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Sample records for important modulatory role

  1. Targeted inactivation of integrin-linked kinase in hair follicle stem cells reveals an important modulatory role in skin repair after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Irvine, Timothy S; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2011-07-15

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is key for normal epidermal morphogenesis, but little is known about its role in hair follicle stem cells and epidermal regeneration. Hair follicle stem cells are important contributors to newly formed epidermis following injury. We inactivated the Ilk gene in the keratin 15--expressing stem cell population of the mouse hair follicle bulge. Loss of ILK expression in these cells resulted in impaired cutaneous wound healing, with substantially decreased wound closure rates. ILK-deficient stem cells produced very few descendants that moved toward the epidermal surface and into the advancing epithelium that covers the wound. Furthermore, those few mutant cells that homed in the regenerated epidermis exhibited a reduced residence time. Paradoxically, ILK-deficient bulge stem cells responded to anagen growth signals and contributed to newly regenerated hair follicles during this phase of hair follicle growth. Thus ILK plays an important modulatory role in the normal contribution of hair follicle stem cell progeny to the regenerating epidermis following injury.

  2. Cost-benefit decision circuitry: proposed modulatory role for acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobbs, Wambura C; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2014-01-01

    In order to select which action should be taken, an animal must weigh the costs and benefits of possible outcomes associate with each action. Such decisions, called cost-benefit decisions, likely involve several cognitive processes (including memory) and a vast neural circuitry. Rodent models have allowed research to begin to probe the neural basis of three forms of cost-benefit decision making: effort-, delay-, and risk-based decision making. In this review, we detail the current understanding of the functional circuits that subserve each form of decision making. We highlight the extensive literature by detailing the ability of dopamine to influence decisions by modulating structures within these circuits. Since acetylcholine projects to all of the same important structures, we propose several ways in which the cholinergic system may play a local modulatory role that will allow it to shape these behaviors. A greater understanding of the contribution of the cholinergic system to cost-benefit decisions will permit us to better link the decision and memory processes, and this will help us to better understand and/or treat individuals with deficits in a number of higher cognitive functions including decision making, learning, memory, and language. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Network feedback regulates motor output across a range of modulatory neuron activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert M; Blitz, Dawn M

    2016-06-01

    Modulatory projection neurons alter network neuron synaptic and intrinsic properties to elicit multiple different outputs. Sensory and other inputs elicit a range of modulatory neuron activity that is further shaped by network feedback, yet little is known regarding how the impact of network feedback on modulatory neurons regulates network output across a physiological range of modulatory neuron activity. Identified network neurons, a fully described connectome, and a well-characterized, identified modulatory projection neuron enabled us to address this issue in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric nervous system. The modulatory neuron modulatory commissural neuron 1 (MCN1) activates and modulates two networks that generate rhythms via different cellular mechanisms and at distinct frequencies. MCN1 is activated at rates of 5-35 Hz in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, network feedback elicits MCN1 activity time-locked to motor activity. We asked how network activation, rhythm speed, and neuron activity levels are regulated by the presence or absence of network feedback across a physiological range of MCN1 activity rates. There were both similarities and differences in responses of the two networks to MCN1 activity. Many parameters in both networks were sensitive to network feedback effects on MCN1 activity. However, for most parameters, MCN1 activity rate did not determine the extent to which network output was altered by the addition of network feedback. These data demonstrate that the influence of network feedback on modulatory neuron activity is an important determinant of network output and feedback can be effective in shaping network output regardless of the extent of network modulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. IMMUNO-MODULATORY PROPERTIES OF PREBIOTICS EXTRACTED FROM vernonia amygdalina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ezeonu; Ae, Asuquo; Bn, Ukwah; Po, Ukoha

    2016-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina , commonly called bitter-leaf, is widely consumed in many parts of Africa, and Nigeria, in particular. The leaf extract has been reported to have antimicrobial, anti-plasmodial, anti-helminthic, as well as prebiotic properties, but its immuno-modulatory effects have not been well-studied, neither have the prebiotics been identified. This study evaluated the immuno-modulatory properties of the aqueous leaf extract and identified the prebiotic components. The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus , while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the extract. Consumption of the extract caused significant increases in CD4+-, white blood cell-, total lymphocyte- and high density lipid (HDL) counts; decreases in low density lipid (LDL) and triglycerides and no significant effect on haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) in the blood of test animals. The water-soluble fraction of the extract contained most of the phyto-constituents of the extract and Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis of the fraction revealed the presence of fructo-oligosaccharide and galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotics. The results from this study have shown that the aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina has positive immune-modulatory and haematologic effects and contains some important prebiotic compounds.

  5. Modulatory role of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in Punjabi agricultural workers exposed to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Meenakshi; Kaur, Anupam

    2018-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases are important detoxification enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous as well as exogenous compounds. Individuals differ in metabolic capacity due to inherited genetic variations. Due to the polymorphism exhibited by GSTT1 and GSTM1 that results in the complete loss of function, the present study was aimed towards the determination of the frequency distribution of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in agricultural workers in Punjab, India. The study aimed to investigate their contribution in susceptibility to increased disease risk. A total of 513 subjects were included in this study, out of which 250 were agriculture workers and 263 were non-exposed occupationally. GSTT1 and GSTM1 null-genotype distribution was analyzed through multiplex-PCR method. Complete gene deletion in either of the genes was strongly associated with an increased risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0008) of DNA/cytogenetic damage, cancer, infertility, and many other serious health effects. Therefore, homozygous deletion in GSTT1 or GSTM1 could play a modulatory role in health of workers with long-term exposure to pesticides.

  6. Prenatal alcohol exposure results in long-term serotonin neuron deficits in female rats: modulatory role of ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwowska, Joanna H; Song, Hyun Jung; Bodnar, Tamara; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on male rodents found that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) decreases the number of serotonin immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neurons in the brainstem. However, data on the effects of PAE in females are lacking. In light of known sex differences in responsiveness of the 5-HT system and known effects of estrogen (E2 ) and progesterone (P4 ) in the brain, we hypothesized that sex steroids will modulate the adverse effects of PAE on 5-HT neurons in adult females. Adult females from 3 prenatal groups (Prenatal alcohol-exposed [PAE], Pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed Controls [C]) were ovariectomized (OVX), with or without hormone replacement, or underwent Sham OVX. 5-HT-ir cells were examined in key brainstem areas. Our data support the hypothesis that PAE has long-term effects on the 5-HT system of females and that ovarian steroids have a modulatory role in these effects. Intact (Sham OVX) PAE females had marginally lower numbers of 5-HT-ir neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the brainstem compared with PF and C females. This marginal difference became significant following removal of hormones by OVX. Replacement with E2 restored the number of 5-HT-ir neurons in PAE females to control levels, while P4 reversed the effects of E2 . Importantly, despite these differential responses of the 5-HT system to ovarian steroids, there were no differences in E2 and P4 levels among prenatal treatment groups. These data demonstrate long-term, adverse effects of PAE on the 5-HT system of females, as well as differential sensitivity of PAE compared with control females to the modulatory effects of ovarian steroids on 5-HT neurons. Our findings have important implications for understanding sex differences in 5-HT dysfunction in depression/anxiety disorders and the higher rates of these mental health problems in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. GM-CSF: An Immune Modulatory Cytokine that can Suppress Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Palash; Thiruppathi, Muthusamy; Elshabrawy, Hatem A.; Alharshawi, Khaled; Kumar, Prabhakaran; Prabhakar, Bellur S.

    2015-01-01

    GM-CSF was originally identified as a colony stimulating factor (CSF) because of its ability to induce granulocyte and macrophage populations from precursor cells. Multiple studies have demonstrated that GM-CSF is also an immune-modulatory cytokine, capable of affecting not only the phenotype of myeloid lineage cells, but also T-cell activation through various myeloid intermediaries. This property has been implicated in the sustenance of several autoimmune diseases like arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In contrast, several studies using animal models have shown that GM-CSF is also capable of suppressing many autoimmune diseases like Crohn's disease, Type-1 diabetes, Myasthenia gravis and experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Knockout mouse studies have suggested that the role of GM-CSF in maintaining granulocyte and macrophage populations in the physiological steady state is largely redundant. Instead, its immune-modulatory role plays a significant role in the development or resolution of autoimmune diseases. This is mediated either through the differentiation of precursor cells into specialized non-steady state granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, or through the modulation of the phenotype of mature myeloid cells. Thus, outside of myelopoiesis, GM-CSF has a profound role in regulating the immune response and maintaining immunological tolerance. PMID:26113402

  8. The modulatory role of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone administered spinally in the regulation of blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of α-MSH located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in d-glucose-fed and immobilization stress (IMO) mouse models. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with α-MSH alone did not affect the blood glucose level. However, i.t. administration with α-MSH reduced the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. The plasma insulin level was increased in d-glucose-fed model and was further increased by α-MSH, whereas α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in d-glucose-fed model. In addition, i.t. administration with glucagon alone enhanced blood glucose level and, i.t. injection with glucagon also increased the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. In contrasted to results observed in d-glucose-fed model, i.t. treatment with α-MSH caused enhancement of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The plasma insulin level was increased in IMO model. The increased plasma insulin level by IMO was reduced by i.t. treatment with α-MSH, whereas i.t. pretreatment with α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in IMO model. Taken together, although spinally located α-MSH itself does not alter the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of α-MSH system located in the spinal cord play important modulatory roles for the reduction of the blood glucose level in d-glucose fed model whereas α-MSH is responsible for the up-regulation of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The enhancement of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in down-regulation of the blood glucose in d-glucose fed model whereas reduction of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in up-regulation of the blood glucose in IMO model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A study on the effect of advertisements on customers' willingness to accept banking services based on modulatory role of brand: A case study of Bank Parsian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing competition in banking industry in Iran and there is a growing trend on emerge of new banks, which makes it difficult for existing banks to keep market share. In this paper, we study the effect of advertisements on customers’ willingness to accept banking services based on modulatory role of brand. The proposed study has been performed among 440 randomly selected customers in city of Tehran, Iran who were doing banking business with one of Iranian banks called Parsian. The results of survey have been analyzed using structural equation modeling and the preliminary results indicate that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between brand advertisement and associate name and brand identification. However, there was no meaningful relationship between brand advertisement and customer loyalty towards to brand. In addition, the results of survey indicate there was a meaningful relationship between brand equity components including perception quality on brand name, customer awareness from brand, loyalty to brand and customers’ willingness to accept banking services on modulatory role of brand.

  10. Inflammation Modulatory Protein TSG-6 for Chemical Injuries to the Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0495 TITLE: Inflammation Modulatory Protein TSG-6 for Chemical Injuries to the Cornea PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inflammation Modulatory Protein TSG-6 for Chemical Injuries to the Cornea Infla I Inflammation Modulatory Protein TSG-6...anti-inflammatory protein , TSG-6, which has a novel mechanism of action. Chemical injuries of the eye are difficult to treat, and may lead to

  11. A conserved neuronal DAF-16/FoxO plays an important role in conveying pheromone signals to elicit repulsion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donha; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Saeram; Ha, Go; Chang, Gyeong-Eon; Jeong, Haelim; Kim, Heekyeong; Kim, Sunhee; Cheong, Eunji; Paik, Young-Ki

    2017-08-03

    Animals use pheromones as a conspecific chemical language to respond appropriately to environmental changes. The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascaroside pheromones throughout the lifecycle, which influences entry into dauer phase in early larvae, in addition to sexual attraction and aggregation. In adult hermaphrodites, pheromone sensory signals perceived by worms usually elicit repulsion as an initial behavioral signature. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal pheromone sensory process from perception to repulsion in adult hermaphrodites remain poorly understood. Here, we show that pheromone signals perceived by GPA-3 is conveyed through glutamatergic neurotransmission in which neuronal DAF-16/FoxO plays an important modulatory role by controlling glutaminase gene expression. We further provide evidence that this modulatory role for DAF-16/FoxO seems to be conserved evolutionarily by electro-physiological study in mouse primary hippocampal neurons that are responsible for glutamatergic neurotransmission. These findings provide the basis for understanding the nematode pheromone signaling, which seems crucial for adaptation of adult hermaphrodites to changes in environmental condition for survival.

  12. Emotion and decision making: multiple modulatory neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Elizabeth A; Lempert, Karolina M; Sokol-Hessner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalent view of emotion and decision making is derived from the notion that there are dual systems of emotion and reason, a modulatory relationship more accurately reflects the current research in affective neuroscience and neuroeconomics. Studies show two potential mechanisms for affect's modulation of the computation of subjective value and decisions. Incidental affective states may carry over to the assessment of subjective value and the decision, and emotional reactions to the choice may be incorporated into the value calculation. In addition, this modulatory relationship is reciprocal: Changing emotion can change choices. This research suggests that the neural mechanisms mediating the relation between affect and choice vary depending on which affective component is engaged and which decision variables are assessed. We suggest that a detailed and nuanced understanding of emotion and decision making requires characterizing the multiple modulatory neural circuits underlying the different means by which emotion and affect can influence choices.

  13. Comparison of Individual and Combined Effects of Four Endocrine Disruptors on Estrogen Receptor Beta Transcription in Cerebellar Cell Culture: The Modulatory Role of Estradiol and Triiodo-Thyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocsak, Gergely; Kiss, David Sandor; Toth, Istvan; Goszleth, Greta; Bartha, Tibor; Frenyo, Laszlo V.; Horvath, Tamas L.; Zsarnovszky, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans and animals are continuously exposed to a number of environmental substances that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs). While a growing body of evidence is available to prove their adverse health effects, very little is known about the consequences of simultaneous exposure to a combination of such chemicals; Methods: Here, we used an in vitro model to demonstrate how exposure to bisphenol A, zearalenone, arsenic, and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, alone or in combination, affect estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA expression in primary cerebellar cell cultures. Additionally, we also show the modulatory role of intrinsic biological factors, such as estradiol (E2), triiodo-thyronine (T3), and glial cells, as potential effect modulators; Results: Results show a wide diversity in ED effects on ERβ mRNA expression, and that the magnitude of these ED effects highly depends on the presence or absence of E2, T3, and glial cells; Conclusion: The observed potency of the EDs to influence ERβ mRNA expression, and the modulatory role of E2, T3, and the glia suggests that environmental ED effects may be masked as long as the hormonal milieu is physiological, but may tend to turn additive or superadditive in case of hormone deficiency. PMID:27338438

  14. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  15. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modulatory effects of dezocine-propofol, and fentanyl-propofol combinations in colonoscopy. Methods: One hundred and thirty-four patients who received painless colonoscopy in Eastern Medical District of Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi City, ...

  16. NMDA receptor glycine modulatory site in the ventral tegmental area regulates the acquisition, retrieval, and reconsolidation of cocaine reward memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang-jiang; Xue, Li-fen; Wang, Xue-yi; Jiang, Wen-gao; Xue, Yan-xue; Liu, Jian-feng; He, Yin-yin; Luo, Yi-xiao; Lu, Lin

    2012-05-01

    Accumulating clinical and preclinical studies have shown that the memories of the rewarding effects of drugs and their paired cues may contribute to relapse and persistent cocaine use. Glutaminergic actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been shown to regulate the rewarding effect of drugs and conditioned responses to drug-associated cues, but the role of the VTA in the acquisition, retrieval, and reconsolidation of cocaine cues is not yet known. In the present study, we used 7-chlorothiokynurenic acid (7-CTKA), an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor glycine modulatory site antagonist with no rewarding effects, to examine the role of the NMDA receptor glycine modulatory site in the acquisition, retrieval, and reconsolidation of cocaine-related reward memory using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Separate groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to acquire cocaine-induced CPP. Vehicle or 7-CTKA was microinjected into the VTA or substantia nigra (SN) (5 μg/μl) at different time points: 10 min before each CPP training session (acquisition), 10 min before the reactivation of CPP (retrieval), and immediately after the reactivation of CPP (reconsolidation). Cocaine-induced CPP was retested 24 h and 1 and 2 weeks after 7-CTKA administration. 7-CTKA microinjected into the VTA, but not SN, significantly impaired the acquisition, retrieval, and reconsolidation of cocaine-induced CPP without affecting cocaine-induced locomotion. Our findings suggest that the NMDA receptor glycine modulatory site in the VTA plays a major role in cocaine reward memory, and NMDA receptor glycine site antagonists may be potential pharmacotherapies for the management of relapse.

  17. Immuno-modulatory properties of prebiotics extracted from Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus, while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the ...

  18. The modulatory action of harmane on serotonergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghazaleh, Haya; Lalies, Maggie D; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L

    2015-02-09

    The naturally occurring β-carboline, harmane, has been implicated in various physiological and psychological conditions. Some of these effects are attributed to its interaction with monoaminergic systems. Previous literature indicates that certain β-carbolines including harmane modulate central monoamine levels partly through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. However, this is not always the case and thus additional mechanisms may be involved. This study set to assess the potential modulatory role of harmane on the basal or K(+) stimulated release of preloaded radiolabelled noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in rat brain cortex in vitro in the presence of the MAO inhibitor pargyline. Harmane displayed an overt elevation in K(+) -evoked [(3)H]5-HT release; whilst little and no effect was reported with [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]NA respectively. The effect of harmane on [(3)H]5-HT efflux was partially compensated in K(+)-free medium. Further analyses demonstrated that removal of Ca(2+) ions and addition of 1.2mM EGTA did not alter the action of harmane on [(3)H]5-HT release from rat brain cortex. The precise mechanism of action however remains unclear but is unlikely to reflect an involvement of MAO inhibition. The current finding aids our understanding on the modulatory action of harmane on monoamine levels and could potentially be of therapeutic use in psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulatory Mechanism of Nociceptive Neuronal Activity by Dietary Constituent Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Takeda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to somatic sensory pathways caused by peripheral tissue, inflammation or injury can result in behavioral hypersensitivity and pathological pain, such as hyperalgesia. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol found in red wine and various food products, is known to have several beneficial biological actions. Recent reports indicate that resveratrol can modulate neuronal excitability, including nociceptive sensory transmission. As such, it is possible that this dietary constituent could be a complementary alternative medicine (CAM candidate, specifically a therapeutic agent. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of resveratrol on nociceptive neuronal activity associated with pain relief. In addition, we discuss the contribution of resveratrol to the relief of nociceptive and/or pathological pain and its potential role as a functional food and a CAM.

  20. Modulatory effect of Althaea officinalis L root extract on cisplatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To explore the modulatory effect of an Althaea officinalis root extract (AORE) on cisplatin- induced ... the drug of choice for several in vitro research applications. .... and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work ...

  1. Possible oxidative effects of isotretinoin and modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the treatment of nodular cystic acne and as an inhibitor of proliferation of neoplastic cells, by exerting a regulatory effect on the cell differentiation. This study aimed at investigating the possible oxidative effects of ITN and modulatory effects of vitamins A and C in mutant and non-mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

  2. Modulatory effect of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulatory effect of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ... 8th day of oral extract treatments while the blood samples for the lipid assays of were obtained directly from heart chambers through cardiac puncture on the 8th day after an overnight fasting.

  3. Induction of various immune modulatory molecules in CD34(+) hematopoietic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umland, Oliver; Heine, Holger; Miehe, Michaela

    2004-01-01

    revealed that T cell proliferation can be induced by TNF-alpha-stimulated KG-1a cells, which is preventable by blocking anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies. Our results demonstrate that CD34(+) HCs have the potential to express a variety of immune-regulatory mediators upon stimulation by inflammatory......Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to induce proliferation of human T-lymphocytes only in the presence of monocytes and CD34(+) hematopoietic cells (HCs) from peripheral blood. This finding provided evidence of an active role of CD34(+) HCs during inflammation and immunological events....... To investigate mechanisms by which CD34(+) HCs become activated and exert their immune-modulatory function, we used the human CD34(+) acute myeloid leukemia cell line KG-1a and CD34(+) bone marrow cells (BMCs). We showed that culture supernatants of LPS-stimulated mononuclear cells (SUP(LPS)) as well as tumor...

  4. Immune-modulatory genomic properties differentiate gut microbiota of infants with and without eczema

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Seungdae; Yap, Gaik Chin; Hong, Pei-Ying; Huang, Chiung-Hui; Aw, Marion M.; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Lee, Bee Wah

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important role in human immunological processes, potentially affecting allergic diseases such as eczema. The diversity and structure of gut microbiota in infants with eczema have been previously documented. This study aims to evaluate by comparative metagenomics differences in genetic content in gut microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched controls. Stools were collected at the age of one month old from twelve infants from an at risk birth cohort in a case control manner. Clinical follow up for atopic outcomes were carried out at the age of 12 and 24 months. Microbial genomic DNA were extracted from stool samples and used for shotgun sequencing. Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that immune-regulatory TCAAGCTTGA motifs were significantly enriched in the six healthy controls (C) communities compared to the six eczema subjects (E), with many encoded by Bifidobacterium (38% of the total motifs in the C communities). Draft genomes of five Bifidobacterium species populations (B. longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. dentium, and B. pseudocatenulatum) were recovered from metagenomic datasets. The B. longum BFN-121-2 genome encoded more TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per one million genome sequence) than other Bifidobacterium genomes. Additionally, the communities in the stool of controls (C) were also significantly enriched in functions associated with tetrapyrrole biosynthesis compared to those of eczema (E). Our results show distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiota in infants associated with eczema and provide new insights into potential role of gut microbiota in affecting human immune homeostasis.

  5. Immune-modulatory genomic properties differentiate gut microbiota of infants with and without eczema

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Seungdae

    2017-10-19

    Gut microbiota play an important role in human immunological processes, potentially affecting allergic diseases such as eczema. The diversity and structure of gut microbiota in infants with eczema have been previously documented. This study aims to evaluate by comparative metagenomics differences in genetic content in gut microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched controls. Stools were collected at the age of one month old from twelve infants from an at risk birth cohort in a case control manner. Clinical follow up for atopic outcomes were carried out at the age of 12 and 24 months. Microbial genomic DNA were extracted from stool samples and used for shotgun sequencing. Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that immune-regulatory TCAAGCTTGA motifs were significantly enriched in the six healthy controls (C) communities compared to the six eczema subjects (E), with many encoded by Bifidobacterium (38% of the total motifs in the C communities). Draft genomes of five Bifidobacterium species populations (B. longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. dentium, and B. pseudocatenulatum) were recovered from metagenomic datasets. The B. longum BFN-121-2 genome encoded more TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per one million genome sequence) than other Bifidobacterium genomes. Additionally, the communities in the stool of controls (C) were also significantly enriched in functions associated with tetrapyrrole biosynthesis compared to those of eczema (E). Our results show distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiota in infants associated with eczema and provide new insights into potential role of gut microbiota in affecting human immune homeostasis.

  6. Immune-modulatory genomic properties differentiate gut microbiota of infants with and without eczema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungdae Oh

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota play an important role in human immunological processes, potentially affecting allergic diseases such as eczema. The diversity and structure of gut microbiota in infants with eczema have been previously documented. This study aims to evaluate by comparative metagenomics differences in genetic content in gut microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched controls. Stools were collected at the age of one month old from twelve infants from an at risk birth cohort in a case control manner. Clinical follow up for atopic outcomes were carried out at the age of 12 and 24 months. Microbial genomic DNA were extracted from stool samples and used for shotgun sequencing. Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that immune-regulatory TCAAGCTTGA motifs were significantly enriched in the six healthy controls (C communities compared to the six eczema subjects (E, with many encoded by Bifidobacterium (38% of the total motifs in the C communities. Draft genomes of five Bifidobacterium species populations (B. longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. dentium, and B. pseudocatenulatum were recovered from metagenomic datasets. The B. longum BFN-121-2 genome encoded more TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per one million genome sequence than other Bifidobacterium genomes. Additionally, the communities in the stool of controls (C were also significantly enriched in functions associated with tetrapyrrole biosynthesis compared to those of eczema (E. Our results show distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiota in infants associated with eczema and provide new insights into potential role of gut microbiota in affecting human immune homeostasis.

  7. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (pMangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  8. Interictal dysfunction of a brainstem descending modulatory center in migraine patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Moulton

    Full Text Available The brainstem contains descending circuitry that can modulate nociceptive processing (neural signals associated with pain in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the medullary dorsal horn. In migraineurs, abnormal brainstem function during attacks suggest that dysfunction of descending modulation may facilitate migraine attacks, either by reducing descending inhibition or increasing facilitation. To determine whether a brainstem dysfunction could play a role in facilitating migraine attacks, we measured brainstem function in migraineurs when they were not having an attack (i.e. the interictal phase.Using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging, we mapped brainstem activity to heat stimuli in 12 episodic migraine patients during the interictal phase. Separate scans were collected to measure responses to 41 degrees C and noxious heat (pain threshold+1 degrees C. Stimuli were either applied to the forehead on the affected side (as reported during an attack or the dorsum of the hand. This was repeated in 12 age-gender-matched control subjects, and the side tested corresponded to that in the matched migraine patients. Nucleus cuneiformis (NCF, a component of brainstem pain modulatory circuits, appears to be hypofunctional in migraineurs. 3 out of the 4 thermal stimulus conditions showed significantly greater NCF activation in control subjects than the migraine patients.Altered descending modulation has been postulated to contribute to migraine, leading to loss of inhibition or enhanced facilitation resulting in hyperexcitability of trigeminovascular neurons. NCF function could potentially serve as a diagnostic measure in migraine patients, even when not experiencing an attack. This has important implications for the evaluation of therapies for migraine.

  9. The modulatory role of spinally located histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-02-01

    The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (α-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model.

  10. Imunno-modulatory effect of Ocimum sanctum against endosulfan induced immunotoxicity in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath B.K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was designed to make a systematic study of experimentally induced immunotoxicity of endosulfan and its amelioration with Ocimum sanctum in male Wistar rats at 6, 3 and 1.5 mg / Kg b.wt to groups II, III and IV by mixing in ground nut oil for 6 weeks. To the groups V, VI and VII in addition to endosulfan as above mentioned dose, Ocimum sanctum was given at 200 mg / kg b.wt daily per orally for the same duration to study immuno modulatory effect. Group I served as oil control and Group VIII as Ocimum sanctum control. Significant reduction in the both HA titer and DNCB contact sensitivity score was observed in the endosulfan treated groups indicates endosulfan has immunotoxic effect. But significant improvement in the immunity was observed in the Ocimum sanctum treated groups indicates the immuno modulatory property. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 25-27

  11. Modulatory effect of Scoparia dulcis in oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    In light of evidence that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress and altered antioxidant status, we investigated the effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extracts (SPEt) (aqueous, ethanolic, and chloroform) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Significant increases in the activities of insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E were observed in liver, kidney, and brain on treatment with SPEt. In addition, the treated groups also showed significant decreases in blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and hydroperoxide formation in tissues, suggesting its role in protection against lipid peroxidation-induced membrane damage. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that extracts of S. dulcis, especially the aqueous extract, showed a modulatory effect by attenuating the above lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes.

  12. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Zana R; Abdeljaber, Esraa; Soveland, Robin; Cornwell, Kristin; Bankemper, Aubrey; Koch, Felicitas; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT receptor subtypes were manipulated using RNA interference mediated knockdown and 5-HT receptor insertional mutations. Moreover, synaptic transmission at 5-HT neurons was blocked or enhanced in both larvae and adult flies. The results demonstrate that disruption of components within the 5-HT system significantly impairs locomotion and feeding behaviors in larvae. Acute activation of 5-HT neurons disrupts normal locomotion activity in adult flies. To determine which 5-HT receptor subtype modulates the evoked sensory-motor activity, pharmacological agents were used. In addition, the activity of 5-HT neurons was enhanced by expressing and activating TrpA1 channels or channelrhodopsin-2 while recording the evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in muscle fibers. 5-HT2 receptor activation mediates a modulatory role in a sensory-motor circuit, and the activation of 5-HT neurons can suppress the neural circuit activity, while fluoxetine can significantly decrease the sensory-motor activity.

  13. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zana R. Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT receptor subtypes were manipulated using RNA interference mediated knockdown and 5-HT receptor insertional mutations. Moreover, synaptic transmission at 5-HT neurons was blocked or enhanced in both larvae and adult flies. The results demonstrate that disruption of components within the 5-HT system significantly impairs locomotion and feeding behaviors in larvae. Acute activation of 5-HT neurons disrupts normal locomotion activity in adult flies. To determine which 5-HT receptor subtype modulates the evoked sensory-motor activity, pharmacological agents were used. In addition, the activity of 5-HT neurons was enhanced by expressing and activating TrpA1 channels or channelrhodopsin-2 while recording the evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs in muscle fibers. 5-HT2 receptor activation mediates a modulatory role in a sensory-motor circuit, and the activation of 5-HT neurons can suppress the neural circuit activity, while fluoxetine can significantly decrease the sensory-motor activity.

  14. Modulatory Effects of Attention on Lateral Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engell, Alva; Junghöfer, Markus; Stein, Alwina; Lau, Pia; Wunderlich, Robert; Wollbrink, Andreas; Pantev, Christo

    2016-01-01

    Reduced neural processing of a tone is observed when it is presented after a sound whose spectral range closely frames the frequency of the tone. This observation might be explained by the mechanism of lateral inhibition (LI) due to inhibitory interneurons in the auditory system. So far, several characteristics of bottom up influences on LI have been identified, while the influence of top-down processes such as directed attention on LI has not been investigated. Hence, the study at hand aims at investigating the modulatory effects of focused attention on LI in the human auditory cortex. In the magnetoencephalograph, we present two types of masking sounds (white noise vs. withe noise passing through a notch filter centered at a specific frequency), followed by a test tone with a frequency corresponding to the center-frequency of the notch filter. Simultaneously, subjects were presented with visual input on a screen. To modulate the focus of attention, subjects were instructed to concentrate either on the auditory input or the visual stimuli. More specific, on one half of the trials, subjects were instructed to detect small deviations in loudness in the masking sounds while on the other half of the trials subjects were asked to detect target stimuli on the screen. The results revealed a reduction in neural activation due to LI, which was larger during auditory compared to visual focused attention. Attentional modulations of LI were observed in two post-N1m time intervals. These findings underline the robustness of reduced neural activation due to LI in the auditory cortex and point towards the important role of attention on the modulation of this mechanism in more evaluative processing stages.

  15. Anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory evaluation of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice and seed extract on bacteria isolated from urine and catheter

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Oluwole Osungunna; Grace O. Onawunmi

    2016-01-01

    Context: The in vivo use of grapefruit seed in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) has been reported but the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Aims: Evaluate the anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory activities of grapefruit seed extract and juice as their possible mechanisms of action. Methods: Sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mg/mL as well as 10.3 and 5.15 mg/mL of grapefruit seed extract and juice respectively were evaluated for modulatory activit...

  16. Modulatory Effects of Attention on Lateral Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Engell

    Full Text Available Reduced neural processing of a tone is observed when it is presented after a sound whose spectral range closely frames the frequency of the tone. This observation might be explained by the mechanism of lateral inhibition (LI due to inhibitory interneurons in the auditory system. So far, several characteristics of bottom up influences on LI have been identified, while the influence of top-down processes such as directed attention on LI has not been investigated. Hence, the study at hand aims at investigating the modulatory effects of focused attention on LI in the human auditory cortex. In the magnetoencephalograph, we present two types of masking sounds (white noise vs. withe noise passing through a notch filter centered at a specific frequency, followed by a test tone with a frequency corresponding to the center-frequency of the notch filter. Simultaneously, subjects were presented with visual input on a screen. To modulate the focus of attention, subjects were instructed to concentrate either on the auditory input or the visual stimuli. More specific, on one half of the trials, subjects were instructed to detect small deviations in loudness in the masking sounds while on the other half of the trials subjects were asked to detect target stimuli on the screen. The results revealed a reduction in neural activation due to LI, which was larger during auditory compared to visual focused attention. Attentional modulations of LI were observed in two post-N1m time intervals. These findings underline the robustness of reduced neural activation due to LI in the auditory cortex and point towards the important role of attention on the modulation of this mechanism in more evaluative processing stages.

  17. Modulatory Mechanism of Polyphenols and Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in LPS Challenged Pregnancy Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early embryonic loss and adverse birth outcomes are the major reproductive disorders that affect both human and animals. The LPS induces inflammation by interacting with robust cellular mechanism which was considered as a plethora of numerous reproductive disorders such as fetal resorption, preterm birth, teratogenicity, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion, neural tube defects, fetal demise, and skeletal development retardation. LPS-triggered overproduction of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which mediates inflammation via stimulation of NF-κB and PPARγ transcription factors. Flavonoids, which exist in copious amounts in nature, possess a wide array of functions; their supplementation during pregnancy activates Nrf2 signaling pathway which encounters pregnancy disorders. It was further presumed that the development of strong antioxidant uterine environment during gestation can alleviate diseases which appear at adult stages. The purpose of this review is to focus on modulatory properties of flavonoids on oxidative stress-mediated pregnancy insult and abnormal outcomes and role of Nrf2 activation in pregnancy disorders. These findings would be helpful for providing new insights in ameliorating oxidative stress-induced pregnancy disorders.

  18. Balanced plasticity and stability of the electrical properties of a molluscan modulatory interneuron after classical conditioning: a computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Vavoulis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cerebral Giant Cells (CGCs are a pair of identified modulatory interneurons in the Central Nervous System of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis with an important role in the expression of both unconditioned and conditioned feeding behavior. Following single-trial food-reward classical conditioning, the membrane potential of the CGCs becomes persistently depolarized. This depolarization contributes to the conditioned response by facilitating sensory cell to command neuron synapses, which results in the activation of the feeding network by the conditioned stimulus. Despite the depolarization of the membrane potential, which enables the CGGs to play a key role in learning-induced network plasticity, there is no persistent change in the tonic firing rate or shape of the action potentials, allowing these neurons to retain their normal network function in feeding. In order to understand the ionic mechanisms of this novel combination of plasticity and stability of intrinsic electrical properties, we first constructed and validated a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of the CGCs. We then used this model to elucidate how learning-induced changes in a somal persistent sodium and a delayed rectifier potassium current lead to a persistent depolarization of the CGCs whilst maintaining their firing rate. Including in the model an additional increase in the conductance of a high-voltage-activated calcium current allowed the spike amplitude and spike duration also to be maintained after conditioning. We conclude therefore that a balanced increase in three identified conductances is sufficient to explain the electrophysiological changes found in the CGCs after classical conditioning.

  19. The Role And Importance Of Communication In Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dijana Gupta

    2011-01-01

    From the aspect of management, communication process takes a special role because the same one is being required for a success, progress and achievement of objectives of each organization. The work itself discusses the concept of communication, its role and importance in management, where the models, techniques and obstacles to communication projects are being processed. The problem of scientific research and the subject of this work is contained in considering the role and importance of comm...

  20. The role of NPY in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, C. R.; Woldbye, D. P. D.

    2016-01-01

    with Y1 receptor-mediated neurogenesis could constitute necessary steps in consolidation and long-term retention of spatial memory. Altogether, NPY-induced effects on learning and memory seem to be biphasic, anatomically and temporally differential, and in support of a modulatory role of NPY at keeping......High levels of NPY expression in brain regions important for learning and memory together with its neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects suggest a regulatory role for NPY in memory processes. Therefore it is not surprising that an increasing number of studies have provided evidence for NPY...... acting as a modulator of neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and memory. Here these results are presented in relation to the types of memory affected by NPY and its receptors. NPY can exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on memory, depending on memory type and phase, dose applied, brain region...

  1. Antibacterial, modulatory activity of antibiotics and toxicity from Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) (Anura: Bufonidae) glandular secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Débora Lima; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Santos, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Araujo Filho, João Antonio de; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Saraiva, Rogério de Aquino; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar de; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Costa, José Galberto Martins; Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    The increase in microorganisms with resistance to medications has caused a strong preoccupation within the medical and scientific community. Animal toxins studies, such as parotoid glandular secretions from amphibians, possesses a great potential in the development of drugs, such as antimicrobials, as these possess bioactive compounds. It was evaluated Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) glandular secretions against standard and multi-resistant bacterial strains; the effect of secretions combined with drugs; and determined the toxicity using two biologic in vivo models, and a in vitro model with mice livers. Standard strains were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), while for the modulatory activity of antibiotics, the clinical isolates Escherichia coli 06, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 and Staphylococcus aureus 10 were used. Modulatory activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method with aminoglycosides and β-lactams as target antibiotics. The secretions in association with the antibiotics have a significant reduction in MIC, both the aminoglycosides and β-lactams. The toxicity and cytotoxicity results were lower than the values used in the modulation. R. jimi glandular secretions demonstrated clinically relevant results regarding the modulation of the tested antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Czarnewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs. Here, we focus on the role of retinoic acid in differentiation, trafficking and the functions of innate immune cells in health and inflammation associated disorders. Lastly, we discuss the potential involvement of atRA during the plausible crosstalk between DCs and ILCs.

  3. Anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory evaluation of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi juice and seed extract on bacteria isolated from urine and catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oluwole Osungunna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The in vivo use of grapefruit seed in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs has been reported but the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Aims: Evaluate the anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory activities of grapefruit seed extract and juice as their possible mechanisms of action. Methods: Sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mg/mL as well as 10.3 and 5.15 mg/mL of grapefruit seed extract and juice respectively were evaluated for modulatory activity of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid against one hundred and twenty seven bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine (MSU (100, catheter-stream urine (CSU (14 and catheter tips (CT (13 using the agar dilution method. Anti-adhesion activity of grapefruit seed extract and juice at sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 and 1.03 mg/mL respectively was evaluated against twenty three (23 moderately adherent bacterial isolates from MSU (10, CSU (7 and CT (6 using the tissue culture plate method. Results: The results revealed that grapefruit juice (5.15 mg/mL showed more effect on nalidixic acid activity than seed extract (2.5 mg/mL. Grapefruit juice showed more anti-adhesion activity than grapefruit seed extract at the concentration tested. Conclusions: The study concluded that grapefruit seed extract and juice had anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory effects on bacteria associated with UTIs.

  4. Effect of Low Dose Lead (Pb) Administration on Tail Immersion Test and Formalin-induced Pain in Wistar Rats: Possible Modulatory Role of Cobalt (II) Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, A H; Suleiman, I; Muhammed, H

    2017-03-06

    Lead (Pb) is cheap and there is a long tradition of its use, but its toxic effects have also been recognized. There is increased public health concern regarding the hazards of low dose Pb exposure to adults and children. Studies have shown the risks for hypertension, decrements in renal function, subtle decline in cognitive function, and adverse reproductive outcome at low blood Pb level. In this study, the possible modulatory role of cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2) on low level Pb exposure on tail immersion test and formalin induced pain was investigated. Twenty adult Wistar rats of both sexes (weight 150g to 200g) were used. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 5) and administered Pb (5mg/kg), Pb (5mg/kg) + CoCl2 (50mg/kg) and CoCl2 (50mg/kg) orally for twenty-eight days. The last group served as control and were given distilled water only. In the tail immersion test, there was no significant change in reaction time for all three groups when compared to the control. In the formalin-induced pain, pain score after five and forty-five minutes also do not show significant change for all the three groups when compared to control. This work suggested that exposure to 5mg/kg Pb for twenty-eight days do not significantly impair reaction time in tail immersion test and pain score in formalin induced pain in Wistar rats. Also, administration of 50mg/kg CoCl2 do not improve performance of the animals in the experiments.

  5. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S. K.; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Materials and Methods: Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, ...

  6. Perceived role legitimacy and role importance of Australian school staff in addressing student cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Norberg, Melissa M; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such, this study surveyed a sample of 1691 Australian school staff by utilizing Generation Next seminars which are attended by professionals working with young people. The self-completed survey identified that, despite elevated contact with students relative to other school staff, teachers reported the least role importance and legitimacy of all school staff. Further, teachers reported the lowest level of staff drug education training, which was an important predictor of an increased feeling of role importance and legitimacy among school staff.

  7. Upregulation of gene expression in reward-modulatory striatal opioid systems by sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A; Hanlon, Erin C; Obermeyer, William; Bremer, Quentin; Paletz, Elliott; Benca, Ruth M

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a link between sleep loss and the obesity 'epidemic,' and several observations indicate that sleep curtailment engenders positive energy balance via increased palatable-food 'snacking.' These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain systems. We explored the effects of 10 days of sleep deprivation in rats on the expression of striatal opioid peptide (OP) genes that subserve food motivation and hedonic reward, and compared effects with those seen in hypothalamic energy balance-regulatory systems. Sleep-deprived (Sleep-Dep) rats were compared with yoked forced-locomotion apparatus controls (App-Controls), food-restricted rats (Food-Restrict), and unmanipulated controls (Home-Cage). Detection of mRNA levels with in situ hybridization revealed a subregion-specific upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin and prodynorhin gene expression in the Sleep-Dep group relative to all other groups. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and throughout neocortex was also robustly upregulated selectively in the Sleep-Dep group. In contrast, parallel gene expression changes were observed in the Sleep-Dep and Food-Restrict groups in hypothalamic energy-sensing systems (arcuate nucleus NPY was upregulated, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript was downregulated), in alignment with leptin suppression in both groups. Together, these results reveal a novel set of sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes in reward-modulatory peptide systems, which are dissociable from the energy-balance perturbations of sleep loss or the potentially stressful effects of the forced-locomotion procedure. The recruitment of telencephalic food-reward systems may provide a feeding drive highly resistant to feedback control, which could engender obesity through the enhancement of palatable feeding.

  8. The role of vitamin D in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Khanh vinh quoc; Nguyen, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2012-04-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are important immune-modulatory hormones and are able to suppress Th2-mediated allergic airway disease. Some genetic factors that may contribute to asthma are regulated by vitamin D, such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA), human Toll-like receptors (TLR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM-33), and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase- 1 (PARP-1). Vitamin D has also been implicated in asthma through its effects on the obesity, bacillus Calmettee Guérin (BCG) vaccination and high vitamin D level, vitamin D supplement, checkpoint protein kinase 1 (Chk1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and gamma delta T cells (gdT). Vitamin D plays a role in asthma and exerts its action through either genomic and/or non-genomic ways.

  9. Role modelling in medical education: the importance of teaching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Oates, Kim; Goulston, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    By observation of role models, and participation in activities, students develop their attitudes, values and professional competencies. Literature suggests that clinical skills and knowledge, personality, and teaching skills are three main areas that students consider central to the identification of positive role models. The aim of this study was to explore junior medical students' opinions of the ideal attributes of a good role model in clinical tutors. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed year 1 of the medical programme in 2013. All students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the ideal attributes of a good role model in a clinical tutor. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed items and one open-ended question. The response rate to the questionnaire was 265/301 (88%). Although students found all three key areas important in a good role model, students emphasised the importance of excellence in teaching skills. Specifically, students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment, a good understanding of the curriculum and an ability to cater to the learning needs of all students. Students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment While acknowledging the importance of a patient-centred approach, as well as clinical knowledge and skills, our findings reinforce the importance of the actual teaching abilities of role models within medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The CB1 Receptor as an Important Mediator of Hedonic Reward Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex—the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55 212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/ΔFosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing. PMID:24718372

  11. Absence of modulatory action on haptic height perception with musical pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGeronazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although acoustic frequency is not a spatial property of physical objects, in common language, pitch, i.e., the psychological correlated of frequency, is often labeled spatially (i.e., high in pitch or low in pitch. Pitch-height is known to modulate (and interact with the response of participants when they are asked to judge spatial properties of non-auditory stimuli (e.g., visual in a variety of behavioral tasks. In the current study we investigated whether the modulatory action of pitch-height extended to the haptic estimation of height of a virtual step.We implemented a HW/SW setup which is able to render virtual 3D objects (stair-steps haptically through a PHANTOM device, and to provide real-time continuous auditory feedback depending on the user interaction with the object. The haptic exploration was associated with a sinusoidal tone whose pitch varied as a function of the interaction point’s height within (i a narrower and (ii a wider pitch range, or (iii a random pitch variation acting as a control audio condition. Explorations were also performed with no sound (haptic only. Participants were instructed to explore the virtual step freely, and to communicate height estimation by opening their thumb and index finger to mimic the step riser height, or verbally by reporting the height in centimeters of the step riser. We analyzed the role of musical expertise by dividing participants into non musicians and musicians. Results showed no effects of musical pitch on high-realistic haptic feedback. Overall there is no difference between the two groups in the proposed multimodal conditions. Additionally, we observed a different haptic response distribution between musicians and non musicians when estimations of the auditory conditions are matched with estimations in the no sound condition.

  12. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABAA receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the pre-synaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells. PMID:23392924

  13. Coaching Teachers: An Important Principal Role. Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    A principal's most important role is instructional leader. There is a growing recognition of the importance of working with teachers, serving as a mentor and coach. Coaching has emerged as one of the more effective professional development options for adult learners. It is an important tool because it is an investment in human capital and in the…

  14. MicroRNA-210 contributes to preeclampsia by downregulating potassium channel modulatory factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongcan; Shao, Xuan; Xu, Peng; Liu, Yanlei; Wang, Yongqing; Zhao, Yangyu; Liu, Ming; Ji, Lei; Li, Yu-Xia; Chang, Cheng; Qiao, Jie; Peng, Chun; Wang, Yan-Ling

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as the initial cause of the disorder. Recently, microRNA-210 (miR-210) has been found to be upregulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal placentas, indicating a possible association of this small molecule with the placental pathology of preeclampsia. However, the function of miR-210 in the development of the placenta remains elusive. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanism of preeclampsia development by examining the role of miR-210. In this study, miR-210 and potassium channel modulatory factor 1 (KCMF1) expressions were compared in placentas from healthy pregnant individuals and patients with preeclampsia, and the role of miR-210 in trophoblast cell invasion via the downregulation of KCMF1 was investigated in the immortal trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo. The levels of KCMF1 were significantly lower in preeclamptic placenta tissues than in gestational week-matched normal placentas, which was inversely correlated with the level of miR-210. KCMF1 was validated as the direct target of miR-210 using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and dual luciferase assay in HTR8/SVneo cells. miR-210 inhibited the invasion of trophoblast cells, and this inhibition was abrogated by the overexpression of KCMF1. The inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor-α could upregulate miR-210 while suppressing KCMF1 expression in HTR8/SVneo cells. This is the first report on the function of KCMF1 in human placental trophoblast cells, and the data indicate that aberrant miR-210 expression may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia by interfering with KCMF1-mediated signaling in the human placenta. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkor, Hafez R; Mansour, Sherif W; Ramadan, Gamal

    2011-04-01

    Spices which show hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities may have a role in the treatment of diabetes and its complications. The present study aimed to compare the modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on the metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg body weight, 15 min before STZ injection). Diabetic rats orally received either distilled water (as vehicle) or 200 mg/kg body weight of garlic bulb, ginger rhizome or turmeric rhizome powder suspension separately or mixed together (GGT mixture) for twenty-eight consecutive days. The results showed that these spices and their mixture significantly alleviated (80-97 %, P diabetic rats by increasing the production of insulin (26-37 %), enhancing the antioxidant defence system (31-52 %, especially GSH) and decreasing lipid peroxidation (60-97 %). The greatest modulation was seen in diabetic rats that received garlic and the GGT mixture (10-23 % more than that in the ginger and turmeric groups). In conclusion, garlic or the mix including garlic appears to have an impact on each of the measures more effectively than ginger and turmeric and may have a role in alleviating the risks of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications.

  16. The importance of role sending in the sensemaking of change agent roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Danielle A; Hendy, Jane; Barlow, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate what happens when a lack of role-sending results in ambiguous change agent roles during a large scale organisational reconfiguration. The authors consider the role of sensemaking in resolving role ambiguity of middle manager change agents and the consequences of this for organisational restructuring. Data were collected from a case study analysis of significant organisational reconfiguration across a local National Health Service Trust in the UK. Data consists of 82 interviews, complemented by analysis of over 100 documents and field notes from 51 hours of observations collected over five phases covering a three year period before, during and after the reconfiguration. An inductive qualitative analysis revealed the sensemaking processes by which ambiguity in role definition was resolved. The data explains how change agents collectively make sense of a role in their own way, drawing on their own experiences and views as well as cues from other organisational members. The authors also identified the organisational outcomes which resulted from this freedom in sensemaking. This study demonstrates that by leaving too much flexibility in the definition of the role, agents developed their own sensemaking which was subsequently very difficult to manipulate. In creating new roles, management first needs to have a realistic vision of the task and roles that their agents will perform, and second, to communicate these expectations to both those responsible for recruiting these roles and to the agents themselves. Much of the focus in sensemaking research has been on the importance of change agents' sensemaking of the change but there has been little focus on how change agents sensemake their own role in the change.

  17. Modulatory Effect of Methanol Extract of Piper guineense in CCl₄-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Osunsanmi, Foluso Oluwagbemiga; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2017-08-24

    This study seeks to investigate the possible protective role of the methanol extract of Piper guineense seeds against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering oral doses of CCl₄ (1.2 g/kg bw) three times a week for three weeks. Group 1 (Control) and Group 2 (CCl₄) were left untreated; Piper guineense (PG; 400 mg/kg bw) was administered to Group 3 (T₁) by oral gavage for 14 days prior to the administration of CCl₄ and simultaneously with CCl₄; PG (400 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 4 (T₂); and Livolin forte (20 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 5 (T₃), the standard drug group. The administration of CCl₄ induces histopathological alteration in the liver, with concomitant increased activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Similarly, there was decrease in non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione S-transferase), superoxide dismutase, and catalase. An elevation in serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels was noticed along with decreased levels of serum total protein. Treatment with PG 400 mg/kg bw exhibited excellent modulatory activity with respect to the different parameters studied by reversing all the above-mentioned biochemical changes significantly in the experimental animals. These results suggest that PG offered protection comparable to that of Livolin forte with better efficacy when pre-treated with 400 mg/kg bw 14 days prior to CCl₄-exposure.

  18. Antimicrobial and immune modulatory effects of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids produced by vaginal microbiota associated with eubiosis and bacterial vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldunate, Muriel; Srbinovski, Daniela; Hearps, Anna C.; Latham, Catherine F.; Ramsland, Paul A.; Gugasyan, Raffi; Cone, Richard A.; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by vaginal microbiota have reported antimicrobial and immune modulatory activities indicating their potential as biomarkers of disease and/or disease susceptibility. In asymptomatic women of reproductive-age the vaginal microbiota is comprised of lactic acid-producing bacteria that are primarily responsible for the production of lactic acid present at ~110 mM and acidifying the vaginal milieu to pH ~3.5. In contrast, bacterial vaginosis (BV), a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota, is characterized by decreased lactic acid-producing microbiota and increased diverse anaerobic bacteria accompanied by an elevated pH>4.5. BV is also characterized by a dramatic loss of lactic acid and greater concentrations of mixed SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate, and succinate. Notably women with lactic acid-producing microbiota have more favorable reproductive and sexual health outcomes compared to women with BV. Regarding the latter, BV is associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In vitro studies demonstrate that lactic acid produced by vaginal microbiota has microbicidal and virucidal activities that may protect against STIs and endogenous opportunistic bacteria as well as immune modulatory properties that require further characterization with regard to their effects on the vaginal mucosa. In contrast, BV-associated SCFAs have far less antimicrobial activity with the potential to contribute to a pro-inflammatory vaginal environment. Here we review the composition of lactic acid and SCFAs in respective states of eubiosis (non-BV) or dysbiosis (BV), their effects on susceptibility to bacterial/viral STIs and whether they have inherent microbicidal/virucidal and immune modulatory properties. We also explore their potential as biomarkers for the presence and/or increased susceptibility to STIs. PMID:26082720

  19. Antimicrobial and immune modulatory effects of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids produced by vaginal microbiota associated with eubiosis and bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eAldunate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs produced by vaginal microbiota have reported antimicrobial and immune modulatory activities indicating their potential as biomarkers of disease and/or disease susceptibility. In asymptomatic women of reproductive-age the vaginal microbiota is comprised of lactic acid-producing bacteria that are primarily responsible for the production of lactic acid present at ~110 mM and acidifying the vaginal milieu to pH ~3.5. In contrast, bacterial vaginosis (BV, a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota, is characterized by decreased lactic acid-producing microbiota and increased diverse anaerobic bacteria accompanied by an elevated pH>4.5. BV is also characterized by a dramatic loss of lactic acid and greater concentrations of mixed SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate and succinate. Notably women with lactic acid-producing microbiota have more favorable reproductive and sexual health outcomes compared to women with BV. Regarding the latter, BV is associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV. In vitro studies demonstrate that lactic acid produced by vaginal microbiota has microbicidal and virucidal activities that may protect against STIs and endogenous opportunistic bacteria as well as immune modulatory properties that require further characterization with regard to their effects on the vaginal mucosa. In contrast, BV-associated SCFAs have far less antimicrobial activity with the potential to contribute to a pro-inflammatory vaginal environment. Here we review the composition of lactic acid and SCFAs in respective states of eubiosis (non-BV or dysbiosis (BV, their effects on susceptibility to bacterial/viral STIs and whether they have inherent microbicidal/virucidal and immune modulatory properties. We also explore their potential as biomarkers for the presence and/or increased susceptibility to STIs.

  20. Antimicrobial and immune modulatory effects of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids produced by vaginal microbiota associated with eubiosis and bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldunate, Muriel; Srbinovski, Daniela; Hearps, Anna C; Latham, Catherine F; Ramsland, Paul A; Gugasyan, Raffi; Cone, Richard A; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by vaginal microbiota have reported antimicrobial and immune modulatory activities indicating their potential as biomarkers of disease and/or disease susceptibility. In asymptomatic women of reproductive-age the vaginal microbiota is comprised of lactic acid-producing bacteria that are primarily responsible for the production of lactic acid present at ~110 mM and acidifying the vaginal milieu to pH ~3.5. In contrast, bacterial vaginosis (BV), a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota, is characterized by decreased lactic acid-producing microbiota and increased diverse anaerobic bacteria accompanied by an elevated pH>4.5. BV is also characterized by a dramatic loss of lactic acid and greater concentrations of mixed SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate, and succinate. Notably women with lactic acid-producing microbiota have more favorable reproductive and sexual health outcomes compared to women with BV. Regarding the latter, BV is associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In vitro studies demonstrate that lactic acid produced by vaginal microbiota has microbicidal and virucidal activities that may protect against STIs and endogenous opportunistic bacteria as well as immune modulatory properties that require further characterization with regard to their effects on the vaginal mucosa. In contrast, BV-associated SCFAs have far less antimicrobial activity with the potential to contribute to a pro-inflammatory vaginal environment. Here we review the composition of lactic acid and SCFAs in respective states of eubiosis (non-BV) or dysbiosis (BV), their effects on susceptibility to bacterial/viral STIs and whether they have inherent microbicidal/virucidal and immune modulatory properties. We also explore their potential as biomarkers for the presence and/or increased susceptibility to STIs.

  1. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  2. Longevity and relationships with children: the importance of the parental role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Maria-Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks predict longevity across societies but specific mechanisms are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to examine the role of children in the longevity of elderly men and women in a cohort of community dwelling elderly people in Spain. Methods The data were taken from the "Aging in Leganes" cohort study with 15 years of follow-up. The baseline population was an age- and sex-stratified random sample of community dwelling people over 65 living in Leganés (Madrid in 1993. Poor relationship with at least one child, emotional support and the perceived roles elders play in the lives of their children, extended family, spouse and friends were assessed at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to investigate the effects of social roles variables on longevity, adjusting for a wide range of socioeconomic, behavioural and health covariates. Results In the fully adjusted model, having a poor relationship with at least one child increased mortality by 30%. Elderly persons who felt their role in their children's lives was important (HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.54; 0.91 had a lower mortality risk than those who felt they played a small role. Feeling loved and listened to by one's children did not have an effect on survival. Maintaining an important role in the extended family was also significantly associated with survival. Conclusion In this Mediterranean population, maintaining an important role in the lives of one's children is associated with survival. Functions of social networks related to meaning of life and different forms of social support may have important effects on mortality, and these functions may vary across cultures according to family norms and values.

  3. The Role of Motivation in Cognitive Reappraisal for Depressed Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Wang; Xiaoyan Zhou; Qin Dai; Bing Ji; Zhengzhi Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: People engage in emotion regulation in service of motive goals (typically, to approach a desired emotional goal or avoid an undesired emotional goal). However, how motives (goals) in emotion regulation operate to shape the regulation of emotion is rarely known. Furthermore, the modulatory role of motivation in the impaired reappraisal capacity and neural abnormalities typical of depressed patients is not clear. Our hypothesis was that (1) approach and avoidance motivation may modu...

  4. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by inflammatory priming elicits mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, M; Zanotto, M; Malpeli, G; Bassi, G; Perbellini, O; Chilosi, M; Bifari, F; Krampera, M

    2015-03-17

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a central role in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination and may be induced by local inflammation. We asked whether the inflammation-induced acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype by neoplastic epithelial cells is associated with the onset of mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-regulatory properties that may enhance tumour immune escape. Cell lines of lung adenocarcinoma (A549), breast cancer (MCF7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) were co-cultured with T, B and NK cells before and after EMT induction by either the supernatant of mixed-lymphocyte reactions or inflammatory cytokines. EMT occurrence following inflammatory priming elicited multiple immune-regulatory effects in cancer cells resulting in NK and T-cell apoptosis, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and stimulation of regulatory T and B cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, but not Fas ligand pathway, was involved at least in part in these effects, as shown by the use of specific inhibitors. EMT induced by inflammatory stimuli confers to cancer cells some mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties, which could be a cue for cancer progression and metastatic dissemination by favouring immune escape.

  5. Role of the primary motor cortex in the maintenance and treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Saavedra, Laura; Mendonca, Mariana; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is a highly prevalent, debilitating disease, characterized by chronic widespread pain. The mechanisms underlying pain are not completely understood, but it is believed to be associated with important neuroplastic changes in pain-related neural circuits. Although the involvement of the pain matrix in fibromyalgia is well established, another area that has been found to play a role in the maintenance and treatment of chronic pain is the primary motor cortex (M1). Maladaptive plasticity of M1 is a common finding in patients with chronic pain and many studies in animal models and in human subjects have shown that modulation of the activity of this cortical area induces significant analgesic effects. Furthermore, studies in other chronic pain syndromes have found alterations in baseline characteristics of M1, including an increase in cortical excitability and an abnormally enhanced response to incoming sensory stimuli. Given these findings, we hypothesize that M1 is a major modulator of pain in fibromyalgia and therefore its baseline activity reflects this strong feedback between M1 and pain-related neural areas. However, the feedback loop between M1 and the pain matrix is not enough to decrease pain in fibromyalgia per se, thus increasing its modulatory effect by engaging this network through different behavioral and modulatory techniques is a potentially beneficial treatment for pain in fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulatory effects of psychopathy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís

    2016-01-30

    Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Roles and Importance of Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Roh, Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance and interest for the microbes has been increased because several important results for the effects of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal have been published continuously. In this study, research status and major results on the various roles and effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal have been investigated. We investigated and summarized the roles and major results of microbes in a multi-barrier system consisting of an engineered barrier and a natural barrier which is considered in radioactive waste disposal systems. For the engineered barrier, we discussed about the effects of microbes on the corrosion of a waste container and investigated the survival possibility and roles of microbes in a compacted bentonite buffer. For the natural barrier, the roles of microbes present in groundwaters and rocks were discussed and summarized with major results from natural analogue studies. Furthermore, we investigated and summarized the roles and various interactions processes of microbes and their effects on the radionuclide migration and retardation including recent research status. Therefore, it is expected that the effects and roles of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal can be rigorously evaluated if further researches are carried out for a long-term behavior of the disposal system in the deep geological environments and for the effects of microbes on the radionuclide migration through geological media.

  8. Antioxidant Potential and Modulatory Effects of Restructured Lipids from the Amazonian Palms on Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Oliveira Falcão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification is used to manipulate oil and fat in order to obtain improved restructured lipids with desired technological properties. However, with raw materials containing significant amounts of bioactive compounds, the influence of this enzymatic process on the bioactivity of the final product is still not clear. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant potential and modulatory effects of two raw materials from the Amazonian area, buriti oil and murumuru fat, before and after lipase interesterification, on human hepatoma cells (HepG2. The results indicate that minor bioactive compounds naturally found in the raw materials and their antioxidant capacity are preserved after enzymatic interesterification, and that the restructured lipids modulate HepG2 endogenous antioxidant enzyme.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and Modulatory Effect of Essential Oil from the Leaf of Rhaphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart) Schauer on Some Antimicrobial Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Antonia Eliene; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Bezerra Morais Braga, Maria Flaviana; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Pessoa da Silva, Maria Arlene; Boligon, Aline; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Escobar Burger, Marilise

    2016-06-08

    Rhaphiodon echinus is a weed plant used in the Brazilian folk medicinal for the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, the essential oil of R. echinus leaf was investigated for its antimicrobial properties. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were characterized by GC-MS. The antimicrobial properties were determined by studying by the microdilution method the effect of the oil alone, and in combination with antifungal or antibiotic drugs against the fungi Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis and the microbes Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. In addition, the iron (II) chelation potential of the oil was determined. The results showed the presence of β-caryophyllene and bicyclogermacrene in major compounds, and revealed a low antifungal and antibacterial activity of the essential oil, but a strong modulatory effect on antimicrobial drugs when associated with the oil. The essential oil showed iron (II) chelation activity. The GC-MS characterization revealed the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the essential oil and metal chelation potential, which may be responsible in part for the modulatory effect of the oil. These findings suggest that essential oil of R. echinus is a natural product capable of enhancing the antibacterial and antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs.

  10. Modulatory effects of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. on the function of atopic dermatitis-related calcium channels, Orai1 and TRPV3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Nam

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that T. terrestris extract may have a therapeutic potential for recovery of abnormal skin barrier pathologies in atopic dermatitis through modulating the activities of calcium ion channels, Orai1 and TRPV3. This is the first study to report the modulatory effect of a medicinal plant on the function of ion channels in skin barrier.

  11. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, Sujira; Møller, Morten; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2009-01-01

    innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect...... of substance P on rat pineal NE transmission. We show that at the presynaptic level, substance P stimulates the KCl-induced [(3)H]NE release from the pineal nerve ending. However, we found that substance P did not affect the basal levels of either arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity...... or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  12. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gurneet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Search Engines are an indispensible platform for users all over the globe to search for relevant information online. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the exercise of improving the position of a website in search engine rankings, for a chosen set of keywords. SEO is divided into two parts: On-Page and Off-Page SEO. In order to be successful, both the areas require equal attention. This paper aims to explain the functioning of the search engines along with the role and importance of search e...

  13. Emerging Roles for Eosinophils in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Hadar; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Munitz, Ariel

    2016-11-01

    Eosinophils are evolutionary conserved cells largely studied in the context of allergy. Although eosinophils were first described in tumors more than 120 years ago, their roles in cancer are often overlooked. This is puzzling given their potent immune modulatory, cytotoxic, and/or tissue repair capabilities, and recent studies demonstrating key roles for eosinophils in contexts far beyond their 'classical' field (e.g., metabolism, thermogenesis, and tissue regeneration). Recent data suggest that this frequently ignored cell is emerging as a potent immune effector and immune modulator in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses the relevance of eosinophils to tumorigenesis and the potential to harness their function in cancer therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A modulatory role of the Rax homeobox gene in mature pineal gland function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Bering, Tenna; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    The retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox gene (Rax) controls development of the eye and the forebrain. Postnatal expression of Rax in the brain is restricted to the pineal gland, a forebrain structure devoted to melatonin synthesis. The role of Rax in pineal function is unknown. In order...... to investigate the role of Rax in pineal function while circumventing forebrain abnormalities of the global Rax knockout, we generated an eye and pineal-specific Rax conditional knockout mouse. Deletion of Rax in the pineal gland did not affect morphology of the gland, suggesting that Rax is not essential...... for the nucleus to develop. Telemetric analyses confirmed the lack of a functional circadian clock. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) transcripts, encoding the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme, were undetectable in the pineal gland of the Rax conditional knockout under normal conditions, whereas...

  15. Beyond the Dopamine Receptor: Regulation and Roles of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven I Walaas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays an important modulatory role in the central nervous system, helping to control critical aspects of motor function and reward learning. Alteration in normal dopaminergic neurotransmission underlies multiple neurological diseases including schizophrenia, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Modulation of dopamine-regulated signaling pathways is also important in the addictive actions of most drugs of abuse. Our studies over the last 30 years have focused on the molecular actions of dopamine acting on medium spiny neurons, the predominant neurons of the neostriatum. Striatum-enriched phosphoproteins, particularly DARPP-32, RCS (Regulator of Calmodulin Signaling and ARPP-16, mediate pleiotropic actions of dopamine. Notably, each of these proteins, either directly or indirectly, regulates the activity of one of the three major subclasses of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, PP1, PP2B and PP2A, respectively. For example, phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 by protein kinase A results in potent inhibition of PP1, leading to potentiation of dopaminergic signaling at multiple steps from the dopamine receptor to the nucleus. The discovery of DARPP-32 and its emergence as a critical molecular integrator of striatal signaling will be discussed, as will more recent studies that highlight novel roles for RCS and ARPP-16 in dopamine-regulated striatal signaling pathways.

  16. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  17. Differential Involvement of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Plasma Glucose and Corticosterone Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Liu, Ji; Lei, Jun; Timmermans, Loes; Foppen, Ewout; Cailotto, Cathy; Fliers, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is an essential component of the circadian timing system, and an important determinant of neuroendocrine and metabolic regulation. Recent data indicate a modulatory role for the immune system on the circadian timing system. The authors investigated how

  18. Role and Importance of Evaluation in Management Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NICOARA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In determining the enterprise value is assessed, are taken into account all areas that help to generate future profits in the întreprindrii evaluated, respectively. In this respect, a special role is managerial decision.This is the main tool to achieve business objectives, which should be based on past actual situation of the enterprise, the current existing ralitatile on forecasting ability, but also work with other specialisti.Rezultatele assessment is an important source of decision management.

  19. 17β-Estradiol augments antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram in ovariectomized rats: Neuroprotective and serotonin reuptake transporter modulatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Weam W; Safar, Marwa M; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Agha, Azza M

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence or recurrence of depression is seriously increased in women during the transition to and after menopause. The chronic hypo-estrogenic state of menopause may reduce the response to antidepressants; however the influence of estrogen therapy on their efficacy is still controversial. This study aimed at investigating the effects of combining escitalopram with 17β-estradiol on depression and cognitive impairment induced by ovariectomy, an experimental model of human menopause. Young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to either sham operation or ovariectomy. Ovariectomized animals were treated chronically with escitalopram (10mg/kg/day, i.p) alone or with four doses of 17β-estradiol (40μg/kg, s.c) given prior to the behavioral tests. Co-administration of 17β-estradiol improved escitalopram-induced antidepressant effect in forced swimming test verified as more prominent decrease in the immobility time without opposing its memory enhancing effect in Morris water maze. 17β-estradiol augmented the modulatory effects of escitalopram on the hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serotonin reuptake transporter as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha without altering its effects on the gene expressions of serotonin receptor 1A, estrogen receptors alpha and beta, or acetylcholinestearase content. This combined therapy afforded synergistic protective effects on the brain histopathological architecture, particularly, the hippocampus. The antidepressant effect of 17β-estradiol was abolished by pretreatment with estrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen (10mg/kg, p.o). In conclusion, 17β-estradiol-induced antidepressant effect was confined to intracellular estrogen receptors activation. Moreover, 17β-estradiol enhanced escitalopram's efficiency in ameliorating menopausal-like depression, via exerting synergistic neuroprotective and serotonin reuptake transporter modulatory effects, without impeding escitalopram-mediated cognitive

  20. Gender, life role importance, and work-family conflict in Indonesia: A non-western perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntari, I.S.R.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Ginting, H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined gender differences among profiles based on life role importance on work-family conflict. The sample consisted of 404 Indonesia working couples with children. We found four profiles based on their work and family role importance that is a Family, Work, Dual and a Low profile. More

  1. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S K; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied using buffalo rumen liquor. Thyme oil at higher dose level (600 ppm) reduced (p0.05) in 300 and 600 ppm dose levels. 600 ppm dose level of clove oil reduced (pclove and peppermint oil. Right combination of these essential oils may prove to enhance performance of animals by reducing methane production and inhibiting protein degradation in rumen.

  2. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES IN RESTAURANT BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern restaurant business, as part of a catering business, offers a variety of meals and beverages in restaurants and various related facilities. Promotional activities play a very important role in managing a restaurant and related facilities, because any serious restaurant facility must take all the necessary and effective measures in order to maintain regular guests and approach potential new guests. In this paper, I will write about conceptualizing restaurant business and elementary business systems in restaurant business. In a separate part, I will write about conceptualizing promotions and promotional activities as important factors in achieving better and more efficient communication of restaurants with regular and potential guests.

  3. Important role for Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against meningococcal sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölinder, Hong; Mogensen, Trine; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    have been reported to be involved in the host response to N. meningitidis. While TLR4 has been suggested to play an important role in early containment of infection, the roles of TLR2 and TLR9 in meningococcal disease are not well described. Using a model for meningococcal sepsis, we report that TLR9...... and induction of cytokine gene expression were independent of TLR2 or TLR9 in macrophages and conventional dendritic cells. In contrast, plasmacytoid dendritic cells relied entirely on TLR9 to induce these activities. Thus, our data demonstrate an important role for TLR9 in host defense against N. meningitidis....

  4. The modulatory role of second language proficiency on performance monitoring: evidence from a saccadic countermanding task in high and low proficient bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K

    2014-01-01

    We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 proficiency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR) task (Experiment1) and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR) task (Experiment 2). In the redirect task, typically a target is presented and the subject is required to make a saccade (no-step trials), unless a new target appears on a different location after some delay from the first target onset (step trials). On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first target and programme a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT), the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target as a measure of response inhibition and post-step slowing as a measure of performance monitoring. The results showed the high proficient bilinguals displayed more post-step slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals for both VGR and MGR versions of the task. Secondly, both the high and low proficient bilinguals exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR task, showing no modulatory effects of language proficiency on the response inhibition. These results suggest that language proficiency may have an effect on performance monitoring, but not the inhibitory control per se. Thus, we infer that higher proficiency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility and an ability to adjust behavior that facilitates the attainment of the cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  5. Study of lipid profile and parieto-temporal lipid peroxidation in AlCl3 mediated neurotoxicity. modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaïd-Nouira Yosra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxidation of lipid (LPO membrane and cholesterol metabolism have been involved in the physiopathology of many diseases of aging brain. Therefore, this prospective animal study was carried firstly to find out the correlation between LPO in posterior brain and plasmatic cholesterol along with lipoprotein levels after chronic intoxication by aluminium chloride (AlCl3. Chronic aluminum-induced neurotoxicity has been in fact related to enhanced brain lipid peroxidation together with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, despite its controversial etiological role in neurodegenerative diseases. Secondly an evaluation of the effectiveness of fenugreek seeds in alleviating the engendered toxicity through these biochemical parameters was made. Results Oral administration of AlCl3 to rats during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via the drinking water enhanced the levels of LPO in posterior brain, liver and plasma together with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and LDL-C (Low Density Lipoproteins levels. All these parameters were decreased following fenugreek seeds supplementation either as fenugreek seed powder (FSP or fenugreek seed extract (FSE. A notable significant correlation was observed between LPObrain and LDL-C on one hand and LDHliver on the other hand. This latter was found to correlate positively with TC, TG and LDL-C. Furthermore, high significant correlations were observed between LDHbrain and TC, TG, LDL-C, LPObrain as well as LDHliver. Conclusion Aluminium-induced LPO in brain could arise from alteration of lipid metabolism particularly altered lipoprotein metabolism rather than a direct effect of cholesterol oxidation. Fenugreek seeds could play an anti-peroxidative role in brain which may be attributed in part to its modulatory effect on plasmatic lipid metabolism.

  6. The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, J; Janssens, M; Gooris, G S; Bouwstra, J A

    2014-03-01

    The skin protects the body from unwanted influences from the environment as well as excessive water loss. The barrier function of the skin is located in the stratum corneum (SC). The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is crucial for the lipid skin barrier function. This paper provides an overview of the reported SC lipid composition and organization mainly focusing on healthy and diseased human skin. In addition, an overview is provided on the data describing the relation between lipid modulations and the impaired skin barrier function. Finally, the use of in vitro lipid models for a better understanding of the relation between the lipid composition, lipid organization and skin lipid barrier is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role and Importance of Spa and Wellness Tourism in Hungary's Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó János

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and highlights the role and importance of spa and wellness tourism in Hungary. Ever since tourism has played an important role in the social-economic processes of the country the leading tourism product proved to be health tourism (spa and wellness thanks to the advantageous physical geographical and social-political background. After the presentation of the country-specific theoretical system of spa and wellness, the paper examines the supply and the demand side together with competitor analysis and recent trends in spa and wellness in Hungary.

  8. AMPK modulatory activity of olive–tree leaves phenolic compounds: Bioassay-guided isolation on adipocyte model and in silico approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Olivares-Vicente, Mariló; Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Herranz-López, María; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Encinar, José Antonio; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Scope Olive-tree polyphenols have demonstrated potential for the management of obesity-related pathologies. We aimed to explore the capacity of Olive-tree leaves extract to modulate triglyceride accumulation and AMP-activated protein kinase activity (AMPK) on a hypertrophic adipocyte model. Methods Intracellular triglycerides and AMPK activity were measured on the hypertrophic 3T3-L1 adipocyte model by AdipoRed and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass detection with electrospray ionization (RP-HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) was used for the fractionation of the extract and the identification of the compounds. In-silico molecular docking of the AMPK alpha-2, beta and gamma subunits with the identified compounds was performed. Results Olive-tree leaves extract decreased the intracellular lipid accumulation through AMPK-dependent mechanisms in hypertrophic adipocytes. Secoiridoids, cinnamic acids, phenylethanoids and phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and lignans were the candidates predicted to account for this effect. Molecular docking revealed that some compounds may be AMPK-gamma modulators. The modulatory effects of compounds over the alpha and beta AMPK subunits appear to be less probable. Conclusions Olive-tree leaves polyphenols modulate AMPK activity, which may become a therapeutic aid in the management of obesity-associated disturbances. The natural occurrence of these compounds may have important nutritional implications for the design of functional ingredients. PMID:28278224

  9. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  10. Immune-Modulatory Genomic Properties Differentiate Gut Microbiotas of Infants with and without Eczema

    KAUST Repository

    Yap, Gaik Chin

    2015-10-14

    TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per 1 million genome sequence) than other Bifidobacterium genomes and was significantly overrepresented (P < 0.05) in the healthy communities. Conclusions: Our results report distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiotas in healthy infants as compared to children with eczema and provide new insights into potential roles of gut microbiotas in affecting human immune homeostasis.

  11. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jofré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Modulatory effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts on human dendritic cells: a cell- and gene-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Yu; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Yen, Po-Jen; Huang, Wei-Chou; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chien, Shih-Chang; Yeh, Kuo-Chen; Yang, Wen-Ching; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2006-12-01

    Echinacea spp. are popularly used as an herbal medicine or food supplement for enhancing the immune system. This study shows that plant extracts from root [R] and stem plus leaf [S+L] tissues of E. purpurea exhibit opposite (enhancing vs inhibitory) modulatory effects on the expression of the CD83 marker in human dendritic cells (DCs), which are known as professional antigen-presenting cells. We developed a function-targeted DNA microarray system to characterize the effects of phytocompounds on human DCs. Down-regulation of mRNA expression of specific chemokines (e.g., CCL3 and CCL8) and their receptors (e.g., CCR1 and CCR9) was observed in [S+L]-treated DCs. Other chemokines and regulatory molecules (e.g., CCL4 and CCL2) involved in the c-Jun pathway were found to be up-regulated in [R]-treated DCs. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that E. purpurea extracts can modulate DC differentiation and expression of specific immune-related genes in DCs.

  13. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  14. Recent development in antihyperalgesic effect of phytochemicals: anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Vinayak, Manjula

    2018-05-16

    Pain is an unpleasant sensation triggered by noxious stimulation. It is one of the most prevalent conditions, limiting productivity and diminishing quality of life. Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used as pain relievers in present day practice as pain is mostly initiated due to inflammation. However, due to potentially serious side effects, long term use of these antihyperalgesic drugs raises concern. Therefore there is a demand to search novel medicines with least side effects. Herbal products have been used for centuries to reduce pain and inflammation, and phytochemicals are known to cause fewer side effects. However, identification of active phytochemicals of herbal medicines and clear understanding of the molecular mechanism of their action is needed for clinical acceptance. In this review, we have briefly discussed the cellular and molecular changes during hyperalgesia via inflammatory mediators and neuro-modulatory action involved therein. The review includes 54 recently reported phytochemicals with antihyperalgesic action, as per the literature available with PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus. Compounds of high interest as potential antihyperalgesic agents are: curcumin, resveratrol, capsaicin, quercetin, eugenol, naringenin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Current knowledge about molecular targets of pain and their regulation by these phytochemicals is elaborated and the scope of further research is discussed.

  15. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  16. Role and importance of workshops in the development of heritage protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živa Deu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a detailed account of the role and importance of urbanist-architecture and architecture workshops. The analysis of the chosen sample of twenty-five workshops tied to the developmental protection of the heritage of built structures and the preservation of immobile cultural heritage as a whole illuminates the pedagogic importance and examines the transmission of workshop products into practice. It has been established that in addition to raising new architects the workshops posses a wider educational importance. Apart from the client the workshop process includes the local inhabitants who, through the process, familiarize themselves with less well known expert and practical knowledge. Without it any expectation of a quality settlement of vital building heritage would not be merited. An overview of the results stemming from the workshops demonstrates that practical applications do not achieve desired results. Many products remained locked in the clients’ desk drawers with less than half ever put into practice. All the workshops, including the ones not, or not yet realised in their intended form, produced material of lasting value, specifically in the work of the regional Institutes for the Protection of Cultural Heritage. The materials handed over to institutes playing an important role in the productive efforts of the high grade of protection and development of heritage include multi-layered analyses of valuable built structures and architectural recordings. From the point of view of developmental protection of Slovenian cultural heritage and due to the demonstrated use of important analytic material and especially due to their proven educational value the exercise of workshops in various settlements of Slovenian space is indispensable.

  17. A Physiologic Role for Serotonergic Transmission in Adult Rat Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  18. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Jaber

    Full Text Available Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic. However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers

  19. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  20. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF COMPANY CRISIS DIAGNOSIS IN ANTI-CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Klodane, Alona

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, under a free market, crises at companies are a frequent phenomenon; however, anti-crisis management and related aspects are currently a little researched problem in Latvia. The research aim is to examine the nature of company crisis diagnosis and its role and importance in the anti-crisis management system. The research general tasks are: to describe the nature of company crisis diagnosis and review the scope, purpose and tasks of performing a diagnosis; to examine the role and impo...

  1. Molecular investigations of BK(Ca) channels and the modulatory beta-subunits in porcine basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander

    2009-01-01

    arteries using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. Western blotting was used to detect immunoreactivity for the porcine BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit and beta-subunit proteins. The BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit RNA and protein distribution patterns were......Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are fundamental in the regulation of cerebral vascular basal tone. We investigated the expression of the mRNA transcripts for the BK(Ca) channel and its modulatory beta-subunits (beta1-beta4) in porcine basilar and middle cerebral...... visualized using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies, respectively. The study verified that the BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit is located to smooth muscle cells of porcine basilar and middle cerebral arteries. The mRNA transcript for beta1-, beta2- and beta4-subunit were shown by RT...

  2. Profiles of Attribution of Importance to Life Roles and Their Implications for the Work-Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2002-01-01

    Cluster analysis identified 3 groups of individuals who differed systematically on attributions of relative importance to work and to family roles. Participants were 213 married computer workers and lawyers, 126 men and 87 women. Questionnaires gathered data on attributions of importance to life roles, work-family conflict, spousal and managerial…

  3. LEADERSHIP IMPORTANCE AND ROLE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR - FEATURES IN THE CONTEMPORARY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA IORDACHE-PLATIS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays leadership is considered a managerial and organizational process that influences and guides the activities of the companies. As a management process, leadership can systematically influence the relationships that occur between managers and employees as a result of applying the management functions application. This study aims to highlight the main elements that designate the modern and revolutionary concept named”leadership”. The main objectives of the study are: 1. explaining the importance of leadership in the contemporary context; 2. analyzing the similarities and differences between two seemingly similar concepts - “leadership” and “management”; 3. description of the main management styles; 4. analyzing the correlation between leadership and emotional intelligence; 5. explaining leadership role in the public sector in Romania. In every company leadership has a very important role in achieving performance. The leader also plays an important role in a company, because a leader is the person who influences the behavior, actions, positive or negative attitude of others who are determined to act and take decisions voluntarily without fear of being punished if they do not follow the leader. Emotional self-awareness, trust, adaptability, initiative, optimism and team spirit are the ingredients of modern management style which determines the competitiveness of an organization.

  4. Cell Competition: Roles and Importance as a Central Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Antala, Bhavesh; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Cell competition is a type of short-range cell-cell interaction first observed in Drosophila melanogaster. In two heterogeneous cell populations, cells that have a higher fitness level would have a competitive advantage and grow at the cost of neighbor cells that have comparatively lower fitness. This interaction is due to differences in expression levels of a specific protein in the two cell populations, and it is known as cell competition. In this review, we have studied recent findings of cell competition in different biological processes in Drosophila as well as mammalian systems. The purpose of this review is to collate important studies of competitive cell interactions, and to understand its roles and importance as a central phenomenon. This review provides evidence of the relevance of cell competition in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as size control in organ development, stem cell maintenance, tissue repair, organ regeneration, aging, formation of memory, and cancer.

  5. Unusual immuno-modulatory triterpene-caffeates in the skins of russeted varieties of apples and pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Larsen, Lesley; Burgess, Elaine J; Jensen, Dwayne J; Cooney, Janine M; Evers, Danièle; Zhang, Jingli; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A

    2013-03-20

    Three triterpene-caffeates have been isolated from skins of a russeted apple cultivar "Merton Russet" and identified by LC-MS and NMR as betulinic acid-3-cis-caffeate, betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate were also found in russeted pear skins. These compounds have not been previously reported in apples or pears, or in any other foods. Their presence was related to suberized tissue as they were only found in russet portions of the partially russeted apple cultivar "Cox's Orange Pippin" and were not detected in the waxy apple cultivar "Royal Gala". High concentrations of betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate were found in the bark of both "Merton Russet" and "Royal Gala" trees. The three triterpene-caffeates showed anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, inhibiting NF-κB activation with IC50's of 6-9 μM. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, the predominant compound in the apples, was immuno-modulatory at around 10 μM in the in vitro and ex vivo bioassays, boosting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα in cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

  6. Modulatory role of allopurinol on xanthine oxidoreductase system and antioxidant status in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.; Abbady, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, used for management of hyperuricaema. It acts on purine catabolism without disrupting the biosynthesis of purine. The present work was conducted to examine the role of xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) in minimizing radiation injuries in male albino rats. Allopurinol was given to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a dose of 30 mg/kg body wt/day for 7 successive days before starting irradiation and 14 successive days during and in between exposure to gamma radiation. Rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation, delivered as 1 Gy every other day up to total dose 8 Gy. Results demonstrate that treatment with allopurinol by the regime assumed in the present study minimized significantly the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), product of lipid peroxidation, in liver, intestine and plasma. This effect was associated with significant amelioration in xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) system as observed on the 1st and 7th days post last radiation fraction. The severity of changes in antioxidant parameters namely: superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were less manifested in liver, intestine and blood as compared to irradiated rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were significantly improved in plasma and the two investigated tissues as compared to irradiated rats. A significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentration was recorded on the 1st and 7th days post last allopurinol dose. However, significant amelioration was recorded in the plasma uric acid of rats treated with allopurinol before and during radiation exposure as compared to irradiated rats. Accordingly, it could be concluded that XO inhibitor (allopurinol) play a significant role in minimizing the tissue damages upon exposure to ionizing radiation via preventing the over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells through the XOR system of irradiation rats

  7. The role and importance of leadership in business development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Hoti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in Kosovo today is one of the questions of exceptional importance. This institution has not yet been analyzed properly based on: quality, efficiency and responsibility, legal-, material- and moral leadership. Kosovo is faced with many challenges consisting of the needed steps towards the business development of the enterprise in Kosovo and in the international arena. Leaders cannot be created only by giving orders to others but the main problem is to identify the principles of cooperation and co-financing that identify people who can and should be able to mobilize forces to create economic advantages to the society. In this sense the most important thing is the determination of the exact diagnosis of the current situation before promoting economic growth. Main purpose of this article is the analysis of the role and importance of leadership in the business development in Kosovo.

  8. The cerebellum: its role in language and related cognitive and affective functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Perceived Importance of Role-Specific Competencies for Health Care Leaders Establishes the Need to Expand Role Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to determine the extent to which individuals who have differing health care leadership roles perceived the importance of selected leadership competencies in their specific roles based on their experience. A total of 313 participants responded to the health care questionnaire. Principal component analysis identified factor structure and Cronbach α at .96 supported the reliability of the factor analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance tested the 4 health care leadership roles to determine if an effect was present among the competencies. A subsequent analysis of variance test was conducted on the competencies to confirm an effect was present, and a Games-Howell post hoc test followed. These tests indicated that there was a significant difference in rating the perceived importance of specific leadership competencies by the health care leaders in each competency domain. The participants included in this study consisted of the chief executive officer (CEO), director of nursing (DON), operating room director (ORD), and director of radiology (DOR). Based on the Games-Howell post hoc test, a commonality existed between the leaders. The CEOs and DONs often indicated no significant difference in competency perception to one another in relation to the dependent variables, yet indicated a significant difference in competency perception when compared with the ORDs and DORs. Similarly, the ORD and DOR variables often indicated no significant difference in competency perception to one another in relation to the dependent variables, yet indicated a significant difference in competency perception compared with the CEO and DON variables. This study positively indicated that health care leadership's perception of competencies does differ between the various leadership roles.

  10. The important role of civil society groups in eco-innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2012-01-01

    the role of civil society groups in eco-innovation by addressing the following research questions: Why is it necessary to stress that civil society groups are as important as university, industry and government in eco-innovation? What inspiration can “triple helix twins” and “quadruple helix” provide when...... groups are not only foundations for developing innovation – they can be actors themselves; the existence of semi-governmental organizations in the Chinese case company, which is categorized under the concept of NGOs, shows the limitations of the concept of civil society groups in exposing important......, as they are helpful not only to provide pressure and push industry onto a green track, but also as supporters and carriers of green business. Corporate social responsibility is proposed as a stepping-stone to engage civil society groups in broader eco-innovation activity. Originality/value – The paper starts...

  11. Calmodulin-dependent nuclear import of HMG-box family nuclear factors: importance of the role of SRY in sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Delluc-Clavieres, Aurelie; Poon, Ivan K H; Forwood, Jade K; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A

    2010-08-15

    The HMG (high-mobility group)-box-containing chromatin-remodelling factor SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination. Its role in the nucleus is critically dependent on two NLSs (nuclear localization signals) that flank its HMG domain: the C-terminally located 'beta-NLS' that mediates nuclear transport through Impbeta1 (importin beta1) and the N-terminally located 'CaM-NLS' which is known to recognize the calcium-binding protein CaM (calmodulin). In the present study, we examined a number of missense mutations in the SRY CaM-NLS from human XY sex-reversed females for the first time, showing that they result in significantly reduced nuclear localization of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SRY fusion proteins in transfected cells compared with wild-type. The CaM antagonist CDZ (calmidazolium chloride) was found to significantly reduce wild-type SRY nuclear accumulation, indicating dependence of SRY nuclear import on CaM. Intriguingly, the CaM-NLS mutants were all resistant to CDZ's effects, implying a loss of interaction with CaM, which was confirmed by direct binding experiments. CaM-binding/resultant nuclear accumulation was the only property of SRY found to be impaired by two of the CaM-NLS mutations, implying that inhibition of CaM-dependent nuclear import is the basis of sex reversal in these cases. Importantly, the CaM-NLS is conserved in other HMG-box-domain-containing proteins such as SOX-2, -9, -10 and HMGN1, all of which were found for the first time to rely on CaM for optimal nuclear localization. CaM-dependent nuclear translocation is thus a common mechanism for this family of important transcription factors.

  12. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guerriero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines. Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimulation is a non-invasive novel technique used recently to treat different neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease. Despite its proven value, the mechanisms through which EMF brain-stimulation exerts its beneficial action on neuronal function remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that its beneficial effects may be due to a neuroprotective effect on oxidative cell damage. On the basis of in vitro and clinical studies on brain activity, modulation by ELF-EMFs could possibly counteract the aberrant pro-inflammatory responses present in neurodegenerative disorders reducing their severity and their onset. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the published literature on EMFs and outline the most promising effects of ELF-EMFs in developing treatments of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, we review data supporting the role of ELF-EMF in generating immune-modulatory responses, neuromodulation, and potential neuroprotective benefits. Nonetheless, we reckon that the underlying mechanisms of interaction between EMF and the immune system are still to be completely understood and need further studies at a molecular level.

  13. [Ammonia-oxidizing archaea and their important roles in nitrogen biogeochemical cycling: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Ding, Ying; Shi, De-Zhi; Chen, Ying-Xu

    2010-08-01

    As the first step of nitrification, ammonia oxidation is the key process in global nitrogen biogeochemical cycling. So far, the autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the beta- and gamma-subgroups of proteobacteria have been considered as the most important contributors to ammonia oxidation, but the recent researches indicated that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are widely distributed in various kinds of ecosystems and quantitatively predominant, playing important roles in the global nitrogen biogeochemical cycling. This paper reviewed the morphological, physiological, and ecological characteristics and the molecular phylogenies of AOA, and compared and analyzed the differences and similarities of the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and its encoding genes between AOA and AOB. In addition, the potential significant roles of AOA in nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were summarized, and the future research directions of AOA in applied ecology and environmental protection were put forward.

  14. The role of NPY in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøtzsche, C R; Woldbye, D P D

    2016-02-01

    High levels of NPY expression in brain regions important for learning and memory together with its neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects suggest a regulatory role for NPY in memory processes. Therefore it is not surprising that an increasing number of studies have provided evidence for NPY acting as a modulator of neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and memory. Here these results are presented in relation to the types of memory affected by NPY and its receptors. NPY can exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on memory, depending on memory type and phase, dose applied, brain region, and NPY receptor subtypes. Thus NPY act as a resilience factor by impairing associative implicit memory after stressful and aversive events, as evident in models of fear conditioning, presumably via Y1 receptors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In addition, NPY impairs acquisition but enhances consolidation and retention in models depending on spatial and discriminative types of associative explicit memory, presumably involving Y2 receptor-mediated regulations of hippocampal excitatory transmission. Moreover, spatial memory training leads to increased hippocampal NPY gene expression that together with Y1 receptor-mediated neurogenesis could constitute necessary steps in consolidation and long-term retention of spatial memory. Altogether, NPY-induced effects on learning and memory seem to be biphasic, anatomically and temporally differential, and in support of a modulatory role of NPY at keeping the system in balance. Obtaining further insight into memory-related effects of NPY could inspire the engineering of new therapeutics targeting diseases where impaired learning and memory are central elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling the role of environment in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Celentano, Michele; Paolone, Giovanna; Badiani, Aldo

    2007-11-15

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of animal models used to investigate the modulatory role of environment on drug addiction. The environment can alter the responsiveness to addictive drugs in at least three major ways. First, adverse life experiences can make an individual more vulnerable to develop drug addiction or to relapse into drug seeking. Second, neutral environmental cues can acquire, through Pavlovian conditioning, the ability to trigger drug seeking even after long periods of abstinence. Third, the environment immediately surrounding drug taking can alter the behavioral, subjective, and rewarding effects of a given drug, thus influencing the propensity to use the same drug again. We have focused in particular on the results obtained using an animal model we have developed to study the latter type of drug-environment interaction.

  16. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play; Commission Europeenne: le nucleaire a un role important a jouer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-11-15

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10{sup 9} euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  17. The surging role of Chromogranin A in cardiovascular homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso; Cerra, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Together with Chromogranin B and Secretogranins, Chromogranin A (CGA) is stored in secretory (chromaffin) granules of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and released with noradrenalin and adrenalin. Co-stored within the granule together with neuropeptideY, cardiac natriuretic peptide hormones, several prohormones and their proteolytic enzymes, CGA is a multifunctional protein and a major marker of the sympatho-adrenal neuroendocrine activity. Due to its partial processing to several biologically active peptides, CGA appears an important pro-hormone implicated in relevant modulatory actions on endocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems through both direct and indirect sympatho-adrenergic interactions. As a part of this scenario, we here illustrate the emerging role exerted by the full-length CGA and its three derived fragments, i.e. Vasostatin 1, catestatin and serpinin, in the control of circulatory homeostasis with particular emphasis on their cardio-vascular actions under both physiological and physio-pathological conditions. The Vasostatin 1- and catestatin-induced cardiodepressive influences are achieved through anti-beta-adrenergic-NO-cGMP signalling, while serpinin acts like beta1-adrenergic agonist through AD-cAMP-independent NO signalling. On the whole, these actions contribute to wide our knowledge regarding the sympatho-chromaffin control of the cardiovascular system and its highly integrated “whip-brake” networks.

  18. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF INTERNET MARKETING IN MODERN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and rapid development of Internet technology and marketing opportunities provided by modern digital technology, enabled the radical change in traditional marketing activities and opened the space for the development of Internet marketing. Internet marketing has become an inevitable trend in the business, and its benefits are recognized by many businesses, regardless of their economic activity, with the aim of achieving better business results. Representatives of the hospitality and tourism demand (potential users of services and products are more frequently and increasingly getting their information on offers through the Internet, and the marketing presentation of the overall offer via the Internet is becoming an increasingly important success factor of each hotel as a business system. This paper analyzes the basic determinants of Internet marketing and the role and importance of Internet marketing in modern hotel business.

  19. The role and importance of UAV within the current theaters of operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current theaters of operations are not limited to battlefields, but they are much morediversified, including the fight against the international terrorism phenomenon, the social conflicts (ofreligious, political, economic and separatist nature within several countries, thus supplying somepolitical-military conflicts within different states and areas of the world. The armed interference mustbe done based on some highly accurate information that must be gathered without endangering thehuman lives. This is the role currently played by the unmanned air vehicles (UAVs; they can performseveral functions: surveillance, information gathering, data storage and their transmission to theground stations, including the function of interference, when needed. This paper presents, within theabove context, the status of the current theaters of operations and of the UAVs performing differentmissions within these theaters, together with their role and importance in warfare operations.

  20. The role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and addiction:Combining preclinical evidence with human Positron Emission Tomography (PET studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eTerbeck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we deliver an overview of the involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 activity and density in pathological anxiety, mood disorders and addiction. Specifically, we will describe mGluR5 studies in humans that employed Positron Emission Tomography (PET and combined the findings with preclinical animal research. This combined view of different methodological approaches — from basic neurobiological approaches to human studies — might give a more comprehensive and clinically relevant view of mGluR5 function in mental health than the view on preclinical data alone. We will also review the current research data on mGluR5 along the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. Firstly, we found evidence of abnormal glutamate activity related to the positive and negative valence systems, which would suggest that antagonistic mGluR5 intervention has prominent anti-addictive, anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects. Secondly, there is evidence that mGluR5 plays in important role in systems for social functioning and the response to social stress. Finally, mGluR5’s important role in sleep homeostasis suggests that this glutamate receptor may play an important role in RDoC’s arousal and modulatory systems domain. Glutamate was previously mostly investigate in non-human studies, however initial human clinical PET research now also supports the hypothesis that, by mediating brain excitability, neuroplasticity and social cognition, abnormal metabotropic glutamate activity might predispose individuals to a broad range of psychiatric problems.

  1. Expression of Genes for Drug Transporters in the Human Female Genital Tract and Modulatory Effect of Antiretroviral Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Hijazi

    Full Text Available Anti-retroviral (ARV -based microbicides are one of the strategies pursued to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Delivery of ARV drugs to subepithelial CD4+ T cells at concentrations for protection is likely determined by drug transporters expressed in the cervicovaginal epithelium. To define the role of drug transporters in mucosal disposition of topically applied ARV-based microbicides, these must be tested in epithelial cell line-based biopharmaceutical assays factoring the effect of relevant drug transporters. We have characterised gene expression of influx and efflux drug transporters in a panel of cervicovaginal cell lines and compared this to expression in cervicovaginal tissue. We also investigated the effect of dapivirine, darunavir and tenofovir, currently at advanced stages of microbicides development, on expression of drug transporters in cell lines. Expression of efflux ABC transporters in cervical tissue was best represented in HeLa, Ect1/E6E7 and End1/E6E7 cell lines. Expression of influx OCT and ENT transporters in ectocervix matched expression in Hela while expression of influx SLCO transporters in vagina was best reflected in VK2/E6E7 cell line. Stimulation with darunavir and dapivirine upregulated MRP transporters, including MRP5 involved in transport of tenofovir. Dapivirine also significantly downregulated tenofovir substrate MRP4 in cervical cell lines. Treatment with darunavir and dapivirine showed no significant effect on expression of BCRP, MRP2 and P-glycoprotein implicated in efflux of different ARV drugs. Darunavir strongly induced expression in most cell lines of CNT3 involved in cell uptake of nucleotide/nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and SLCO drug transporters involved in cell uptake of protease inhibitors. This study provides insight into the suitability of cervicovaginal cell lines for assessment of ARV drugs in transport kinetics studies. The modulatory effect of darunavir and dapivirine on

  2. Expression of Genes for Drug Transporters in the Human Female Genital Tract and Modulatory Effect of Antiretroviral Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Karolin; Cuppone, Anna M; Smith, Kieron; Stincarelli, Maria A; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; De Falco, Giulia; Hold, Georgina L; Shattock, Robin; Kelly, Charles G; Pozzi, Gianni; Iannelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Anti-retroviral (ARV) -based microbicides are one of the strategies pursued to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Delivery of ARV drugs to subepithelial CD4+ T cells at concentrations for protection is likely determined by drug transporters expressed in the cervicovaginal epithelium. To define the role of drug transporters in mucosal disposition of topically applied ARV-based microbicides, these must be tested in epithelial cell line-based biopharmaceutical assays factoring the effect of relevant drug transporters. We have characterised gene expression of influx and efflux drug transporters in a panel of cervicovaginal cell lines and compared this to expression in cervicovaginal tissue. We also investigated the effect of dapivirine, darunavir and tenofovir, currently at advanced stages of microbicides development, on expression of drug transporters in cell lines. Expression of efflux ABC transporters in cervical tissue was best represented in HeLa, Ect1/E6E7 and End1/E6E7 cell lines. Expression of influx OCT and ENT transporters in ectocervix matched expression in Hela while expression of influx SLCO transporters in vagina was best reflected in VK2/E6E7 cell line. Stimulation with darunavir and dapivirine upregulated MRP transporters, including MRP5 involved in transport of tenofovir. Dapivirine also significantly downregulated tenofovir substrate MRP4 in cervical cell lines. Treatment with darunavir and dapivirine showed no significant effect on expression of BCRP, MRP2 and P-glycoprotein implicated in efflux of different ARV drugs. Darunavir strongly induced expression in most cell lines of CNT3 involved in cell uptake of nucleotide/nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and SLCO drug transporters involved in cell uptake of protease inhibitors. This study provides insight into the suitability of cervicovaginal cell lines for assessment of ARV drugs in transport kinetics studies. The modulatory effect of darunavir and dapivirine on expression of drug

  3. On the data-driven inference of modulatory networks in climate science: an application to West African rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, D. L., II; Angus, M. P.; Tetteh, I. K.; Bello, G. A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Pendse, S. V.; Srinivas, S.; Yu, J.; Semazzi, F.; Kumar, V.; Samatova, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of hypothesis-driven and/or first-principles research have been applied towards the discovery and explanation of the mechanisms that drive climate phenomena, such as western African Sahel summer rainfall~variability. Although connections between various climate factors have been theorized, not all of the key relationships are fully understood. We propose a data-driven approach to identify candidate players in this climate system, which can help explain underlying mechanisms and/or even suggest new relationships, to facilitate building a more comprehensive and predictive model of the modulatory relationships influencing a climate phenomenon of interest. We applied coupled heterogeneous association rule mining (CHARM), Lasso multivariate regression, and dynamic Bayesian networks to find relationships within a complex system, and explored means with which to obtain a consensus result from the application of such varied methodologies. Using this fusion of approaches, we identified relationships among climate factors that modulate Sahel rainfall. These relationships fall into two categories: well-known associations from prior climate knowledge, such as the relationship with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and putative links, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, that invite further research.

  4. A painful reminder: the role of level and salience of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J

    2009-01-01

    In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance.

  5. The Importance of Role Modeling in Mentoring Women: Lessons from Pat Summitt Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picariello Manuela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of mentoring for women in sports industry has gathered attention among researchers in the past years (Bower, 2009; Bower, & Hums 2009, 2014; Weaver, & Chelladurai, 1999, 2002. Since few women are in leadership positions (Acosta, & Carpenter, 2014, cross-gender mentoring relationships are more likely to happen (Hopkins et al., 2008. However, according to Kram (1985, cross-gender mentoring relationships are more complex in terms of individual development and quality of the developmental relationship. In particular, role modeling function is limited (Kram, 1985. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the functions of the same gender mentoring relationships looking at coach Pat Summitt, the winningest coach in NCAA Division I basketball history and a woman in leadership position (Becker & Wrisberg, 2008. Due to the exploratory nature of the study and the huge impact of Pat Summitt on sport (Janssen, & Dale, 2002, De Marco, & Mccullick, 1997, a single case study design to analyze her relationships from the staff and players’ perspectives was utilized as the method for data collection. This study collected data published on American news sites located using Internet search engines Google News (http://www.google.com for 7 days. The dataset included content published through national and regional online news media, radio, television and entertainment websites and blogs. Texts were qualitatively reviewed with a content analysis and coded (Patton, 2002. This study identified career and psychosocial functions that were important in developing an effective mentoring relationships. In particular, the psychosocial functions of “role modeling” was identified as the most important for the relationship. In fact a female mentor as a role model can be perceived as a woman that has successfully overcome discriminatory barriers to career advancement.

  6. Why Are Omics Technologies Important to Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For many years, there has been confusion about the role that nutrition plays in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. It is apparent that good dietary advice for one individual may prove inappropriate for another. As with many diseases, genome-wide association studies across large collaborative groups have been important in revealing the role of genetics in IBD, with more than 200 genes associated with susceptibility to the disease. These associations provide clues to explain the differences in nutrient requirements among individuals. In addition to genes directly involved in the control of inflammation, a number of the associated genes play roles in modulating the gut microbiota. Cell line models enable the generation of hypotheses as to how various bioactive dietary components might be especially beneficial for certain genetic groups. Animal models are necessary to mimic aspects of the complex aetiology of IBD, and provide an important link between tissue culture studies and human trials. Once we are sufficiently confident of our hypotheses, we can then take modified diets to an IBD population that is stratified according to genotype. Studies in IBD patients fed a Mediterranean-style diet have been important in validating our hypotheses and as a proof-of-principle for the application of these sensitive omics technologies to aiding in the control of IBD symptoms.

  7. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzragch Battur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  8. Nitric oxide-induced signalling in rat lacrimal acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia Karen; Tritsaris, K.; Dissing, S.

    2002-01-01

    -adrenergic stimulation and not by a rise in [Ca2+]i alone.   We show that in rat lacrimal acinar cells, NO and cGMP induce Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via G kinase activation. However, the changes in [Ca2+]i are relatively small, suggesting that this pathway plays a modulatory role in Ca2+ signalling, thus...... not by itself causing fast transient increases in [Ca2+]i. In addition, we suggest that endogenously produced NO activated by ß-adrenergic receptor stimulation, plays an important role in signalling to the surrounding tissue....

  9. Membrane Receptor-Induced Changes of the Protein Kinases A and C Activity May Play a Leading Role in Promoting Developmental Synapse Elimination at the Neuromuscular Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs, Josep M; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Nadal, Laura; Tomàs, Marta; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Cilleros, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Synapses that are overproduced during histogenesis in the nervous system are eventually lost and connectivity is refined. Membrane receptor signaling leads to activity-dependent mutual influence and competition between axons directly or with the involvement of the postsynaptic cell and the associated glial cell/s. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (subtypes mAChR; M 1 , M 2 and M 4 ), adenosine receptors (AR; A 1 and A 2A ) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB), among others, all cooperate in synapse elimination. Between these receptors there are several synergistic, antagonic and modulatory relations that clearly affect synapse elimination. Metabotropic receptors converge in a limited repertoire of intracellular effector kinases, particularly serine protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC), to phosphorylate protein targets and bring about structural and functional changes leading to axon loss. In most cells A 1 , M 1 and TrkB operate mainly by stimulating PKC whereas A 2A , M 2 and M 4 inhibit PKA. We hypothesize that a membrane receptor-induced shifting in the protein kinases A and C activity (inhibition of PKA and/or stimulation of PKC) in some nerve endings may play an important role in promoting developmental synapse elimination at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This hypothesis is supported by: (i) the tonic effect (shown by using selective inhibitors) of several membrane receptors that accelerates axon loss between postnatal days P5-P9; (ii) the synergistic, antagonic and modulatory effects (shown by paired inhibition) of the receptors on axonal loss; (iii) the fact that the coupling of these receptors activates/inhibits the intracellular serine kinases; and (iv) the increase of the PKA activity, the reduction of the PKC activity or, in most cases, both situations simultaneously that presumably occurs in all the situations of singly and paired inhibition of the mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors. The use of transgenic animals and

  10. Membrane Receptor-Induced Changes of the Protein Kinases A and C Activity May Play a Leading Role in Promoting Developmental Synapse Elimination at the Neuromuscular Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Tomàs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Synapses that are overproduced during histogenesis in the nervous system are eventually lost and connectivity is refined. Membrane receptor signaling leads to activity-dependent mutual influence and competition between axons directly or with the involvement of the postsynaptic cell and the associated glial cell/s. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh receptors (subtypes mAChR; M1, M2 and M4, adenosine receptors (AR; A1 and A2A and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB, among others, all cooperate in synapse elimination. Between these receptors there are several synergistic, antagonic and modulatory relations that clearly affect synapse elimination. Metabotropic receptors converge in a limited repertoire of intracellular effector kinases, particularly serine protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC, to phosphorylate protein targets and bring about structural and functional changes leading to axon loss. In most cells A1, M1 and TrkB operate mainly by stimulating PKC whereas A2A, M2 and M4 inhibit PKA. We hypothesize that a membrane receptor-induced shifting in the protein kinases A and C activity (inhibition of PKA and/or stimulation of PKC in some nerve endings may play an important role in promoting developmental synapse elimination at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. This hypothesis is supported by: (i the tonic effect (shown by using selective inhibitors of several membrane receptors that accelerates axon loss between postnatal days P5–P9; (ii the synergistic, antagonic and modulatory effects (shown by paired inhibition of the receptors on axonal loss; (iii the fact that the coupling of these receptors activates/inhibits the intracellular serine kinases; and (iv the increase of the PKA activity, the reduction of the PKC activity or, in most cases, both situations simultaneously that presumably occurs in all the situations of singly and paired inhibition of the mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors. The use of transgenic animals and various

  11. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue ( Pcomposition, antioxidant status in the initiation phase of carcinogenesis and the period of exposure to vanadium. The possibility of selecting vanadium as a therapeutic agent for chemoprevention is discussed in the light of its influence in maintaining trace elemental homeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  12. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  13. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R.K.; Ghugre, S.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N. E-mail: snc@iuccal.ernet.insnc@gamma.iuc.res.in

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue (P<0.001-0.005). Data reflect a definite correlation between elemental composition, antioxidant status in the initiation phase of carcinogenesis and the period of exposure to vanadium. The possibility of selecting vanadium as a therapeutic agent for chemoprevention is discussed in the light of its influence in maintaining trace elemental homeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  14. Modulatory Effects of Gut Microbiota on the Central Nervous System: How Gut Could Play a Role in Neuropsychiatric Health and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarandi, Shadi S; Peterson, Daniel A; Treisman, Glen J; Moran, Timothy H; Pasricha, Pankaj J

    2016-04-30

    Gut microbiome is an integral part of the Gut-Brain axis. It is becoming increasingly recognized that the presence of a healthy and diverse gut microbiota is important to normal cognitive and emotional processing. It was known that altered emotional state and chronic stress can change the composition of gut microbiome, but it is becoming more evident that interaction between gut microbiome and central nervous system is bidirectional. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiome can potentially lead to increased intestinal permeability and impair the function of the intestinal barrier. Subsequently, neuro-active compounds and metabolites can gain access to the areas within the central nervous system that regulate cognition and emotional responses. Deregulated inflammatory response, promoted by harmful microbiota, can activate the vagal system and impact neuropsychological functions. Some bacteria can produce peptides or short chain fatty acids that can affect gene expression and inflammation within the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of gut microbiota in modulating neuropsychological functions of the central nervous system and exploring the potential underlying mechanisms.

  15. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  16. Modulatory action of taurine on the release of GABA in cerebellar slices of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namima, M.; Okamoto, K.; Sakai, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of demonstrating the action of taurine as a neuromodulator in addition to its suggested neurotransmitter function, the effects of taurine and muscimol on the depolarization-induced Ca-dependent release of (/sup 3/H) gamma-aminobutyric acid ((/sup 3/H)GABA) and L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate in cerebellar slices from guinea pigs were investigated. The release of (/sup 3/H)GABA was found to be greatly decreased by a GABA agonist, muscimol, and by taurine, but not by glycine. The release of L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate was little affected by taurine. The release of (/sup 3/H)GABA, was enhanced by bicuculline and strychnine, but not by picrotoxin, and the suppressive action of muscimol on the GABA release was antagonized by bicuculline, picrotoxin, and strychnine, suggesting the possible existence of presynaptic autoreceptors for GABA in the cerebellum. The suppressive action of taurine on the release of (/sup 3/H)GABA, on the other hand, was blocked only by bicuculline. These results suggest that taurine reduced the release of (/sup 3/H)GABA from cerebellar slices by acting on the GABA autoreceptors or, more likely, on other types of receptors that are sensitive to bicuculline. As a possible mechanism for this modulatory action of taurine, the blockade by this amino acid of the influx of Ca/sup 2 +/ into cerebellar tissues was tentatively suggested.

  17. The role and importance of diversified farming enterprises in socio-economic development of rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Askarov N.

    2018-01-01

    In this article considered the necessity of the organization and development of diversified farming enterprises, their role and importance in the practical solution of socio-economic problems of rural areas. The issues of the development of farms are important in increasing the employment and income of the rural population, as well as in addressing the social problems associated with them. For the period 2013-2016. 352,015 new jobs were created. Today one of the most effective factors...

  18. Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2011-06-01

    The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion.

  19. The role and importance of social media in communicating brand value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication between consumers is the most important way of communicating value and forming opinions on brands and enterprises. The expansion of communication technologies has made communication between people easier and provided the links with consumers on a radically new basis. Virtual space represents a dominant meeting place for people with similar interests. Thus, virtual consumer communities across the world preferring and committed to same brands have been created. Members are loyal to communities they belong to and participate actively and indirectly in modeling and developing them. By expressing their own opinions and exploring others, consumers influence and help each other in finding solutions for certain situations in buying and consumption. Considering the intensity of the exchange of information, opinions, experience and ideas, one can speak about the expansion of communication messages that are exchanged in the virtual space and social media as transfer channels. These are the media formed by consumers themselves, who control the information communicated through them. Because of the importance of massages exchanged through them and their impact on consumer behavior, social media have an important place in integrated marketing communications. Although enterprises cannot completely control the communication within social media, the efficiency of marketing communication can be realized by providing conditions for friendly, correct, continuous and transparent message exchange between consumers and enterprises as well as between consumers themselves. The paper examines the communication possibilities of social media determining their role and importance in communicating value in the market for the purpose of enhancing consumer loyalty and creating image and professional respectability of the enterprise.

  20. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  1. Repetition priming of motor activity mediated by a central pattern generator: the importance of extrinsic vs. intrinsic program initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Michael J.; Jing, Jian; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition priming is characterized by increased performance as a behavior is repeated. Although this phenomenon is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in a model system, the feeding network of Aplysia. This network generates both ingestive and egestive motor programs. Previous data suggest a chemical coding model: ingestive and egestive inputs to the feeding central pattern generator (CPG) release different modulators, which act via different second messengers to prime motor activity in different ways. The ingestive input to the CPG (neuron CBI-2) releases the peptides feeding circuit activating peptide and cerebral peptide 2, which produce an ingestive pattern of activity. The egestive input to the CPG (the esophageal nerve) releases the peptide small cardioactive peptide. This model is based on research that focused on a single aspect of motor control (radula opening). Here we ask whether repetition priming is observed if activity is triggered with a neuron within the core CPG itself and demonstrate that it is not. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that effects of modulatory neurotransmitters that induce repetition priming persist. This suggests that it should be possible to “prime” motor programs triggered from within the CPG by first stimulating extrinsic modulatory inputs. We demonstrate that programs triggered after ingestive input activation are ingestive and programs triggered after egestive input activation are egestive. We ask where this priming occurs and demonstrate modifications within the CPG itself. This arrangement is likely to have important consequences for “task” switching, i.e., the cessation of one type of motor activity and the initiation of another. PMID:27466134

  2. [Progress in the study on mammalian diacylgycerol acyltransgerase (DGAT) gene and its biological function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Heng-Yong; Zhu, Qing

    2007-10-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT; EC 2.3.1.20) is a microsomal enzyme that plays a central role in the metabolism of cellular glycerolipids. DGAT catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis by converting diacylgycerol (DAG) and fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into triacylglycero1. DGAT plays a fundamental role in the metabolism of cellular diacylglycerol and is important in higher eukaryotes for physiologic processes involving triacylglycerol metabolism such as intestinal fat absorption, lipoprotein assembly, adipose tissue formation, and lactation. Therefore, DGAT is not only an key factor for control triglycerides and fatty acids, but also may play a key modulatory role in animal fat deposition.

  3. Novel modulatory effects of neurosteroids and benzodiazepines on excitatory and inhibitory neurons excitability: a multi-electrode array (MEA recording study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePuia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The balance between glutamate- and GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the brain is fundamental in the nervous system, but it is regulated by the ‘tonic’ release of a variety of endogenous factors. One such important group of molecules are the neurosteroids (NSs which, similarly to benzodiazepines (BDZs, enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. The purpose of our work was to investigate, at in-vivo physiologically relevant concentrations, the effects of NSs and BDZs as GABA modulators on dissociated neocortical neuron networks grown in long-term culture. We used a multi-electrode array (MEA recording technique and a novel analysis that was able to both identify the action potentials of engaged excitatory and inhibitory neurons and to detect drug-induced network up-states (burst. We found that the NSs tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC and allopregnanolone (ALLO applied at low nM concentrations, produced different modulatory effects on the two neuronal clusters. Conversely, at high concentrations (1 µM, both NSs, decreased excitatory and inhibitory neuron cluster excitability; however, even several hours after washout, the excitability of inhibitory neurons continued to be depressed, leading to a network long term depression (LTD. The BDZs clonazepam (CLZ and midazolam (MDZ also decreased the network excitability, but only MDZ caused LTD of inhibitory neuron cluster. To investigate the origin of the LTD after MDZ application, we tested finasteride (FIN, an inhibitor of endogenous NSs synthesis. FIN did not prevent the LTD induced by MDZ, but surprisingly induced it after application of CLZ. The significance and possible mechanisms underlying these LTD effects of NSs and BDZs are discussed. Taken together, our results not only demonstrate that ex-vivo networks show a sensitivity to NSs and BDZs comparable to that expressed in vivo, but also provide a new global in-vitro description that can help in understanding their activity in more complex

  4. Role and importance of the spatial planning plan in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to spatial planning, it is impossible to circumvent the cadastre, which in essence is the basis for the preparation and realization of planning documents. Considering this fact in this paper, an analysis of the importance and role of the cadastre for spatial planning was carried out, whereby the obligations and procedures implemented by the cadastre in the spatial and urban planning situation in the Republic of Serbia are described in detail.

  5. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-07

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  6. Multi-functional roles for the polypeptide transport associated domains of Toc75 in chloroplast protein import

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paila, Yamuna D; Richardson, Lynn GL; Inoue, Hitoshi; Parks, Elizabeth S; McMahon, James; Inoue, Kentaro; Schnell, Danny J

    2016-01-01

    Toc75 plays a central role in chloroplast biogenesis in plants as the membrane channel of the protein import translocon at the outer envelope of chloroplasts (TOC). Toc75 is a member of the Omp85 family of bacterial and organellar membrane insertases, characterized by N-terminal POTRA (polypeptide-transport associated) domains and C-terminal membrane-integrated β-barrels. We demonstrate that the Toc75 POTRA domains are essential for protein import and contribute to interactions with TOC receptors, thereby coupling preprotein recognition at the chloroplast surface with membrane translocation. The POTRA domains also interact with preproteins and mediate the recruitment of molecular chaperones in the intermembrane space to facilitate membrane transport. Our studies are consistent with the multi-functional roles of POTRA domains observed in other Omp85 family members and demonstrate that the domains of Toc75 have evolved unique properties specific to the acquisition of protein import during endosymbiotic evolution of the TOC system in plastids. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12631.001 PMID:26999824

  7. Important roles of Fischer-Tropsch synfuels in the global energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Yamaji, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the potential roles of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synfuels in the 21st century with a global energy model treating the entire fuel supply chain in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, FT synfuels become a major alternative fuel regardless of CO 2 policy due to their low transportation costs and compatibility with existing petroleum infrastructure and vehicles. Secondly, the FT process brings stranded gas to world markets until around 2050. In a 550 ppm CO 2 stabilization case thereafter, producing FT synfuels from biomass, whose competitiveness is robust against its capital costs, and their interregional trade enable a worldwide diffusion of carbon-neutral fuels. This provides a significant source of income for developing regions, such as Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. Thirdly, FT synfuels play a crucial role in meeting the growing transportation energy demand and assuring diversified supplies of transportation fuels. Increasing portions of FT liquids are refined to FT-kerosene to be provided for the rapidly growing aviation sector in the second half of the century. Furthermore, upgrading FT-naphtha into FT-gasoline proves to be critically important. FT synfuels' participation could help the development in Africa through technological contributions of the South African leading companies in the world synfuel industry

  8. Role of the amygdala in antidepressant effects on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and on depression-like behavior in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Castro

    Full Text Available The stimulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by antidepressants has been associated with multiple molecular pathways, but the potential influence exerted by other brain areas has received much less attention. The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA, a region involved in anxiety and a site of action of antidepressants, has been implicated in both basal and stress-induced changes in neural plasticity in the dentate gyrus. We investigated here whether the BLA modulates the effects of the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in relation to a behavioral index of depression-like behavior (forced swim test. We used a lesion approach targeting the BLA along with a chronic treatment with fluoxetine, and monitored basal anxiety levels given the important role of this behavioral trait in the progress of depression. Chronic fluoxetine treatment had a positive effect on hippocampal cell survival only when the BLA was lesioned. Anxiety was related to hippocampal cell survival in opposite ways in sham- and BLA-lesioned animals (i.e., negatively in sham- and positively in BLA-lesioned animals. Both BLA lesions and low anxiety were critical factors to enable a negative relationship between cell proliferation and depression-like behavior. Therefore, our study highlights a role for the amygdala on fluoxetine-stimulated cell survival and on the establishment of a link between cell proliferation and depression-like behavior. It also reveals an important modulatory role for anxiety on cell proliferation involving both BLA-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our findings underscore the amygdala as a potential target to modulate antidepressants' action in hippocampal neurogenesis and in their link to depression-like behaviors.

  9. The Importance of the Maternal/Self-Role Satisfaction for Reducing Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Japanese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Riho; Arimoto, Azusa; Naruse, Takashi; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    Women who rear children have two types of roles: the maternal role and the self-role. Previous studies have suggested that maternal role satisfaction is related to anxiety, but the importance of self-role satisfaction in promoting the health of mothers has received less attention. The changing roles of women in society, especially in urban areas, have altered mothers' views of child-rearing. Our primary focus was on the relationship between maternal/self-role satisfaction and anxiety in mothers. To examine this, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires that were distributed in 2011 to 2,342 mothers attending the 18-month health checkup of their children, in 7 cities of the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 881 responded (effective response rate = 38.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction were both significantly and negatively associated with anxiety. Thus, self-role satisfaction should be considered alongside maternal role satisfaction in evaluating and reducing anxiety. Health care professionals in community settings should conduct comprehensive assessments of maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction.

  10. The role and importance of ECB's monetary policy in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stakić Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of the European Central Bank (ECB in the context of measures and effects that are being taken to repair the consequences of the current economic crisis. The ECB, together with the European single currency, the euro, symbolizes long-lasting monetary integration of the EU states. Such form of integration has created the possibility of a supranational action of ECB in the banking sector and financial markets in general. Along with the other most important central banks in the world, the ECB applies various unconventional instruments of monetary policy to stimulate economic growth and development. In this context, the paper explains the nature and mechanism of such measures in order to influence on the insufficient liquidity in the financial markets.

  11. [Suicide exposure and its modulatory effects on relations between life events and suicide risk in Chinese college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiubo; Zhao, Jingbo; Xiao, Rong; Yang, Xueling; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    To explore the incidence of suicide exposure and its association with suicide risk in Chinese college students, and study the modulatory effects of suicide exposure on the relations between life events and suicide risks. A total of 8202 college students from 12 Chinese colleges and universities in mainland China completed a cross-sectional survey that included suicidal behaviors questionnaire-revised (SBQ-R), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), suicide exposure questionnaire, social and demographic characteristics questionnaire. The incidence of exposure to suicide events involving close relatives and acquaintances were 3.9% and 11.8% among sampled Chinese college students, respectively. Students exposed to suicide events involving close relatives had significantly higher total SBQ-R scores than those who did not (5.51∓2.44 vs 4.68∓2.11, P0.05), but exposure to acquaintance suicide events moderated the effects of life events on suicide risk (P<0.01), and the college students with a high level of life events and history of acquaintance suicide had the highest risk for suicide. In Chinese college students, the risk of suicide is closely associated with exposure to suicide events and life events, and exposure to suicide events involving acquaintances can modulate the effects of life events on suicide risk.

  12. Is there a role for opioids in the treatment of fibromyalgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Geoffrey O; Guymer, Emma K; Ngian, Gene-Siew

    2016-05-01

    The use of opioids for chronic pain has increased significantly due to a combination of the high patient burden of pain and the more widespread availability of a range of long-acting opioid preparations. This increased opioid use has translated into the care of many patients with fibromyalgia. The pain mechanism in fibromyalgia is complex but does not seem to involve disturbance of opioid analgesic functions. Hence, there is general concern about the harms in the absence of benefits of opioids in this setting. There is no evidence that pure opioids are effective in fibromyalgia but there is some evidence that opioids with additional actions on the norepinephrine-related pain modulatory pathways, such as tramadol, can be clinically useful in some patients. Novel actions of low-dose opioid antagonists may lead to better understanding of the role of opioid function in fibromyalgia.

  13. Low cost delivery of proteins bioencapsulated in plant cells to human non-immune or immune modulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuhong; Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Hoffman, Brad E; Kamesh, Aditya; Jones, Noah T; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2016-02-01

    Targeted oral delivery of GFP fused with a GM1 receptor binding protein (CTB) or human cell penetrating peptide (PTD) or dendritic cell peptide (DCpep) was investigated. Presence of GFP(+) intact plant cells between villi of ileum confirm their protection in the digestive system from acids/enzymes. Efficient delivery of GFP to gut-epithelial cells by PTD or CTB and to M cells by all these fusion tags confirm uptake of GFP in the small intestine. PTD fusion delivered GFP more efficiently to most tissues or organs than the other two tags. GFP was efficiently delivered to the liver by all fusion tags, likely through the gut-liver axis. In confocal imaging studies of human cell lines using purified GFP fused with different tags, GFP signal of DCpep-GFP was only detected within dendritic cells. PTD-GFP was only detected within kidney or pancreatic cells but not in immune modulatory cells (macrophages, dendritic, T, B, or mast cells). In contrast, CTB-GFP was detected in all tested cell types, confirming ubiquitous presence of GM1 receptors. Such low-cost oral delivery of protein drugs to sera, immune system or non-immune cells should dramatically lower their cost by elimination of prohibitively expensive fermentation, protein purification cold storage/transportation and increase patient compliance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Motivation in Cognitive Reappraisal for Depressed Patients

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    Xiaoxia Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: People engage in emotion regulation in service of motive goals (typically, to approach a desired emotional goal or avoid an undesired emotional goal. However, how motives (goals in emotion regulation operate to shape the regulation of emotion is rarely known. Furthermore, the modulatory role of motivation in the impaired reappraisal capacity and neural abnormalities typical of depressed patients is not clear. Our hypothesis was that (1 approach and avoidance motivation may modulate emotion regulation and the underlying neural substrates; (2 approach/avoidance motivation may modulate emotion regulation neural abnormalities in depressed patients.Methods: Twelve drug-free depressed patients and fifteen matched healthy controls reappraised emotional pictures with approach/avoidant strategies and self-rated their emotional intensities during fMRI scans. Approach/avoidance motivation was measured using Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS Scale. We conducted whole-brain analyses and correlation analyses of regions of interest to identify alterations in regulatory prefrontal-amygdala circuits which were modulated by motivation.Results: Depressed patients had a higher level of BIS and lower levels of BAS-reward responsiveness and BAS-drive. BIS scores were positively correlated with depressive severity. We found the main effect of motivation as well as the interactive effect of motivation and group on the neural correlates of emotion regulation. Specifically, hypoactivation of IFG underlying the group differences in the motivation-related neural correlates during reappraisal may be partially explained by the interaction between group and reappraisal. Consistent with our prediction, dlPFC and vmPFC was differentially between groups which were modulated by motivation. Specifically, the avoidance motivation of depressed patients could predict the right dlPFC activation during decreasing positive emotion, while

  15. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Myers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system in response to stress. Moreover, chronic stress enhances function of the amygdala and promotes neural plasticity throughout the amygdaloid complex. This review outlines the latest findings obtained from human studies and animal models related to the role of the emotional brain in the regulation of enteric function, specifically how increasing the gain of the amygdala to induce anxiety-like behavior using corticosterone (CORT or chronic stress increases responsiveness to both visceral and somatic stimuli in rodents. A focus of the review is the relative importance of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR-mediated mechanisms within the amygdala in the regulation of anxiety and nociceptive behaviors that are characteristic features of IBS. This review also discusses several outstanding questions important for future research on the role of the amygdala in the generation of abnormal GI function that may lead to potential targets for new therapies to treat functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

  16. Readiness for future managerial leadership roles: nursing students' perceived importance of organizational values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Tova; Eshel, Nira; Traister, Lelit; Galon, Vered

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the values held by nursing students attending a baccalaureate program. Our aim was to determine whether nursing students' values change after being exposed to educators as well as mentors and ethics education and after experiencing today's challenging work environment, with an emphasis on the organizational domain of the students' values set. The conceptual framework that underpins the approach to values presented in this study argues that the total values set of a working person consists of three domains: personal, professional, and organizational values. Our sample consisted of first, third, and fourth year nursing students (N = 496) attending the Tel Aviv University in Israel. Participants were requested to answer a questionnaire and to rate their perceived importance of 30 values. The results revealed significant differences in the participants' perceived importance of the three values domains. The organizational values--the new business values--were perceived significantly to be least important. Sex was found to be significantly related to perception of values' importance. Year of study was not found to be significantly correlated to perception of values. The findings reflect that senior nursing students are only moderately prepared for their future managerial leadership roles and point out the need to provide students with more stimulating and supportive learning experiences.

  17. Modulatory Role of Aloe vera on Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Different Tissues of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Aloe Vera is known for its wide medicinal properties. This study was performed to evaluate the role of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) in the amelioration of the histological disorders that occurr in different tissues of albino rats exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, delivered as a single dose. Aloe vera (leaf juice filtrate) was supplemented daily to rats (0.25 ml/kg b wt/day) by gavage, 5 days before irradiation and 10 days after irradiation. Experimental investigations performed 7 and 10 days after exposure to radiation showed that Aloe vera treatment has significantly improved the radiation-induced inflammation, haemorrhage, widening and dilated blood vessela, necrosis, atrophy sloughing in liver, spleen and small intestine (jejenum) tissues of irradiated rats. It is concluded that the synergistic relationship between the elements found in the leaf of Aloe vera could be a useful adjunct for maintaining the integrity of histological architecture

  18. Immuno-modulatory effect of local rhEGF treatment during tissue repair in diabetic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Cifuentes, Alberto; Ortega, Miguel A; Pastor, Marta; Gainza, Garazi; Gainza, Eusebio; Buján, Julia; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2018-04-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that can be severely impaired due to pathological situations such as diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of this pathology and are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. In this work, the effects of local treatment with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) were studied using a full-thickness wound healing model in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound healing process was assessed with different concentrations of rhEGF (0.1, 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 µg/mL), placebo and both diabetic and non-diabetic controls ( n  = 53). The macroscopic healing observed in treated diabetic rats was affected by rhEGF concentration. Histologically, we also observed an improvement in the epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and maturation in treated groups, finding again the best response at doses of 0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Afterwards, the tissue immune response over time was assessed in diabetic rats using the most effective concentrations of rhEGF (0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL), compared to controls. The presence of macrophages, CD4 + T lymphocytes and CD8 + T lymphocytes, in the reparative tissue was quantified, and cytokine expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. rhEGF treatment caused a reduction in the number of infiltrating macrophages in the healing tissue of diabetic, as well as diminished activation of these leukocytes. These findings show that local administration of rhEGF improves the healing process of excisional wounds and the quality of the neoformed tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, this treatment reduces the local inflammation associated with diabetic healing, indicating immuno-modulatory properties. © 2018 The authors.

  19. Modulatory Effect Of Olive Oil On Toxicity Induced By Organophosphorus Pesticides In Male Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AFIFI, E.A.A.; ALI, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effect of olive oil (5 ml/kg b.wt.) against the toxicological effects of repeated daily oral administration of the organophosphorus pesticides malaphos (137.5 mg/kg), mephosfolan (0.89 mg/kg) and phosfolan (1.0 mg/kg) for one, two and four weeks on certain biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, globulin and A/G ratio, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), total cholesterol, total protein, gamma glutamyl transferase ( GT) and plasma triglycerides. In addition, modulation of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid were observed through all the experimental intervals. Also, the serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined.The data obtained revealed significant decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL-cholesterol while significant increase in serum albumin to globulin ratio (A/G), triglycerides, creatinine, urea, uric acid, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and GT in all treated groups was observed. On the other hand, the data recorded imbalance in thyroid function as a result of pesticides treatments, which donated that each of the three pesticides increased TSH secretion, while malaphos caused significant decrease in both T 3 and T 4 levels, mephosfolan increased T 4 and decreased T 3 levels, whereas phosfolan pesticide decreased T 4 and increased T 3 levels after one, two and four weeks post-treatment.Administration of olive oil during treatment with malaphos, mephosfolan and phosfolan pesticides attenuates to a great extent the destructive effects of pesticides on the assayed parameters, this effect is attributed to the beneficial properties whom olive oil possess as anti-oxidative potential that may act to protect the body organs against the pesticides toxicity and also due to the amelioration of oxidative stress of free radicals.

  20. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  1. Micromanagement of Immune System: Role of miRNAs in Helminthic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Naina; Tripathi, Shweta; Singh, Aloukick K; Mondal, Prosenjit; Mishra, Amit; Prasad, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Helminthic infections fall under neglected tropical diseases, although they inflict severe morbidity to human and causes major economic burden on health care system in many developing countries. There is increased effort to understand their immunopathology in recent days due to their immuno-modulatory capabilities. Immune response is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level, however, microRNA-mediated RNA interference is emerging as important regulatory machinery that works at the translation level. In the past decade, microRNA (miRNA/miR) research has advanced with significant momentum. The result is ever increasing list of curated sequences from a broad panel of organisms including helminths. Several miRNAs had been discovered from trematodes, nematodes and cestodes like let-7, miR155, miR-199, miR-134, miR-223, miR-146, and fhe-mir-125a etc., with potential role in immune modulation. These miRs had been associated with TGF-β, MAPK, Toll-like receptor, PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and insulin growth factor regulation. Thus, controlling the immune cells development, survival, proliferation and death. Apart from micromanagement of immune system, they also express certain unique miRNA also like cis- miR-001, cis- miR-2, cis- miR-6, cis- miR-10, cis- miR-18, cis- miR-19, trs-mir-0001, fhe-miR-01, fhe-miR-07, fhe-miR-08, egr-miR-4988, egr-miR-4989 etc. The specific role played by most of these species specific unique miRs are yet to be discovered. However, these newly discovered miRNAs might serve as novel targets for therapeutic intervention or biomarkers for parasitic infections.

  2. The role of syntax in complex networks: Local and global importance of verbs in a syntactic dependency network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Radek; Mačutek, Ján; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk

    2011-10-01

    Syntax of natural language has been the focus of linguistics for decades. The complex network theory, being one of new research tools, opens new perspectives on syntax properties of the language. Despite numerous partial achievements, some fundamental problems remain unsolved. Specifically, although statistical properties typical for complex networks can be observed in all syntactic networks, the impact of syntax itself on these properties is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the role of syntax in the syntactic network structure. In particular, we concentrate on the impact of the syntactic function of a verb in the sentence on the complex network structure. Verbs play the decisive role in the sentence structure (“local” importance). From this fact we hypothesize the importance of verbs in the complex network (“global” importance). The importance of verb in the complex network is assessed by the number of links which are directed from the node representing verb to other nodes in the network. Six languages (Catalan, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese) were used for testing the hypothesis.

  3. Investigation of the cytotoxicity, antioxidative and immune-modulatory effects of Ligusticum porteri (Osha) root extract on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2016-11-01

    Ligusticum porteri is a traditional Native American herb. The roots of L. porteri are traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases, however, its cytotoxicity, antioxidative and immune-modulatory effects need to be investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the root extract at different doses on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). The lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the root extracts (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL) and harvested every 6 h for 2 d (Peffect of the herb against oxidative damage was determined by inducing oxidative stress with the administration of 50 μmol/L of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Treatments with L. porteri at 200 and 400 μg/mL increased the viability of PBLs. The deleterious effect of H 2 O 2 was ameliorated by 400 μg/mL L. porteri treatment. Addition of 400 μg/mL L. porteri reduced lipid peroxidation in stressed PBLs by 94% (P0.05). The findings suggest that L. porteri might be a potential immune-modulating agent involving protective effects against oxidative damage.

  4. A negative modulatory role for rho and rho-associated kinase signaling in delamination of neural crest cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalcheim Chaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural crest progenitors arise as epithelial cells and then undergo a process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition that precedes the generation of cellular motility and subsequent migration. We aim at understanding the underlying molecular network. Along this line, possible roles of Rho GTPases that act as molecular switches to control a variety of signal transduction pathways remain virtually unexplored, as are putative interactions between Rho proteins and additional known components of this cascade. Results We investigated the role of Rho/Rock signaling in neural crest delamination. Active RhoA and RhoB are expressed in the membrane of epithelial progenitors and are downregulated upon delamination. In vivo loss-of-function of RhoA or RhoB or of overall Rho signaling by C3 transferase enhanced and/or triggered premature crest delamination yet had no effect on cell specification. Consistently, treatment of explanted neural primordia with membrane-permeable C3 or with the Rock inhibitor Y27632 both accelerated and enhanced crest emigration without affecting cell proliferation. These treatments altered neural crest morphology by reducing stress fibers, focal adhesions and downregulating membrane-bound N-cadherin. Reciprocally, activation of endogenous Rho by lysophosphatidic acid inhibited emigration while enhancing the above. Since delamination is triggered by BMP and requires G1/S transition, we examined their relationship with Rho. Blocking Rho/Rock function rescued crest emigration upon treatment with noggin or with the G1/S inhibitor mimosine. In the latter condition, cells emigrated while arrested at G1. Conversely, BMP4 was unable to rescue cell emigration when endogenous Rho activity was enhanced by lysophosphatidic acid. Conclusion Rho-GTPases, through Rock, act downstream of BMP and of G1/S transition to negatively regulate crest delamination by modifying cytoskeleton assembly and intercellular adhesion.

  5. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy’s analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

  6. Enhancing the nurses' role in healthcare delivery through strategic management: recognizing its importance or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Marie

    2009-09-01

    To determine the importance of strategy in nursing management and to establish if strategic management has entered the lexicon of nurses' vocabulary. Developing and managing strategy is a critical success factor for health care managers. It remains unclear if nurse managers view strategy development as their role. A review of scholarly International nursing and management literature, available through CINAHL and PUBMED Data Bases was undertaken. The titles of 1063 articles, published between 1997 and 2007 were examined in order to determine the profile of strategy in those titles. Documentary analysis was undertaken on a random sample of 250 of those articles and on the full text of a further 100. Less than 10% of journal titles contained the word strategy. What was presented as strategy was in the majority of cases describing policy, administration or management. Little formal strategy theory was evident. The nursing profession does not appear to have adopted the terms strategy or strategic management to any great extent. Nurse Managers could play a greater role in enhancing healthcare delivery if an understanding of, and acceptance of the importance of strategy in health care delivery was promoted.

  7. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  8. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase—Modulatory Subunit Knockout Mouse Shows Normal Insulin Sensitivity but Reduced Liver Glycogen Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Lavoie, Suzie

    2016-04-21

    Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage.

  9. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase—Modulatory Subunit Knockout Mouse Shows Normal Insulin Sensitivity but Reduced Liver Glycogen Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Lavoie, Suzie; Steullet, Pascal; Kulak, Anita; Preitner, Frederic; Do, Kim Q.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage.

  10. Cathelicidin host defence peptide augments clearance of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by its influence on neutrophil function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula E Beaumont

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins are multifunctional cationic host-defence peptides (CHDP; also known as antimicrobial peptides and an important component of innate host defence against infection. In addition to microbicidal potential, these peptides have properties with the capacity to modulate inflammation and immunity. However, the extent to which such properties play a significant role during infection in vivo has remained unclear. A murine model of acute P. aeruginosa lung infection was utilised, demonstrating cathelicidin-mediated enhancement of bacterial clearance in vivo. The delivery of exogenous synthetic human cathelicidin LL-37 was found to enhance a protective pro-inflammatory response to infection, effectively promoting bacterial clearance from the lung in the absence of direct microbicidal activity, with an enhanced early neutrophil response that required both infection and peptide exposure and was independent of native cathelicidin production. Furthermore, although cathelicidin-deficient mice had an intact early cellular inflammatory response, later phase neutrophil response to infection was absent in these animals, with significantly impaired clearance of P. aeruginosa. These findings demonstrate the importance of the modulatory properties of cathelicidins in pulmonary infection in vivo and highlight a key role for cathelicidins in the induction of protective pulmonary neutrophil responses, specific to the infectious milieu. In additional to their physiological roles, CHDP have been proposed as future antimicrobial therapeutics. Elucidating and utilising the modulatory properties of cathelicidins has the potential to inform the development of synthetic peptide analogues and novel therapeutic approaches based on enhancing innate host defence against infection with or without direct microbicidal targeting of pathogens.

  11. THE IMPORTANCE AND THE ROLES OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım BURGUL

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the importance and the roles of the existing informationtechnologies in preschool education and to do a content analysis.The research is done by using the descriptive study method which is one of the general scanning models. Having examinedthe results of the previous researches, the theoretical framework that would light the way for the research was prepared. Theavailable information about the subject was scanned from resources such as documents, other written sources and also theinternet, and expert’s opinions were asked for. The content analysis of the collected information was done.The preschool period is a process to which all education scientists attach great importance. However, in order to realize theaim of this process, well planned education programmes are needed. The preschool education period provides crèche,nursery and reception education activities. Because of the annual changes of education technologies, positive differences areseen for the teaching activities in this area. On the other hand, there are some requirements to do to speed up the educationand to increase the productivity of education in our present day information society.The preschool education programmes are “the Crèche Programme (0-36 months”, “The Nursery Programme (37-60months and “The Reception Programme (61-72 months”. Optimum educational programs must be prepared for activitiesthat will take place on a daily basis according to specific aims and attitudes to determine the educational status of theseactivities. After having examined the technology-based education model, it is observed by the evaluation and assessmentdiscipline that using equipment such as tv, radio, computer, video, projection, overhead projector and slide apparatus makesthe learning process more effective and productive.As a result, information has become the most expensive product today. The roles of computer-aided education and the

  12. Secondary prevention at 360°: the important role of diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; Manenti, Guglielmo; Pistolese, Chiara; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Fiori, Roberto; Romagnoli, Andrea; Sergiacomi, Gianluigi; Stefanini, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of the role of general practitioners (GPs) in distributing vital information about prevention to citizens, to highlight the importance of the so-called voluntary prevention programmes, both for conditions for which no organised screening programmes exist and for those for which they do exist but may well be obsolete or inefficient. Nowadays, voluntary prevention is made more effective thanks to the new sophisticated diagnostic technologies applied worldwide by diagnostic imaging. Epidemiological data about the incidence and causes of death among the Italian population have shown that screening programmes should be aimed first at fighting the following diseases: prostatic carcinoma, lung cancer, colorectal carcinoma, breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, aortic and peripheral vascular disease. GPs do not generally give good or adequate instructions concerning voluntary prevention programmes; GPs may not even be aware of this type of prevention which could represent a valuable option together with the existing mass screening programmes. Therefore, in the following analysis, we aim to outline the correct diagnostic pathway for the prevention of diseases having the highest incidence in our country and which represent the most frequent causes of death. If used correctly, these screening programmes may contribute to the success of secondary prevention, limiting the use of tertiary prevention and thus producing savings for the Italian National Health System.

  13. The Modulatory Role of Vitis vinifera in Oxidative Stress and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Tahawy, N.A.; Salama, S.F.; Ashry, O.M.

    2008-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins are naturally occurring antioxidants found in grape seed extract (GSPE) of Vitis vinifera. The present study aims at assessing the protective effects of GSPI against free radicals induced by ionizing radiation on the antioxidant status, the process of carbohydrate metabolism, and some hematological parameters in adult rats. Catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration along with lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined in liver and muscle tissues, The activity of glucose-6)-phosphatase was determined in liver tissues and glucose level in serum. Erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb) and haematocrit value (Hct %) were also determined. Rats received daily GSPE by gavage in concentration of 100 mg/Kg body weight for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 5 Gy dose of whole body gamma irradiation. The experimental investigations were carried out on the second and third weeks post irradiation.The results indicate that ingestion of GSPE is safe and had no significant effect on the levels of the parameters studied. Exposure to radiation produced a significant decrease in CAT activity and GSH content along with significant increase of TEARS levels in liver and muscle tissues. Liver glucose-6-phosphatase activity increased 2 and 3 weeks post irradiation concomitant with a significant increase of serum glucose level. Blood RBCs, Hb and Hct levels were significantly depressed. Administration of GSPE ameliorated the severity of changes in all the parameters measured. It could be concluded that proanthocyanidins might play a considerable role in ameliorating the radiation induced changes in antioxidant status and carbohydrate metabolites

  14. The Role of the Brain's Endocannabinoid System in Pain and Its Modulation by Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Louise; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2015-01-01

    Stress has a complex, bidirectional modulatory influence on pain. Stress may either reduce (stress-induced analgesia) or exacerbate (stress-induced hyperalgesia) pain depending on the nature, duration, and intensity of the stressor. The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system is present throughout the neuroanatomical pathways that mediate and modulate responses to painful stimuli. The specific role of the endocannabinoid system in the brain in pain and the modulation of pain by stress is reviewed herein. We first provide a brief overview of the endocannabinoid system, followed by a review of the evidence that the brain's endocannabinoid system modulates pain. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of the endocannabinoid system supraspinally, and particularly in the rostral ventromedial medulla, periaqueductal gray, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex, in pain, stress-induced analgesia, and stress-induced hyperalgesia. Increased understanding of endocannabinoid-mediated regulation of pain and its modulation by stress will inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches for pain and its comorbidity with stress-related disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. THE SUSTAINABLE IMPORTANCE OF REMITTANCES AND THEIR ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana SON

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amplitude of migrants and remittences in the last years, especially toward the developing countries has positive effects on development in the countries of origin. Empiric research outline the potentially significant effect of remittances on the economy of a country in various ways, as a source of external financing, contributing to the growth and economic development, to the increase of the national income and stimulation of consumption, and at the same time, important in financing households, contributing to poverty decrease. These challenges are a priority for Romania, an emigration country that receives every year un important volume of remittances, but, at present with a preponderant role in the consumption.

  17. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till James E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

  18. The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Skincare formulations for the improvement of aging skin are increasingly important consumer products. Here, we review available data on one such agent - 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or deanol - that has recently been evaluated in a placebo-controlled trial. DMAE is an analog of the B vitamin choline and is a precursor of acetylcholine. Although the role of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter is well known, growing evidence points to acetylcholine as a ubiquitous cytokine-like molecule that regulates basic cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, locomotion, and secretion in a paracrine and autocrine fashion. Indeed, this modulatory role may contribute to the cutaneous activity of DMAE. In a randomized clinical study, 3% DMAE facial gel applied daily for 16 weeks has been shown to be safe and efficacious (p appearance of aging skin. These effects did not regress during a 2-week cessation of application. Beneficial trends (p > 0.05 but appearance of coarse wrinkles, under-eye dark circles, nasolabial folds, sagging neck skin, and neck firmness. Application was found to be well tolerated, with no differences in the incidence of erythema, peeling, dryness, itching, burning, or stinging between the DMAE and placebo groups. An open-label extension of the trial showed that the long-term application of DMAE gel for up to 1 year was associated with a good safety profile. The acute skin-firming effects of DMAE have been confirmed by quantitative measures of cutaneous tensile strength. In vitro studies in peripheral blood lymphocytes indicate that DMAE is a moderately active anti-inflammatory agent. Although its mechanisms of action in the skin remain to be elucidated, evidence suggests that the skin is an active site of acetylcholine synthesis, storage, secretion, metabolism, and receptivity. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been localized to keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts, whereas nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been found

  19. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO 2 emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10 9 euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  20. A Carbonic Anhydrase Serves as an Important Acid-Base Regulator in Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to Elevated CO2: Implication for Physiological Responses of Mollusk to Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Mengqiang; Jia, Zhihao; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Anguo; Song, Linsheng

    2017-02-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in acid-base regulation in vertebrates. However, the classification and modulatory function of CAs in marine invertebrates, especially their responses to ocean acidification remain largely unknown. Here, a cytosolic α-CA (designated as CgCAII-1) was characterized from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and its molecular activities against CO 2 exposure were investigated. CgCAII-1 possessed a conserved CA catalytic domain, with high similarity to invertebrate cytoplasmic or mitochondrial α-CAs. Recombinant CgCAII-1 could convert CO 2 to HCO 3 - with calculated activity as 0.54 × 10 3  U/mg, which could be inhibited by acetazolamide (AZ). The mRNA transcripts of CgCAII-1 in muscle, mantle, hepatopancreas, gill, and hemocytes increased significantly after exposure to elevated CO 2 . CgCAII-1 could interact with the hemocyte membrane proteins and the distribution of CgCAII-1 protein became more concentrated and dense in gill and mantle under CO 2 exposure. The intracellular pH (pHi) of hemocytes under CO 2 exposure increased significantly (p ocean acidification and participate in acid-base regulation. Such cytoplasmic CA-based physiological regulation mechanism might explain other physiological responses of marine organisms to OA.

  1. Are training and transfer effects of working memory updating training modulated by achievement motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Yiwenjie; Fu, Junjun; Maes, Joseph H R

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies examining effects of working memory (WM) updating training revealed mixed results. One factor that might modulate training gains, and possibly also transfer of those gains to non-trained cognitive tasks, is achievement motivation. In the present Studies 1 and 2, students with either a high (HAM) or low (LAM) achievement motivation completed a 14-day visuospatial WM updating training program. In Study 2, the students also performed a set of tasks measuring other executive functions and fluid intelligence prior to and after training. In both studies, the HAM students displayed a larger training gain than the LAM students. Study 2 revealed that after training, both groups showed better performance on the near-transfer but not far-transfer tasks. Importantly, the differential training gain was not associated with better post-training performance for the HAM compared to the LAM students on any of the transfer tasks. These results are taken to support a modulatory role of achievement motivation on WM training benefits, but not on transfer of those benefits to other tasks. Possible reasons for the general improvement on the near-transfer tasks and the absence of a modulatory role of achievement motivation on transfer-task performance are discussed.

  2. IRBIT plays an important role in NHE3-mediated pHi regulation in HSG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Manh; Park, Moon-Yong; Lee, Jiyeon; Bae, Jun-Seok; Hwang, Sung-Min; Choi, Se-Young; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Park, Kyungpyo

    2013-07-19

    Expression of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-binding protein (IRBIT) has been reported in epithelial cells. However, its role in pHi regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IRBIT in pHi regulation, mediated by Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs), in salivary glands. We measured pHi recovery from cell acidification in BCECF-loaded salivary HSG cells. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assays were also performed, showing that NHE1, 2 and 3 are expressed, and IRBIT binds to NHE3. HOE642, a specific NHE1 blocker, inhibited pHi recovery, but 40% pH(i) recovery was still observed even at the highest concentration of HOE642. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with siIRBIT significantly inhibited pHi recovery, indicating that NHE3 potentially plays a role in pHi recovery as well. The amount of membrane-localized NHE3 and its interaction with IRBIT are also significantly increased by cell acidification. In addition, we found that Ste20p-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) reverses the effect of IRBIT on membrane NHE3 translocation. Taken together, we conclude that IRBIT plays an important role in pHi regulation, mediated by NHE3, and further regulated by SPAK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulatory effects of L-DOPA on D2 dopamine receptors in rat striatum, measured using in vivo microdialysis and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opacka-Juffry, J.; Hume, S. P.; Ashworth, S.; Ahier, R. G.

    1997-01-01

    Putative modulatory effects of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) on D2 dopamine receptor function in the striatum of anaesthetized rats were investigated using both in vivo microdialysis and positron emission tomography (PET) with carbon-11 labelled raclopride as a selective D2 receptor ligand. A single dose of L-DOPA (20 or 100 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in an increase in [ 11 C]raclopride binding potential which was also observed in the presence of the central aromatic decarboxylase inhibitor NSD 1015, confirming that the effect was independent of dopamine. This L-DOPA evoked D2 receptor sensitization was abolished by a prior, long-term administration of L-DOPA in drinking water (5 weeks, 170 mg/kg/day). In the course of acute L-DOPA treatment (20 mg/kg), extracellular GABA levels were reduced by ∼20 % in the globus pallidus. It is likely that L-DOPA sensitising effect on striatal D2 receptors, as confirmed by PET, may implicate striato-pallidal neurones, hence a reduced GABA-ergic output in the projection area. Since the L-DOPA evoked striatal D2 receptor supersensitivity habituates during long-term treatment, the effects reported here may contribute to the fluctuations observed during chronic L-DOPA therapy in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  4. Modulatory Effect of Association of Brain Stimulation by Light and Binaural Beats in Specific Brain Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Furtado da Silva, Vernon; Velasques, Bruna Brandão; Feijó, Olavo Guimarães; Bittencourt, Juliana Marques; Ribeiro de Souza E Silva, Alair Pedro

    2017-01-01

    One of the positive effects of brain stimulation is interhemispheric modulation as shown in some scientific studies. This study examined if a type of noninvasive stimulation using binaural beats with led-lights and sound would show different modulatory effects upon Alfa and SMR brain waves of elderlies and children with some disease types. The sample included 75 individuals of both genders, being, randomly, divided in 6 groups. Groups were named elderly without dementia diagnosis (EWD), n=15, 76±8 years, elderly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (EDP), n=15, 72±7 years, elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (EDA), n=15, 81±6 years. The other groups were named children with Autism (CA), n=10, 11±4 years, children with Intellectual Impairment (CII), n=10, 12 ±5 years and children with normal cognitive development (CND), n=10, 11±4 years. Instruments were the Mini Mental State Examination Test (MMSE), EEG-Neurocomputer instrument for brain waves registration, brain stimulator, Digit Span Test and a Protocol for working memory training. Data collection followed a pre and post-conjugated stimulation version. The results of the inferential statistics showed that the stimulation protocol had different effects on Alpha and SMR brain waves of the patients. Also, indicated gains in memory functions, for both, children and elderlies as related to gains in brain waves modulation. The results may receive and provide support to a range of studies examining brain modulation and synaptic plasticity. Also, it was emphasized in the results discussion that there was the possibility of the technique serving as an accessory instrument to alternative brain therapies.

  5. Chirality plays important roles in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yumei

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic concept of chirality, target specific selectivity and their relationship in radiopharmaceuticals. If the ligands labeled by radionuclides have chiral center, the enantiomers must be separated, or the target specific selectivity will not be good. Chirality is one of the most important factors which must be considered in the study of the structure-activity relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  6. Important Late-Stage Symbiotic Role of the Sinorhizobium meliloti Exopolysaccharide Succinoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Markus F F; Penterman, Jon; Shabab, Mohammed; Chen, Esther J; Walker, Graham C

    2018-07-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti enters into beneficial symbiotic interactions with Medicago species of legumes. Bacterial exopolysaccharides play critical signaling roles in infection thread initiation and growth during the early stages of root nodule formation. After endocytosis of S. meliloti by plant cells in the developing nodule, plant-derived nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides mediate terminal differentiation of the bacteria into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Previous transcriptional studies showed that the intensively studied cationic peptide NCR247 induces expression of the exo genes that encode the proteins required for succinoglycan biosynthesis. In addition, genetic studies have shown that some exo mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial action of NCR247. Therefore, we investigated whether the symbiotically active S. meliloti exopolysaccharide succinoglycan can protect S. meliloti against the antimicrobial activity of NCR247. We discovered that high-molecular-weight forms of succinoglycan have the ability to protect S. meliloti from the antimicrobial action of the NCR247 peptide but low-molecular-weight forms of wild-type succinoglycan do not. The protective function of high-molecular-weight succinoglycan occurs via direct molecular interactions between anionic succinoglycan and the cationic NCR247 peptide, but this interaction is not chiral. Taken together, our observations suggest that S. meliloti exopolysaccharides not only may be critical during early stages of nodule invasion but also are upregulated at a late stage of symbiosis to protect bacteria against the bactericidal action of cationic NCR peptides. Our findings represent an important step forward in fully understanding the complete set of exopolysaccharide functions during legume symbiosis. IMPORTANCE Symbiotic interactions between rhizobia and legumes are economically important for global food production. The legume symbiosis also is a major part of the global nitrogen

  7. Memory, not just perception, plays an important role in terrestrial mammalian migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-05-31

    One of the key questions regarding the underlying mechanisms of mammalian land migrations is how animals select where to go. Most studies assume perception of resources as the navigational mechanism. The possible role of memory that would allow forecasting conditions at distant locations and times based on information about environmental conditions from previous years has been little studied. We study migrating zebra in Botswana using an individual-based simulation model, where perceptually guided individuals use currently sensed resources at different perceptual ranges, while memory-guided individuals use long-term averages of past resources to forecast future conditions. We compare simulated individuals guided by perception or memory on resource landscapes of remotely sensed vegetation data to trajectories of GPS-tagged zebras. Our results show that memory provides a clear signal that best directs migrants to their destination compared to perception at even the largest perceptual ranges. Zebras modelled with memory arrived two to four times, or up to 100 km, closer to the migration destination than those using perception. We suggest that memory in addition to perception is important for directing ungulate migration. Furthermore, our findings are important for the conservation of migratory mammals, as memory informing direction suggests migration routes could be relatively inflexible. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. An empirical study, role and importance of visual merchandising in retail branding- A practitioners’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeiro, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze the role and importance of Visual merchandising and below the line advertising on retail branding. An initial investigation on “visual merchandising” is undertaken along with its effects on consumer’s purchase behavior and brand identity. The research is based on the companies in Dubai, which represents the Middle East and African market. Semi - Structured Interviews of various practitioner based in Dubai were undertaken in order to understand the topic ...

  9. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  10. Role of the tunisian central pharmacy in the import of radio-pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souissi Jaziri, Camelia; Moulahi, L.

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia the centralized organization of the medicine sector has a strategic and economic importance. It presents particular characteristics concerning the importation and the control of drugs. Tcp has a monopoly on the importation of drugs for the country, which enters in the state policy for the control of drug purchasing costs, their availability in different region of the country and their guarantee and quality. The Tcp has a crucial role in the availability of drugs and in the holding safety stock and strategic reserve of the imported pharmaceutical products, either for the public or private sector. The Tcp has to stock up medicaments, chemical and pharmaceutical products, objects of bandages, instruments, accessory tools and other supplies necessary for the human and veterinary medicine. The Tcp packages any specialized or not medicament and all other products or supplies. The Tcp provides medicaments and products entering within the framework of its task to different health groups and hospitals. The Tcp provides distributors, laboratories and pharmacies over the country. In Tunisia the import of radioisotopes used in the medical domain is attributed to the Tcp. The objective is to centralize purchases and to guarantee: the security, the availability as well as the traceability. The Tcp supply radiopharmaceutical products for diagnostic and therapy purposes according to an authorization delivered annually by the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). An authorization of removal used at the customs allows the clearance of products at the level of the air freights by the transit service of the Tcp. Regarding the evolution of purchases of radio-pharmaceutical products, their importation remained stable during the last three years. Indeed, it is approximately around 1MDT annually (954 121 DT in 2010, 939 956 in 2011 and 1047 967 in 2012). Sources of supply are divided between 4 suppliers: International IBA-CISBIO (49.9 pour cent), COVIDIEN EX (TYCO

  11. Modulatory role of dietary Chlorella vulgaris powder against arsenic-induced immunotoxicity and oxidative stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic intoxicant have long been regarded as an impending carcinogenic, genotoxic, and immunotoxic heavy metal to human and animals as well. In this respect, we evaluated biomarkers of the innate immune response and oxidative stress metabolism in gills and liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after arsenic exposure, and the protective role of Chlorella vulgaris (Ch) dietary supplementation were elucidated. Protective role of C. vulgaris (Ch), as supplementary feeds (5% and 10% of the diet) was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic induced toxicity (NaAsO2 at 7 ppm) for 21 days exposure period. A significant down-regulation in innate immune response; including, respiratory burst, lysozyme, and bactericidal activity followed due to deliberately As(+3) exposure. Similarly, oxidative stress response; like nitric oxide (NO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly decreased. Combined treatment of Ch and As(+3) significantly enhanced the innate immune response and antioxidant activity. Strikingly, Ch supplementation at 10% has been considered the optimum for Nile tilapia since it exhibited enhancement of innate immune response and antioxidant activity over the level 5%, and even better than that of control level. Thus, our results concluded that dietary Ch supplementation could protect Nile tilapia against arsenic induced immunosuppression and oxidative stresses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    MODULATORY ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS C AND E ON. ERYTHROCYTE ... concluded that, vitamin C and E administered separately ameliorated sodium nitrate toxicity in a dose dependant ..... Fat Soluble. Vitamins in Human ...

  13. Hopes for the Future of Pain Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2017-12-01

    Here we aim to present an accessible review of the pharmacological targets for pain management, and succinctly discuss the newest trends in pain therapy. A key task for current pain pharmacotherapy is the identification of receptors and channels orchestrating nociception. Notwithstanding peripheral alterations in the receptors and channels following pathophysiological events, the modulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system are also fundamental to the regulation of pain perception. Bridging preclinical and clinical studies of peripheral and central components of pain modulation, we present the different types of pain and relate these to pharmacological interventions. We firstly highlight the roles of several peripheral nociceptors, such as NGF, CGRP, sodium channels, and TRP-family channels that may become novel targets for therapies. In the central nervous system, the roles of calcium channels and gabapentinoids as well as NMDA receptors in generating excitability are covered including ideas on central sensitization. We then turn to central modulatory systems and discuss opioids and monoamines. We aim to explain the importance of central sensitization and the dialogue of the spinal circuits with the brain descending modulatory controls before discussing a mechanism-based effectiveness of antidepressants in pain therapy and their potential to modulate the descending controls. Emphasizing the roles of conditioned pain modulation and its animal's equivalent, diffuse noxious inhibitory controls, we discuss these unique descending modulations as a potential tool for understanding mechanisms in patients suffering from pain. Mechanism-based therapy is the key to picking the correct treatments and recent clinical studies using sensory symptoms of patients as surrogates for underlying mechanisms can be used to subgroup patients and reveal actions of drugs that may be lost when studying heterogenous groups of patients. Key advances in the understanding of basic pain

  14. PEDAGOGICAL PHILOSOPHY: THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THEORY IN CREATIVE COGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Plahotskyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main provisions and the essential characteristics of the theory of pedagogical philosophy are considered in the article. The outstanding Ukrainian scientists in the branch of pedagogical studies (V. Alfimov, O. Hluzman, V. Yevdokimov, О. Kucheriavyi and in the field of education practice (H. Minenko follow the point of view of problem relevance. Appearing of the pedagogical philosophy is caused by the need of understanding complicated issues like what a modern person (a child, a pupil, a student, a teacher, a tutor is; what the modern environment of human life is like; what the part the education plays in their life. The aim of the study is to justify the prospective opportunities of pedagogical philosophy while solving current educational tasks in order to arise the practitioners’ interest and desire to find the ways of using them in their creative activity. In the article the role and importance of pedagogical philosophy in the practice of school and higher educational institutions in modern Ukraine are analyzed. The challenges of time and the motion of the education system in advancing development are noted. The key parallels between the understanding of the essence of the educational process in the pedagogical philosophy and the current needs of human development and educational objectives are determined. The author concludes that theory of pedagogical philosophy, which is being developed at present time, is really new, independent, relevant and corresponding to the current life needs. In general its role and significance is proved by the fact that pedagogical philosophy has a necessary and sufficient recourse of showing the ways in the future for educators at secondary schools and higher educational establishments according to the occasions and processes that take place in Ukraine.

  15. Dose Ramadan Fasting Affects Inflammatory Responses: Evidences for Modulatory Roles of This Unique Nutritional Status via Chemokine Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Akrami Mohajeri

    2013-12-01

    The results of this study may reveal that Ramadan fasting is quite safe for normal healthy adults and so very useful in reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides in relation with dyslipidemia. It is also possible to conclude that fasting is important in controlling of inflammation via chemokines.

  16. The Role of Beliefs about the Importance of Social Skills in Elementary Children's Social Behaviors and School Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Positive attitudes toward school have been suggested as a meaningful indicator of school engagement among elementary children. The current study was guided by a social cognitive developmental perspective which suggests that social cognitions, including beliefs, play an important role in children's adjustment outcomes. Objective: The…

  17. Invasion of melanoma cells into dermal connective tissue in vitro: evidence for an important role of cysteine proteases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennhofer, R.; Kurschat, P.; Zigrino, P.; Klose, A.; Bosserhoff, A.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Krieg, T.; Mauch, C.; Hunzelmann, N.

    2003-01-01

    Invasion of melanoma cells into the dermal connective tissue is a major characteristic in the complex process of metastasis. Proteases play an important role in tumor cell invasion as these enzymes are able to degrade most components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus enable cells to

  18. Vitamin D and pancreas: The role of sunshine vitamin in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Barbara; Grant, William B; Della Casa, Silvia; Orio, Francesco; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Colao, Annamaria; Sarno, Gerardo; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2017-11-02

    Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D exerts multiple effects beyond bone and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D seems to play a role in pancreatic disease, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D's immune-modulatory action suggests that it could help prevent type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, vitamin D may influence β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and systematic inflammation-all characteristic pathways of that disease. Data from observational studies correlated vitamin D deficiency with risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Prospective and ecological studies of pancreatic cancer incidence generally support a beneficial effect of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as well as inverse correlations between UVB dose or exposure and incidence and/or mortality rate of pancreatic cancer. This review discusses the literature regarding vitamin D's role in risk of diabetes and pancreatic cancer. The results to date generally satisfy Hill's criteria for causality regarding vitamin D and incidence of these pancreatic diseases. However, large randomized, blinded, prospective studies are required to more fully evaluate the potential therapeutic role of vitamin D in preventing pancreatic diseases.

  19. Cartographic modeling: The role and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and sense of cartographic modeling is to represent essential, typical and characteristically attributes of mapping territory. Cartographic modeling is applying in two phases: 1. trough theoretical modeling and creating mind models (by notice relevant factors of space, modeling is in cartographer’s mind and 2. trough practical modeling and making prototype model (continuing and objectification of mind model which one has bigger degree of concrezation and experimented role. The maps are mathematical and logical models, which are not just representing the contents of the real space, but also their specific and relational traits which can’t be seen at first sight. Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Modern computer's technology and specific software make possible better and faster making of all kinds of maps, atlases and spatial analysis connections and relationships among all elements of contents from concrete space which is, until now, demand much more time or they can not imagine.

  20. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting Pacific oysters from OsHV-1 and Vibrio aestuarianus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Segarra, Amélie; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Rubinsztein, David C; Renault, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Recent mass mortality outbreaks around the world in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have seriously affected the aquaculture economy. Although the causes for these mortality outbreaks appear complex, infectious agents are involved. Two pathogens are associated with mass mortality outbreaks, the virus ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. Here we describe the interactions between these 2 pathogens and autophagy, a conserved intracellular pathway playing a key role in innate immunity. We show for the first time that autophagy pathway is present and functional in Pacific oysters and plays an important role to protect animals from infections. This study contributes to better understand the innate immune system of Pacific oysters.

  1. Role of σ1 Receptors in Learning and Memory and Alzheimer's Disease-Type Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Tangui; Goguadze, Nino

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter will review the role of σ 1 receptor in learning and memory and neuroprotection , against Alzheimer's type dementia. σ 1 Receptor agonists have been tested in a variety of pharmacological and pathological models of learning impairments in rodents these last past 20 years. Their anti-amnesic effects have been explained by the wide-range modulatory role of σ 1 receptors on Ca 2+ mobilizations, neurotransmitter responses, and particularly glutamate and acetylcholine systems, and neurotrophic factors. Recent observations from genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that σ 1 receptor can also be targeted in neurodegenerative diseases, and particularly Alzheimer's disease . Several compounds, acting partly through the σ 1 receptor, have showed effective neuroprotection in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease . We will review the data and discuss the possible mechanisms of action, particularly focusing on oxidative stress and mitochondrial integrity, trophic factors and a novel hypothesis suggesting a functional interaction between the σ 1 receptor and α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, we will discuss the pharmacological peculiarities of non-selective σ 1 receptor ligands, now developed as neuroprotectants in Alzheimer's disease , and positive modulators, recently described and that showed efficacy against learning and memory deficits.

  2. The role of imported cases and favorable meteorological conditions in the onset of dengue epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Shee Shang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Travelers who acquire dengue infection are often routes for virus transmission to other regions. Nevertheless, the interplay between infected travelers, climate, vectors, and indigenous dengue incidence remains unclear. The role of foreign-origin cases on local dengue epidemics thus has been largely neglected by research. This study investigated the effect of both imported dengue and local meteorological factors on the occurrence of indigenous dengue in Taiwan.Using logistic and Poisson regression models, we analyzed bi-weekly, laboratory-confirmed dengue cases at their onset dates of illness from 1998 to 2007 to identify correlations between indigenous dengue and imported dengue cases (in the context of local meteorological factors across different time lags. Our results revealed that the occurrence of indigenous dengue was significantly correlated with temporally-lagged cases of imported dengue (2-14 weeks, higher temperatures (6-14 weeks, and lower relative humidity (6-20 weeks. In addition, imported and indigenous dengue cases had a significant quantitative relationship in the onset of local epidemics. However, this relationship became less significant once indigenous epidemics progressed past the initial stage.These findings imply that imported dengue cases are able to initiate indigenous epidemics when appropriate weather conditions are present. Early detection and case management of imported cases through rapid diagnosis may avert large-scale epidemics of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever. The deployment of an early-warning surveillance system, with the capacity to integrate meteorological data, will be an invaluable tool for successful prevention and control of dengue, particularly in non-endemic countries.

  3. The important roles of nuclear energy in the future energy system of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yingzhong, L.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of Four Modernizations in China requires doubling present energy production by the year 2000. Because of uneven geographic distribution of coal and hydropower resources, difficulties in exploitation and transportation, and environmental issues, conventional energy alone could not meet the tremendous energy demand in the most densely populated and highly industrialized coastal provinces. Therefore nuclear energy will play an increasingly important role in such regions and is now considered indispensable for the development of China's economy. Nuclear energy will supply not only base-load electricity but district heating and process heat in these provinces. Another promising potential application of nuclear heat will be in the petroleum industry. Nuclear energy will find broad applications in various sectors of China's economy as the country achieves the Four Modernizations. (author)

  4. Increasing evidence for the important role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Damare, V.S.

    This review summarizes increasing evidence for the role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems gathered over the last six decades. It focuses on their diversity, habitats, biomass, productivity and overall role in food webs and remineralization...

  5. What Is the Role and Importance of the Revised AERA, APA, NCME "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Barbara S.; Wise, Lauress L.

    2014-01-01

    With the 2014 publication of the 5th revision of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing," the cochairs of the Joint Committee for the revision process were asked to consider the role and importance of the "Standards" for the educational testing community, and in particular for members of the National Council…

  6. Pain modulatory phenotypes differentiate subgroups with different clinical and experimental pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik B.; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    between subgroups. Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs in 400 chronic pain patients to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), pressure pain tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioned pain modulation (CPM: increase in c......PPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection (HDT) and heat pain thresholds (HPT) at clinical painful and non-painful body areas were assessed. Based on TSP and CPM four distinct groups were formed: Group 1 (n=85) had impaired CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 2 (n=148) had...... impaired CPM and normal TSP. Group 3 (n=45) had normal CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 4 (n=122) had normal CPM and normal TSP. Group 1 showed more pain regions compared with the other three groups (PCPM and facilitated TSP plays an important role in widespread pain. Group 1...

  7. Modulatory role of chelating agents in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pretreatment of hypercholesterolemic rats with simvastatin, CaNa2EDTA or DMSA attenuated most of the changes induced by feeding rats with cholesterol-rich diet owing to their observed anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties.

  8. Kinetics of modulatory role of Cyperus esculentus L. on the specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The continuous search for new lead compounds as viable inhibitors of specific enzymes linked to carbohydrate metabolism has intensified. Cyperus esculentus L. is one of the therapeutically implicated botanicals against several degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: This ...

  9. The Common Agricultural Policy Role in Addressing External Shocks - The Case of Russian Import Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA DRĂGOI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP is one of the oldest and most controversial common policies and it is financed directly from the European Union budget. Some critics of CAP argue that especially in the context of the challenges brought by the international crisis, this policy represents a “burden” for the European budget. Our research aims to responds those critics by showing that CAP may represent an important tool for addressing the external shocks impact on agricultural sector of EU. In this view, we will highlight the role of CAP in sustaining the European farmer during the crisis generated by the Russian import ban, adopted as a response to the sanctions imposed by EU to the Russian Federation in the context of Ukrainian crisis. Using a quantitative and qualitative analysis we will assess how the CAP has supported the European agricultural sector and also the future measures that could be adopted to create a more flexible response in the case of other external shocks.

  10. Hippocampal nicotinic receptors have a modulatory role for ethanol and MDMA interaction in memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Maryam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Sharifi, Khadijeh Alsadat

    2017-08-15

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activation on the functional interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in memory retrieval. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-down type passive avoidance apparatus. Post-training or pre-test systemic administration of ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia. Pre-test administration of ethanol reversed pre-training ethanol-induced amnesia, suggesting ethanol state-dependent learning. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of different doses of MDMA (0.25-1µg/mouse) with an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.25g/kg, i.p.) also induced amnesia. Interestingly, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of MDMA (0.25-1µg/mouse) potentiated ethanol state-dependent learning. On the other hand, the activation of the dorsal hippocampal nAChRs by pre-test microinjection of nicotine (0.1-1µg/mouse, intra-CA1) improved amnesia induced by the co-administration of MDMD and ethanol. It is important to note that intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of MDMA or nicotine could not affect memory formation by itself. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.9µg/mouse) could not reverse amnesia induced by pre-training administration of ethanol while this treatment enhanced MDMA response on ethanol state-dependent learning. Thus, it can be concluded that there may be functional interactions among ethanol, MDMA and nicotine via the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mechanism in memory retrieval and drug state-dependent learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of the Saratov Region as an Agro-Oriented Territory in Ensuring Import Substitution of Foodstuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanova Irina Fedorovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the peculiarities of import substitution in different sectors of the economy. The specific features of the process of import substitution in agriculture is revealed. The objectives and directions of import substitution of foodstuff are highlighted. The authors substantiate the need of separating the agro-oriented territories, as well as donor territories and recipients in the matter of import foodstuff substitution. The criteria of referring regions to agro-oriented territories are revealed, and the conclusion on feasibility of special state support to donor regions providing foodstuff is reasoned. In the present article the authors give the overall characteristics of the Saratov region as an agro-oriented territory, provide the assessment of its food potential, determine the level of food self-sufficiency. The grouping of the main food products is carried out by the authors according to the current level of their self-sufficiency and growth prospects. The comprehensive program of import substitution of food in Russia is developed. The key role in this program is assigned to agro-oriented regions. The main activities of this program are pointed out in the frames of the given research.

  12. The right thalamus may play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis was used in the present study. The frogs were immersed in triciane methanesulfonate (MS-222 for general anesthesia. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded continuously from both sides of the telencephalon, diencephalon (thalamus and mesencephalon during the pre-anesthesia stage, administration stage, recovery stage and post-anesthesia stage. EEG data was analyzed including calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn and permutation entropy (PE. Results Both ApEn and PE values differed significantly between anesthesia stages, with the highest values occurring during the awakening period and the lowest values during the anesthesia period. There was a significant correlation between the stage durations and ApEn or PE values during anesthesia-awakening cycle primarily for the right diencephalon (right thalamus. ApEn and PE values for females were significantly higher than those for males. Discussion ApEn and PE measurements are suitable for estimating depth of anesthesia and complexity of amphibian brain activity. The right thalamus appears physiologically positioned to play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs indicating an early evolutionary origin of the role of the thalamus in arousal and consciousness in land vertebrates. Sex differences exist in the neural regulation of general anesthesia in frogs.

  13. The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain pleasant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C.; Snyder, Gregory D.; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that “it could be worse” can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the “relative relief context,” moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a “hedonic flip,” such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This “hedonic flip” was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. “Pleasant pain” also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced “hedonic flip” of pain. PMID:23352758

  14. The Role of Peers in Predicting Students' Homophobic Behavior: Effects of Peer Aggression, Prejudice, and Sexual Orientation Identity Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Rivers, Ian; Vecho, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological framework, there has been growing attention on the role of peers in accounting for adolescents' homophobic behavior. In this study, we considered whether individuals' homophobic behavior could be attributed to their peers' collective levels of aggression, sexual prejudice, and importance placed on their sexual…

  15. Fabricating the "Southern Belle": Assessing the Role of Imported Material Culture in the Confederacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Confederate society was dependent on a rigidly defined hierarchy that assigned roles and appropriate behavior based on race, gender, and wealth. White, wealthy, southern women were dependent on material culture as a socially acceptable means of self-fashioning and making their status public. The Union naval blockade threatened this practice by preventing Confederate markets from accessing imported, status-affirming goods. The industry of blockade running rose to fill this need, often controversially prioritizing cargo space for civilian, luxury products over necessities for the military. This article examines the artifact assemblages of blockade runner sites off the coasts of Wilmington, North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina through a theoretical framework of agency and costly signaling to make assessments about Confederate identity during the Civil War.

  16. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: Important role of micropore-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (V o,d ) initially increase and then decrease. The V o,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The V o,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23–46% and 36–65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling. -- Highlights: • The microporosity estimated by benzene vapor differs greatly from that by N 2 . • The micropore volume changes with kerogen maturation. • The phenanthrene or benzene sorption is related to the microporosity of kerogen. • Higher adsorption volume for benzene than for phenanthrene suggests molecular sieve effect. • The pore-filling plays an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene and benzene. -- The sorption behaviors of benzene and phenanthrene are related to the microporosity of the differently matured kerogen, indicating the importance of pore-filling

  17. The Importance of the Nurse Cells and Regulatory Cells in the Control of T Lymphocyte Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Reyes García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes from the immune system are bone marrow-derived cells whose development and activities are carefully supervised by two sets of accessory cells. In the thymus, the immature young T lymphocytes are engulfed by epithelial “nurse cells” and retained in vacuoles, where most of them (95% are negatively selected and removed when they have an incomplete development or express high affinity autoreactive receptors. The mature T lymphocytes that survive to this selection process leave the thymus and are controlled in the periphery by another subpopulation of accessory cells called “regulatory cells,” which reduce any excessive immune response and the risk of collateral injuries to healthy tissues. By different times and procedures, nurse cells and regulatory cells control both the development and the functions of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Disorders in the T lymphocytes development and migration have been observed in some parasitic diseases, which disrupt the thymic microenvironment of nurse cells. In other cases, parasites stimulate rather than depress the functions of regulatory T cells decreasing T-mediated host damages. This paper is a short review regarding some features of these accessory cells and their main interactions with T immature and mature lymphocytes. The modulatory role that neurotransmitters and hormones play in these interactions is also revised.

  18. From Metrosexual to Retrosexual: The Importance of Shifting Male Gender Roles to Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Katherine Noel

    2008-01-01

    The study of gender in feminism should not only concentrate on female gender roles and queer transgressions of established gender roles, but should also include an in-depth discussion on male gender roles as they exist in society. This paper focuses on the metrosexual and the retrosexual trends which have recently affected the male gender role in society. The emergence of the metrosexual in the 1990s through 2005 was a profound change in the traditional male gender role which allowed men to ...

  19. Retail LNG handbook. Retail LNG and The Role of LNG Import Terminals. Report by the GIIGNL Technical Study Group on the possible role of LNG import terminals within the emerging Retail LNG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industries are changing. The influx of supply, low prices, and environmental benefits of natural gas are driving consumers to convert from other fossil fuels. Natural gas consumers on pipeline systems have the ability to benefit, but for those not connected, LNG may be the only opportunity to convert to natural gas. As this market evolves, a unique opportunity may emerge for some existing participants in the LNG market and could lead to a shift in business focus, potentially adding to or even transforming the traditional role of LNG Import Terminals. As surmised by the GIIGNL's Technical Study Group (TSG) at the outset of their endeavor, virtually every member company had historical experience with, was in the midst of expanding its services to include, or was actively engaged in the study of, Retail LNG. The market drivers, value propositions, trends and future prospects for Retail LNG that have widely been publicized were generally confirmed although in an overall more conservative outlook. As a representative body of experienced, long term LNG Import Terminal operators, GIIGNL was uniquely qualified to stress in its Handbook the importance of managing the inherent risk associated with LNG, the application of suitable codes and standards and the use of proper equipment. The study of the aspects of LNG supply and use including safety, security, staffing, equipment siting, and operations is hoped to provide an illustrative framework form which the industry can jointly move towards best practices. While Retail LNG is considered by many to be 'new' there is substantial historical experience with all aspects of the market. LNG Import Terminals, including the experience and competence of their staffing, can play a key role in not only the incubation and growth of the Retail market, but the molding and shaping of regulatory framework, applicable codes and standards and operational best practices. GIIGNL

  20. Epithelium Expressing the E7 Oncoprotein of HPV16 Attracts Immune-Modulatory Dendritic Cells to the Skin and Suppresses Their Antigen-Processing Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janin Chandra

    Full Text Available Antigen presenting cells (APCs in skin can promote either antigen-specific effector functions or antigen tolerance, and thus determine clearance or persistence of cutaneous viral infections. Human papillomavirus (HPV infections can persist in squamous epithelium in immunocompetent individuals, and some persisting HPV infections, particularly with HPV16, promote malignant epithelial transformation. Here, we investigate whether local expression of the HPV16 protein most associated with malignant transformation, HPV16-E7, affects the phenotype and function of APC subsets in the skin. We demonstrate an expanded population of Langerhans cells in HPV16-E7 transgenic skin with distinct cell surface markers which express immune-modulatory enzymes and cytokines not expressed by cells from non transgenic skin. Furthermore, HPV16-E7 transgene expression in keratinocytes attracts new APC subsets to the epidermis. In vivo migration and transport of antigen to the draining lymph node by these APCs is markedly enhanced in HPV16-E7 expressing skin, whereas antigen-processing, as measured by proteolytic cleavage of DQ-OVA and activation of T cells in vivo by APCs, is significantly impaired. These data suggest that local expression of HPV16-E7 in keratinocytes can contribute to persisting infection with this oncogenic virus, by altering the phenotype and function of local APCs.

  1. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-05-10

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of digestive organs, varying subtypes of P2Y receptors may have opposite or synergetic functions on the same cell. Recently, growing lines of evidence strongly suggest the involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of several digestive diseases. In this review, we will focus on their important roles in the development of digestive inflammation and cancer. We anticipate that as the special subtypes of P2Y receptors are studied in depth, specific modulators for them will have good potentials to become promising new drugs to treat human digestive diseases in the near future.

  2. Theoretical Developments In Environmental Management Accounting And The Role And Importance Of MFCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Management Accounting (EMA is a broader concept of accounting which uses accounting tools and practices to support company-internal management decision making on environmental issues and its impact on company performance. Research on EMA can be divided into two broad categories: theoretical and empirical studies. The theoretical studies based on framework that aim to explain the nature of the relationship between economic and environmental performance and the adoption of Environmental Management Accounting in a business environment. The empirical studies follow two lines of research, instrumental studies aim to empirically test the relationships hypothesized in theoretical studies; descriptive studies are intended to examine the factors that encourage the adoption of EMA. This review paper examined the role of MFCA in identifying non-product output (waste and its impact on an organisations profitability. Various case studies are examined in this article that demonstrates MFCA to an important environmental management tool to ensure future sustainability of an organisation.

  3. An essential role for the circadian-regulated gene nocturnin in osteogenesis: the importance of local timekeeping in skeletal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Anyonya R; Kawai, Masanobu; Le, Phuong; Bouxsein, Mary L; Bornstein, Sheila; Green, Carla B; Rosen, Clifford J

    2011-11-01

    The role of circadian proteins in regulating whole-body metabolism and bone turnover has been studied in detail and has led to the discovery of an elemental system for timekeeping involving the core genes Clock, Bmal1, Per, and Cry. Nocturnin (Noc; Ccrn4l), a peripheral circadian-regulated gene has been shown to play a very important role in regulating adipogenesis by deadenylation of key mRNAs and intracytoplasmic transport of PPARγ. The role that it plays in osteogenesis has previously not been studied in detail. In this report we examined in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis in the presence and absence of Noc and show that loss of Noc enhances bone formation and can rescue rosiglitazone-induced bone loss in mice. The circadian rhythm of Noc is likely to be an essential element of marrow stromal cell fate. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. The various scenarios leading to WR stars: Their relative importance and the role of mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, A.

    1982-01-01

    Over the last 40 years WR stars have been associated with almost all possible evolutionary stages. The author lists 7 scenarios which may be considered as most relevant in view of recent surface abundance determinations. He then considers the importance of mass loss in WR formation and discusses properties of binary WR which suggest that formation is dependent on metallicity and thus galactic location. The role of internal mixing in WR formation is also considered. Mass loss on the MS is shown only to be able to explain a minute fraction of the observed WR stars, whereas internal mixing by shear instability has, for all stellar masses, a larger effect on MS evolution than mass loss. (Auth./C.F.)

  5. Chief Business Officers' Functions: Responsibilities and Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Richard A.; Vogler, Daniel E.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 177 chief business officers of public community colleges regarding their responsibilities and the importance they assigned to various role functions. Highlights findings concerning the perceived importance of fiscal/financial duties; endowments as a job function; role in shared planning; and personal attention given to…

  6. Neuroticism modulates amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in response to negative emotional facial expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Henk R.; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Aleman, Andre; Renken, Remco; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick. J.; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with the experience of negative affect and the development of affective disorders. While evidence exists for a modulatory role of neuroticism on task induced brain activity, it is unknown how neuroticism affects brain connectivity, especially the crucial coupling between

  7. General anaesthetics do not impair developmental expression of the KCC2 potassium-chloride cotransporter in neonatal rats during the brain growth spurt

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoh, Claudia Marvine; Bodogan, T.; Kaila, Kai K.; Fiumelli, Hubert; Vutskits, Lá szló

    2013-01-01

    . However, it is not known whether early neuronal activity plays a modulatory role in the expression of total KCC2 mRNA and protein in the immature brain. As general anaesthetics are powerful modulators of neuronal activity, the purpose of this study

  8. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  9. Glycine transporter 1 is a target for the treatment of epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Hai-Ying; van Vliet, Erwin A.; Bright, Kerry-Ann; Hanthorn, Marissa; Lytle, Nikki K.; Gorter, Jan; Aronica, Eleonora; Boison, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brainstem and spinal cord, whereas in hippocampus glycine exerts dual modulatory roles on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and on the strychnine-insensitive glycineB site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). In hippocampus, the

  10. Glycine transporter 1 is a target for the treatment of epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, H-Y; van Vliet, E.A.; Bright, K-A.; Hanthorn, M.; Lytle, N.K.; Gorter, J.; Aronica, E.; Boison, D.

    2015-01-01

    Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brainstem and spinal cord, whereas in hippocampus glycine exerts dual modulatory roles on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and on the strychnine-insensitive glycineB site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). In hippocampus, the

  11. New Insights Into the Mechanisms and Biological Roles of D-Amino Acids in Complex Eco-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliashkevich, Alena; Alvarez, Laura; Cava, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    In the environment bacteria share their habitat with a great diversity of organisms, from microbes to humans, animals and plants. In these complex communities, the production of extracellular effectors is a common strategy to control the biodiversity by interfering with the growth and/or viability of nearby microbes. One of such effectors relies on the production and release of extracellular D-amino acids which regulate diverse cellular processes such as cell wall biogenesis, biofilm integrity, and spore germination. Non-canonical D-amino acids are mainly produced by broad spectrum racemases (Bsr). Bsr’s promiscuity allows it to generate high concentrations of D-amino acids in environments with variable compositions of L-amino acids. However, it was not clear until recent whether these molecules exhibit divergent functions. Here we review the distinctive biological roles of D-amino acids, their mechanisms of action and their modulatory properties of the biodiversity of complex eco-systems. PMID:29681896

  12. Role of oil imports in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madduri, V.B.N.S.; Radhika, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  13. A thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin Q from Corynebacterium glutamicum plays an important role in defense against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Su

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ that belonged to the cysteine-based peroxidases has long been identified in numerous bacteria, but the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of PrxQ remain largely lacking in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To better systematically understand PrxQ, we reported that PrxQ from model and important industrial organism C. glutamicum, encoded by the gene ncgl2403 annotated as a putative PrxQ, played important roles in adverse stress resistance. The lack of C. glutamicum prxQ gene resulted in enhanced cell sensitivity, increased ROS accumulation, and elevated protein carbonylation levels under adverse stress conditions. Accordingly, PrxQ-mediated resistance to adverse stresses mainly relied on the degradation of ROS. The physiological roles of PrxQ in resistance to adverse stresses were corroborated by its induced expression under adverse stresses, regulated directly by the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. Through catalytical kinetic activity, heterodimer formation, and bacterial two-hybrid analysis, we proved that C. glutamicum PrxQ catalytically eliminated peroxides by exclusively receiving electrons from thioredoxin (Trx/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR system and had a broad range of oxidizing substrates, but a better efficiency for peroxynitrite and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the conserved Cys49 and Cys54 are the peroxide oxidation site and the resolving Cys residue, respectively. It was also discovered that C. glutamicum PrxQ mainly existed in monomer whether under its native state or functional state. Based on these results, a catalytic model of PrxQ is being proposed. Moreover, our result that C. glutamicum PrxQ can prevent the damaging effects of adverse stresses by acting as thioredoxin-dependent monomeric peroxidase could be further applied to improve the survival ability and robustness of the important bacterium during fermentation process.

  14. Modulatory Effect of Phytoestrogens and Curcumin on Induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies on the induction of ANXA1 expression have shown that chemically similar estrogen hormones also have role in the induction of the ANXA1. In studies carried out previously, researchers had demonstrated that in human lymphoblastic CCRF-CEM cell line, estrogen hormone and 17 β-estradiol (E2β) induced ...

  15. Inflammatory Mechanisms Associated with Skeletal Muscle Sequelae after Stroke: Role of Physical Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Junior, Hélio José; Gambassi, Bruno Bavaresco; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; Fernandes, Isabela Maia da Cruz; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are increased systematically and locally (e.g., skeletal muscle) in stroke patients. Besides being associated with cardiovascular risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a key role in muscle atrophy by regulating the pathways involved in this condition. As such, they may cause severe decrease in muscle strength and power, as well as impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, physical exercise (PE) has been widely suggested as a powerful tool for treating stroke patients, since PE is able to regenerate, even if partially, physical and cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise in poststroke patients remain poorly understood. Thus, in this study we analyze the candidate mechanisms associated with muscle atrophy in stroke patients, as well as the modulatory effect of inflammation in this condition. Later, we suggest the two strongest anti-inflammatory candidate mechanisms, myokines and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which may be activated by physical exercise and may contribute to a decrease in proinflammatory markers of poststroke patients. PMID:27647951

  16. Interaction of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus with keratin: an important role in parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are human and bovine parasites, respectively, that provoke the sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis. These extracellular parasites adhere to the host epithelial cell surface. Although mucinases and proteases have been described as important proteins for parasite adhesion to epithelial cells, no studies have examined the role of the keratin molecules that cornify the vaginal epithelium. Here, we investigated the interaction of T. vaginalis and T. foetus with human keratin in vitro; additionally, adherence assays were performed in cattle with T. foetus to elucidate whether trichomonads were able to interact with keratin in vivo. We demonstrated that both T. vaginalisand T. foetusinteracted directly with keratin. Additionally, the trichomonads ingested and digested keratin, shedding new light on the Trichomonas infection process.

  17. Effects of hippocampal lesioning on experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breivik, T.; Thrane, P.S.; Gjermo, P.; Cools, A.R.; Myhrer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The hippocampus, which is a brain structure involved in learning and memory processes, plays a key role in the feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic sympathetic nervous system, and the subsequent secretion of immuno-modulatory hormones in response to

  18. Effects of hippocampal lesioning on experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breivik, T.; Thrane, P.S.; Gjermo, P.; Cools, A.R.; Myhrer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The hippocampus, which is a brain structure involved in learning and memory processes, plays a key role in the feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic sympathetic nervous system, and the subsequent secretion of immuno-modulatory hormones in response to

  19. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631–639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of gene–environment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51 065 same-sex twins from 25 715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of gene–environment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  20. Repeated forced swim stress enhances CFA-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and affects the expressions of pCREB and c-Fos in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, H; Kimura, A; Donishi, T; Kaneoke, Y

    2014-02-14

    Stress affects brain activity and promotes long-term changes in multiple neural systems. Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several animal models, chronic stress produces lasting hyperalgesia. The insular (IC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) are the regions exhibiting most reliable pain-related activity. And the IC and ACC play an important role in pain modulation via the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and c-Fos in the IC and ACC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in the cerebral cortices that affect the activity of the descending pain modulatory system in the rats with stress-induced hyperalgesia. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced an increase in the expression of pCREB and c-Fos in the anterior IC (AIC). CFA injection into the hindpaw after the FS shows significantly enhanced thermal hyperalgesia and induced a decrease in the expression of c-Fos in the AIC and the posterior IC (PIC). Quantitative image analysis showed that the numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the left AIC and PIC were significantly lower in the FS+CFA group (L AIC, 95.9±6.8; L PIC, 181.9±23.1) than those in the naive group (L AIC, 151.1±19.3, pCFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia through dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF MONEY MARKET INTEREST FORMATION AND ITS ROLE IN CREDIT COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Lucian-Ion

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary period the place and role of banks in economy is very well defined, they mainly acting as main intermediary in savings-investment relationship, critical relationship to economic growth. Although the current financial crisis demonstrates that the banking system is no longer the foundation of the economic system, yet banks continue to be the most important institutions that intermediate monetary affairs. Through bank credit institutions in our country continues to attract large sums of money from the public and offer banking products and services. Banking market is dominated both by opening accounts for all the people who do acts of trade, debt collection and debt repayment, and especially the provision of services on product placement credit institutions. Each institution has its own strategy and is constantly concerned about cost sources of credit drawn and placed. This cost is calculated based on the interest rate plus any fees. This study attempts to make an analysis of how the interest rate is fixed at the products offered by bank to customers.

  2. Role and importance of accounting and audit in corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovre Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis and the financial scandals of the early XXI century led to the discrediting and compromising the accounting and auditing profession. The assumption of efficient growth and development of a company is an introduction of corporate governance and protection of the interests of creditors. In order to regain public confidence in financial reporting, it is necessary to examine the role of accounting and auditing profession and align it with international standards. It is necessary to take into account The OECD Principles of Corporate Governance, which are accepted by all international financial and accounting organizations, with the aim of rehabilitation of confidence in the audit. Taking into account The OECD Principles, it becomes necessary for accounting and auditing practices to be directed towards the fulfillment of the basic role of protecting the interests of stakeholders and providing information for the functioning of the administration.

  3. Perceived cultural importance and actual self-importance of values in cultural identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ching; Chiu, Chi-yue; Tam, Kim-pong; Lee, Sau-lai; Lau, Ivy Yee-man; Peng, Siqing

    2007-02-01

    Cross-cultural psychologists assume that core cultural values define to a large extent what a culture is. Typically, core values are identified through an actual self-importance approach, in which core values are those that members of the culture as a group strongly endorse. In this article, the authors propose a perceived cultural importance approach to identifying core values, in which core values are values that members of the culture as a group generally believe to be important in the culture. In 5 studies, the authors examine the utility of the perceived cultural importance approach. Results consistently showed that, compared with values of high actual self-importance, values of high perceived cultural importance play a more important role in cultural identification. These findings have important implications for conceptualizing and measuring cultures. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Emotion perception across cultures: the role of cognitive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Pogosyan, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Despite consistently documented cultural differences in the perception of facial expressions of emotion, the role of culture in shaping cognitive mechanisms that are central to emotion perception has received relatively little attention in past research. We review recent developments in cross-cultural psychology that provide particular insights into the modulatory role of culture on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion through two distinct routes: display rules and cognitive styles. Investigations of emotion intensity perception have demonstrated that facial expressions with varying levels of intensity of positive affect are perceived and categorized differently across cultures. Specifically, recent findings indicating significant levels of differentiation between intensity levels of facial expressions among American participants, as well as deviations from clear categorization of high and low intensity expressions among Japanese and Russian participants, suggest that display rules shape mental representations of emotions, such as intensity levels of emotion prototypes. Furthermore, a series of recent studies using eye tracking as a proxy for overt attention during face perception have identified culture-specific cognitive styles, such as the propensity to attend to very specific features of the face. Together, these results suggest a cascade of cultural influences on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion, whereby cultures impart specific behavioral practices that shape the way individuals process information from the environment. These cultural influences lead to differences in cognitive styles due to culture-specific attentional biases and emotion prototypes, which partially account for the gradient of cultural agreements and disagreements obtained in past investigations of emotion perception.

  6. Affect perception across cultures: the role of cognitive mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Engelmann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite consistently documented cultural differences in the perception of facial expressions of emotion, the role of culture in shaping cognitive mechanisms that are central to affect perception has received relatively little attention in past research. We review recent developments in cross-cultural psychology that provide particular insights into the modulatory role of culture on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion through two distinct routes: display rules and cognitive styles. Investigations of affect intensity perception have demonstrated that facial expressions with varying levels of intensity of positive affect are perceived and categorized differently across cultures. Recent findings indicating high levels of differentiation between intensity levels of facial expressions among American participants, as well as deviations from clear categorization of high and low intensity expressions in Japanese and Russian participants, suggest that display rules shape mental representations of emotions, such as intensity levels of emotion prototypes. Furthermore, a series of recent studies using eye tracking as a proxy for overt attention during face perception has identified culture-specific cognitive styles, such as the propensity to attend to very specific features of the face. Together, these results suggest a cascade of cultural influences on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion, whereby cultures impart specific behavioral practices that shape the way individuals process information from the environment. These cultural influences lead to differences in cognitive style, such as attentional biases and emotion prototypes, which partially account for the gradient of cultural agreements and disagreements obtained in past investigations.

  7. Microbial functional diversity plays an important role in the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Tribedi, Prosun

    2018-03-01

    Towards bioremediation of recalcitrant materials like synthetic polymer, soil has been recognized as a traditional site for disposal and subsequent degradation as some microorganisms in soil can degrade the polymer in a non-toxic, cost-effective, and environment friendly way. Microbial functional diversity is a constituent of biodiversity that includes wide range of metabolic activities that can influence numerous aspects of ecosystem functioning like ecosystem stability, nutrient availability, ecosystem dynamics, etc. Thus, in the current study, we assumed that microbial functional diversity could play an important role in polymer degradation in soil. To verify this hypothesis, we isolated soil from five different sites of landfill and examined several microbiological parameters wherein we observed a significant variation in heterotrophic microbial count as well as microbial activities among the soil microcosms tested. Multivariate analysis (principle component analysis) based on the carbon sources utilization pattern revealed that soil microcosms showed different metabolic patterns suggesting the variable distribution of microorganisms among the soil microcosms tested. Since microbial functional diversity depends on both microbial richness and evenness, Shannon diversity index was determined to measure microbial richness and Gini coefficient was determined to measure microbial evenness. The tested soil microcosms exhibited variation in both microbial richness and evenness suggesting the considerable difference in microbial functional diversity among the tested microcosms. We then measured polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation in soil microcosms after desired period of incubation of PHB in soil wherein we found that soil microcosms having higher functional diversity showed enhanced PHB degradation and soil microcosms having lower functional diversity showed reduced PHB degradation. We also noticed that all the tested soil microcosms showed similar pattern in both

  8. The role of beneficial bacteria wall elasticity in regulating innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Мokrozub, Viktoria V; Lazarenko, Liudmyla M; Sichel, Liubov M; Babenko, Lidia P; Lytvyn, Petro M; Demchenko, Olga M; Melnichenko, Yulia O; Boyko, Nadiya V; Biavati, Bruno; DiGioia, Diana; Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Spivak, Mykola Ya

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have great potential to contribute to development of healthy dietary regimes, preventive care, and an integrated approach to immunity-related disease management. The bacterial wall is a dynamic entity, depending on many components and playing an essential role in modulating immune response. The impact of cell wall elasticity on the beneficial effects of probiotic strains has not been sufficiently studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria strains on phagocytic system cells (macrophages) as related to bacterial wall elasticity, estimated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We conducted studies on Balb/c line mice 18-20 g in weight using lyophilized strains of LAB-Lactobacillus acidophilus IMV B-7279, Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMV B-7281, and bifidobacteria-Bifidobacterium animalis VKL and Bifidobacterium animalis VKB. We cultivated the macrophages obtained from the peritoneal cavity of mice individually with the strains of LAB and bifidobacteria and evaluated their effect on macrophages, oxygen-dependent bactericidal activity, nitric oxide production, and immunoregulatory cytokines. We used AFM scanning to estimate bacterial cell wall elasticity. All strains had a stimulating effect on the functional activity of macrophages and ability to produce NO/NO2 in vitro. Lactobacilli strains increased the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ in vitro. The AFM demonstrated different cell wall elasticity levels in various strains of LAB and bifidobacteria. The rigidity of the cell walls among lactobacilli was distributed as follows: Lactobacillus acidophilus IMV B-7279 > Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280 > Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMV B-7281; among the strains of bifidobacteria: B. animalis VKB > B. animalis VKL. Probiotic strain survival in the macrophages depended on the bacterial cell wall elasticity and on the time of their joint cultivation. LAB

  9. Role of Rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Garima S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice. The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total erythrocyte count, total leucocytes count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in the experimental group were found to be elevated as compared to the control group of mice. Furthermore, the Rosemary extract treatment enhanced reduced glutathione content in the liver and blood against radiation-induced depletion. Treatment with the plant extract brought a significant fall in the lipid peroxidation level, suggesting rosemary's role in protection against radiation-induced membrane and cellular damage. The results from the present study suggest a radio-protective effect of the Rosemary extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice.

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    nicotine and glucagon caused significant increases in intestinal glucose uptake. It was therefore concluded that the gastro-intestinal tract will increase its glucose uptake in response to hyperglycemia irrespective of its cause. Hence, the gastrointestinal tract plays a modulatory role in glucose homeostasis. The mechanism(s) ...

  11. Waves of change: immunomodulation of the innate immune response by low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golbach, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated possible modulatory roles of low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) exposure on the innate immune system. Recent decades have seen a huge increase in the use of electronic devices that nowadays enable us to communicate with distant family, enjoy

  12. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Sander, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6 mm±0.4 mm exists below which ignition by CO 2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29 W/cm 2 and 38 W/cm 2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials

  13. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. N.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Sander, R. K.

    2005-03-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6mm±0.4mm exists below which ignition by CO2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29W /cm2 and 38W/cm2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  14. On the Beneficial Role of Silicon to Organisms : A Case Study on the Importance of Silicon Chemistry to Metal Accumulation in Yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, H.J.; Krijger, G.C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon is involved in numerous important structural and functional roles in a wide range of organisms, including diatoms, plants, and humans, but clear mechanisms have been discovered only in diatoms and sponges. Silicate availability influences metal concentrations within various cell- and

  15. The Ethics of Ambiguity: Rethinking the Role and Importance of Uncertainty in Medical Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domen, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher-learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician-patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.

  16. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  17. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  18. A Tempest in A Ladle: The Debate about the Roles of General and Specific Abilities in Predicting Important Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Johnson

    2018-01-01

    The debate about the roles of general and specific abilities in predicting important outcomes is a tempest in a ladle because we cannot measure abilities without also measuring skills. Skills always develop through exposure, are specific rather than general, and are executed using different strategies by different people, thus tapping into varied specific abilities. Relative predictive validities of measurement formats depend on the purpose: the more general and long-term the purpose, the bet...

  19. 5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Kornum, Birgitte R; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used...

  20. Enhanced Phenylephrine Contractions in Rabbit Carotid Arteries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have previously reported raised resting diastolic blood pressure (BP) in subjects with single S-gene inheritance – although the mechanism was unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize, in vitro, the modulatory role of erythrocyte components from subjects with different Hemoglobin (Hb) genotypes on contractile ...

  1. The structural and functional role of myelin fast-migrating cerebrosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podbielska, Maria; Levery, Steven B; Hogan, Edward L

    2011-01-01

    A family of neutral glycosphingolipids containing a 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine galactosylceramide (3-SAG) has been characterized. Seven new derivatives of galactosylceramide (GalCer), designated as fast-migrating cerebrosides (FMCs) by TLC retention factor, have been identified. The simplest compounds...... myelin lipid biomarkers coappear with GalCer during myelinogenesis and disappear along with GalCer in de- or dys-myelinating disorders. Myelin lipid antigens, including FMCs, are keys to myelin biology, opening the possibility of new and novel immune modulatory tools for treatment of autoimmune diseases...

  2. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  3. An Investigation of the Attitudes of the National Teams’ Coaches Towards the Role and Importance of Information Technology in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Salehi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the attitude of elite coaches of the team and individual sports towards the role and importance of information technology in sport, 132 coaches were chosen as a sample and answered to the questionnaire of the role of information technology in sport organised by Liebermann and Katz that consisted of 3 different sections: A General attitude of the coaches towards computer and technology; B The importance of science and technology in achieving coaching experience; C Understanding science and technology in sport. Descriptive and inferential statistics (CFA and independent t - test were used in order to analyse the data. The findings demonstrated that elite coaches selected two aims as their chief ones: 1 - Winning medals in competitions; 2- Having a good relationship with the athletes. There was not any significant relationship between the attitudes of the men and women and the coaches of the individual and team sports on science and technology. It seems that elite coaches are aware on the general importance of sport sciences and have a positive attitude towards the use of sport technologies. But they do not practically transfer this positive attitude to competitive sport environments even when they use information technology for other purposes. Eventually it can be stated that the attitude of the coaches towards technology is very positive and consequently it is a must to find strategies in order to encourage them to use current technology and science practically.

  4. The important role of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    This is a discussion of the importance of energy taxation in EU countries. Although natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, its use may be taxed far harder in the future. The price effects of such a development are discussed. The increasing taxes on oil products which has taken place in the OECD area may come to slow down if competing economies elsewhere do not follow the same policy. The challenge is particularly coming from the new economies in Asia, included the giants China and India, which now have far larger economic growth than the OECD area with a corresponding increased energy consumption. Strong competition may develop both in the markets for products and in the market for factor inputs (energy), so that taxes within the OECD area no longer can be increased but must be lowered. This may also happen if the oil price is high over some time. As far as taxes on natural gas in the European gas market is concerned, the large industrial users will face a regional competitive situation for natural gas as an input factor, while they are globally in a competitive situation for oil as an input factor. In product markets, this industry competes globally in the same way, as does industry that uses oil. This may lead to European countries wishing to tax the use of natural gas in the consumer sector harder than gas for industry and the production of electricity

  5. Importance of demographic characteristics and nurses' role in women's perceptions and experiences of gynaecological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Zaić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gynaecological examination is crucial for protecting the reproductive health of women. The purpose of the study was to explore the perception of women towards gynaecological examination, the importance of some demographic characteristics and the role of a nurse. Methods: A quantitative methodology was used for study purposes. A structured web questionnaire was applied on a non-random, convenience sample of women (n = 476. The questionnaire was published on the most popular Slovenian web forums. Prior to the main research project, a pilot study was conducted on a sample of 10 women. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Results of the study show a statistically significant correlation between the respondents' residential environment (t = -2.436, p = 0.015, the level of educational attainment (rs=-0.153, p = 0.001 and the presence of discomfort and fear before the gynaecological examination. The role of a nurse in reducing the level of discomfort and fear before (t = -0.931, p = 0.352 and during (t = -0.888, p = 0.375 the gynaecological examination was not proven statistically significant. Discussion and conclusions: Besides the demographic characteristics, a number of personal and societal factors influence women's attitudes towards gynaecological examination and the associated discomfort and fear. The study suggests that further qualitative studies are needed to gain a deeper understanding of how women experience a pelvic examination.

  6. Role models and professional development in dentistry: an important resource: The views of early career stage dentists at one academic health science centre in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Osama, O; Gallagher, J E

    2018-02-01

    The importance of role models, and their differing influence in early, mid- and late careers, has been identified in the process of professional development of medical doctors. There is a paucity of evidence within dentistry on role models and their attributes. To explore the views of early career dentists on positive and negative role models across key phases of professional development, together with role models' attributes and perceived influence. This is a phenomenological study collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews based on a topic guide. Dentists in junior (core training) hospital posts in one academic health science centre were all invited to participate. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Twelve early career stage dentists, 10 of whom were female, reported having role models, mainly positive, in their undergraduate and early career phases. Participants defined role models' attributes in relation to three distinct domains: clinical attributes, personal qualities and teaching skills. Positive role models were described as "prioritising the patient's best interests", "delivering learner-centred teaching and training" and "exhibiting a positive personality", whilst negative role models demonstrated the converse. Early career dentists reported having largely positive dentist role models during- and post-dental school and report their impact on professional values and aspirations, learning outcomes and career choice. The findings suggest that these early career dentists in junior hospital posts have largely experienced and benefitted from positive role models, notably dentists, perceived as playing an important and creative influence promoting professionalism and shaping the career choices of early career stage dentists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    Tongjaroenbungam, Walaiporn; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Cunningham, Joanna; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Dodson, Hilary C; Forge, Andrew; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Casalotti, Stefano O

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a pe...

  8. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens' faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  9. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Jankowiak Siuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behaviour. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behaviour and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male were studied using fMRI method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioural effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  10. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain. PMID:26441569

  11. Effects of rough handling on short chain fatty acid production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of stress due to rough handling (RH) on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environmental pH, concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and modulatory roles of two Lactobacillus strains was investigated in broiler chickens. Equal number of chicks was randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups; ...

  12. Do all roads lead to Rome? The role of neuro-immune interactions before birth in the programming of offspring obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eJasoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The functions of the nervous system can be powerfully modulated by the immune system. Although traditionally considered to be quite separate, neuro-immune interactions are increasingly recognized as critical for both normal and pathological nervous system function in the adult. However, a growing body of information supports a critical role for neuro-immune interactions before birth, particularly in the prenatal programming of later-life neurobehavioral disease risk. This review will focus on maternal obesity, as it represents an environment of pathological immune system function during pregnancy that elevates offspring neurobehavioral disease risk. We will first delineate the normal role of the immune system during pregnancy, including the role of the placenta as both a barrier and relayer of inflammatory information between the maternal and fetal environments. This will be followed by the current exciting findings of how immuno-modulatory molecules may elevate offspring risk of neurobehavioral disease by altering brain development and, consequently, later life function. Finally, by drawing parallels with pregnancy complications other than obesity, we will suggest that aberrant immune activation, irrespective of its origin, may lead to neuro-immune interactions that otherwise would not exist in the developing brain. These interactions could conceivably derail normal brain development and/or later life function, and thereby elevate risk for obesity and other neurobehavioral disorders later in the offspring’s life.

  13. Investigation into the role of endogenous abscisic acid during ripening of imported avocado cv. Hass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marjolaine D; Chope, Gemma A; Terry, Leon A

    2017-08-01

    The importance of ethylene in avocado ripening has been extensively studied. In contrast, little is known about the possible role of abscisic acid (ABA). The present work studied the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (0.3 μL L -1 ), e+® Ethylene Remover and the combination thereof on the quality of imported avocado cv. Hass fruit stored for 7 days at 12 °C. Ethylene production, respiration, firmness, colour, heptose (C7) sugars and ABA concentrations in mesocarp tissue were measured throughout storage. Treatment with e+® Ethylene Remover reduced ethylene production, respiration rate and physiological ripening compared with controls. Fruit treated with 1-MCP + e+® Ethylene Remover and, to a lesser extent 1-MCP alone, had the lowest ethylene production and respiration rate and hence the best quality. Major sugars measured in mesocarp tissue were mannoheptulose and perseitol, and their content was not correlated with ripening parameters. Mesocarp ABA concentration, as determined by mass spectrometry, increased as fruit ripened and was negatively correlated with fruit firmness. Results suggest a relationship between ABA and ethylene metabolism since blocking ethylene, and to a larger extent blocking and removing ethylene, resulted in lower ABA concentrations. Whether ABA influences avocado fruit ripening needs to be determined in future research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The Important Role of Carbohydrates in the Flavor, Function, and Formulation of Oral Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaro Kokkinidou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients who are malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition often benefit from the consumption of oral nutritional supplements (ONS. ONS supply a range of micro- and macro-nutrients, and they can be used to supplement a diet or provide total nutrition. Since ONS are specially formulated products, all ONS ingredients—including carbohydrates—are added ingredients. This may seem to be at odds with the growing public health discourse on the need to reduce “added sugars” in the diet. However, carbohydrate is an essential nutrient for human health and is a critical ingredient in ONS. Helping to educate patients on the value of “added sugars” in ONS may be useful to improve compliance with nutritional recommendations when ONS are indicated. This perspective paper reviews the important roles of “added sugars” in ONS, in terms of flavor, function, and product formulation.

  15. IRMM Certified Reference Materials and k0-NAA: an important role for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Pauwels, J.; Pomm, S.

    1998-01-01

    The k 0 -Neutron Activation Analysis method was introduced at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) and the Belgian nuclear research centre (SCK CEN) in 1994. This analytical technique is routinely used at IRMM for the production control, homogeneity and stability tests and/or for certification of metallic, biological and environmental reference materials. The successful implementation of k 0 -NAA was proven at several certification exercises - such as ISS Antarctic Sediment, BCR Mussel Tissue and BCR Bovine Liver, SMU Bovine Blood - where all our results were accepted for certification. Responding to regulatory and/or scientific demands, IRMM is collaborating with national institutes to develop new high quality reference materials: (i) in the field of Neutron dosimetry: high purity nickel, Al-Ag or Zr-Au-Lu alloys; (ii) for environmental and industrial monitoring: Antarctic krill, doped plastics or catalytic converters; (iii) synthetic multi-element standard for the accreditation of k 0 -NAA laboratories. Far from being exhaustive, this list highlights the important role that k 0 -NAA will play in the certification of reference materials in the years 2000. (author)

  16. Heterotypic contact reveals a COX-2-mediated suppression of osteoblast differentiation by endothelial cells: A negative modulatory role for prostanoids in VEGF-mediated cell: cell communication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkin, Claire E.; Garonna, Elena; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P.D.

    2008-01-01

    In bone, angiogenesis must be initiated appropriately, but limited once remodelling or repair is complete. Our recent findings have supported a role for prostaglandins (PG), known modulators of osteoblast (OB) and endothelial cell (EC) behaviour, in facilitating VEGF-mediated paracrine communication from OBs to 'remotely located' ECs, but the mechanism(s) regulating OB:EC crosstalk when these cells are closely opposed are undefined. In this study we have examined: (i) the effects of exogenous PGE 2 on VEGF-driven events in ECs, and (ii) the role of endogenous COX-2-derived prostanoids in mediating communication between intimately opposed OBs and ECs in direct contact. Exposure of ECs to PGE 2 increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, COX-2 induction, 6-keto-PGF 1α release and EC proliferation. In contrast, PGE 2 attenuated VEGF 165 -induced VEGFR2/Flk1 phosphorylation, ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of ECs, suggesting that exogenous PGE 2 restricts the actions of VEGF. However, the COX-2-selective inhibitor, NS398, also attenuated VEGF-induced proliferation, implying a distinct role for endogenous COX-2 activity in regulating EC behaviour. To examine the effect of OB:EC proximity and the role of COX-2 products further, we used a confrontational co-culture model. These studies showed that COX-2 blockade with NS398 enhanced EC-dependent increases in OB differentiation, that this effect was reversed by exogenous PGH 2 (immediate COX-2 product), and that exogenous VEGF did not influence EC-dependent OB differentiation under these conditions. Our findings indicate that locally produced prostanoids may serve distinct roles depending on OB:EC proximity and negatively modulate VEGF-mediated changes in EC behaviour when these cells are closely opposed to control angiogenesis during bone (re)modelling

  17. Medication Safety Systems and the Important Role of Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Jeannell M

    2016-03-01

    Preventable medication-related adverse events continue to occur in the healthcare setting. While the Institute of Medicine's To Err is Human, published in 2000, highlighted the prevalence of medical and medication-related errors in patient morbidity and mortality, there has not been significant documented progress in addressing system contributors to medication errors. The lack of progress may be related to the myriad of pharmaceutical options now available and the nuances of optimizing drug therapy to achieve desired outcomes and prevent undesirable outcomes. However, on a broader scale, there may be opportunities to focus on the design and performance of the many processes that are part of the medication system. Errors may occur in the storage, prescribing, transcription, preparation and dispensing, or administration and monitoring of medications. Each of these nodes of the medication system, with its many components, is prone to failure, resulting in harm to patients. The pharmacist is uniquely trained to be able to impact medication safety at the individual patient level through medication management skills that are part of the clinical pharmacist's role, but also to analyze the performance of medication processes and to lead redesign efforts to mitigate drug-related outcomes that may cause harm. One population that can benefit from a focus on medication safety through clinical pharmacy services and medication safety programs is the elderly, who are at risk for adverse drug events due to their many co-morbidities and the number of medications often used. This article describes the medication safety systems and provides a blueprint for creating a foundation for medication safety programs within healthcare organizations. The specific role of pharmacists and clinical pharmacy services in medication safety is also discussed here and in other articles in this Theme Issue.

  18. Dietary yeast-derived mannan oligosaccharides have immune-modulatory properties but do not improve high fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R Hoving

    Full Text Available The indigestible mannan oligosaccharides (MOS derived from the outer cell wall of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown potential to reduce inflammation. Since inflammation is one of the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with MOS on inflammation and metabolic homeostasis in lean and diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a low fat diet (LFD or a high fat diet (HFD with, respectively, 10% or 45% energy derived from lard fat, with or without 1% MOS for 17 weeks. Body weight and composition were measured throughout the study. After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body glucose tolerance was assessed and in week 17 immune cell composition was determined in mesenteric white adipose tissue (mWAT and liver by flow cytometry and RT-qPCR. In LFD-fed mice, MOS supplementation induced a significant increase in the abundance of macrophages and eosinophils in mWAT. A similar trend was observed in hepatic macrophages. Although HFD feeding induced a classical shift from the anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages towards the pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in both mWAT and liver from control mice, MOS supplementation had no effect on this obesity-driven immune response. Finally, MOS supplementation did not improve whole-body glucose homeostasis in both lean and obese mice.Altogether, our data showed that MOS had extra-intestinal immune modulatory properties in mWAT and liver. However these effects were not substantial enough to significantly ameliorate HFD-induced glucose intolerance or inflammation.

  19. Modulatory Effect of the Intracellular Content of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 Against the Aflatoxin B1-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Toalá, J E; Astiazarán-García, H; Estrada-Montoya, M C; Garcia, H S; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; González-Córdova, A F; Hernández-Mendoza, A

    2018-06-03

    It has been recognized that lactic acid bacteria exhibit antioxidant properties, which have been mainly endorsed to the intact viable bacteria. However, recent studies have shown that intracellular content (IC) may also be good sources of antioxidative metabolites, which may potentially contribute to oxidative homeostasis in vivo. Hence, the modulatory effect of the intracellular content of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (IC431) on aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )-induced oxidative stress in rats was evaluated on the basis of its influence on hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant status-antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities; and on the oxidative stress index (OSi). Results demonstrated that CAT and GPx activities, and TAC, determined in plasma samples, were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rats treated with AFB 1 plus IC431 (3.98 μM/min/mg protein, 1.88 μM/min/mg protein, and 238.7 μM Trolox equivalent, respectively) than AFB 1 -treated rats (3.47 μM/min/mg protein, 1.46 μM/min/mg protein, and 179.7 μM Trolox equivalent, respectively). Furthermore, plasma and liver tissue samples from rats treated with AFB 1 plus IC431 showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower LPO values (52 and 51%, respectively) and OSi (59 and 51%, respectively) than AFB 1 -treated rats. Hence, our results proved that the intracellular content of Lact. casei CRL 431 contains metabolites that are capable to modulate the antioxidant defense systems in living organism, which may help to ameliorate the damage associated to AFB 1 -induced oxidative stress.

  20. Motivation to comply with task rules and multitasking performance: The role of need for cognitive closure and goal importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumowska, Ewa; Kossowska, Małgorzata; Roets, Arne

    2018-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the role task rules play in multitasking performance. We postulated that rules should be especially important for individuals highly motivated to have structure and clear answers, i.e., those high on need for cognitive closure (NFC). High NFC should thus be related to greater compliance with task rules. Specifically, given high goal importance, NFC should be more strongly related to a multitasking strategy when multitasking is imposed by the rules, and to a mono-tasking strategy when monotasking is imposed by the rules. This should translate into better multitasking or mono-tasking performance, depending on condition. Overall, the results were supportive as NFC was related to a more mono-tasking strategy in the mono-tasking condition (Studies 1 and 2 only) and more dual-tasking strategy in the dual-tasking condition (Studies 1-3). This translated into respective differences in performance. The effects were significant only when goal importance was high (Study 1) and held when cognitive ability was controlled for (Study 2).

  1. Modulatory Effects of Polyphenols on Apoptosis Induction: Relevance for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Giovannini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, occurring in fruit and vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products, have been demonstrated to have clear antioxidant properties in vitro, and many of their biological actions have been attributed to their intrinsic reducing capabilities. However, it has become clear that, in complex biological systems, polyphenols exhibit several additional properties which are yet poorly understood. Apoptosis is a genetically controlled and evolutionarily conserved form of cell death of critical importance for the normal embryonic development and for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the adult organism. The malfunction of the death machinery may play a primary role in various pathological processes, since too little or too much apoptosis can lead to proliferative or degenerative diseases, respectively. Cancer cells are characterized by a deregulated proliferation, and/or an inability to undergo programmed cell death. A large body of evidence indicates that polyphenols can exert chemopreventive effects towards different organ specific cancers, affecting the overall process of carcinogenesis by several mechanisms: inhibition of DNA synthesis, modulation of ROS production, regulation of cell cycle arrest, modulation of survival/proliferation pathways. In addition, polyphenols can directly influence different points of the apoptotic process, and/or the expression of Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9 214 regulatory proteins. Although the bulk of data has been obtained in in vitro systems, a number of clinical studies suggesting a preventive and therapeutic effectiveness of polyphenols in vivo is available. However, a deeper knowledge of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the modulation of apoptosis by polyphenols, and their real effectiveness, is necessary in order to propose them as potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic candidates for cancer treatment.

  2. In situ SUMOylation analysis reveals a modulatory role of RanBP2 in the nuclear rim and PML bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Noriko; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Taro; Sugahara, Satoko; Saitoh, Hisato; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    SUMO modification plays a critical role in a number of cellular functions including nucleocytoplasmic transport, gene expression, cell cycle and formation of subnuclear structures such as promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies. In order to identify the sites where SUMOylation takes place in the cell, we developed an in situ SUMOylation assay using a semi-intact cell system and subsequently combined it with siRNA-based knockdown of nucleoporin RanBP2, also known as Nup358, which is one of the known SUMO E3 proteins. With the in situ SUMOylation assay, we found that both nuclear rim and PML bodies, besides mitotic apparatuses, are major targets for active SUMOylation. The ability to analyze possible SUMO conjugation sites would be a valuable tool to investigate where SUMO E3-like activities and/or SUMO substrates exist in the cell. Specific knockdown of RanBP2 completely abolished SUMOylation along the nuclear rim and dislocated RanGAP1 from the nuclear pore complexes. Interestingly, the loss of RanBP2 markedly reduced the number of PML bodies, in contrast to other, normal-appearing nuclear compartments including the nuclear lamina, nucleolus and chromatin, suggesting a novel link between RanBP2 and PML bodies. SUMOylation facilitated by RanBP2 at the nuclear rim may be a key step for the formation of a particular subnuclear organization. Our data imply that SUMO E3 proteins like RanBP2 facilitate spatio-temporal SUMOylation for certain nuclear structure and function

  3. Importance of Choline as Essential Nutrient and Its Role in Prevention of Various Toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somava Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient included as a member of the vitamin B12 group owing to its structural similarities with that of the other members of the group. Its roles and functions, however, extend much wider than that of the vitamins with which it is grouped. Choline is vital for maintenance of various key metabolic processes which play a role in the prevention or progression of various health impairments. The occurrence of diseases like neural tube defect (NTD and Alzheimer’s is prevented by the metabolic role of choline. It is also indispensable for mitigation of various forms of toxic contamination. While adequate level of choline in the body is essential, an excess of choline can result in various forms of disorder. To maintain the optimal level of choline in the body can be a challenge. The vital roles played by choline together with the range of contradictions and problems that choline presents make choline an interesting area of study. This paper attempts to summarize and review some recent publications on choline that have opened up new prospect in understanding the multiple role played by choline and in throwing light on the role played by this wonder essential nutrient in mitigating various forms of toxic contamination.

  4. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  5. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  6. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine.

  7. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine. PMID:25949219

  8. Oxytocin Differentially Affects Sucrose Taking and Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycl...

  9. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  10. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators are financial and non financial indicators that organizations use inorder to estimate and fortify how successful they are, aiming previously established long lastinggoals. Appropriate selection of indicators that will be used for measuring is of a greatest importance.Process organization of business is necessary to be constitute in order to realize such effective andefficient system or performance measuring via KPI. Process organization also implies customerorientation and necessary flexibility in nowadays condition of global competition.Explanation of process organization, the way of KPI selection, and practical example of KPImeasuring in Toyota dealerships are presented in this paper.

  11. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  12. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Qian; Chai, Meng-Long; Li, Qing-Ying; Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Bao; Dai, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR- 378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) and Ras-related nuclear (RAN)-binding protein 10 (RANBP10) were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes overexpressing miR-378. However, the

  13. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes

  14. Epigenetic modifications: An important mechanism in diabetic disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Kubis, Adriana; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2017-11-29

    In the search for explanations of diabetes pathomechanisms, especially the development of its vascular complications (micro- and macrovascular ), although current, good metabolic control of diabetes, attention was drawn to the role of epigenetic inheritance associated with epigenetic modifications of histone proteins and DNA in hyperglycemia conditions. This study showed the significant role of DNA methylation and histone epigenetic modifications (a different nature and a different degree) in the transmission of information that is not connected with gene inheritance but concerns the persistent changes induced by hyperglycemia..Attention was paid to the role of DNA methylation of pancreatic cells in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, but also type 2. The important role of DNA methylation changes in a so-called intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as reason of subsequent development of diabetes was particularly emphasized. In the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its complications, especially microvascular complications, the greatest share and importance of epigenetic modifications on mitochondrial DNA metylation are the most important. The multidirectionality Complicaand complexity of epigenetic modifications of histone proteins indicate their importance in the development of diabetic disturbances. An especially important role is attributed to methylation and acetylation of histone proteins, in particular on arginine and lysine, whose changes occur most frequently. Moreover, epigenetic modifications of the enzymes, especially methylases, responsible for these processes are the underlying. It has been indicated that the identification of epigenetic differences within the DNA or histone proteins may be a useful prognostic biomarker of susceptibility to the disease development in the future. Moreover, they may become a potential target for future therapeutic interventions for clinical disorders in diabetes.

  15. The Effect of an Extinction Cue on ABA-Renewal: Does Valence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safety-signal role of the cue. In acquisition,…

  16. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Paula Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated giant cells (MGC are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg. The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18. The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  17. Central dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in thermoregulation and performance during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been widely investigated for its potential role in determining exercise performance. It was originally thought that DA's ergogenic effect was by mediating psychological responses. Recently, some studies have also suggested that DA may regulate physiological responses, such as thermoregulation. Hyperthermia has been demonstrated as an important limiting factor during endurance exercise. DA is prominent in the thermoregulatory centre, and changes in DA concentration have been shown to affect core temperature regulation during exercise. Some studies have proposed that DA or DA/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors can improve exercise performance, despite hyperthermia during exercise in the heat. DA/NA reuptake inhibitors also increase catecholamine release in the thermoregulatory centre. Intracerebroventricularly injected DA has been shown to improve exercise performance through inhibiting hyperthermia-induced fatigue, even at normal ambient temperatures. Further, caffeine has been reported to increase DA release in the thermoregulatory centre and improves endurance exercise performance despite increased core body temperature. Taken together, DA has been shown to have ergogenic effects and increase heat storage and hyperthermia tolerance. The mechanisms underlying these effects seem to involve limiting/overriding the inhibitory signals from the central nervous system that result in cessation of exercise due to hyperthermia.

  18. Modulatory effects of two novel agonists for serotonin receptor 7 on emotion, motivation and circadian rhythm profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Walter; Travaglini, Domenica; Lacivita, Enza; Saso, Luciano; Leopoldo, Marcello; Laviola, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    Serotonin receptor 7, i.e. 5-HT(7) protein coded by Htr7 gene, was discovered in supra-chiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus but is widespread in the forebrain. Studies have shown that this receptor is involved in learning/memory, regulation of mood and circadian rhythms. The modulatory effects of two novel agonists, LP-211 and LP-378, were assessed in male adult CD-1 mice with a battery of behavioral tests. Exp. 1 (Black/White Boxes, BWB: Adriani et al., 2009) and Exp. 2 (Dark/Light, D/L; Novelty-seeking, N-S) show: a) that LP-211 administration (acutely, at a 0.25 mg/kg dose i.p.) increases locomotion and BWB exploration; b) that the time spent away from an aversive, lit chamber (i.e., stress-induced anxiety) and in a new environment (i.e., novelty-induced curiosity) are both reduced. Sub-chronic LP-211 (at a 2.5 mg/kg dose i.p.) reveals a sensitization of locomotor-stimulant properties over 4-5 days. In Exp. 3 (BWB), a three- to four-fold dosage (acutely, at 0.83 mg/kg i.p.) is needed with LP-378 to increase locomotion and BWB exploration. In Exp. 4, mice under constant-light conditions reveal the expected spontaneous lengthening (1.5 h per day) of circadian rhythms. A significant phase advance is induced by LP-211 (at a 0.25 mg/kg dose i.p., administered around activity offset), with onset of activity taking place 6 h earlier than in controls. In summary, LP-211 is able to act consistently onto exploratory motivation, anxiety-related profiles, and spontaneous circadian rhythm. In the next future, agonist modulation of 5-HT(7) receptors might turn out to be beneficial for sleep and/or anxiety disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of Pex21p for Piggyback Import of Gpd1p and Pnc1p into Peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effelsberg, Daniel; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Tonillo, Jason; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Proteins designated for peroxisomal protein import harbor one of two common peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the oleate-induced PTS2-dependent import of the thiolase Fox3p into peroxisomes is conducted by the soluble import receptor Pex7p in cooperation with the auxiliary Pex18p, one of two supposedly redundant PTS2 co-receptors. Here, we report on a novel function for the co-receptor Pex21p, which cannot be fulfilled by Pex18p. The data establish Pex21p as a general co-receptor in PTS2-dependent protein import, whereas Pex18p is especially important for oleate-induced import of PTS2 proteins. The glycerol-producing PTS2 protein glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gpd1p shows a tripartite localization in peroxisomes, in the cytosol, and in the nucleus under osmotic stress conditions. We show the following: (i) Pex21p is required for peroxisomal import of Gpd1p as well as a key enzyme of the NAD+ salvage pathway, Pnc1p; (ii) Pnc1p, a nicotinamidase without functional PTS2, is co-imported into peroxisomes by piggyback transport via Gpd1p. Moreover, the specific transport of these two enzymes into peroxisomes suggests a novel regulatory role for peroxisomes under various stress conditions. PMID:26276932

  20. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.Y. Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  1. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y. [Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2014-10-14

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca{sup 2+} dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  2. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca 2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism

  3. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism. PMID:25387674

  4. Modulatory action of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on mitomycin C-and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Rashmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a structural analog of glucose is an effective inhibitor of glucose metabolism and ATP production. It selectively accumulates in cancer cells and interferes with glycolysis leading to cell death. 2-DG is shown to differentially enhance the radiation-induced damage in cancer cells both under euoxic and hypoxic conditions. A combination of 2-DG and ionizing radiation selectively destroys tumors while protecting the normal tissue. 2-DG is being advocated as an adjuvant in the radiotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer. Objective: The present investigation focuses on the modulatory effect of 2-DG on mitomycin C- (MMC and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO-induced cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were pretreated with 2-DG (500 mg/kg, i.p. for five consecutive days followed by MMC (2 mg/kg, i.p or 4-NQO (15 mg/kg, i.p., 24h prior to sacrifice. Control animals were given either the mixture of olive oil and acetone (3:1 or distilled water. Bone marrow cells were processed for the micronucleus assay and metaphase analysis for estimating cytogenetic damage. Results: 2-DG significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the frequency of aberrant cells induced by MMC (~90% and 4-NQO (~74%. Incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs induced by the mutagens were reduced up to 68%. Conclusion: 2-DG effectively reduces the MMC-and 4-NQO-induced genotoxicity.

  5. Design and synthesis of labeled analogs of PhTX-56, a potent and selective AMPA receptor antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine F; Vogensen, Stine B; Jensen, Lars S

    2005-01-01

    Polyamines and polyamine toxins are biologically important molecules, having modulatory effects on nucleotides and proteins. The wasp toxin, philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433), is a non-selective and uncompetitive antagonist of ionotropic receptors, such as ionotropic glutamate receptors and nicotinic...

  6. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  7. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  8. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  9. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verly, Marjolein; Verhoeven, Judith; Zink, Inge; Mantini, Dante; Peeters, Ronald; Deprez, Sabine; Emsell, Louise; Boets, Bart; Noens, Ilse; Steyaert, Jean; Lagae, Lieven; De Cock, Paul; Rommel, Nathalie; Sunaert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19) and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI. PMID:24567909

  10. Application of radiotracers in the assessment of prophylactic role of zinc in experimental model of colon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dani, Vijayata; Vaiphei, K.; Dhawan, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The present study elucidated the modulatory effects of zinc in 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis using radiotracer techniques. Rats were segregated into four groups viz., untreated control, DMH treated, zinc treated, DMH+zinc treated. Colon carcinogenesis was induced through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/Kg body weight) for 16 weeks. Zinc was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 227mg/L in drinking water, ad libitum. The prophylactic role of zinc was assessed by following radiotracer techniques viz: whole body biological half life of 65 Zn and 65 Zn biodistribution, subcellular distribution, uptake of 3 H-Thymidine to assess rate of DNA synthesis, radiorespirometric determination of 14 C-D-Glucose metabolism and in-vitro uptake of labeled aminoacids. The statistical significance of the data has been determined by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple post - hoc test. The carcinogenic state in the animals was confirmed by histopathological examination, whereby, well-differentiated signs of dysplasia were evident in colonic tissue sections of DMH treated rats. The biokinetics study of zinc revealed a significant decrease in the biological half life of 65 Zn. Also, DMH treatment caused a significant increase in the percent uptake values of 65 Zn in the colon, small intestine, kidney and blood, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver. The uptake rates of amino acids viz: 14 C-glycine, 14 C-alanine and 14 C-lysine were significantly higher in the DMH treated colons. Moreover, a significant increase in the uptake and turnover of 14 C-D-Glucose was also observed after DMH treatment. A significant increase in the ( 3 H)-thymidine uptake was observed following 16 weeks DMH treatment. However, supplementation of zinc significantly reversed the proliferative effect of DMH as evidenced by ameliorating the altered parameters. Radiotracer techniques play an important role in assessing

  11. THE ROLE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN THE MANAGER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the role that the communication activity has as a tool for implementing change, redesign internal processes and establishing the organization's strategy in the work of an organization manager.Starting from emergence of communication as inseparable part of social life and to the identification of managerial communication as a factor of competitiveness and strategic advantage of the organization.

  12. Safety and immune regulatory properties of canine induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lyndah; Johnson, Valerie; Regan, Dan; Wheat, William; Webb, Saiphone; Koch, Peter; Dow, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit broad immune modulatory activity in vivo and can suppress T cell proliferation and dendritic cell activation in vitro. Currently, most MSC for clinical usage are derived from younger donors, due to ease of procurement and to the superior immune modulatory activity. However, the use of MSC from multiple unrelated donors makes it difficult to standardize study results and compare outcomes between different clinical trials. One solution is the use of MSC derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC); as iPSC-derived MSC have nearly unlimited proliferative potential and exhibit in vitro phenotypic stability. Given the value of dogs as a spontaneous disease model for pre-clinical evaluation of stem cell therapeutics, we investigated the functional properties of canine iPSC-derived MSC (iMSC), including immune modulatory properties and potential for teratoma formation. We found that canine iMSC downregulated expression of pluripotency genes and appeared morphologically similar to conventional MSC. Importantly, iMSC retained a stable phenotype after multiple passages, did not form teratomas in immune deficient mice, and did not induce tumor formation in dogs following systemic injection. We concluded therefore that iMSC were phenotypically stable, immunologically potent, safe with respect to tumor formation, and represented an important new source of cells for therapeutic modulation of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Granulocyte-like myeloid derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC) are increased in multiple myeloma and are driven by dysfunctional mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, Cesarina; Tibullo, Daniele; Parrinello, Nunziatina L; La Cava, Piera; Di Rosa, Michelino; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Di Raimondo, Cosimo; Conticello, Concetta; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Avola, Roberto; Romano, Alessandra; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2016-12-27

    Granulocytic-Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC) are increased in Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients but the mechanisms of G-MDSC generation are still unknown. There are many evidences of the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in promoting MM cell growth, survival and drug-resistance. We here used a specific experimental model in vitro to evaluate the ability of MSC to induce G-MDSC. We found that although MSC derived from healthy donors (HD), MGUS and MM were able to generate the same amount of MDSC, only MM-MSC-educated G-MDSC exhibited suppressive ability. In addition, in comparison with MSC derived from HD, MM-MSC produce higher amount of immune-modulatory factors that could be involved in MDSC induction. Compared to G-MDSC obtained from co-culture models with MSC from healthy subjects, both MGUS and MM-MSC-educated G-MDSC showed increase of immune-modulatory factors. However, only MM-MSC educated G-MDSC 1) up-regulated immune-suppressive factors as ARG1 and TNFα, 2) expressed higher levels of PROK2, important in angiogenesis and inflammatory process, and 3) showed ability to digest bone matrix.Our data demonstrate that MM-MSC are functionally different from healthy subjects and MGUS-MSC, supporting an evolving concept regarding the contribution of MM-MSC to tumor development and progression.

  14. Role of Pex21p for Piggyback Import of Gpd1p and Pnc1p into Peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effelsberg, Daniel; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Tonillo, Jason; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-10-16

    Proteins designated for peroxisomal protein import harbor one of two common peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the oleate-induced PTS2-dependent import of the thiolase Fox3p into peroxisomes is conducted by the soluble import receptor Pex7p in cooperation with the auxiliary Pex18p, one of two supposedly redundant PTS2 co-receptors. Here, we report on a novel function for the co-receptor Pex21p, which cannot be fulfilled by Pex18p. The data establish Pex21p as a general co-receptor in PTS2-dependent protein import, whereas Pex18p is especially important for oleate-induced import of PTS2 proteins. The glycerol-producing PTS2 protein glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gpd1p shows a tripartite localization in peroxisomes, in the cytosol, and in the nucleus under osmotic stress conditions. We show the following: (i) Pex21p is required for peroxisomal import of Gpd1p as well as a key enzyme of the NAD(+) salvage pathway, Pnc1p; (ii) Pnc1p, a nicotinamidase without functional PTS2, is co-imported into peroxisomes by piggyback transport via Gpd1p. Moreover, the specific transport of these two enzymes into peroxisomes suggests a novel regulatory role for peroxisomes under various stress conditions. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Accessory renal arteries: Prevalence in resistant hypertension and an important role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VonAchen, Paige [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hamann, Jason [Boston Scientific Corporation, Maple Grove, MN (United States); Houghland, Thomas; Lesser, John R.; Wang, Yale; Caye, David; Rosenthal, Kristi; Garberich, Ross F. [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Daniels, Mary [Vital Images/Toshiba, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Schwartz, Robert S., E-mail: rss@rsschwartz.com [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    future clinical trials may improve RDN therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • This paper advances the hypothesis that accessory renal arteries have an important role in non-response to renal denervation. • In this paper systematic review of cases from the REDUCE-HTN study found that accessory renal arteries are a highly significant risk for renal denervation nonresponse. • Accessory renal arteries were markedly over-represented in resistant hypertensives compared with healthy controls. • Addressing accessory renal arteries in future clinical trials may improve RDN therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Accessory renal arteries: Prevalence in resistant hypertension and an important role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VonAchen, Paige; Hamann, Jason; Houghland, Thomas; Lesser, John R.; Wang, Yale; Caye, David; Rosenthal, Kristi; Garberich, Ross F.; Daniels, Mary; Schwartz, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    future clinical trials may improve RDN therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • This paper advances the hypothesis that accessory renal arteries have an important role in non-response to renal denervation. • In this paper systematic review of cases from the REDUCE-HTN study found that accessory renal arteries are a highly significant risk for renal denervation nonresponse. • Accessory renal arteries were markedly over-represented in resistant hypertensives compared with healthy controls. • Addressing accessory renal arteries in future clinical trials may improve RDN therapeutic efficacy.

  17. 78 FR 22895 - Test To Allow Customs Brokers To Pre-Certify Importers for Participation in the Importer Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... role in the success of various CBP commercial initiatives, automation efforts, and security programs... communication with importers, the ISA pre-certifiers will provide information on the ISA program and work to... import data that CBP possesses, as well as help to focus the ISA pre-certifier's efforts on the areas for...

  18. Structural and functional annotation of human FAM26F: A multifaceted protein having a critical role in the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Uzma; Javed, Aneela; Ali, Amjad; Asghar, Kashif

    2017-01-15

    Human immune system is a complex amalgam of a greatly diverse ensemble comprising of various cellular and non-cellular components, including proteins. FAM26F (family with sequence similarity 26, member F) is a relatively recently identified gene reported to play important role in diverse immune responses. Numerous studies have reported FAM26F to be differentially expressed in several viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, in certain pathophysiological conditions such as heart and liver transplantation, and in several cancers. FAM26F has also been found to be upregulated by various stimulants such as polyI:C, LPS, INF gamma and TNF alpha, and via various anticipated pathways including TLR3, TLR4 IFN-β and Dectin-1. Moreover, the synergistic expression of FAM26F on both NK-cells and myeloid dendritic cells is required to activate NK-cells against tumors via its cytoplasmic tail, thus emphasizing the therapeutic potential of FAM26F for NK sensitive tumors. Although a considerable amount of evidence is present regarding the potential role of FAM26F in immune modulation, the exact function and modulatory pathways of this gene are yet to be elucidated. We aimed to completely characterize FAM26F in order to apprehend its function and role in the immune responses. The results revealed human FAM26F to be located at chromosomal position 6q22.1. FAM26F mRNA contains 1141bp coding region encoding a 315 amino acid long, stable protein that has been well-conserved throughout evolution. It is a signal peptide deprived transmembrane protein that is secreted through non-classical pathway. The presence of a single well-conserved Ca_hom_mod domain indicated FAM26F to be a cation channel involved in the transport of molecules. A potential N-glycosylation and 14 phosphorylation sites were also predicted, along with four interacting partners of FAM26F. The secondary and tertiary structures of FAM26F were determined. Moreover, the presence of an immunoglobulin-like fold in FAM26F

  19. The importance and role of the Central Bank in the creation of a healthy monetary and investment policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmigić-Miladinović Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper's starting point is finding an answer to the question: What kind of monetary policy should be followed by the Central bank in new market circumstances? As a major monetary institution, the Central bank should provide credibility for its monetary policy, which is particularly important during a macroeconomic stabilisation. In order to choose the most appropriate monetary policy, its creators should be familiar with the monetary policy's effects on economic activities, first of all on investment activities and the period in which they may occur. The Central bank uses its special status and authorisations to control monetary trends, to keep and handle foreign exchange reserves, to keep banks' required reserves, to manage the country's debt, to be the final creditor of the banking system, to take care of the banking system's liquidity. That is why the Central bank has become important for the functioning of the whole financial market, and especially the monetary market. The Central bank has both direct and indirect influence on the most important events on financial markets, financial system, as well as a wider influence - on a country's whole economy. In order to envisage the financial market's impact on monetary and investment policies, one should begin with the Central bank's role on the financial market, and at the same time analyse the financial market's instruments and institutions.

  20. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  1. The modulatory role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the functional activity of phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Danny L G; França, Eduardo L; Gonzatti, Michelangelo B; Rugde, Marilza V C; Calderon, Iracema M P; Honorio-França, Adenilda C

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated the role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the modulation of the functional activity of mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women with hyperglycemia. Sixty pregnant women were assigned to the following groups: nondiabetic (ND), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The functional activity of phagocytes from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum was assessed by determining their superoxide release, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, and intracellular Ca 2+ release. Irrespective of glycemic status, colostrum and blood cells treated with IL-4 and IL-17 increased superoxide release in the presence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). The highest phagocytosis rate was observed in cells from the DM2 group treated with IL-4. In all the groups, phagocytes from colostrum, maternal blood, and cord blood exhibited higher microbicidal activity against EPEC when treated with cytokines. IL-17 increased intracellular Ca 2+ release by colostrum phagocytes in diabetic groups. The results indicate that the IL-4 and IL-17 modulate the functional activity of phagocytes in the maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum of diabetic mother. The natural immunity resulting from the interaction between the cells and cytokines tested may be an alternative procedure to improve the prognosis of maternal and newborn infections. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Gravity Plays an Important Role in Muscle Development and the Differentiation of Contractile Protein Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory A.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2003-01-01

    Several muscles in the body exist mainly to work against gravity. Whether gravity is important in the development of these muscles is not known. By examining the basic proteins that compose muscle, questions about the role of gravity in muscle development can be answered. Myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are a family of proteins critically important for muscle contraction. Several types of MHCs exist (e.g., neonatal, slow, fast), and each type is produced by a particular gene. Neonatal MHCs are produced early in life. Slow MHCs are important in antigravity muscles, and fast MHCs are found in fast-twitch power muscles. The gene that is turned on or expressed will determine which MHC is produced. Early in development, antigravity skeletal muscles (muscles that work against gravity) normally produce a combination of the neonatal/embryonic MHCs. The expression of these primitive MHCs is repressed early in development; and the adult slow and fast MHC genes become fully expressed. We tested the hypothesis that weightbearing activity is critical for inducing the normal expression of the slow MHC gene typically expressed in adult antigravity muscles. Also, we hypothesized that thyroid hormone, but not opposition to gravity, is necessary for expressing the adult fast IIb MHC gene essential for high-intensity muscle performance. Groups of normal thyroid and thyroid-deficient neonatal rats were studied after their return from the 16-day Neurolab mission and compared to matched controls. The results suggest: (1) Weightlessness impaired body and limb skeletal muscle growth in both normal and thyroid-deficient animals. Antigravity muscles were impaired more than those used primarily for locomotion andor nonweightbearing activity. (2) Systemic and muscle expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an important body and tissue growth factor, was depressed in flight animals. (3) Normal slow, type I MHC gene expression was markedly repressed in the normal thyroid flight group. (4

  3. Beyond Fat Mass: Exploring the Role of Adipokines in Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Scotece

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloning of leptin in 1994 by Zhang et al. introduced a novel concept about white adipose tissue (WAT as a very dynamic organ that releases a plethora of immune and inflammatory mediators, such as adipokines and cytokines, which are involved in multiple diseases. Actually, adipokines exert potent modulatory actions on target tissues involved in rheumatic diseases including cartilage, synovial, bone and immune cells. The goal of this paper is to elucidate the recent findings concerning the involvement of adipokines in rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, osteoarthritis (OA, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

  4. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghan Yang

    Full Text Available Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.

  5. The Role and Importance of the Manager in the Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Oprișan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A leader is the person who goes first, which has the authority to lead, who is number one in aparticular area by excellence or who has the responsibility to do everything possible to get taskssafely to completion in a company. The manager's role is essential in human activity particularly inthe contemporary economic environment, especially when the organization acts in the internationaleconomic environment, particularly running through competitive economic activity in the globalmarket.

  6. "Whether I like it or not, it's important": Implicit importance of means predicts self-regulatory persistence and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Ferguson, Melissa J

    2016-06-01

    To effectively self-regulate, people must persevere on tasks that they deem important, regardless of whether those tasks are enjoyable. Building on past work that has noted the fundamental role of implicit cognition in guiding effective self-regulation, the present paper tests whether an implicit association between goal means and importance predicts self-regulatory persistence and success. Implicit importance predicted markers of effective self-regulation-better grades, more studying and exercise, and stronger standardized testing performance-over and above, and often better than, explicit beliefs about the importance of that self-regulation, as well as implicit evaluations of those means. In particular, those for whom tasks were fairly taxing to complete (i.e., those for whom this self-regulation required effortful self-control) were those who most benefitted from the implicit association between means and importance. Moreover, when participants were reminded of recent self-regulatory failure that they believed could be overcome through hard work, implicit importance toward the means increased as if to prepare them to achieve self-regulatory persistence. A final study sought to reconcile the present findings with previous work showing the key role that implicit evaluations play in effective self-regulation. We reasoned that means are important precisely because they are associated with valued end-states. Consistent with this account, implicit evaluations of end-states predicted the implicit importance of means, which in turn predicted effective self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Ipsilateral putamen and insula activation by both left and right GB34 acupuncture stimulation: An fMRI study on healthy participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    The modulatory effects on the brain during right versus left side acupuncture stimulation of the same acupuncture point have been a subject of controversy. For clarification of this important methodological issue, the present study was designed to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent responses

  8. A nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain plays an important role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanuk; Lee, Hwa Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-04-16

    Although several chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation (CRM) domain-containing proteins have been characterized for intron splicing and rRNA processing during chloroplast gene expression, the functional role of a majority of CRM domain proteins in plant growth and development as well as chloroplast RNA metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the developmental and stress response roles of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain (At4g39040), designated CFM4, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of CFM4-GFP fusion proteins revealed that CFM4 is localized to chloroplasts. The loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutants for CFM4 (cfm4) displayed retarded growth and delayed senescence, suggesting that CFM4 plays a role in growth and development of plants under normal growth conditions. In addition, cfm4 mutants showed retarded seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. No alteration in the splicing patterns of intron-containing chloroplast genes was observed in the mutant plants, but the processing of 16S and 4.5S rRNAs was abnormal in the mutant plants. Importantly, CFM4 was determined to possess RNA chaperone activity. These results suggest that the chloroplast-targeted CFM4, one of two Arabidopsis genes encoding a single CRM domain-containing protein, harbors RNA chaperone activity and plays a role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response by affecting rRNA processing in chloroplasts.

  9. Does Morphology Play an Important Role in L2 Chinese Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of morphological awareness in second language (L2) Chinese vocabulary acquisition through an investigation of linguistic universality and specificity underlying morphological awareness. Morphological awareness in this study was conceptualized as a universal and sharable cognitive resource as well as a…

  10. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  11. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  12. Stoma-associated problems: the important role of the specialist nurse.

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, A

    2017-01-01

    Following on from a study carried out with his colleagues in 2010, Anthony McGrath, Head of Department Adult Nursing and Midwifery, London South Bank University, considers the ongoing problems faced by patients with stomas and the importance of support from stoma care nurses.

  13. Cocaine and nicotine research illustrates a range of hypocretin mechanisms in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimel, Corey; Borgland, Stephanie L; Corrigall, William

    2012-01-01

    Hypocretins (also known as orexins) are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical region and projecting widely throughout the brain. They play an important modulatory role in plasticity related to addictive behavior. Hypocretin signaling to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) promotes synaptic plasticity by potentiating glutamatergic inputs to dopamine neurons and is required for the plasticity induced by stimulant drugs like cocaine. Plasticity in the VTA leads to increased output of dopamine neurons and increased release of dopamine in projection areas, which is associated with the development of addiction-related behaviors. Antagonists of hypocretin receptors inhibit some of these behaviors, particularly those with high effort requirements, suggesting a significant role of hypocretin in the motivation to obtain drugs. Furthermore, hypocretin neurons are also targeted by drugs of abuse, such as nicotine. Projections of hypocretin neurons to regions beyond the VTA may also play a significant role in motivation and addiction. Taken together, the hypocretin system may be a prime drug target for treatment of addiction and related disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance and role of grain size in free surface cracking prediction of heavy forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenhua [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Ministry of Education of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Shuhua; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shi, Zhongping [Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Ministry of Education of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Fu, Wantang, E-mail: wtfu@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-02-11

    The importance and role of grain size in predicting surface cracking of heavy forgings were investigated. 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel specimens with four different grain sizes were tensioned between 900 and 1100 °C at a strain rate of 0.1 s{sup −1}. The nucleation sites and crack morphology were analyzed through electron backscatter diffraction analysis, and the fracture morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The nucleation sites were independent of the grain size, and cracks primarily formed at grain boundaries and triple junctions between grains with high Taylor factors. Grains with lower Taylor factors inhibited crack propagation. Strain was found to mainly concentrate near the grain boundaries; thus, a material with a larger grain size cracks more easily because there are fewer grain boundaries. Fine grains can be easily rotated to a lower Taylor factor to further inhibit cracking. The fracture morphology transformed from a brittle to ductile type with a lowering of grain size. At lower temperature, small dimples on the fracture surfaces of specimens with smaller grain sizes were left by single parent grains and the dimple edge was the grain edge. At higher temperature, dimples formed through void coalescence and the dimple edge was the tearing edge. Finally, the relationship between the reduction in area, grain size, and deformation temperature was obtained.

  15. the economic importance of microorganism in food processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    This paper attempts to highlight the Economic Importance of microorganisms in food processing and manufacturing; it goes further to differentiate between the desirable ... Desirable importance are those cost saving and revenue generating activities ... Microorganism (yeast) play very useful role in the Bakery industries.

  16. Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Vomund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight regulation of inflammation is very important to guarantee a balanced immune response without developing chronic inflammation. One of the major mediators of the resolution of inflammation is the transcription factor: the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Stabilized following oxidative stress, Nrf2 induces the expression of antioxidants as well as cytoprotective genes, which provoke an anti-inflammatory expression profile, and is crucial for the initiation of healing. In view of this fundamental modulatory role, it is clear that both hyper- or hypoactivation of Nrf2 contribute to the onset of chronic diseases. Understanding the tight regulation of Nrf2 expression/activation and its interaction with signaling pathways, known to affect inflammatory processes, will facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to prevent Nrf2 dysregulation and ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. We discuss in this review the principle mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation with a focus on inflammation and autophagy, extending the role of dysregulated Nrf2 to chronic diseases and tumor development.

  17. Reducing conflicts between climate policy and energy policy in the US: The important role of the states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Thomas D.; Rose, Adam Z.

    2006-01-01

    The absence of US national action on global climate change policy has prompted initiatives by the US Congress, cities, states, and regions toward what is likely to become a long-term, collaborative effort to harmonize national energy and climate policies. This upward evolution in the face of a reluctant administration is historically consistent with the development of national legislation on other environmental and social issues in the US. At the heart of this movement is the need to resolve conflicts between high-intensity use of low-cost fossil energy supplies, and the dominating impact of carbon dioxide emissions on global climate change. US states are among the largest carbon dioxide emitters in the world and play a critical role in supplying and transforming energy, as well as consuming it, for economic advantage. State governments are also likely to have to shoulder some of the cost of potentially extensive climate damages and bear the brunt of the cost of implementing future federal mandates. As a result, many are taking proactive stances on the development of climate mitigation policy to prepare for, accelerate, and/or guide national policy. As US states show leadership on addressing greenhouse gas emissions, they also play an important role in forging policies and measures that reduce economic conflict between energy and climate goals. A number have launched or completed greenhouse gas mitigation plans and other major policies in the past few years that address these conflicts through: (1) finding ways to reduce mitigation costs, including the use of incentive-based policy instruments; (2) promoting an open and democratic policy process that includes major stakeholders; (3) promoting equity across socioeconomic groups, regions, and generations; and (4) promoting interregional cooperation. The results are promising and suggest that the state arena for climate and energy policy is evolving quickly and constructively toward alternatives that reduce conflict

  18. Modulatory Effects of Dietary Amino Acids on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Sangam, Supraj Raja; Singh, Shubham; Joginapally, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are playing a vital role in maintaining the cellular integrity and function, as well as for brain cells. Protein intake and supplementation of individual amino acids can affect the brain functioning and mental health, and many of the neurotransmitters in the brain are made from amino acids. The amino acid supplementation has been found to reduce symptoms, as they are converted into neurotransmitters which in turn extenuate the mental disorders. The biosynthesis of amino acids in the brain is regulated by the concentration of amino acids in plasma. The brain diseases such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD) are the most common mental disorders that are currently widespread in numerous countries. The intricate biochemical and molecular machinery contributing to the neurological disorders is still unknown, and in this chapter, we revealed the involvement of dietary amino acids on neurological diseases.

  19. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Verly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19 and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI.

  20. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  1. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Chaperon

    Full Text Available Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA. Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6, Leu-NHEt(13, des-Met(14-Bombesin (6-14 did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  2. The Importance of Communication in Quality Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Cristina Stanciu; Elena Condrea; Cristina Zamfir

    2016-01-01

    From a managerial perspective, communication is regarded as a process of understandingamong people by means of information exchange. According to the principle “quality starts withthe manager”, his role becomes crucial, one of the main traits of the manager’s behaviour beingthe ability to communicate effectively.Important in any aspect of quality management,communication plays an essential role in developing business projects. As a component of publicrelations, although less spectacular than ...

  3. Evaluations and utilizations of risk importances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Davis, T.C.

    1985-08-01

    This report presents approaches for utilizing Probabilistic Risk Analyses (PRA's) to determine risk importances. Risk importances are determined for design features, plant operations, and other factors that can affect risk. PRA's can be used to identify the importances of risk contributors or proposed changes to designs or operations. The objective of this report is to serve as a handbook and guide in evaluating and applying risk importances. The utilization of both qualitative risk importances and quantitative risk importances is described in this report. Qualitative risk importances are based on the logic models in the PRA, while quantitative risk importances are based on the quantitative results of the PRA. Both types of importances are among the most robust and meaningful information a PRA can provide. A wide variety of risk importance evaluations are described including evaluations of the importances of design changes, testing, maintenance, degrading environments, and aging. Specific utilizations are described in inspection and in reliability assurance programs, however the general approaches have widespread applicability. The role of personal computers and decision support programs in applying risk importance evaluations is also described

  4. Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cavallari de Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR. These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review.

  5. Reproductive immunology: current status and future directions (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeva, Elena

    2010-12-01

    Extensive research work over the past couple of decades has indicated a series of intricate relations between immune and reproductive systems. A range of reproductive immunology topics including the roles of adoptive and innate immunity in infertility and pregnancy, the immune system's role in induction of labor and preterm delivery, and immuno-modulatory effects of the female sex hormones will be discussed in this and the next issue of the Journal. The implications of this research on the development of novel therapeutic approaches are also addressed.

  6. Role of protein kinase C family in the cerebellum-dependent adaptive learning of horizontal optokinetic response eye movements in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutoh, Fumihiro; Katoh, Akira; Ohki, Masafumi; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Tonegawa, Susumu; Nagao, Soichi

    2003-07-01

    Among the subtypes of the Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC), which play a crucial role in long-term depression (LTD), both alpha and gamma are expressed in the cerebellar floccular Purkinje cells. To reveal the functional differences of PKC subtypes, we examined the adaptability of ocular reflexes of PKCgamma mutant mice, which show mild ataxia and normal LTD. In mutant mice, gains of the horizontal optokinetic eye response (HOKR) were reduced. Adaptation of the HOKR was not affected but its retinal slip dependency was altered in mutant mice. Sustained 1-h sinusoidal screen oscillation, which induced a relatively large amount of retinal slips in both mutant and wild-type mice, increased the HOKR gain in wild-type mice but not in mutant mice. In contrast, exposure to 1 h of sustained slower screen oscillations, which induced relatively small retinal slips in mutant and wild-type mice, increased the HOKR gain in both mutant and wild-type mice. Adaptation of the HOKR of the mutant mice to slow screen oscillation and those of wild-type mice to fast and slow screen oscillations were all abolished by local applications of a PKC inhibitor (chelerythrine) within the flocculi. Electrophysiological and anatomical studies showed no appreciable changes in the sources and magnitudes of climbing fibre inputs, which mediate retinal slip signals to the flocculus in the mutant mice. These results suggest that PKCgamma has a modulatory role in determining retinal slip dependency, and other PKC subtypes, e.g. PKCalpha, may play a crucial role in the adaptation of the HOKR.

  7. Role of the Occupational Physician in Corporate Management of Health Risks: An Important Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    There are various risks involved in corporate activities conducted both within and outside the corporation. Among these, health risks are very important and should be managed effectively as an integral part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). A corporation is responsible for health impairments caused by its activities and suffers great moral and economic loss when they occur. It is essential that corporate management takes proper preventive measures against such risks. Occupational physicians possess substantial knowledge of health risks in corporations. In this study, we examine the role of occupational physicians in the management of corporate health risks. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet. Health risks due to corporate activities involve not only the employees of the corporation but also individuals outside the corporation. Each corporation should effectively use available resources to manage health risks. Occupational physicians are one such valuable resource. However, many corporations do not actively involve occupational physicians in health risk management. According to a current Japanese law, health risks for employees in corporations are managed by occupational physicians, but in general, health risks outside corporations are not. The 1984 Bhopal Disaster in India is an example in which physicians of the corporation were only minimally, if at all, involved in assessing and treating impaired health outside the corporation. The role of occupational physicians should be expanded to include management of health risks outside the corporation. This places a greater burden on the physicians and they must make the effort to train in many academic fields in order to better understand the entire context of health risks due to corporate activities. Some occupational physicians may be hesitant to take on such added responsibilities. Some corporations may not recognize the overall health risks due to its activities and do not

  8. Endogenous peripheral hydrogen sulfide is propyretic: its permissive role in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Renato N; Braga, Sara P; Breder, Jéssica S C; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R; Rocha, Maria José A; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? In fever, the most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation, plasma H 2 S concentration increases. However, the role of endogenous peripheral H 2 S in fever is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous peripheral H 2 S is permissive for increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to maintain thermal homeostasis in cold environments as well as to mount fever. This finding expands the physiological role of the gaseous modulator as a key regulator of thermal control in health (thermal homeostasis) and disease (fever in systemic inflammation). In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In animal models of systemic inflammation, the plasma H 2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but we found no reports of the peripheral action of H 2 S on this thermoregulatory response. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H 2 S modulates LPS-induced fever. A temperature datalogger capsule was inserted in the abdominal cavity of male Wistar rats (220-270 g) to record body core temperature. These animals received an i.p. injection of a systemic H 2 S inhibitor (propargylglycine; 50 or 75 mg kg -1 ), immediately followed by an i.p. injection of LPS (50 or 2500 μg kg -1 ), and were exposed to different ambient temperatures (16, 22 or 27°C). At 22°C, but not at 27°C, propargylglycine at 75 mg kg -1 significantly attenuated (P endogenous peripheral H 2 S on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Evidence on the modulatory role of peripheral H 2 S in BAT thermogenesis was strengthened when we discarded (i) the possible influence of the gas on febrigenic signalling (when measuring plasma cytokines), and (ii) its interaction with the nitric

  9. The modulatory influence of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism on lexical decisions and semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Montag, Christian; Peters, Kristina; Kocher, Anne; Kiefer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The role of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC) in higher cognitive functions - including working memory, conflict resolution, set shifting and semantic processing - has been demonstrated unequivocally. Despite the great heterogeneity among tasks measuring these phenotypes, due in part to the different cognitive sub-processes implied and the specificity of the stimulus material used, there is agreement that all of these tasks recruit an executive control system located in the PFC. On a biochemical level it is known that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in executive control functions. Evidence comes from molecular genetics relating the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism to working memory and set shifting. In order determine whether this pattern of findings generalises to linguistic and semantic processing, we investigated the effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in lexical decision making using masked and unmasked versions of the semantic priming paradigm on N = 104 healthy subjects. Although we observed strong priming effects in all conditions (masked priming, unmasked priming with short/long stimulus asynchronies (SOAs), direct and indirect priming), COMT was not significantly related to priming, suggesting no reliable influence on semantic processing. However, COMT Val158Met was strongly associated with lexical decision latencies in all priming conditions if considered separately, explaining between 9 and 14.5% of the variance. Therefore, the findings indicate that COMT mainly influences more general executive control functions in the PFC supporting the speed of lexical decisions.

  10. The modulatory influence of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism on lexical decisions and semantic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reuter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC in higher cognitive functions - including working memory, conflict resolution, set shifting and semantic processing - has been demonstrated unequivocally. Despite the great heterogeneity among tasks measuring these phenotypes, due in part to the different cognitive sub-processes implied and the specificity of the stimulus material used, there is agreement that all of these tasks recruit an executive control system located in the PFC. On a biochemical level it is known that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in executive control functions. Evidence comes from molecular genetics relating the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism to working memory and set shifting. In order determine whether this pattern of findings generalises to linguistic and semantic processing, we investigated the effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in lexical decision making using masked and unmasked versions of the semantic priming paradigm on N=104 healthy subjects. Although we observed strong priming effects in all conditions (masked priming, unmasked priming with short/long stimulus asynchronies (SOAs, direct and indirect priming, COMT was not significantly related to masked priming, suggesting no reliable influence on semantic processing. However, COMT Val158Met was strongly associated with lexical decision latencies in all priming conditions if considered separately, explaining between 9 to 14.5 % of the variance. Therefore, the findings indicate that COMT mainly influences more general executive control functions in the PFC supporting the speed of lexical decisions.

  11. The Role of Goal Importance in Predicting University Students' High Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Vanessa A.; White, Katherine M.; Hyde, Melissa K.; Occhipinti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We examined goal importance, focusing on high, but not exclusive priority goals, in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict students' academic performance. At the beginning of semester, students in a psychology subject (N = 197) completed TPB and goal importance items for achieving a high grade. Regression analyses revealed partial…

  12. Si and C interactions in the world ocean: Importance of ecological processes and implications for the role of diatoms in the biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragueneau, Olivier; Schultes, Sabine; Bidle, Kay; Claquin, Pascal; Moriceau, BrivaëLa

    2006-12-01

    Diatoms play a major role in carbon export from surface waters, but their role in the transport of carbon to the deep sea has been questioned by global analyses of sediment trap fluxes which suggest that organic carbon fluxes and transfer efficiencies through the mesopelagic are tightly correlated with CaCO3 (Klaas and Archer, 2002; François et al., 2002). Here we explore the role of diatoms in the biological pump through a study of Si and C interactions from the molecular to the global scale. Recent findings on molecular interactions between Si and C are reviewed. The roles of bacteria, grazers and aggregation are explored and combined, to account for the extent of Si and C decoupling between surface waters and 1000 m, observed to be very homogeneous in different biogeochemical provinces of the ocean. It is suggested that the mesopelagic food web plays a crucial role in this homogeneity: Sites of high export are also sites where diatom C is being either remineralized or channeled toward the long-lived carbon pool most efficiently in the mesopelagic zone. The amount of carbon participating in the biological pump but not collected in sediment traps remains to be explored. It is also demonstrated that statistical analyses performed at global scales hide spatial variability in carrying coefficients, indicating a clear need to understand the mechanisms that control spatial and temporal variations in the relative importance of ballast minerals and other export mechanisms such as particle dynamics.

  13. How the amygdala affects emotional memory by altering brain network properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Battaglia, Francesco P; Atsak, Piray; de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-07-01

    The amygdala has long been known to play a key role in supporting memory for emotionally arousing experiences. For example, classical fear conditioning depends on neural plasticity within this anterior medial temporal lobe region. Beneficial effects of emotional arousal on memory, however, are not restricted to simple associative learning. Our recollection of emotional experiences often includes rich representations of, e.g., spatiotemporal context, visceral states, and stimulus-response associations. Critically, such memory features are known to bear heavily on regions elsewhere in the brain. These observations led to the modulation account of amygdala function, which postulates that amygdala activation enhances memory consolidation by facilitating neural plasticity and information storage processes in its target regions. Rodent work in past decades has identified the most important brain regions and neurochemical processes involved in these modulatory actions, and neuropsychological and neuroimaging work in humans has produced a large body of convergent data. Importantly, recent methodological developments make it increasingly realistic to monitor neural interactions underlying such modulatory effects as they unfold. For instance, functional connectivity network modeling in humans has demonstrated how information exchanges between the amygdala and specific target regions occur within the context of large-scale neural network interactions. Furthermore, electrophysiological and optogenetic techniques in rodents are beginning to make it possible to quantify and even manipulate such interactions with millisecond precision. In this paper we will discuss that these developments will likely lead to an updated view of the amygdala as a critical nexus within large-scale networks supporting different aspects of memory processing for emotionally arousing experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulatory role of phospholipase D in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 by thyroid oncogenic kinase RET/PTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Wook

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinomas gene rearrangements are the most frequent genetic alterations identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although it has been established that RET/PTC kinase plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cellular transformation, growth, and proliferation in thyroid epithelial cells, the upstream signaling that leads to the activation of RET/PTC is largely unknown. Based on the observation of high levels of PLD expression in human papillary thyroid cancer tissues, we investigated whether PLD plays a role in the regulating the RET/PTC-induced STAT3 activation. Methods Cancer tissue samples were obtained from papillary thyroid cancer patients (n = 6. The expression level of PLD was examined using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Direct interaction between RET/PTC and PLD was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation assay. PLD activity was assessed by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidylbutanol, the product of PLD-mediated transphosphatidylation, in the presence of n-butanol. The transcriptional activity of STAT3 was assessed by m67 luciferase reporter assay. Results In human papillary thyroid cancer, the expression levels of PLD2 protein were higher than those in the corresponding paired normal tissues. PLD and RET/PTC could be co-immunoprecipitated from cells where each protein was over-expressed. In addition, the activation of PLD by pervanadate triggered phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 residue on STAT-3, and its phosphorylation was dramatically higher in TPC-1 cells (from papillary carcinoma that have an endogenous RET/PTC1 than in ARO cells (from anaplastic carcinoma without alteration of total STAT-3 expression. Moreover, the RET/PTC-mediated transcriptional activation of STAT-3 was synergistically increased by over-expression of PLD, whereas the PLD activity as a lipid hydrolyzing enzyme was not affected by RET

  15. Further insights into the roles of the medical educator: the importance of scholarly management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, John; Brice, Julie

    2009-08-01

    Medical educators need to be able to define excellence within the various roles they occupy so that they can demonstrate internationally recognized, high-quality scholarship. Previous definitions of scholarship have focused on research and teaching but have been unable to integrate other roles such as leadership, management, and administration. Clearer definition of the various roles of the medical educator, coupled with a broader understanding of medical education scholarship that is able to encompass management, as well as teaching and research, will help institutions to evaluate and reward faculty members appropriately. We propose that management should now be introduced as a third "priority of the professoriate." We outline the concept of the scholarly manager, particularly as it applies to management in medical education. We offer a new conceptual model which situates the role of the academic manager within the scholarship of medical education and shows it to be an essential part of the skills and competences of the excellent medical educator. We emphasize that at the heart of all scholarly activity in medical education lie the core skills, values, and behaviors shared by all involved in the education of doctors and medical students. Future research is needed to explore and, where possible, achieve consensus on the core skills, values, and behaviors of an excellent medical educator. In addition, work should commence to define and categorize the various stages in the development of a significant management portfolio in medical education teaching and research.

  16. Modulatory Role of Folic Acid Administration on Some Biochemical and Hormonal Disturbances in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Fried food which is the most easier and fast food prepared especially out the home door became a serious risk because of the high concentrations of acrylamide identified mainly in potatoes and grains based foods that are cooked at very high temperature e.g. frying, grilling or baking. In the current study, forty eight adult male rats were classified into the following groups (12 rats/group): 1- control group: rats received only normal diet, 2- folic acid group: rats received folic acid (25 mg/kg/day) using stomach tube throughout the experimental period (ten weeks), 3- acrylamide group: rats received acrylamide (30 mg/kg) using stomach tube for ten weeks and 4- folic acid and acrylamide group: rats received folic acid (25 mg/kg/day) along with acrylamide (30 mg/kg./day) using stomach tube through the experimental period. After five and ten weeks of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation then thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in testis and brain homogenates. Also, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, testosterone and estradiol were determined in serum. In addition, histological examinations of testis and brain tissues were examined. The results obtained revealed that administration of acrylamide induced significant increase in TBARS, and reduction in SOD and GSH in testis and brain homogenate. Also, significant increase in GGT, ALP, ACP, urea, creatinine and estradiol levels in serum was recorded. A marked significant decrease in total protein, albumin, T3, T4 and testosterone in serum was observed in acrylamide group. Histological investigations showed degenerative changes in both testis and brain tissues through the experimental period. Significant improvements in biochemical and histological structure were recorded in acrylamide groups. It could be concluded that the protective effect of folic acid might be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  17. Modulatory role of kolaviron in phenytoin-induced hepatic and testicular dysfunctions in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Olatunde; Adedara, Isaac A; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi A; Bakare, Oluwafemi S; Egun, Christa; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-03-01

    Phenytoin, an anticonvulsant agent used for the treatment of epilepsy has been reported to exhibit toxic side effects on the liver and testes. The present study investigated the protective effects of kolaviron (KV, a bioflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) against hepatic and testicular damage in rats exposed to phenytoin. The study consisted of four groups of six rats per group. Group I rats received 2 mL/kg of corn alone while group II received 75 mg/kg of phenytoin (PHT) alone. Groups III and IV were co-treated with kolaviron (200 mg/kg KV) and vitamin E (500 mg/kg VTE), respectively, for 14 days. The antioxidant status, hepatic and reproductive functional parameters were subsequently determined. PHT treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels along with significant reduction in the hepatic and testicular levels of glutathione (GSH). Moreover, PHT exposure elicited significant increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The significant reduction in seminal epithelium thickness and the diameter of seminiferous tubules was accompanied with marked decrease in sperm motility, sperm count, and viability in PHT-treated rats. However, antioxidant status and the functional indices of liver and testes were restored to near control levels in rats co-treated with KV and VTE. In conclusion, KV and VTE protect the liver and testes against functional impairment due to PHT treatment.

  18. Modulatory Role of Simvastatin against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Behavioural and Biochemical Changes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Nampoothiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Aluminium, a neurotoxic agent in humans, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we examined the behavioral and biochemical effects of aluminium in rats with special emphasis on memory centres, namely, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Further, the effect of simvastatin treatment on aluminium intoxication was evaluated. Methods. Rats were exposed to aluminium chloride (AlCl3 for 60 days. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg/p.o. and rivastigmine (1 mg/kg/p.o. were administered daily prior to AlCl3. Behavioral parameters were assessed using Morris water maze test and actophotometer followed by biochemical investigations, namely, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, TNF-α level, antioxidant enzymes (GSH, catalase, lipid peroxidation, and nitrite level in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels in serum were also determined. Key Findings. Simvastatin treatment improved cognitive function and locomotor activity in rats. Simvastatin reversed hyperlipidemia and significantly rectified the deleterious effect of AlCl3 on AChE activity. Further, in hippocampus and frontal cortex, aluminium-induced elevation in nitrite and TNF-α and reduction in antioxidant enzymes were inhibited by simvastatin. Conclusion. To conclude, the present study suggests that simvastatin per se protects the neurons in hippocampus and frontal cortex from AlCl3, an environmental toxin.

  19. Intracellularly Induced Cyclophilins Play an Important Role in Stress Adaptation and Virulence of Brucella abortus

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Lucía; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Briones, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Brucella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonotic disease brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies on its ability to transition to an intracellular lifestyle within host cells. Thus, this pathogen must sense its intracellular localization and then reprogram gene expression for survival within the host cell. A comparative proteomic investigation was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins potentially relevant for Brucella intracellular adaptation. Two proteins identified as cyclophilins (CypA and CypB) were overexpressed in the intracellular environment of the host cell in comparison to laboratory-grown Brucella. To define the potential role of cyclophilins in Brucella virulence, a double-deletion mutant was constructed and its resulting phenotype was characterized. The Brucella abortus ΔcypAB mutant displayed increased sensitivity to environmental stressors, such as oxidative stress, pH, and detergents. In addition, the B. abortus ΔcypAB mutant strain had a reduced growth rate at lower temperature, a phenotype associated with defective expression of cyclophilins in other microorganisms. The B. abortus ΔcypAB mutant also displays reduced virulence in BALB/c mice and defective intracellular survival in HeLa cells. These findings suggest that cyclophilins are important for Brucella virulence and survival in the host cells. PMID:23230297

  20. Focus of Attention in Children's Motor Learning: Examining the Role of Age and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocken, J E A; Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative effectiveness of different attentional focus instructions on motor learning in primary school children. In addition, we explored whether the effect of attentional focus on motor learning was influenced by children's age and verbal working memory capacity. Novice 8-9-year old children (n = 30) and 11-12-year-old children (n = 30) practiced a golf putting task. For each age group, half the participants received instructions to focus (internally) on the swing of their arm, while the other half was instructed to focus (externally) on the swing of the club. Children's verbal working memory capacity was assessed with the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Consistent with many reports on adult's motor learning, children in the external groups demonstrated greater improvements in putting accuracy than children who practiced with an internal focus. This effect was similar across age groups. Verbal working memory capacity was not found to be predictive of motor learning, neither for children in the internal focus groups nor for children in the external focus groups. In conclusion, primary school children's motor learning is enhanced by external focus instructions compared to internal focus instructions. The purported modulatory roles of children's working memory, attentional capacity, or focus preferences require further investigation.

  1. The Information and Communication Technology User Role: Implications for the Work Role and Inter-Role Spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Matthew M; Pichler, Shaun; Turel, Ofir; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees' work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance. To this end, we first conceptualize the ICTU role and its associations with work and family roles. We then apply identity theory and boundary management theory to advance our understanding of how the ICTU role is related to criteria that are important to individuals and to organizations, namely self-selection into certain types of work roles and positive and negative inter-role spillover. The implications of this role for theory, research, and practice in management and organizations are discussed.

  2. Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Stromal microenvironment influences tumor cell proliferation and migration. Fibroblasts represent the most abundant stromal constituents. Here, we established two pairs of normal fibroblast (NF) and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts. The NFs and CAFs were stained positive for typical fibroblast markers and inhibited colon cancer (CC) cell proliferation in in vitro cocultures and in xenograft mouse models. The fibroblast conditioned media were analyzed using LC-MS and 227 proteins were identified at a false discovery rate of 1.3%, including 131 putative secretory and 20 plasma membrane proteins. These proteins were enriched for functional categories of extracellular matrix, adhesion, cell motion, inflammatory response, redox homeostasis and peptidase inhibitor. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transgelin, follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) and decorin was abundant in the fibroblast secretome as confirmed by Western blot. Silencing of FSTL1 and transgelin in colonic fibroblast cell line CCD-18Co induced an accelerated proliferation of CC cells in cocultures. Exogenous FSTL1 attenuates CC cell proliferation in a negative fashion. FSTL1 was upregulated in CC patient plasma and cancerous tissues but had no implication in prognosis. Our results provided novel insights into the molecular signatures and modulatory role of CC associated fibroblasts. In this study, a label-free LC-MS was performed to analyze the secretomes of two paired primary fibroblasts, which were isolated from fresh surgical specimen of colorectal adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal colonic tissues and exhibited negative modulatory activity for colon cancer cell growth in in vitro cocultures and in vivo xenograph mouse models. Follistatin-related protein 1 was further revealed to be one of the stroma-derived factors of potential suppression role for colon cancer cell proliferation. Our results provide novel

  3. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  4. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  5. The effect of maternal role training program on role attainment and maternal role satisfaction in nulliparous women with unplanned pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kordi, Masoumeh; Fasanghari, Maryam; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The maternal role is one of the most basic and important roles played by women during their lifetime. The process of the maternal role starts during pregnancy and to continue and develop after postpartum with the growth of suckling. However, unplanned pregnancy may jeopardize achieving the maternal role and reduce maternal role satisfaction. Therefore, the researcher conducted the present study to determine the impact of maternal role training program on attainment of role and r...

  6. Coal still plays an important role in Europe's energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    European energy mix would be unimaginable without the coal as it is used to produce about 25 percent of the EU electricity and its importance will even increase after the enlargement. In many of the accession countries coal represents the main source of electricity. Reviews of electricity production in dependence of source, coal mining and share of brown coal on electricity production in European Union are presented

  7. The importance of opinion leaders in agricultural production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of opinion leaders in agricultural production among male and ... farmers do not have adequate access to extension services due to, amongst others, the ... In view of these problems, the role of opinion leaders is important and ...

  8. β-Defensin genomic copy number does not influence the age of onset in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittori, Angelica; Orth, Michael; Roos, Raymund A C; Outeiro, Tiago F; Giorgini, Flaviano; Hollox, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal expansion of a CAG triplet repeat tract in the huntingtin gene. While the length of this CAG expansion is the major determinant of the age of onset (AO), other genetic factors have also been shown to play a modulatory role. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammations is a pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of HD, and that targeting this process may have important therapeutic ramifications. The human β-defensin 2 (hBD2)- encoded by DEFB4- is an antimicrobial peptide that exhibits inducible expression in astrocytes during inflammation and is an important regulator of innate and adaptive immune response. Therefore, DEFB4 may contribute to the neuroinflammatory processes observed in HD. In this study we tested the hypothesis that copy number variation (CNV) of the β-defensin region, including DEFB4, modifies the AO in HD. We genotyped β-defensin CNV in 490 HD individuals using the paralogue ratio test and found no association between β-defensin CNV and onset of HD. We conclude that it is unlikely that DEFB4 plays a role in HD pathogenesis.

  9. Corticostriatal Regulation of Acute Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Martinez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms for acute pain regulation in the brain are not well understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC provides top-down control of emotional processes, and it projects to the nucleus accumbens (NAc. This corticostriatal projection forms an important regulatory pathway within the brain’s reward system. Recently, this projection has been suggested to control both sensory and affective phenotypes specifically associated with chronic pain. As this projection is also known to play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain, we hypothesized that this corticostriatal circuit can also exert a modulatory function in the acute pain state. Here, we used optogenetics to specifically target the projection from the PFC to the NAc. We tested sensory pain behaviors with Hargreaves’ test and mechanical allodynia, and aversive pain behaviors with conditioned place preference (CPP test. We found that the activation of this corticostriatal circuit gave rise to bilateral relief from peripheral nociceptive inputs. Activation of this circuit also provided important control for the aversive response to transient noxious stimulations. Hence, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in acute pain regulation.

  10. The importance of contact quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects....... Expatriates in the Netherlands were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 33) of which 21 developed high-quality contact with their host, and a control group (n = 32) without host. The results show that contact quality plays an important role and suggest that the higher the quality of the contact......, the more benefit the expatriate experienced. Moreover, expatriates with low-quality contact did not experience a detrimental effect....

  11. Growth of a Functionally Important Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister, Eugene B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Uses a dictionary-sampling method and multiple-choice testing of word knowledge to estimate the lexicon size of junior-high students, college students, and older adults. Suggests that there may yet be a role for direct instruction in affecting lexicon size of functionally important words. (SR)

  12. Important role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrD1 in pathogenesis and persistence apart from its function in nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Joanna; Townsend, Carolin; Williams, Alan R; Rodgers, Angela; Rand, Lucinda; Walker, K Barry; Böttger, Erik C; Springer, Burkhard; Davis, Elaine O

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives and replicates in macrophages, where it is exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that damage DNA. In this study, we investigated the roles of UvrA and UvrD1, thought to be parts of the nucleotide excision repair pathway of M. tuberculosis. Strains in which uvrD1 was inactivated either alone or in conjunction with uvrA were constructed. Inactivation of uvrD1 resulted in a small colony phenotype, although growth in liquid culture was not significantly affected. The sensitivity of the mutant strains to UV irradiation and to mitomycin C highlighted the importance of the targeted genes for nucleotide excision repair. The mutant strains all exhibited heightened susceptibility to representatives of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). The uvrD1 and the uvrA uvrD1 mutants showed decreased intracellular multiplication following infection of macrophages. Most importantly, the uvrA uvrD1 mutant was markedly attenuated following infection of mice by either the aerosol or the intravenous route.

  13. The role and importance of the strategic planning in bank marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe PISTOL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to highlight the strategic planning role and place in bank marketing, define the concepts of strategic planning and marketing planning and the tactical planning, marketing plan and marketing program. In this context, the author emphasize the strategic marketing planning process and its implementation stages (defining the specific mission, environmental analysis, formulation of objectives, strategies, action plans and programs, implementation, testing, overhaul and performance evaluation. Also, are reviewed organizational and decision levels specific for the strategic planning, higher organizational level, strategic unit level and operational level and the criteria considered in formulating objectives: acceptability, flexibility, motivating character, clarity, feasibility and compatibility.

  14. Importance of quality aspects of GP care among ethnic minorities: role of cultural attitudes, language and healthcare system of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkaddem, Majda; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M; Devillé, Walter L; Foets, Marleen M; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the mechanisms responsible for ethnic differences in perceived quality of care in The Netherlands. The specific role of cultural attitudes, language proficiency, and the health system in the country of origin was examined, taking socio-demographic characteristics into account. Interview data of 1339 respondents of Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Antillean origin were combined with interview data of Dutch respondents (n = 405) and of Western immigrants (n = 102) in The Netherlands and of a random sample of Dutch privately or publicly insured persons (n = 9675). Data collection took place within the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2, 2001). Items from the QUality Of care Through the patient's Eyes (QUOTE) questionnaire were used to measure expectations, as well as items from the QUOTE-Mi (adapted version for migrant groups). Items on normative orientations were used to measure cultural attitudes. In contrast to our hypothesis, respondents with more egalitarian/modern attitudes attached less importance to quality aspects related to access and quality. Tests on the role of the health system of reference were generally conclusive, showing that respondents accustomed to (parts of) another system have different expectations regarding several aspects of general practitioner healthcare quality, e.g. access to specialist care. Besides socio-demographic characteristics, culture influences patients' expectations regarding general practitioner care quality. However, the role of culture can be more clearly ascribed to the characteristics of the health system which is held as the reference than to the general attitudes on normative orientations.

  15. Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals different neural substrates for the effects of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gozzi

    Full Text Available Orexins are neuro-modulatory peptides involved in the control of diverse physiological functions through interaction with two receptors, orexin-1 (OX1R and orexin-2 (OX2R. Recent evidence in pre-clinical models points toward a putative dichotomic role of the two receptors, with OX2R predominantly involved in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle and arousal, and the OX1R being more specifically involved in reward processing and motivated behaviour. However, the specific neural substrates underlying these distinct processes in the rat brain remain to be elucidated. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in the rat to map the modulatory effect of selective OXR blockade on the functional response produced by D-amphetamine, a psychostimulant and arousing drug that stimulates orexigenic activity. OXR blockade was produced by GSK1059865 and JNJ1037049, two novel OX1R and OX2R antagonists with unprecedented selectivity at the counter receptor type. Both drugs inhibited the functional response to D-amphetamine albeit with distinct neuroanatomical patterns: GSK1059865 focally modulated functional responses in striatal terminals, whereas JNJ1037049 induced a widespread pattern of attenuation characterised by a prominent cortical involvement. At the same doses tested in the fMRI study, JNJ1037049 exhibited robust hypnotic properties, while GSK1059865 failed to display significant sleep-promoting effects, but significantly reduced drug-seeking behaviour in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Collectively, these findings highlight an essential contribution of the OX2R in modulating cortical activity and arousal, an effect that is consistent with the robust hypnotic effect exhibited by JNJ1037049. The subcortical and striatal pattern observed with GSK1059865 represent a possible neurofunctional correlate for the modulatory role of OX1R in controlling reward-processing and goal-oriented behaviours in the rat.

  16. Wolfram syndrome and suicide: Evidence for a role of WFS1 in suicidal and impulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Adolfo; Kim, Caroline; Seguin, Monique; Lesage, Alain; Chawky, Nadia; Desautels, Alex; Tousignant, Michel; Vanier, Claude; Lipp, Olivier; Benkelfat, Chawki; Rouleau, Guy; Turecki, Gustavo

    2003-05-15

    There is evidence suggesting that subjects affected with the Wolfram syndrome (WFS) and normal carriers present an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and suicidal behavior. We investigated a possible role of the gene involved in WFS (WFS1) in the neurobiology of suicide and the potential modulatory effect on traits associated to suicidal behavior. Genetic variation at WFS1 (H611R, R456H, and I333V) was investigated in 111 suicide victims and 129 normal controls. Possible effects on psychopathology and behavioral traits were investigated in a subsample of suicide cases (N = 31) for whom phenotyping was carried out by means of structured psychiatric interviews and questionnaires adapted for psychological autopsies. We found a significantly higher frequency of the 611R/611R genotype in suicide completers as compared to controls (chi(2) = 19.21, df=2, P = 0.001). Suicide completers with this genotype had higher scores on measures of impulsivity (t = -3.15, df = 15.3, P = 0.006); novelty seeking (NS) (t = -3.35, df = 13.8, P = 0.005); and conversely, lower scores of persistence (t = 2.4, df = 16.6, P = 0.028). Scores of impulsivity and NS remained higher in subjects with the associated genotype after adjusting for age, gender, and psychopathology. These results suggest a role for WFS1 in the pathophysiology of impulsive suicide, and are consistent with previous clinical reports suggesting an increased risk of suicidal behavior in WFS homozygotes and heterozygotes. However, these findings are preliminary and should be confirmed in independent samples. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Role of quaternary structure in muscle creatine kinase stability: tryptophan 210 is important for dimer cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraut, C; Clottes, E; Leydier, C; Vial, C; Marcillat, O

    1998-07-01

    A mutant of the dimeric rabbit muscle creatine kinase (MM-CK) in which tryptophan 210 was replaced has been studied to assess the role of this residue in dimer cohesion and the importance of the dimeric state for the native enzyme stability. Wild-type protein equilibrium unfolding induced by guanidine hydrochloride occurs through intermediate states with formation of a molten globule and a premolten globule. Unlike the wild-type enzyme, the mutant inactivates at lower denaturant concentration and the loss of enzymatic activity is accompanied by the dissociation of the dimer into two apparently compact monomers. However, the Stokes radius of the monomer increases with denaturant concentration as determined by size exclusion chromatography, indicating that, upon monomerization, the protein structure is destabilized. Binding of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate shows that the dissociated monomer exposes hydrophobic patches at its surface, suggesting that it could be a molten globule. At higher denaturant concentrations, both wild-type and mutant follow similar denaturation pathways with formation of a premolten globule around 1.5-M guanidine, indicating that tryptophan 210 does not contribute to a large extent to the monomer conformational stability, which may be ensured in the dimeric state through quaternary interactions.

  18. Importance of pH Homeostasis in Metabolic Health and Diseases: Crucial Role of Membrane Proton Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Aoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protons dissociated from organic acids in cells are partly buffered. If not, they are transported to the extracellular fluid through the plasma membrane and buffered in circulation or excreted in urine and expiration gas. Several transporters including monocarboxylate transporters and Na+/H+ exchanger play an important role in uptake and output of protons across plasma membranes in cells of metabolic tissues including skeletal muscle and the liver. They also contribute to maintenance of the physiological pH of body fluid. Therefore, impairment of these transporters causes dysfunction of cells, diseases, and a decrease in physical performance associated with abnormal pH. Additionally, it is known that fluid pH in the interstitial space of metabolic tissues is easily changed due to little pH buffering capacitance in interstitial fluids and a reduction in the interstitial fluid pH may mediate the onset of insulin resistance unlike blood containing pH buffers such as Hb (hemoglobin and albumin. In contrast, habitual exercise and dietary intervention regulate expression/activity of transporters and maintain body fluid pH, which could partly explain the positive effect of healthy lifestyle on disease prognosis.

  19. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  20. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  1. The role of shear stress in Blood-Brain Barrier endothelial physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvenna Vikram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most important and often neglected physiological stimuli contributing to the differentiation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs into a blood-brain barrier (BBB phenotype is shear stress (SS. With the use of a well established humanized dynamic in vitro BBB model and cDNA microarrays, we have profiled the effect of SS in the induction/suppression of ECs genes and related functions. Results Specifically, we found a significant upregulation of tight and adherens junctions proteins and genes. Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER and permeability measurements to know substances have shown that SS promoted the formation of a tight and highly selective BBB. SS also increased the RNA level of multidrug resistance transporters, ion channels, and several p450 enzymes. The RNA level of a number of specialized carrier-mediated transport systems (e.g., glucose, monocarboxylic acid, etc. was also upregulated. RNA levels of modulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway (e.g., lactate dehydrogenase were downregulated by SS while those involved in the Krebs cycle (e.g., lactate and other dehydrogenases were upregulated. Measurements of glucose consumption versus lactate production showed that SS negatively modulated the glycolytic bioenergetic pathways of glucose metabolism in favor of the more efficient aerobic respiration. BBB ECs are responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Our data showed that SS increased the RNA levels of integrins and vascular adhesion molecules. SS also inhibited endothelial cell cycle via regulation of BTG family proteins encoding genes. This was paralleled by significant increase in the cytoskeletal protein content while that of membrane, cytosol, and nuclear sub-cellular fractions decreased. Furthermore, analysis of 2D gel electrophoresis (which allows identifying a large number of proteins per sample of EC proteins extracted from membrane sub-cellular endothelial fractions showed that SS increased

  2. Immunomodulatory role for membrane vesicles released by THP-1 macrophages and respiratory pathogens during macrophage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgers, Charlotte; Benedikter, Birke J; Grauls, Gert E; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Stassen, Frank R M

    2017-11-13

    During infection, inflammation is partially driven by the release of mediators which facilitate intercellular communication. Amongst these mediators are small membrane vesicles (MVs) that can be released by both host cells and Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Bacterial membrane vesicles are known to exert immuno-modulatory and -stimulatory actions. Moreover, it has been proposed that host cell-derived vesicles, released during infection, also have immunostimulatory properties. In this study, we assessed the release and activity of host cell-derived and bacterial MVs during the first hours following infection of THP-1 macrophages with the common respiratory pathogens non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a combination of flow cytometry, tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS)-based analysis and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that the release of MVs occurs by both host cells and bacteria during infection. MVs released during infection and bacterial culture were found to induce a strong pro-inflammatory response by naive THP-1 macrophages. Yet, these MVs were also found to induce tolerance of host cells to secondary immunogenic stimuli and to enhance bacterial adherence and the number of intracellular bacteria. Bacterial MVs may play a dual role during infection, as they can both trigger and dampen immune responses thereby contributing to immune defence and bacterial survival.

  3. Role of Akirin in Skeletal Myogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingbiao Long

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis.

  4. A genome-wide scan reveals important roles of DNA methylation in human longevity by regulating age-related disease genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hui Xiao

    Full Text Available It is recognized that genetic factors contribute to human longevity. Besides the hypothesis of existence of longevity genes, another suggests that a lower frequency of risk alleles decreases the incidence of age-related diseases in the long-lived people. However, the latter finds no support from recent genetic studies. Considering the crucial role of epigenetic modification in gene regulation, we then hypothesize that suppressing disease-related genes in longevity individuals is likely achieved by epigenetic modification, e.g. DNA methylation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the genome-wide methylation profile in 4 Chinese female centenarians and 4 middle-aged controls using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. 626 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed between both groups. Interestingly, genes with these DMRs were enriched in age-related diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. This pattern remains rather stable after including methylomes of two white individuals. Further analyses suggest that the observed DMRs likely have functional roles in regulating disease-associated gene expressions, with some genes [e.g. caspase 3 (CASP3] being down-regulated whereas the others [i.e. interleukin 1 receptor, type 2 (IL1R2] up-regulated. Therefore, our study suggests that suppressing the disease-related genes via epigenetic modification is an important contributor to human longevity.

  5. The Importance of Communication in Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Cristina Stanciu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From a managerial perspective, communication is regarded as a process of understandingamong people by means of information exchange. According to the principle “quality starts withthe manager”, his role becomes crucial, one of the main traits of the manager’s behaviour beingthe ability to communicate effectively.Important in any aspect of quality management,communication plays an essential role in developing business projects. As a component of publicrelations, although less spectacular than marketing communication, quality managementcommunication is an exciting activity, extremely useful in projects management.This paper aims todemonstrate the economic role and the benefits of using communication as a tool of qualitymanagement programs for improving the quality of organizational activity.

  6. Risks assessment of environmental exposure to certain organo chemicals in male rats: the possible modulatory effect of micro nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely volatile organic compound, because of its widespread commercial use. So, TCE become a major environmental pollutant. It is the most frequently reported organic contaminant in ground water, so a considerable numbers of people are exposed to TCE via inhalation, through the skin or through drinking water and rarely through food. The main symptoms of exposure are headache, dizziness, and confusion, beyond the effects on the central nervous system, work place exposure to TCE has been associated with toxic effects in many organs including liver, kidney and testes in addition to attenuation to the immune system. The present study aims to investigate the possible modulatory effect of certain micro nutrients such as vitamin C and zinc alone and in combination on the damage of liver, kidney and testes of male rats intoxicated with trichloroethylene for 20 and 105 days. The results showed significant decrease in body and testes weight and increase in liver and kidney weights after long period of treatment with TCE. Some of the selected hematological and biochemical parameters of the rats intoxicated by TCE for short and long period significantly changed. The results revealed significant decrease in free tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) (FT4) and significant increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (Thyrotropin) (TSH) in TCE-intoxicated rat groups for the two periods of treatment. Also results revealed significant decrease of total testosterone in TCE-intoxicated rat groups as compared to that of normal control. Also significant changes were detected in the level of immunoglobulins IgG and IgM.Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and testicular tissues showed significant alteration. The DNA damage was observed in both period of treatment and increased DNA damage with apoptosis was recorded after 105 days of the treatment. Withdrawal group recorded mild improvement in all changed parameters and the

  7. 15-lipoxygenase metabolites play an important role in the development of a T-helper type 1 allergic inflammation induced by double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S G; Moon, H-G; Kim, Y-S; Choi, J-P; Shin, T-S; Hong, S-W; Tae, Y-M; Kim, S-H; Zhu, Z; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2009-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that the T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response plays an important role in the development of non-eosinophilic inflammation induced by airway exposure of an allergen plus double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, the role of lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation is poorly understood. To evaluate the role of LO metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. A Th2-allergic inflammation mouse model was created by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide-depleted ovalbumin (OVA, 75 microg) and alum (2 mg) twice, and the Th1 model was created by intranasal application of OVA (75 microg) and synthetic dsRNA [10 microg of poly(I : C)] four times, followed by an intranasal challenge with 50 microg of OVA four times. The role of LO metabolites was evaluated using two approaches: a transgenic approach using 5-LO(-/-) and 15-LO(-/-) mice, and a pharmacological approach using inhibitors of cysteinyl leucotriene receptor-1 (cysLTR1), LTB4 receptor (BLT1), and 15-LO. We found that the Th1-allergic inflammation induced by OVA+dsRNA sensitization was similar between 5-LO(-/-) and wild-type (WT) control mice, although Th2 inflammation induced by sensitization with OVA+alum was reduced in the former group. In addition, dsRNA-induced Th1 allergic inflammation, which is associated with down-regulation of 15-hydroxyeicosateraenoic acids production, was not affected by treatment with cysLTR1 or BLT1 inhibitors, whereas it was significantly lower in 12/15-LO(-/-) mice compared with WT control mice. Moreover, dsRNA-induced allergic inflammation and the recruitment of T cells following an allergen challenge were significantly inhibited by treatment with a specific 15-LO inhibitor (PD146176). 15-LO metabolites appear to be important mediators in the development of Th1-allergic inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. Our findings suggest that the

  8. Attribution of importance to life roles and their implications for mental health among Filipino American working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, Linda; Mo, Wenbin

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine levels of role commitment, role conflict, depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction among a community-based sample of working Filipino women. The convenience sample consisted of 87 Filipino working women, ranging in age from 18 to 59 years. Participants completed instruments assessing self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, and role conflict. Our analyses revealed that participants who were equally or more committed to work than relationships had significantly higher depression scores, self-esteem scores, and levels of education than participants who were committed primarily to relationships. There were no significant differences among role commitment type on role conflict and life satisfaction. We found significant interactions between experiences of depression, self-esteem, and the perceptions of self. From our study findings our knowledge of working Filipina American's psychological well-being has increased and provided a foundation for future research.

  9. Hepcidin is directly regulated by insulin and plays an important role in iron overload in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heyang; Li, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Shi, Wencai; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2014-05-01

    Iron overload is frequently observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepcidin may be directly regulated by insulin and play an important role in iron overload in DM2. We therefore examined the hepatic iron content, serum iron parameters, intestinal iron absorption, and liver hepcidin expression in rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ), which was given alone or after insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. The direct effect of insulin on hepcidin and its molecular mechanisms were furthermore determined in vitro in HepG2 cells. STZ administration caused a significant reduction in liver hepcidin level and a marked increase in intestinal iron absorption and serum and hepatic iron content. Insulin obviously upregulated hepcidin expression in HepG2 cells and enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein synthesis and DNA binding activity. The effect of insulin on hepcidin disappeared when the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway was blocked and could be partially inhibited by U0126. In conclusion, the current study suggests that hepcidin can be directly regulated by insulin, and the suppressed liver hepcidin synthesis may be an important reason for the iron overload in DM2.

  10. Central neuropeptide Y plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Shi, Bei; Sun, Weinan; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Fan; Cao, Yu

    2018-02-07

    Exposure to continuous life stress often causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Studies have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) counteracts the biological actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and is involved in the termination of the stress response. However, in chronic repeated restraint stress (CRS) conditions, the actions of NPY on GI motility remain controversial. To evaluate the role of NPY in mediation of the adaptation mechanism and GI motility in CRS conditions, a CRS rat model was set up. Central CRF and NPY expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and NPY concentrations were measured, and GI motor function was evaluated. The NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 was centrally administered before stress loading, and on days, 1-5, of repeated stress, the central CRF and the serum corticosterone concentrations were measured. In addition, gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated. The elevated central CRF expression and corticosterone concentration caused by acute stress began to fall after 3 days of stress loading, while central NPY expression and serum NPY began to increase. GI dysmotility also returned to a normal level. Pretreatment with BIBP-3226 abolished the adaptation mechanism, and significantly increased CRF expression and the corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and accelerated fecal pellet output. Inhibited gastric motility and enhanced distal colonic motility were also recorded. CRS-produced adaptation, over-expressed central CRF, and GI dysmotility observed in acute restraint stress were restored to normal levels. Central NPY via the Y1 receptor plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  11. Modulatory role of Co-enzyme Q10 on methionine and choline deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia O; Ahmed, Rania F; Amin, Mohamed M

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the hepato-protective and neuro-protective activity of Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in albino rats induced by methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Rats were fed an MCD diet for 8 weeks to induce non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. CoQ10 (10 mg/(kg·day) -1 ) was orally administered for 2 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last dose of the drug, the behavioral test, namely the activity cage test, was performed and the activity counts were recorded. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total/direct bilirubin, and albumin were valued to assess liver function. Moreover, hepatic cytokines interleukin-6 as well as its modulator nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells were determined. In addition, brain biomarkers, viz ammonia, nitric oxide, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), were measured as they are reliable indices to assess brain damage. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of brain proliferating cell nuclear antigen in brain and liver tissues were also evaluated. Results revealed that MCD-induced NASH showed impairment in the liver functions with an increase in the liver inflammatory markers. Moreover, NASH resulted in pronounced brain dysfunction as evidenced by hyper-locomotor activity, a decrease in the BDNF level, as well as an increase in the brain nitric oxide and ammonia contents. Oral treatment of MCD-diet-fed rats with CoQ10 for 14 days showed a marked improvement in all the assigned parameters. Finally, it can be concluded that CoQ10 has a hepatoprotective and neuroprotective role in MCD-diet-induced NASH in rats.

  12. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-Hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species.

  13. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species. PMID:27446060

  14. Doing what comes naturally: a special workforce plays an important role in a new on-site remediation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsters, S.

    1999-01-01

    A bioremediation system developed by Calgary-based Unique Oilfield Technology Services (UNOTEC) that uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi to decompose oilfield waste is described. In essence, UNOTEC creates a suitable work environment for microorganisms by mixing drilling residue with organic oil absorbent and bulking agent, and the micro-organisms do the rest. The key ingredient in the mix is canola meal which has been shown to have the ability to immobilize oil and prevent leaching in the containment mixtures following land treatment, due to its oleophilic qualities, which are a function of its origin as an oil seed. Canola meal contains large amounts of protein, hence it is an important source of nitrogen. Since nitrogen is considered essential for stimulating growth in microorganisms, the meal plays a critical role as a catalyst for microbial activity in the containment mix. Details of applying the technology, and on-going experiments demonstrating its efficiency are described. 10 photos

  15. Gender-specific and gonadectomy-specific effects upon swim analgesia: role of steroid replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M T; Cooper, M L; Komisaruk, B R; Bodnar, R J

    1988-01-01

    Both gender-specific and gonadectomy-specific effects have been observed for the analgesic responses following continuous and intermittent cold-water swims (CCWS and ICWS respectively): female rats display significantly less analgesia than males, and gonadectomized rats display significantly less analgesia than sham-operated controls. The present study evaluated the effects of steroid replacement therapy with testosterone propionate (TP: 2 mg/kg, SC) upon CCWS and ICWS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests and hypothermia in sham-operated or gonadectomized male and female rats. Thirty days following surgery, rats received either no treatment, a sesame oil vehicle or TP for 14 days prior to, and then during testing. Relative to the no treatment condition, repeated vehicle injections in sham-operated rats eliminated the gender-specific, but did not affect the gonadectomy-specific effects upon CCWS and ICWS analgesia. TP reversed the deficits in CCWS and ICWS analgesia observed in both castrated and ovariectomized rats on both pain tests. TP only potentiated CCWS analgesia in sham-operated males on the tail-flick test. TP potentiated CCWS and ICWS hypothermia in gonadectomized rats and in male sham-operated rats. These data indicate that gonadal steroids play a major modulatory role in the etiology of swim analgesia, and that the observed gender effects are sensitive to possible adaptational variables.

  16. Intellectual Capital Import for the Benefit of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenca, Airita; Gravite, Aija

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the role of intellectual capital in the development of higher education system. The description of economic and marketing values of intellectual capital demonstrates its importance for an institution's establishing in education market. Import and export of intellectual capital is a reality of globalisation processes, and it is…

  17. Urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of Helicobacter pylori in a viscous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yoshiyama, H; Takeuchi, H; Mizote, T; Okita, K; Nakazawa, T

    1998-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the mutant strain did not show swarming in motility agar regardless of having flagella. Incubation of the wild-type strain with flurofamide resulted in partial inhibition of the chemotactic activities in the viscous solution. In addition, incubation with acetohydroxamic acid, a low-molecular-weight, diffusible urease inhibitor, resulted in complete loss of chemotactic activity in the viscous solution. The inhibition of the chemotactic activity by urease inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of urease. The chemotactic activity of H. pylori was also inhibited by the proton carrier carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, showing that H. pylori utilizes proton motive force for motility. These results indicate that cytoplasmic urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of H. pylori under a condition that mimics the ecological niche of the bacterium, the gastric mucous layer.

  18. Dietary fibre as an important constituent of the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina Maćkowiak; Natalia Torlińska-Walkowiak; Barbara Torlińska

    2016-01-01

    The intake of fibre in the diet of a child or an adult, through various foods (such as wholegrain foods, nuts, fruits and vegetables), plays an important role in reducing the risk and lowering the incidence of numerous diseases. The interest of researchers and consumers in the role of diet in the prevention or treatment of many illnesses, and maintaining the general and oral health, has been growing lately. The aim of our study was to underline the role of dietary fibre through its effects on...

  19. The spanish agrofood industry: importance and role in regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Juste Carrión

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Le système agrolimentaire se trouve parmi les activités les plus directement touchées par les processus actuels de restructuration productive et de globalisation économique. En fait, l’entrée de l’Espagne dans l’UE a constitué tout un défi pour l’industrie agroalimentaire (IAA espagnole, compte tenu du besoin d’adaptation à un nouveau scénario où l’élargissement du marché entraînait non seulement une augmentation de la clientèle potentielle mais aussi la concurrence de nombreux compétiteurs en matière de commerce extérieur. L’objectif principal de notre article est de mettre en évidence la pertinence de l’industrie agroalimentaire espagnole et son potentiel en tant qu’instrument capable de promouvoir la croissance économique et le développement territorial. Après avoir essayer de déterminer l’importance relative de l’agroalimentaire dans les industries espagnoles et européenne, on analysera les principales caractéristiques de l’industrie agroalimentaire nationale en considérant son comportement ces deux dernières décennies. Enfin, la recherche incluera quelques réflexions sur les points forts et les faiblesses du secteur qui seront les bases de sa future évolution.Among the activities most directly affected by the ongoing processes of productive restructuration and economic globalization include those related with the agrofood sector. The Spanish agrofood industry (AFI has not been an exception. In fact, obtaining membership in the European Union was a real challenge for Spain. That was largely because of its need to speed up the adaptation process to a new scenario in which the broadening of the market produced a noticeable increase in the potential clientele and brought a larger number of more experienced competitors into the import-export business. The main objective of our research is to emphasise the relevance of the Spanish agrofood industry and its potential as an instrument to promote

  20. The Calcium-Looping technology for CO_2 capture: On the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perejón, Antonio; Romeo, Luis M.; Lara, Yolanda; Lisbona, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Calcium Looping (CaL) technology is a potentially low cost and highly efficient postcombustion CO_2 capture technology. • Energy integration and sorbent behavior play a relevant role on the process. • The industrial competitiveness of the process depends critically on the minimization of energy penalties. • It may be used in precombustion capture systems and other industrial processes such as cement production. • Sorbent deactivation must be assessed under realistic conditions involving high CO_2 concentration in the calciner. - Abstract: The Calcium Looping (CaL) technology, based on the multicyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO in gas–solid fluidized bed reactors at high temperature, has emerged in the last years as a potentially low cost technology for CO_2 capture. In this manuscript a critical review is made on the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior in the process efficiency. Firstly, the strategies proposed to reduce the energy demand by internal integration are discussed as well as process modifications aimed at optimizing the overall efficiency by means of external integration. The most important benefit of the high temperature CaL cycles is the possibility of using high temperature streams that could reduce significantly the energy penalty associated to CO_2 capture. The application of the CaL technology in precombustion capture systems and energy integration, and the coupling of the CaL technology with other industrial processes are also described. In particular, the CaL technology has a significant potential to be a feasible CO_2 capture system for cement plants. A precise knowledge of the multicyclic CO_2 capture behavior of the sorbent at the CaL conditions to be expected in practice is of great relevance in order to predict a realistic capture efficiency and energy penalty from process simulations. The second part of this manuscript will be devoted to this issue. Particular emphasis is put on the

  1. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Zana R.; Abdeljaber, Esraa; Soveland, Robin; Cornwell, Kristin; Bankemper, Aubrey; Koch, Felicitas; Cooper, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT r...

  2. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  3. The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A

    2005-03-01

    Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23% of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks.

  4. Functional Development of the Octenol Response in Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    the expression of biogenic amine receptor genes in the antennae of honey bees (Apis mellifera). J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural. Behav...Masterman, R., Ross, R., and Mesce, K. A. (2003). Hygienic behavior in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and the modulatory role of octopamine. J...CO2, octenol, lactic acid, and ammonia, is carried out by recep- tor proteins located in the dendritic membrane of ORNs; these receptors belong to

  5. Neural Dynamics of Feedforward and Feedback Processing in Figure-Ground Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver W. Layton; Ennio eMingolla; Arash eYazdanbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation) is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with feedback playing only a modulatory role. We present a dynamical model of figure-ground segregation in the primate ventral stream wherein feedba...

  6. The important role of food composition in policies and programmes for better public health: A South African case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Hall, Nicolette; Pretorius, B

    2018-01-01

    Most governments have committed to the set of Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations (UN) to be achieved by 2030. Subsequently the governments have drafted, or are in process of drafting, policies and programmes which aim to answer to these global requests. South Africa provides a unique case study: despite economic growth, undernutrition has not improved when compared to other industrialised nations, while at the same time, diet-related non-communicable diseases and obesity have exponentially increased. Access to healthy food is a constitutional right of all South Africans, and towards increasing food security and improving population health, various policies, programmes and regulations have been developed and implemented by the government to rectify the situation. The paper presents an overview of food composition within these public health policies, programmes and regulations and unpacks the important role of accurate food composition data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Perceived Importance of HR duties to Danish line managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julia; Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Today, HR scholars widely acknowledge that realising HRM requires the involvement of all managers and that the personal motivation of line managers plays an important role in their successful involvement. Yet, previous research has neglected to study how line managers rate the importance of parti...

  8. Neuromodulation intrinsic to the central pattern generator for escape swimming in Tritonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S

    1998-11-16

    Extrinsic neuromodulatory inputs to central pattern generators (CPGs) can alter the properties and synaptic interactions of neurons in those circuits and thereby modify the output of the CPG. Recent work in a number of systems has now demonstrated that neurons intrinsic to CPG can also evoke neuromodulatory actions on other members of the CPG. Such "intrinsic neuromodulation" plays a role in controlling the CPG underlying the escape swim response of the nudibrach mollusc, Tritonia diomedea. The dorsal swim interneurons (DSIs) are a bilaterally represented set of three serotonergic neurons that participate in the generation of the rhythmic swim motor program. Serotonin released from these CPG neurons functions both as a fast neurotransmitter and as a slower neuromodulator. In its modulatory role, serotonin enhances the release of neurotransmitter from another CPG neuron, C2, and also increases C2 excitability by decreasing spike frequency adaptation. These neuromodulatory actions intrinsic to the CPG may be important for the initial self-configuration of the system into a function CPG and for experience-dependent changes in the output such as behavioral sensitization and habituation.

  9. Nitric oxide affects short-term olfactory memory in the antennal lobe of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Stephanie L; Daly, Kevin C; Nighorn, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play an important neuromodulatory role in olfaction. We are using the hawkmoth Manduca sexta to investigate the function of NO signaling in the antennal lobe (AL; the primary olfactory network in invertebrates). We have found previously that NO is present at baseline levels, dramatically increases in response to odor stimulation, and alters the electrophysiology of AL neurons. It is unclear, however, how these effects contribute to common features of olfactory systems such as olfactory learning and memory, odor detection and odor discrimination. In this study, we used chemical detection and a behavioral approach to further examine the function of NO in the AL. We found that basal levels of NO fluctuate with the daily light cycle, being higher during the nocturnal active period. NO also appears to be necessary for short-term olfactory memory. NO does not appear to affect odor detection, odor discrimination between dissimilar odorants, or learning acquisition. These findings suggest a modulatory role for NO in the timing of olfactory-guided behaviors.

  10. Role Model, Hero or Champion? Children's Views Concerning Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheno, Patricia; Thornton, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Claims that male role models can improve the behaviour and achievement of boys are familiar and persistent. However, research has not confirmed such a link; recent UK studies indicate that peers and relatives may be far more important to boys than their teachers. Given the seemingly relentless reference to male teachers as role models…

  11. The Importance of Simulation in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyikara, Evrim; Baykara, Zehra Gocmen

    2017-01-01

    Nursing education involves a practice-oriented curriculum in which emphasis is placed on both theoretical knowledge and psychomotor skills. In skill-based education, where learning through practice occupies a central role, it is important to ensure the integration of theoretical knowledge into practice. In this context, simulations represent an…

  12. The importance of places and place branding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovács, Z.; Musterd, S.; Musterd, S.; Kovács, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In the analytical part of this study, we highlight that, despite globalisation and growing uniformity, there is still an important role for place itself in the location decisions of economic players. Part III of this volume deals with this. Even though city-regions across the world have become

  13. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  14. Glutamate and GABA as rapid effectors of hypothalamic peptidergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eSchöne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vital hypothalamic neurons regulating hunger, wakefulness, reward-seeking, and body weight are often defined by unique expression of hypothalamus-specific neuropeptides. Gene-ablation studies show that some of these peptides, notably orexin/hypocretin (hcrt/orx, are themselves critical for stable states of consciousness and metabolic health. However, neuron-ablation studies often reveal more severe phenotypes, suggesting key roles for co-expressed transmitters. Indeed, most hypothalamic neurons, including hcrt/orx cells, contain fast transmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as several neuropeptides. What are the roles and relations between different transmitters expressed by the same neuron? Here, we consider signaling codes for releasing different transmitters in relation to transmitter and receptor diversity in behaviorally-defined, widely-projecting peptidergic neurons, such as hcrt/orx cells. We then discuss latest optogenetic studies of endogenous transmitter release from defined sets of axons in situ, which suggest that recently-characterized vital peptidergic neurons (e.g. hcrt/orx, proopiomelanocortin , and agouti-related peptide cells, as well as classical modulatory neurons (e.g. dopamine and acetylcholine cells, all use fast transmitters to control their postsynaptic targets. These optogenetic insights are complemented by recent observations of behavioral deficiencies caused by genetic ablation of fast transmission from specific neuropeptidergic and aminergic neurons. Powerful and fast (millisecond-scale GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling from neurons previously considered to be primarily modulatory raises new questions about the roles of slower co-transmitters they co-express.

  15. White coat hypertension is more risky than prehypertension: important role of arterial wave reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shih-Hsien; Cheng, Hao-Min; Wang, Kang-Ling; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Ting, Chih-Tai; Lakatta, Edward G; Yin, Frank C P; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2013-06-01

    Arterial aging may link cardiovascular risk to white coat hypertension (WCH). The aims of the present study were to investigate the role of arterial aging in the white coat effect, defined as the difference between office and 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressures, and to compare WCH with prehypertension (PH) with respect to target organ damage and long-term cardiovascular mortality. A total of 1257 never-been-treated volunteer subjects from a community-based survey were studied. WCH and PH were defined by office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures. Left ventricular mass index, carotid intima-media thickness, estimated glomerular filtration rate, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid augmentation index, amplitude of the reflection pressure wave, and 15-year cardiovascular mortality were determined. Subjects with WCH were significantly older and had greater body mass index, blood pressure values, intima-media thickness, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, amplitude of the backward pressure wave, and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate than PH. Amplitude of the backward pressure wave was the most important independent correlate of the white coat effect in multivariate analysis (model r(2)=0.451; partial r(2)/model r(2)=90.5%). WCH had significantly greater cardiovascular mortality than PH (hazard ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-7.91), after accounting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio. Further adjustment of the model for amplitude of the backward pressure wave eliminated the statistical significance of the WCH effect. In conclusion, the white coat effect is mainly caused by arterial aging. WCH carries higher risk for cardiovascular mortality than PH, probably via enhanced wave reflections that accompany arterial aging.

  16. The paradox of fiction: Emotional response toward fiction and the modulatory role of self-relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Arcangeli, Margherita; Makowski, Dominique; Wantzen, Prany; Zalla, Tiziana; Lemaire, Stéphane; Dokic, Jérôme; Pelletier, Jérôme; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-03-01

    For over forty years, philosophers have struggled with the "paradox of fiction", which is the issue of how we can get emotionally involved with fictional characters and events. The few neuroscientific studies investigating the distinction between the processing of real and fictional entities have evidenced that midline cortical structures and lateral fronto-parietal regions are more engaged for real and fictional entities, respectively. Interestingly, the former network is engaged in autobiographical memory retrieval and self-reference, processes that are known to boost emotional reactivity, while the latter underpins emotion regulation. Thus, a possible modulation of the emotional response according to the nature (real or fictional) of the stimulus is conceivable. To test this hypothesis, we presented short emotional (negative and positive) and neutral video as fictional or real. For negative material, we found that subjective emotional experience, but not physiological arousal measured by electrodermal activity, was reduced in the fictional condition. Moreover, the amount of personal memories linked to the scenes counteracted this effect boosting the subjective emotional response. On the contrary, personal memories elicited by the scenes, but not fiction, modulate the emotional response for positive material. These results suggest that when a stimulus triggers a personal memory, the emotional response is less prone to be modulated by contextual factors, and suggest that personal engagement could be responsible for emotional reaction toward fiction. We discuss these results in the emotion regulation framework and underline their implications in informing theoretical accounts of emotion in the neuroscientific domain and the philosophical debate on the paradox of emotional response to fiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Infant negative affect and maternal interactive behavior during the still-face procedure: the moderating role of adult attachment states of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Leerkes, Esther M; Supple, Andrew J; Calkins, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined associations between attachment state of mind measured prenatally (N = 259) and maternal behavior in the reunion episode of the still-face procedure when infants were six months of age both as a main effect and in conjunction with infant negative affect. Using a dimensional approach to adult attachment measurement, dismissing and preoccupied states of mind were negatively associated with maternal sensitivity, and each correlated with distinct parenting behaviors. Positive associations were found between dismissing states of mind and maternal monitoring and preoccupied states of mind and maternal withdraw. Maternal preoccupation moderated associations between infant negative affect and maternal intrusive, withdrawn, and monitoring behaviors, supporting the notion that maternal attachment influences parenting behavior via a modulatory process in which infant distress cues are selectively filtered and responded to. Analyses using a traditional AAI scale and classification approach also provided evidence for distinct parenting behavior correlates of insecure adult attachment representations. The importance of measuring global and stylistic differences in maternal behavior in contexts which allow for the activation of the entire range of infant affective states is discussed.

  18. TmCactin plays an important role in Gram-negative and -positive bacterial infection by regulating expression of 7 AMP genes in Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Hun; Jung Kim, Yu; Beom Park, Ki; Hwan Seong, Jeong; Gon Kim, Soo; Park, Soyi; Young Noh, Mi; Seok Lee, Yong; Soo Han, Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults. TmCactin was induced in larvae after infection with different pathogens and detectable within 3 hours of infection. The highest levels of TmCactin expression were detected at 9 hours post infection. TmCactin RNAi significantly decreased the survival rates of larvae after challenge with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but had no significant effect after challenge with Candida albicans. Furthermore, TmCactin RNAi significantly reduced the expression of seven antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs) after bacterial challenge. Our results suggest that TmCactin may serve as an important regulator of innate immunity, mediating AMP responses against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in T. molitor. PMID:28418029

  19. 78 FR 64408 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    .... At the time of this amendment there was a more clear division of roles among producers, handlers, and... division of roles among producers, handlers, and importers. In other words, those individuals that imported... public who are industry members familiar with the program or persons who administer the program's day-to...

  20. The cognitive import of the narrative schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2007-01-01

    principle of intelligibility. This is the reason why the narrative schema is by no means confined to the domain of the literary work of art. It is rather a major principle for the combination of partial significations in many other domains. The paper explores the role traditionally assigned to the narrative...... schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema....

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Stošić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, more than ever, the role of educational technology in teaching is of great importance because of the use of information and communication technologies. With the help of various applications for distance education, the Internet, teachers, and students themselves, they see the advantage of educational technology. The question is whether schools and teachers themselves are ready for the use of technology in education and whether they are aware of its benefits? In this paper, we try to give an overview of the importance and use of educational technology in the classroom.

  2. The Functionality of Facial Appearance and Its Importance to a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea.MethodsWe conducted an online panel survey of 300 participants (age range, 20-70 years. Each respondent was administered the demographic data form, Facial Function Assessment Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and standard gamble questionnaires.ResultsIn the evaluation on the importance of facial functions, a normal appearance was considered as important as communication, breathing, speech, and vision. Of the 300 participants, 85% stated that a normal appearance is important in social activities.ConclusionsThe results of this survey involving a cross-section of the Korean population indicated that a normal appearance was considered one of the principal facial functions. A normal appearance was considered more important than the functions of olfaction and expression. Moreover, a normal appearance was determined to be an important facial function for leading a normal life in Korea.

  3. Huntingtin is critical both pre- and postsynaptically for long-term learning-related synaptic plasticity in Aplysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Beom Choi

    Full Text Available Patients with Huntington's disease exhibit memory and cognitive deficits many years before manifesting motor disturbances. Similarly, several studies have shown that deficits in long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular basis of memory formation and storage, occur well before motor disturbances in the hippocampus of the transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease. The autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of Huntington's disease suggests the importance of the mutant protein, huntingtin, in pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, but wild type huntingtin also has been shown to be important for neuronal functions such as axonal transport. Yet, the role of wild type huntingtin in long-term synaptic plasticity has not been investigated in detail. We identified a huntingtin homolog in the marine snail Aplysia, and find that similar to the expression pattern in mammalian brain, huntingtin is widely expressed in neurons and glial cells. Importantly the expression of mRNAs of huntingtin is upregulated by repeated applications of serotonin, a modulatory transmitter released during learning in Aplysia. Furthermore, we find that huntingtin expression levels are critical, not only in presynaptic sensory neurons, but also in the postsynaptic motor neurons for serotonin-induced long-term facilitation at the sensory-to-motor neuron synapse of the Aplysia gill-withdrawal reflex. These results suggest a key role for huntingtin in long-term memory storage.

  4. The importance of bees in natural and agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rhoades

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s most important group of pollinators, bees are a crucial part of agricultural production and natural ecosystem function. Bees and the pollination they provide are relevant to the nursery industry because of their role in the performance of seed increase plots as well as the importance of pollination in supporting persistent plant communities in restored...

  5. ROLE CONFLICT AND ROLE AMBIGUITY ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT INTERNAL AUDITORS: THE DETERMINANT AND IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Novriansa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bureaucratic reform at the local government level in Indonesia that was instituted in 2012 has turned local government internal auditors into an important part of government governance systems. The role of local government internal auditors has been expanded to include not only the area of audit oversight, but also the areas of anti-corruption-related and consulting activities. These fundamental changes may potentially induce role conflict and role ambiguity among internal auditors. The objective of this study is to examine empirically the determinants and consequences of role conflict and role ambiguity among local government internal auditors. More specifically, this study attempts to examine the extent to which formalization determines role conflict and role ambiguity; it further tests the impact of role conflict and role ambiguity on commitment to independence and job performance. Questionnaires were distributed to 248 local government internal auditors from 12 Regional Inspectorates in the provinces of Yogyakarta, South Sumatra, and East Java. A total of 176 responses were received, and 124 useable responses from the 176 responses were analysed to test the hypotheses. Using Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square the results show that: formalization is negatively related to role conflict and role ambiguity; role ambiguity has a negative impact on commitment to independence; role conflict has a positive impact on job performance; and role ambiguity has a negative impact on job performance. These findings serve as important external validity evidence on the phenomena associated with role conflict and role ambiguity that occur in the public sector, especially among internal auditors at local government institutions.

  6. Bidirectional electric communication between the inferior occipital gyrus and the amygdala during face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Matsuda, Kazumi; Usui, Keiko; Usui, Naotaka; Inoue, Yushi; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-09-01

    Faces contain multifaceted information that is important for human communication. Neuroimaging studies have revealed face-specific activation in multiple brain regions, including the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and amygdala; it is often assumed that these regions constitute the neural network responsible for the processing of faces. However, it remains unknown whether and how these brain regions transmit information during face processing. This study investigated these questions by applying dynamic causal modeling of induced responses to human intracranial electroencephalography data recorded from the IOG and amygdala during the observation of faces, mosaics, and houses in upright and inverted orientations. Model comparisons assessing the experimental effects of upright faces versus upright houses and upright faces versus upright mosaics consistently indicated that the model having face-specific bidirectional modulatory effects between the IOG and amygdala was the most probable. The experimental effect between upright versus inverted faces also favored the model with bidirectional modulatory effects between the IOG and amygdala. The spectral profiles of modulatory effects revealed both same-frequency (e.g., gamma-gamma) and cross-frequency (e.g., theta-gamma) couplings. These results suggest that the IOG and amygdala communicate rapidly with each other using various types of oscillations for the efficient processing of faces. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4511-4524, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-31

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis

  9. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of impor...

  10. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Karthivashan

    2016-07-01

    treatment. Therefore, MO leaf extract has demonstrated some therapeutic effectiveness against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity through enhancement of the endogenous antioxidant system and a modulatory effect on specific inflammatory cytokines in kidney tissues.

  11. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strength......Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA...... strengthening was exempli ed in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5( pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of p...

  12. The role and importance of leadership in business development in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Hoti; Edisona Kurhasku

    2016-01-01

    Leadership in Kosovo today is one of the questions of exceptional importance. This institution has not yet been analyzed properly based on: quality, efficiency and responsibility, legal-, material- and moral leadership. Kosovo is faced with many challenges consisting of the needed steps towards the business development of the enterprise in Kosovo and in the international arena. Leaders cannot be created only by giving orders to others but the main problem is to identify the principles of coop...

  13. Proteomic analysis reveals the important roles of alpha-5-collagen and ATP5β during skin ulceration syndrome progression of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zelong; Jiang, Jingwei; Pan, Yongjia; Sun, Hongjuan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Ying; Zhou, Zunchun

    2018-03-20

    Apostichopus japonicus is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) of sea cucumber is a common and serious disease affected the development of A. japonicus culture industry. To better understand the response mechanisms of A. japonicus during SUS progression, the protein variations in the body wall of A. japonicus at different stages of SUS were investigated by a comparative proteomic approach based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification. A total of 1449 proteins were identified from the samples at different SUS stages. Among these proteins, 145 proteins were differentially expressed in the SUS-related samples compared to those of healthy A. japonicus. These differentially expressed proteins involved a wide range of functions. Among these differentially expressed proteins, only two proteins, alpha-5-collagen and an unknown function protein, were differentially expressed during the whole progression of SUS compared with healthy A. japonicus. In addition, ATP synthase subunit beta (ATP5β) interacted with a variety of proteins with different functions during the SUS progression. These results implied that alpha-5-collagen and ATP5β could play important roles during the SUS progression of A. japonicus. Our study provided a new sight to understand the molecular responses of sea cucumber during the SUS progression and accumulated data for the prevention of SUS in sea cucumber aquaculture. The current study aimed to reveal how the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus response to skin ulceration syndrome (SUS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteomic study analyzing the differences in protein profile of sea cucumber during the whole SUS progression. By analyzing the expression differences of the proteome via isobaric labeling-based quantitative proteomic, we identified some proteins which may play important roles during the SUS progression. According to the enrichment analyses of these

  14. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  15. Cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1), an extracellular matrix component playing an important role in heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrig, Elaine E; Snarr, Brian S; Chintalapudi, Mastan R; O'neal, Jessica L; Phelps, Aimee L; Barth, Jeremy L; Fresco, Victor M; Kern, Christine B; Mjaatvedt, Corey H; Toole, Bryan P; Hoffman, Stanley; Trusk, Thomas C; Argraves, W Scott; Wessels, Andy

    2007-10-15

    To expand our insight into cardiac development, a comparative DNA microarray analysis was performed using tissues from the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) and ventricular chambers of mouse hearts at embryonic day (ED) 10.5-11.0. This comparison revealed differential expression of approximately 200 genes, including cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1). Crtl1 stabilizes the interaction between hyaluronan (HA) and versican, two extracellular matrix components essential for cardiac development. Immunohistochemical studies showed that, initially, Crtl1, versican, and HA are co-expressed in the endocardial lining of the heart, and in the endocardially derived mesenchyme of the AVJ and outflow tract (OFT). At later stages, this co-expression becomes restricted to discrete populations of endocardially derived mesenchyme. Histological analysis of the Crtl1-deficient mouse revealed a spectrum of cardiac malformations, including AV septal and myocardial defects, while expression studies showed a significant reduction in versican levels. Subsequent analysis of the hdf mouse, which carries an insertional mutation in the versican gene (CSPG2), demonstrated that haploinsufficient versican mice display septal defects resembling those seen in Crtl1(-/-) embryos, suggesting that reduced versican expression may contribute to a subset of the cardiac abnormalities observed in the Crtl1(-/-) mouse. Combined, these findings establish an important role for Crtl1 in heart development.

  16. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Du, Baoying; Zhou, Hao; Shen, Fengxian; Li, Juan; Xie, Zhenwei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC) and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism. Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (pendometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05). Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.

  17. Importance of Internal Audit and Internal Control in an organization - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bubilek, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This research is a descriptive case study of a company. It presents concepts of the internal audit and internal control based on an example of a Finnish company. The research examines the role and importance that internal audit and internal controls have in an organization. The main research question is “What is the role and importance of internal audit and internal control in an organization” Additional sub-questions relating to the case company that will allow for better understanding of...

  18. Cathelicidin-like helminth defence molecules (HDMs: absence of cytotoxic, anti-microbial and anti-protozoan activities imply a specific adaptation to immune modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Thivierge

    Full Text Available Host defence peptides (HDPs are expressed throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. They have multifunctional roles in the defence against infectious agents of mammals, possessing both bactericidal and immune-modulatory activities. We have identified a novel family of molecules secreted by helminth parasites (helminth defence molecules; HDMs that exhibit similar structural and biochemical characteristics to the HDPs. Here, we have analyzed the functional activities of four HDMs derived from Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica and compared them to human, mouse, bovine and sheep HDPs. Unlike the mammalian HDPs the helminth-derived HDMs show no antimicrobial activity and are non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells (macrophages and red blood cells. However, both the mammalian- and helminth-derived peptides suppress the activation of macrophages by microbial stimuli and alter the response of B cells to cytokine stimulation. Therefore, we hypothesise that HDMs represent a novel family of HDPs that evolved to regulate the immune responses of their mammalian hosts by retaining potent immune modulatory properties without causing deleterious cytotoxic effects.

  19. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Dual Career Mothers' Role Conflict, Parental Roles, and Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella-Shaw, Mary; And Others

    The increasing numbers of married women working make the study of dual career mothers an important topic for the psychology of women. Such research is vital to helping women integrate careers with family life. A study was conducted to examine the extent to which gender role, number of hours worked per week, and number and age of children relate to…

  1. The Role and Importance of Local Economic Development in Urban Development: A Case of Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Mandisvika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the role and importance of Local Economic Development as a means of enhancing urban development paying particular attention to the regulators of Local Economic Development in Harare. Local Economic Development is a process which encourages partners from the community, public sector, private sector and non-governmental sectors to work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation with the aim of improving the locality economic future and the quality of life for all citizens. The study was premised on the theory of competitive advantage which puts up that prosperity and wealth creation is determined by microeconomic factors and that prosperity means increasing the standards of living for the local people and ultimately their quality of life. Primary data for the research was gathered through observation and key informant interviews. Data on key stakeholders understanding on the concept of Local Economic Development, how it is being practised and how the current regulatory framework enhance or impinge on local people’s participation in Local Economic Development was collected. Secondary data was also collected from Harare’s 2014 budget, census and existing forward plans. The study revealed that the practice of Local Economic Development in Harare is biased towards the setting aside of land zoned for industrial and commercial uses and implementation of development control parameters. Small to Medium Enterprises and the informal sector have also been identified as the major forms of Local Economic Development that citizens are involved in. However, the study revealed that proper policy frameworks which guide practice of Local Economic Development initiatives were missing

  2. in human Africa South The importance of animals schistosomiasis in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa. South. The importance of animals schistosomiasis in. J. A. VAN WYK. Suinmary. The importance of animals in human schistosomia- sis in South Africa is reviewed. The prevalence of animal schistosome species in humans, the role of animals as reservoir hosts of .... that it is not of pure origin? More work is necessary, ...

  3. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  4. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare's quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market's action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  5. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare’s quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market’s action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  6. A protein interaction mechanism for suppressing the mechanosensitive Piezo channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingxin; Chi, Shaopeng; Jiang, Fan; Zhao, Qiancheng; Xiao, Bailong

    2017-11-27

    Piezo proteins are bona fide mammalian mechanotransduction channels for various cell types including endothelial cells. The mouse Piezo1 of 2547 residues forms a three-bladed, propeller-like homo-trimer comprising a central pore-module and three propeller-structures that might serve as mechanotransduction-modules. However, the mechanogating and regulation of Piezo channels remain unclear. Here we identify the sarcoplasmic /endoplasmic-reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase (SERCA), including the widely expressed SERCA2, as Piezo interacting proteins. SERCA2 strategically suppresses Piezo1 via acting on a 14-residue-constituted intracellular linker connecting the pore-module and mechanotransduction-module. Mutating the linker impairs mechanogating and SERCA2-mediated modulation of Piezo1. Furthermore, the synthetic linker-peptide disrupts the modulatory effects of SERCA2, demonstrating the key role of the linker in mechanogating and regulation. Importantly, the SERCA2-mediated regulation affects Piezo1-dependent migration of endothelial cells. Collectively, we identify SERCA-mediated regulation of Piezos and the functional significance of the linker, providing important insights into the mechanogating and regulation mechanisms of Piezo channels.

  7. Enhancer Analysis Unveils Genetic Interactions between TLX and SOX2 in Neural Stem Cells and In Vivo Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed M; Smith, Derek K; Niu, Wenze; Fang, Sanhua; Iqbal, Nida; Sun, Guoqiang; Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2015-11-10

    The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is a master regulator of postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and neurogenesis; however, it remains unclear how TLX expression is precisely regulated in these tissue-specific stem cells. Here, we show that a highly conserved cis-element within the Tlx locus functions to drive gene expression in NSCs. We demonstrate that the transcription factors SOX2 and MYT1 specifically interact with this genomic element to directly regulate Tlx enhancer activity in vivo. Knockdown experiments further reveal that SOX2 dominantly controls endogenous expression of TLX, whereas MYT1 only plays a modulatory role. Importantly, TLX is essential for SOX2-mediated in vivo reprogramming of astrocytes and itself is also sufficient to induce neurogenesis in the adult striatum. Together, these findings unveil functional genetic interactions among transcription factors that are critical to NSCs and in vivo cell reprogramming.

  8. Assessment of the Clinical Trainer as a Role Model: A Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, H. G. A. Ria; van Dijk, Nynke; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Positive role modeling by clinical trainers is important for helping trainees learn professional and competent behavior. The authors developed and validated an instrument to assess clinical trainers as role models: the Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT). Method On the basis of a 2011

  9. Importance of an EIA to achieve acceptance, tolerance and participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkemark, G. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The article tries to answer the two questions: How are important decisions made in Sweden? and What role do the Environmental Impact Statements and Environmental Evaluations play in the decision-making process? Examples are given from two important Swedish projects outside the nuclear field, and a discussion about the coming issue of a waste repository is presented.

  10. The importance of Norway in the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    2006-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the global energy markets with emphasis on the Northern areas and the importance of Norway. The energy supplies and prices, the OPEC role, the role of Norway and Russia in the natural gas markets and energy policies are discussed. Various risk aspects particularly for Norway are mentioned. (tk)

  11. Modulatory effect of the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the mixed non-hallucinogenic 5-HT1A/2A agonist ergotamine on psilocybin-induced psychedelic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Thomas; Preller, Katrin H; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-04-01

    The mixed serotonin (5-HT) 1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptor agonist psilocybin dose-dependently induces an altered state of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by changes in sensory perception, mood, thought, and the sense of self. The psychological effects of psilocybin are primarily mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. However, accumulating evidence suggests that 5-HT1A or an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to the overall effects of psilocybin. Therefore, we used a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design to investigate the modulatory effects of the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (20mg p.o.) and the non-hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/1A agonist ergotamine (3mg p.o.) on psilocybin-induced (170 µg/kg p.o.) psychological effects in two groups (n=19, n=17) of healthy human subjects. Psychological effects were assessed using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) rating scale. Buspirone significantly reduced the 5D-ASC main scale score for Visionary Restructuralization (VR) (ppsilocybin-induced 5D-ASC main scale scores. The present finding demonstrates that buspirone exerts inhibitory effects on psilocybin-induced effects, presumably via 5-HT1A receptor activation, an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, or both. The data suggest that the modulation of 5-HT1A receptor activity may be a useful target in the treatment of visual hallucinations in different psychiatric and neurological diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Nano-objects as biomaterials: immense opportunities, significant challenges and the important use of surface analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Donald R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam

    2017-05-30

    Nano-sized objects are increasingly important as biomaterials and their surfaces play critical roles in determining their beneficial or deleterious behaviors in biological systems. Important characteristics of nanomaterials that impact their application in many areas are described with a strong focus on the importance of particle surfaces and surface characterization. Understanding aspects of the inherent nature of nano-objects and the important role that surfaces play in these applications is a universal need for any research or product development using such materials in biological applications. The role of surface analysis methods in collecting critical information about the nature of particle surfaces and physicochemical properties of nano-objects is described along with the importance of including sample history and analysis results in a record of provenance information regarding specific batches of nano-objects.

  13. Audit Independence : Its Importance to the External Auditor's Role in Banking Regulation and Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The role of the external auditor in the supervisory process requires standards such as independence,objectivity and integrity to be achieved. Even though the regulator and external auditor perform similar functions, namely the verification of financial statements, they serve particular interests. The regulator works towards safeguarding financial stability and investor interests. On the other hand, the external auditor serves the private int...

  14. A longitudinal investigation of the mediating role of self-esteem and body importance in the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction in adolescent females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2013-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction is particularly prevalent during adolescence and has recently been linked to stress in females and males. However, prospective studies are needed to better understand the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction. The present study investigates the direction of this association and the mediating role of self-esteem and body image importance. A sample of 298 adolescent females and males in Grades 7 to 10 (ages 12 to 17 years) were surveyed at two time points over a one-year period. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that stress significantly predicted body dissatisfaction one year later. Furthermore, a multiple mediation analysis controlling for gender revealed a significant indirect effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, indicating that stress predicts reductions in self-esteem and increases in body importance, which in turn predict body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that stress, self-esteem, and body importance should be included in programmes aimed at improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating the relative importance of individual differences on the work-family interface and the moderating role of boundary preference for segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jesse S; Clark, Malissa A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the relative importance of individual differences in relation to perceptions of work-family conflict and facilitation, as well as the moderating role of boundary preference for segmentation on these relationships. Relative importance analyses, based on a diverse sample of 380 employees from the USA, revealed that individual differences were consistently predictive of self-reported work-family conflict and facilitation. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, negative affect and core self-evaluations were consistently related to both directions of work-family conflict, whereas agreeableness predicted significant variance in family-to-work conflict only. Positive affect and core self-evaluations were consistently related to both directions of work-family facilitation, whereas agreeableness and neuroticism predicted significant variance in family-to-work facilitation only. Collectively, individual differences explained 25-28% of the variance in work-family conflict (primarily predicted by neuroticism and negative affect) and 11-18% of the variance in work-family facilitation (primarily predicted by positive affect and core self-evaluations). Moderated regression analyses showed that boundary preference for segmentation strengthened many of the relationships between individual differences and work-family conflict and facilitation. Implications for addressing the nature of work and family are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Resveratrol plays important role in protective mechanisms in renal disease - mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Albertoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts, and its processed foods as red wine. RESV possesses a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, chemopreventive, neuroprotective, renal lipotoxicity preventative, and renal protective effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols promote cardiovascular health. Furthermore, RESV can ameliorate several types of renal injury in animal models, including diabetic nephropathy, hyperuricemic, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, RESV can prevent the increase in vasoconstrictors, such as angiotensin II (AII and endothelin-1 (ET-1, as well as intracellular calcium, in mesangial cells. Together, these findings suggest a potential role for RESV as a supplemental therapy for the prevention of renal injury.

  17. Agriculturally important microbial biofilms: Present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu; Prasanna, Radha; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Microbial biofilms are a fascinating subject, due to their significant roles in the environment, industry, and health. Advances in biochemical and molecular techniques have helped in enhancing our understanding of biofilm structure and development. In the past, research on biofilms primarily focussed on health and industrial sectors; however, lately, biofilms in agriculture are gaining attention due to their immense potential in crop production, protection, and improvement. Biofilms play an important role in colonization of surfaces - soil, roots, or shoots of plants and enable proliferation in the desired niche, besides enhancing soil fertility. Although reports are available on microbial biofilms in general; scanty information is published on biofilm formation by agriculturally important microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, bacterial-fungal) and their interactions in the ecosystem. Better understanding of agriculturally important bacterial-fungal communities and their interactions can have several implications on climate change, soil quality, plant nutrition, plant protection, bioremediation, etc. Understanding the factors and genes involved in biofilm formation will help to develop more effective strategies for sustainable and environment-friendly agriculture. The present review brings together fundamental aspects of biofilms, in relation to their formation, regulatory mechanisms, genes involved, and their application in different fields, with special emphasis on agriculturally important microbial biofilms. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Important aspects in relation to patients' attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation - facilitators, barriers and physiotherapist's role: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Maria; Öberg, Birgitta; Krevers, Barbro

    2017-03-14

    In order to improve attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a greater insight into patients' perspectives is necessary. The aim of the study was to explore aspects that influence patients' attendance at exercise-based CR after acute coronary artery disease (CAD) and the role of the physiotherapist in patients' attendance at exercise-based CR. A total of 16 informants, (5 women; median age 64.5, range 47-79 years), diagnosed with CAD, were included in the study at the Cardiology Department, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed according to inductive content analysis. Four main categories were identified: (i) previous experience of exercise, (ii) needs in the acute phase, (iii) important prerequisites for attending exercise-based CR and (iv) future ambitions. The categories demonstrate that there are connections between the past, the present and the future, in terms of attitudes to facilitators, barriers and the use of strategies for managing exercise. An overall theme, defined as existential thoughts, had a major impact on the patients' attitudes to attending exercise-based CR. The interaction and meetings with the physiotherapists in the acute phase were described as important factors for attending exercise-based CR. Moreover, informants could feel that the physiotherapists supported them in learning the right level of effort during exercise and reducing the fear of exercise. This study adds to previous knowledge of barriers and facilitators for exercise-based CR that patients with CAD get existential thoughts both related to exercise during the rehabilitation process and for future attitudes to exercise. This knowledge might necessitate greater attention to the physiotherapist-patient interaction. To be able to tailor exercise-based CR for patients, physiotherapists need to be aware of patients' past experiences of exercise and previous phases of the rehabilitation process as these are

  19. An Understanding of The Maritime Silk Road International Strategic Importance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    "The Maritime Silk Road"conception has a very significant international strategic importance,and to China,will certainly play a great role in promoting its economic development,which is only on the surface,and an in-depth reading is that it is a top-level strategic design,whose strategic role with the passage of time will be enlarged.In his address to Indonesian National Assembly in October 2013,President Xi

  20. Sleep: important considerations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Alfonso-Miller, Pamela; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shetty, Safal; Shenoy, Sundeep; Combs, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Sleep plays many roles in maintenance of cardiovascular health. This review summarizes the literature across several areas of sleep and sleep disorders in relation to cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Insufficient sleep duration is prevalent in the population and is associated with weight gain and obesity, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and mortality. Insomnia is also highly present and represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially when accompanied by short sleep duration. Sleep apnea is a well-characterized risk factor for cardiometabolic disease and cardiovascular mortality. Other issues are relevant as well. For example, sleep disorders in pediatric populations may convey cardiovascular risks. Also, sleep may play an important role in cardiovascular health disparities. Sleep and sleep disorders are implicated in cardiometabolic disease risk. This review addresses these and other issues, concluding with recommendations for research and clinical practice.

  1. Differential modulatory effects of GSK-3β and HDM2 on sorafenib-induced AIF nuclear translocation (programmed necrosis in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mier James W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GSK-3β phosphorylates numerous substrates that govern cell survival. It phosphorylates p53, for example, and induces its nuclear export, HDM2-dependent ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation. GSK-3β can either enhance or inhibit programmed cell death, depending on the nature of the pro-apoptotic stimulus. We previously showed that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib activated GSK-3β and that this activation attenuated the cytotoxic effects of the drug in various BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines. In this report, we describe the results of studies exploring the effects of GSK-3β on the cytotoxicity and antitumor activity of sorafenib combined with the HDM2 antagonist MI-319. Results MI-319 alone increased p53 levels and p53-dependent gene expression in melanoma cells but did not induce programmed cell death. Its cytotoxicity, however, was augmented in some melanoma cell lines by the addition of sorafenib. In responsive cell lines, the MI-319/sorafenib combination induced the disappearance of p53 from the nucleus, the down modulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, the translocation of p53 to the mitochondria and that of AIF to the nuclei. These events were all GSK-3β-dependent in that they were blocked with a GSK-3β shRNA and facilitated in otherwise unresponsive melanoma cell lines by the introduction of a constitutively active form of the kinase (GSK-3β-S9A. These modulatory effects of GSK-3β on the activities of the sorafenib/MI-319 combination were the exact reverse of its effects on the activities of sorafenib alone, which induced the down modulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the nuclear translocation of AIF only in cells in which GSK-3β activity was either down modulated or constitutively low. In A375 xenografts, the antitumor effects of sorafenib and MI-319 were additive and associated with the down modulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, the nuclear translocation of AIF, and increased suppression of tumor angiogenesis

  2. Involvement of Na,K-pump in SEPYLRFamide-mediated reduction of cholinosensitivity in Helix neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarov, Arkady S; Foreman, Richard C; Walker, Robert J

    2007-02-01

    SEPYLRFamide acts as an inhibitory modulator of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in Helix lucorum neurones. Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na,K-pump, (0.1 mM, bath application) decreased the ACh-induced inward current (ACh-current) and increased the leak current. Ouabain decreased the modulatory SEPYLRFamide effect on the ACh-current. There was a correlation between the effects of ouabain on the amplitude of the ACh-current and on the modulatory peptide effect. Ouabain and SEPYLRFamide inhibited the activity of Helix aspersa brain Na,K-ATPase. Activation of Na,K-pump by intracellular injection of 3 M Na acetate or 3 M NaCl reduced the modulatory peptide effect on the ACh-current. An inhibitor of Na/Ca-exchange, benzamil (25 muM, bath application), and an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-pump in the endoplasmic reticulum, thapsigargin (TG, applied intracellularly), both prevented the effect of ouabain on SEPYLRFamide-mediated modulatory effect. Another inhibitor of Ca(2+)-pump in the endoplasmic reticulum, cyclopiazonic acid (applied intracellularly), did not prevent the effect of ouabain on SEPYLRFamide-mediated modulatory effect. These results indicate that Na,K-pump is responsible for the SEPYLRFamide-mediated inhibition of ACh receptors in Helix neurons. Na/Ca-exchange and intracellular Ca(2+) released from internal pools containing TG-sensitive Ca(2+)-pump are involved in the Na,K-pump pathway for the SEPYLRFamide-mediated inhibition of ACh receptors.

  3. Combined Transcriptomic Analysis Revealed AKR1B10 Played an Important Role in Psoriasis through the Dysregulated Lipid Pathway and Overproliferation of Keratinocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-seq has enabled in-depth analysis of the pathogenesis of psoriasis on the transcriptomic level, and many biomarkers have been discovered to be related to the immune response, lipid metabolism, and keratinocyte proliferation. However, few studies have combined analysis from various datasets. In this study, we integrated different psoriasis RNA-seq datasets to reveal the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs, pathway analysis, and functional annotation. The revealed biomarkers were further validated through proliferation phenotypes. The results showed that DEGs were functionally related to lipid metabolism and keratinocyte differentiation dysregulation. The results also showed new biomarkers, such as AKR1B10 and PLA2G gene families, as well as pathways that include the PPAR signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, alpha-linoleic acid metabolism, and glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. Using siRNA knockdown assays, we further validated the role that the AKR1B10 gene plays in proliferation. Our study demonstrated not only the dysfunction of the AKR1B10 gene in lipid metabolizing but also its important role in the overproliferation and migration of keratinocyte, which provided evidence for further therapeutic uses for psoriasis.

  4. Study on role structure in social planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimata, Noboru

    1984-01-01

    New proposals are attended with a new set of role-expectation. If we lack attention to this aspect of any proposal, we face a serious difficulty in its implementation stage. The system called as Public Hearring shows us this fact. In this paper, introducing ABC model of communication by Westley and Maclean, we try to describe a set of role-expectation for particitants in social planning systems. And also introducing analytical concepts of role enactment process, we reveal two important problems for any proposal as a subsystem of social planning systems: (i) importance of role negotiation process for role-consensus, and (ii) necessity of supporting systems for role-adaptation. Especially for role-adaptation to Channel-Roles, we indicate the potential of VISMS as its supporting system. (author)

  5. The role of adipose tissue in cancer-associated cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkus, Janina A; Celi, Francesco S

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning." While these adipose tissue depots are under investigation in the context of obesity, new evidence suggests a maladaptive role in other metabolic disturbances including cancer-associated cachexia, which is the topic of this review. This syndrome is multifactorial in nature and is an independent factor associated with poor prognosis. Here, we review the contributions of all three adipose depots - white, brown, and beige - to the development and progression of cancer-associated cachexia. Specifically, we focus on the local and systemic processes involving these adipose tissues that lead to increased energy expenditure and sustained negative energy balance. We highlight key findings from both animal and human studies and discuss areas within the field that need further exploration. Impact statement Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a complex, multifactorial syndrome that negatively impacts patient quality of live and prognosis. This work reviews a component of CAC that lacks prior discussion: adipose tissue contributions. Uniquely, it discusses all three types of adipose tissue, white, beige, and brown, their interactions, and their contributions to the development and progression of CAC. Summarizing key bench and clinical studies, it provides information that will be useful to both basic and clinical researchers in designing

  6. CEBPA exerts a specific and biologically important proapoptotic role in pancreatic β cells through its downstream network targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbagallo, Davide; Condorelli, Angelo Giuseppe; Piro, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor CEBPA has been widely studied for its involvement in hematopoietic cell differentiation and causal role in hematological malignancies. We demonstrate here that it also performs a causal role in cytokine-induced apoptosis of pancreas β cells. Treatment of two mouse pancreatic ...

  7. On the importance of looking back: the role of recursive remindings in recency judgments and cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L; Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2013-07-01

    Suppose that you were asked which of two movies you had most recently seen. The results of the experiments reported here suggest that your answer would be more accurate if, when viewing the later movie, you were reminded of the earlier one. In the present experiments, we investigated the role of remindings in recency judgments and cued-recall performance. We did this by presenting a list composed of two instances from each of several different categories and later asking participants to select (Exp. 1) or to recall (Exp. 2) the more recently presented instance. Reminding was manipulated by varying instructions to look back over memory of earlier instances during the presentation of later instances. As compared to a control condition, cued-recall performance revealed facilitation effects when remindings occurred and were later recollected, but interference effects in their absence. The effects of reminding on recency judgments paralleled those on cued recall of more recently presented instances. We interpret these results as showing that reminding produces a recursive representation that embeds memory for an earlier-presented category instance into that of a later-presented one and, thereby, preserves their temporal order. Large individual differences in the probabilities of remindings and of their later recollection were observed. The widespread importance of recursive reminding for theory and for applied purposes is discussed.

  8. The Role of Aesthetics in Web Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Web sites are rapidly becoming the preferred media choice for information search, company presentation, shopping, entertainment, education, and social contacts. At the same time we live in a period where visual symbols play an increasingly important role in our daily lives. The aim of this article...... is to present and discuss the four main areas in which aesthetics play an important role in the design of successful Web sites: aesthetics play an important role in supporting the content and the functionality, in appealing to the taste of the target audience, in creating the desired image for the sender......, and in addressing the requirements of the Web site genre....

  9. Lateralized hippocampal effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on learning and memory in rats in a model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Margarita; Belcheva, Stiliana; Belcheva, Iren; Negrev, Negrin; Tashev, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Findings of pharmacological studies revealed that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) plays a modulatory role in learning and memory. A role of the peptide in the neurobiological mechanisms of affective disorders was also suggested. The objectives are to study the involvement of VIP in learning and memory processes after unilateral and bilateral local application into hippocampal CA1 area in rats with a model of depression (bilateral olfactory bulbectomy--OBX) and to test whether VIP receptors could affect cognition. VIP (50 ng) and combination (VIP(6-28) 10 ng + VIP 50 ng) microinjected bilaterally or into the right CA1 area improved the learning and memory of OBX rats in shuttle-box and step-through behavioral tests as compared to the saline-treated OBX controls. Left-side VIP microinjections did not affect the number of avoidances (shuttle box) and learning criteria (step through) as compared to the left-side saline-treated OBX controls. The administration of the combination into left CA1 influenced positively the performance in the step-through task. VIP antagonist (VIP(6-28), 10 ng) did not affect learning and memory of OBX rats. These findings suggest asymmetric effect of VIP on cognitive processes in hippocampus of rats with OBX model of depression. Our results point to a lateralized modulatory effect of VIP injected in the hippocampal CA1 area on the avoidance deficits in OBX rats. The right CA1 area was predominantly involved in the positive effect of VIP on learning and memory. A possible role of the PAC1 receptors is suggested.

  10. Modulatory role of androgenic and estrogenic neurosteroids in determining the direction of synaptic plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal region of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Di Mauro, Michela; Scarduzio, Mariangela; Panichi, Roberto; Tozzi, Alessandro; Calabresi, Paolo; Grassi, Silvarosa

    2013-12-01

    Estrogenic and androgenic neurosteroids can rapidly modulate synaptic plasticity in the brain through interaction with membrane receptors for estrogens (ERs) and androgens (ARs). We used electrophysiological recordings in slices of young and adolescent male rats to explore the influence of sex neurosteroids on synaptic plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal region, by blocking ARs or ERs during induction of long-term depression (LTD) and depotentiation (DP) by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and long-term potentiation (LTP) by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). We found that LTD and DP depend on ARs, while LTP on ERs in both age groups. Accordingly, the AR blocker flutamide affected induction of LTD reverting it into LTP, and prevented DP, while having no effect on HFS-dependent LTP. Conversely, ER blockade with ICI 182,780 (ICI) markedly reduced LTP, but did not influence LTD and DP. However, the receptor blockade did not affect the maintenance of either LTD or LTP. Moreover, we found that similar to LTP and LTD induced in control condition, the LTP unveiled by flutamide during LFS and residual LTP induced by HFS under ICI depended on N-methyl-d aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation. Furthermore, as the synaptic paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) was not affected by either AR or ER blockade, we suggest that sex neurosteroids act primarily at a postsynaptic level. This study demonstrates for the first time the crucial role of estrogenic and androgenic neurosteroids in determining the sign of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in male rat and the activity-dependent recruitment of androgenic and estrogenic pathways leading to LTD and LTP, respectively.

  11. The basic roles of manager in business organization Podstawowe role menedżera w organizacji gospodarczej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Cieślińska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is the presentation and analysis of manager’s role as the key person in the business organization. Beginning with defining the term “manager”, the author present the particular typologies of managerial roles, that takes into consideration different criteria. In the paper points out the conditions of managerial roles and probably the most important the leader’s role.

  12. Altered glycogen metabolism in cultured astrocytes from mice with chronic glutathione deficit; relevance for neuroenergetics in schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, S.; Allaman, I.; Petit, J.M.; Do, K.Q.; Magistretti, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or Huntington's diseases and schizophrenia have been associated with a deficit in glutathione (GSH). In particular, a polymorphism in the gene of glutamate cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (GCLM) is associated with schizophrenia. GSH is the most important intracellular antioxidant and is necessary for the removal of reactive by-products generated by the utilization of glucose for energy supply. Furthermore, gluco...

  13. How Export and Import Platforms Drive Industry Upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishida, Masami; Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    to extend the geographic scope of their foreign platforms if they run both exporting and importing; (2) firm size and R&D sales ration play a role of foreign platforms in ASEAN, Europe, and the USA, but these have no effects on foreign platforms in east Asia; (3) emerging multinationals do not achieve...

  14. The Plant Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins Play Important Roles in Defense against Pathogens and Insect Pest Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are toxic N-glycosidases that depurinate eukaryotic and prokaryotic rRNAs, thereby arresting protein synthesis during translation. RIPs are widely found in various plant species and within different tissues. It is demonstrated in vitro and in transgenic plants that RIPs have been connected to defense by antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and insecticidal activities. However, the mechanism of these effects is still not completely clear. There are a number of reviews of RIPs. However, there are no reviews on the biological functions of RIPs in defense against pathogens and insect pests. Therefore, in this report, we focused on the effect of RIPs from plants in defense against pathogens and insect pest attacks. First, we summarize the three different types of RIPs based on their physical properties. RIPs are generally distributed in plants. Then, we discuss the distribution of RIPs that are found in various plant species and in fungi, bacteria, algae, and animals. Various RIPs have shown unique bioactive properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and insecticidal activity. Finally, we divided the discussion into the biological roles of RIPs in defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. This review is focused on the role of plant RIPs in defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insect attacks. The role of plant RIPs in defense against pathogens and insects is being comprehended currently. Future study utilizing transgenic technology approaches to study the mechanisms of RIPs will undoubtedly generate a better comprehending of the role of plant RIPs in defense against pathogens and insects. Discovering additional crosstalk mechanisms between RIPs and phytohormones or reactive oxygen species (ROS against pathogen and insect infections will be a significant subject in the field of biotic stress study. These studies are helpful in revealing significance of genetic control that can

  15. Important Aspects of Nutrition in Children with Cancer1

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jacqueline; Jürgens, Heribert; Frühwald, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during cancer plays a decisive role in several clinical outcome measures, such as treatment response, quality of life, and cost of care. However, the importance of nutrition in children and young adults with malignancies is still an underestimated topic within pediatric oncology. The importance of our work is to reinforce and indicate that malnutrition in children with cancer should not be accepted at any stage of the disease or tolerated as an inevitable process. Unique to...

  16. The important role of salivary α-amylase in the gastric digestion of wheat bread starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daniela; Le Feunteun, Steven; Panouillé, Maud; Souchon, Isabelle

    2018-01-24

    The role of salivary α-amylase (HSA) in starch digestion is often overlooked in favour of that of pancreatic α-amylase due to the short duration of the oral phase. Although it is generally accepted that the amylase of salivary origin can continue to be active in the stomach, studies ascertaining its contribution are lacking. This study aimed to address this issue by coupling in vitro oral processing with an in vitro dynamic system that mimicked different postprandial gastric pH reduction kinetics observed in vivo following a snack- or lunch-type meal. The digestion of both starch and protein from wheat bread as well as the interplay between the two processes were studied. We have observed that the amylolytic activity of saliva plays a preponderant role hydrolysing up to 80% of bread starch in the first 30 min of gastric digestion. Amylolysis evolved exponentially and nearly superimposing curves were obtained regardless of the acidification profiles, revealing its high efficiency.

  17. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  18. Structural alterations in rat myocardium induced by chronic l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Abdussalam Ali A. Hmaid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes affecting cardiomyocyte function may contribute to the pathophysiological remodeling underlying cardiac function impairment. Recent reports have shown that endogenous nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in this process. In order to examine the role of NO in cardiomyocyte remodeling, male rats were acclimated to room temperature (22 ± 1 °C or cold (4 ± 1 °C and treated with 2.25% l-arginine·HCl or 0.01% l-NAME (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester·HCl for 45 days. Untreated groups served as controls. Right heart ventricles were routinely prepared for light microscopic examination. Stereological estimations of volume densities of cardiomyocytes, surrounding blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as the morphometric measurements of cardiomyocyte diameters were performed. Tissue sections were also analyzed for structural alterations. We observed that both l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, regardless of ambient temperature. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with fibrosis and extra collagen deposition only in the l-NAME treated group. Taken together, our results suggest that NO has a modulatory role in right heart ventricle remodeling by coordinating hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and fibrous tissue preventing cardiac fibrosis. Keywords: Cardiomyocyte, Cardiac hypertrophy, l-Arginine, l-NAME, Myocardium

  19. HLA class Ib in pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Gry; Melsted, Wenna Nascimento; Nilsson, Line Lynge; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2017-08-01

    The HLA class Ib genes, HLA-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G, were discovered long after the classical HLA class Ia genes. The elucidation of their functions had a modest beginning. However, their basic functions and involvement in pathophysiology and a range of diseases are now emerging. Although results from a range of studies support the functional roles for the HLA class Ib molecules in adult life, especially HLA-G and HLA-F have most intensively been, and were also primarily, studied in relation to reproduction and pregnancy. The expression of HLA class Ib proteins at the feto-maternal interface in the placenta seems to be important for the maternal acceptance of the semi-allogenic fetus. In contrast to the functions of HLA class Ia, HLA-G possesses immune-modulatory and tolerogenic functions. Here, we review an accumulating amount of data describing the functions of HLA class Ib molecules in relation to fertility, reproduction, and pregnancy, and a possible role for these molecules in certain pregnancy complications, such as implantation failure, recurrent spontaneous abortions, and pre-eclampsia. The results from different kinds of studies point toward a role for HLA class Ib, especially HLA-G, throughout the reproductive cycle from conception to the birth weight of the child.

  20. Structural alterations in rat myocardium induced by chronic l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmaid, Amal Abdussalam Ali A; Markelic, Milica; Otasevic, Vesna; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato; Korac, Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    Structural changes affecting cardiomyocyte function may contribute to the pathophysiological remodeling underlying cardiac function impairment. Recent reports have shown that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in this process. In order to examine the role of NO in cardiomyocyte remodeling, male rats were acclimated to room temperature (22 ± 1 °C) or cold (4 ± 1 °C) and treated with 2.25% l-arginine·HCl or 0.01% l-NAME (N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester)·HCl for 45 days. Untreated groups served as controls. Right heart ventricles were routinely prepared for light microscopic examination. Stereological estimations of volume densities of cardiomyocytes, surrounding blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as the morphometric measurements of cardiomyocyte diameters were performed. Tissue sections were also analyzed for structural alterations. We observed that both l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, regardless of ambient temperature. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with fibrosis and extra collagen deposition only in the l-NAME treated group. Taken together, our results suggest that NO has a modulatory role in right heart ventricle remodeling by coordinating hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and fibrous tissue preventing cardiac fibrosis.

  1. Dendritic Cells—Importance in Allergy—

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuya Aiba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the role of dendritic cells (DC in the pathogenesis of allergic contact hypersensitivity (ACH and atopic disorders, such as asthma and atopic eczema. In ACH patients, DC recognize the invasion of simple chemicals such as haptens, and trigger antigen-specific T cell responses leading to the characteristic histological and clinical changes such as spongiosis and papulovesicular eruptions. During atopic disorders, it is well known that the Th2-deviated immune response plays a crucial role in their pathogenesis. DC provide T cells with antigen and costimulatory signals (signals 1 and 2, respectively, as well as with a polarizing signal (signal 3. When studying ACH, it is important to understand how simple chemicals induce the activation of DC and their migration to the draining lymph nodes where they supply signals 1 and 2 to naïve T cells. The mechanisms by which DC induce the Th2-deviated immune response, namely via the Th2-deviated signal 3, are central topics in the pathogenesis of atopic disorders.

  2. Facilitation of the main generator source of earthworm muscle contraction by a peripheral neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Y.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A constant facilitation of responses evoked in the earthworm muscle contraction generator neurons by responses evoked in the neurons of its peripheral nervous system was demonstrated. It is based on the proposal that these two responses are bifurcations of an afferent response evoked by the same peripheral mechanical stimulus but converging again on this central neuron. A single-peaked generator response without facilitation was demonstrated by sectioning the afferent route of the peripheral facilitatory modulatory response, or conditioning response (CR. The multipeaked response could be restored by restimulating the sectioned modulatory neuron with an intracellular substitutive conditioning stimulus (SCS. These multi-peaked responses were proposed to be the result of reverberating the original single peaked unconditioned response (UR through a parallel (P neuronal circuit which receives the facilitation of the peripheral modulatory neuron. This peripheral modulatory neuron was named "Peri-Kästchen" (PK neuron because it has about 20 peripheral processes distributed on the surface of a Kästchen of longitudinal muscle cells on the body wall of this preparation as revealed by the Lucifer Yellow-CH-filling method.

  3. On the importance of the Michelson-Morley experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    The opinion of an important role of the Michelson-Morley experiment in the establishment of the pronciple oof the light velocity constancy is expressed. It is stressed that the used of radar length for the treatment of the Michelson-Morley experiment leads to the elongation formulas for the longitudinal arm of an interferometer. 24 refs

  4. The role of the breast care nurse in patient and family care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Lauretta; Chok, Harrison Ng; Scott, Nancy; Wilkes, Lesley

    2017-11-01

    To describe the role of the breast care nurse in caring for patients and families. The breast care nurse is an expert clinical nurse who plays a significant role in the care of women/men and their families with breast cancer. The role of these nurses has expanded since the 1990s in Australia. Descriptive study. An online survey was sent to breast care nurses using peak body databases (n = 100). The survey consisted of nineteen nurse roles and functions from a previous Delphi technique study. Nurses rated the importance and frequency of role elements using a five-point Likert scale and four open-ended questions relating to role. There were 89 respondents. Most of the sample were from remote (n = 37, 41%) and rural areas (n = 47, 52%). The majority of responses regarding importance and frequency of the BCN role had a mean score above 4, which corresponds to 'moderately important' and 'occasionally as needed'. There were significant differences between the level of importance and frequency on 10 items. Four role themes arose from the thematic analysis: Breast care nurses as patient advocates, patient educators, care coordinators and clinical experts. This study delineated the important nurses role in caring for patients and families during a critical time of their life. Further, it details the important nursing roles and functions undertaken by these nurses and compared this to the frequency with which these nurses perform these aspects of their role. This study further delineates the important role that the nurses play in caring for patients and families during a critical time of their life. It extends further the frequency and importance of the supportive care and the need to educate their nurses on their role in providing spiritual care and research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between child abuse and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanichi, Masaaki; Saito, Taku; Nakagawa, Shin; Masuya, Jiro; Tanabe, Hajime; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    In previous studies, various components such as environmental and genetic factors have been shown to contribute to the development of bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated how multiple factors, including child abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments, are interrelated and how they affect the diagnosis of BD. A total of 170 healthy controls and 75 BD patients completed the following self-administered questionnaires: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 evaluating the severity of depressive symptoms; the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) evaluating child abuse; the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) evaluating affective temperaments; and the Life Experiences Survey (LES) evaluating negative and positive adult life events. The data were subjected to univariate analysis, multivariable analysis, and structural equation modeling. The structural equation modeling showed that the diagnosis of BD was indirectly predicted by the neglect and sexual abuse scores of the CATS through four affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) of the TEMPS-A and directly predicted by these four affective temperaments. This study suggested that affective temperament plays an important role as a mediator in the influence of child abuse on BD diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Psoriasis, vitamin D and the importance of the cutaneous barrier's integrity: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattozzi, Carlo; Paolino, Giovanni; Richetta, Antonio Giovanni; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Psoriasis is a common, inflammatory, chronic, relapsing skin disease. Despite several hypotheses having been postulated to explain the pathogenesis of this disorder, nowadays it is considered as a T-cell-mediated disease; in this context an important role is played by vitamin D. The role of this micronutrient is important for many reasons: it is able to modulate the immune system; it is implicated in keratinocyte turnover; and it is involved in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier. In psoriasis, this molecule plays an important role due to its ability in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity and by its antiproliferative and pro-differentiative effects on keratinocytes. Alteration of the metabolism of vitamin D may alter the cutaneous barrier integrity and favor an infective and inflammatory condition. The importance of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not a mere mental exercise but may open further perspectives in the treatment of this disorder just preventing alterations of immune homeostasis, modulating the proliferation of keratinocyte, regulating the microbial flora and the response of the host to infective diseases. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Role of importance of X-ray fluorescence analysis of forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shailendra; Sharma, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the field of forensic science, it is very important to investigate the evidential samples obtained at various crime scenes. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is used widely in forensic science [1]. Its main strength is its non-destructive nature, thus preserving evidence [2, 3]. In this paper, we report the application of XRF to examine the evidences like purity gold and silver jewelry (Indian Ornaments), remnants of glass pieces and paint chips recovered from crime scenes. The experimental measurements on these samples have been made using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (LAB Center XRF-1800) procured from Shimazdu Scientific Inst., USA. The results are explained in terms of quantitative/ qualitative analysis of trace elements. (author)

  8. Modulatory Role of Surface Coating of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms in Complement Opsonization and Leukocyte Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inturi, Swetha; Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang

    2015-01-01

    demonstrated that neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils took up SPIO NWs, and the uptake was prevented by EDTA (a general complement inhibitor) and by antiproperdin antibody (an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of the complement system). Cross-linking and hydrogelation of SPIO NWs surface...... by epichlorohydrin decreased C3 opsonization in mouse serum, and consequently reduced the uptake by mouse leukocytes by more than 70% in vivo. Remarkably, the cross-linked particles did not show a decrease in C3 opsonization in human serum, but showed a significant decrease (over 60%) of the uptake by human...... leukocytes. The residual uptake of cross-linked nanoparticles was completely blocked by EDTA. These findings demonstrate species differences in complement-mediated nanoparticle recognition and uptake by leukocytes, and further show that human hemocompatibility could be improved by inhibitors of complement...

  9. Ovarian vein thrombosis – a rare but important complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study highlights the clinical importance of ovarian vein thrombosis in the context of pelvic surgery for benign gynaecological conditions and the role of imaging, particularly computed tomography with reformatting, in confirming the diagnosis.

  10. Role of Omega 3 fatty acids on radiation-induced oxidative and structural damage in different tissues of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Abou Zaid, N.M.; Ahmed, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.

  11. Internal State Dependent Odor Processing and Perception—The Role of Neuromodulation in the Fly Olfactory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Sayin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals rely heavily on their sense of olfaction to perform various vital interactions with an ever-in-flux environment. The turbulent and combinatorial nature of air-borne odorant cues demands the employment of various coding strategies, which allow the animal to attune to its internal needs and past or present experiences. Furthermore, these internal needs can be dependent on internal states such as hunger, reproductive state and sickness. Neuromodulation is a key component providing flexibility under such conditions. Understanding the contributions of neuromodulation, such as sensory neuron sensitization and choice bias requires manipulation of neuronal activity on a local and global scale. With Drosophila's genetic toolset, these manipulations are feasible and even allow a detailed look on the functional role of classical neuromodulators such as dopamine, octopamine and neuropeptides. The past years unraveled various mechanisms adapting chemosensory processing and perception to internal states such as hunger and reproductive state. However, future research should also investigate the mechanisms underlying other internal states including the modulatory influence of endogenous microbiota on Drosophila behavior. Furthermore, sickness induced by pathogenic infection could lead to novel insights as to the neuromodulators of circuits that integrate such a negative postingestive signal within the circuits governing olfactory behavior and learning. The enriched emporium of tools Drosophila provides will help to build a concrete picture of the influence of neuromodulation on olfaction and metabolism, adaptive behavior and our overall understanding of how a brain works.

  12. New perspectives of nanoneuroprotection, nanoneuropharmacology and nanoneurotoxicity: modulatory role of amino acid neurotransmitters, stress, trauma, and co-morbidity factors in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari S; Sharma, Aruna

    2013-11-01

    Recent advancement in nanomedicine suggests that nanodrug delivery using nanoformulation of drugs or use of nanoparticles for neurodiagnostic and/or neurotherapeutic purposes results in superior effects than the conventional drugs or parent compounds. This indicates a bright future for nanomedicine in treating neurological diseases in clinics. However, the effects of nanoparticles per se in inducing neurotoxicology by altering amino acid neurotransmitters, if any, are still being largely ignored. The main aim of nanomedicine is to enhance the drug availability within the central nervous system (CNS) for greater therapeutic successes. However, once the drug together with nanoparticles enters into the CNS compartments, the fate of nanomaterial within the brain microenvironment is largely remained unknown. Thus, to achieve greater success in nanomedicine, our knowledge in understanding nanoneurotoxicology in detail is utmost important. In addition, how co-morbidity factors associated with neurological disease, e.g., stress, trauma, hypertension or diabetes, may influence the neurotherapeutic potentials of nanomedicine are also necessary to explore the details. Recent research in our laboratory demonstrated that engineered nanoparticles from metals or titanium nanowires used for nanodrug delivery in laboratory animals markedly influenced the CNS functions and alter amino acid neurotransmitters in healthy animals. These adverse reactions of nanoparticles within the CNS are further aggravated in animals with different co-morbidity factors viz., stress, diabetes, trauma or hypertension. This effect, however, depends on the composition and dose of the nanomaterials used. On the other hand, nanodrug delivery by TiO2 nanowires enhanced the neurotherapeutic potential of the parent compounds in CNS injuries in healthy animals and do not alter amino acids balance. However, in animals with any of the above co-morbidity factors, high dose of nanodrug delivery is needed to achieve

  13. Prof. Ikeda’s important contributions to nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brink, D M

    2010-01-01

    Professor Ikeda has made many fundamental contributions to nuclear physics, especially to the theory of Gamow-Teller giant resonances, to nuclear cluster physics, to hypernuclear physics, and to the physics of neutron-rich nuclei. He also has played an important role in the education of young researchers in Japan and on the contacts between theoreticians and experimentalists.

  14. The expanding role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Helmers, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Surprisingly, the role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease is often summarized by clinicians and basic research scientists as a pervasive consensus opinion first learned in medical/graduate school. Eosinophils are rare white blood cells whose activities are primarily destructive and are only relevant in parasitic infections and asthma. However, is this consensus correct? This review argues that the wealth of available studies investigating the role(s) of eosinophils in both health and disease demonstrates that the activities of these granulocytes are far more expansive and complex than previously appreciated. In turn, this greater understanding has led to the realization that eosinophils have significant contributory roles in a wide range of diseases. Furthermore, published studies even implicate eosinophil-mediated activities in otherwise healthy persons. We suggest that the collective reports in the literature showing a role for eosinophils in an ever-increasing number of novel settings highlight the true complexity and importance of this granulocyte. Indeed, discussions of eosinophils are no longer simple and more often than not now begin with the question/statement “Did you know …?” PMID:22936660

  15. The importance of fats in food of persons physically active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Włodarczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A diet program of physically active individuals accounts for about 50% of the success in attaining the desired physical form. Patterns that include resting metabolism, physical activity, and daily energy expenditure, as needed: reduction, stabilization, weight gain, are used. Among those who practice sports for whom nutrition is of great importance in achieving their goal, recently, there has been a great deal of interest in ketogenic diets, low carbohydrates commonly called "fatty". Therefore, it is important to explain the importance, types and role of fats in the nutrition of physically active persons.

  16. Modulatory effects of the piccolo genotype on emotional memory in health and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Woudstra

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has been associated with biased memory formation for mood-congruent information, which may be related to altered monoamine levels. The piccolo (PCLO gene, involved in monoaminergic neurotransmission, has previously been linked to depression in a genome-wide association study. Here, we investigated the role of the PCLO risk allele on functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI correlates of emotional memory in a sample of 89 MDD patients (64 PCLO risk allele carriers and 29 healthy controls (18 PCLO risk allele carriers. During negative word encoding, risk allele carriers showed significant lower activity relative to non-risk allele carriers in the insula, and trend-wise in the anterior cingulate cortex and inferior frontal gyrus. Moreover, depressed risk allele carriers showed significant lower activity relative to non-risk allele carriers in the striatum, an effect which was absent in healthy controls. Finally, amygdalar response during processing new positive words vs. known words was blunted in healthy PCLO+ carriers and in MDD patients irrespective of genotype, which may indicate that signalling of salient novel information does not occur to the same extent in PCLO+ carriers and MDD patients. The PCLO risk allele may increase vulnerability for MDD by modulating local brain function with regard to responsiveness to salient stimuli (i.e. insula and processing novel negative information. Also, depression-specific effects of PCLO on dorsal striatal activation during negative word encoding and the absence of amygdalar salience signalling for novel positive information further suggest a role of PCLO in symptom maintenance in MDD.

  17. Role clarity and role conflict among Swedish diabetes specialist nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Eva; Hörnsten, Asa; Lundman, Berit; Stenlund, Hans; Isaksson, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    To explore diabetes specialist nurses (DSNs)' perceptions of their role in terms of clarity, conflict and other psychosocial work aspects. A cross-sectional study was conducted among DSNs in a county in northern Sweden. The DSNs answered the Nordic Questionnaire of Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) about psychosocial aspects of their work. Statistical analysis compared DSNs with a reference group of different health professionals. Correlations between role clarity, role conflict, and other variables were analysed. The DSNs perceived more, and higher, job demands, including quantitative, decision-making and learning demands, but also more positive challenges at work compared with the reference group. Role clarity correlated with experiences of health promotion, perception of mastery, co-worker support, and empowering leadership, while role conflict correlated with quantitative and learning demands. The DSNs perceived high demands but also positive challenges in their work. Their role expectations correlated with several psychosocial work aspects. It is important that DSNs should be presented with positive challenges as meaningful incentives for further role development and enhanced mastery of their work. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Propofol pretreatment attenuates LPS-induced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production in cultured hepatocytes by suppressing MAPK/ERK activity and NF-κB translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawan, Bruno; Kao, Y.-H.; Goto, Shigeru; Pan, M.-C.; Lin, Y.-C.; Hsu, L.-W.; Nakano, Toshiaki; Lai, C.-Y.; Sun, C.-K.; Cheng, Y.-F.; Tai, M.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Propofol (PPF), a widely used intravenous anesthetic for induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgeries, was found to possess suppressive effect on host immunity. This study aimed at investigating whether PPF plays a modulatory role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in a cell line of rat hepatocytes. Morphological observation and viability assay showed that PPF exhibits no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 300 μM after 48 h incubation. Pretreatment with 100 μM PPF for 24 h prior to LPS stimulation was performed to investigate the modulatory effect on LPS-induced inflammatory gene production. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that PPF pretreatment significantly suppressed the LPS-induced toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, CD14, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene expression. Western blotting analysis showed that PPF pretreatment potentiated the LPS-induced TLR-4 downregulation. Flow cytometrical analysis revealed that PPF pretreatment showed no modulatory effect on the LPS-upregulated CD14 expression on hepatocytes. In addition, PPF pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and IκBα, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB primed by LPS. Moreover, addition of PD98059, a MAPK kinase inhibitor, significantly suppressed the LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and GM-CSF production, suggesting that the PPF-attenuated GM-CSF production in hepatocytes may be attributed to its suppressive effect on MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, PPF as an anesthetic may clinically benefit those patients who are vulnerable to sepsis by alleviating sepsis-related inflammatory response in livers

  19. How Important is Export-Platform FDI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishecker, Ingo; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    This paper investigates the link between export performance and multinational enterprise presence utilizing trade and industry data for Polish manufacturing industries for the years 1994-2002. Decomposing trade into final and intermediate goods and assessing the impact of foreign-owned capital...... on the respective export performance of Polish industries, we suggest a significant role of export-platform FDI into Poland, while the importance of FDI for vertical integration is limited suggesting that the sourcing of intermediate goods from Poland primarily occurs through arm's-length contractual outsourcing...

  20. Matrix Metallopeptidase 14 Plays an Important Role in Regulating Tumorigenic Gene Expression and Invasion Ability of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Hui; Wang, Juan-Juan; Li, Min; Zheng, Han-Xi; Xu, Lan; Chen, You-Guo

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional effect of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14) on cell invasion in cervical cancer cells (HeLa line) and to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. Expression vector of short hairpin RNA targeting MMP14 was treated in HeLa cells, and then, transfection efficiency was verified by a florescence microscope. Transwell assay was used to investigate cell invasion ability in HeLa cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis were used to detect the expression of MMP14 and relative factors in messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 short hairpin RNA expression vector transfection obviously decreased MMP14 expression in messenger RNA and protein levels. Down-regulation of MMP14 suppressed invasion ability of HeLa cells and reduced transforming growth factor β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor B expressions. Furthermore, MMP14 knockdown decreased bone sialoprotein and enhanced forkhead box protein L2 expression in both RNA and protein levels. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 plays an important role in regulating invasion of HeLa cells. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 knockdown contributes to attenuating the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cell.