A large, Midwestern IDS undertook a strategic facility-planning process to evaluate its facility portfolio and determine how best to allocate future investments in facility development. The IDS assembled a facility-planning team, which initiated the planning process with a market analysis to determine future market demands and identify service areas that warranted facility expansion. The team then analyzed each of the IDS's facilities from the perspective of uniform capacity measurements, highest and best use compared with needs, building condition and investment-worthiness, and facility growth and site development opportunities. Based on results of the analysis, the strategy adopted entailed, in part, shifting some space from inpatient care to ambulatory care services and demolishing and replacing the 11 percent of facilities deemed to be in the worst condition.

  5. Allocation of budget funds on agricultural loan programs: Group consensus decision making in the provincial fund for agricultural development of Vojvodina province in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Boško

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach that could be used for scientifically verified group decision making for the allocation of budget funds on agricultural loan programs in the Provincial Fund for Agricultural Development of Vojvodina Province in Serbia. An approach is structured based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, a recognized multi-criteria method suitable for supporting both individual and group decision making processes. The decision makers' weights in a group are derived in an objective manner and based on demonstrated individual consistency while assessing and evaluating elements within the decision-making framework. A real life application is used to demonstrate how the four key decision-makers can individually evaluate and rank agricultural loan programs and how their decisions are afterwards compiled into the final consensus based group decision.

  6. Improving Decision Making in Intensive Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Meynaar (Iwan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMany decisions are made during a day’s work in critical care. Should this octogenarian with pneumonia and cancer be admitted to the ICU or left on the ward with palliative care? And if admitted to the ICU, will she benefit from being ventilated or should she only be treated with

  7. Development of a minimization instrument for allocation of a hospital-level performance improvement intervention to reduce waiting times in Ontario emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Geoff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rigorous evaluation of an intervention requires that its allocation be unbiased with respect to confounders; this is especially difficult in complex, system-wide healthcare interventions. We developed a short survey instrument to identify factors for a minimization algorithm for the allocation of a hospital-level intervention to reduce emergency department (ED waiting times in Ontario, Canada. Methods Potential confounders influencing the intervention's success were identified by literature review, and grouped by healthcare setting specific change stages. An international multi-disciplinary (clinical, administrative, decision maker, management panel evaluated these factors in a two-stage modified-delphi and nominal group process based on four domains: change readiness, evidence base, face validity, and clarity of definition. Results An original set of 33 factors were identified from the literature. The panel reduced the list to 12 in the first round survey. In the second survey, experts scored each factor according to the four domains; summary scores and consensus discussion resulted in the final selection and measurement of four hospital-level factors to be used in the minimization algorithm: improved patient flow as a hospital's leadership priority; physicians' receptiveness to organizational change; efficiency of bed management; and physician incentives supporting the change goal. Conclusion We developed a simple tool designed to gather data from senior hospital administrators on factors likely to affect the success of a hospital patient flow improvement intervention. A minimization algorithm will ensure balanced allocation of the intervention with respect to these factors in study hospitals.

  8. Development of a minimization instrument for allocation of a hospital-level performance improvement intervention to reduce waiting times in Ontario emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Chad Andrew; Guttmann, Astrid; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rowe, Brian H; Anderson, Geoff; Stukel, Therese; Golden, Brian; Bell, Robert; Morra, Dante; Abrams, Howard; Schull, Michael J

    2009-06-08

    Rigorous evaluation of an intervention requires that its allocation be unbiased with respect to confounders; this is especially difficult in complex, system-wide healthcare interventions. We developed a short survey instrument to identify factors for a minimization algorithm for the allocation of a hospital-level intervention to reduce emergency department (ED) waiting times in Ontario, Canada. Potential confounders influencing the intervention's success were identified by literature review, and grouped by healthcare setting specific change stages. An international multi-disciplinary (clinical, administrative, decision maker, management) panel evaluated these factors in a two-stage modified-delphi and nominal group process based on four domains: change readiness, evidence base, face validity, and clarity of definition. An original set of 33 factors were identified from the literature. The panel reduced the list to 12 in the first round survey. In the second survey, experts scored each factor according to the four domains; summary scores and consensus discussion resulted in the final selection and measurement of four hospital-level factors to be used in the minimization algorithm: improved patient flow as a hospital's leadership priority; physicians' receptiveness to organizational change; efficiency of bed management; and physician incentives supporting the change goal. We developed a simple tool designed to gather data from senior hospital administrators on factors likely to affect the success of a hospital patient flow improvement intervention. A minimization algorithm will ensure balanced allocation of the intervention with respect to these factors in study hospitals.

  9. Location and allocation decision for supply chain network of Cajeput oil (Case in XYZ company)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardika, F. A.; Hisjam, M.; Widodo, B.; Kurniawan, B.

    2017-11-01

    Cajeput oil is a very promising business. And now, the fulfillment of Cajeput oil in Indonesia is still lacking. It's because the rate of production Cajeput leaves in Indonesia is still low. In Indonesia, XYZ company manages forests in 7 regions. XYZ currently are developing Cajeput oil business. XYZ is currently doing business productivity improvement of Cajeput by planting Cajeput trees in Location 3, Sragen. Besides the Cajeput trees planting program, XYZ plan to do the construction distillery Cajeput leaves. The purpose of the research in this paper is to minimize the total cost of the supply chain network of Cajeput oil in XYZ and to determine whether the construction of a Cajeput distillery should be done or not. This paper uses mixed integer linear programming to make matemathical models. To minimize the total cost, used IBM® ILOG®CPLEX software. From IBM® ILOG®CPLEX software. From the calculation ILOG®CPLEX IBM® software can be seen that the minimum total cost would be obtained if XYZ opened a new distillery with a capacity of 25000kg and a new factory with a capacity of 10000kg. Besides all the truck owned can be used entirely at optimal capacity. And the total cost from IBM® ILOG®CPLEX is IDR 113,406,250.

  10. A fuzzy multi-criteria decision model for integrated suppliers selection and optimal order allocation in the green supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Amin-Tahmasbi

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, with the advancement of technology in the production process of various products, the achievement of sustainable production and development has become one of the main concerns of factories and manufacturing organizations. In the same vein, many manufacturers try to select suppliers in their upstream supply chains that have the best performance in terms of sustainable development criteria. In this research, a new multi-criteria decision-making model for selecting suppliers and assigning orders in the green supply chain is presented with a fuzzy optimization approach. Due to uncertainty in supplier capacity as well as customer demand, the problem is formulated as a fuzzy multi-objective linear programming (FMOLP. The proposed model for the selection of suppliers of SAPCO Corporation is evaluated. Firstly, in order to select and rank suppliers in a green supply chain, a network structure of criteria has defined with five main criteria of cost, quality, delivery, technology and environmental benefits. Subsequently, using incomplete fuzzy linguistic relationships, pair-wise comparisons between the criteria and sub-criteria as well as the operation of the options will be assessed. The results of these comparisons rank the existing suppliers in terms of performance and determine the utility of them. The output of these calculations (utility index is used in the optimization model. Subsequently, in the order allocation process, the two functions of the target cost of purchase and purchase value are optimized simultaneously. Finally, the order quantity is determined for each supplier in each period.

  11. Resource allocation and purchasing arrangements to improve accessibility of medicines: Evidence from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Peivand; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Dinarvand, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current methods of pharmaceutical purchasing by Iranian insurance organizations within the World Bank conceptual framework model so as to provide applicable pharmaceutical resource allocation and purchasing (RAP) arrangements in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted through a qualitative document analysis (QDA), applying the four-step Scott method in document selection, and conducting 20 semi-structured interviews using a triangulation method. Furthermore, the data were analyzed applying five steps framework analysis using Atlas-ti software. The QDA showed that the purchasers face many structural, financing, payment, delivery and service procurement and purchasing challenges. Moreover, the findings of interviews are provided in three sections including demand-side, supply-side and price and incentive regime. Localizing RAP arrangements as a World Bank Framework in a developing country like Iran considers the following as the prerequisite for implementing strategic purchasing in pharmaceutical sector: The improvement of accessibility, subsidiary mechanisms, reimbursement of new drugs, rational use, uniform pharmacopeia, best supplier selection, reduction of induced demand and moral hazard, payment reform. It is obvious that for Iran, these customized aspects are more various and detailed than those proposed in a World Bank model for developing countries.

  12. Improved Cat Swarm Optimization for Simultaneous Allocation of DSTATCOM and DGs in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a new methodology for the simultaneous optimal allocation of DSTATCOM and DG in radial distribution systems to maximize power loss reduction while maintaining better node voltage profiles under multilevel load profile. Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO is one of the recently developed powerful swarm intelligence-based optimization techniques that mimics the natural behavior of cats but usually suffers from poor convergence and accuracy while subjected to large dimension problem. Therefore, an Improved CSO (ICSO technique is proposed to efficiently solve the problem where the seeking mode of CSO is modified to enhance its exploitation potential. In addition, the problem search space is virtually squeezed by suggesting an intelligent search approach which smartly scans the problem search space. Further, the effect of network reconfiguration has also been investigated after optimally placing DSTATCOMs and DGs in the distribution network. The suggested measures enhance the convergence and accuracy of the algorithm without loss of diversity. The proposed method is investigated on 69-bus test distribution system and the application results are very promising for the operation of smart distribution systems.

  13. INTERIM REPORT IMPROVED METHODS FOR INCORPORATING RISK IN DECISION MAKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, M. J.; Fraley, D. W.; Denning, R. S.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports observations and preliminary investigations in the first phase of a research program covering methodologies for making safety-related decisions. The objective has been to gain insight into NRC perceptions of the value of formal decision methods, their possible applications, and how risk is, or may be, incorporated in decision making. The perception of formal decision making techniques, held by various decision makers, and what may be done to improve them, were explored through interviews with NRC staff. An initial survey of decision making methods, an assessment of the applicability of formal methods vis-a-vis the available information, and a review of methods of incorporating risk and uncertainty have also been conducted.

  14. Dynamic water allocation policies improve the global efficiency of storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Water impoundment by dams strongly affects the river natural flow regime, its attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Fostering the sustainability of water uses e.g., hydropower systems thus implies searching for innovative operational policies able to generate Dynamic Environmental Flows (DEF) that mimic natural flow variability. The objective of this study is to propose a Direct Policy Search (DPS) framework based on defining dynamic flow release rules to improve the global efficiency of storage systems. The water allocation policies proposed for dammed systems are an extension of previously developed flow redistribution rules for small hydropower plants by Razurel et al. (2016).The mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution applied to lake equations for the stored water in the dam is used to formulate non-proportional redistribution rules that partition the flow for energy production and environmental use. While energy production is computed from technical data, riverine ecological benefits associated with DEF are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to build ecological versus economic efficiency plot and locate its (Pareto) frontier. This study benchmarks two MOEAs (NSGA II and Borg MOEA) and compares their efficiency in terms of the quality of Pareto's frontier and computational cost. A detailed analysis of dam characteristics is performed to examine their impact on the global system efficiency and choice of the best redistribution rule. Finally, it is found that non-proportional flow releases can statistically improve the global efficiency, specifically the ecological one, of the hydropower system when compared to constant minimal flows.

  15. Watching sexy displays improves hatching success and offspring growth through maternal allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Lacroix, Frédéric

    2010-11-22

    Male attractiveness can have tremendous effects on the fitness of his offspring via good genes, but also via enhanced maternal allocation of resources. Yet the proximate mechanisms influencing differential maternal allocation in relation to male sexiness are poorly known. Here, we studied the importance of visual stimulation for maternal allocation in the Houbara bustard, a vulnerable bird species bred in captivity to support wild populations. Artificial insemination allowed controlling for potential confounding factors, such as a male's territory quality, social interactions or sperm quality/quantity, probably linked to mate attractiveness. We show that artificially inseminated females stimulated by highly displaying males increased their hatching success, owing to increased fertilization success. The females also increased the allocation of maternal androgens in their eggs, leading to an increase of circulating testosterone and growth rate in chicks. Hence, visual stimulation of the females can promote differential maternal allocation and favour offspring fitness. Our results further suggest that using artificial insemination for species conservation without appropriate stimulation of the breeding females probably has negative impacts on their breeding performance and therefore on population viability.

  16. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    -objective linear programming problem using two different strategies. First, we propose an RA model which keeps the cost efficiencies of units unchanged. This is done assuming fixed technical and allocative efficiencies. The approach is based on the assumption that the decision maker (DM) may not have big changes......In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... in the structure of DMUs within a short term. The second strategy does not impose any restrictions on technical and allocative efficiencies. It guarantees that none of the cost efficiencies of DMUs get worse after RA, and the improvement for units is possible if it is feasible and beneficial. Two numerical...

  17. Male-female differences in households' resource allocation and decision to seek healthcare in south-eastern Nigeria: Results from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, Michael Nnachebe; Horton, Susan

    2018-05-01

    Ability to influence household decision-making has been shown to increase with improved social capital and power and is linked to better access to household financial resources and other services outside the household including healthcare. To examine the male-female differences in household custody of financial resources, decision-making, and type of healthcare utilised, we used a mixed methods approach of cross-sectional household surveys and focus-group discussions (FGDs). Data was collected between 10 January-28 February 2011. We analyzed a sample of 411 households and a sub-sample of 223 households with a currently married head. We conducted six single-sex FGDs in 3 communities (1 urban, 2 rural) among a random sub-sample of participants in the survey. We performed univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses with a 95% confidence interval. For the qualitative data, we performed thematic analysis where broad themes relevant to the research objective were abstracted. In all households and in those with a married head, sick male members were less likely to forgo healthcare (aOR all 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.90; aOR married 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-0.83) and more likely to utilise formal healthcare relative to female sick members (aOR all 3.36, 95% CI 3.20-3.87; aOR married 19.50, 95% CI 9.62-39.52). Formal healthcare providers are medically trained while informal providers are untrained vendors that dispense medications for profit. There were more reports of sole custody of household resources among men within households with married heads. Joint decision-making on healthcare expenditure improved women's access to healthcare but is not reflective of unhindered access to household financial resources. Qualitatively, women spoke of seeking permission from male household head before expenditure was incurred, while male heads spoke of concealing household financial resources from their spouse. Gender constructs and male-female differences have important effects on

  18. Improved Channel Allocation and RLC block scheduling for Downlink traffic in GPRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haibo; Devendra, Devendra; Zhou, Xin

    This paper investigates the Radio Resource Management (RRM) approaches for GSM/GPRS networks. The effort was put on Access Control(AC), Time-Slot (TS) allocation, and Radio Link Control (RLC) packet scheduling for down-link performance enhancement. A new credit-based algorithm was proposed...

  19. Improving the allocation of flood-risk interventions from a spatial quality perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an integral approach to flood-risk protection and spatial design that allows for an active involvement of landscape architects and urban designers in the allocation of flood-risk interventions within the Dutch Delta. The Dutch Rijnmond–Drechtsteden area is used as a case study

  20. Decision Making on Allocating Urban Green Spaces Based upon Spatially-Varying Relationships between Urban Green Spaces and Urban Compaction Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Sheng Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is becoming a prevailing paradigm in the world to control urban sprawl and achieve a pattern of sustainable urban development. However, discussions of the area's overcrowded neighborhoods, its health problems, and the destruction of its green areas have inspired self-examination with respect to the compact city paradigm. High population density attracts even more residents and frequently renders the existing urban green space (UGS insufficient for use as part of a living environment. Due to the unique benefits that these qualities confer, UGS allocation is now considered a significant contributing factor to urban livability. In addition, the UGS allocation may be different due to the presence of many spatial non-stationarity processes. Therefore, this study employs geographically-weighted regression (GWR to explore the unique and spatially-explicit relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS within the Taipei metropolitan area. Maps summarizing the GWR results demonstrate that there is significantly insufficient UGS allocation in the central area, which consists mainly of Taipei City. Townships with higher parameters contain UGS levels that better meet the needs of their residents. Overall, the exploration of conceptualizing spatial heterogeneity of relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS can provide insightful analyses for decision-making on allocating UGS.

  1. SOFTWARE PROCESS ASSESSMENT AND IMPROVEMENT USING MULTICRITERIA DECISION AIDING - CONSTRUCTIVIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ensslin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Software process improvement and software process assessment have received special attention since the 1980s. Some models have been created, but these models rest on a normative approach, where the decision-maker’s participation in a software organization is limited to understanding which process is more relevant to each organization. The proposal of this work is to present the MCDA-C as a constructivist methodology for software process improvement and assessment. The methodology makes it possible to visualize the criteria that must be taken into account according to the decision-makers’ values in the process improvement actions, making it possible to rank actions in the light of specific organizational needs. This process helped the manager of the company studied to focus on and prioritize process improvement actions. This paper offers an empirical understanding of the application of performance evaluation to software process improvement and identifies complementary tools to the normative models presented today.

  2. Light Competition and Carbon Partitioning-Allocation in an improved Forest Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collalti, Alessio; Santini, Monia; Valentini Valentini, Riccardo

    2010-05-01

    In Italy about 100.000 km2 are covered by forests. This surface is the 30% of the whole national land and this shows how the forests are important both for socio-economic and for environmental aspects. Forests changes affect a delicate balance that involve not only vegetation components but also bio-geochemical cycles and global climate. The knowledge of the amount of Carbon sequestered by forests represents a precious information for their sustainable management in the framework of climate changes. Primary studies in terms of model about this important issue, has been done through Forest Ecosystem Model (FEM), well known and validated as 3PG (Landsberg et Waring, 1997; Sands 2004). It is based on light use efficiency approach at the canopy level. The present study started from the original model 3PG, producing an improved version that uses many of explicit formulations of all relevant ecophysiological processes but makes it able to be applied for natural forests. The mutual interaction of forest growth and light conditions causes vertical and horizontal differentiation in the natural forest mosaic. Only ecophysiological parameters which can be either directly measured or estimates with reasonable certainty are used. The model has been written in C language and has been created considering a tri-dimensional cell structure with different vertical layers depending on the forest type that has to be simulated. This 3PG 'improved' version enable to work on multi-layer and multi-species forests type with cell resolution of one hectare for the typical Italian forest species. The multi-layer version is the result of the implementation and development of Lambert-Beer law for the estimation of intercepted, absorbed and transmitted light through different storeys of the forest. It is possible estimates, for each storey, a Par value (Photosynthetic Active Radiation) through Leaf Area Index (LAI), Light Extinction Coefficient and cell Canopy Cover using a "Big Leaf" approach

  3. Forecasting resource-allocation decisions under climate uncertainty: fire suppression with assessment of net benefits of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Making input decisions under climate uncertainty often involves two-stage methods that use expensive and opaque transfer functions. This article describes an alternative, single-stage approach to such decisions using forecasting methods. The example shown is for preseason fire suppression resource contracting decisions faced by the United States Forest Service. Two-...

  4. Utility-maximizing model of household time use for independent, shared, and allocated activities incorporating group decision mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Borgers, A.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Existing activity-based models of transport demand typically assume an individual decision-making process. The focus on theories of individual decision making may be partially due to the lack of behaviorally oriented modeling methodologies for group decision making. Therefore, an attempt has been

  5. Improved framework model to allocate optimal rainwater harvesting sites in small watersheds for agro-forestry uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terêncio, D. P. S.; Sanches Fernandes, L. F.; Cortes, R. M. V.; Pacheco, F. A. L.

    2017-07-01

    This study introduces an improved rainwater harvesting (RWH) suitability model to help the implementation of agro-forestry projects (irrigation, wildfire combat) in catchments. The model combines a planning workflow to define suitability of catchments based on physical, socio-economic and ecologic variables, with an allocation workflow to constrain suitable RWH sites as function of project specific features (e.g., distance from rainfall collection to application area). The planning workflow comprises a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) implemented on a Geographic Information System (GIS), whereas the allocation workflow is based on a multiple-parameter ranking analysis. When compared to other similar models, improvement comes with the flexible weights of MCA and the entire allocation workflow. The method is tested in a contaminated watershed (the Ave River basin) located in Portugal. The pilot project encompasses the irrigation of a 400 ha crop land that consumes 2.69 Mm3 of water per year. The application of harvested water in the irrigation replaces the use of stream water with excessive anthropogenic nutrients that may raise nitrosamines in the food and accumulation in the food chain, with severe consequences to human health (cancer). The selected rainfall collection catchment is capable to harvest 12 Mm3·yr-1 (≈ 4.5 × the requirement) and is roughly 3 km far from the application area assuring crop irrigation by gravity flow with modest transport costs. The RWH system is an 8-meter high that can be built in earth with reduced costs.

  6. How Do College Campuses Make Decisions about Allocating Resources for Student Mental Health? Findings from Key Participant Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Justin B.; Watkins, Daphne; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Given the significant burden of mental illness among young adults, colleges offer a promising venue for prevention and treatment, which can help set late adolescents and young adults on a path to success and wellbeing. Despite the potential benefits, there have been no published studies of how campuses decide about allocating resources for mental…

  7. Improving decision making in crisis response through critical thinking support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine G.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we describe how to use innovative techniques to improve the decision-making process in crisis response organizations. The focus was on building situation awareness of a crisis and overcoming pitfalls such as tunnel vision and information bias through using critical thinking. We

  8. Improving clinical decision support using data mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn-Thornton, Kath E.; Thorpe, Simon I.

    1999-02-01

    Physicians, in their ever-demanding jobs, are looking to decision support systems for aid in clinical diagnosis. However, clinical decision support systems need to be of sufficiently high accuracy that they help, rather than hinder, the physician in his/her diagnosis. Decision support systems with accuracies, of patient state determination, of greater than 80 percent, are generally perceived to be sufficiently accurate to fulfill the role of helping the physician. We have previously shown that data mining techniques have the potential to provide the underpinning technology for clinical decision support systems. In this paper, an extension of the work in reverence 2, we describe how changes in data mining methodologies, for the analysis of 12-lead ECG data, improve the accuracy by which data mining algorithms determine which patients are suffering from heart disease. We show that the accuracy of patient state prediction, for all the algorithms, which we investigated, can be increased by up to 6 percent, using the combination of appropriate test training ratios and 5-fold cross-validation. The use of cross-validation greater than 5-fold, appears to reduce the improvement in algorithm classification accuracy gained by the use of this validation method. The accuracy of 84 percent in patient state predictions, obtained using the algorithm OCI, suggests that this algorithm will be capable of providing the required accuracy for clinical decision support systems.

  9. A variation reduction allocation model for quality improvement to minimize investment and quality costs by considering suppliers’ learning curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Jauhari, WA; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    Quality improvement must be performed in a company to maintain its product competitiveness in the market. The goal of such improvement is to increase the customer satisfaction and the profitability of the company. In current practice, a company needs several suppliers to provide the components in assembly process of a final product. Hence quality improvement of the final product must involve the suppliers. In this paper, an optimization model to allocate the variance reduction is developed. Variation reduction is an important term in quality improvement for both manufacturer and suppliers. To improve suppliers’ components quality, the manufacturer must invest an amount of their financial resources in learning process of the suppliers. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consists of investment cost, and quality costs for both internal and external quality costs. The Learning curve will determine how the employee of the suppliers will respond to the learning processes in reducing the variance of the component.

  10. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Rails: Analyzing Current Challenges, and Future Solutions (Syracuse: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, 2008), 18. 3 U.S. Department...Nicholas Armstrong et al., Securing America’s Passenger Rails: Analyzing Current Challenges, and Future Solutions (Syracuse: Maxwell School of Citizenship ...as a broken rail, a faulty wire connection, or an act of terrorism, could result in a shutdown. Communication systems use centralized digital

  11. Optimal Allocation of Thermal-Electric Decoupling Systems Based on the National Economy by an Improved Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Rong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to relieve the large amount of wind power curtailment during the heating period in the North China region, a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach is proposed to both bring down the constraint of forced power output of combined heat and power plants and increase the electric load level during valley load times that assist the power grid in consuming more wind power. The operating principles of the thermal-electric decoupling approach is described, the mathematical model of its profits is developed, the constraint conditions of its operation are listed, also, an improved parallel conjugate gradient is utilized to bypass the saddle problem and accelerate the optimal speed. Numerical simulations are implemented and reveal an optimal allocation of TED which with a rated power of 280 MW and 185 MWh heat storage capacity are possible. This allocation of TED could bring approximately 16.9 billion Yuan of economic profit and consume more than 80% of the surplus wind energy which would be curtailed without the participation of TED. The results in this article verify the effectiveness of this method that could provide a referential guidance for thermal-electric decoupling system allocation in practice.

  12. Improving Intervention Decisions to Prevent Genocide: Less Muddle, More Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Gregory

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Decisions to intervene in a foreign country to prevent genocide and mass atrocities are among the most challenging and controversial choices facing national leaders. Drawing on techniques from decision analysis, psychology, and negotiation analysis, we propose a structured approach to these difficult choices that can provide policy makers with additional insight, consistency, efficiency, and defensibility. We propose the use of a values-based framework to clarify the key elements of these complex choices and to provide a consistent structure for comparison of the likely benefits, risks, and tradeoffs associated with alternative intervention strategies. Results from a workshop involving Ambassadors and experienced policy makers provide a first test of this new method for clarifying intervention choices. A decision-aiding framework is shown to improve the clarity and relevance of intervention deliberations, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive and clearer understanding of the threats and opportunities associated with various intervention options.

  13. Establishment of calculated panel reactive antibody and its potential benefits in improving the kidney allocation strategy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Wen Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Renal transplant candidates who are highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs tend to wait longer to find a matched donor and have poor outcomes. Most organ-sharing programs prioritize highly sensitized patients in the allocation scoring system. The HLA sensitization status is traditionally evaluated by the panel-reactive antibody (PRA assay. However, this assay is method dependent and does not consider the ethnic differences in HLA frequencies. A calculated PRA (cPRA, based on a population's HLA frequency and patients' unacceptable antigens (UAs, correctly estimates the percentage of donors suitable for candidates. The Taiwan Organ Registry and Sharing Center does not prioritize sensitized patients. We propose that the incorporation of the cPRA and UAs into the renal allocation program will improve the local kidney allocation policy. Methods: We established a cPRA calculator using 6146 Taiwanese HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ phenotypes. We performed simulated allocation based on the concept of acceptable mismatch for 76 candidates with cPRA values exceeding 80%. Results: We analyzed 138 waitlisted renal transplant candidates at our hospital, and we determined that the concordance rate of the cPRA and PRA for highly sensitized (%PRA > 80% candidates was 92.5%, which decreased to 20% for those with %PRA < 80%. We matched 76 highly sensitized patients based on acceptable mismatch with the HLA phenotypes of 93 cadaver donors. Forty-six patients (61% found at least one suitable donor. Conclusion: The application of the cPRA and acceptable mismatch can benefit highly sensitized patients and reduce positive lymphocyte cytotoxicity crossmatch. Keywords: Kidney transplantation, Human leukocyte antigen, CPRA

  14. From Data to Improved Decisions: Operations Research in Healthcare Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capan, Muge; Khojandi, Anahita; Denton, Brian T; Williams, Kimberly D; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurt, Murat; Lobo, Jennifer Mason; Roberts, Mark S; Zaric, Greg; Zhang, Shengfan; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2017-11-01

    The Operations Research Interest Group (ORIG) within the Society of Medical Decision Making (SMDM) is a multidisciplinary interest group of professionals that specializes in taking an analytical approach to medical decision making and healthcare delivery. ORIG is interested in leveraging mathematical methods associated with the field of Operations Research (OR) to obtain data-driven solutions to complex healthcare problems and encourage collaborations across disciplines. This paper introduces OR for the non-expert and draws attention to opportunities where OR can be utilized to facilitate solutions to healthcare problems. Decision making is the process of choosing between possible solutions to a problem with respect to certain metrics. OR concepts can help systematically improve decision making through efficient modeling techniques while accounting for relevant constraints. Depending on the problem, methods that are part of OR (e.g., linear programming, Markov Decision Processes) or methods that are derived from related fields (e.g., regression from statistics) can be incorporated into the solution approach. This paper highlights the characteristics of different OR methods that have been applied to healthcare decision making and provides examples of emerging research opportunities. We illustrate OR applications in healthcare using previous studies, including diagnosis and treatment of diseases, organ transplants, and patient flow decisions. Further, we provide a selection of emerging areas for utilizing OR. There is a timely need to inform practitioners and policy makers of the benefits of using OR techniques in solving healthcare problems. OR methods can support the development of sustainable long-term solutions across disease management, service delivery, and health policies by optimizing the performance of system elements and analyzing their interaction while considering relevant constraints.

  15. Managing health care decisions and improvement through simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt; Aronsson, Håkan; Keller, Christina; Lindblad, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Simulation modeling is a way to test changes in a computerized environment to give ideas for improvements before implementation. This article reviews research literature on simulation modeling as support for health care decision making. The aim is to investigate the experience and potential value of such decision support and quality of articles retrieved. A literature search was conducted, and the selection criteria yielded 59 articles derived from diverse applications and methods. Most met the stated research-quality criteria. This review identified how simulation can facilitate decision making and that it may induce learning. Furthermore, simulation offers immediate feedback about proposed changes, allows analysis of scenarios, and promotes communication on building a shared system view and understanding of how a complex system works. However, only 14 of the 59 articles reported on implementation experiences, including how decision making was supported. On the basis of these articles, we proposed steps essential for the success of simulation projects, not just in the computer, but also in clinical reality. We also presented a novel concept combining simulation modeling with the established plan-do-study-act cycle for improvement. Future scientific inquiries concerning implementation, impact, and the value for health care management are needed to realize the full potential of simulation modeling.

  16. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  17. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2008-03-26

    HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA) that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by changing the condom distribution policy from a pull system to a push

  18. Utilizing Ultrasound Technology to Improve Livestock Marketing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L. Lusk; Randall Little; Allen Williams; John Anderson; Blair McKinley

    2003-01-01

    This study estimates the value of using ultrasound technology to improve cattle marketing decisions by optimally choosing a particular marketing method. For the particular group of cattle analyzed, results indicate that using ultrasound information to selectively market cattle could have increased revenue by $25.53/head, $4.98/head, or $32.90/head, compared with simply marketing all animals on a live weight, dressed weight, or grid basis, respectively. Even if producers incorporate such infor...

  19. Continuous quality improvement for the clinical decision unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2004-01-01

    Clinical decision units (CDUs) are a relatively new and growing area of medicine in which patients undergo rapid evaluation and treatment. Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is important for the establishment and functioning of CDUs. CQI in CDUs has many advantages: better CDU functioning, fulfillment of Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations mandates, greater efficiency/productivity, increased job satisfaction, better performance improvement, data availability, and benchmarking. Key elements include a database with volume indicators, operational policies, clinical practice protocols (diagnosis specific/condition specific), monitors, benchmarks, and clinical pathways. Examples of these important parameters are given. The CQI process should be individualized for each CDU and hospital.

  20. SOCOM Training and Rehearsal System (STRS) Process Improvement and Decision Support System (DSS) Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crossland, Neal; Broussard, Steve

    2005-01-01

    ...) Process Improvement and Decision Support System (DSS) Development. Discussion sequence is: Why the study? Objectives; Areas of inquiry; Study products; Observations; Recommendations; Decision Support System.

  1. Improved Interference-Free Channel Allocation in Coordinated Multiuser Multi-Antenna Open-Access Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha; Zafar, Ammar; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates low-complexity joint interference avoidance and desired link improvement for single channel allocation in multiuser multi-antenna access points (APs) for open-access small cells. It is considered that an active user is equipped with an atenna array that can be used to suppress interference sources but not to provide spatial diversity. On the other hand, the operation of APs can be coordinated to meet design requirements, and each of which can unconditionally utilize assigned physical channels. Moreover, each AP is equipped with uncorrelated antennas that can be reused simultaneously to serve many active users. The analysis provides new approaches to exploit physical channels, transmit antennas, and APs to mitigate interference, while providing the best possible link gain to an active user through the most suitable interference-free channel. The event of concurrent service requests placed by active users on a specific interference-free channel is discussed for either interference avoidance through identifying unshared channels or desired link improvement via multiuser scheduling. The applicability of the approaches to balance downlink loads is explained, and practical scenarios due to imperfect identification of interference-free channels and/or scheduled user are thoroughly investigated. The developed results are applicable for any statistical and geometric models of the allocated channel to an active user as well as channel conditions of interference users. They can be used to study various performance measures. Numerical and simulation results are presented to explain some outcomes of this work.

  2. Improved Interference-Free Channel Allocation in Coordinated Multiuser Multi-Antenna Open-Access Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha

    2016-02-16

    This paper investigates low-complexity joint interference avoidance and desired link improvement for single channel allocation in multiuser multi-antenna access points (APs) for open-access small cells. It is considered that an active user is equipped with an atenna array that can be used to suppress interference sources but not to provide spatial diversity. On the other hand, the operation of APs can be coordinated to meet design requirements, and each of which can unconditionally utilize assigned physical channels. Moreover, each AP is equipped with uncorrelated antennas that can be reused simultaneously to serve many active users. The analysis provides new approaches to exploit physical channels, transmit antennas, and APs to mitigate interference, while providing the best possible link gain to an active user through the most suitable interference-free channel. The event of concurrent service requests placed by active users on a specific interference-free channel is discussed for either interference avoidance through identifying unshared channels or desired link improvement via multiuser scheduling. The applicability of the approaches to balance downlink loads is explained, and practical scenarios due to imperfect identification of interference-free channels and/or scheduled user are thoroughly investigated. The developed results are applicable for any statistical and geometric models of the allocated channel to an active user as well as channel conditions of interference users. They can be used to study various performance measures. Numerical and simulation results are presented to explain some outcomes of this work.

  3. An improved parameterization of the allocation of assimilated carbon to plant parts in vegetation dynamics for Noah-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Seon Ki; Kang, Minseok; Thakuri, Bindu Malla; Kim, Joon; Ho, Chang-Hoi

    2017-08-01

    In the land surface models predicting vegetation growth and decay, representation of the seasonality of land surface energy and mass fluxes largely depends on how to describe the vegetation dynamics. In this study, we developed a new parameterization scheme to characterize allocation of the assimilated carbon to plant parts, including leaves and fine roots. The amount of carbon allocation in this scheme depends on the climatological net primary production (NPP) of the plants. The newly developed scheme is implemented in the augmented Noah land surface model with multiple parameterization options (Noah-MP) along with other biophysical processes related to variations in photosynthetic capacity. The scheme and the augmented biophysical processes are evaluated against tower measurements of vegetation from four forest sites in various regions—two for the deciduous broadleaf and two for the needleleaf evergreen forest. Results from the augmented Noah-MP showed good agreement with the observations and demonstrated improvements in representing the seasonality of leaf area index (LAI), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and latent heat flux. In particular, significant improvements are found in simulating amplitudes and phase shift timing in the LAI seasonal cycle, and the amount of GPP and ER in the growing season. Furthermore, the augmented Noah-MP performed reasonably well in simulating the spatial distributions of LAI, GPP, and NPP in East Asia, consistent with the satellite observations.

  4. Involving patients in care decisions improves satisfaction: an outcomes-based quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Ellen W

    2004-05-01

    A home care agency used quality improvement processes to improve patient satisfaction survey ratings. The focus was on involving patients in decisions about their care. A multidisciplinary team developed creative strategies to increase staff awareness and enhance customer service skills, which had dramatic results.

  5. Trust and Intention to Comply with a Water Allocation Decision: The Moderating Roles of Knowledge and Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Hamm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulating water resources is a critically important yet increasingly complex component of the interaction between ecology and society. Many argue that effective water regulation relies heavily upon the compliance of water users. The relevant literature suggests that, rather than relying on external motivators for individual compliance, e.g., punishments and rewards, it is preferable to focus on internal motivators, including trust in others. Although prior scholarship has resulted in contemporary institutional efforts to increase public trust, these efforts are hindered by a lack of evidence regarding the specific situations in which trust, in its various forms, most effectively increases compliance. We report the results of an experiment designed to compare the impacts of three trust-related constructs, a broad sense of trust in the institution, specific process-fairness perceptions, and a dispositional tendency to trust others, on compliance with water regulation under experimentally varied situations. Specifically, we tested the potential moderating influences of concepts relevant to water regulation in the real world: high versus low information conditions about an institutional decision, decision consistency with relevant data, and decision outcome valence. Our results suggest that participants' dispositional trust predicts their intent to comply when they have limited information about decisions, but the effects of dispositional trust are mediated by trust in the institution. Institutional trust predicts compliance under narrow conditions: when information is lacking or when decision outcomes are positive and are justified by available data. Finally, when the regulatory decision is inconsistent with other data in high-information conditions, prior judgments of institutional process fairness are most predictive of intent to comply. Our results may give guidance to water regulators, who may want to try to increase trust and thus increase

  6. Meditation increases the depth of information processing and improves the allocation of attention in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara evan Leeuwen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During meditation, practitioners are required to center their attention on a specific object for extended periods of time. When their thoughts get diverted, they learn to quickly disengage from the distracter. We hypothesized that learning to respond to the dual demand of engaging attention on specific objects and disengaging quickly from distracters enhances the efficiency by which meditation practitioners can allocate attention. We tested this hypothesis in a global-to-local task while measuring electroencephalographic activity from a group of eight highly trained Buddhist monks and nuns and a group of eight age and education matched controls with no previous meditation experience. Specifically, we investigated the effect of attentional training on the global precedence effect, i.e., faster detection of targets on a global than on a local level. We expected to find a reduced global precedence effect in meditation practitioners but not in controls, reflecting that meditators can more quickly disengage their attention from the dominant global level. Analysis of reaction times confirmed this prediction. To investigate the underlying changes in brain activity and their time course, we analyzed event-related potentials. Meditators showed an enhanced ability to select the respective target level, as reflected by enhanced processing of target level information. In contrast with control group, which showed a local target selection effect only in the P1 and a global target selection effect in the P3 component, meditators showed effects of local information processing in the P1, N2 and P3 and of global processing for the N1, N2 and P3. Thus, meditators seem to display enhanced depth of processing. In addition, meditation altered the uptake of information such that meditators selected target level information earlier in the processing sequence than controls. In a longitudinal experiment, we could replicate the behavioral effects, suggesting that

  7. Are patient decision aids the best way to improve clinical decision making? Report of the IPDAS Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Nelson, Wendy L; Pignone, Michael; Elwyn, Glyn; Rovner, David R; O'Connor, Annette M; Coulter, Angela; Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Symposium held in 2006 at the annual meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The symposium featured a debate regarding the proposition that "decision aids are the best way to improve clinical decision making.'' The formal debate addressed the theoretical problem of the appropriate gold standard for an improved decision, efficacy of decision aids, and prospects for implementation. Audience comments and questions focused on both theory and practice: the often unacknowledged roots of decision aids in expected utility theory and the practical problems of limited patient decision aid implementation in health care. The participants' vote on the proposition was approximately half for and half against.

  8. Use of Human Reliability Insights to Improve Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, J. A.; Moieni, P.; Grobbelaar, J.; Kohlhepp, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the use of insights obtained during the development and application of human reliability analysis (HRA) as part of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to support decision-making, including improvements to operations, training, and safety culture. Insights have been gained from the development and application of HRA as part of a PRA for nuclear power plants in the USA, Europe and Asia over the last two decades. These models consist of Level 1 and Level 2 PRA models of internal and external events, during full power and shutdown modes of plant operation. These insights include the use of human factors information to improve the qualitative portion of the HRA. The subsequent quantification in the HRA effectively prioritises the contributors to the unreliability of operator actions, and the process facilitates the identification of the factors that are important to the success of the operator actions. Additionally, the tools and techniques also allow for the evaluation of key assumptions and sources of uncertainty. The end results have been used to effectively support decision-making for day-to-day plant operations as well as licensing issues. HRA results have been used to provide feedback and improvements to plant procedures, operator training and other areas contributing the plant safety culture. Examples of the types of insights are presented in this paper. (author)

  9. Improving Communication With Surrogate Decision-Makers: A Pilot Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Ellen C; Shi, Zhenzhen; Suppes, Alexandra; Hersh, Jennifer E; Orlander, Jay D; Calhoun, Aaron W; Tung, Judy; Logio, Lia; Manna, Ruth; Bialer, Philip A; Acres, Cathleen A; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-08-01

    Difficult conversations in medical care often occur between physicians and patients' surrogates, individuals entrusted with medical decisions for patients who lack the capacity to make them. Poor communication between patients' surrogates and physicians may exacerbate anxiety and guilt for surrogates, and may contribute to physician stress and burnout. This pilot study assesses the effectiveness of an experiential learning workshop that was conducted in a clinical setting, and aimed at improving resident physician communication skills with a focus on surrogate decision-making. From April through June 2016, we assessed internal medicine residents' baseline communication skills through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with actors representing standardized surrogates. After an intensive, 6-hour communication skills workshop, residents were reassessed via an OSCE on the same day. A faculty facilitator and the surrogate evaluated participants' communication skills via the expanded Gap Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Assessment Form. Wilcoxon signed rank tests (α of .05) compared mean pre- and postworkshop scores. Of 44 residents, 33 (75%) participated. Participants' average preworkshop OSCE scores ( M  = 3.3, SD = 0.9) were significantly lower than postworkshop scores ( M  = 4.3; SD = 0.8; Z  = 4.193; P  decision-making benefit from focused interventions. Our pilot assessment of a workshop showed promise, and additionally demonstrated the feasibility of bringing OSCEs and simulated encounters into a busy clinical practice.

  10. A decision support system to find the best water allocation strategies in a Mediterranean river basin in future scenarios of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vasto-Terrientes, L.; Kumar, V.; Chao, T.-C.; Valls, A.

    2016-03-01

    Global change refers to climate changes, but also demographic, technological and economic changes. Predicted water scarcity will be critical in the coastal Mediterranean region, especially for provision to mid-sized and large-sized cities. This paper studies the case of the city of Tarragona, located at the Mediterranean area of north-eastern Spain (Catalonia). Several scenarios have been constructed to evaluate different sectorial water allocation policies to mitigate the water scarcity induced by global change. Future water supply and demand predictions have been made for three time spans. The decision support system presented is based on the outranking model, which constructs a partial pre-order based on pairwise preference relations among all the possible actions. The system analyses a hierarchical structure of criteria, including environmental and economic criteria. We compare several adaptation measures including alternative water sources, inter-basin water transfer and sectorial demand management coming from industry, agriculture and domestic sectors. Results indicate that the most appropriate water allocation strategies depend on the severity of the global change effects.

  11. Optimizing perioperative decision making: improved information for clinical workflow planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebbeling, Bradley N; Burton, Matthew M; Wiebke, Eric A; Miller, Spencer; Baxter, Laurence; Miller, Donald; Alvarez, Jorge; Pekny, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Perioperative care is complex and involves multiple interconnected subsystems. Delayed starts, prolonged cases and overtime are common. Surgical procedures account for 40-70% of hospital revenues and 30-40% of total costs. Most planning and scheduling in healthcare is done without modern planning tools, which have potential for improving access by assisting in operations planning support. We identified key planning scenarios of interest to perioperative leaders, in order to examine the feasibility of applying combinatorial optimization software solving some of those planning issues in the operative setting. Perioperative leaders desire a broad range of tools for planning and assessing alternate solutions. Our modeled solutions generated feasible solutions that varied as expected, based on resource and policy assumptions and found better utilization of scarce resources. Combinatorial optimization modeling can effectively evaluate alternatives to support key decisions for planning clinical workflow and improving care efficiency and satisfaction.

  12. Ethical analysis to improve decision-making on health technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian; Lühmann, Dagmar; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Velasco-Garrido, Marcial; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2008-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is the multidisciplinary study of the implications of the development, diffusion and use of health technologies. It supports health-policy decisions by providing a joint knowledge base for decision-makers. To increase its policy relevance, HTA tries to extend beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology that is easy and flexible to use in different organizational settings and cultures. The model is part of the EUnetHTA project, which focuses on the transferability of HTAs between countries. The EUnetHTA ethics model is based on the insight that the whole HTA process is value laden. It is not sufficient to only analyse the ethical consequences of a technology, but also the ethical issues of the whole HTA process must be considered. Selection of assessment topics, methods and outcomes is essentially a value-laden decision. Health technologies may challenge moral or cultural values and beliefs, and their implementation may also have significant impact on people other than the patient. These are essential considerations for health policy. The ethics model is structured around key ethical questions rather than philosophical theories, to be applicable to different cultures and usable by non-philosophers. Integrating ethical considerations into HTA can improve the relevance of technology assessments for health care and health policy in both developed and developing countries.

  13. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  14. Financial Resources Allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Afiyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and Objectives : According to complexity of resource allocation, issue about how to allocate health care resources in an accurate and fair manner has become the subject of discussions and decisions of related groups. Therefore, in this research we aim to study the methods of financial resource allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in order to identify its strengths and weaknesses for its promotion. Material and Methods : This study is a descriptive, qualitative sectional research and all comments have been collected by focus group discussions with experts and managers involved in the allocation of financial resources of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. All factors affecting the process of allocation have been reviewd carefully. Results : Results suggested that except the health sector, none of the other sectors use the formulated  and scientific methods for allocating financial resources and despite the emphasize in the 4th development plan for operating funding, the final cost of the services, has no role in allocating financial resources. Conclusion : Regarding to judgmental and subjective method of financial resources allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and lack of documented and formulated methods, there is an essential need for developing an appropriate and formulated model for scientific allocation of financial resources in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of the allocation.

  15. Location decision strategies for improving SMME business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Barnard

    2011-12-01

    relationship between electricity tariffs and business performance. Employment and business performance attained the strongest positive relationship; indicating that business owners regarded employment as an important factor to consider when searching for suitable business premises. The relationship between location and business performance obtained the lowest positive correlation. Originality and value of the research: Research on South African SMMEs regarding location decisions and the specific factors identified in this study has not been done previously in South Africa. Therefore, because evidence exists that the macro-environmental factors influence location decisions to varying degrees, this study can provide SMME owners with insight into the factors influencing location choice. It is vital that business owners consider these factors as they could influence business performance, and ultimately, business survival. An increased awareness of the importance of the aspects discussed in this study could consequently lead to improved performance in the SMME sector.

  16. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.; Trzaska, S.; Perez, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; del Corral, J.; Cousin, R.; Blumenthal, M. B.; Connor, S.; Thomson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use, and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular Meningitis and Malaria. In this paper we present the new and improved products that have been developed for monitoring dust, temperature, rainfall and vectorial capacity model for monitoring and forecasting risks of Meningitis and Malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  17. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Trzaska, Sylwia; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Kalashnikova, Olga; del Corral, John; Cousin, Remi; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Bell, Michael; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2013-01-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular meningitis and malaria. In this paper, we present the new and improved products that have been developed for: (i) estimating dust aerosol for forecasting risks of meningitis and (ii) for monitoring temperature and rainfall and integrating them into a vectorial capacity model for forecasting risks of malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map Room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  18. Improvements in agricultural water decision support using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Population driven water scarcity, aggravated by climate-driven evaporative demand in dry regions of the world, has the potential of transforming ecological and social systems to the point of armed conflict. Water shortages will be most severe in agricultural areas, as the priority shifts to urban and industrial use. In order to design, evaluate, and monitor appropriate mitigation strategies, predictive models must be developed that quantify exposure to water shortage. Remote sensing data has been used for more than three decades now to parametrize these models, because field measurements are costly and difficult in remote regions of the world. In the past decade, decision-makers for the first time can make accurate and near real-time evaluations of field conditions with the advent of hyper- spatial and spectral and coarse resolution continuous remote sensing data. Here, we summarize two projects representing diverse applications of remote sensing to improve agricultural water decision support. The first project employs MODIS (coarse resolution continuous data) to drive an evapotranspiration index, which is combined with the Standardized Precipitation Index driven by meteorological satellite data to improve famine early warning in Africa. The combined index is evaluated using district-level crop yield data from Kenya and Malawi and national-level crop yield data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The second project utilizes hyper- spatial (GeoEye 1, Quickbird, IKONOS, and RapidEye) and spectral (Hyperion/ALI), as well as multi-spectral (Landsat ETM+, SPOT, and MODIS) data to develop biomass estimates for key crops (alfalfa, corn, cotton, and rice) in the Central Valley of California. Crop biomass is an important indicator of crop water productivity. The remote sensing data is combined using various data fusion techniques and evaluated with field data collected in the summer of 2012. We conclude with a brief discussion on implementation of

  19. Decision making in trauma settings: simulation to improve diagnostic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David J; Freeman, Brad D; Boulet, John R; Woodhouse, Julie; Fehr, James J; Klingensmith, Mary E

    2015-06-01

    In the setting of acute injury, a wrong, missed, or delayed diagnosis can impact survival. Clinicians rely on pattern recognition and heuristics to rapidly assess injuries, but an overreliance on these approaches can result in a diagnostic error. Simulation has been advocated as a method for practitioners to learn how to recognize the limitations of heuristics and develop better diagnostic skills. The objective of this study was to determine whether simulation could be used to provide teams the experiences in managing scenarios that require the use of heuristic as well as analytic diagnostic skills to effectively recognize and treat potentially life-threatening injuries. Ten scenarios were developed to assess the ability of trauma teams to provide initial care to a severely injured patient. Seven standard scenarios simulated severe injuries that once diagnosed could be effectively treated using standard Advanced Trauma Life Support algorithms. Because diagnostic error occurs more commonly in complex clinical settings, 3 complex scenarios required teams to use more advanced diagnostic skills to uncover a coexisting condition and treat the patient. Teams composed of 3 to 5 practitioners were evaluated in the performance of 7 (of 10) randomly selected scenarios (5 standard, 2 complex). Expert rates scored teams using standardized checklists and global scores. Eighty-three surgery, emergency medicine, and anesthesia residents constituted 21 teams. Expert raters were able to reliably score the scenarios. Teams accomplished fewer checklist actions and received lower global scores on the 3 analytic scenarios (73.8% [12.3%] and 5.9 [1.6], respectively) compared with the 7 heuristic scenarios (83.2% [11.7%] and 6.6 [1.3], respectively; P heuristic scenarios but were less effective when managing the scenarios that require a more analytic approach. Simulation can be used to provide teams with decision-making experiences in trauma settings and could be used to improve

  20. Improving Decision Making for Sustainability: A Case Study from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertshuis, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and evidence a means of improving decision making within a sustainable resource management context. Design/methodology/approach: A set of competencies required by effective decision makers is developed. Methods of improving decision making are reviewed and used to develop a continuing education…

  1. Using whole disease modeling to inform resource allocation decisions: economic evaluation of a clinical guideline for colorectal cancer using a single model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappenden, Paul; Chilcott, Jim; Brennan, Alan; Squires, Hazel; Glynne-Jones, Rob; Tappenden, Janine

    2013-06-01

    To assess the feasibility and value of simulating whole disease and treatment pathways within a single model to provide a common economic basis for informing resource allocation decisions. A patient-level simulation model was developed with the intention of being capable of evaluating multiple topics within National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's colorectal cancer clinical guideline. The model simulates disease and treatment pathways from preclinical disease through to detection, diagnosis, adjuvant/neoadjuvant treatments, follow-up, curative/palliative treatments for metastases, supportive care, and eventual death. The model parameters were informed by meta-analyses, randomized trials, observational studies, health utility studies, audit data, costing sources, and expert opinion. Unobservable natural history parameters were calibrated against external data using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Economic analysis was undertaken using conventional cost-utility decision rules within each guideline topic and constrained maximization rules across multiple topics. Under usual processes for guideline development, piecewise economic modeling would have been used to evaluate between one and three topics. The Whole Disease Model was capable of evaluating 11 of 15 guideline topics, ranging from alternative diagnostic technologies through to treatments for metastatic disease. The constrained maximization analysis identified a configuration of colorectal services that is expected to maximize quality-adjusted life-year gains without exceeding current expenditure levels. This study indicates that Whole Disease Model development is feasible and can allow for the economic analysis of most interventions across a disease service within a consistent conceptual and mathematical infrastructure. This disease-level modeling approach may be of particular value in providing an economic basis to support other clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2013 International

  2. TENDENCY OF IMPROVEMENT ANALYSIS OF VENTURE ACTIVITY FOR MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Yu. Iakovetс

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions concerning the definition of current trends and prospects of venture financing new innovative enterprises as one of the most effective and alternative, but with a high degree of risk financing sources of the entity. The features of venture financing that is different from other sources of business financing, as well as income from investments of venture capital can greatly exceed the volume of investments, but at the same time such financing risks are significant, so it all makes it necessary to build an effective system of venture capital investments in the workplace. In the course of the study also revealed problems of analysis and minimization of risks in the performance of venture financing of innovative enterprises. Defining characteristics analysis and risk assessment of venture financing helps to find ways to minimize and systematization, avoidance and prevention of risks in the performance of venture capital. The study also identified the major areas of improvement analysis of venture capital for management decisions.

  3. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  4. Improving Decision Making in Ocean Race Sailing using Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillegersberg, Jos; Vroling, Mark; Smit, Floris

    While in some sports, experiences have been gained using traditional information and decision support systems, using large sensor datasets for sports analytics is a recent phenomenon. Using sensor data to arrive at effective decision support for sports encompasses various challenges: (1) Sensor data

  5. Improving the Slum Planning Through Geospatial Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, S.

    2014-11-01

    In India, a number of schemes and programmes have been launched from time to time in order to promote integrated city development and to enable the slum dwellers to gain access to the basic services. Despite the use of geospatial technologies in planning, the local, state and central governments have only been partially successful in dealing with these problems. The study on existing policies and programmes also proved that when the government is the sole provider or mediator, GIS can become a tool of coercion rather than participatory decision-making. It has also been observed that local level administrators who have adopted Geospatial technology for local planning continue to base decision-making on existing political processes. In this juncture, geospatial decision support system (GSDSS) can provide a framework for integrating database management systems with analytical models, graphical display, tabular reporting capabilities and the expert knowledge of decision makers. This assists decision-makers to generate and evaluate alternative solutions to spatial problems. During this process, decision-makers undertake a process of decision research - producing a large number of possible decision alternatives and provide opportunities to involve the community in decision making. The objective is to help decision makers and planners to find solutions through a quantitative spatial evaluation and verification process. The study investigates the options for slum development in a formal framework of RAY (Rajiv Awas Yojana), an ambitious program of Indian Government for slum development. The software modules for realizing the GSDSS were developed using the ArcGIS and Community -VIZ software for Gulbarga city.

  6. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  7. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  8. Improving the commanders' speed and agility in decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't Veld, M.M.A.; Ven, J. van de; Essens, P.; Grand, N. Le; Huiskamp, W.; Voogd, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In het project "Decision Support Tools" zijn twee typen beslisondersteuningsconcepten ontwikkeld en getest, een Simulatie tool (CFSim) en een Critical Thinking Tool (CTT). Dit artikel beschrijft de ontwikkeling van de twee concepten, het experiment en de resultaten van het experiment.

  9. System Sketch: A Visualization Tool to Improve Community Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Making decisions in coastal and estuarine management requires a comprehensive understanding of the linkages between environmental, social, and economic systems. SystemSketch is a web-based scoping tool designed to assist resource managers in characterizing their systems, explorin...

  10. Improving "At-Action" Decision-Making in Team Sports through a Holistic Coaching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen; Mouchet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on Game Sense pedagogy and complex learning theory (CLT) to make suggestions for improving decision-making ability in team sports by adopting a holistic approach to coaching with a focus on decision-making "at-action". It emphasizes the complexity of decision-making and the need to focus on the game as a whole entity,…

  11. Neural signatures of experience-based improvements in deterministic decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Tremel, Joshua J.; Laurent, Patryk A.; Wolk, David A.; Wheeler, Mark E.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback about our choices is a crucial part of how we gather information and learn from our environment. It provides key information about decision experiences that can be used to optimize future choices. However, our understanding of the processes through which feedback translates into improved decision-making is lacking. Using neuroimaging (fMRI) and cognitive models of decision-making and learning, we examined the influence of feedback on multiple aspects of decision processes across lear...

  12. Ethical analysis to improve decision-making on health technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is the multidisciplinary study of the implications of the development, diffusion and use of health technologies. It supports health-policy decisions by providing a joint knowledge base for decision-makers. To increase its policy relevance, HTA tries to extend...... beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology...... to only analyse the ethical consequences of a technology, but also the ethical issues of the whole HTA process must be considered. Selection of assessment topics, methods and outcomes is essentially a value-laden decision. Health technologies may challenge moral or cultural values and beliefs...

  13. Look before you leap: sensory memory improves decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassova, Alexandra; Pearson, Joel

    2013-09-01

    Simple decisions require the processing and evaluation of perceptual and cognitive information, the formation of a decision, and often the execution of a motor response. This process involves the accumulation of evidence over time until a particular choice reaches a decision threshold. Using a random-dot-motion stimulus, we showed that simply delaying responses after the stimulus offset can almost double accuracy, even in the absence of new incoming visual information. However, under conditions in which the otherwise blank interval was filled with a sensory mask or concurrent working memory load was high, performance gains were lost. Further, memory and perception showed equivalent rates of evidence accumulation, suggesting a high-capacity memory store. We propose an account of continued evidence accumulation by sequential sampling from a simultaneously decaying memory trace. Memories typically decay with time, hence immediate inquiry trumps later recall from memory. However, the results we report here show the inverse: Inspecting a memory trumps viewing the actual object.

  14. Improved formulations and an Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search heuristic for the integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem in container terminals. We consider the decrease in the marginal productivity of quay cranes and the increase in handling time due to deviation from the desired position. We consider a continuous berth...

  15. Application of improved topsis method to accident emergency decision-making at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin; Cai Qi; Zhang Fan; Chang Ling

    2009-01-01

    Given the complexity in multi-attribute decision-making on nuclear accident emergency, and by integrating subjective weight and impersonal weight of each evaluating index, a decision-making model for emergency plan at nuclear power stations is established with the application of improved TOPSIS model. The testing results indicated that the improved TOPSIS-based multi-attribute decision-making has a better assessment results. (authors)

  16. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  17. The philosophical moment of the medical decision: revisiting emotions felt, to improve ethics of future decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coz, Pierr; Tassy, Sebastien

    2007-08-01

    The present investigation looks for a solution to the problem of the influence of feelings and emotions on our ethical decisions. This problem can be formulated in the following way. On the one hand, emotions (fear, pity and so on) can alter our sense of discrimination and lead us to make our wrong decisions. On the other hand, it is known that lack of sensitivity can alter our judgment and lead us to sacrifice basic ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Only emotions can turn a decision into an ethical one, but they can also turn it into an unreasonable one. To avoid this contradiction, suggest integrating emotions with the decisional factors of the process of "retrospective thinking". During this thinking, doctors usually try to identify the nature and impact of feelings on the decision they have just made. In this retrospective moment of analysis of the decision, doctors also question themselves on the feelings they did not experience. They do this to estimate the consequences of this lack of feeling on the way they behaved with the patient.

  18. A conceptual tool for improving rangeland management decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the LLM concept should be seen as a continuous and evolving learning process that will be updated over the long term through decision support to include several other components essential to implement effective and sustainable rangeland management practices by local land users. Keywords: desertification; indicators ...

  19. Improved Decision Making for School Organization. What and What for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donald A.; Sinclair, Robert

    1973-01-01

    A framework of 13 decision criteria to give educators help in comparing the relative merits of different forms of school organization. The methods of school organization judged to be in widespread use and defined in the article are (1) the self-contained classroom, team teaching, departmentalization, modular scheduling, differentiated staffing,…

  20. Decision aids for improved accuracy and standardization of mammographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orsi, C.J.; Getty, D.J.; Swets, J.A.; Pickett, R.M.; Seltzer, S.E.; McNeil, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the gains in the accuracy of mammographic diagnosis of breast cancer achievable from a pair of decision aids. Twenty-three potentially relevant perceptual features of mammograms were identified through interviews, psychometric tests, and consensus meetings with mammography specialists. Statistical analyses determined the 12 independent features that were most information diagnostically and assigned a weight to each according to its importance. Two decision aids were developed: a checklist that solicits a scale value from the radiologist for each feature and a computer program that merges those values optimally in an advisory estimate of the probability of malignancy. Six radiologists read a set of 150 cases, first in their usual way and later with the aids

  1. Deciding on child maltreatment: A literature review on methods that improve decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Cora; van Yperen, Tom A; ten Berge, Ingrid J

    2015-11-01

    Assessment and decision-making in child maltreatment cases is difficult. Practitioners face many uncertainties and obstacles during their assessment and decision-making process. Research exhibits shortcomings in this decision-making process. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and discuss methods to overcome these shortcomings. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on decision-making using PsychINFO and MEDLINE from 2000 through May 2014. We included reviews and quantitative research studies that investigated methods aimed at improving professional decision-making on child abuse and neglect in child welfare and child protection. Although many researchers have published articles on decision-making including ideas and theories to improve professional decision-making, empirical research on these improvements is scarce. Available studies have shown promising results. Structured decision-making has created a greater child-centred and holistic approach that takes the child's family and environment into account, which has made practitioners work more systematically and improved the analysis of complex situations. However, this approach has not improved inter-rater agreement on decisions made. Shared decision-making may improve the participation of parents and children and the quality of decisions by taking client treatment preferences into account in addition to scientific evidence and clinical experience. A number of interesting developments appear in recent research literature; however, child welfare and child protection must find additional inspiration from other areas, e.g., mental health services, because research on decision-making processes in child welfare and child protection is still rare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Asset Allocation of Mutual Fund Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Dengpan Luo

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies mutual fund investors' asset allocation decisions using monthly flow data of U.S mutual fund industry from 1984 to 1998. We find that mutual fund investors change their asset allocations between stocks and bonds in reaction to business conditions tracked by changes in expected stock market returns. They tend to allocate less into stock funds during the trough of a business cycle when expected stock market returns are higher and to allocate more into stock funds during the p...

  3. Improving management decision processes through centralized communication linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanton, D. F.; Garman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Information flow is a critical element to intelligent and timely decision-making. At NASA's Johnson Space Center the flow of information is being automated through the use of a centralized backbone network. The theoretical basis of this network, its implications to the horizontal and vertical flow of information, and the technical challenges involved in its implementation are the focus of this paper. The importance of the use of common tools among programs and some future concerns related to file transfer, graphics transfer, and merging of voice and data are also discussed.

  4. Improving children's affective decision making in the Children's Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Moussaumai, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Affective decision making was examined in 108 children (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) using the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). Children completed the CGT and then responded to awareness questions. Children in the binary_experience and binary_experience+awareness (not control) conditions first completed two simpler versions. Children in the binary_experience+awareness condition also responded to questions about relational components of the simpler versions. Experience with simpler versions facilitated decision making in 4- and 5-year-olds, but 3-year-olds' advantageous choices declined across trial blocks in the binary_experience and control conditions. Responding to questions about relational components further benefited the 4- and 5-year-olds. The 3-year-olds' advantageous choices on the final block were at chance level in the binary_experience+awareness condition but were below chance level in the other conditions. Awareness following the CGT was strongly correlated with advantageous choices and with age. Awareness was demonstrated by 5-year-olds (all conditions) and 4-year-olds (binary_experience and binary_experience+awareness) but not by 3-year-olds. The findings demonstrate the importance of complexity and conscious awareness in cognitive development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does improved decision-making ability reduce the physiological demands of game-based activities in field sport athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Carius, Josh; Mulvey, Mike

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of video-based perceptual training on pattern recognition and pattern prediction ability in elite field sport athletes and determined whether enhanced perceptual skills influenced the physiological demands of game-based activities. Sixteen elite women soccer players (mean +/- SD age, 18.3 +/- 2.8 years) were allocated to either a video-based perceptual training group (N = 8) or a control group (N = 8). The video-based perceptual training group watched video footage of international women's soccer matches. Twelve training sessions, each 15 minutes in duration, were conducted during a 4-week period. Players performed assessments of speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint), repeated-sprint ability (6 x 20-m sprints, with active recovery on a 15-second cycle), estimated maximal aerobic power (V O2 max, multistage fitness test), and a game-specific video-based perceptual test of pattern recognition and pattern prediction before and after the 4 weeks of video-based perceptual training. The on-field assessments included time-motion analysis completed on all players during a standardized 45-minute small-sided training game, and assessments of passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making ability. No significant changes were detected in speed, repeated-sprint ability, or estimated V O2 max during the training period. However, video-based perceptual training improved decision accuracy and reduced the number of recall errors, indicating improved game awareness and decision-making ability. Importantly, the improvements in pattern recognition and prediction ability transferred to on-field improvements in passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making skills. No differences were detected between groups for the time spent standing, walking, jogging, striding, and sprinting during the small-sided training game. These findings demonstrate that video-based perceptual training can be used effectively to enhance the decision-making ability of field

  6. Ethical analysis to improve decision-making on health technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology...... that is easy and flexible to use in different organizational settings and cultures. The model is part of the EUnetHTA project, which focuses on the transferability of HTAs between countries. The EUnetHTA ethics model is based on the insight that the whole HTA process is value laden. It is not sufficient...... to only analyse the ethical consequences of a technology, but also the ethical issues of the whole HTA process must be considered. Selection of assessment topics, methods and outcomes is essentially a value-laden decision. Health technologies may challenge moral or cultural values and beliefs...

  7. Improving Decision Making for Advanced Heart Failure Patients and Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvennan, Colleen K

    2017-04-01

    In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Colleen K. McIlvennan, DNP, ANP, lead nurse practitioner, Advanced Heart Failure and Transplantation at the University of Colorado, discusses her groundbreaking research encompassing patients' and caregivers' emotional, rational, and fundamental beliefs when considering a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Results have led to the development of 2 innovative decision aids that are currently in use by LVAD programs across the United States and Canada. Dr McIlvennan's efforts led to a $2 million grant from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, as well as national recognition from the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. Last year, she received the 2016 National Magnet Nurse of the Year® Award in the Empirical Outcomes category. In addition to sharing her findings, Dr McIlvennan examines the value of performing research in a Magnet-recognized organization.

  8. Improved Cloud resource allocation: how INDIGO-DataCloud is overcoming the current limitations in Cloud schedulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Zangrando, Lisa; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Llorens, Vincent; Vallero, Sara; Zaccolo, Valentina; Bagnasco, Stefano; Taneja, Sonia; Dal Pra, Stefano; Salomoni, Davide; Donvito, Giacinto

    2017-10-01

    Performing efficient resource provisioning is a fundamental aspect for any resource provider. Local Resource Management Systems (LRMS) have been used in data centers for decades in order to obtain the best usage of the resources, providing their fair usage and partitioning for the users. In contrast, current cloud schedulers are normally based on the immediate allocation of resources on a first-come, first-served basis, meaning that a request will fail if there are no resources (e.g. OpenStack) or it will be trivially queued ordered by entry time (e.g. OpenNebula). Moreover, these scheduling strategies are based on a static partitioning of the resources, meaning that existing quotas cannot be exceeded, even if there are idle resources allocated to other projects. This is a consequence of the fact that cloud instances are not associated with a maximum execution time and leads to a situation where the resources are under-utilized. These facts have been identified by the INDIGO-DataCloud project as being too simplistic for accommodating scientific workloads in an efficient way, leading to an underutilization of the resources, a non desirable situation in scientific data centers. In this work, we will present the work done in the scheduling area during the first year of the INDIGO project and the foreseen evolutions.

  9. Do Architectural Design Decisions Improve the Understanding of Software Architecture? Two Controlled Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahin, M.; Liang, P.; Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Architectural design decision (ADD) and its design rationale, as a paradigm shift on documenting and enriching architecture design description, is supposed to facilitate the understanding of architecture and the reasoning behind the design rationale, which consequently improves the architecting

  10. Section 3. General issues in management : The benefits of a pre-deal purchase price allocation for acquisition decisions: An exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zülch, Henning; Detzen, Dominic; Wünsch, Martin; Wulf, Torsten; Meißner, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the benefits of a pre-deal purchasing price allocation (pre-deal PPA), which acquirers have come to integrate into an acquisition process to examine the effects of a potential acquisition on the acquirer's financial statements. The authors take a management perspective and

  11. Location, Allocation and Routing of Temporary Health Centers in Rural Areas in Crisis, Solved by Improved Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alinaghian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an uncertain integrated model for simultaneously locating temporary health centers in the affected areas, allocating affected areas to these centers, and routing to transport their required good is considered. Health centers can be settled in one of the affected areas or in a place out of them; therefore, the proposed model offers the best relief operation policy when it is possible to supply the goods of affected areas (which are customers of goods directly or under coverage. Due to that the problem is NP-Hard, to solve the problem in large-scale, a meta-heuristic algorithm based on harmony search algorithm is presented and its performance has been compared with basic harmony search algorithm and neighborhood search algorithm in small and large scale test problems. The results show that the proposed harmony search algorithm has a suitable efficiency.

  12. Eliciting regret improves decision making at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Mhaskar, Rahul; Hozo, Iztok; Miladinovic, Branko; Tuch, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Management choices at the end of life are high-stake decisions fraught with emotions, chief among is regret. Our objective in this paper is to test the utility of a regret-based model to facilitate referral to hospice care while helping patients clarify their preferences on how they wish to spend the remaining days of their lives. A prospective cohort study that enrolled consecutive adult patients (n = 178) aware of the terminal nature of their disease. The patients were at the point in care where they had to decide between continuing potentially 'curative/life-prolonging' treatment (Rx) versus hospice care. Preferences were elicited using a Dual Visual Analog Scale regarding the level of regret of omission versus commission (RgO/RgC) towards hospice care and Rx. Each patient's RgO/RgC was contrasted against the predictive probability of death to suggest a management plan, which was then compared with the patient's actual choice. The probability of death was estimated using validated Palliative Performance Scale predictive model. Eighty-five percent (151/178) of patients agreed with the model's recommendations (p < 0.000001). Model predicted the actual choices for 72% (128/178) of patients (p < 0.00001). Logistic regression analysis showed that people who were initially inclined to be referred to hospice and were predicted to choose hospice over disease-directed treatment by the regret model have close to 98% probability of choosing hospice care at the end of their lives. No other factors (age, gender, race, educational status and pain level) affected their choice. Using regret to elicit choices in the end-of-life setting is both descriptively and prescriptively valid. People with terminal disease who are initially inclined to choose hospice and do not regret such a choice will select hospice care with high level of certainty. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvment, extension and integration of operational decision support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSSNET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    2005-07-01

    The DSSNET network was established in October 2000 with the overall objective to create an effective and accepted framework for better communication and understanding between the community of institutions involved in operational off-site emergency management and the many and diverse RTD institutes further developing methods and tools in this area, in particular decision support systems (DSS), for making well informed and consistent judgements with respect to practical improvements of emergency response in Europe. 37 institutions from 21 countries of East and West Europe have been members of the network with about half of them responsible for operational emergency management. The objectives of the network have been numerous and the more important ones include: to ensure that future RTD is more responsive to user needs, to inform the user community of new developments and their potential for improving emergency response, to improve operational decision support systems from feedback of operational experience, to identify how information and data exchange between countries can be improved, to promote greater coherence among operational decision support systems and to encourage shared development of new and improved decision support systems features, and to improve the practicability of operational decision support systems. To stimulate the communication and feedback between the operational and the RTD community, problem-oriented emergency exercises were performed, which covered the various time phases of an accident and which extended from the near range to farther distances with frontier crossing transport of radionuclides. The report describes the objectives of the DSSNET, the five emergency exercises performed and the results of their evaluation. They provided valuable insight and lessons for operators and users of decision support systems, in particular the need for much more intensive training and exercising with decision support systems and their interaction with

  14. Designing equitable antiretroviral allocation strategies in resource-constrained countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Wilson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a global commitment has been made to expand access to antiretrovirals (ARVs in the developing world. However, in many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment will far exceed the supply of ARVs, and only a limited number of health-care facilities (HCFs will be available for ARV distribution. Deciding how to allocate the limited supply of ARVs among HCFs will be extremely difficult. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological, ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria.Here we use operations research techniques, and we show how to determine the optimal strategy for allocating ARVs among HCFs in order to satisfy the equitable criterion that each individual infected with HIV has an equal chance of receiving ARVs. We present a novel spatial mathematical model that includes heterogeneity in treatment accessibility. We show how to use our theoretical framework, in conjunction with an equity objective function, to determine an optimal equitable allocation strategy (OEAS for ARVs in resource-constrained regions. Our equity objective function enables us to apply the egalitarian principle of equity with respect to access to health care. We use data from the detailed ARV rollout plan designed by the government of South Africa to determine an OEAS for the province of KwaZulu-Natal. We determine the OEAS for KwaZulu-Natal, and we then compare this OEAS with two other ARV allocation strategies: (i allocating ARVs only to Durban (the largest urban city in KwaZulu-Natal province and (ii allocating ARVs equally to all available HCFs. In addition, we compare the OEAS to the current allocation plan of the South African government (which is based upon allocating ARVs to 17 HCFs. We show that our OEAS significantly improves equity in treatment accessibility in comparison with these three ARV allocation strategies. We also quantify how the size of the

  15. Do educational interventions improve nurses' clinical decision making and judgement? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carl; Stapley, Sally

    2011-07-01

    Despite the growing popularity of decision making in nursing curricula, the effectiveness of educational interventions to improve nursing judgement and decision making is unknown. We sought to synthesise and summarise the comparative evidence for educational interventions to improve nursing judgements and clinical decisions. A systematic review. Electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, OpenSIGLE conference proceedings and hand searching nursing journals. Studies published since 1960, reporting any educational intervention that aimed to improve nurses' clinical judgements or decision making were included. Studies were assessed for relevance and quality. Data extracted included study design; educational setting; the nature of participants; whether the study was concerned with the clinical application of skills or the application of theory; the type of decision targeted by the intervention (e.g. diagnostic reasoning) and whether the evaluation of the intervention focused on efficacy or effectiveness. A narrative approach to study synthesis was used due to heterogeneity in interventions, study samples, outcomes and settings and incomplete reporting of effect sizes. From 5262 initial citations 24 studies were included in the review. A variety of educational approaches were reported. Study quality and content reporting was generally poor. Pedagogical theories were widely used but use of decision theory (with the exception of subjective expected utility theory implicit in decision analysis) was rare. The effectiveness and efficacy of interventions was mixed. Educational interventions to improve nurses' judgements and decisions are complex and the evidence from comparative studies does little to reduce the uncertainty about 'what works'. Nurse educators need to pay attention to decision, as well as pedagogical, theory in the design of interventions. Study design and

  16. Designing a Graphical Decision Support Tool to Improve System Acquisition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    innovative acquisition strategies. These strategies demonstrate new processes which companies can use to improve their source selection process. A variety...p. 47-62. 7. Mukhopadhyay, T. and S. Kekre, Strategic and Operational Benefits of Electronic Integration in B2B Procurement Processes. Management...Retrieved February 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://www.canon.com/procurement/index.html. 14. The Boeing Company . Understand our procurement

  17. Clonidine improved laboratory-measured decision-making performance in abstinent heroin addicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impulsivity refers to a wide spectrum of actions characterized by quick and nonplanned reactions to external and internal stimuli, without taking into account the possible negative consequences for the individual or others, and decision-making is one of the biologically dissociated impulsive behaviors. Changes in impulsivity may be associated with norepinephrine. Various populations of drug addicts all performed impulsive decision making, which is a key risk factor in drug dependence and relapse. The present study investigated the effects of clonidine, which decreased norepinephrine release through presynaptic alpha-2 receptor activation, on the impaired decision-making performance in abstinent heroin addicts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Decision-making performance was assessed using the original version of Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. Both heroin addicts and normal controls were randomly assigned to three groups receiving clonidine, 0, 75 µg or 150 µg orally under double blind conditions. Psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety, depression and impulsivity, were rated on standardized scales. Heroin addicts reported higher scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and exhibited impaired decision-making on the IGT. A single high-dose of clonidine improved the decision-making performance in heroin addicts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest clonidine may have a potential therapeutic role in heroin addicts by improving the impaired impulsive decision-making. The current findings have important implications for behavioral and pharmacological interventions targeting decision-making in heroin addiction.

  18. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  19. An Evaluation of Different Training Sample Allocation Schemes for Discrete and Continuous Land Cover Classification Using Decision Tree-Based Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Roland Colditz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Land cover mapping for large regions often employs satellite images of medium to coarse spatial resolution, which complicates mapping of discrete classes. Class memberships, which estimate the proportion of each class for every pixel, have been suggested as an alternative. This paper compares different strategies of training data allocation for discrete and continuous land cover mapping using classification and regression tree algorithms. In addition to measures of discrete and continuous map accuracy the correct estimation of the area is another important criteria. A subset of the 30 m national land cover dataset of 2006 (NLCD2006 of the United States was used as reference set to classify NADIR BRDF-adjusted surface reflectance time series of MODIS at 900 m spatial resolution. Results show that sampling of heterogeneous pixels and sample allocation according to the expected area of each class is best for classification trees. Regression trees for continuous land cover mapping should be trained with random allocation, and predictions should be normalized with a linear scaling function to correctly estimate the total area. From the tested algorithms random forest classification yields lower errors than boosted trees of C5.0, and Cubist shows higher accuracies than random forest regression.

  20. Designing of a Decision Support System (DSS for resource allocation with genetic algorithm approach (Case Study: Central Library of Tarbiat Modares University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hasanzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of information is one of the main responsibilities of a manager. In case there is a limitation in the available resources, the issue of resources allocation is raised. Universities and post graduate centers have faced limitations in accessing resources such as budget, human resources, physical space, etc. This problem results in inappropriate use of the approved budget in buying and sharing the different types of information resources, lack of easy access to information resources by users, and users’ dissatisfaction. This paper is intended to see whether the model of genetic algorithm can be used in helping library heads of university to develop a support system for the proper allocation of resources. The data of the central library of a university as the main core of DSS through using genetic algorithm in MATLAB was used in order to come up with a better distribution of effective resources. Research methodology used in this paper was field study and survey. The findings indicated that genetic algorithm was successful in achieving this end.

  1. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  2. DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR RETAIL SHELF SPACE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    B. RAMASESHAN; N. R. ACHUTHAN; R. COLLINSON

    2008-01-01

    Efficient allocation of shelf space and product assortment can significantly improve a retailer's profitability. This paper addresses the problem from the perspective of an independent franchise retailer. A Category Management Decision Support Tool (CMDST) is proposed that efficiently generates optimal shelf space allocations and product assortments by using the existing scarce resources, resulting in increased profitability. CMDST utilizes two practical integrated category management models ...

  3. Probability or Reasoning: Current Thinking and Realistic Strategies for Improved Medical Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantha, Yogarabindranath Swarna

    2017-11-01

    A prescriptive model approach in decision making could help achieve better diagnostic accuracy in clinical practice through methods that are less reliant on probabilistic assessments. Various prescriptive measures aimed at regulating factors that influence heuristics and clinical reasoning could support clinical decision-making process. Clinicians could avoid time-consuming decision-making methods that require probabilistic calculations. Intuitively, they could rely on heuristics to obtain an accurate diagnosis in a given clinical setting. An extensive literature review of cognitive psychology and medical decision-making theory was performed to illustrate how heuristics could be effectively utilized in daily practice. Since physicians often rely on heuristics in realistic situations, probabilistic estimation might not be a useful tool in everyday clinical practice. Improvements in the descriptive model of decision making (heuristics) may allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Data-based decision making for instructional improvement in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Gerrit; Schildkamp, Kim; Pieters, Julius Marie; Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Data-based decision making can help teachers improve their instruction. Research shows that instruction has a strong impact on students' learning outcomes. This study investigates whether Dutch primary school teachers use data to improve their instruction. Four aspects of instruction were

  5. Increasing a large petrochemical company efficiency by improvement of decision making process

    OpenAIRE

    Kirin Snežana D.; Nešić Lela G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a research conducted in a large petrochemical company, in a state under transition, with the aim to "shed light" on the decision making process from the aspect of personal characteristics of the employees, in order to use the results to improve decision making process and increase company efficiency. The research was conducted by a survey, i.e. by filling out a questionnaire specially made for this purpose, in real conditions, during working hours. The sample of...

  6. Improving Breast Cancer Surgical Treatment Decision Making: The iCanDecide Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Sarah T; Li, Yun; An, Lawrence C; Resnicow, Kenneth; Janz, Nancy K; Sabel, Michael S; Ward, Kevin C; Fagerlin, Angela; Morrow, Monica; Jagsi, Reshma; Hofer, Timothy P; Katz, Steven J

    2018-03-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine the effect of iCanDecide, an interactive and tailored breast cancer treatment decision tool, on the rate of high-quality patient decisions-both informed and values concordant-regarding locoregional breast cancer treatment and on patient appraisal of decision making. Methods We conducted a randomized clinical trial of newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer making locoregional treatment decisions. From 22 surgical practices, 537 patients were recruited and randomly assigned online to the iCanDecide interactive and tailored Web site (intervention) or the iCanDecide static Web site (control). Participants completed a baseline survey and were mailed a follow-up survey 4 to 5 weeks after enrollment to assess the primary outcome of a high-quality decision, which consisted of two components, high knowledge and values-concordant treatment, and secondary outcomes (decision preparation, deliberation, and subjective decision quality). Results Patients in the intervention arm had higher odds of making a high-quality decision than did those in the control arm (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.92; P = .0004), which was driven primarily by differences in the rates of high knowledge between groups. The majority of patients in both arms made values-concordant treatment decisions (78.6% in the intervention arm and 81.4% in the control arm). More patients in the intervention arm had high decision preparation (estimate, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.34; P = .027), but there were no significant differences in the other decision appraisal outcomes. The effect of the intervention was similar for women who were leaning strongly toward a treatment option at enrollment compared with those who were not. Conclusion The tailored and interactive iCanDecide Web site, which focused on knowledge building and values clarification, positively affected high-quality decisions largely by improving knowledge compared with static online

  7. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Suman

    2008-01-01

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  8. Planning and Resource Allocation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Modern scientific management techniques provide college administrators with valuable planning and resource allocation insights and enhances the decision process. The planning model should incorporate assessment, strategic planning, dynamic and long-term budgeting, operational planning, and feedback and control for actual operations. (MSE)

  9. How State-Funded Home Care Programs Respond to Changes in Medicare Home Health Care: Resource Allocation Decisions on the Front Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazzini, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine how case managers in a state-funded home care program allocate home care services in response to information about a client's Medicare home health care status, with particular attention to the influence of work environment. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected on 355 case managers and 26 agency directors employed in June 1999 by 26 of the 27 regional agencies administering the Massachusetts Home Care Program for low-income elders. Study Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey study design. A case manager survey included measures of work environment, demographics, and factorial survey vignette clients (N=2,054), for which case managers assessed service eligibility levels. An agency director survey included measures of management practices. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Hierarchical linear models estimated the effects of work environment on the relationship between client receipt of Medicare home health care and care plan levels while controlling for case-mix differences in agencies' clients. Principal Findings Case managers did not supplement extant Medicare home health services, but did allocate more generous service plans to clients who have had Medicare home health care services recently terminated. This finding persisted when controlling for case mix and did not vary by work environment. Work environment affected overall care plan levels. Conclusions Study findings indicate systematic patterns of frontline resource allocation shaping the relationships among community-based long-term care payment sources. Further, results illustrate how nonuniform implementation of upper-level initiatives may be partially attributed to work environment characteristics. PMID:14596390

  10. A Training Method to Improve Police Use of Force Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. Andersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Police safety and use of force decisions during critical incidents are an ongoing source of concern for both police practitioners and the public. Prior research in the area of police performance reveals that psychological and physiological stress responses during critical incidents can shape the outcome of the incident, either positively or negatively. The goal of this study was to test a training method to improve use of force decision making among police. This randomized controlled pilot study consisted of training officers to apply techniques to enhance psychological and physiological control during stressful critical incidents. Of a pool of 80 police officers, potential participants were invited based on equivalent age, years of experience, physiological characteristics (i.e., body mass index [BMI] and cardiovascular reactivity, and expertise. Results revealed that the intervention group displayed significantly better physiological control, situational awareness, and overall performance, and made a greater number of correct use of force decisions than officers in the control group (all ps < .01. The relevant improvements in use of force decision-making found in this pilot study indicate that this training method warrants further investigation. Improved use of force decision making directly translates into potential lifesaving decisions for police and the civilians they are working with.

  11. Improving Land Use/Land Cover Classification by Integrating Pixel Unmixing and Decision Tree Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision tree classification is one of the most efficient methods for obtaining land use/land cover (LULC information from remotely sensed imageries. However, traditional decision tree classification methods cannot effectively eliminate the influence of mixed pixels. This study aimed to integrate pixel unmixing and decision tree to improve LULC classification by removing mixed pixel influence. The abundance and minimum noise fraction (MNF results that were obtained from mixed pixel decomposition were added to decision tree multi-features using a three-dimensional (3D Terrain model, which was created using an image fusion digital elevation model (DEM, to select training samples (ROIs, and improve ROI separability. A Landsat-8 OLI image of the Yunlong Reservoir Basin in Kunming was used to test this proposed method. Study results showed that the Kappa coefficient and the overall accuracy of integrated pixel unmixing and decision tree method increased by 0.093% and 10%, respectively, as compared with the original decision tree method. This proposed method could effectively eliminate the influence of mixed pixels and improve the accuracy in complex LULC classifications.

  12. Knowledge Reuse Method to Improve the Learning of Interference-Preventive Allocation Policies in Multi-Car Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso Chian, Alex; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki

    In this letter, we introduce a knowledge reuse method to improve the performance of a learning algorithm developed to prevent interference in multi-car elevators. This method enables the algorithm to use its previously acquired experience in new learning processes. The simulation results confirm the improvement achieved in the algorithm's performance.

  13. Neural signatures of experience-based improvements in deterministic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremel, Joshua J; Laurent, Patryk A; Wolk, David A; Wheeler, Mark E; Fiez, Julie A

    2016-12-15

    Feedback about our choices is a crucial part of how we gather information and learn from our environment. It provides key information about decision experiences that can be used to optimize future choices. However, our understanding of the processes through which feedback translates into improved decision-making is lacking. Using neuroimaging (fMRI) and cognitive models of decision-making and learning, we examined the influence of feedback on multiple aspects of decision processes across learning. Subjects learned correct choices to a set of 50 word pairs across eight repetitions of a concurrent discrimination task. Behavioral measures were then analyzed with both a drift-diffusion model and a reinforcement learning model. Parameter values from each were then used as fMRI regressors to identify regions whose activity fluctuates with specific cognitive processes described by the models. The patterns of intersecting neural effects across models support two main inferences about the influence of feedback on decision-making. First, frontal, anterior insular, fusiform, and caudate nucleus regions behave like performance monitors, reflecting errors in performance predictions that signal the need for changes in control over decision-making. Second, temporoparietal, supplementary motor, and putamen regions behave like mnemonic storage sites, reflecting differences in learned item values that inform optimal decision choices. As information about optimal choices is accrued, these neural systems dynamically adjust, likely shifting the burden of decision processing from controlled performance monitoring to bottom-up, stimulus-driven choice selection. Collectively, the results provide a detailed perspective on the fundamental ability to use past experiences to improve future decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Summary of the technical report on estimating the impact of key programmatic risk allocation decisions on Phase 1 bids and U.S. Department of Energy costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive tank waste at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As part of the privatization process, a request for proposals describing the conditions and DOE's expectations for contractor performance and responsibilities was issued. Argonne National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collaborated to analyze programmatic risks and costs associated with privatization. They examined nine major risks to determine financial impacts on the prospective vendors and DOE for three alternative risk allocations: (1) DOE bears the risk, (2) the vendor bears the risk, or (3) the risk is shared. With the help of a subject-matter expert, each risk was characterized by estimating potential consequences and likelihood of occurrence. A financial risk model was developed to estimate the total cost to DOE for a given risk allocation strategy covering all nine risks. Results showed that it is financially advantageous to DOE to bear some risks, share some others, and assign some to the vendor

  15. Shared decision-making in stroke: an evolving approach to improved patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Melissa J

    2017-06-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) occurs when patients, families and clinicians consider patients' values and preferences alongside the best medical evidence and partner to make the best decision for a given patient in a specific scenario. SDM is increasingly promoted within Western contexts and is also being explored outside such settings, including in China. SDM and tools to promote SDM can improve patients' knowledge/understanding, participation in the decision-making process, satisfaction and trust in the healthcare team. SDM has also proposed long-term benefits to patients, clinicians, organisations and healthcare systems. To successfully perform SDM, clinicians must know their patients' values and goals and the evidence underlying different diagnostic and treatment options. This is relevant for decisions throughout stroke care, from thrombolysis to goals of care, diagnostic assessments, rehabilitation strategies, and secondary stroke prevention. Various physician, patient, family, cultural and system barriers to SDM exist. Strategies to overcome these barriers and facilitate SDM include clinician motivation, patient participation, adequate time and tools to support the process, such as decision aids. Although research about SDM in stroke care is lacking, decision aids are available for select decisions, such as anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Future research is needed regarding both cultural aspects of successful SDM and application of SDM to stroke-specific contexts.

  16. Study protocol: Improving patient choice in treating low back pain (IMPACT - LBP: A randomised controlled trial of a decision support package for use in physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysall Colin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain is a common and costly condition. There are several treatment options for people suffering from back pain, but there are few data on how to improve patients' treatment choices. This study will test the effects of a decision support package (DSP, designed to help patients seeking care for back pain to make better, more informed choices about their treatment within a physiotherapy department. The package will be designed to assist both therapist and patient. Methods/Design Firstly, in collaboration with physiotherapists, patients and experts in the field of decision support and decision aids, we will develop the DSP. The work will include: a literature and evidence review; secondary analysis of existing qualitative data; exploration of patients' perspectives through focus groups and exploration of experts' perspectives using a nominal group technique and a Delphi study. Secondly, we will carry out a pilot single centre randomised controlled trial within NHS Coventry Community Physiotherapy. We will randomise physiotherapists to receive either training for the DSP or not. We will randomly allocate patients seeking treatment for non specific low back pain to either a physiotherapist trained in decision support or to receive usual care. Our primary outcome measure will be patient satisfaction with treatment at three month follow-up. We will also estimate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and assess the value of conducting further research. Discussion Informed shared decision-making should be an important part of any clinical consultation, particularly when there are several treatments, which potentially have moderate effects. The results of this pilot will help us determine the benefits of improving the decision-making process in clinical practice on patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46035546

  17. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  18. Improving Decision Making about Natural Disaster Mitigation Funding in Australia—A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin C. van den Honert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses from natural disasters pose significant challenges to communities and to the insurance industry. Natural disaster mitigation aims to reduce the threat to people and assets from natural perils. Good decisions relating to hazard risk mitigation require judgments both about the scientific and financial issues involved, i.e., the efficacy of some intervention, and the ethical or value principles to adopt in allocating resources. A framework for selecting a set of mitigation options within a limited budget is developed. Project selection about natural disaster mitigation options needs to trade off benefits offered by alternative investments (e.g., fatalities and injuries avoided, potential property and infrastructure losses prevented, safety concerns of citizens, etc. against the costs of investment. Such costs include capital and on-going operational costs, as well as intangible costs, such as the impact of the project on the visual landscape or the loss of societal cohesion in the event of the relocation of part of a community. Furthermore, dollar costs of any potential project will need to be defined within some prescribed budget and time frame. Taking all of these factors into account, this paper develops a framework for good natural hazard mitigation decision making and selection.

  19. The ASCENT (Allocation System Changes for Equity in Kidney Transplantation) Study: a Randomized Effectiveness-Implementation Study to Improve Kidney Transplant Waitlisting and Reduce Racial Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, Rachel E; Smith, Kayla; Basu, Mohua; Gander, Jennifer; Mohan, Sumit; Escoffery, Cam; Plantinga, Laura; Melanson, Taylor; Kalloo, Sean; Green, Gary; Berlin, Alex; Renville, Gary; Browne, Teri; Turgeon, Nicole; Caponi, Susan; Zhang, Rebecca; Pastan, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) implemented a new Kidney Allocation System (KAS) in December 2014 that is expected to substantially reduce racial disparities in kidney transplantation among waitlisted patients. However, not all dialysis facility clinical providers and end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are aware of how the policy change could improve access to transplant. We describe the ASCENT (Allocation System Changes for Equity in KidNey Transplantation) study, a randomized controlled effectiveness-implementation study designed to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to improve access to the early steps of kidney transplantation among dialysis facilities across the United States. The multicomponent intervention consists of an educational webinar for dialysis medical directors, an educational video for patients and an educational video for dialysis staff, and a dialysis-facility specific transplant performance feedback report. Materials will be developed by a multidisciplinary dissemination advisory board and will undergo formative testing in dialysis facilities across the United States. This study is estimated to enroll ~600 U.S. dialysis facilities with low waitlisting in all 18 ESRD Networks. The co-primary outcomes include change in waitlisting, and waitlist disparity at 1 year; secondary outcomes include changes in facility medical director knowledge about KAS, staff training regarding KAS, patient education regarding transplant, and a medical director's intent to refer patients for transplant evaluation. The results from the ASCENT study will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention designed to increase access to the deceased-donor kidney waitlist and reduce racial disparities in waitlisting.

  20. Improving shared decision-making in chronic lymphocytic leukemia through multidisciplinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Gabrielle B; Williams, Courtney P; Halilova, Karina I; Borate, Uma; Jackson, Bradford E; Van Laar, Emily S; Pisu, Maria; Butler, Thomas W; Davis, Randall S; Mehta, Amitkumar; Knight, Sara J; Safford, Monika M

    2018-03-01

    New treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with excellent response rates and varying toxicity profiles have emerged in recent years, creating an opportunity for a patient's personal preferences to contribute to treatment decisions. We conducted a prospective, quasi-experimental pre- and post-evaluation of a multilevel educational program and its impact on knowledge of CLL and shared decision-making (SDM). We educated patients, lay navigators, nurses/advanced practice providers (APPs), and physicians. Patients were evaluated for change in patient activation, distress, desired role in decision-making, perception of decision-making, satisfaction with oncologist explanation of treatment choice, and knowledge of CLL. Lay navigators, nurses/APPs, and physicians were evaluated for change in CLL knowledge and perception of decision-making. Forty-four patients, 33 lay navigators, 27 nurses/APPs, and 27 physicians participated in the educational program. We observed trends toward improved patient activation, with 68% before education versus 76% after education reporting a Patient Activation Measure (PAM) score of 3 or 4. The percentage of patients desiring and perceiving SDM trended upward from 47% to 67% and from 35% to 49%, respectively. The percentage of patients understanding that CLL is incurable increased from 80% to 90%, as did reporting awareness of signs of progression (64% to 76%). Patients' satisfaction with their oncologists' explanations of therapy increased significantly from 83% to 95% (p = .03). CLL knowledge increased after education for lay navigators (36% vs 63%) and nurses/APPs (35% vs 69%), and remained high for physicians (85% vs 87%). Nurses/APPs and physicians perceived at least some patient involvement in decision-making at baseline, whereas 12% of patients and 23% of lay navigators perceived that physicians made decisions independently. This project demonstrated trends toward improvements in patient engagement, prognostic awareness

  1. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  2. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Giacomelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  3. Method of reliability allocation based on fault tree analysis and fuzzy math in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaobing; Deng Jian; Cao Xuewu

    2005-01-01

    Reliability allocation is a kind of a difficult multi-objective optimization problem. It can not only be applied to determine the reliability characteristic of reactor systems, subsystem and main components but also be performed to improve the design, operation and maintenance of nuclear plants. The fuzzy math known as one of the powerful tools for fuzzy optimization and the fault analysis deemed to be one of the effective methods of reliability analysis can be applied to the reliability allocation model so as to work out the problems of fuzzy characteristic of some factors and subsystem's choice respectively in this paper. Thus we develop a failure rate allocation model on the basis of the fault tree analysis and fuzzy math. For the choice of the reliability constraint factors, we choose the six important ones according to practical need for conducting the reliability allocation. The subsystem selected by the top-level fault tree analysis is to avoid allocating reliability for all the equipment and components including the unnecessary parts. During the reliability process, some factors can be calculated or measured quantitatively while others only can be assessed qualitatively by the expert rating method. So we adopt fuzzy decision and dualistic contrast to realize the reliability allocation with the help of fault tree analysis. Finally the example of the emergency diesel generator's reliability allocation is used to illustrate reliability allocation model and improve this model simple and applicable. (authors)

  4. User-centered design to improve clinical decision support in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Julian; Chuang, Emmeline; Goldzweig, Caroline; Cain, Cindy L; Sugar, Catherine; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2017-08-01

    A growing literature has demonstrated the ability of user-centered design to make clinical decision support systems more effective and easier to use. However, studies of user-centered design have rarely examined more than a handful of sites at a time, and have frequently neglected the implementation climate and organizational resources that influence clinical decision support. The inclusion of such factors was identified by a systematic review as "the most important improvement that can be made in health IT evaluations." (1) Identify the prevalence of four user-centered design practices at United States Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care clinics and assess the perceived utility of clinical decision support at those clinics; (2) Evaluate the association between those user-centered design practices and the perceived utility of clinical decision support. We analyzed clinic-level survey data collected in 2006-2007 from 170 VA primary care clinics. We examined four user-centered design practices: 1) pilot testing, 2) provider satisfaction assessment, 3) formal usability assessment, and 4) analysis of impact on performance improvement. We used a regression model to evaluate the association between user-centered design practices and the perceived utility of clinical decision support, while accounting for other important factors at those clinics, including implementation climate, available resources, and structural characteristics. We also examined associations separately at community-based clinics and at hospital-based clinics. User-centered design practices for clinical decision support varied across clinics: 74% conducted pilot testing, 62% conducted provider satisfaction assessment, 36% conducted a formal usability assessment, and 79% conducted an analysis of impact on performance improvement. Overall perceived utility of clinical decision support was high, with a mean rating of 4.17 (±.67) out of 5 on a composite measure. "Analysis of impact on performance

  5. A Data Analytical Framework for Improving Real-Time, Decision Support Systems in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation we develop a framework that combines data mining, statistics and operations research methods for improving real-time decision support systems in healthcare. Our approach consists of three main concepts: data gathering and preprocessing, modeling, and deployment. We introduce the notion of offline and semi-offline modeling to…

  6. [How to improve resource allocation in health care for better equity in Africa? Some directions for the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Tonia

    2008-12-01

    Most projects financed by governments often end in deceptive results; certain indicators of health improve little, and certain not at all. Why? One cause could be the concentration of initiatives in the public sector, whereas half of heath care spending in Africa is in the private sector. It is time to consider the health care system in its entirety, and not just the public part. In this article the private sector is defined as all service provision provided by non-governmental supplier, either in the formal private sector (pharmacy, private hospital, etc.) or in the informal private sector (local, traditional therapists, informal consultations, for example).

  7. Use of visualization technology to improve decision-making performance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, Lewis F.; Naser, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains a description of modern 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology that may be applied to improve human situation awareness and decision-making in nuclear power plants. Visualization technology is being applied widely and successfully in several industries. Examples are presented of successful applications in the military, aviation, medical, entertainment, and nuclear industries. Additional opportunities are identified in the nuclear industry that may benefit from improved visualization

  8. Automation of information decision support to improve e-learning resources quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Danchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In conditions of active development of e-learning the high quality of e-learning resources is very important. Providing the high quality of e-learning resources in situation with mass higher education and rapid obsolescence of information requires the automation of information decision support for improving the quality of e-learning resources by development of decision support system. Methodology. The problem is solved by methods of artificial intelligence. The knowledge base of information structure of decision support system that is based on frame model of knowledge representation and inference production rules are developed. Findings. According to the results of the analysis of life cycle processes and requirements to the e-learning resources quality the information model of the structure of the knowledge base of the decision support system, the inference rules for the automatically generating of recommendations and the software implementation are developed. Practical value. It is established that the basic requirements for quality are performance, validity, reliability and manufacturability. It is shown that the using of a software implementation of decision support system for researched courses gives a growth of the quality according to the complex quality criteria. The information structure of a knowledge base system to support decision-making and rules of inference can be used by methodologists and content developers of learning systems.

  9. Promising Approaches From Behavioral Economics to Improve Patient Lung Cancer Screening Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Groskaufmanis, Lauren; Thomson, Norman B

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease, the deadliest form of cancer in the world and in the United States. As a consequence of CMS's determination to provide low-dose CT (LDCT) as a covered service for at-risk smokers, LDCT lung cancer screening is now a covered service for many at-risk patients that first requires counseling and shared clinical decision making, including discussions of the risks and benefits of LDCT screening. However, shared decision making fundamentally relies on the premise that with better information, patients will arrive at rational decisions that align with their preferences and values. Evidence from the field of behavioral economics offers many contrary viewpoints that take into account patient decision making biases and the role of the shared decision environment that can lead to flawed choices and that are particularly relevant to lung cancer screening and treatment. This article discusses some of the most relevant biases, and suggests incorporating such knowledge into screening and treatment guidelines and shared decision making best practices to increase the likelihood that such efforts will produce their desired objectives to improve survival and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving Decision Making for Feeding Options in Advanced Dementia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Laura C.; Carey, Timothy S.; Caprio, Anthony J.; Lee, Tae Joon; Ersek, Mary; Garrett, Joanne; Jackman, Anne; Gilliam, Robin; Wessell, Kathryn; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Feeding problems are common in dementia, and decision-makers have limited understanding of treatment options. Objectives To test whether a decision aid improves quality of decision-making about feeding options in advanced dementia. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting 24 nursing homes in North Carolina Participants Residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems and their surrogates. Intervention Intervention surrogates received an audio or print decision aid on feeding options in advanced dementia. Controls received usual care. Measurements Primary outcome was the Decisional Conflict Scale (range 1–5) measured at 3 months; other main outcomes were surrogate knowledge, frequency of communication with providers, and feeding treatment use. Results 256 residents and surrogate decision-makers were recruited. Residents’ average age was 85; 67% were Caucasian and 79% were women. Surrogates’ average age was 59; 67% were Caucasian, and 70% were residents’ children. The intervention improved knowledge scores (16.8 vs 15.1, paid about feeding options in advanced dementia reduced decisional conflict for surrogates and increased their knowledge and communication about feeding options with providers. PMID:22091750

  11. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeymeyt, Nathalie; Giurfa, Martin; Franks, Nigel R

    2010-09-29

    Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade-off classically observed during emigrations. These findings should be taken into account

  12. Decision support tools in conservation: a workshop to improve user-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rose

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A workshop held at the University of Cambridge in May 2017 brought developers, researchers, knowledge brokers, and users together to discuss user-centred design of decision support tools. Decision support tools are designed to take users through logical decision steps towards an evidence-informed final decision. Although they may exist in different forms, including on paper, decision support tools are generally considered to be computer- (online, software or app-based. Studies have illustrated the potential value of decision support tools for conservation, and there are several papers describing the design of individual tools. Rather less attention, however, has been placed on the desirable characteristics for use, and even less on whether tools are actually being used in practice. This is concerning because if tools are not used by their intended end user, for example a policy-maker or practitioner, then its design will have wasted resources. Based on an analysis of papers on tool use in conservation, there is a lack of social science research on improving design, and relatively few examples where users have been incorporated into the design process. Evidence from other disciplines, particularly human-computer interaction research, illustrates that involving users throughout the design of decision support tools increases the relevance, usability, and impact of systems. User-centred design of tools is, however, seldom mentioned in the conservation literature. The workshop started the necessary process of bringing together developers and users to share knowledge about how to conduct good user-centred design of decision support tools. This will help to ensure that tools are usable and make an impact in conservation policy and practice.

  13. The decision-making process for senior cancer patients: treatment allocation of older women with operable breast cancer in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Jenna L.; Richards, Paul; Zaman, Osama; Ward, Sue; Collins, Karen; Robinson, Thompson; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Reed, Malcolm W.; Wyld, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Up to 40% of women over 70 years with primary operable breast cancer in the UK are treated with primary endocrine therapy (PET) as an alternative to surgery. A variety of factors are important in determining treatment for older breast cancer patients. This study aimed to identify the patient and tumor factors associated with treatment allocation in this population. Prospectively collected data on treatment received (surgery vs. PET) were analysed with multivariable logistic regression using the variables age, modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), activities of daily living (ADL) score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, HER2 status, tumour size, grade and nodal status. Data were available for 1,122 cancers in 1,098 patients recruited between February 2013 and June 2015 from 51 UK hospitals. About 78% of the population were treated surgically, with the remainder being treated with PET. Increasing patient age at diagnosis, increasing CCI score, large tumor size (5 cm or more) and dependence in one or more ADL categories were all strongly associated with non-surgical treatment (P<0.05). Increasing comorbidity, large tumor size and reduced functional ability are associated with reduced likelihood of surgical treatment of breast cancer in older patients. However, age itself remains a significant factor for non-surgical treatment; reinforcing the need for evidence-based guidelines

  14. An agent-based simulation combined with group decision-making technique for improving the performance of an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousefi

    Full Text Available This study presents an agent-based simulation modeling in an emergency department. In a traditional approach, a supervisor (or a manager allocates the resources (receptionist, nurses, doctors, etc. to different sections based on personal experience or by using decision-support tools. In this study, each staff agent took part in the process of allocating resources based on their observation in their respective sections, which gave the system the advantage of utilizing all the available human resources during the workday by being allocated to a different section. In this simulation, unlike previous studies, all staff agents took part in the decision-making process to re-allocate the resources in the emergency department. The simulation modeled the behavior of patients, receptionists, triage nurses, emergency room nurses and doctors. Patients were able to decide whether to stay in the system or leave the department at any stage of treatment. In order to evaluate the performance of this approach, 6 different scenarios were introduced. In each scenario, various key performance indicators were investigated before and after applying the group decision-making. The outputs of each simulation were number of deaths, number of patients who leave the emergency department without being attended, length of stay, waiting time and total number of discharged patients from the emergency department. Applying the self-organizing approach in the simulation showed an average of 12.7 and 14.4% decrease in total waiting time and number of patients who left without being seen, respectively. The results showed an average increase of 11.5% in total number of discharged patients from emergency department.

  15. Does empowering resident families or nursing home employees in decision making improve service quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Darla J

    2014-08-01

    This research examines how the empowerment of residents' family members and nursing home employees in managerial decision making is related to service quality. The study was conducted using data from 33 nursing homes in the United States. Surveys were administered to more than 1,000 employees on-site and mailed to the primary-contact family member of each resident. The resulting multilevel data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The empowerment of families in decision making was positively associated with their perceptions of service quality. The empowerment of nursing staff in decision making was more strongly related to service quality than the empowerment of nonnursing staff. Among nursing staff, the empowerment of nursing assistants improved service quality more than the empowerment of nurses. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Nicotine patches improve mood and response speed in a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, M V; Hammersley, J J; Hale, C R; Nuwer, P K; Meliska, C J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of smoking a cigarette or wearing a transdermal nicotine patch on mood and lexical decision-making were tested in eight smokers. Each participant was tested after 4 hours of smoking abstinence, under 4 conditions: placebo (very low nicotine) cigarette, nicotine cigarette, placebo patch, and nicotine patch. Relative to placebo, wearing the nicotine patch reduced Profile of Mood States (POMS) Total Mood Disturbance and Fatigue/Inertia scores, while increasing the speed of some types of lexical decisions. Smoking a nicotine cigarette did not affect reaction times, but unexpectedly decreased the accuracy of Word/ Nonword lexical decisions. Thus, transdermal nicotine may improve mood and facilitate longterm memory search and/or attentional processes in nicotine-deprived smokers.

  17. Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach

  18. PCA based feature reduction to improve the accuracy of decision tree c4.5 classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. Z. F.; Sitompul, O. S.; Ramli, M.

    2018-03-01

    Splitting attribute is a major process in Decision Tree C4.5 classification. However, this process does not give a significant impact on the establishment of the decision tree in terms of removing irrelevant features. It is a major problem in decision tree classification process called over-fitting resulting from noisy data and irrelevant features. In turns, over-fitting creates misclassification and data imbalance. Many algorithms have been proposed to overcome misclassification and overfitting on classifications Decision Tree C4.5. Feature reduction is one of important issues in classification model which is intended to remove irrelevant data in order to improve accuracy. The feature reduction framework is used to simplify high dimensional data to low dimensional data with non-correlated attributes. In this research, we proposed a framework for selecting relevant and non-correlated feature subsets. We consider principal component analysis (PCA) for feature reduction to perform non-correlated feature selection and Decision Tree C4.5 algorithm for the classification. From the experiments conducted using available data sets from UCI Cervical cancer data set repository with 858 instances and 36 attributes, we evaluated the performance of our framework based on accuracy, specificity and precision. Experimental results show that our proposed framework is robust to enhance classification accuracy with 90.70% accuracy rates.

  19. Online Job Allocation with Hard Allocation Ratio Requirement (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    server divided by its capacity. Specifically , let nj be the number of jobs that have already been allocated to server j. When job i arrives, it is...decisions solely based on current system state is needed. The problem of online job allocation has attracted much attention . Most current studies study...closed-form expressions for their performance. Specifically , we prove that, in order to allocate at least 1− 1θ of jobs , the two policies only need to

  20. Improving family satisfaction and participation in decision making in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffines, Meredith; Johnson, Karen L; Smitz Naranjo, Linda L; Lissauer, Matthew E; Fishel, Marmie Ann-Michelle; D'Angelo Howes, Susan M; Pannullo, Diane; Ralls, Mindy; Smith, Ruth

    2013-10-01

    Background Survey data revealed that families of patients in a surgical intensive care unit were not satisfied with their participation in decision making or with how well the multidisciplinary team worked together. Objectives To develop and implement an evidence-based communication algorithm and evaluate its effect in improving satisfaction among patients' families. Methods A multidisciplinary team developed an algorithm that included bundles of communication interventions at 24, 72, and 96 hours after admission to the unit. The algorithm included clinical triggers, which if present escalated the algorithm. A pre-post design using process improvement methods was used to compare families' satisfaction scores before and after implementation of the algorithm. Results Satisfaction scores for participation in decision making (45% vs 68%; z = -2.62, P = .009) and how well the health care team worked together (64% vs 83%; z = -2.10, P = .04) improved significantly after implementation. Conclusions Use of an evidence-based structured communication algorithm may be a way to improve satisfaction of families of intensive care patients with their participation in decision making and their perception of how well the unit's team works together.

  1. Prioritize Improvement Opportunities Identified In Self-Assessment Using Multi-Criteria Fuzzy Group Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Ghassem Faraj Pour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Efforts to improve the quality are one of the prerequisites for the success of individual companies and for the competitiveness of all whole companies. In the field of improvement and excellence business excellence models answer to the question that what the better organization is what goals and concepts they follow and according to what standards they behave. The EFQM excellence model can be transition from multiplicity to unity of different existing models. The most important approaches of these models are self-assessment and identifying improvement areas in an organization. On the other side organizations which are at lower level of total quality management will encounter so many areas to improve when using this model and implementing of self-improvement. Choosing the most important key problems are always the main challenges and because of resource constraints and strategic goals organizations have to prioritize identified improvement opportunities. This paper introduces a model for prioritizing and choosing the most significant improvement opportunities using the organization Business Excellence team members and because the analysis and decision making atmosphere for excellence team members is not generally complete with accurate information it seems using of fuzzy decision can be very helpful.

  2. Decision Aggregation in Distributed Classification by a Transductive Extension of Maximum Entropy/Improved Iterative Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kesidis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In many ensemble classification paradigms, the function which combines local/base classifier decisions is learned in a supervised fashion. Such methods require common labeled training examples across the classifier ensemble. However, in some scenarios, where an ensemble solution is necessitated, common labeled data may not exist: (i legacy/proprietary classifiers, and (ii spatially distributed and/or multiple modality sensors. In such cases, it is standard to apply fixed (untrained decision aggregation such as voting, averaging, or naive Bayes rules. In recent work, an alternative transductive learning strategy was proposed. There, decisions on test samples were chosen aiming to satisfy constraints measured by each local classifier. This approach was shown to reliably correct for class prior mismatch and to robustly account for classifier dependencies. Significant gains in accuracy over fixed aggregation rules were demonstrated. There are two main limitations of that work. First, feasibility of the constraints was not guaranteed. Second, heuristic learning was applied. Here, we overcome these problems via a transductive extension of maximum entropy/improved iterative scaling for aggregation in distributed classification. This method is shown to achieve improved decision accuracy over the earlier transductive approach and fixed rules on a number of UC Irvine datasets.

  3. An economic decision framework using modeling for improving aquifer remediation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, B.R.; Gwo, J.P.; Toran, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    Reducing cost is a critical challenge facing environmental remediation today. One of the most effective ways of reducing costs is to improve decision-making. This can range from choosing more cost- effective remediation alternatives (for example, determining whether a groundwater contamination plume should be remediated or not) to improving data collection (for example, determining when data collection should stoop). Uncertainty in site conditions presents a major challenge for effective decision-making. We present a framework for increasing the effectiveness of remedial design decision-making at groundwater contamination sites where there is uncertainty in many parameters that affect remediation design. The objective is to provide an easy-to-use economic framework for making remediation decisions. The presented framework is used to 1) select the best remedial design from a suite of possible ones, 2) estimate if additional data collection is cost-effective, and 3) determine the most important parameters to be sampled. The framework is developed by combining elements from Latin-Hypercube simulation of contaminant transport, economic risk-cost-benefit analysis, and Regional Sensitivity Analysis (RSA)

  4. Reward-allocation judgments in Romania : A factorial survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzea, C.; Meseşan-Schmitz, L.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated reward-allocation judgments when positive outcomes (monetary rewards) were distributed and the allocator was not a co-recipient, in a sample of 200 Romanian students. Within a full factorial survey design, seven factors, selected to affect the allocation decision, were orthogonally

  5. The Treatment of cardiovascular Risk in Primary care using Electronic Decision supOrt (TORPEDO) study-intervention development and protocol for a cluster randomised, controlled trial of an electronic decision support and quality improvement intervention in Australian primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, David; Usherwood, Tim; Panaretto, Katie; Harris, Mark; Hunt, Jenny; Patel, Bindu; Zwar, Nicholas; Redfern, Julie; Macmahon, Stephen; Colagiuri, Stephen; Hayman, Noel; Patel, Anushka

    2012-01-01

    Large gaps exist in the implementation of guideline recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management. Electronic decision support (EDS) systems are promising interventions to close these gaps but few have undergone clinical trial evaluation in Australia. We have developed HealthTracker, a multifaceted EDS and quality improvement intervention to improve the management of CVD risk. It is hypothesised that the use of HealthTracker over a 12-month period will result in: (1) an increased proportion of patients receiving guideline-indicated measurements of CVD risk factors and (2) an increased proportion of patients at high risk will receive guideline-indicated prescriptions for lowering their CVD risk. Sixty health services (40 general practices and 20 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation to receive either the intervention package or continue with usual care, stratified by service type, size and participation in existing quality improvement initiatives. The intervention consists of point-of-care decision support; a risk communication interface; a clinical audit tool to assess performance on CVD-related indicators; a quality improvement component comprising peer-ranked data feedback and support to develop strategies to improve performance. The control arm will continue with usual care without access to these intervention components. Quantitative data will be derived from cross-sectional samples at baseline and end of study via automated data extraction. Detailed process and economic evaluations will also be conducted. The general practice component of the study is approved by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) and the ACCHS component is approved by the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council HREC. Formal agreements with each of the participating sites have been signed. In addition to the usual scientific forums, results will be disseminated via newsletters

  6. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  7. Applying BI Techniques To Improve Decision Making And Provide Knowledge Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on BI techniques and especially data mining algorithms that can support and improve the decision making process, with applications within the financial sector. We consider the data mining techniques to be more efficient and thus we applied several techniques, supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms The case study in which these algorithms have been implemented regards the activity of a banking institution, with focus on the management of lending activities.

  8. Formal Process Modeling to Improve Human Decision-Making in Test and Evaluation Acoustic Range Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MODELING TO IMPROVE HUMAN DECISION-MAKING DURING TEST AND EVALUATION RANGE CONTROL by William Carlson September 2017 Thesis Advisor...the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT...MAKING DURING TEST AND EVALUATION RANGE CONTROL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William Carlson 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  9. Attentional Filter Training but Not Memory Training Improves Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Patrick; Schwefel, Melanie; Müller, Notger G

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making has a high practical relevance for daily performance. Its relation to other cognitive abilities such as executive control and memory is not fully understood. Here we asked whether training of either attentional filtering or memory storage would influence decision-making as indexed by repetitive assessments of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT was developed to assess and simulate real-life decision-making (Bechara et al., 2005). In this task, participants gain or lose money by developing advantageous or disadvantageous decision strategies. On five consecutive days we trained 29 healthy young adults (20-30 years) either in working memory (WM) storage or attentional filtering and measured their IGT scores after each training session. During memory training (MT) subjects performed a computerized delayed match-to-sample task where two displays of bars were presented in succession. During filter training (FT) participants had to indicate whether two simultaneously presented displays of bars matched or not. Whereas in MT the relevant target stimuli stood alone, in FT the targets were embedded within irrelevant distractors (bars in a different color). All subjects within each group improved their performance in the trained cognitive task. For the IGT, we observed an increase over time in the amount of money gained in the FT group only. Decision-making seems to be influenced more by training to filter out irrelevant distractors than by training to store items in WM. Selective attention could be responsible for the previously noted relationship between IGT performance and WM and is therefore more important for enhancing efficiency in decision-making.

  10. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade

  11. Efficacy of educational video game versus traditional educational apps at improving physician decision making in trauma triage: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Deepika; Farris, Coreen; Fischhoff, Baruch; Rosengart, Matthew R; Angus, Derek C; Yealy, Donald M; Wallace, David J; Barnato, Amber E

    2017-12-12

    To determine whether a behavioral intervention delivered through a video game can improve the appropriateness of trauma triage decisions in the emergency department of non-trauma centers. Randomized clinical trial. Online intervention in national sample of emergency medicine physicians who make triage decisions at US hospitals. 368 emergency medicine physicians primarily working at non-trauma centers. A random sample (n=200) of those with primary outcome data was reassessed at six months. Physicians were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one hour of exposure to an adventure video game (Night Shift) or apps based on traditional didactic education (myATLS and Trauma Life Support MCQ Review), both on iPads. Night Shift was developed to recalibrate the process of using pattern recognition to recognize moderate-severe injuries (representativeness heuristics) through the use of stories to promote behavior change (narrative engagement). Physicians were randomized with a 2×2 factorial design to intervention (game v traditional education apps) and then to the experimental condition under which they completed the outcome assessment tool (low v high cognitive load). Blinding could not be maintained after allocation but group assignment was masked during the analysis phase. Outcomes of a virtual simulation that included 10 cases; in four of these the patients had severe injuries. Participants completed the simulation within four weeks of their intervention. Decisions to admit, discharge, or transfer were measured. The proportion of patients under-triaged (patients with severe injuries not transferred to a trauma center) was calculated then (primary outcome) and again six months later, with a different set of cases (primary outcome of follow-up study). The secondary outcome was effect of cognitive load on under-triage. 149 (81%) physicians in the game arm and 148 (80%) in the traditional education arm completed the trial. Of these, 64/100 (64%) and 58/100 (58%), respectively

  12. Efficacy of educational video game versus traditional educational apps at improving physician decision making in trauma triage: randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Coreen; Fischhoff, Baruch; Rosengart, Matthew R; Angus, Derek C; Yealy, Donald M; Wallace, David J; Barnato, Amber E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether a behavioral intervention delivered through a video game can improve the appropriateness of trauma triage decisions in the emergency department of non-trauma centers. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting Online intervention in national sample of emergency medicine physicians who make triage decisions at US hospitals. Participants 368 emergency medicine physicians primarily working at non-trauma centers. A random sample (n=200) of those with primary outcome data was reassessed at six months. Interventions Physicians were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one hour of exposure to an adventure video game (Night Shift) or apps based on traditional didactic education (myATLS and Trauma Life Support MCQ Review), both on iPads. Night Shift was developed to recalibrate the process of using pattern recognition to recognize moderate-severe injuries (representativeness heuristics) through the use of stories to promote behavior change (narrative engagement). Physicians were randomized with a 2×2 factorial design to intervention (game v traditional education apps) and then to the experimental condition under which they completed the outcome assessment tool (low v high cognitive load). Blinding could not be maintained after allocation but group assignment was masked during the analysis phase. Main outcome measures Outcomes of a virtual simulation that included 10 cases; in four of these the patients had severe injuries. Participants completed the simulation within four weeks of their intervention. Decisions to admit, discharge, or transfer were measured. The proportion of patients under-triaged (patients with severe injuries not transferred to a trauma center) was calculated then (primary outcome) and again six months later, with a different set of cases (primary outcome of follow-up study). The secondary outcome was effect of cognitive load on under-triage. Results 149 (81%) physicians in the game arm and 148 (80%) in the traditional

  13. Deal or No Deal: using games to improve student learning, retention and decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alan F.; Woodford, Kelly C.; Maes, Jeanne

    2011-03-01

    Student understanding and retention can be enhanced and improved by providing alternative learning activities and environments. Education theory recognizes the value of incorporating alternative activities (games, exercises and simulations) to stimulate student interest in the educational environment, enhance transfer of knowledge and improve learned retention with meaningful repetition. In this case study, we investigate using an online version of the television game show, 'Deal or No Deal', to enhance student understanding and retention by playing the game to learn expected value in an introductory statistics course, and to foster development of critical thinking skills necessary to succeed in the modern business environment. Enhancing the thinking process of problem solving using repetitive games should also improve a student's ability to follow non-mathematical problem-solving processes, which should improve the overall ability to process information and make logical decisions. Learning and retention are measured to evaluate the success of the students' performance.

  14. The use of resource allocation approach for hospitals based on the initial efficiency by using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Yazdian Hossein Abadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recourse allocation is very important in today’s highly competitive environment to enhance the quality and reduce costs due to limited resources and unlimited needs of the society. The aim of this study was to implement resource allocation in order to improve the efficiency of hospital. Method: This is a mixed method study. The data used in this paper are secondary data related to the 30 large acute and general hospitals in the US. Bed, service mix, full-time equivalent (FTE, and operational expenses are input indicators in hospital, and adjusted admissions and outpatient visits are output indicators. Using goal programming (GP model and data envelopment analysis (DEA model with a common weights, we suggest three scenarios for resource allocation and budget allocation. “Resource allocation based on efficiency”, “budget allocation based on efficiency” and “two stage allocation of budget”. The first scenario was used for allocating the resources and the second and third ones for allocating budget to decision making units (DMUs. The data were analyzed by LINGO software. Results: Before the allocation, four hospitals were efficient and the efficiency of six hospitals was less than 50%, but after allocation, in the first case of the first scenario 14 hospitals, 11 hospitals in the second case of the first scenario, 24 hospitals in the second scenario and 17 hospitals in the third scenario were efficient, and it is an important point that after the allocation, efficiency of all hospitals increased. Conclusion: This study can be useful for hospital administrators; it can help them to allocate their resource and budget and increase the efficiency of their hospitals.

  15. Toward a Multilevel Perspective on the Allocation of Educational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of the following is demonstrated: (1) striking a balance between the attention given to resource allocation practices at macro compared to microlevels of decision making; and (2) learning more about how resource allocation decisions made at one level affect practices at other levels of the educational system. (Author/GK)

  16. Portfolio allocation under the vendor managed inventory: A Markov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portfolio allocation under the vendor managed inventory: A Markov decision process. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This study provides a review of Markov decision processes and investigates its suitability for solutions to portfolio allocation problems under vendor managed inventory in ...

  17. Modelling farmers’ decisions on adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Issoufou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Niger, global change leads farmers increasingly to intensify their agricultural production. That is one of the reason improved seeds have been diffused among farmers since decades. The study uses Logit and Tobit software for modeling farmers’ decision on adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds. The sample consisted of 612 agricultural households selected by random sampling without replacement in 16 villages. Data was collected in 2015 to 2016 through individual survey and focus group. The results show that the rate of improved cowpea seed adoption is 39.7% after three years of introduction. The accessibility of village, age and availability, accessibility of seeds determine at the same time decisions of adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds. The probability of improved seeds adoption is determined by education, access to agricultural extension and adaptability, productivity of seeds. Crops Risk perception and preference, precocity of seeds only affect the intensification probability. The analysis of marginal effects shows that adoption probability increases for accessibility of village, education, access to agricultural extension and adaptability, availability and productivity of improved seeds. On the other hand, the probability decreases for age and the availability of seed. Looking at also the marginal effects on seed intensification, it was observed that the probability increases for accessibility of village, perception of production risk and preference, availability and precocity of improved seeds. However, this probability decreases for age and seeds accessibility. These determinants of adoption and intensification are essential for improved seeds dissemination action to enhance the rate of adoption, intensity of seeds use, impact and sustainability for producers.

  18. Using M and S to Improve Human Decision Making and Achieve Effective Problem Solving in an International Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Vanessa L.; Landess, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In the international arena, decision makers are often swayed away from fact-based analysis by their own individual cultural and political bias. Modeling and Simulation-based training can raise awareness of individual predisposition and improve the quality of decision making by focusing solely on fact vice perception. This improved decision making methodology will support the multinational collaborative efforts of military and civilian leaders to solve challenges more effectively. The intent of this experimental research is to create a framework that allows decision makers to "come to the table" with the latest and most significant facts necessary to determine an appropriate solution for any given contingency.

  19. Computerized system of team make-up and work allocation in the Belgian Zolder mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustanowicz, M.

    1979-01-01

    System of work allocation introduced in 1974 in the Zolder Coal Mine (NV Kempense Steenkolenmijnen) in Belgium is evaluated. The system is based on an IBM 370/158 computer. An information management system supervises the programing work. There are approximately 30 programs. Absenteeism in the Belgian coal mines is generally high at approximately 24% and some months as high as 40%. Therefore, introducing a computerized system of work allocation and team make-up was advantageous. Operation of the system is described on the levels of foreman, engineers and director of the mine. Advantages of the system are numerous. It enables optimization of team make-up and work allocation, shortens the time of allocation of work by a foreman, increases efficiency of foremen's work and provides the director with the means and information necessary for efficient decision making in improving the productivity of the mine. (5 refs.) (In Polish)

  20. A Decision Model for Multi-market Advertising Budget Allocation Based on Vidale-Wolfe Model%基于Vidale-Wolfe模型的多市场广告预算分配决策模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 王兴元

    2013-01-01

    Advertising decision problem has been a hotspot concerned by marketing managers and scholars for a long time.More and more enterprises are facing multi-market with the development of society and economy and it becomes a more important problem for enterprises that how to allocate advertising budget to get the best advertising effect in condition of multi-market and fixed total advertising budget.Vidale-Wolfe model is selected as the advertising response model,based on which the decision model for multi-market advertising budget allocation is proposed.As some marketing strategy requires special sales rate demands in some markets.The proposed model consists of two parts:the latter cares about how to keep certain sales rate,while the former does not.The optimization model is constructed.The method to get arguments value and how to solve the model are discussed.An example is given at last.%广告决策问题很长时间以来都是营销经理和学者们关注的热点.随着社会经济发展,越来越多的企业面对多个市场.如何在多个市场、广告总预算固定的状况下,合理分配各个市场广告预算以收到最优广告效果,是一个企业关心的较为重要的问题.经过比较,选择Vidale-Wolfe模型作为广告反应模型,在此基础上建立了多市场广告预算分配决策模型.考虑到一些营销策略对某些市场有特殊销售速率要求,该模型分为无特殊销售速率维持要求的多市场广告预算分配决策模型和有特殊销售速率维持要求的多市场广告预算分配决策模型两类,后者探讨了销售速率变化与达到指定销售速率两种要求下的广告预算最优分配问题,构建了优化模型,提出了模型参数取值与模型求解方法,最后给出了一个算例.

  1. Evaluating clean energy alternatives for Jiangsu, China: An improved multi-criteria decision making method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Peng; Newton, Sidney; Fang, Jian-xin; Zhou, De-qun; Zhang, Lu-ping

    2015-01-01

    Promoting the utilization of clean energy has been identified as one potential solution to addressing environmental pollution and achieving sustainable development in many countries around the world. Evaluating clean energy alternatives includes a requirement to balance multiple conflict criteria, including technology, environment, economy and society, all of which are incommensurate and interdependent. Traditional MCDM (multi-criteria decision making) methods, such as the weighted average method, often fail to aggregate such criteria consistently. In this paper, an improved MCDM method based on fuzzy measure and integral is developed and applied to evaluate four primary clean energy options for Jiangsu Province, China. The results confirm that the preferred clean energy option for Jiangsu is solar photovoltaic, followed by wind, biomass and finally nuclear. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to evaluate the values of clean energy resources for Jiangsu. The ordered weighted average method is also applied to compare the method mentioned above in our empirical study. The results show that the improved MCDM method provides higher discrimination between alternative clean energy alternatives. - Highlights: • Interactions among evaluation criteria of clean energy resources are taken into account. • An improved multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is proposed based on entropy weight method, fuzzy measure and integral. • Clean energy resources of Jiangsu are evaluated with the improved MCDM method, and their ranks are identified.

  2. Improving Decision Making about Genetic Testing in the Clinic: An Overview of Effective Knowledge Translation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Robitaille, Hubert; Gane, Claire; Hébert, Jessica; Labrecque, Michel; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) interventions are attempts to change behavior in keeping with scientific evidence. While genetic tests are increasingly available to healthcare consumers in the clinic, evidence about their benefits is unclear and decisions about genetic testing are thus difficult for all parties. We sought to identify KT interventions that involved decisions about genetic testing in the clinical context and to assess their effectiveness for improving decision making in terms of behavior change, increased knowledge and wellbeing. We searched for trials assessing KT interventions in the context of genetic testing up to March 2014 in all systematic reviews (n = 153) published by two Cochrane review groups: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) and Consumers and Communication. We retrieved 2473 unique trials of which we retained only 28 (1%). Two EPOC reviews yielded two trials of KT interventions: audit and feedback (n = 1) and educational outreach (n = 1). Both targeted health professionals and the KT intervention they assessed was found to be effective. Four Consumers and Communication reviews yielded 26 trials: decision aids (n = 15), communication of DNA-based disease risk estimates (n = 7), personalized risk communication (n = 3) and mobile phone messaging (n = 1). Among these, 25 trials targeted only health consumers or patients and the KT interventions were found to be effective in four trials, partly effective in seven, and ineffective in four. Lastly, only one trial targeted both physicians and patients and was found to be effective. More research on the effectiveness of KT interventions regarding genetic testing in the clinical context may contribute to patients making informed value-based decisions and drawing the maximum benefit from clinical applications of genetic and genomic innovations.

  3. Improving Decision Making about Genetic Testing in the Clinic: An Overview of Effective Knowledge Translation Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Légaré

    Full Text Available Knowledge translation (KT interventions are attempts to change behavior in keeping with scientific evidence. While genetic tests are increasingly available to healthcare consumers in the clinic, evidence about their benefits is unclear and decisions about genetic testing are thus difficult for all parties.We sought to identify KT interventions that involved decisions about genetic testing in the clinical context and to assess their effectiveness for improving decision making in terms of behavior change, increased knowledge and wellbeing.We searched for trials assessing KT interventions in the context of genetic testing up to March 2014 in all systematic reviews (n = 153 published by two Cochrane review groups: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC and Consumers and Communication.We retrieved 2473 unique trials of which we retained only 28 (1%. Two EPOC reviews yielded two trials of KT interventions: audit and feedback (n = 1 and educational outreach (n = 1. Both targeted health professionals and the KT intervention they assessed was found to be effective. Four Consumers and Communication reviews yielded 26 trials: decision aids (n = 15, communication of DNA-based disease risk estimates (n = 7, personalized risk communication (n = 3 and mobile phone messaging (n = 1. Among these, 25 trials targeted only health consumers or patients and the KT interventions were found to be effective in four trials, partly effective in seven, and ineffective in four. Lastly, only one trial targeted both physicians and patients and was found to be effective.More research on the effectiveness of KT interventions regarding genetic testing in the clinical context may contribute to patients making informed value-based decisions and drawing the maximum benefit from clinical applications of genetic and genomic innovations.

  4. Do adapted vignettes improve medical decision-making capacity for individuals with Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalén, Liv; Heimann Mühlenbock, Katarina; Almkvist, Ove; Eriksdotter, Maria; Sundström, Erik; Tallberg, Ing-Mari

    2017-12-01

    Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD). Two vignettes from LIMD were altered linguistically with the aim to facilitate understanding for individuals with AD. An experimental within-subject design was used to study the influence on MDC of readability (original/adapted vignettes) and content (two different clinical trials). We included 24 patients with mild AD in this prospective study, which read all four vignettes along with a few other tests. This allowed us to investigate the association between MDC and cognitive function. Adapted vignettes did not yield significant differences regarding MDC as compared with original vignettes using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. A difference was found between the two clinical trials where LIMD score was significantly higher for Kidney disease than hypertension vignettes. Our results indicate that adapted vignettes may not improve MDC for individuals with mild AD. MDC was affected by which clinical trial the vignettes regarded, which implies that other factors affecting MDC need to be investigated, like length of text and vocabulary used. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Patient Decision Aids Improve Decision Quality and Patient Experience and Reduce Surgical Rates in Routine Orthopaedic Care: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepucha, Karen; Atlas, Steven J; Chang, Yuchiao; Dorrwachter, Janet; Freiberg, Andrew; Mangla, Mahima; Rubash, Harry E; Simmons, Leigh H; Cha, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    Patient decision aids are effective in randomized controlled trials, yet little is known about their impact in routine care. The purpose of this study was to examine whether decision aids increase shared decision-making when used in routine care. A prospective study was designed to evaluate the impact of a quality improvement project to increase the use of decision aids for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis, lumbar disc herniation, or lumbar spinal stenosis. A usual care cohort was enrolled before the quality improvement project and an intervention cohort was enrolled after the project. Participants were surveyed 1 week after a specialist visit, and surgical status was collected at 6 months. Regression analyses adjusted for clustering of patients within clinicians and examined the impact on knowledge, patient reports of shared decision-making in the visit, and surgical rates. With 550 surveys, the study had 80% to 90% power to detect a difference in these key outcomes. The response rates to the 1-week survey were 70.6% (324 of 459) for the usual care cohort and 70.2% (328 of 467) for the intervention cohort. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in any patient characteristic between the 2 cohorts. More patients received decision aids in the intervention cohort at 63.6% compared with the usual care cohort at 27.3% (p = 0.007). Decision aid use was associated with higher knowledge scores, with a mean difference of 18.7 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.4 to 26.1 points; p < 0.001) for the usual care cohort and 15.3 points (95% CI, 7.5 to 23.0 points; p = 0.002) for the intervention cohort. Patients reported more shared decision-making (p = 0.009) in the visit with their surgeon in the intervention cohort, with a mean Shared Decision-Making Process score (and standard deviation) of 66.9 ± 27.5 points, compared with the usual care cohort at 62.5 ± 28.6 points. The majority of patients received their preferred treatment, and this did not differ

  6. Structured Decision-Making: Using Personalized Medicine to Improve the Value of Cancer Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Bradford R.; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer care is often inconsistently delivered with inadequate incorporation of patient values and objective evidence into decision-making. Utilization of time limited trials of care with predefined decision points that are based on iteratively updated best evidence, tools that inform providers about a patient’s experience and values, and known information about a patient’s disease will allow superior matched care to be delivered. Personalized medicine does not merely refer to the incorporation of genetic information into clinical care, it involves utilization of the wide array of data points relevant to care, many of which are readily available at the bedside today. By pushing uptake of personalized matching available today, clinicians can better address the triple aim of improved health, lowers costs, and enhanced patient experience, and we can prepare the health care landscape for the iterative inclusion of progressively more sophisticated information as newer tests and information become available to support the personalized medicine paradigm. PMID:25562407

  7. A Computerised Business Ethics Expert System -A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Brenner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making

  8. Shared decision making after severe stroke-How can we improve patient and family involvement in treatment decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, Akila; Dennis, Martin; Mead, Gillian; Whiteley, William N; Lawton, Julia; Doubal, Fergus Neil

    2017-12-01

    People who are well may regard survival with disability as being worse than death. However, this is often not the case when those surviving with disability (e.g. stroke survivors) are asked the same question. Many routine treatments provided after an acute stroke (e.g. feeding via a tube) increase survival, but with disability. Therefore, clinicians need to support patients and families in making informed decisions about the use of these treatments, in a process termed shared decision making. This is challenging after acute stroke: there is prognostic uncertainty, patients are often too unwell to participate in decision making, and proxies may not know the patients' expressed wishes (i.e. values). Patients' values also change over time and in different situations. There is limited evidence on successful methods to facilitate this process. Changes targeted at components of shared decision making (e.g. decision aids to provide information and discussing patient values) increase patient satisfaction. How this influences decision making is unclear. Presumably, a "shared decision-making tool" that introduces effective changes at various stages in this process might be helpful after acute stroke. For example, by complementing professional judgement with predictions from prognostic models, clinicians could provide information that is more accurate. Decision aids that are personalized may be helpful. Further qualitative research can provide clinicians with a better understanding of patient values and factors influencing this at different time points after a stroke. The evaluation of this tool in its success to achieve outcomes consistent with patients' values may require more than one clinical trial.

  9. A multicriteria decision making approach applied to improving maintenance policies in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, María Carmen; Gómez, Andrés

    2016-04-23

    decision-making group. This approach is better suited to actual health care organization practice and depending on the subsystem analysed, improvements are introduced that are not included in normal maintenance policies; in this way, not only have different maintenance policies been suggested, but also alternatives that, in each case and according to viability, provide a more complete decision tool for the maintenance manager.

  10. Just-in-time information improved decision-making in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The "Just-in-time Information" (JIT librarian consultation service was designed to provide rapid information to answer primary care clinical questions during patient hours. This study evaluated whether information provided by librarians to answer clinical questions positively impacted time, decision-making, cost savings and satisfaction. METHODS AND FINDING: A randomized controlled trial (RCT was conducted between October 2005 and April 2006. A total of 1,889 questions were sent to the service by 88 participants. The object of the randomization was a clinical question. Each participant had clinical questions randomly allocated to both intervention (librarian information and control (no librarian information groups. Participants were trained to send clinical questions via a hand-held device. The impact of the information provided by the service (or not provided by the service, additional resources and time required for both groups was assessed using a survey sent 24 hours after a question was submitted. The average time for JIT librarians to respond to all questions was 13.68 minutes/question (95% CI, 13.38 to 13.98. The average time for participants to respond their control questions was 20.29 minutes/question (95% CI, 18.72 to 21.86. Using an impact assessment scale rating cognitive impact, participants rated 62.9% of information provided to intervention group questions as having a highly positive cognitive impact. They rated 14.8% of their own answers to control question as having a highly positive cognitive impact, 44.9% has having a negative cognitive impact, and 24.8% with no cognitive impact at all. In an exit survey measuring satisfaction, 86% (62/72 responses of participants scored the service as having a positive impact on care and 72% (52/72 indicated that they would use the service frequently if it were continued. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, providing timely information to clinical questions had a highly positive impact on

  11. Just-in-time information improved decision-making in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Campbell, Craig; Rowan, Margo

    2008-01-01

    The "Just-in-time Information" (JIT) librarian consultation service was designed to provide rapid information to answer primary care clinical questions during patient hours. This study evaluated whether information provided by librarians to answer clinical questions positively impacted time, decision-making, cost savings and satisfaction. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted between October 2005 and April 2006. A total of 1,889 questions were sent to the service by 88 participants. The object of the randomization was a clinical question. Each participant had clinical questions randomly allocated to both intervention (librarian information) and control (no librarian information) groups. Participants were trained to send clinical questions via a hand-held device. The impact of the information provided by the service (or not provided by the service), additional resources and time required for both groups was assessed using a survey sent 24 hours after a question was submitted. The average time for JIT librarians to respond to all questions was 13.68 minutes/question (95% CI, 13.38 to 13.98). The average time for participants to respond their control questions was 20.29 minutes/question (95% CI, 18.72 to 21.86). Using an impact assessment scale rating cognitive impact, participants rated 62.9% of information provided to intervention group questions as having a highly positive cognitive impact. They rated 14.8% of their own answers to control question as having a highly positive cognitive impact, 44.9% has having a negative cognitive impact, and 24.8% with no cognitive impact at all. In an exit survey measuring satisfaction, 86% (62/72 responses) of participants scored the service as having a positive impact on care and 72% (52/72) indicated that they would use the service frequently if it were continued. In this study, providing timely information to clinical questions had a highly positive impact on decision-making and a high approval rating from

  12. Human Capital and Risky Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenjie; Yu, Qun

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been done to examine the relation between investors' human capital and their financial asset allocation. While some showed that the value of human capital should be taken into consideration to make financial asset allocation decisions on the composition of investing portfolios, most argued not. In this paper, we selected the monthly return of 9 industrial ETFs from June of 2007 to July 2011, used the present value of total future income as estimate of human capital, and reli...

  13. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jay G; Lam, Fred C W; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-01-01

    Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET), wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each). As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest that its modest

  14. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Hosking

    Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest

  15. A decision support system improves the interpretation of myocardial perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagil, K.; Bondouy, M.; Chaborel, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a computer-based decision support system (DSS) on performance and inter-observer variability of interpretations regarding ischaemia and infarction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). METHODS: Seven physicians independently...... with the advice of the DSS showed less inter-observer variability than those made without advice. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a DSS can improve performance and reduces the inter-observer variability of interpretations in myocardial perfusion imaging. Both experienced and, especially, inexperienced...

  16. A multi-criteria optimization and decision-making approach for improvement of food engineering processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alik Abakarov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to propose a multi-criteria optimization and decision-making technique to solve food engineering problems. This technique was demonstrated using experimental data obtained on osmotic dehydration of carrot cubes in a sodium chloride solution. The Aggregating Functions Approach, the Adaptive Random Search Algorithm, and the Penalty Functions Approach were used in this study to compute the initial set of non-dominated or Pareto-optimal solutions. Multiple non-linear regression analysis was performed on a set of experimental data in order to obtain particular multi-objective functions (responses, namely water loss, solute gain, rehydration ratio, three different colour criteria of rehydrated product, and sensory evaluation (organoleptic quality. Two multi-criteria decision-making approaches, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Tabular Method (TM, were used simultaneously to choose the best alternative among the set of non-dominated solutions. The multi-criteria optimization and decision-making technique proposed in this study can facilitate the assessment of criteria weights, giving rise to a fairer, more consistent, and adequate final compromised solution or food process. This technique can be useful to food scientists in research and education, as well as to engineers involved in the improvement of a variety of food engineering processes.

  17. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin T Raimi

    Full Text Available To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people-especially political conservatives-to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed.

  18. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimi, Kaitlin T; Stern, Paul C; Maki, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people-especially political conservatives-to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed.

  19. Can decision biases improve insurance outcomes? An experiment on status quo bias in health insurance choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-06-19

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.

  20. Can Plan Recommendations Improve the Coverage Decisions of Vulnerable Populations in Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv; Rice, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act's marketplaces present an important opportunity for expanding coverage but consumers face enormous challenges in navigating through enrollment and re-enrollment. We tested the effectiveness of a behaviorally informed policy tool--plan recommendations--in improving marketplace decisions. Data were gathered from a community sample of 656 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia. We conducted an incentive-compatible, computer-based experiment using a hypothetical marketplace like the one consumers face in the federally-facilitated marketplaces, and examined their decision quality. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition or three types of plan recommendations: social normative, physician, and government. For participants randomized to a plan recommendation condition, the plan that maximized expected earnings, and minimized total expected annual health care costs, was recommended. Primary data were gathered using an online choice experiment and questionnaire. Plan recommendations resulted in a 21 percentage point increase in the probability of choosing the earnings maximizing plan, after controlling for participant characteristics. Two conditions, government or providers recommending the lowest cost plan, resulted in plan choices that lowered annual costs compared to marketplaces where no recommendations were made. As millions of adults grapple with choosing plans in marketplaces and whether to switch plans during open enrollment, it is time to consider marketplace redesigns and leverage insights from the behavioral sciences to facilitate consumers' decisions.

  1. Can Decision Biases Improve Insurance Outcomes? An Experiment on Status Quo Bias in Health Insurance Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222

  2. Can Plan Recommendations Improve the Coverage Decisions of Vulnerable Populations in Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Barnes

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act's marketplaces present an important opportunity for expanding coverage but consumers face enormous challenges in navigating through enrollment and re-enrollment. We tested the effectiveness of a behaviorally informed policy tool--plan recommendations--in improving marketplace decisions.Data were gathered from a community sample of 656 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia.We conducted an incentive-compatible, computer-based experiment using a hypothetical marketplace like the one consumers face in the federally-facilitated marketplaces, and examined their decision quality. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition or three types of plan recommendations: social normative, physician, and government. For participants randomized to a plan recommendation condition, the plan that maximized expected earnings, and minimized total expected annual health care costs, was recommended.Primary data were gathered using an online choice experiment and questionnaire.Plan recommendations resulted in a 21 percentage point increase in the probability of choosing the earnings maximizing plan, after controlling for participant characteristics. Two conditions, government or providers recommending the lowest cost plan, resulted in plan choices that lowered annual costs compared to marketplaces where no recommendations were made.As millions of adults grapple with choosing plans in marketplaces and whether to switch plans during open enrollment, it is time to consider marketplace redesigns and leverage insights from the behavioral sciences to facilitate consumers' decisions.

  3. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.; Maki, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people—especially political conservatives—to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed. PMID:28135337

  4. Can Decision Biases Improve Insurance Outcomes? An Experiment on Status Quo Bias in Health Insurance Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Felder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.

  5. Trading river services: optimizing dam decisions at the basin scale to improve socio-ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Gold, A.; Uchida, E.; McGreavy, B.; Smith, S. M.; Wilson, K.; Blachly, B.; Newcomb, A.; Hart, D.; Gardner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Dam removal has become a cornerstone of environmental restoration practice in the United States. One outcome of dam removal that has received positive attention is restored access to historic habitat for sea-run fisheries, providing a crucial gain in ecosystem resilience. But dams also provide stakeholders with valuable services, and uncertain socio-ecological outcomes can arise if there is not careful consideration of the basin scale trade offs caused by dam removal. In addition to fisheries, dam removals can significantly affect landscape nutrient flux, municipal water storage, recreational use of lakes and rivers, property values, hydroelectricity generation, the cultural meaning of dams, and many other river-based ecosystem services. We use a production possibility frontiers approach to explore dam decision scenarios and opportunities for trading between ecosystem services that are positively or negatively affected by dam removal in New England. Scenarios that provide efficient trade off potentials are identified using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. Our results suggest that for many river systems, there is a significant potential to increase the value of fisheries and other ecosystem services with minimal dam removals, and further increases are possible by including decisions related to dam operations and physical modifications. Run-of-river dams located near the head of tide are often found to be optimal for removal due to low hydroelectric capacity and high impact on fisheries. Conversely, dams with large impoundments near a river's headwaters can be less optimal for dam removal because their value as nitrogen sinks often outweighs the potential value for fisheries. Hydropower capacity is negatively impacted by dam removal but there are opportunities to meet or exceed lost capacity by upgrading preserved hydropower dams. Improving fish passage facilities for dams that are critical for safety or water storage can also reduce impacts on fisheries. Our

  6. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  7. The potential for intelligent decision support systems to improve the quality and consistency of medication reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindoff, I; Stafford, A; Peterson, G; Kang, B H; Tenni, P

    2012-08-01

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) are of serious concern worldwide, particularly for the elderly who often take many medications simultaneously. Medication reviews have been demonstrated to improve medication usage, leading to reductions in DRPs and potential savings in healthcare costs. However, medication reviews are not always of a consistently high standard, and there is often room for improvement in the quality of their findings. Our aim was to produce computerized intelligent decision support software that can improve the consistency and quality of medication review reports, by helping to ensure that DRPs relevant to a patient are overlooked less frequently. A system that largely achieved this goal was previously published, but refinements have been made. This paper examines the results of both the earlier and newer systems. Two prototype multiple-classification ripple-down rules medication review systems were built, the second being a refinement of the first. Each of the systems was trained incrementally using a human medication review expert. The resultant knowledge bases were analysed and compared, showing factors such as accuracy, time taken to train, and potential errors avoided. The two systems performed well, achieving accuracies of approximately 80% and 90%, after being trained on only a small number of cases (126 and 244 cases, respectively). Through analysis of the available data, it was estimated that without the system intervening, the expert training the first prototype would have missed approximately 36% of potentially relevant DRPs, and the second 43%. However, the system appeared to prevent the majority of these potential expert errors by correctly identifying the DRPs for them, leaving only an estimated 8% error rate for the first expert and 4% for the second. These intelligent decision support systems have shown a clear potential to substantially improve the quality and consistency of medication reviews, which should in turn translate into

  8. Use of a decision aid for prenatal testing of fetal abnormalities to improve women's informed decision making: a cluster randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN22532458].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, C; Gunn, J; Bell, R; Lewis, S; Meiser, B; Metcalfe, S; Ukoumunne, O C; Halliday, J

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a decision aid for prenatal testing of fetal abnormalities compared with a pamphlet in supporting women's decision making. A cluster randomised controlled trial. Primary health care. Women in early pregnancy consulting a GP. GPs were randomised to provide women with either a decision aid or a pamphlet. The decision aid was a 24-page booklet designed using the Ottowa Decision Framework. The pamphlet was an existing resource available in the trial setting. Validated scales were used to measure the primary outcomes, informed choice and decisional conflict, and the secondary outcomes, anxiety, depression, attitudes to the pregnancy/fetus and acceptability of the resource. Outcomes were measured at 14 weeks of gestation from questionnaires that women completed and returned by post. Women in the intervention group were more likely to make an informed decision 76% (126/165) than those in the control group 65% (107/165) (adjusted OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.14-3.81). A greater proportion of women in the intervention group 88% (147/167) had a 'good' level of knowledge than those in the control group 72% (123/171) (adjusted OR 3.43; 95% CI 1.79-6.58). Mean (SD) decisional conflict scores were low in both groups, decision aid 1.71 (0.49), pamphlet 1.65 (0.55) (adjusted mean difference 0.10; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.22). There was no strong evidence of differences between the trial arms in the measures of psychological or acceptability outcomes. A tailored prenatal testing decision aid plays an important role in improving women's knowledge of first and second trimester screening tests and assisting them to make decisions about screening and diagnostic tests that are consistent with their values.

  9. A Framework of a Computerized Decision Aid to Improve Group Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Bose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In organizations, groups of decision makers often meet to make judgments as a group on issues and tasks such as, hiring a person who best fits an open position. In such tasks called cognitive conflict tasks, where there is no conflict of interest, group members attempting to reach a common solution often differ on their perspectives to the problem. Cognitive conflicts have been studied in the context of Social Judgment Theory, which posits that persons or judges make a set of judgments about a set of events based on observation of a set of cues related to the events. Disagreement arises because the judges fail to understand each other’s judgment making policies. In order to reduce disagreement and move the group towards a group judgment policy that has the consensus of the group members and is applied consistently, a computerized decision aid is proposed that can be built around a Group Support System using cognitive mapping as a method of providing cognitive feedback and the Analytic Hierarchy Process to process the conflicting criteria and help an individual formulate a judgment policy, as well as aggregate the individual policies into a group judgment policy. It is argued that such as decision aid by supporting every decision maker in the group to effectively use information about the task so that they have a good understanding of the judgment policy they form, to communicate their evaluation policies accurately to other members, and by providing an iterative mechanism through which members can arrive at a compromise solution to the task, is expected to improve the quality of group judgments.

  10. Cognitive allocation and the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design

  11. Methodology for allocating reliability and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes a methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants. The work investigates the technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk, which are expressed in a set of global safety criteria and which may not necessarily be rigid, to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner. The report also provides general discussions on the problem of reliability and risk allocation. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm. The work mainly addresses the first two steps of a typical decision analysis, i.e., (1) identifying alternatives, and (2) generating information on outcomes of the alternatives, by performing a multiobjective optimization on a PRA model and reliability cost functions. The multiobjective optimization serves as the guiding principle to reliability and risk allocation. The concept of ''noninferiority'' is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The final step of decision analysis, i.e., assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided, and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation, preference assessment, and uncertainty are discussed. 29 refs., 44 figs., 39 tabs

  12. Eco-driving : strategic, tactical, and operational decisions of the driver that improve vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "This report presents information about the effects of decisions that a driver can make to : influence on-road fuel economy of light-duty vehicles. These include strategic decisions : (vehicle selection and maintenance), tactical decisions (route sel...

  13. Factors of Selection of the Stock Allocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohov Heorhii K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes results of the author’s study of factors of making strategic decisions on selection of methods of stock allocation by public joint stock companies in Ukraine. The author used the Random forest mathematical apparatus of classification trees building and also informal methods. The article analyses the reasons that restrain public allocation of stock. It shows significant influence upon selection of a method of stock allocation of such factors as capital concentration, balance rate of corporate rights, sector of economy and significant participation of the institutes of common investment or the state in the authorised capital. The built hierarchical model of classification of factors of the issuing policy of joint stock companies finds logical justification in specific features of the institutional environment, however, it does not fit into the framework of the classical concept of the market economy. The model could be used both for formation of goals of corporate financial strategies and in the process of improvement of state regulation of activity of securities issuers. The prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of transformation of factors of selection of the stock allocation method under conditions of revival of the stock market.

  14. Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.

  15. The gold analyser: a tool for valuation and a means for improved mining decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.M.; Nami, M.

    1986-01-01

    The erratic values of gold grade in Witwatersrand placer deposits necessitates the collection of large numbers of samples for accurate valuation and ore reserve estimation. Owing to manpower requirements current sampling techniques do not allow for the collection of sufficiently large numbers of samples. A portable gold analyser, which is at an advanced stage of development, is expected to alleviate this problem. It is a lightweight instrument, intended for one-man operation, and is based on energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence principles for determining gold and other mineral concentrations. The instrument is designed for in situ face scanning operations and provides a direct readout and internal storage of the measured gold concentration. The immediate availability of an estimate of gold grade should significantly improve the quality of short-term panel-scale mining decisions. Data are presented to show the improved precision in valuation using the gold analyser instead of conventional chip sampling

  16. Benefiting from deep-level diversity : How congruence between knowledge and decision rules improves team decision making and team perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ellemers, Naomi

    In two experiments we show how teams can benefit from the presence of multiple sources of deep-level task-related diversity. We manipulated differences (vs. similarities) in task information and personal decision rules in dyads (Study 1) and three-person teams (Study 2). The results indicate that

  17. Learning from Multiple Classifier Systems: Perspectives for Improving Decision Making of QSAR Models in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-The, Hai; Nam, Nguyen-Hai; Nga, Doan-Viet; Hai, Dang Thanh; Dieguez-Santana, Karel; Marrero-Poncee, Yovani; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Casanola-Martin, Gerardo M; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong

    2018-02-09

    Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling has been widely used in medicinal chemistry and computational toxicology for many years. Today, as the amount of chemicals is increasing dramatically, QSAR methods have become pivotal for the purpose of handling the data, identifying a decision, and gathering useful information from data processing. The advances in this field have paved a way for numerous alternative approaches that require deep mathematics in order to enhance the learning capability of QSAR models. One of these directions is the use of Multiple Classifier Systems (MCSs) that potentially provide a means to exploit the advantages of manifold learning through decomposition frameworks, while improving generalization and predictive performance. In this paper, we presented MCS as a next generation of QSAR modeling techniques and discuss the chance to mining the vast number of models already published in the literature. We systematically revisited the theoretical frameworks of MCS as well as current advances in MCS application for QSAR practice. Furthermore, we illustrated our idea by describing ensemble approaches on modeling histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitors. We expect that our analysis would contribute to a better understanding about MCS application and its future perspectives for improving the decision making of QSAR models. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Radiographer's impact on improving clinical decision-making, patient care and patient diagnosis: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Daniel; Egan, Ingrid; Baird, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study attempts to quantify the benefits of a documented radiographic clinical history through the use of the clinical history template form designed by Egan and Baird. Six radiographers completed the clinical history template for 40 patients and four radiologists included the recorded information as part of their reporting process. A focus discussion group was held between the radiographers to ascertain the level of satisfaction and benefits encountered with the use of the template form. A questionnaire was designed for the radiologists to complete regarding the usefulness of the template form with respect to the radiological reporting process. Results/Discussion: 15 cases for which the form was used demonstrated a direct benefit in respect to improved radiographic clinical decision-making. Radiographers agreed the template form aided the establishment of a stronger radiographer-patient relationship during the radiographic examination. Two radiologists agreed the form aided in establishing a radiological diagnosis and suggested the form be implemented as part of the standard departmental protocol. Despite the small sample size, there is evidence the form aided radiographic decision-making and assisted in the establishment of an accurate radiological diagnosis. The overall consensus amongst radiographers was that it enhanced radiographer-patient communication and improved the level of patient care. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  19. EFFECT OF A TRAINING PROGRAM ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS' DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alarc\\u00F3n

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse whether a tactical training program based on a constructivist model can improve decision making related to keeping control of the ball for a men's senior basketball team composed of ten players. The dependent variables were: player distribution around the ball, and achieving support on both sides of the ball at an effective passing distance. Data collection was made through observational analysis utilizing a previously validated tool. A pretest-posttest design without a control group was used. Results demonstrated an improvement in decision making after the posttest for both the number of support players near the player with the ball, as it increased from 85% in the pretest to 100% in the posttest, and the number of collective or team actions around the player with the ball (from 5% to 76.5% with highly significant differences. The primary conclusion is that a training program for teaching team tactics based on a constructivist model has a positive influence on players' capability to facilitate the pass to their teammates.

  20. THE USE OF TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AS DIRECTED TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES AND DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario of organizations Process Management aims to perform process in an organized, prioritizing actions through techniques and methods that are linked to the improvement of the organization in the market segment it operates. As a determinant for achieving goals successfully, organizational memory is all important in the management of processes, allowing all areas meet in a systemic way, crediting their information to the various organizational sectors and thus using knowledge to direct an action with a focus planning to achieve strategic organizational goal. The organizational memory can be registered through the development of a knowledge base. The work in question aims to provide a better understanding of the importance of the knowledge base in an organization, to perform appropriate actions, planning, simulating and reaching a decision through meaningful data. Soon after the development of a bibliographic research, a bibliometric study on the proposed topic was accomplished with the main events of the Brazilian scientific areas of production engineering, analyzing how the topic has been addressed by authors in the areas of Process Management and Base Knowledge. The main results so far observed the need for the implementation of knowledge-based models in systems that seek to improve the execution of processes and thus reduce failures and decision-making processes more appropriate.

  1. Offspring Size and Reproductive Allocation in Harvester Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernasz, Diane C; Cole, Blaine J

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental decision that an organism must make is how to allocate resources to offspring, with respect to both size and number. The two major theoretical approaches to this problem, optimal offspring size and optimistic brood size models, make different predictions that may be reconciled by including how offspring fitness is related to size. We extended the reasoning of Trivers and Willard (1973) to derive a general model of how parents should allocate additional resources with respect to the number of males and females produced, and among individuals of each sex, based on the fitness payoffs of each. We then predicted how harvester ant colonies should invest additional resources and tested three hypotheses derived from our model, using data from 3 years of food supplementation bracketed by 6 years without food addition. All major results were predicted by our model: food supplementation increased the number of reproductives produced. Male, but not female, size increased with food addition; the greatest increases in male size occurred in colonies that made small females. We discuss how use of a fitness landscape improves quantitative predictions about allocation decisions. When parents can invest differentially in offspring of different types, the best strategy will depend on parental state as well as the effect of investment on offspring fitness.

  2. Preparing Principals for Resource Allocation Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Trudy; Sparkman, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Although school administrators lead one of the most important and largest national enterprises, the opportunities and incentives for acquiring the necessary leadership skills are limited. Courses in school finance are usually fairly general and seldom touch on school-site budget issues or identify which resources actually contribute to desired…

  3. Scaling up success to improve health: Towards a rapid assessment guide for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paltzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Evidence-based health interventions exist and are effectively implemented throughout resource-limited settings. The literature regarding scale-up strategies and frameworks is growing. The purpose of this paper is to identify and systematically document the variation in scale-up strategies to develop a rapid assessment tool for decision-makers looking to identify the most appropriate strategy for their organizational and environmental contexts. Methods A list of scale-up strategies and frameworks were identified through an in-depth literature review and conversations with scale-up and quality improvement leaders. The literature search included a broad range of terms that might be used interchangeably with scale-up of best practices. Terms included: implementation research, knowledge translation, translational research, quality improvement research, health systems improvement, scale-up, best practices, improvement collaborative, and community based research. Based on this research, 18 strategies and frameworks were identified, and nine met our inclusion criteria for scale-up of health-related strategies. We interviewed the key contact for four of the nine strategies to obtain additional information regarding the strategy’s scale-up components, targets, underlying theories, evaluation efforts, facilitating factors, and barriers. A comparative analysis of common elements and strategy characteristics was completed by two of the authors on the nine selected strategies. Key strategy characteristics and common factors that facilitate or hinder the strategy’s success in scaling up health-related interventions were identified. Results Common features of scale-up strategies include: 1 the development of context-specific evidence; 2 collaborative partnerships; 3 iterative processes; and 4 shared decision-making. Facilitating factors include strong leadership, community engagement, communication, government collaboration, and a focus on

  4. Sistema de suporte à decisão para alocação de água em projetos de irrigação Decision support system for water allocation in irrigation projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirléia A. de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo se apresenta um modelo visando analisar a alocação de água para irrigação, denominado IrrigaLS. Os volumes de água armazenados no solo e nos reservatórios superficiais constituem variáveis de decisão do modelo de rede de fluxo na análise de alocação. O IrrigaLS é um dos programas que integram a base de modelos do sistema de suporte à decisão AcquaNet. As avaliações indicaram que o IrrigaLS foi eficiente para simular sistemas complexos de recursos hídricos sob condição de múltiplos usos, calcular a necessidade hídrica real das culturas e informar garantias de um suprimento mínimo de água para as culturas em períodos de seca. O programa considera a precipitação no balanço hídrico do solo, possibilita variar os volumes meta para armazenamento de água no solo e diferenciar as culturas em relação à sensibilidade ao déficit hídrico. O fato de considerar as interações entre os fatores água, solo, clima e planta, permite uma aproximação melhor para se obter eficiência de uso da água e também melhor estimativa da produção agrícola.This paper presents a model, called IrrigaLS, to analyze the water allocation for irrigation. The water volumes stored in the soil and in the superficial reservoirs constitute decision variables of the network flow model in the allocation analysis. IrrigaLS is one of the programs that form the base of models of the decision support system called AcquaNet. Evaluations have shown that IrrigaLS is efficient at simulating complex water resource systems under multiple usage condition. IrrigaLS allows the real water needs of the crops to be determined, it guarantees a minimum water supply to the crops during drought periods, as well as water saving by the inclusion of rainfall. It also makes possible the choice of soil moisture target, to differentiate the crops in relation to the water deficit sensitivity and to calculate the soil daily water budget. The fact that it takes

  5. Training attention improves decision making in individuals with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-06-01

    Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.

  6. Improving life cycle assessment methodology for the application of decision support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. From a decision maker’s (DM’s) point of view there are at least three main “illness” factors influencing the quality of the information that the DM uses for making decisions. The factors are not independent of each other, but it seems......) refrain from making a decision based on an LCA and thus support a decision on other parameters than the LCA environmental parameters. Conversely, it may in some decision support contexts be acceptable to base a decision on highly uncertain information. This all depends on the specific decision support...... the different steps. A deterioration of the quality in each step is likely to accumulate through the statistical value chain in terms of increased uncertainty and bias. Ultimately this can make final decision support problematic. The "Law of large numbers" (LLN) is the methodological tool/probability theory...

  7. Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious HIV targets despite expected donor withdrawal by combining improved ART procurement mechanisms with allocative and implementation efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Shattock

    Full Text Available Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels.We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure-two areas identified for potential cost-reductions. We determined optimal allocations across HIV programs to satisfy either national targets or ambitious targets. For each scenario, we considered two cases of future HIV financing: the 2014 national budget maintained into the future and the 2014 budget without current international investment.Kazakhstan can achieve its national HIV targets with the current budget by (1 optimally re-allocating resources across programs and (2 either securing a 35% [30%-39%] reduction in antiretroviral treatment drug costs or reducing management costs by 44% [36%-58%] of 2014 levels. Alternatively, a combination of antiretroviral treatment and management cost-reductions could be sufficient. Furthermore, Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious targets of halving new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to 2014 levels by attaining a 67% reduction in antiretroviral treatment costs, a 19% [14%-27%] reduction in management costs, and allocating resources optimally.With Kazakhstan facing impending donor withdrawal, it is important for the HIV response to achieve more with available resources. This analysis can help to guide HIV response planners in directing available funding to achieve the greatest yield from investments. The key changes recommended were considered realistic by Kazakhstan country representatives.

  8. Visual analytics in medical education: impacting analytical reasoning and decision making for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitsis, Christos; Nilsson, Gunnar; Zary, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The medical curriculum is the main tool representing the entire undergraduate medical education. Due to its complexity and multilayered structure it is of limited use to teachers in medical education for quality improvement purposes. In this study we evaluated three visualizations of curriculum data from a pilot course, using teachers from an undergraduate medical program and applying visual analytics methods. We found that visual analytics can be used to positively impacting analytical reasoning and decision making in medical education through the realization of variables capable to enhance human perception and cognition on complex curriculum data. The positive results derived from our evaluation of a medical curriculum and in a small scale, signify the need to expand this method to an entire medical curriculum. As our approach sustains low levels of complexity it opens a new promising direction in medical education informatics research.

  9. Decision Support For Digester Algae Integration For Improved Environmental And Economic Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has teamed with University of Idaho and Boise State University to make the use of ADs more attractive by implementing a two-stage AD and coupling additional processes to the system. The addition of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) reactor, algae cultivation system, and a biomass treatment system such as fast-pyrolysis or hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) would further sequester carbon and nutrients, as well as add valuable products that can be sold or used on-site to mitigate costs. The Decision-support for Digester-Algae IntegRation for Improved Environmental and Economic Sustainability (DAIRIEES) technoeconomic model will play a key role in evaluating the effectiveness and viability of this system to achieve economic and environmental sustainability by the dairy industry.

  10. Improved Hypoxia Modeling for Nutrient Control Decisions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Pickering, Ken; Tzortziou, Maria; Maninio, Antonio; Policelli, Fritz; Stehr, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Modeling Framework is a suite of coupled models linking the deposition and transport of sediment and nutrients to subsequent bio-geo chemical processes and the resulting effect on concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the coastal waters of Louisiana and Texas. Here, we examine the potential benefits of using multiple NASA remote sensing data products within this Modeling Framework for increasing the accuracy of the models and their utility for nutrient control decisions in the Gulf of Mexico. Our approach is divided into three components: evaluation and improvement of (a) the precipitation input data (b) atmospheric constituent concentrations in EPA's air quality/deposition model and (c) the calculation of algal biomass, organic carbon and suspended solids within the water quality/eutrophication models of the framework.

  11. Improving Consumer Decisions: The Conscious Use of Primes as Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nicolao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through this article we examine ways through which consumers can take advantage of marketers’ priming attempts and make better decisions. Specifically, we investigate what happens when individuals are made aware of primes that may potentially improve their performance. Using an Embedded Figures Test, we demonstrate that individuals can be consciously primed into an analytic thinking mindset and perform better when they believe that the prime will enhance performance. Individuals are able to successfully ignore the prime when they believe that the prime hinders performance. Utilizing both holistic and analytic primes and by alternating the valence of the prime’s potential outcome, we are able to disentangle the conscious effects of primes from demand effects. We discuss how these findings may lead to and suggest avenues for future research.

  12. Control and decision strategies in wastewater treatment plants for operation improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Santín, Ignacio; Vilanova, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the operation of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with a focus on maintaining effluent water quality while keeping operational costs within constrained limits. It includes control operation and decision schemes and is based on the use of benchmarking scenarios that yield easily reproducible results that readers can implement for their own solutions. The final criterion is the effect of the applied control strategy on plant performance – specifically, improving effluent quality, reducing costs and avoiding violations of established effluent limits. The evaluation of the different control strategies is achieved with the help of two Benchmark Simulation Models (BSM1, BSM2). Given the complexity of the biological and biochemical processes involved and the major fluctuations in the influent flow rate, controlling WWTPs poses a serious challenge. Further, the importance of control goal formulation and control structure design in relation to WWTP process control is widely recogniz...

  13. Relaxing decision criteria does not improve recognition memory in amnesic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, P J; Squire, L R

    1999-05-01

    An important question about the organization of memory is whether information available in non-declarative memory can contribute to performance on tasks of declarative memory. Dorfman, Kihlstrom, Cork, and Misiaszek (1995) described a circumstance in which the phenomenon of priming might benefit recognition memory performance. They reported that patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy improved their recognition performance when they were encouraged to relax their criteria for endorsing test items as familiar. It was suggested that priming improved recognition by making information available about the familiarity of test items. In three experiments, we sought unsuccessfully to reproduce this phenomenon in amnesic patients. In Experiment 3, we reproduced the methods and procedure used by Dorfman et al. but still found no evidence for improved recognition memory following the manipulation of decision criteria. Although negative findings have their own limitations, our findings suggest that the phenomenon reported by Dorfman et al. does not generalize well. Our results agree with several recent findings that suggest that priming is independent of recognition memory and does not contribute to recognition memory scores.

  14. Multi-Stakeholder Decision Aid for Improved Prioritization of the Public Health Impact of Climate Sensitive Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Michel, Pascal; Gosselin, Pierre; Samoura, Karim; Ravel, André; Campagna, Céline; Cissé, Hassane Djibrilla; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-12

    The effects of climate change on infectious diseases are an important global health concern and necessitate decisions for allocation of resources. Economic tools have been used previously; however, how prioritization results might differ when done using broader considerations identified by local stakeholders has yet to be assessed. A multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach was used to assess multi-stakeholder expressed concerns around disease prioritization via focus groups held in Quebec and Burkina Faso. Stakeholders weighted criteria and comparisons were made across study sites. A pilot disease prioritization was done to examine effects on disease rankings. A majority of identified criteria were common to both sites. The effect of context specific criteria and weights resulted in similar yet distinct prioritizations of diseases. The presence of consistent criteria between sites suggests that common concerns exist for prioritization; however, context-specific adjustments reveal much regarding resource availability, capacity and concerns that should be considered as this impacts disease ranking. Participatory decision aid approaches facilitate rich knowledge exchange and problem structuring. Furthermore, given multiple actors in low- and middle-income countries settings, multi-actor collaborations across non-governmental organizations, local government and community are important. Formal mechanisms such as MCDA provide means to foster consensus, shared awareness and collaboration.

  15. Multi-Stakeholder Decision Aid for Improved Prioritization of the Public Health Impact of Climate Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Hongoh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on infectious diseases are an important global health concern and necessitate decisions for allocation of resources. Economic tools have been used previously; however, how prioritization results might differ when done using broader considerations identified by local stakeholders has yet to be assessed. A multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA approach was used to assess multi-stakeholder expressed concerns around disease prioritization via focus groups held in Quebec and Burkina Faso. Stakeholders weighted criteria and comparisons were made across study sites. A pilot disease prioritization was done to examine effects on disease rankings. A majority of identified criteria were common to both sites. The effect of context specific criteria and weights resulted in similar yet distinct prioritizations of diseases. The presence of consistent criteria between sites suggests that common concerns exist for prioritization; however, context-specific adjustments reveal much regarding resource availability, capacity and concerns that should be considered as this impacts disease ranking. Participatory decision aid approaches facilitate rich knowledge exchange and problem structuring. Furthermore, given multiple actors in low- and middle-income countries settings, multi-actor collaborations across non-governmental organizations, local government and community are important. Formal mechanisms such as MCDA provide means to foster consensus, shared awareness and collaboration.

  16. U.S. infrastructure : funding trends and opportunities to improve investment decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Given the profound economic and social importance of the public infrastructure, it is crucial that federal, state, and local governments make prudent decisions on how to invest limited available resources. In making these decisions, governments will ...

  17. Improving Decision Making In Cancer Treatment With A Mix Of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis And Ethical Perspective: Usa Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the world, healthcare costs have been on the rise and getting larger share in the economic pie. Since we have limited resources, allocation of resources becomes more of an issue. Cancer is one of most leading causes of death in the world and each year, money spent on cancer treatment goes up. However, today new cancer drugs and treatment only provide narrow benefit with very high costs. Therefore, only limited number of people enjoys getting the treatment and fewer treatment or drugs are reimbursed. In addition, many countries do not have a standard to decide whether a cancer drug or a treatment will be covered. Considering both economic efficiency (cost-effectiveness analysis and ethical issues together during the decision process is of great importance so as to distribute health resources fairly and maximize health benefits.

  18. From Trust in Automation to Decision Neuroscience: Applying Cognitive Neuroscience Methods to Understand and Improve Interaction Decisions Involved in Human Automation Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drnec, Kim; Marathe, Amar R.; Lukos, Jamie R.; Metcalfe, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Human automation interaction (HAI) systems have thus far failed to live up to expectations mainly because human users do not always interact with the automation appropriately. Trust in automation (TiA) has been considered a central influence on the way a human user interacts with an automation; if TiA is too high there will be overuse, if TiA is too low there will be disuse. However, even though extensive research into TiA has identified specific HAI behaviors, or trust outcomes, a unique mapping between trust states and trust outcomes has yet to be clearly identified. Interaction behaviors have been intensely studied in the domain of HAI and TiA and this has led to a reframing of the issues of problems with HAI in terms of reliance and compliance. We find the behaviorally defined terms reliance and compliance to be useful in their functionality for application in real-world situations. However, we note that once an inappropriate interaction behavior has occurred it is too late to mitigate it. We therefore take a step back and look at the interaction decision that precedes the behavior. We note that the decision neuroscience community has revealed that decisions are fairly stereotyped processes accompanied by measurable psychophysiological correlates. Two literatures were therefore reviewed. TiA literature was extensively reviewed in order to understand the relationship between TiA and trust outcomes, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge. We note that an interaction decision precedes an interaction behavior and believe that we can leverage knowledge of the psychophysiological correlates of decisions to improve joint system performance. As we believe that understanding the interaction decision will be critical to the eventual mitigation of inappropriate interaction behavior, we reviewed the decision making literature and provide a synopsis of the state of the art understanding of the decision process from a decision neuroscience perspective. We forward

  19. From Trust in Automation to Decision Neuroscience: Applying Cognitive Neuroscience Methods to Understand and Improve Interaction Decisions Involved in Human Automation Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drnec, Kim; Marathe, Amar R; Lukos, Jamie R; Metcalfe, Jason S

    2016-01-01

    Human automation interaction (HAI) systems have thus far failed to live up to expectations mainly because human users do not always interact with the automation appropriately. Trust in automation (TiA) has been considered a central influence on the way a human user interacts with an automation; if TiA is too high there will be overuse, if TiA is too low there will be disuse. However, even though extensive research into TiA has identified specific HAI behaviors, or trust outcomes, a unique mapping between trust states and trust outcomes has yet to be clearly identified. Interaction behaviors have been intensely studied in the domain of HAI and TiA and this has led to a reframing of the issues of problems with HAI in terms of reliance and compliance. We find the behaviorally defined terms reliance and compliance to be useful in their functionality for application in real-world situations. However, we note that once an inappropriate interaction behavior has occurred it is too late to mitigate it. We therefore take a step back and look at the interaction decision that precedes the behavior. We note that the decision neuroscience community has revealed that decisions are fairly stereotyped processes accompanied by measurable psychophysiological correlates. Two literatures were therefore reviewed. TiA literature was extensively reviewed in order to understand the relationship between TiA and trust outcomes, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge. We note that an interaction decision precedes an interaction behavior and believe that we can leverage knowledge of the psychophysiological correlates of decisions to improve joint system performance. As we believe that understanding the interaction decision will be critical to the eventual mitigation of inappropriate interaction behavior, we reviewed the decision making literature and provide a synopsis of the state of the art understanding of the decision process from a decision neuroscience perspective. We forward

  20. Deciding on child maltreatment : A literature review on methods that improve decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Cora; van Yperen, Tom A.; ten Berge, Ingrid J.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and decision-making in child maltreatment cases is difficult. Practitioners face many uncertainties and obstacles during their assessment and decision-making process. Research exhibits shortcomings in this decision-making process. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and

  1. Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (Part 2). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce on H.R. 1407, a Bill To Establish Procedures To Improve the Allocation and Assignment to the Electromagnetic Spectrum. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    A discussion of H.R. 1407, a bill to establish procedures to improve the allocation and assignment to the electromagnetic spectrum centered on the current policy of allocating portions of the spectrum through lotteries and auction. This report includes a copy of the bill, the text of testimony presented and materials submitted for the record, and…

  2. Quantitative analysis of dynamic fault trees using improved Sequential Binary Decision Diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Daochuan; Lin, Meng; Yang, Yanhua; Zhang, Ruoxing; Chou, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic fault trees (DFTs) are powerful in modeling systems with sequence- and function dependent failure behaviors. The key point lies in how to quantify complex DFTs analytically and efficiently. Unfortunately, the existing methods for analyzing DFTs all have their own disadvantages. They either suffer from the problem of combinatorial explosion or need a long computation time to obtain an accurate solution. Sequential Binary Decision Diagrams (SBDDs) are regarded as novel and efficient approaches to deal with DFTs, but their two apparent shortcomings remain to be handled: That is, SBDDs probably generate invalid nodes when given an unpleasant variable index and the scale of the resultant cut sequences greatly relies on the chosen variable index. An improved SBDD method is proposed in this paper to deal with the two mentioned problems. It uses an improved ite (If-Then-Else) algorithm to avoid generating invalid nodes when building SBDDs, and a heuristic variable index to keep the scale of resultant cut sequences as small as possible. To confirm the applicability and merits of the proposed method, several benchmark examples are demonstrated, and the results indicate this approach is efficient as well as reasonable. - Highlights: • New ITE method. • Linear complexity-based finding algorithm. • Heuristic variable index

  3. Challenges in Aquatic Physical Habitat Assessment: Improving Conservation and Restoration Decisions for Contemporary Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Hubbart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution of in-stream biological impairment to anthropogenic activities and prioritization for restoration and/or conservation can be challenging in contemporary mixed-land-use watersheds. Critical information necessary to improve decision making can be costly and labor intensive, and thus unobtainable for many municipalities. A reduced cost, rapid stream physical habitat assessment (rPHA can yield information that, when paired with land use data may reveal causal patterns in aquatic physical habitat degradation, and thus assist targeting sites for restoration. However, a great deal of work is needed to reduce associated costs, and validate the potential of rPHA for documenting fine-scale incremental change in physical habitat conditions in complex contemporary watersheds. The following commentary serves to draw attention to rPHA challenges and research needs including (but not limited to field-based validation and optimization of new remote sensing technologies, evaluation of the accuracy and representativeness of rapid vegetation survey methods, refinement of analytical methods, and consideration of legacy land use impacts and hydrologic system evolution in rPHA results interpretation. Considering the value of rPHA-generated data for improvement of watershed resource management, such challenges constitute timely, high-impact research opportunities for investigators wishing to advance complex, contemporary aquatic ecosystem management.

  4. A hybrid decision support system for sustainable office building renovation and energy performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Yi-Kai [Department of Architecture, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTUST) (China); Center for Sustainable Development and Global Competitiveness, Stanford University (United States); Gao, Peng [Department of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Tongji University (China); Wang, Jie [Center for Sustainable Development and Global Competitiveness, Stanford University (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Energy consumption of buildings accounts for around 20-40% of all energy consumed in advanced countries. Over the last decade, more and more global organizations are investing significant resources to create sustainably built environments, emphasizing sustainable building renovation processes to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. This study develops an integrated decision support system to assess existing office building conditions and to recommend an optimal set of sustainable renovation actions, considering trade-offs between renovation cost, improved building quality, and environmental impacts. A hybrid approach that combines A* graph search algorithm with genetic algorithms (GA) is used to analyze all possible renovation actions and their trade-offs to develop the optimal solution. A two-stage system validation is performed to demonstrate the practical application of the hybrid approach: zero-one goal programming (ZOGP) and genetic algorithms are adopted to validate the effectiveness of the algorithm. A real-world renovation project is introduced to validate differences in energy performance projected for the renovation solution suggested by the system. The results reveal that the proposed hybrid system is more computationally effective than either ZOGP or GA alone. The system's suggested renovation actions would provide substantial energy performance improvements to the real project if implemented. (author)

  5. Towards Integrated Health Technology Assessment for Improving Decision Making in Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oortwijn, Wija; Determann, Domino; Schiffers, Krijn; Tan, Siok Swan; van der Tuin, Jeroen

    2017-09-01

    To assess the level of comprehensiveness of health technology assessment (HTA) practices around the globe and to formulate recommendations for enhancing legitimacy and fairness of related decision-making processes. To identify best practices, we developed an evaluation framework consisting of 13 criteria on the basis of the INTEGRATE-HTA model (integrative perspective on assessing health technologies) and the Accountability for Reasonableness framework (deliberative appraisal process). We examined different HTA systems in middle-income countries (Argentina, Brazil, and Thailand) and high-income countries (Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Scotland, and South Korea). For this purpose, desk research and structured interviews with relevant key stakeholders (N = 32) in the selected countries were conducted. HTA systems in Canada, England, and Scotland appear relatively well aligned with our framework, followed by Australia, Germany, and France. Argentina and South Korea are at an early stage, whereas Brazil and Thailand are at an intermediate level. Both desk research and interviews revealed that scoping is often not part of the HTA process. In contrast, providing evidence reports for assessment is well established. Indirect and unintended outcomes are increasingly considered, but there is room for improvement. Monitoring and evaluation of the HTA process is not well established across countries. Finally, adopting transparent and robust processes, including stakeholder consultation, takes time. This study presents a framework for assessing the level of comprehensiveness of the HTA process in a country. On the basis of applying the framework, we formulate recommendations on how the HTA community can move toward a more integrated decision-making process using HTA. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning to improve medical decision making from imbalanced data without a priori cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Liu, Jiming; Cheung, William K; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-12-05

    In a medical data set, data are commonly composed of a minority (positive or abnormal) group and a majority (negative or normal) group and the cost of misclassifying a minority sample as a majority sample is highly expensive. This is the so-called imbalanced classification problem. The traditional classification functions can be seriously affected by the skewed class distribution in the data. To deal with this problem, people often use a priori cost to adjust the learning process in the pursuit of optimal classification function. However, this priori cost is often unknown and hard to estimate in medical decision making. In this paper, we propose a new learning method, named RankCost, to classify imbalanced medical data without using a priori cost. Instead of focusing on improving the class-prediction accuracy, RankCost is to maximize the difference between the minority class and the majority class by using a scoring function, which translates the imbalanced classification problem into a partial ranking problem. The scoring function is learned via a non-parametric boosting algorithm. We compare RankCost to several representative approaches on four medical data sets varying in size, imbalanced ratio, and dimension. The experimental results demonstrate that unlike the currently available methods that often perform unevenly with different priori costs, RankCost shows comparable performance in a consistent manner. It is a challenging task to learn an effective classification model based on imbalanced data in medical data analysis. The traditional approaches often use a priori cost to adjust the learning of the classification function. This work presents a novel approach, namely RankCost, for learning from medical imbalanced data sets without using a priori cost. The experimental results indicate that RankCost performs very well in imbalanced data classification and can be a useful method in real-world applications of medical decision making.

  7. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  8. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  9. Use of economic evaluation in decision making: evidence and recommendations for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2010-10-22

    Information about the value for money of a medicine as derived from an economic evaluation can be used for decision-making purposes by policy makers, healthcare payers, healthcare professionals and pharmaceutical companies. This article illustrates the use of economic evaluation by decision makers and formulates a number of recommendations to enhance the use of such evaluations for decision-making purposes. Over the last decades, there has been a substantial increase in the number of economic evaluations assessing the value for money of medicines. Economic evaluation is used by policy makers and healthcare payers to inform medicine pricing/reimbursement decisions in more and more countries. It is a suitable tool to evaluate medicines and to present information about their value for money to decision makers in a familiar format. In order to fully exploit the use of economic evaluation for decision-making purposes, researchers need to take care to conduct such economic evaluations according to methodologically sound principles. Additionally, researchers need to take into account the decision-making context. They need to identify the various objectives that decision makers pursue and discuss how decision makers can use study findings to attain these objectives. These issues require further attention from researchers, policy makers, healthcare payers, healthcare professionals and pharmaceutical companies with a view to optimizing the use of economic evaluation in decision making.

  10. Using fuzzy-trace theory to understand and improve health judgments, decisions, and behaviors: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J; Reyna, Valerie F

    2016-08-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory is a dual-process model of memory, reasoning, judgment, and decision making that contrasts with traditional expectancy-value approaches. We review the literature applying fuzzy-trace theory to health with 3 aims: evaluating whether the theory's basic distinctions have been validated empirically in the domain of health; determining whether these distinctions are useful in assessing, explaining, and predicting health-related psychological processes; and determining whether the theory can be used to improve health judgments, decisions, or behaviors, especially compared to other approaches. We conducted a literature review using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science to identify empirical peer-reviewed papers that applied fuzzy-trace theory, or central constructs of the theory, to investigate health judgments, decisions, or behaviors. Seventy nine studies (updated total is 94 studies; see Supplemental materials) were identified, over half published since 2012, spanning a wide variety of conditions and populations. Study findings supported the prediction that verbatim and gist representations are distinct constructs that can be retrieved independently using different cues. Although gist-based reasoning was usually associated with improved judgment and decision making, 4 sources of bias that can impair gist reasoning were identified. Finally, promising findings were reported from intervention studies that used fuzzy-trace theory to improve decision making and decrease unhealthy risk taking. Despite large gaps in the literature, most studies supported all 3 aims. By focusing on basic psychological processes that underlie judgment and decision making, fuzzy-trace theory provides insights into how individuals make decisions involving health risks and suggests innovative intervention approaches to improve health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Cost Accounting for Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneklides, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of informed decision making through accurate anticipation of cost incurrence in light of changing economic and environmental conditions. Explains the concepts of cost accounting, full allocation of costs, the selection of an allocation base, the allocation of indirect costs, depreciation, and implications for community…

  12. Sustainability in health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 4: exploring opportunities and methods for consumer engagement in resource allocation in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Ko, Henry; Waller, Cara; Sloss, Pamela; Williams, Pamela

    2017-05-05

    This is the fourth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Healthcare decision-makers have sought to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of services through removal or restriction of practices that are unsafe or of little benefit, often referred to as 'disinvestment'. A systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment was being established within a large Australian health service network. Consumer engagement was acknowledged as integral to this process. This paper reports the process of developing a model to integrate consumer views and preferences into an organisation-wide approach to resource allocation. A literature search was conducted and interviews and workshops were undertaken with health service consumers and staff. Findings were drafted into a model for consumer engagement in resource allocation which was workshopped and refined. Although consumer engagement is increasingly becoming a requirement of publicly-funded health services and documented in standards and policies, participation in organisational decision-making is not widespread. Several consistent messages for consumer engagement in this context emerged from the literature and consumer responses. Opportunities, settings and activities for consumer engagement through communication, consultation and participation were identified within the resource allocation process. Sources of information regarding consumer values and perspectives in publications and locally-collected data, and methods to use them in health service decision-making, were identified. A model bringing these elements together was developed. The proposed model presents potential opportunities and activities for consumer engagement in the context of resource allocation.

  13. Attentional Filter Training but Not Memory Training Improves Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Schmicker, Marlen; M?ller, Patrick; Schwefel, Melanie; M?ller, Notger G.

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making has a high practical relevance for daily performance. Its relation to other cognitive abilities such as executive control and memory is not fully understood. Here we asked whether training of either attentional filtering or memory storage would influence decision-making as indexed by repetitive assessments of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT was developed to assess and simulate real-life decision-making (Bechara et al., 2005). In this task, participants gain or lose money...

  14. Patient flow based allocation of hospital resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, J M

    1995-01-01

    The current practice of allocating resources within a hospital introduces peaks and troughs in the workloads of departments and leads therefore to loss of capacity. This happens when requirements for capacity coordination are not adequately taken into account in the decision making process of allocating resources to specialties. The first part of this research involved an analysis of the hospital's production system on dependencies between resources, resulting in a number of capacity coordination requirements that need to be fulfilled for optimized resource utilization. The second, modelling, part of the study involved the development of a framework for resource management decision making, of a set of computer models to support hospital managerial decision making on resource allocation issues in various parts of the hospital, and of an implementation strategy for the application of the models to concrete hospital settings. The third part of the study was devoted to a number of case-studies, illustrating the use of the models when applied in various resource management projects, such as a reorganization of an operating theatre timetable, or the development of a master plan for activities of a group of general surgeons serving two locations of a merged hospital system. The paper summarizes the main findings of the study and concludes with a discussion of results obtained with the new allocation procedure and with recommendations for future research.

  15. New Hybrid Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Model for Improving Competence Sets: Enhancing a Company’s Core Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Wei Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A company’s core competitiveness depends on the strategic allocation of its human resources in alignment with employee capabilities. Competency models can identify the range of capabilities at a company’s disposal, and this information can be used to develop internal or external education training policies for sustainable development. Such models can ensure the importation of a strategic orientation reflecting the growth of its employee competence set and enhancing human resource sustainably. This approach ensures that the most appropriate people are assigned to the most appropriate positions. In this study, we proposed a new hybrid multiple attributed decision-making model by using the Decision-making trial and Evaluation Laboratory Technique (DEMATEL to construct an influential network relation map (INRM and determined the influential weights by using the basic concept of the analytic network process (called DEMATEL-based ANP, DANP; the influential weights were then adopted with a modified Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method. A simple forecasting technique as an iteration function was also proposed. The proposed model was effective. We expect that the proposed model can facilitate making timely revisions, reflecting the growth of employee competence sets, reducing the performance gap toward the aspiration level, and ensuring the sustainability of a company.

  16. Improvement, extension and integration of operational decision support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSSNET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    2007-01-01

    The DSSNET network was established in October 2000 with the overall objective to create an effective and accepted framework for better communication and understanding between the community of institutions involved m operational off-site emergency management and the many and diverse Research and Technological Development (RTD) institutes further developing methods and tools in this area, in particular decision support systems (DSS), for making well informed and consistent judgements with respect to practical improvements of emergency response in Europe. 37 institutions from 21 countries of East and West Europe have been members of the network with about half of them responsible for operational emergency management. To stimulate the communication and feedback between the operational and the RTD community, problem-oriented emergency exercises were performed, which covered the various time phases of an accident and which extended from the near range to farther distances with frontier crossing transport of radionuclides. This paper concentrates on the five emergency exercises conducted in the frame of the project. (orig.)

  17. A reduction approach to improve the quantification of linked fault trees through binary decision diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Llano, Cristina; Rauzy, Antoine; Melendez, Enrique; Nieto, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades binary decision diagrams have been applied successfully to improve Boolean reliability models. Conversely to the classical approach based on the computation of the MCS, the BDD approach involves no approximation in the quantification of the model and is able to handle correctly negative logic. However, when models are sufficiently large and complex, as for example the ones coming from the PSA studies of the nuclear industry, it begins to be unfeasible to compute the BDD within a reasonable amount of time and computer memory. Therefore, simplification or reduction of the full model has to be considered in some way to adapt the application of the BDD technology to the assessment of such models in practice. This paper proposes a reduction process based on using information provided by the set of the most relevant minimal cutsets of the model in order to perform the reduction directly on it. This allows controlling the degree of reduction and therefore the impact of such simplification on the final quantification results. This reduction is integrated in an incremental procedure that is compatible with the dynamic generation of the event trees and therefore adaptable to the recent dynamic developments and extensions of the PSA studies. The proposed method has been applied to a real case study, and the results obtained confirm that the reduction enables the BDD computation while maintaining accuracy.

  18. A reduction approach to improve the quantification of linked fault trees through binary decision diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Llano, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.ibanez@iit.upcomillas.e [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain); Rauzy, Antoine, E-mail: Antoine.RAUZY@3ds.co [Dassault Systemes, 10 rue Marcel Dassault CS 40501, 78946 Velizy Villacoublay, Cedex (France); Melendez, Enrique, E-mail: ema@csn.e [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), C/Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nieto, Francisco, E-mail: nieto@iit.upcomillas.e [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Over the last two decades binary decision diagrams have been applied successfully to improve Boolean reliability models. Conversely to the classical approach based on the computation of the MCS, the BDD approach involves no approximation in the quantification of the model and is able to handle correctly negative logic. However, when models are sufficiently large and complex, as for example the ones coming from the PSA studies of the nuclear industry, it begins to be unfeasible to compute the BDD within a reasonable amount of time and computer memory. Therefore, simplification or reduction of the full model has to be considered in some way to adapt the application of the BDD technology to the assessment of such models in practice. This paper proposes a reduction process based on using information provided by the set of the most relevant minimal cutsets of the model in order to perform the reduction directly on it. This allows controlling the degree of reduction and therefore the impact of such simplification on the final quantification results. This reduction is integrated in an incremental procedure that is compatible with the dynamic generation of the event trees and therefore adaptable to the recent dynamic developments and extensions of the PSA studies. The proposed method has been applied to a real case study, and the results obtained confirm that the reduction enables the BDD computation while maintaining accuracy.

  19. Improving medical diagnosis reliability using Boosted C5.0 decision tree empowered by Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Elnaz; Ozen, Mustafa; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2015-08-01

    Improving accuracy of supervised classification algorithms in biomedical applications is one of active area of research. In this study, we improve the performance of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) combined with C4.5 decision tree (PSO+C4.5) classifier by applying Boosted C5.0 decision tree as the fitness function. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed method, it is implemented on 1 microarray dataset and 5 different medical data sets obtained from UCI machine learning databases. Moreover, the results of PSO + Boosted C5.0 implementation are compared to eight well-known benchmark classification methods (PSO+C4.5, support vector machine under the kernel of Radial Basis Function, Classification And Regression Tree (CART), C4.5 decision tree, C5.0 decision tree, Boosted C5.0 decision tree, Naive Bayes and Weighted K-Nearest neighbor). Repeated five-fold cross-validation method was used to justify the performance of classifiers. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only improve the performance of PSO+C4.5 but also obtains higher classification accuracy compared to the other classification methods.

  20. Improved Lower Mekong River Basin Hydrological Decision Making Using NASA Satellite-based Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Mohammed, I. N.; Srinivasan, R.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    Better understanding of the hydrological cycle of the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB) and addressing the value-added information of using remote sensing data on the spatial variability of soil moisture over the Mekong Basin is the objective of this work. In this work, we present the development and assessment of the LMRB (drainage area of 495,000 km2) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The coupled model framework presented is part of SERVIR, a joint capacity building venture between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development, providing state-of-the-art, satellite-based earth monitoring, imaging and mapping data, geospatial information, predictive models, and science applications to improve environmental decision-making among multiple developing nations. The developed LMRB SWAT model enables the integration of satellite-based daily gridded precipitation, air temperature, digital elevation model, soil texture, and land cover and land use data to drive SWAT model simulations over the Lower Mekong River Basin. The LMRB SWAT model driven by remote sensing climate data was calibrated and verified with observed runoff data at the watershed outlet as well as at multiple sites along the main river course. Another LMRB SWAT model set driven by in-situ climate observations was also calibrated and verified to streamflow data. Simulated soil moisture estimates from the two models were then examined and compared to a downscaled Soil Moisture Active Passive Sensor (SMAP) 36 km radiometer products. Results from this work present a framework for improving SWAT performance by utilizing a downscaled SMAP soil moisture products used for model calibration and validation. Index Terms: 1622: Earth system modeling; 1631: Land/atmosphere interactions; 1800: Hydrology; 1836 Hydrological cycles and budgets; 1840 Hydrometeorology; 1855: Remote sensing; 1866: Soil moisture; 6334: Regional Planning

  1. Video-based training to improve perceptual-cognitive decision-making performance of Australian football umpires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Paul; Mesagno, Christopher; Berry, Jason; Spittle, Michael; Harvey, Jack

    2018-02-01

    Decision-making is a central component of the in-game performance of Australian football umpires; however, current umpire training focuses largely on physiological development with decision-making skills development conducted via explicit lecture-style meetings with limited practice devoted to making actual decisions. Therefore, this study investigated the efficacy of a video-based training programme, aimed to provide a greater amount of contextualised visual experiences without explicit instruction, to improve decision-making skills of umpires. Australian football umpires (n = 52) were recruited from metropolitan and regional Division 1 competitions. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group and classified according to previous umpire game experience (i.e., experienced; less experienced). The intervention group completed a 12-week video-based decision-making training programme, with decision-making performance assessed at pre-training, and 1-week retention and 3-week retention periods. The control group did not complete any video-based training. Results indicated a significant Group (intervention; Control) × Test interaction (F(1, 100) = 3.98; P = 0.02, partial ῆ 2  = 0.074), with follow-up pairwise comparisons indicating significant within-group differences over time for the intervention group. In addition, decision-making performance of the less experienced umpires in the intervention group significantly improved (F(2, 40) = 5.03, P = 0.01, partial ῆ 2  = 0.201). Thus, video-based training programmes may be a viable adjunct to current training programmes to hasten decision-making development, especially for less experienced umpires.

  2. Does Patient Preference Measurement in Decision Aids Improve Decisional Conflict? A Randomized Trial in Men with Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Joseph D; Crespi, Catherine M; Saucedo, Josemanuel D; Lambrechts, Sylvia; Dahan, Ely; Kaplan, Robert; Saigal, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) has been advocated as an approach to medical decision making that can improve decisional quality. Decision aids are tools that facilitate SDM in the context of limited physician time; however, many decision aids do not incorporate preference measurement. We aim to understand whether adding preference measurement to a standard patient educational intervention improves decisional quality and is feasible in a busy clinical setting. Men with incident localized prostate cancer (n = 122) were recruited from the Greater Los Angeles Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center urology clinic, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, and Harbor UCLA Medical Center from January 2011 to May 2015 and randomized to education with a brochure about prostate cancer treatment or software-based preference assessment in addition to the brochure. Men undergoing preference assessment received a report detailing the relative strength of their preferences for treatment outcomes used in review with their doctor. Participants completed instruments measuring decisional conflict, knowledge, SDM, and patient satisfaction with care before and/or after their cancer consultation. Baseline knowledge scores were low (mean 62%). The baseline mean total score on the Decisional Conflict Scale was 2.3 (±0.9), signifying moderate decisional conflict. Men undergoing preference assessment had a significantly larger decrease in decisional conflict total score (p = 0.023) and the Perceived Effective Decision Making subscale (p = 0.003) post consult compared with those receiving education only. Improvements in satisfaction with care, SDM, and knowledge were similar between groups. Individual-level preference assessment is feasible in the clinic setting. Patients with prostate cancer who undergo preference assessment are more certain about their treatment decisions and report decreased levels of decisional conflict when making these decisions.

  3. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  4. Using Real Option Thinking to Improve Decision Making in Security Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Houmb, S.H.; Daneva, Maia

    2010-01-01

    Making well-founded security investment decisions is hard: several alternatives may need to be considered, the alternatives' space is often diffuse, and many decision parameters that are traded-off are uncertain or incomplete. We cope with these challenges by proposing a method that supports

  5. An Improved Decision Tree for Predicting a Major Product in Competing Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kate J.

    2014-01-01

    When organic chemistry students encounter competing reactions, they are often overwhelmed by the task of evaluating multiple factors that affect the outcome of a reaction. The use of a decision tree is a useful tool to teach students to evaluate a complex situation and propose a likely outcome. Specifically, a decision tree can help students…

  6. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF THE DECISION MAKING BY USING BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA Dan Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the decision making stands information, as one of the main elements that determine the evolution of our-days society. As a consequence, data analysis tends to become a priority in the activity of an organization for decision making. The di

  7. Resource Allocation Support System (RASS): Summary report of the 1992 pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Wolsko, T.D.; Kier, P.H.; Absil, M.J.G.; Jusko, M.J.; Sapinski, P.F.

    1993-02-01

    The Resource Allocation Support System (RASS) is a decision-aiding system being developed to assist the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Waste Management in program and budget decision making. Four pilot studies were conducted at DOE field offices in summer 1992 to evaluate and improve the RASS design. This report summarizes the combined results of the individual field office pilot studies. Results are presented from different perspectives to illustrate the type of information that would be available from RASS. Lessons learned and directions for future RASS developments are also presented

  8. Coping with climate change uncertainty for adaptation planning: An improved criterion for decision making under uncertainty using UKCP09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Green

    2014-01-01

    Analyses using sub-samples of the complete probabilistic dataset showed that the Green Z-score had comparable reproducibility to Laplace and improved reproducibility compared to other current decision criteria, and unlike Laplace is able to accommodate different risk attitudes.

  9. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  10. A call for action: Improve reporting of research studies to increase the scientific basis for regulatory decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågerstrand, Marlene; Christiansen, Sofie; Hanberg, Annika

    2018-01-01

    This is a call for action to scientific journals to introduce reporting requirements for toxicity and ecotoxicity studies. Such reporting requirements will support the use of peer-reviewed research studies in regulatory decision-making. Moreover, this could improve the reliability...... and reproducibility of published studies in general and make better use of the resources spent in research....

  11. The Importance of Ethical Training for the Improvement of Ethical Decision-Making: Evidence from Germany and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottig, Daniel; Heischmidt, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on three independent samples from Germany and the United States, this exploratory, cross-cultural study examines empirically the importance of ethical training for the improvement of ethical decision-making. The results of the study reveal a significant difference in the use of corporate codes of conduct and ethical training, as well as…

  12. A call for action: Improve reporting of research studies to increase the scientific basis for regulatory decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågerstrand, Marlene; Christiansen, Sofie; Hanberg, Annika

    2018-01-01

    This is a call for action to scientific journals to introduce reporting requirements for toxicity and ecotoxicity studies. Such reporting requirements will support the use of peer-reviewed research studies in regulatory decision-making. Moreover, this could improve the reliability and reproducibi...

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Patzer

    2016-05-01

    Discussion: Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation.

  14. What to measure next to improve decision making? On top-down task driven feature saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Karadogan, Seliz; Marchegiani, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Top-down attention is modeled as decision making based on incomplete information. We consider decisions made in a sequential measurement situation where initially only an incomplete input feature vector is available, however, where we are given the possibility to acquire additional input values...... among the missing features. The procecure thus poses the question what to do next? We take an information theoretical approach implemented for generality in a generative mixture model. The framework allows us reduce the decision about what to measure next in a classification problem to the estimation...

  15. Exercises to improve the decision making of judokas youth of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Antonio Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The weaknesses identified in the EIDE "Captain Orestes Acosta" in Santiago de Cuba in the process of tactical preparation in judo in female youth category motivated the author to develop an investigation with the following scientific problem: How to encourage perfect Offensive making decisions in combating youth team athletes Judo? The objective of this research is the refine of special exercises to promote the development of decision-making in combating youth team athletes Judo. Different theoretical and empirical methods were used to evidence the weaknesses identified. It further emphasizes the novelty of the proposal to use special exercises imbalance, defense, counterattack and combinations favoring decisions in combat.

  16. Improved Frame Mode Selection for AMR-WB+ Based on Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Kim, Nam Soo

    In this letter, we propose a coding mode selection method for the AMR-WB+ audio coder based on a decision tree. In order to reduce computation while maintaining good performance, decision tree classifier is adopted with the closed loop mode selection results as the target classification labels. The size of the decision tree is controlled by pruning, so the proposed method does not increase the memory requirement significantly. Through an evaluation test on a database covering both speech and music materials, the proposed method is found to achieve a much better mode selection accuracy compared with the open loop mode selection module in the AMR-WB+.

  17. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  18. Shared decision-making to improve attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, William B; Hartl Majcher, Jessica; Poling, Lauren M; Shi, Gaoyan; Zender, Mike; Sucharew, Heidi; Britto, Maria T; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effect of a shared decision-making intervention with parents of children newly diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seven pediatricians participated in a pre/post open trial of decision aids for use before and during the office visit to discuss diagnosis and develop a treatment plan. Encounters pre- (n=21, control group) and post-intervention implementation (n=33, intervention group) were compared. We video-recorded encounters and surveyed parents. Compared to controls, intervention group parents were more involved in shared decision-making (31.2 vs. 43.8 on OPTION score, pdecision-making with parents. Parents were better informed about treatment options without increasing visit duration. Interventions are available to prepare parents for visits and enable physicians to elicit parent preferences and involvement in decision-making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time data to improve en route decision making and reduce transportation demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    One approach to mitigating traffic and strains on the transportation system is to shift focus from supply to demand. : When provided with good information and sufficient motivation, users of a transportation system can make : decisions that will resu...

  20. Understanding complex clinical reasoning in infectious diseases for improving clinical decision support design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Roosan; Weir, Charlene R; Jones, Makoto; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-11-30

    Clinical experts' cognitive mechanisms for managing complexity have implications for the design of future innovative healthcare systems. The purpose of the study is to examine the constituents of decision complexity and explore the cognitive strategies clinicians use to control and adapt to their information environment. We used Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) methods to interview 10 Infectious Disease (ID) experts at the University of Utah and Salt Lake City Veterans Administration Medical Center. Participants were asked to recall a complex, critical and vivid antibiotic-prescribing incident using the Critical Decision Method (CDM), a type of Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA). Using the four iterations of the Critical Decision Method, questions were posed to fully explore the incident, focusing in depth on the clinical components underlying the complexity. Probes were included to assess cognitive and decision strategies used by participants. The following three themes emerged as the constituents of decision complexity experienced by the Infectious Diseases experts: 1) the overall clinical picture does not match the pattern, 2) a lack of comprehension of the situation and 3) dealing with social and emotional pressures such as fear and anxiety. All these factors contribute to decision complexity. These factors almost always occurred together, creating unexpected events and uncertainty in clinical reasoning. Five themes emerged in the analyses of how experts deal with the complexity. Expert clinicians frequently used 1) watchful waiting instead of over- prescribing antibiotics, engaged in 2) theory of mind to project and simulate other practitioners' perspectives, reduced very complex cases into simple 3) heuristics, employed 4) anticipatory thinking to plan and re-plan events and consulted with peers to share knowledge, solicit opinions and 5) seek help on patient cases. The cognitive strategies to deal with decision complexity found in this study have important

  1. Body-Environment Dialogue : Using Somatic Experiences to Improve Political Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorenko, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Humankind is facing global ecological problems and resulting from these social issues, while continually destroying the ecosystems which are the life-support mechanisms of the planet and human civilization. The socio-economic system is largely influenced by top-down decision making. Political decisions are a high leverage in sustainability issues, but contemporarily they are conducted in the reductionist way, focusing on short-term profit and jeopardizing the planet and people in the long run...

  2. A randomised controlled trial evaluating the utility of a patient Decision Aid to improve clinical trial (RAVES 08.03) related decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Puma; Ager, Brittany; Turner, Sandra; Costa, Dan; Kneebone, Andrew; Pearse, Maria; Woo, Henry; Tesson, Stephanie; Juraskova, Ilona; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-10-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the 'gold-standard' for evaluating medical treatments. However, patients and clinicians report difficulties with informed consent and recruitment. We evaluated the utility of a Decision Aid (DA) in reducing RCT-related decisional conflict, and improving RCT knowledge and recruitment. Potential participants for a radiotherapy RCT were invited to participate in the current study. Participants were randomised to receive the RCT's participant information sheet with or without a DA. Questionnaires were administered at baseline, one and six months. The primary outcome measure was decisional conflict. Secondary outcome measures included knowledge regarding and recruitment to the RCT. 129 men were randomised to the DA (63) and control (66) arms. Decisional conflict was significantly lower over 6-months (p=0.048) in the DA arm. Knowledge regarding the RCT was significantly higher at 6months (p=0.033) in the DA arm. 20.6% of the DA arm (13 of 63) and 9% of the control arm (6 of 66) entered the RCT. This study demonstrates the utility of a DA in reducing decisional conflict and improving trial knowledge in men with cancer who are making decisions regarding RCT participation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Allocation of Rehabilitation Services for Older Adults in the Ontario Home Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Joshua J; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Stolee, Paul

    Background: Physiotherapy and occupational therapy services can play a critical role in maintaining or improving the physical functioning, quality of life, and overall independence of older home care clients. Despite their importance, however, there is limited understanding of the factors that influence how rehabilitation services are allocated to older home care clients. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a preliminary understanding of the factors that influence decisions to allocate rehabilitation therapy services to older clients in the Ontario home care system, as perceived by three stakeholder groups. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 key informants from three stakeholder groups: case managers, service providers, and health system policymakers. Results: Drivers of the allocation of occupational therapy and physiotherapy for older adults included functional needs and postoperative care. Participants identified challenges in providing home care rehabilitation to older adults, including impaired cognition and limited capacity in the home care system. Conclusions: Considering the changing demands for home care services, knowledge of current practices across the home care system can inform efforts to optimize rehabilitation services for the growing number of older adults. Further research is needed to advance the understanding of, and optimize rehabilitation service allocation to, older frail clients with multiple morbidities. Developing novel decision-support mechanisms and standardized clinical care pathways for older client populations may be beneficial.

  4. Overhead-Aware-Best-Fit (OABF) Resource Allocation Algorithm for Minimizing VM Launching Overhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Ren, Shangping [IIT, Chicago; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Noh, Seo Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    2014-11-11

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to provide elastic and on-demand resources for different scientific research experiments. The design goal of the FermiCloud is to automatically allocate resources for different scientific applications so that the QoS required by these applications is met and the operational cost of the FermiCloud is minimized. Our earlier research shows that VM launching overhead has large variations. If such variations are not taken into consideration when making resource allocation decisions, it may lead to poor performance and resource waste. In this paper, we show how we may use an VM launching overhead reference model to minimize VM launching overhead. In particular, we first present a training algorithm that automatically tunes a given refer- ence model to accurately reflect FermiCloud environment. Based on the tuned reference model for virtual machine launching overhead, we develop an overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm that decides where and when to allocate resources so that the average virtual machine launching overhead is minimized. The experimental results indicate that the developed overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm can significantly improved the VM launching time when large number of VMs are simultaneously launched.

  5. Information support for decision making on dispatching control of water distribution in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, I. F.

    2018-05-01

    The research has been carried out on developing the technique of supporting decision making for on-line control, operational management of water allocation for the interfarm irrigation projects basing on the analytical patterns of dispatcher control. This technique provides an increase of labour productivity as well as higher management quality due to the improved level of automation, as well as decision making optimization taking into account diagnostics of the issues, solutions classification, information being required to the decision makers.

  6. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  7. Transforming clinical practice guidelines and clinical pathways into fast-and-frugal decision trees to improve clinical care strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok; Dale, William

    2018-02-27

    Contemporary delivery of health care is inappropriate in many ways, largely due to suboptimal Q5 decision-making. A typical approach to improve practitioners' decision-making is to develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) by guidelines panels, who are instructed to use their judgments to derive practice recommendations. However, mechanisms for the formulation of guideline judgments remains a "black-box" operation-a process with defined inputs and outputs but without sufficient knowledge of its internal workings. Increased explicitness and transparency in the process can be achieved by implementing CPG as clinical pathways (CPs) (also known as clinical algorithms or flow-charts). However, clinical recommendations thus derived are typically ad hoc and developed by experts in a theory-free environment. As any recommendation can be right (true positive or negative), or wrong (false positive or negative), the lack of theoretical structure precludes the quantitative assessment of the management strategies recommended by CPGs/CPs. To realize the full potential of CPGs/CPs, they need to be placed on more solid theoretical grounds. We believe this potential can be best realized by converting CPGs/CPs within the heuristic theory of decision-making, often implemented as fast-and-frugal (FFT) decision trees. This is possible because FFT heuristic strategy of decision-making can be linked to signal detection theory, evidence accumulation theory, and a threshold model of decision-making, which, in turn, allows quantitative analysis of the accuracy of clinical management strategies. Fast-and-frugal provides a simple and transparent, yet solid and robust, methodological framework connecting decision science to clinical care, a sorely needed missing link between CPGs/CPs and patient outcomes. We therefore advocate that all guidelines panels express their recommendations as CPs, which in turn should be converted into FFTs to guide clinical care. © 2018 John Wiley

  8. Optimal allocation and adaptive VAR control of PV-DG in distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xueqian; Chen, Haoyong; Cai, Runqing; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for optimal PV-DG allocation based on a combination of algorithms. • Dealing with the randomicity of solar power energy using CCSP. • Presenting a VAR control strategy to balance the technical demands. • Finding the Pareto solutions using MOPSO and SVM. • Evaluating the Pareto solutions using WRSR. - Abstract: The development of distributed generation (DG) has brought new challenges to power networks. One of them that catches extensive attention is the voltage regulation problem of distribution networks caused by DG. Optimal allocation of DG in distribution networks is another well-known problem being widely investigated. This paper proposes a new method for the optimal allocation of photovoltaic distributed generation (PV-DG) considering the non-dispatchable characteristics of PV units. An adaptive reactive power control model is introduced in PV-DG allocation as to balance the trade-off between the improvement of voltage quality and the minimization of power loss in a distribution network integrated with PV-DG units. The optimal allocation problem is formulated as a chance-constrained stochastic programming (CCSP) model for dealing with the randomness of solar power energy. A novel algorithm combining the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) with support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to find the Pareto front consisting of a set of possible solutions. The Pareto solutions are further evaluated using the weighted rank sum ratio (WRSR) method to help the decision-maker obtain the desired solution. Simulation results on a 33-bus radial distribution system show that the optimal allocation method can fully take into account the time-variant characteristics and probability distribution of PV-DG, and obtain the best allocation scheme

  9. Performance improvement of 64-QAM coherent optical communication system by optimizing symbol decision boundary based on support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng; Gao, Mingyi; Shen, Gangxiang

    2018-03-01

    High-order modulation signals are suited for high-capacity communication systems because of their high spectral efficiency, but they are more vulnerable to various impairments. For the signals that experience degradation, when symbol points overlap on the constellation diagram, the original linear decision boundary cannot be used to distinguish the classification of symbol. Therefore, it is advantageous to create an optimum symbol decision boundary for the degraded signals. In this work, we experimentally demonstrated the 64-quadrature-amplitude modulation (64-QAM) coherent optical communication system using support-vector machine (SVM) decision boundary algorithm to create the optimum symbol decision boundary for improving the system performance. We investigated the influence of various impairments on the 64-QAM coherent optical communication systems, such as the impairments caused by modulator nonlinearity, phase skew between in-phase (I) arm and quadrature-phase (Q) arm of the modulator, fiber Kerr nonlinearity and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. We measured the bit-error-ratio (BER) performance of 75-Gb/s 64-QAM signals in the back-to-back and 50-km transmission. By using SVM to optimize symbol decision boundary, the impairments caused by I/Q phase skew of the modulator, fiber Kerr nonlinearity and ASE noise are greatly mitigated.

  10. Supportive Care: Communication Strategies to Improve Cultural Competence in Shared Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Edwina A; Bekker, Hilary L; Davison, Sara N; Koffman, Jonathan; Schell, Jane O

    2016-10-07

    Historic migration and the ever-increasing current migration into Western countries have greatly changed the ethnic and cultural patterns of patient populations. Because health care beliefs of minority groups may follow their religion and country of origin, inevitable conflict can arise with decision making at the end of life. The principles of truth telling and patient autonomy are embedded in the framework of Anglo-American medical ethics. In contrast, in many parts of the world, the cultural norm is protection of the patient from the truth, decision making by the family, and a tradition of familial piety, where it is dishonorable not to do as much as possible for parents. The challenge for health care professionals is to understand how culture has enormous potential to influence patients' responses to medical issues, such as healing and suffering, as well as the physician-patient relationship. Our paper provides a framework of communication strategies that enhance crosscultural competency within nephrology teams. Shared decision making also enables clinicians to be culturally competent communicators by providing a model where clinicians and patients jointly consider best clinical evidence in light of a patient's specific health characteristics and values when choosing health care. The development of decision aids to include cultural awareness could avoid conflict proactively, more productively address it when it occurs, and enable decision making within the framework of the patient and family cultural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Improving efficiency of decision making units through BSC-DEA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Khaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation is one of the most important techniques to prioritize different decision making units. Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a non-parametric method, plays an important role for measuring relative efficiency. Balanced score card, on the other hand, is another method to evaluate a business plan based on non-financial perspectives. The integrated BSC-DEA takes advantage of the advantages of both methods' features. In this paper, we propose a BSC-DEA method to rank different decision making units. We consider different financial criteria such as profit-margin, return on assets along with non-financial criteria such as customer satisfaction, advanced services, employee skills to compare the performance of different banks. The results are analyzed and discussed, which could be used for making better decisions.

  12. Improving medical decisions for incapacitated persons: does focusing on "accurate predictions" lead to an inaccurate picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y H

    2014-04-01

    The Patient Preference Predictor (PPP) proposal places a high priority on the accuracy of predicting patients' preferences and finds the performance of surrogates inadequate. However, the quest to develop a highly accurate, individualized statistical model has significant obstacles. First, it will be impossible to validate the PPP beyond the limit imposed by 60%-80% reliability of people's preferences for future medical decisions--a figure no better than the known average accuracy of surrogates. Second, evidence supports the view that a sizable minority of persons may not even have preferences to predict. Third, many, perhaps most, people express their autonomy just as much by entrusting their loved ones to exercise their judgment than by desiring to specifically control future decisions. Surrogate decision making faces none of these issues and, in fact, it may be more efficient, accurate, and authoritative than is commonly assumed.

  13. Strategic foresight: how planning for the unpredictable can improve environmental decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Inayatullah, Sohail; Burgman, Mark A; Sutherland, William J; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-09-01

    Advanced warning of potential new opportunities and threats related to biodiversity allows decision-makers to act strategically to maximize benefits or minimize costs. Strategic foresight explores possible futures, their consequences for decisions, and the actions that promote more desirable futures. Foresight tools, such as horizon scanning and scenario planning, are increasingly used by governments and business for long-term strategic planning and capacity building. These tools are now being applied in ecology, although generally not as part of a comprehensive foresight strategy. We highlight several ways foresight could play a more significant role in environmental decisions by: monitoring existing problems, highlighting emerging threats, identifying promising new opportunities, testing the resilience of policies, and defining a research agenda. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Household time allocation model based on a group utility function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Existing activity-based models typically assume an individual decision-making process. In household decision-making, however, interaction exists among household members and their activities during the allocation of the members' limited time. This paper, therefore, attempts to develop a new household

  15. An Architecture of IoT Service Delegation and Resource Allocation Based on Collaboration between Fog and Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Abdullah Alsaffar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide utilization of cloud computing (e.g., services, applications, and resources, some of the services, applications, and smart devices are not able to fully benefit from this attractive cloud computing paradigm due to the following issues: (1 smart devices might be lacking in their capacity (e.g., processing, memory, storage, battery, and resource allocation, (2 they might be lacking in their network resources, and (3 the high network latency to centralized server in cloud might not be efficient for delay-sensitive application, services, and resource allocations requests. Fog computing is promising paradigm that can extend cloud resources to edge of network, solving the abovementioned issue. As a result, in this work, we propose an architecture of IoT service delegation and resource allocation based on collaboration between fog and cloud computing. We provide new algorithm that is decision rules of linearized decision tree based on three conditions (services size, completion time, and VMs capacity for managing and delegating user request in order to balance workload. Moreover, we propose algorithm to allocate resources to meet service level agreement (SLA and quality of services (QoS as well as optimizing big data distribution in fog and cloud computing. Our simulation result shows that our proposed approach can efficiently balance workload, improve resource allocation efficiently, optimize big data distribution, and show better performance than other existing methods.

  16. Reliability allocation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk to reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures is investigated. A methodology is discussed which identifies top level risk indices as objective functions and plant-specific performance variables as decision variables. These are related by a risk model which includes cost as a top level risk index. A multiobjective optimization procedure is used to find non-inferior solutions in terms of the objective functions and the decision variables. The approach is illustrated for a boiling water reactor plant. The use of the methodology for both operating reactors and for advanced designs is briefly discussed. 16 refs., 1 fig

  17. Tactical Asset Allocation mit Genetischen Algorithmen

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ammann; Christian Zenkner

    2003-01-01

    In this study of tactical asset allocation, we use a genetic algorithm to implement a market timing strategy. The algorithm makes a daily decision whether to invest in the market index or in a riskless asset. The market index is represented by the S&P500 Composite Index, the riskless asset by a 3-month T-Bill. The decision of the genetic algorithm is based on fundamental macroeconomic variables. The association of fundamental variables with a set of operators creates a space of possible strat...

  18. Resource allocation in public health practice: a national survey of local public health officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nancy M; DesRoches, Catherine; Campbell, Eric G; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an empirical understanding of the types of allocation decisions local health officials (LHOs) make and the factors that influence those allocation decisions. We conducted a national survey of LHOs in the United States in 2008 to 2009. The sample was stratified by the size of the population served by the department. We merged our data with data from the 2008 National Association of County and City Health Officials Profile survey. Descriptive statistics were generated using weighted data. Our final sample size was 608 respondents, with an average of 10 years experience. The LHOs reported little shifting of resources among population groups but greater capacity to redirect staffing time. Less than half of LHOs reported using economic analyses or conducting needs assessments when setting priorities. Having sole provider status in a community strongly influenced LHOs' allocation decisions. In addition, the effectiveness of activities, previous budget allocations, and input from boards of health were influential factors in allocation decisions. Public expectations were moderately to very influential, but direct public input had a low impact on allocation decisions. Survey findings provide a clearer understanding of how LHOs fulfill their obligations as stewards of public health resources and ensure effective activities and access to needed services. It may be useful to assess the value of more structured allocation methods (eg, decision frameworks) in the allocation process. Expanding opportunities for public engagement in priority setting may also be valuable for difficult allocation decisions.

  19. Clinical decision support improves quality of telephone triage documentation--an analysis of triage documentation before and after computerized clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Frederick; Richards, Debra D; Bremseth, Kimberly A; Lee, Mary R; Cox, Debra L; Varkey, Prathibha; Stroebel, Robert J

    2014-03-20

    Clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to be effective in improving medical safety and quality but there is little information on how telephone triage benefits from CDS. The aim of our study was to compare triage documentation quality associated with the use of a clinical decision support tool, ExpertRN©. We examined 50 triage documents before and after a CDS tool was used in nursing triage. To control for the effects of CDS training we had an additional control group of triage documents created by nurses who were trained in the CDS tool, but who did not use it in selected notes. The CDS intervention cohort of triage notes was compared to both the pre-CDS notes and the CDS trained (but not using CDS) cohort. Cohorts were compared using the documentation standards of the American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing (AAACN). We also compared triage note content (documentation of associated positive and negative features relating to the symptoms, self-care instructions, and warning signs to watch for), and documentation defects pertinent to triage safety. Three of five AAACN documentation standards were significantly improved with CDS. There was a mean of 36.7 symptom features documented in triage notes for the CDS group but only 10.7 symptom features in the pre-CDS cohort (p < 0.0001) and 10.2 for the cohort that was CDS-trained but not using CDS (p < 0.0001). The difference between the mean of 10.2 symptom features documented in the pre-CDS and the mean of 10.7 symptom features documented in the CDS-trained but not using was not statistically significant (p = 0.68). CDS significantly improves triage note documentation quality. CDS-aided triage notes had significantly more information about symptoms, warning signs and self-care. The changes in triage documentation appeared to be the result of the CDS alone and not due to any CDS training that came with the CDS intervention. Although this study shows that CDS can improve documentation, further study is needed

  20. Boise, Idaho: Improving Air Quality through Alternative Fuels & Reduced Vehicular Travel (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "Boise, Idaho: Improving Air Quality through Alternative Fuels & Reduced Vehicular Travel" explains how the City of Boise used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  1. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication : an Agenda for Science and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J.; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A.

    2016-01-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making ...

  2. Knowing Better: Improving Collective Decision Making in Higher Education Shared Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manick, Christopher J. D.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question: Should higher education governance and decision-making be an elite or collective responsibility? It brings into conversation (i) the debate over the future of shared (i.e. participatory, faculty) governance in higher education, and (ii) research in democratic theory, specifically the epistemic defense of…

  3. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, R.J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate

  4. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, Romain J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, Ralf H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate information

  5. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  6. A Modeling Framework for Supply Chain Simulation: Opportunities for Improved Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der D.J.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Owing to its inherent modeling flexibility, simulation is often regarded as the proper means for supporting decision making on supply chain design. The ultimate success of supply chain simulation, however, is determined by a combination of the analyst's skills, the chain members' involvement, and

  7. An Engineering Educator's Decision Support Tool for Improving Innovation in Student Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaltin, Nur Ozge; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary; Clark, Renee M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning how to design innovatively is a critical process skill for undergraduate engineers in the 21st century. To this end, our paper discusses the development and validation of a Bayesian network decision support tool that can be used by engineering educators to make recommendations that positively impact the innovativeness of product designs.…

  8. Improvements to Strategic Planning and Implementation through Enhanced Correlation with Decision-Making Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine use of decision-making tools and feedback in strategic planning in order to develop a rigorous process that would promote the efficiency of strategic planning for acquisitions in the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Strategic planning is critical to agencies such as the USCG in order to be effective…

  9. A modeling framework for supply chain simulation : opportunities for improved decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.

    Owing to its inherent modeling flexibility, simulation is often regarded as the proper means for supporting decision making on supply chain design. The ultimate success of supply chain simulation, however, is determined by a combination of the analyst's skills, the chain members' involvement, and

  10. Does Delaying Judgments of Learning Really Improve the Efficacy of Study Decisions? Not So Much

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Muntean, William J.

    2012-01-01

    A widely held assumption in metamemory is that better, more accurate metamemory monitoring leads to better, more efficacious restudy decisions, reflected in better memory performance--we refer to this causal chain as the "restudy selectivity hypothesis". In 3 sets of experiments, we tested this hypothesis by factorially manipulating…

  11. Visual Scaling to Improve Organizational Decisions in Educator Preparation: Effectively Comparing Apples and Oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Raymond W.; Deschaine, Mark E.

    2018-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in educator preparation in higher education is the effective use of data for actionable and meaningful decision making about programs for current and future educators, administrators, and educational leaders. Within programs there are many types of students. These may include elementary, secondary, special education,…

  12. Improving sourcing decisions in NPD projects: Monetary quantification of points of difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc; Anderson, James C.; Narus, James A.; Wynstra, Finn

    2009-01-01

    During new product development (NPD), firms make critical design and sourcing decisions that determine the new product's cost, performance, competitive position, and profitability. The purchase price of materials and components for the new product provides only part of the picture for design and

  13. Improving Re-Enlistment through Decision-Making Modeling and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    everything from politics easily and quickly all useful facts and opinions. It to finance to sports, decisions are not based on then synthesizes these... Disneyland ferred method of evaluating jobs both reliably Disney World and validly. Possibly the greatest benefit of JEBOR Dow Chemical Company to the user

  14. Computer Decision Support to Improve Autism Screening and Care in Community Pediatric Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nerissa S.; Sturm, Lynne A.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    An autism module was added to an existing computer decision support system (CDSS) to facilitate adherence to recommended guidelines for screening for autism spectrum disorders in primary care pediatric clinics. User satisfaction was assessed by survey and informal feedback at monthly meetings between clinical staff and the software team. To assess…

  15. Improving ingestion dose modelling for the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems: A Nordic Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    A Nordic work group under the NKS-B activity PARDNOR has revised the input parameters in the ECOSYS model that is incorporated for ingestion dose modelling in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems. The new parameterisation takes into account recent measurement data, and targets the model f...

  16. How Feedback Can Improve Managerial Evaluations of Model-based Marketing Decision Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kayande (Ujwal); A. de Bruyn (Arnoud); G.L. Lilien (Gary); A. Rangaswamy (Arvind); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMarketing managers often provide much poorer evaluations of model-based marketing decision support systems (MDSSs) than are warranted by the objective performance of those systems. We show that a reason for this discrepant evaluation may be that MDSSs are often not designed to help users

  17. Sharing Power with Parents: Improving Educational Decision Making for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, David J.; Cavendish, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    In this closing commentary to the special edition of "Learning Disability Quarterly" ("LDQ") on parent voice in educational decision making for students with learning disabilities, we briefly survey main topics from each article, illuminating important findings from the authors, along with several questions they raise, and…

  18. Computerised clinical decision support systems to improve medication safety in long-term care homes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara

    2015-05-12

    Computerised clinical decision support systems (CCDSS) are used to improve the quality of care in various healthcare settings. This systematic review evaluated the impact of CCDSS on improving medication safety in long-term care homes (LTC). Medication safety in older populations is an important health concern as inappropriate medication use can elevate the risk of potentially severe outcomes (ie, adverse drug reactions, ADR). With an increasing ageing population, greater use of LTC by the growing ageing population and increasing number of medication-related health issues in LTC, strategies to improve medication safety are essential. Databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane Library. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to LTC, medication safety and CCDSS. One reviewer undertook screening and quality assessment. Overall findings suggest that CCDSS in LTC improved the quality of prescribing decisions (ie, appropriate medication orders), detected ADR, triggered warning messages (ie, related to central nervous system side effects, drug-associated constipation, renal insufficiency) and reduced injury risk among older adults. CCDSS have received little attention in LTC, as attested by the limited published literature. With an increasing ageing population, greater use of LTC by the ageing population and increased workload for health professionals, merely relying on physicians' judgement on medication safety would not be sufficient. CCDSS to improve medication safety and enhance the quality of prescribing decisions are essential. Analysis of review findings indicates that CCDSS are beneficial, effective and have potential to improve medication safety in LTC; however, the use of CCDSS in LTC is scarce. Careful assessment on the impact of CCDSS on medication safety and further modifications to existing CCDSS are recommended for wider acceptance. Due to scant evidence in the current literature, further research on implementation and

  19. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  20. Supplier Portfolio Selection and Optimum Volume Allocation: A Knowledge Based Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Romana; Aziz, R.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Kersten, W.; Blecker, T.; Luthje, C.

    2010-01-01

    Selection of suppliers and allocation of optimum volumes to suppliers is a strategic business decision. This paper presents a decision support method for supplier selection and the optimal allocation of volumes in a supplier portfolio. The requirements for the method were gathered during a case

  1. Allocation Anatomy: How District Policies That Deploy Resources Can Support (or Undermine) District Reform Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Marguerite

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the effects of micro-budgeting decisions and show how they might support or hamper district reform strategies. The study draws on public and private sector resource allocation literature to identify key elements of resource allocation decisions. These elements are used to highlight different allocation…

  2. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  3. Supporting health care professionals to improve the processes of shared decision making and self-management in a web-based intervention: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Schepers, Jan; Vanhees, Luc

    2014-10-21

    Research to assess the effect of interventions to improve the processes of shared decision making and self-management directed at health care professionals is limited. Using the protocol of Intervention Mapping, a Web-based intervention directed at health care professionals was developed to complement and optimize health services in patient-centered care. The objective of the Web-based intervention was to increase health care professionals' intention and encouraging behavior toward patient self-management, following cardiovascular risk management guidelines. A randomized controlled trial was used to assess the effect of a theory-based intervention, using a pre-test and post-test design. The intervention website consisted of a module to help improve professionals' behavior, a module to increase patients' intention and risk-reduction behavior toward cardiovascular risk, and a parallel module with a support system for the health care professionals. Health care professionals (n=69) were recruited online and randomly allocated to the intervention group (n=26) or (waiting list) control group (n=43), and invited their patients to participate. The outcome was improved professional behavior toward health education, and was self-assessed through questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Social-cognitive determinants, intention and behavior were measured pre-intervention and at 1-year follow-up. The module to improve professionals' behavior was used by 45% (19/42) of the health care professionals in the intervention group. The module to support the health professional in encouraging behavior toward patients was used by 48% (20/42). The module to improve patients' risk-reduction behavior was provided to 44% (24/54) of patients. In 1 of every 5 patients, the guideline for cardiovascular risk management was used. The Web-based intervention was poorly used. In the intervention group, no differences in social-cognitive determinants, intention and behavior were found

  4. Learning discriminative distance functions for valve retrieval and improved decision support in valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Ingmar; Vitanovski, Dime; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Tsymal, Alexey; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Huber, Martin; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Disorders of the heart valves constitute a considerable health problem and often require surgical intervention. Recently various approaches were published seeking to overcome the shortcomings of current clinical practice,that still relies on manually performed measurements for performance assessment. Clinical decisions are still based on generic information from clinical guidelines and publications and personal experience of clinicians. We present a framework for retrieval and decision support using learning based discriminative distance functions and visualization of patient similarity with relative neighborhood graphsbased on shape and derived features. We considered two learning based techniques, namely learning from equivalence constraints and the intrinsic Random Forest distance. The generic approach enables for learning arbitrary user-defined concepts of similarity depending on the application. This is demonstrated with the proposed applications, including automated diagnosis and interventional suitability classification, where classification rates of up to 88.9% and 85.9% could be observed on a set of valve models from 288 and 102 patients respectively.

  5. Variation in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such

  6. Health technology assessment in India: the potential for improved healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mrityunjai; Ebrahim, Shah; Taylor, Fiona C; Chokshi, Maulik; Gabbay, John

    2014-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary approach that uses clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, policy and ethical perspectives to provide evidence upon which rational decisions on the use of health technologies can be made. It can be used for a single stand-alone technology (e.g. a drug, a device), complex interventions (e.g. a rehabilitation service) and can also be applied to individual patient care and to public health. It is a tool for enabling the assessment and comparison of health technologies using the same metric of cost-effectiveness. This process benefits the patient, the health service, the healthcare payer and the technology producer as only technologies that are considered cost-effective are promoted for widespread use. This leads to greater use of effective technologies and greater health gain. The decision-making process in healthcare in India is complex owing to multiplicity of organizations with overlapping mandates. Often the decision-making is not evidence-based and there is no mechanism of bridging the gap between evidence and policy. Elsewhere, HTA is a frequently used tool in informing policy decisions in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. Despite national organizations producing large volumes of research and clinical guidelines, India has not yet introduced a formal HTA programme. The incremental growth in healthcare products, services, innovation in affordable medical devices and a move towards universal healthcare, needs to be underpinned with an evidencebase which focuses on effectiveness, safety, affordability and acceptability to maximize the benefits that can be gained with a limited healthcare budget. Establishing HTA as a formal process in India, independent of healthcare providers, funders and technology producers, together with a framework for linking HTA to policy-making, would help ensure that the population gets better access to appropriate healthcare in the future. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  7. Sequential Probability Ratio Testing with Power Projective Base Method Improves Decision-Making for BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining a fast and reliable decision is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCI), particularly in practical real-time applications such as wheelchair or neuroprosthetic control. In this study, the EEG signals were firstly analyzed with a power projective base method. Then we were applied a decision-making model, the sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT), for single-trial classification of motor imagery movement events. The unique strength of this proposed classification method lies in its accumulative process, which increases the discriminative power as more and more evidence is observed over time. The properties of the method were illustrated on thirteen subjects' recordings from three datasets. Results showed that our proposed power projective method outperformed two benchmark methods for every subject. Moreover, with sequential classifier, the accuracies across subjects were significantly higher than that with nonsequential ones. The average maximum accuracy of the SPRT method was 84.1%, as compared with 82.3% accuracy for the sequential Bayesian (SB) method. The proposed SPRT method provides an explicit relationship between stopping time, thresholds, and error, which is important for balancing the time-accuracy trade-off. These results suggest SPRT would be useful in speeding up decision-making while trading off errors in BCI. PMID:29348781

  8. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  9. Surgical Process Improvement: Impact of a Standardized Care Model With Electronic Decision Support to Improve Compliance With SCIP Inf-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David J; Thompson, Jeffrey E; Suri, Rakesh; Prinsen, Sharon K

    2014-01-01

    The absence of standardization in surgical care process, exemplified in a "solution shop" model, can lead to unwarranted variation, increased cost, and reduced quality. A comprehensive effort was undertaken to improve quality of care around indwelling bladder catheter use following surgery by creating a "focused factory" model within the cardiac surgical practice. Baseline compliance with Surgical Care Improvement Inf-9, removal of urinary catheter by the end of surgical postoperative day 2, was determined. Comparison of baseline data to postintervention results showed clinically important reductions in the duration of indwelling bladder catheters as well as marked reduction in practice variation. Following the intervention, Surgical Care Improvement Inf-9 guidelines were met in 97% of patients. Although clinical quality improvement was notable, the process to accomplish this-identification of patients suitable for standardized pathways, protocol application, and electronic systems to support the standardized practice model-has potentially greater relevance than the specific clinical results. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  10. Interval-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Multiattribute Group Decision Making Based on Improved Hamacher Aggregation Operators and Continuous Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information environment, we investigate a multiattribute group decision making (MAGDM method with continuous entropy weights and improved Hamacher information aggregation operators. Firstly, we introduce the axiomatic definition of entropy for interval-valued hesitant fuzzy elements (IVHFEs and construct a continuous entropy formula on the basis of the continuous ordered weighted averaging (COWA operator. Then, based on the Hamacher t-norm and t-conorm, the adjusted operational laws for IVHFEs are defined. In order to aggregate interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information, some new improved interval-valued hesitant fuzzy Hamacher aggregation operators are investigated, including the improved interval-valued hesitant fuzzy Hamacher ordered weighted averaging (I-IVHFHOWA operator and the improved interval-valued hesitant fuzzy Hamacher ordered weighted geometric (I-IVHFHOWG operator, the desirable properties of which are discussed. In addition, the relationship among these proposed operators is analyzed in detail. Applying the continuous entropy and the proposed operators, an approach to MAGDM is developed. Finally, a numerical example for emergency operating center (EOC selection is provided, and comparative analyses with existing methods are performed to demonstrate that the proposed approach is both valid and practical to deal with group decision making problems.

  11. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  12. A decision-support system for improving road transportation performance in Gauteng, South Africa: Developing a data acquisitioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg H. Backeberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This research describes how the systems approach can be applied to implement a holistic transportation decision-support system, which will measure transportation performance at the highest level and enable decision-making with respect to possible improvements. The research starts with the creation of a framework of the process to be followed. A framework of the envisioned system with existing and new elements is then created. Furthermore, a framework for management reports is proposed. Against this background, the deliverables for a project to implement the proposed data-acquisitioning system are defined. First order indications are that such a project is feasible and affordable, and can be completed to such an extent that most of the advantages are obtainable within two years.

  13. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....

  14. Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-19

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415648-10$15.00/0.

  15. Improving rural electricity system planning: An agent-based model for stakeholder engagement and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Jose F.; Miller, Shelie; Johnson, Jeremiah X.; Riolo, Rick R.

    2017-01-01

    Energy planners in regions with low rates of electrification face complex and high-risk challenges in selecting appropriate generating technologies and grid centralization. To better inform such processes, we present an Agent-Based Model (ABM) that facilitates engagement with stakeholders. This approach evaluates long-term plans using the cost of delivered electricity, resource mix, jobs and economic stimulus created within communities, and decentralized generation mix of the system, with results provided in a spatially-resolved format. This approach complements existing electricity planning methods (e.g., Integrated Resource Planning) by offering novel evaluation criteria based on typical stakeholder preferences. We demonstrate the utility of this approach with a case study based on a “blank-slate” scenario, which begins without generation or transmission infrastructure, for the long-term rural renewable energy plans of Liberia, West Africa. We consider five electrification strategies: prioritizing larger populations, deploying large resources, creating jobs, providing economic stimulus, and step-wise cost minimization. Through the case study we demonstrate how this approach can be used to engage stakeholders, supplement more established energy planning tools, and illustrate the effects of stakeholder decisions and preferences on the performance of the system. - Highlights: • An Agent Based Model, BABSTER, for electrification planning is presented. • BABSTER provides a highly engaging spatially resolved interface. • Allows flexible investigation of decision strategies with real-world incentives. • We show that decision strategies directly impact centralization and resource choice. • It is illustrated through the case study of Liberia, West Africa.

  16. Improving decision making for massive transfusions in a resource poor setting: a preliminary study in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth D Riviello

    Full Text Available The reality of finite resources has a real-world impact on a patient's ability to receive life-saving care in resource-poor settings. Blood for transfusion is an example of a scarce resource. Very few studies have looked at predictors of survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. We used data from a rural hospital in Kenya to develop a prediction model of survival among patients receiving massive transfusion.Patients who received five or more units of whole blood within 48 hours between 2004 and 2010 were identified from a blood registry in a rural hospital in Kenya. Presenting characteristics and in-hospital survival were collected from charts. Using stepwise selection, a logistic model was developed to predict who would survive with massive transfusion versus those who would die despite transfusion. An ROC curve was created from this model to quantify its predictive power.Ninety-five patients with data available met inclusion criteria, and 74% survived to discharge. The number of units transfused was not a predictor of mortality, and no threshold for futility could be identified. Preliminary results suggest that initial blood pressure, lack of comorbidities, and indication for transfusion are the most important predictors of survival. The ROC curve derived from our model demonstrates an area under the curve (AUC equal to 0.757, with optimism of 0.023 based on a bootstrap validation.This study provides a framework for making prioritization decisions for the use of whole blood in the setting of massive bleeding. Our analysis demonstrated an overall survival rate for patients receiving massive transfusion that was higher than clinical perception. Our analysis also produced a preliminary model to predict survival in patients with massive bleeding. Prediction analyses can contribute to more efficient prioritization decisions; these decisions must also include other considerations such as equity, acceptability, affordability and

  17. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  18. Can a patient smart card improve decision making in a clinical setting?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, J; Papillon, M J; Lavoie, G; Durant, P; Fortin, J P

    1995-01-01

    In the health field, clinical information is the raw material for the clinician delivering health services. Therefore, the clinical information available to the physician is often incomplete or even non¿existent upon consultation. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the medical history, which is the most important source of data for the clinician to establish a diagnosis and initiate a treatment, suffers from many constraints. The smart card, like the one used in Quebec's project, could ease the physician's decision-making by allowing fast access to accurate and pertinent data. The smart card is a major asset in the present health system.

  19. Optimizing medical device buying. Value analysis models can help you improve decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Josh; Brooks, Elizabeth

    2010-05-01

    Value Analysis Models (VAMs) are a burgeoning analytical tool that can help materials managers, operating room managers, CFOs and others to make comparative value assessments before reaching a critical purchasing decision. Although relatively new to the hospital field, more and more manufacturers are supporting these initiatives to bring critical information to their customers and the health care industry. VAMs aren't designed to conclude that one product is better than another but to be a tool that can help make the product acquisition process much easier.

  20. Improvement of decision-making criteria for the care of elderly cancer patients by general practitioners (Lorraine, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemier JY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Yves Niemier,1,2 Frédérique Claudot,3,4 Phi Linh Nguyen-Thi,4 Jean-Marie Hubert,5 Hubert Rousselot,2,6 Athanase Benetos,1 Christine Perret-Guillaume1,3 1Department of Geriatric Medicine, CHRU de Nancy, Nancy, France; 2UCOG Lorraine, Nancy, France; 3EA 4360 APEMAC, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France; 4PARC, CHRU de Nancy, Nancy, France; 5Spincourt Multidisciplinary MSP, Spincourt, France; 6SISSPO Department, Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France Objective: The objective of this study was to identify changes in the decision-making criteria of general practitioners (GPs concerning the care of elderly cancer patients after 1 year of corrective measures for care practices in the Lorraine region, France. Materials and methods: In 2014, a postal mail questionnaire was sent to all GPs in the Lorraine region. This questionnaire was designed to identify GPs’ decision-making criteria. It was based on the results of a literature review and on existing guidelines. During 1 year, corrective measures were implemented to improve practices, especially training sessions for physicians and production of specific tools, including a guide to the accepted ideas in geriatric oncology. In 2015, the same questionnaire was resent to all GPs to compare the answers. Results: In 2014, 430 questionnaires were returned out of 2,048 sent, and in 2015, 378 questionnaires were returned out of 2,066 sent. Our results show for the first time that there exists a significant difference in the overall decision criteria between the two survey periods. This difference mainly concerns criteria related to the cancerous diseases. Physicians tend to consider the principal decision criteria to be less important after the training period. GPs express the importance of accessibility to specialists for additional advice in both 2014 and 2015; the distance between the patient’s home and an adapted care facility and the

  1. Improved Customer Churn and Retention Decision Management Using Operations Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaimon Olanrewaju Adebiyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of operations research cannot be overemphasized, as it provides the best possible results in any given circumstance, through analysis of operations and the use of scientific method thus, this paper explore the combination of two operations research models (analytic hierarchy process and Markov chain for solving subscribers’ churn and retention problem peculiar to most service firms. A conceptual model for unraveling the problem customer churn and retention decision management was proposed and tested with data on third level analysis of AHP for determining appropriate strategies for customer churn and retention in the Nigeria telecommunication industries. A survey was conducted with 408 subscribers; the sample for the study was selected through multi-stage sampling. Two analytical tools were proposed for the analysis of data. These include: Expert Choice/Excel Solver (using Microsoft Excel and Windows based Quantitative System for Business (WinQSB. This paper plays important role in understanding various strategies for effective churn and retention management and the ranking of churn and retention drivers in order of importance to stakeholders` decision-making. The study provided a framework for understanding the application of AHP and Markov chain for modeling, analysing and proffering solution to problem of churn and retention. The study recommends organizational strategies (corporate, business and functional that reverse the churn alternatives with high priority and equally strengthen service delivery on high priority retention alternatives in order to ensure firms sustainable competitive advantage.

  2. Staging laparoscopy improves treatment decision-making for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Hao; Mou, Ting-Yu; Chen, Tao; Lu, Xin; Wang, Da; Yu, Jiang; Li, Guo-Xin

    2016-02-07

    To evaluate the clinical value of staging laparoscopy in treatment decision-making for advanced gastric cancer (GC). Clinical data of 582 patients with advanced GC were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent staging laparoscopy. The strength of agreement between computed tomography (CT) stage, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) stage, laparoscopic stage, and final stage were determined by weighted Kappa statistic (Kw). The number of patients with treatment decision-changes was counted. A χ(2) test was used to analyze the correlation between peritoneal metastasis or positive cytology and clinical characteristics. Among the 582 patients, the distributions of pathological T classifications were T2/3 (153, 26.3%), T4a (262, 45.0%), and T4b (167, 28.7%). Treatment plans for 211 (36.3%) patients were changed after staging laparoscopy was performed. Two (10.5%) of 19 patients in M1 regained the opportunity for potential radical resection by staging laparoscopy. Unnecessary laparotomy was avoided in 71 (12.2%) patients. The strength of agreement between preoperative T stage and final T stage was in almost perfect agreement (Kw = 0.838; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.803-0.872; P advanced GC and decrease unnecessary exploratory laparotomy.

  3. Allocating HIV prevention funds in the United States: recommendations from an optimization model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Lasry

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC had an annual budget of approximately $327 million to fund health departments and community-based organizations for core HIV testing and prevention programs domestically between 2001 and 2006. Annual HIV incidence has been relatively stable since the year 2000 and was estimated at 48,600 cases in 2006 and 48,100 in 2009. Using estimates on HIV incidence, prevalence, prevention program costs and benefits, and current spending, we created an HIV resource allocation model that can generate a mathematically optimal allocation of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention's extramural budget for HIV testing, and counseling and education programs. The model's data inputs and methods were reviewed by subject matter experts internal and external to the CDC via an extensive validation process. The model projects the HIV epidemic for the United States under different allocation strategies under a fixed budget. Our objective is to support national HIV prevention planning efforts and inform the decision-making process for HIV resource allocation. Model results can be summarized into three main recommendations. First, more funds should be allocated to testing and these should further target men who have sex with men and injecting drug users. Second, counseling and education interventions ought to provide a greater focus on HIV positive persons who are aware of their status. And lastly, interventions should target those at high risk for transmitting or acquiring HIV, rather than lower-risk members of the general population. The main conclusions of the HIV resource allocation model have played a role in the introduction of new programs and provide valuable guidance to target resources and improve the impact of HIV prevention efforts in the United States.

  4. Collaboration between radiological technologists (radiographers) and junior doctors during image interpretation improves the accuracy of diagnostic decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.S.; Rainford, L.A.; Gray, J.; McEntee, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: In Emergency Departments (ED) junior doctors regularly make diagnostic decisions based on radiographic images. This study investigates whether collaboration between junior doctors and radiographers impacts on diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: Research was carried out in the ED of a university teaching hospital and included 10 pairs of participants. Radiographers and junior doctors were shown 42 wrist radiographs and 40 CT Brains and were asked for their level of confidence of the presence or absence of distal radius fractures or fresh intracranial bleeds respectively using ViewDEX software, first working alone and then in pairs. Receiver Operating Characteristic was used to analyze performance. Results were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The results showed statistically significant improvements in the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of the junior doctors when working with the radiographers for both sets of images (wrist and CT) treated as random readers and cases (p ≤ 0.008 and p ≤ 0.0026 respectively). While the radiographers’ results saw no significant changes, their mean Az values did show an increasing trend when working in collaboration. Conclusion: Improvement in performance of junior doctors following collaboration strongly suggests changes in the potential to improve accuracy of patient diagnosis and therefore patient care. Further training for junior doctors in the interpretation of diagnostic images should also be considered. Decision making of junior doctors was positively impacted on after introducing the opinion of a radiographer. Collaboration exceeds the sum of the parts; the two professions are better together.

  5. Optimal defense resource allocation in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Guoqiang; Xia, Yongxiang

    2018-02-01

    The robustness research of networked systems has drawn widespread attention in the past decade, and one of the central topics is to protect the network from external attacks through allocating appropriate defense resource to different nodes. In this paper, we apply a specific particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize the defense resource allocation in scale-free networks. Results reveal that PSO based resource allocation shows a higher robustness than other resource allocation strategies such as uniform, degree-proportional, and betweenness-proportional allocation strategies. Furthermore, we find that assigning less resource to middle-degree nodes under small-scale attack while more resource to low-degree nodes under large-scale attack is conductive to improving the network robustness. Our work provides an insight into the optimal defense resource allocation pattern in scale-free networks and is helpful for designing a more robust network.

  6. Data Mining for Understanding and Improving Decision-making Affecting Ground Delay Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2013-01-01

    The continuous growth in the demand for air transportation results in an imbalance between airspace capacity and traffic demand. The airspace capacity of a region depends on the ability of the system to maintain safe separation between aircraft in the region. In addition to growing demand, the airspace capacity is severely limited by convective weather. During such conditions, traffic managers at the FAA's Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) and dispatchers at various Airlines' Operations Center (AOC) collaborate to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalance caused by weather. The end result is the implementation of a set of Traffic Flow Management (TFM) initiatives such as ground delay programs, reroute advisories, flow metering, and ground stops. Data Mining is the automated process of analyzing large sets of data and then extracting patterns in the data. Data mining tools are capable of predicting behaviors and future trends, allowing an organization to benefit from past experience in making knowledge-driven decisions.

  7. Improved Targeting Through Collaborative Decision-Making and Brain Computer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Barrero, David F.; McDonald-Maier, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a first step toward a brain-computer interface (BCI) for collaborative targeting. Specifically, we explore, from a broad perspective, how the collaboration of a group of people can increase the performance on a simple target identification task. To this end, we requested a group of people to identify the location and color of a sequence of targets appearing on the screen and measured the time and accuracy of the response. The individual results are compared to a collective identification result determined by simple majority voting, with random choice in case of drawn. The results are promising, as the identification becomes significantly more reliable even with this simple voting and a small number of people (either odd or even number) involved in the decision. In addition, the paper briefly analyzes the role of brain-computer interfaces in collaborative targeting, extending the targeting task by using a BCI instead of a mechanical response.

  8. [Improving shared decision-making for hospital patients: Description and evaluation of a treatment intensity assessment tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblàs-Novellas, Jordi; Casas, Sílvia; Catalán, Rosa María; Oriol-Ruscalleda, Margarita; Lucchetti, Gianni Enrico; Quer-Vall, Francesc Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision-making between patients and healthcare professionals is crucial to guarantee adequate coherence between patient values and preferences, caring aims and treatment intensity, which is key for the provision of patient-centred healthcare. The assessment of such interventions are essential for caring continuity purposes. To do this, reliable and easy-to-use assessment systems are required. This study describes the results of the implementation of a hospital treatment intensity assessment tool. The pre-implementation and post-implementation results were compared between two cohorts of patients assessed for one month. Some record of care was registered in 6.1% of patients in the pre-implementation group (n=673) compared to 31.6% of patients in the post-implementation group (n=832) (P<.01), with differences between services. Hospital mortality in both cohorts is 1.9%; in the pre-implementation group, 93.75% of deceased patients had treatment intensity assessment. In hospital settings, the availability of a specific tool seems to encourage very significantly shared decision-making processes between patients and healthcare professionals -multiplying by more than 5 times the treatment intensity assessment. Moreover, such tools help in the caring continuity processes between different teams and the personalisation of caring interventions to be monitored. More research is needed to continue improving shared decision-making for hospital patients. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving the Reliability of Decision-Support Systems for Nuclear Emergency Management by Leveraging Software Design Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor B. Ionescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method of continuous verification of simulation software used in decision-support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSNE. The proposed approach builds on methods from the field of software reliability engineering, such as N-Version Programming, Recovery Blocks, and Consensus Recovery Blocks. We introduce a new acceptance test for dispersion simulation results and a new voting scheme based on taxonomies of simulation results rather than individual simulation results. The acceptance test and the voter are used in a new scheme, which extends the Consensus Recovery Block method by a database of result taxonomies to support machine-learning. This enables the system to learn how to distinguish correct from incorrect results, with respect to the implemented numerical schemes. Considering that decision-support systems for nuclear emergency management are used in a safety-critical application context, the methods introduced in this paper help improve the reliability of the system and the trustworthiness of the simulation results used by emergency managers in the decision making process. The effectiveness of the approach has been assessed using the atmospheric dispersion forecasts of two test versions of the widely used RODOS DSNE system.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of clinical decision support system in improving maternal health care in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the cost-effectiveness of a computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS in the identification of maternal complications in Ghana.A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed in a before- and after-intervention study. Analysis was conducted from the provider's perspective. The intervention area was the Kassena- Nankana district where computer-assisted CDSS was used by midwives in maternal care in six selected health centres. Six selected health centers in the Builsa district served as the non-intervention group, where the normal Ghana Health Service activities were being carried out.Computer-assisted CDSS increased the detection of pregnancy complications during antenatal care (ANC in the intervention health centres (before-intervention = 9 /1,000 ANC attendance; after-intervention = 12/1,000 ANC attendance; P-value = 0.010. In the intervention health centres, there was a decrease in the number of complications during labour by 1.1%, though the difference was not statistically significant (before-intervention =107/1,000 labour clients; after-intervention = 96/1,000 labour clients; P-value = 0.305. Also, at the intervention health centres, the average cost per pregnancy complication detected during ANC (cost -effectiveness ratio decreased from US$17,017.58 (before-intervention to US$15,207.5 (after-intervention. Incremental cost -effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated at US$1,142. Considering only additional costs (cost of computer-assisted CDSS, cost per pregnancy complication detected was US$285.Computer -assisted CDSS has the potential to identify complications during pregnancy and marginal reduction in labour complications. Implementing computer-assisted CDSS is more costly but more effective in the detection of pregnancy complications compared to routine maternal care, hence making the decision to implement CDSS very complex. Policy makers should however be guided by whether the additional benefit is worth

  11. Enhancing Public Participation to Improve Natural Resources Science and its Use in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Shapiro, C. D.; Liu, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    The need for broader understanding and involvement in science coupled with social technology advances enabling crowdsourcing and citizen science have created greater opportunities for public participation in the gathering, interpretation, and use of geospatial information. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing guidance for USGS scientists, partners, and interested members of the public on when and how public participation can most effectively be used in the conduct of scientific activities. Public participation can provide important perspectives and knowledge that cannot be obtained through traditional scientific methods alone. Citizen engagement can also provide increased efficiencies to USGS science and additional benefits to society including enhanced understanding, appreciation, and interest in geospatial information and its use in decision making.The USGS guidance addresses several fundamental issues by:1. Developing an operational definition of citizen or participatory science.2. Identifying the circumstances under which citizen science is appropriate for use and when its use is not recommended. 3. Describing structured processes for effective use of citizen science. 4. Defining the successful application of citizen science and identifying useful success metrics.The guidance is coordinated by the USGS Science and Decisions Center and developed by a multidisciplinary team of USGS scientists and managers. External perspectives will also be incorporated, as appropriate to align with other efforts such as the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing Toolkit for the Federal government. The guidance will include the development of an economic framework to assess the benefits and costs of geospatial information developed through participatory processes. This economic framework considers tradeoffs between obtaining additional perspectives through enhanced participation with costs associated from obtaining

  12. Training complexity is not decisive factor for improving adaptation to visual sensory conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Pu, Fang; Li, Shuyu; Li, Yan; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based preflight training utilizing unusual visual stimuli is useful for decreasing the susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). The effectiveness of the sensorimotor adaptation training is affected by the training tasks, but what kind of task is more effective remains unknown. Whether the complexity is the decisive factor to consider for designing the training and if other factors are more important need to be analyzed. The results from the analysis can help to optimize the preflight training tasks for astronauts. Twenty right-handed subjects were asked to draw the right path of 45° rotated maze before and after 30 min training. Subjects wore an up-down reversing prism spectacle in test and training sessions. Two training tasks were performed: drawing the right path of the horizontal maze (complex task but with different orientation feature) and drawing the L-shape lines (easy task with same orientation feature). The error rate and the executing time were measured during the test. Paired samples t test was used to compare the effects of the two training tasks. After each training, the error rate and the executing time were significantly decreased. However, the training effectiveness of the easy task was better as the test was finished more quickly and accurately. The complexity is not always the decisive factor for designing the adaptation training task, e.g. the orientation feature is more important in this study. In order to accelerate the adaptation and to counter SMS, the task for astronauts preflight adaptation training could be simple activities with the key features.

  13. An alternative approach in operator allocation labor intensive manufacturing system: A three-phase methodology framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Rani, Ruzanita; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira

    2013-04-01

    Operator allocation is one of the most important decisions that can affect productivity in labor-intensive manufacturing system. Improper decision on operator allocation will reduce company's throughput and increase waste. Therefore, all factors such as operators' performance and operational constraints need to be considered in making the best operator allocation decision. Most of previous studies used two phases methodology. In two phases methodology, they used operational constraints and treated all operators to have the same level of performance for making decision on operator allocation. Therefore, in this paper a three-phase methodology is proposed to determine the optimal operator allocation. This methodology advances the existing approach on operator allocation by combining operators' performance and operational constraints. The methodology starts with evaluating the operators' performance. Then, it is followed with determining inputs and outputs for operator allocation alternatives and it ends with determining the optimal operator allocation. This paper will give ideas and directions to the management of the manufacturing company in determining the optimal operator allocation decision.

  14. Introducing priority setting and resource allocation in home and community care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Bonnie; Mitton, Craig; Peacock, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    To use evidence from research to identify and implement priority setting and resource allocation that incorporates both ethical practices and economic principles. Program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) is based on two key economic principles: opportunity cost (i.e. doing one thing instead of another) and the margin (i.e. resource allocation should result in maximum benefit for available resources). An ethical framework for priority setting and resource allocation known as Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) focuses on making sure that resource allocations are based on a fair decision-making process. It includes the following four conditions: publicity; relevance; appeals; and enforcement. More recent literature on the topic suggests that a fifth condition, that of empowerment, should be added to the Framework. The 2007-08 operating budget for Home and Community Care, excluding the residential sector, was developed using PBMA and incorporating the A4R conditions. Recommendations developed using PBMA were forwarded to the Executive Committee, approved and implemented for the 2007-08 fiscal year operating budget. In addition there were two projects approved for approximately $200,000. PBMA is an improvement over previous practice. Managers of Home and Community Care are committed to using the process for the 2008-09 fiscal year operating budget and expanding its use to include mental health and addictions services. In addition, managers of public health prevention and promotion services are considering using the process.

  15. The Effect of Using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach in Teaching Environmental Issues on Improving the Students' Ability of Making Appropriate Decisions towards These Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zo'bi, Abdallah Salim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify nature of students' decisions patterns towards environmental issues and the possibility to improve these decisions during teaching process using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach. And to achieve this, the researcher prepared and developed tools of the study represented by a test of open questions focused on…

  16. Prioritize Improvement Opportunities Identified In Self-Assessment Using Multi-Criteria Fuzzy Group Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Ghassem Faraj Pour; Ali Mazloum Ali Abadi; Mehdi Alijani; Reza Amiri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Efforts to improve the quality are one of the prerequisites for the success of individual companies and for the competitiveness of all whole companies. In the field of improvement and excellence business excellence models answer to the question that what the better organization is what goals and concepts they follow and according to what standards they behave. The EFQM excellence model can be transition from multiplicity to unity of different existing models. The most important appro...

  17. Rapid tryptophan depletion improves decision-making cognition in healthy humans without affecting reversal learning or set shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Peter S; Watson, David R; Barrett, Suzanne L; Cooper, Stephen J

    2006-07-01

    Rapid tryptophan (Trp) depletion (RTD) has been reported to cause deterioration in the quality of decision making and impaired reversal learning, while leaving attentional set shifting relatively unimpaired. These findings have been attributed to a more powerful neuromodulatory effect of reduced 5-HT on ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) than on dorsolateral PFC. In view of the limited number of reports, the aim of this study was to independently replicate these findings using the same test paradigms. Healthy human subjects without a personal or family history of affective disorder were assessed using a computerized decision making/gambling task and the CANTAB ID/ED attentional set-shifting task under Trp-depleted (n=17; nine males and eight females) or control (n=15; seven males and eight females) conditions, in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group design. There was no significant effect of RTD on set shifting, reversal learning, risk taking, impulsivity, or subjective mood. However, RTD significantly altered decision making such that depleted subjects chose the more likely of two possible outcomes significantly more often than controls. This is in direct contrast to the previous report that subjects chose the more likely outcome significantly less often following RTD. In the terminology of that report, our result may be interpreted as improvement in the quality of decision making following RTD. This contrast between studies highlights the variability in the cognitive effects of RTD between apparently similar groups of healthy subjects, and suggests the need for future RTD studies to control for a range of personality, family history, and genetic factors that may be associated with 5-HT function.

  18. Site selection process for new nuclear power plants - a method to support decision making and improving public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Vivian B.; Cunha, Tatiana S. da; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Energy Plan (PNE 2030) that guides the Government in formulating its strategy for expanding energy supply by 2030 highlights the need for the Brazilian electrical system have more than 4,000 MW from nuclear sources by 2025. Therefore, the Government presented a proposal to build four more nuclear power plants with capacity of 1,000 MW each, at first, two in the Northeast and two in Southeast. The selection and site assessment are key parts of the installation process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the cost, public acceptance and safety of the facility during its entire life cycle. The result of this initial stage, it can even seriously affect program success. Wrong decisions in the process of site selection may also require a financial commitment to higher planned in a later phase of the project, besides causing extensive and expensive downtime. Select the location where these units will be built is not a trivial process, because involves the consideration of multiple criteria and judgments in addition to obtaining, organizing and managing a diverse range of data, both qualitative and quantitative, to assist in decision making and ensure that the site selected is the most appropriate in relation to safety and technical, economic and environmental feasibility. This paper presents an overview of the site selection process and its stages, the criteria involved in each step, the tools to support decision making that can be used and the difficulties in applying a formal process of decision making. Also discussed are ways to make the process more transparent and democratic, increasing public involvement as a way to improve acceptance and reduce opposition from various sectors of society, trying to minimize the expense and time involved in the implementation of undertakings of this kind. (author)

  19. Solving a Location, Allocation, and Capacity Planning Problem with Dynamic Demand and Response Time Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ka Yuk Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.

  20. Societal values in the allocation of healthcare resources: is it all about the health gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Marshall, Deborah; Caulfield, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, public distrust in unavoidable value-laden decisions on the allocation of resources to new health technologies has grown. In response, healthcare organizations have made considerable efforts to improve their acceptability by increasing transparency in decision-making processes. However, the social value judgments (distributive preferences of the public) embedded in them have yet to be defined. While the need to explicate such judgments has become widely recognized, the most appropriate approach to accomplishing this remains unclear. The aims of this review were to identify factors around which distributive preferences of the public have been sought, create a list of social values proposed or used in current resource allocation decision-making processes for new health technologies, and review approaches to eliciting such values from the general public. Social values proposed or used in making resource allocation decisions for new health technologies were identified through three approaches: (i) a comprehensive review of published, peer-reviewed, empirical studies of public preferences for the distribution of healthcare; (ii) an analysis of non-technical factors or social value statements considered by technology funding decision-making processes in Canada and abroad; and (iii) a review of appeals to funding decisions on grounds in part related to social value judgments. A total of 34 empirical studies, 10 technology funding decision-making processes, and 12 appeals to decisions were identified and reviewed. The key factors/patient characteristics addressed through policy statements and around which distributive preferences of the public have been sought included severity of illness, immediate need, age (and its relationship to lifetime health), health gain (amount and final outcome/health state), personal responsibility for illness, caregiving responsibilities, and number of patients who could benefit (rarity). Empirical studies typically

  1. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Farmers' preferences and the factors affecting their decision to improve maize crops in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Toledano, Blanca Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Mexico is one of the countries with the highest corn production in the world (24.6 million tons) (FAOSTAT, 2016). However, in some regions, the yields are very low (2.0 Tn.ha-1) compared to the national average (9.39 Tn.ha-1). Among the different strategies to improve productivity, the adoption of improved maize seeds can play an important role. However, the adoption of this type of seed in Mexico is still limited. The development of a seed sector that meets the needs of farmers is an opportu...

  3. Template-Directed Instrumentation Reduces Cost and Improves Efficiency for Total Knee Arthroplasty: An Economic Decision Analysis and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Blevins, Jason L; DeNegre, Scott T; Mayman, David J; Jerabek, Seth A

    2015-10-01

    Template-directed instrumentation (TDI) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may streamline operating room (OR) workflow and reduce costs by preselecting implants and minimizing instrument tray burden. A decision model simulated the economics of TDI. Sensitivity analyses determined thresholds for model variables to ensure TDI success. A clinical pilot was reviewed. The accuracy of preoperative templates was validated, and 20 consecutive primary TKAs were performed using TDI. The model determined that preoperative component size estimation should be accurate to ±1 implant size for 50% of TKAs to implement TDI. The pilot showed that preoperative template accuracy exceeded 97%. There were statistically significant improvements in OR turnover time and in-room time for TDI compared to an historical cohort of TKAs. TDI reduces costs and improves OR efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Healthcare Improvement Scotland evidence note rapid review process: providing timely, reliable evidence to inform imperative decisions on healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Heather M; Calvert, Julie; Macpherson, Karen J; Thompson, Lorna

    2016-06-01

    Rapid review has become widely adopted by health technology assessment agencies in response to demand for evidence-based information to support imperative decisions. Concern about the credibility of rapid reviews and the reliability of their findings has prompted a call for wider publication of their methods. In publishing this overview of the accredited rapid review process developed by Healthcare Improvement Scotland, we aim to raise awareness of our methods and advance the discourse on best practice. Healthcare Improvement Scotland produces rapid reviews called evidence notes using a process that has achieved external accreditation through the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Key components include a structured approach to topic selection, initial scoping, considered stakeholder involvement, streamlined systematic review, internal quality assurance, external peer review and updating. The process was introduced in 2010 and continues to be refined over time in response to user feedback and operational experience. Decision-makers value the responsiveness of the process and perceive it as being a credible source of unbiased evidence-based information supporting advice for NHSScotland. Many agencies undertaking rapid reviews are striving to balance efficiency with methodological rigour. We agree that there is a need for methodological guidance and that it should be informed by better understanding of current approaches and the consequences of different approaches to streamlining systematic review methods. Greater transparency in the reporting of rapid review methods is essential to enable that to happen.

  5. A decision support model for improving a multi-family housing complex based on CO2 emission from electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Kim, Hyunjoong

    2012-12-15

    The number of deteriorated multi-family housing complexes in South Korea continues to rise, and consequently their electricity consumption is also increasing. This needs to be addressed as part of the nation's efforts to reduce energy consumption. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support model for determining the need to improve multi-family housing complexes. In this research, 1664 cases located in Seoul were selected for model development. The research team collected the characteristics and electricity energy consumption data of these projects in 2009-2010. The following were carried out in this research: (i) using the Decision Tree, multi-family housing complexes were clustered based on their electricity energy consumption; (ii) using Case-Based Reasoning, similar cases were retrieved from the same cluster; and (iii) using a combination of Multiple Regression Analysis, Artificial Neural Network, and Genetic Algorithm, the prediction performance of the developed model was improved. The results of this research can be used as follows: (i) as basic research data for continuously managing several energy consumption data of multi-family housing complexes; (ii) as advanced research data for predicting energy consumption based on the project characteristics; (iii) as practical research data for selecting the most optimal multi-family housing complex with the most potential in terms of energy savings; and (iv) as consistent and objective criteria for incentives and penalties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 10: operationalising disinvestment in a conceptual framework for resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Elshaug, Adam G

    2017-09-08

    This is the tenth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. After more than a decade of research, there is little published evidence of active and successful disinvestment. The paucity of frameworks, methods and tools is reported to be a factor in the lack of success. However there are clear and consistent messages in the literature that can be used to inform development of a framework for operationalising disinvestment. This paper, along with the conceptual review of disinvestment in Paper 9 of this series, aims to integrate the findings of the SHARE Program with the existing disinvestment literature to address the lack of information regarding systematic organisation-wide approaches to disinvestment at the local health service level. A framework for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting is proposed. Definitions for essential terms and key concepts underpinning the framework have been made explicit to address the lack of consistent terminology. Given the negative connotations of the word 'disinvestment' and the problems inherent in considering disinvestment in isolation, the basis for the proposed framework is 'resource allocation' to address the spectrum of decision-making from investment to disinvestment. The focus is positive: optimising healthcare, improving health outcomes, using resources effectively. The framework is based on three components: a program for decision-making, projects to implement decisions and evaluate outcomes, and research to understand and improve the program and project activities. The program consists of principles for decision-making and settings that provide opportunities to introduce systematic prompts and triggers to initiate disinvestment. The projects follow the steps in the disinvestment process. Potential methods and tools are presented, however the framework does not stipulate project design or conduct; allowing

  7. Improvements in Attention and Decision-Making Following Combined Behavioral Training and Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Varghese, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Guy E; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    In recent years there has been a significant commercial interest in 'brain training' - massed or spaced practice on a small set of tasks to boost cognitive performance. Recently, researchers have combined cognitive training regimes with brain stimulation to try and maximize training benefits, leading to task-specific cognitive enhancement. It remains unclear, however, whether the performance gains afforded by such regimes can transfer to untrained tasks, or how training and stimulation affect the brain's latent information processing dynamics. To examine these issues, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the prefrontal cortex while participants undertook decision-making training over several days. Anodal, relative to cathodal/sham tDCS, increased performance gains from training. Critically, these gains were reliable for both trained and untrained tasks. The benefit of anodal tDCS occurred for left, but not right, prefrontal stimulation, and was absent for stimulation delivered without concurrent training. Modeling revealed left anodal stimulation combined with training caused an increase in the brain's rate of evidence accumulation for both tasks. Thus tDCS applied during training has the potential to modulate training gains and give rise to transferable performance benefits for distinct cognitive operations through an increase in the rate at which the brain acquires information. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jill; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-11-27

    At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns.

  9. IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?

    OpenAIRE

    William Wilhelm; Alexander Ljungqvist

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the structural links between IPO allocations, pre-market information production, and initial underpricing returns, within the context of theories of bookbuilding. Using a sample of both US and international IPOs we find evidence of the following: ? IPO allocation policies favour institutional investors, both in the US and worldwide. ? Increasing institutional allocations results in offer prices that deviate more from the indicative price range established prior to bankers’ efforts...

  10. Deal or No Deal: Using Games to Improve Student Learning, Retention and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alan F.; Woodford, Kelly C.; Maes, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Student understanding and retention can be enhanced and improved by providing alternative learning activities and environments. Education theory recognizes the value of incorporating alternative activities (games, exercises and simulations) to stimulate student interest in the educational environment, enhance transfer of knowledge and improve…

  11. Improving appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for lower respiratory tract infections. The physician's decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Stud­ies suggest that increasing appropriate use of antimicrobials leads to a reduced pressure on the development of antimicrobial resistance. In this thesis we evaluated several different strategies with the aim to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing for community-acquired pneumonia

  12. Improving the relevance and impact of decision support research: A co-production framework and water management case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Dilling, L.; Basdekas, L.; Kaatz, L.

    2016-12-01

    In light of the unpredictable effects of climate change and population shifts, responsible resource management will require new types of information and strategies going forward. For water utilities, this means that water supply infrastructure systems must be expanded and/or managed for changes in overall supply and increased extremes. Utilities have begun seeking innovative tools and methods to support planning and decision making, but there are limited channels through which they can gain exposure to emerging tools from the research world, and for researchers to uptake important real-world planning and decision context. A transdisciplinary team of engineers, social and climate scientists, and water managers designed this study to develop and apply a co-production framework which explores the potential of an emerging decision support tool to enhance flexibility and adaptability in water utility planning. It also demonstrates how to improve the link between research and practice in the water sector. In this study we apply the co-production framework to the use of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs). MOEAs have shown promise in being able to generate and evaluate new planning alternatives but they have had little testing or application in water utilities. Anchored by two workshops, this study (1) elicited input from water managers from six water suppliers on the Front Range of Colorado, USA, to create a testbed MOEA application, and (2) evaluated the managers' responses to multiobjective optimization results. The testbed consists of a Front Range-relevant hypothetical water supply model, the Borg MOEA, hydrology and demand scenarios, and a set of planning decisions and performance objectives that drive the link between the algorithm and the model. In this presentation we describe researcher-manager interactions at the initial workshop that served to establish relationships and provide in-depth information to researchers about regional water management

  13. Improving the anesthetic process by a fuzzy rule based medical decision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Juan Albino; Leon, Ana; Marrero, Ayoze; Gonzalez-Cava, Jose M; Reboso, Jose Antonio; Estevez, Jose Ignacio; Gomez-Gonzalez, José F

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this research is the design and implementation of a new fuzzy logic tool for automatic drug delivery in patients undergoing general anesthesia. The aim is to adjust the drug dose to the real patient needs using heuristic knowledge provided by clinicians. A two-level computer decision system is proposed. The idea is to release the clinician from routine tasks so that he can focus on other variables of the patient. The controller uses the Bispectral Index (BIS) to assess the hypnotic state of the patient. Fuzzy controller was included in a closed-loop system to reach the BIS target and reject disturbances. BIS was measured using a BIS VISTA monitor, a device capable of calculating the hypnosis level of the patient through EEG information. An infusion pump with propofol 1% is used to supply the drug to the patient. The inputs to the fuzzy inference system are BIS error and BIS rate. The output is infusion rate increment. The mapping of the input information and the appropriate output is given by a rule-base based on knowledge of clinicians. To evaluate the performance of the fuzzy closed-loop system proposed, an observational study was carried out. Eighty one patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery were randomly distributed in 2 groups: one group using a fuzzy logic based closed-loop system (FCL) to automate the administration of propofol (42 cases); the second group using manual delivering of the drug (39 cases). In both groups, the BIS target was 50. The FCL, designed with intuitive logic rules based on the clinician experience, performed satisfactorily and outperformed the manual administration in patients in terms of accuracy through the maintenance stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual Aids for Improving Patient Decision Making in Severe Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Sebastian; Saposnik, Gustavo; Sposato, Luciano A

    2017-12-01

    Because of the large amount of information to process and the limited time of a clinical consult, choosing between carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) can be confusing for patients with severe symptomatic internal carotid stenosis (ICA). We aim to develop a visual aid tool to help clinicians and patients in the decision-making process of selecting between CEA and CAS. Based on pooled analysis from randomized controlled trials including patients with symptomatic and severe ICA (SSICA), we generated visual plots comparing CEA with CAS for 3 prespecified postprocedural time points: (1) any stroke or death at 4 months, and (2) any stroke or death in the first 30 days and ipsilateral stroke thereafter at 5 years and (3) at 10 years. A total of 4574 participants (2393 assigned to CAS, and 2361 to CEA) were included in the analyses. For every 100 patients with SSICA, 6 would develop any stroke or death in the CEA group compared with 9 undergoing CAS at 4 months (hazard ratio [HR] 1.53; 95%CI 1.20-1.95). At 5 years, 7 patients in the CEA group would develop any periprocedural stroke or death and ipsilateral stroke thereafter versus 12 undergoing CAS (HR 1.72; 95%CI 1.24-2.39), compared with 10 patients in the CEA and 13 in the CAS groups at 10 years (HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.82-1.66). Visual aids presented in this study could potentially help patients with severe symptomatic internal carotid stenosis to better weigh the risks and benefits of CEA versus CAS as a function of time, allowing for the prioritization of personal preferences, and should be prospectively assessed. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation

  16. Improving the Emergency Manager’s Hurricane Evacuation Decision Making Through Serious Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    Infrastructure The NHP training game was created using a game engine written in JavaScript. It uses an HTML5 canvas layered on top of the HVX interface in...assessment scenario question for the wind probability graphic . Training Evaluation of Prototype Game An initial training evaluation was conducted at...improving the engagement quality of the game . Ideas for how to do this were presented at the most recent user group meeting. One idea involved including

  17. Improving Federal Cybersecurity Governance Through Data-Driven Decision Making and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Management Process (RMP) and the Deming Management Method’s Shewhart Cycle, with the potential for use in providing metric input to progression and...execute in the Act phase [ Deming 1986, pp. 107-108]. This idea extends not only to the organization’s IT community, but also to those who will...improving the conditions surrounding the root cause of the metric value [ Deming 1986, pp 70-76]. If the un- derlying cybersecurity posture has been

  18. Improved microarray-based decision support with graph encoded interactome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneleen Daemen

    Full Text Available In the past, microarray studies have been criticized due to noise and the limited overlap between gene signatures. Prior biological knowledge should therefore be incorporated as side information in models based on gene expression data to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis in cancer. As prior knowledge, we investigated interaction and pathway information from the human interactome on different aspects of biological systems. By exploiting the properties of kernel methods, relations between genes with similar functions but active in alternative pathways could be incorporated in a support vector machine classifier based on spectral graph theory. Using 10 microarray data sets, we first reduced the number of data sources relevant for multiple cancer types and outcomes. Three sources on metabolic pathway information (KEGG, protein-protein interactions (OPHID and miRNA-gene targeting (microRNA.org outperformed the other sources with regard to the considered class of models. Both fixed and adaptive approaches were subsequently considered to combine the three corresponding classifiers. Averaging the predictions of these classifiers performed best and was significantly better than the model based on microarray data only. These results were confirmed on 6 validation microarray sets, with a significantly improved performance in 4 of them. Integrating interactome data thus improves classification of cancer outcome for the investigated microarray technologies and cancer types. Moreover, this strategy can be incorporated in any kernel method or non-linear version of a non-kernel method.

  19. Improving risk allocation through cat bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Martin; Richter, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Catastrophe bonds (cat bonds) often use index triggers, such as, for instance, parametric descriptions of a catastrophe. This implies the problem of the so-called basis risk, resulting from the fact that, in contrast to traditional reinsurance, this kind of coverage cannot be a perfect hedge for the primary's insured portfolio. On the other hand, cat bonds offer some very attractive economic features: Besides their usefulness as a solution to the problems of moral hazard and default risk, an ...

  20. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  1. Clinical decision support systems for improving diagnostic accuracy and achieving precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Christian; Nalley, Kip; Mannion, Ciaran; Bhattacharyya, Pritish; Blake, Patrick; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    , and logistical concerns. Ensuring data security and protection of patient rights while simultaneously facilitating standardization is paramount to maintaining public support. The capabilities of supercomputing need to be applied strategically. A standardized, methodological implementation must be applied to developed artificial intelligence systems with the ability to integrate data and information into clinically relevant knowledge. Ultimately, the integration of bioinformatics and clinical data in a clinical decision support system promises precision medicine and cost effective and personalized patient care.

  2. Integrated climate and land change research to improve decision-making and resource management in Southern Africa: The SASSCAL approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmschrot, J.; Olwoch, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ability of countries in southern Africa to jointly respond to climate challenges with scientifically informed and evidence-based actions and policy decisions remains low due to limited scientific research capacity and infrastructure. The Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management (SASSCAL; www.sasscal.org) addresses this gap by implementing a high-level framework to guide research and innovation investments in climate change and adaptive land management interventions in Southern Africa. With a strong climate service component as cross-cutting topic, SASSCAL's focus is to improve the understanding of climate and land management change impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Southern Africa. The paper presents a variety of SASSCAL driven activities which contribute to better understand climate and long-term environmental change dynamics at various temporal and spatial scales in Southern Afrika and how these activities are linked to support research and decision-making to optimize agricultural practices as well as sustainable environmental and water resources management. To provide consistent and reliable climate information for Southern Africa, SASSCAL offers various climate services ranging from real-time climate observation across the region utilizing the SASSCAL WeatherNet to regional climate change analysis and modelling efforts at seasonal-to-decadal timescales using climate data from various sources. SASSCAL also offers the current state of the environment in terms of recent data on changes in the environment that are necessary for setting appropriate adaptation strategies . The paper will further demonstrate how these services are utilized for interdisciplinary research on the impact of climate change on natural resources and socio-economic development in the SASSCAL countries and how this knowledge can be effectively used to mitigate and adapt to climate change by informed decision-making from

  3. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  4. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  5. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  6. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  7. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  8. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Joining Forces for Food Security - Linking Earth Observation and Crowd-sourcing for improved Decision-support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, M.; Dorigo, W.; See, L. M.; Vinck, P.; Papp, A.

    2014-12-01

    Droughts statistically exceed all other natural disasters in complexity, spatio-temporal extent and number of people affected. Triggered by crop failure, food insecurity is a major manifestation of agricultural drought and water scarcity. However, other socio-economic precursors, such as chronically low levels of disaster preparedness, hampered access to food security or a lack of social safety nets are equally important factors. We will present the first results of the SATIDA (Satellite Technologies for Improved Drought-Risk Assessment) project, which advances three complementary developments. First, an existing drought indicator is enhanced by replacing in-situ measurements on rainfall and surface air temperature with satellite-derived datasets. We identify the vegetation status via a new noise-corrected and gap-filled vegetation index. In addition, we introduce a soil moisture component to close the gap between rainfall deficiencies, extreme temperature and the first visible impacts of atmospheric anomalies on vegetation. Second, once calibrated, the index is forced with seasonal forecasts to quantify their uncertainty and added value in the regions of interest. Third, a mobile application is developed to disseminate relevant visualizations to decision-makers in affected areas, to collect additional information about socio-economic conditions and to validate the output of the drought index in real conditions. Involving Doctors without Borders (MSF) as a key user, SATIDA aims at decreasing uncertainties in decision-making via a more holistic risk framework, resulting in longer lead times for disaster logistics in the preparedness phase.

  10. Effects of episodic future thinking on discounting: Personalized age-progressed pictures improve risky long-term health decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Jarmolowicz, David P

    2016-03-01

    Many everyday choices are associated with both delayed and probabilistic outcomes. The temporal attention hypothesis suggests that individuals' decision making can be improved by focusing attention on temporally distal events and implies that environmental manipulations that bring temporally distal outcomes into focus may alter an individual's degree of discounting. One such manipulation, episodic future thinking, has shown to lower discount rates; however, several questions remain about the applicability of episodic future thinking to domains other than delay discounting. The present experiments examine the effects of a modified episodic-future-thinking procedure in which participants viewed age-progressed computer-generated images of themselves and answered questions related to their future, on probability discounting in the context of both a delayed health gain and loss. Results indicate that modified episodic future thinking effectively altered individuals' degree of discounting in the predicted directions and demonstrate the applicability of episodic future thinking to decision making of socially significant outcomes. © 2015 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Working with Decision Makers to Improve Energy-Water System Resiliency in the Lower Hudson River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, J. D.; Schoonen, M. A.; Pullen, J.; González, J. E.; Saleh, F.; Bhatt, V.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly half of the 180 million people living in the eastern U.S. reside in coastal watershed or shoreline counties. The population density of these areas continues to increase, driving an increase in energy-water (EW) system demand and expansion of critical infrastructure. Along with population, these areas are also being stressed by environmental and technology stresses, including climate change. We have been working with decision makers in the Lower Hudson River Basin (LHRB) to develop the tools and data needed to better understand and improve the resiliency of LHRB EW systems facing these kinds of stresses. The LHRB represents: 1) a coastal environment subject to sea level rise that is among the fastest in the East; 2) one of the steepest gradients in population density in the US, with Manhattan the most densely populated coastal county in the nation; 3) a EWN infrastructure serving the largest metropolitan area in the US and the financial center of the world; 4) a history of environmental impacts, ranging from heatwaves, hurricanes to localized storms, that can be used to hindcast; and 5) a wealth of historic and real-time data, extensive monitoring facilities and existing specific sector models that can be leveraged. This presentation will focus on the lessons learned working with the LHRB decision makers.

  12. Symbol labelling improves advantageous decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task in people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Bailey, Rebecca; Willner, Paul; Parry, Rhonwen

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities often have difficulties foregoing short-term loss for long-term gain. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been extensively adopted as a laboratory measure of this ability. In the present study, we undertook the first investigation with people with intellectual disabilities using a two-choice child version of the IGT, with measures of intellectual and executive functioning. Compared to a group of matched controls, people with intellectual disabilities performed advantageously and showed high levels of subjective awareness about the relative goodness and badness of the decks. A symbol labelling intervention, in which participants were taught to label the good and bad decks at regular intervals significantly improved advantageous decision-making to levels approximating that of controls. Factor analysis of executive functioning scores identified working memory and mental flexibility (response initiation and set shifting), with a near-significant inverse correlation between the extent to which the intervention was required and mental flexibility. These findings show, for the first time, that people with intellectual disabilities are capable of performing advantageously on the IGT and add to the growing clinical literature on decision-making. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Public Reporting of Hospital-Level Cancer Surgical Volumes in California: An Opportunity to Inform Decision Making and Improve Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A; Asch, Steven M; Baker, Laurence; Bilimoria, Karl; Dudley, R Adams; Fong, Niya; Holliday-Hanson, Merry L; Hopkins, David S P; Imholz, Elizabeth M; Malin, Jennifer; Moy, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Maryann; Parker, Joseph P; Saigal, Christopher S; Spurlock, Bruce; Teleki, Stephanie; Zingmond, David; Lang, Lance

    2016-10-01

    Most patients, providers, and payers make decisions about cancer hospitals without any objective data regarding quality or outcomes. We developed two online resources allowing users to search and compare timely data regarding hospital cancer surgery volumes. Hospital cancer surgery volumes for all California hospitals were calculated using ICD-9 coded hospital discharge summary data. Cancer surgeries included (bladder, brain, breast, colon, esophagus, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, rectum, and stomach) were selected on the basis of a rigorous literature review to confirm sufficient evidence of a positive association between volume and mortality. The literature could not identify threshold numbers of surgeries associated with better or worse outcomes. A multidisciplinary working group oversaw the project and ensured sound methodology. In California in 2014, about 60% of surgeries were performed at top-quintile-volume hospitals, but the per-hospital median numbers of surgeries for esophageal, pancreatic, stomach, liver, or bladder cancer surgeries were four or fewer. At least 670 patients received cancer surgery at hospitals that performed only one or two surgeries for a particular cancer type; 72% of those patients lived within 50 miles of a top-quintile-volume hospital. There is clear potential for more readily available information about hospital volumes to help patient, providers, and payers choose cancer surgery hospitals. Our successful public reporting of hospital volumes in California represents an important first step toward making publicly available even more provider-specific data regarding cancer care quality, costs, and outcomes, so those data can inform decision-making and encourage quality improvement.

  14. Public Transportation Hub Location with Stochastic Demand: An Improved Approach Based on Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban public transportation hubs are the key nodes of the public transportation system. The location of such hubs is a combinatorial problem. Many factors can affect the decision-making of location, including both quantitative and qualitative factors; however, most current research focuses solely on either the quantitative or the qualitative factors. Little has been done to combine these two approaches. To fulfill this gap in the research, this paper proposes a novel approach to the public transportation hub location problem, which takes both quantitative and qualitative factors into account. In this paper, an improved multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM method based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution and deviation is proposed to convert the qualitative factors of each hub into quantitative evaluation values. A location model with stochastic passenger flows is then established based on the above evaluation values. Finally, stochastic programming theory is applied to solve the model and to determine the location result. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  15. A Near Real-time Decision Support System Improving Forest Management in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, K.; Musinsky, J.; Ledezma, J.; Rasolohery, A.; Mendoza, E.; Kistler, H.; Steininger, M.; Morton, D. C.; Melton, F. S.; Manwell, J.; Koenig, K.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation International (CI) has a decade of experience developing near real-time fire and deforestation monitoring and forecasting systems that channel monitoring information from satellite observations directly to national and sub-national government agencies, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), and local communities. These systems are used to strengthen forest surveillance and monitoring, fire management and prevention, protected areas management and sustainable land use planning. With support from a NASA Wildland Fires grant, in September 2013 CI will launch a brand new near real-time alert system (FIRECAST) to better meet the outstanding needs and challenges users face in addressing ecosystem degradation from wildland fire and illegal forest activities. Outreach efforts and user feedback have indicated the need for seasonal fire forecasts for effective land use planning, faster alert delivery to enhance response to illegal forest activities, and expanded forest monitoring capabilities that enable proactive responses and that strengthen forest conservation and sustainable development actions. The new FIRECAST system addresses these challenges by integrating the current fire alert and deforestation systems and adding improved ecological forecasting of fire risk; expanding data exchange capabilities with mobile technologies; and delivering a deforestation alert product that can inform policies related to land use management and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). In addition to demonstrating the capabilities of this new real-time alert system, we also highlight how coordination with host-country institutions enhances the system's capacity to address the implementation needs of REDD+ forest carbon projects, improve tropical forest management, strengthen environmental law enforcement, and facilitate the uptake of near real-time satellite monitoring data into business practices of these national/sub-national institutions.

  16. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    %, and 20% of missing values. This expansion in the KB coverage allowed solving complex disease diagnostic queries that were previously unresolvable, without losing the correctness of the answers. However, compared to deductive reasoning, data-intensive plausible reasoning mechanisms yield a significant performance overhead. We observed that plausible reasoning approaches, by generating tentative inferences and leveraging domain knowledge of experts, allow us to extend the coverage of medical knowledge bases, resulting in improved clinical decision support. Second, by leveraging OWL ontological knowledge, we are able to increase the expressivity and accuracy of plausible reasoning methods. Third, our approach is applicable to clinical decision support systems for a range of chronic diseases.

  17. A Novel Clinical Decision Support System Using Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for the Assessment of Fetal Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Ravindran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical decision support system is proposed in this paper for evaluating the fetal well-being from the cardiotocogram (CTG dataset through an Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (IAGA and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM. IAGA employs a new scaling technique (called sigma scaling to avoid premature convergence and applies adaptive crossover and mutation techniques with masking concepts to enhance population diversity. Also, this search algorithm utilizes three different fitness functions (two single objective fitness functions and multi-objective fitness function to assess its performance. The classification results unfold that promising classification accuracy of 94% is obtained with an optimal feature subset using IAGA. Also, the classification results are compared with those of other Feature Reduction techniques to substantiate its exhaustive search towards the global optimum. Besides, five other benchmark datasets are used to gauge the strength of the proposed IAGA algorithm.

  18. Fund Allocation in Complex Rehabilitation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hegazy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil Infrastructure assets require continuous renewal actions to sustain their operability and safety. Allocating limited renewal funds amongst numerous building components, however, represents a large-scale optimization problem and earlier efforts utilized genetic algorithms (GAs to optimize medium size problems yet exhibit steep performance degradation as problem size increases. In this research, after experimenting with various approaches of segmenting a large problem into multiple smaller sub-problems, clustered segmentation proved to be the most promising. The paper discusses the underlying life cycle analysis model, the various segmentation methods, and the optimization results using the improved GAs + clustered segmentation, which proved to be able to optimize asset renewals for 50,000 components with no noticeable performance degradation. The proposed method is simple and logical, and can be used on variety of asset types to improve infrastructure fund allocation. Future extension of this research is then highlighted.

  19. The Role of Proteomics in Biomarker Development for Improved Patient Diagnosis and Clinical Decision Making in Prostate Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tonry, Claire L

    2016-07-18

    Prostate Cancer (PCa) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Although increased expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an effective indicator for the recurrence of PCa, its intended use as a screening marker for PCa is of considerable controversy. Recent research efforts in the field of PCa biomarkers have focused on the identification of tissue and fluid-based biomarkers that would be better able to stratify those individuals diagnosed with PCa who (i) might best receive no treatment (active surveillance of the disease); (ii) would benefit from existing treatments; or (iii) those who are likely to succumb to disease recurrence and\\/or have aggressive disease. The growing demand for better prostate cancer biomarkers has coincided with the development of improved discovery and evaluation technologies for multiplexed measurement of proteins in bio-fluids and tissues. This review aims to (i) provide an overview of these technologies as well as describe some of the candidate PCa protein biomarkers that have been discovered using them; (ii) address some of the general limitations in the clinical evaluation and validation of protein biomarkers; and (iii) make recommendations for strategies that could be adopted to improve the successful development of protein biomarkers to deliver improvements in personalized PCa patient decision making.

  20. The Role of Proteomics in Biomarker Development for Improved Patient Diagnosis and Clinical Decision Making in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Tonry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate Cancer (PCa is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Although increased expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is an effective indicator for the recurrence of PCa, its intended use as a screening marker for PCa is of considerable controversy. Recent research efforts in the field of PCa biomarkers have focused on the identification of tissue and fluid-based biomarkers that would be better able to stratify those individuals diagnosed with PCa who (i might best receive no treatment (active surveillance of the disease; (ii would benefit from existing treatments; or (iii those who are likely to succumb to disease recurrence and/or have aggressive disease. The growing demand for better prostate cancer biomarkers has coincided with the development of improved discovery and evaluation technologies for multiplexed measurement of proteins in bio-fluids and tissues. This review aims to (i provide an overview of these technologies as well as describe some of the candidate PCa protein biomarkers that have been discovered using them; (ii address some of the general limitations in the clinical evaluation and validation of protein biomarkers; and (iii make recommendations for strategies that could be adopted to improve the successful development of protein biomarkers to deliver improvements in personalized PCa patient decision making.

  1. Interdependence in decision-making by medical consultants: implications for improving the efficiency of inpatient physician services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Adam S; Chen, Lena M

    2017-12-01

    Hospital administrators are seeking to improve efficiency in medical consultation services, yet whether consultants make decisions to provide more or less care is unknown. We examined how medical consultants account for prior consultants' care when determining whether to provide intensive consulting care or sign off in the treatment of complex surgical inpatients. We applied three distinct theoretical frameworks in the interpretation of our results. We performed a retrospective cohort study of consultants' care intensity, measured alternately using a dummy variable for providing two or more days consulting (versus one) and a continuous measure of total days consulting, with 100% Medicare claims data from 2007-2010. Our analytic samples included consults for beneficiaries undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 61,785) or colectomy (n = 33,460) in general acute care hospitals. We compared the care intensity of consultants who observed different patterns of consulting care before their initial consults using ordinary least squares regression models at the patient-physician dyad level, controlling for patient comorbidity and many other patient- and physician-level factors as well as hospital region and year fixed effects. Consultants were less likely to provide intensive consulting care with each additional prior consultant on the case (1.2-1.7 percent) or if a prior consultant rendered intensive consulting care (20.6-21.5 percent) but more likely when prior consults were more concentrated across consultants (2.9-3.1 percent). Effects on consultants' total days consulting were similar. On average, consultants appeared to calibrate their care intensity for individual patients to maximize their value to all patients. Interventions for improving consulting care efficiency should seek to facilitate (not constrain) consultants' decision-making processes.

  2. Behavioral medicine perspectives on the design of health information technology to improve decision-making, guideline adherence, and care coordination in chronic pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midboe, Amanda M; Lewis, Eleanor T; Cronkite, Ruth C; Chambers, Dallas; Goldstein, Mary K; Kerns, Robert D; Trafton, Jodie A

    2011-03-01

    Development of clinical decision support systems (CDSs) has tended to focus on facilitating medication management. An understanding of behavioral medicine perspectives on the usefulness of a CDS for patient care can expand CDSs to improve management of chronic disease. The purpose of this study is to explore feedback from behavioral medicine providers regarding the potential for CDSs to improve decision-making, care coordination, and guideline adherence in pain management. Qualitative methods were used to analyze semi-structured interview responses from behavioral medicine stakeholders following demonstration of an existing CDS for opioid prescribing, ATHENA-OT. Participants suggested that a CDS could assist with decision-making by educating providers, providing recommendations about behavioral therapy, facilitating risk assessment, and improving referral decisions. They suggested that a CDS could improve care coordination by facilitating division of workload, improving patient education, and increasing consideration and knowledge of options in other disciplines. Clinical decision support systems are promising tools for improving behavioral medicine care for chronic pain.

  3. Allocation of basic health units based on the multicriteria approach: a proposition for a mediumsized city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ferreira de Negreiros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basic Health Units (UBSs are responsible for the treatment of diseases in their initial phase. It is possible to observe that there is an investment by the Brazilian government into this kind of strategy in health policies. These kinds of actions aim to reduce the number of patients being sent to hospitals, because the low and medium priority problems can be treated at a UBS. The UBSs are related to the Family Health Program (PSF with the objective of serving the poorest population. The government must allocate these units efficiently, to improve the services and serve more people. However, this kind of decision is made by the empirical knowledge of municipal managers. This paper proposes a model to rationalize this decision process using the multiple criteria decision aid approach to allocate these units in a city in the west region of Rio Grande do Norte State, in Brazil. We can conclude that the model developed prioritizes the neighborhoods with the greatest need for healthcare, using the value system of the city’s health department.

  4. Dose-optimal vaccine allocation over multiple populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Duijzer (Evelot); W.L. van Jaarsveld (Willem); J. Wallinga (Jacco); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractFor a large number of infectious diseases, vaccination is the most effective way to prevent an epidemic. However, the vaccine stockpile is hardly ever sufficient to treat the entire population, which brings about the challenge of vaccine allocation. To aid decision makers facing this

  5. Allocative inefficiency and the capital-energy controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Dimitris K.; Tsionas, Efthymios G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate a system of input demands for Greek manufacturing deviating from the standard practice of assuming strict cost minimization. The study allows for the presence of price distortions and allocative inefficiency in the decision process. This assumption affects parameter estimates and estimated elasticities materially, and throws new light on the capital-energy controversy in Greek manufacturing

  6. A Model for Resource Allocation Using Operational Knowledge Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Andreas N.; Bontis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to develop a business model that shows the impact of operational knowledge assets on intellectual capital (IC) components and business performance and use the model to show how knowledge assets can be prioritized in driving resource allocation decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were collected from 84…

  7. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Hydrologic Information and Decision Support Tools to Improve Livelihoods in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, P.; Jost, C.; Roncoli, M. C.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2006-12-01

    Burkina Faso is part of the Sahel-Sudan climatic zone south of the Sahara Desert. The rainfall of the region is characterized by extreme seasonal and annual temporal and spatial variability. Soils are generally of low fertility. The major livelihood activity in Burkina Faso, one of the lowest ranked countries in the world in the Human Development Index where 80 percent of the population rely on subsistence farming, is rainfed cultivation of cereal crops. Cotton is the dominant export crop and is mostly grown in the southwest. Livestock management is an important complement to farm activities, especially in the Sahelian zone. There are several major rivers flowing through the region and many ephemeral streams. Surface water resources are becoming more important to Burkina Faso as it tries to improve food security and water supplies, and increase energy production. One of the major opportunities to improve livelihoods in the region has been improvements in seasonal rainfall forecasting based upon global sea surface temperatures. In the past decade, the generation and use of forecasts in Burkina Faso has evolved from the nation just receiving forecasts almost as an after thought from USA and European meteorological services to the Burkina Faso Meteorological Services generating their own forecasts with support from these services. There is now also more focused international research on improving the forecasts for this region. The use of stochastic decision support tools (DST) that combine the seasonal forecasts with hydrologic and crop models, land conditions, and information on farmer and policy maker goals could improve both rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems. Their implementation requires overcoming many technical and socio-economic challenges. Examples include forecasting the start and end of rains, dissemination and explanation of forecasts, streamflow forecasting in data scarce regions, possible different incentives for subsistence and cash crop farmers

  8. A review of randomized controlled trials of medical record powered clinical decision support system to improve quality of diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Mustafa; Giordano, Richard; Lakhani, Saima; Walker, Dawn Marie

    2016-03-01

    A gap between current diabetes care practice and recommended diabetes care standards has consistently been reported in the literature. Many IT-based interventions have been developed to improve adherence to the quality of care standards for chronic illness like diabetes. The widespread implementation of electronic medical/health records has catalyzed clinical decision support systems (CDSS) which may improve the quality of diabetes care. Therefore, the objective of the review is to evaluate the effectiveness of CDSS in improving quality of type II diabetes care. Moreover, the review aims to highlight the key indicators of quality improvement to assist policy makers in development of future diabetes care policies through the integration of information technology and system. Setting inclusion criteria, a systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, Web of Science and Science Direct. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools were used to evaluate the quality of studies. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected for the review. In the selected studies, seventeen clinical markers of diabetes care were discussed. Three quality of care indicators were given more importance in monitoring the progress of diabetes care, which is consistent with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. The presence of these indicators in the studies helped to determine which studies were selected for review. Clinical- and process-related improvements are compared between intervention group using CDSS and control group with usual care. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low density lipid cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP) were the quality of care indicators studied at the levels of process of care and clinical outcome. The review has found both inconsistent and variable results for quality of diabetes care measures. A significant improvement has been found in the process of care for all three measures of quality of diabetes care

  9. An integrated approach to engineering curricula improvement with multi-objective decision modeling and linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, John E.

    The structure of engineering curricula currently in place at most colleges and universities has existed since the early 1950's, and reflects an historical emphasis on a solid foundation in math, science, and engineering science. However, there is often not a close match between elements of the traditional engineering education, and the skill sets that graduates need to possess for success in the industrial environment. Considerable progress has been made to restructure engineering courses and curricula. What is lacking, however, are tools and methodologies that incorporate the many dimensions of college courses, and how they are structured to form a curriculum. If curriculum changes are to be made, the first objective must be to determine what knowledge and skills engineering graduates need to possess. To accomplish this, a set of engineering competencies was developed from existing literature, and used in the development of a comprehensive mail survey of alumni, employers, students and faculty. Respondents proposed some changes to the topics in the curriculum and recommended that work to improve the curriculum be focused on communication, problem solving and people skills. The process of designing a curriculum is similar to engineering design, with requirements that must be met, and objectives that must be optimized. From this similarity came the idea for developing a linear, additive, multi-objective model that identifies the objectives that must be considered when designing a curriculum, and contains the mathematical relationships necessary to quantify the value of a specific alternative. The model incorporates the three primary objectives of engineering topics, skills, and curriculum design principles and uses data from the survey. It was used to design new courses, to evaluate various curricula alternatives, and to conduct sensitivity analysis to better understand their differences. Using the multi-objective model to identify the highest scoring curriculum

  10. Optimization Case Study: ISR Allocation in the Global Force Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    assets available to meet the GCC requirements. The Joint Staff, in concert with USSTRATCOM, use many factors to prioritize allocation of assets to...include determining which GCC gets the assets and for how long. The decision influencers recommend a resource allocation solution based on experience...The allocation process illustrated in Figure 1 is the OV-1 diagram from the Joint Staff Global Force Management Enterprise Integration

  11. An Optimization Model for the Allocation of University Based Merit Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of merit-based financial aid during the college admissions process presents postsecondary institutions with complex and financially expensive decisions. This article describes the application of linear programming as a decision tool in merit based financial aid decisions at a medium size private university. The objective defined for…

  12. 34 CFR 200.70 - Allocation of funds to LEAs in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Allocations to Leas § 200.70 Allocation of funds to LEAs in general. (a) The Secretary allocates basic grants, concentration grants, targeted grants, and education finance incentive grants, through SEAs, to each eligible LEA for which the Bureau...

  13. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  14. Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency—Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Thollander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being

  15. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN OFFICE AUTOMATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DECISION-MAKING AND PRODUCTIVITY OF EMPLOYEES OF YOUTH AND SPORT OFFICES OF WEST AZERBAIJAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Mostafa pour; Ali Amini; Vadoud Shoshtary; Auoub Izadi; Yousef Esmayilian; Fatemeh Salami; Bager Khakpour

    2017-01-01

    The availability of precise, relevant, timely and new information increases the speed and precision of decision making. The objective of present study is to examine the association between office automation, improvement of decision-making and productivity of employees of Youth and Sport offices of West Azerbaijan Province. The statistical population of present study consists of 130 employees of Youth and Sport offices of West Azerbaijan Province selected through simple random sampling. The st...

  16. Novel Machine Learning-Based Techniques for Efficient Resource Allocation in Next Generation Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    AlQuerm, Ismail A.

    2018-02-21

    resources management in diverse wireless networks. The core operation of the proposed architecture is decision-making for resource allocation and system’s parameters adaptation. Thus, we develop the decision-making mechanism using different artificial intelligence techniques, evaluate the performance achieved and determine the tradeoff of using one technique over the others. The techniques include decision-trees, genetic algorithm, hybrid engine based on decision-trees and case based reasoning, and supervised engine with machine learning contribution to determine the ultimate technique that suits the current environment conditions. All the proposed techniques are evaluated using testbed implementation in different topologies and scenarios. LTE networks have been considered as a potential environment for demonstration of our proposed cognitive based resource allocation techniques as they lack of radio resource management. In addition, we explore the use of enhanced online learning to perform efficient resource allocation in the upcoming 5G networks to maximize energy efficiency and data rate. The considered 5G structures are heterogeneous multi-tier networks with device to device communication and heterogeneous cloud radio access networks. We propose power and resource blocks allocation schemes to maximize energy efficiency and data rate in heterogeneous 5G networks. Moreover, traffic offloading from large cells to small cells in 5G heterogeneous networks is investigated and an online learning based traffic offloading strategy is developed to enhance energy efficiency. Energy efficiency problem in heterogeneous cloud radio access networks is tackled using online learning in centralized and distributed fashions. The proposed online learning comprises improvement features that reduce the algorithms complexities and enhance the performance achieved.

  17. Using linear integer programming for multi-site land-use allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Eisinger, E.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Stewart, Th.J.

    2003-01-01

    Research in the area of spatial decision support (SDS) and resource allocation has recently generated increased attention for integrating optimization techniques with GIS. In this paper we address the use of spatial optimization techniques for solving multi-site land-use allocation (MLUA) problems,

  18. Adaptive aspirations and performance heterogeneity : Attention allocation among multiple reference points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blettner, D.P.; He, Z.; Hu, S.; Bettis, R.

    Organizations learn and adapt their aspiration levels based on reference points (prior aspiration, prior performance, and prior performance of reference groups). The relative attention that organizations allocate to these reference points impacts organizational search and strategic decisions.

  19. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  20. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrate performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design