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Sample records for implanted diamond substrates

  1. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S; Nugent, K W; Bettiol, A A; Kostidis, L I; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 μm 2 . After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs

  4. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  5. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hoffman, A. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry; Evan, P.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Paterson, P.J.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  6. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Paterson, P.J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs

  7. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hoffman, A [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry; Evan, P J [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Paterson, P J.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Surface modification on 304 SS by plasma-immersed ion implantation to improve the adherence of a CVD diamond film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nono, M.C.A.; Corat, E.J. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)); Ueda, M.; Stellati, C.; Barroso, J.J.; Conrad, J.R.; Shamim, M.; Fetherston, P.; Sridharan, K.

    1999-02-01

    The weak adherence of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films on steel substrates is an important factor that limits the technological applications of these materials. We are interested in enhancing the film-to-substrate adherence by using substrate surfaces with a previous modification by plasma-immersed ion implantation (PIII). In this work we present and discuss the preliminary results on phase formation, microstructure and adherence evaluations. CVD diamond films were deposited on 304 SS, the surface of which was modified by implanted carbon ions. The samples were first submitted to implantation with 30 keV carbon ions at different doses. Later, these surfaces were examined by Auger spectroscopy (SAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. We observed a metastable carbide phase formed from carbon and iron, which is considered to be a good polycrystalline material for the nucleation of CVD diamond crystals. The CVD diamond nucleation and film growth were observed by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. These results are discussed with the emphasis on the carbon diffusion barrier on the substrate surfaces. The preliminary results of diamond growth were encouraging. (orig.) 7 refs.

  9. Nanocrystalline diamond in carbon implanted SiO{sub 2}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoi, K.A.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Walker, R. J.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Recently, it was reported that nanocrystalline diamond can be produced via laser annealing of a high dose C implanted fused quartz (SiO{sub 2}) substrate. The aim of this investigation is to reproduce this result on higher C{sup +} dose samples and the non-implanted silicon sample, as well as optimise the power range and annealing time for the production of these nanocrystals of diamond. In order to provide a wide range of laser powers the samples were annealed using an Ar ion Raman laser. The resulting annealed spots were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman analysis. These techniques are employed to determine the type of bonding produced after laser annealing has occurred. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Nanocrystalline diamond in carbon implanted SiO{sub 2}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoi, K A; Prawer, S; Nugent, K W; Walker, R J; Weiser, P S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Recently, it was reported that nanocrystalline diamond can be produced via laser annealing of a high dose C implanted fused quartz (SiO{sub 2}) substrate. The aim of this investigation is to reproduce this result on higher C{sup +} dose samples and the non-implanted silicon sample, as well as optimise the power range and annealing time for the production of these nanocrystals of diamond. In order to provide a wide range of laser powers the samples were annealed using an Ar ion Raman laser. The resulting annealed spots were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman analysis. These techniques are employed to determine the type of bonding produced after laser annealing has occurred. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  12. Characterization of diamond amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal diamond has been implanted at 1 MeV with 2 x 10 20 Ar/m 2 . Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeled geometry revealed a broad amorphized region underlying a thin, partially crystalline layer. Raman spectroscopy disclosed modifications in the bonding characteristic of the appearance of non-diamond carbon. The complementary nature of the two analysis techniques is demonstrated. The Knoop hardness of the implanted diamond was reduced by implantation

  13. The effect of ion-beam induced strain on the nucleation density of chemical vapour deposited diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of ion implantation on the nucleation of CVD diamond on silicon and diamond substrates has been investigated. The strategy employed is to create laterally confined regions of strain in the substrates by focused MeV implantation of light ions. Raman Microscopy has been employed to obtain spatially resolved maps of the strain in these implanted regions. On diamond substrates a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond film was grown on top of both the implanted and unimplanted regions of the substrate. Raman analysis of the film grown on top of the implanted region revealed it to be under slightly tensile strain as compared to that grown on the unimplanted diamond substrate. The film deposited on the implanted portion of the diamond showed a lower fluorescence background; indicating a lower concentration of incorporated defects. These results suggest that the strain and defects in the diamond substrate material have an important influence on the quality of the homo-epitaxially grown diamond films. 6 refs., 5 figs

  14. Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setasuwon P.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.

  15. Ferromagnetism appears in nitrogen implanted nanocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Zdenek [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sun, Shih-Jye, E-mail: sjs@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Varga, Marian [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hsiung [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hua-Shu [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung 900, Taiwan (China); Kromka, Alexander [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Horak, Pavel [Nuclear Physics Institute, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-15

    The nanocrystalline diamond films turn to be ferromagnetic after implanting various nitrogen doses on them. Through this research, we confirm that the room-temperature ferromagnetism of the implanted samples is derived from the measurements of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Samples with larger crystalline grains as well as higher implanted doses present more robust ferromagnetic signals at room temperature. Raman spectra indicate that the small grain-sized samples are much more disordered than the large grain-sized ones. We propose that a slightly large saturated ferromagnetism could be observed at low temperature, because the increased localization effects have a significant impact on more disordered structure. - Highlights: • Nitrogen implanted nanocrystalline diamond films exhibit ferromagnetism at room temperature. • Nitrogen implants made a Raman deviation from the typical nanocrystalline diamond films. • The ferromagnetism induced from the structure distortion is dominant at low temperature.

  16. Experimental studies of N~+ implantation into CVD diamond thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛火平; 林成鲁; 王建新; 邹世昌; 石晓红; 林梓鑫; 周祖尧; 刘祖刚

    1997-01-01

    The effects of N+ implantation under various conditions on CVD diamond films were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, four-point probe method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backseattering spectroscopy (RBS), ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy (UV-PL), Fourier transformation infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the N+ implantation doping without any graphitization has been successfully realized when 100 keV N+ ions at a dosage of 2 × 1016 cm-2 were implanted into diamond films at 550℃ . UV-PL spectra indicate that the implanted N+ ions formed an electrically inactive deep-level impurity in diamond films. So the sheet resistance of the sample after N+ implantation changed little. Carbon nitride containing C≡N covalent bond has been successfully synthesized by 100 keV, 1.2×1018 N/cm2 N+ implantation into diamond films. Most of the implanted N+ ions formed C≡N covalent bonds with C atoms. The others were free state nitroge

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of diamond onto iron based substrates. The use of barrier layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.

    1995-01-01

    When Fe is exposed to the plasma environment suitable for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond, the surface is rapidly covered with a thick layer graphitic soot and C swiftly diffuses into the Fe substrate. Once the soot reaches a critical thickness, diamond films nucleate and grow on top of it. However, adhesion of the film to the substrate is poor due to the lack of structural integrity of the soot layer, A thin coating of TiN on the Fe can act to prevent diffusion and soot formation. Diamond readily grows upon the TiN via an a-C interface layer, but the a-C/TiN interface is weak and delamination occurs at this interface. In order to try and improve the adhesion, the use of a high dose Ti implant was investigated to replace the TiN coating. 7 refs., 6 figs

  18. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B

    2014-02-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp 2 carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes.

  19. Monitoring the evolution of boron doped porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant by OCT and in vivo impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hébert, Clément; Cottance, Myline; Degardin, Julie; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaelle; Bergonzo, Philippe; Picaud, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Boron doped Diamond proved to be a very attractive material for neural interfacing, especially with the retina, where reduce glia growth is observed with respect to other materials, thus facilitating neuro-stimulation over long terms. In the present study, we integrated diamond microelectrodes on a polyimide substrate and investigated their performances for the development of neural prosthesis. A full description of the microfabrication of the implants is provided and their functionalities are assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A porous structure of the electrode surface was thus revealed and showed promising properties for neural recording or stimulation. Using the flexible implant, we showed that is possible to follow in vivo the evolution of the electric contact between the diamond electrodes and the retina over 4 months by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The position of the implant was also monitored by optical coherence tomography to corroborate the information given by the impedance measurements. The results suggest that diamond microelectrodes are very good candidates for retinal prosthesis. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant • Electrochemical characterization of microelectrode for neural interfacing • In vivo impedance spectroscopy of retinal tissue

  20. Monitoring the evolution of boron doped porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant by OCT and in vivo impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hébert, Clément, E-mail: clement.hebert@icn2.cat [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Cottance, Myline [Université Paris-Est, ESYCOM-ESIEE Paris, Noisy le Grand (France); Degardin, Julie [INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, Paris (France); Scorsone, Emmanuel [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaelle [Université Paris-Est, ESYCOM-ESIEE Paris, Noisy le Grand (France); Bergonzo, Philippe [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Picaud, Serge [INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, Paris (France)

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Boron doped Diamond proved to be a very attractive material for neural interfacing, especially with the retina, where reduce glia growth is observed with respect to other materials, thus facilitating neuro-stimulation over long terms. In the present study, we integrated diamond microelectrodes on a polyimide substrate and investigated their performances for the development of neural prosthesis. A full description of the microfabrication of the implants is provided and their functionalities are assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A porous structure of the electrode surface was thus revealed and showed promising properties for neural recording or stimulation. Using the flexible implant, we showed that is possible to follow in vivo the evolution of the electric contact between the diamond electrodes and the retina over 4 months by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The position of the implant was also monitored by optical coherence tomography to corroborate the information given by the impedance measurements. The results suggest that diamond microelectrodes are very good candidates for retinal prosthesis. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant • Electrochemical characterization of microelectrode for neural interfacing • In vivo impedance spectroscopy of retinal tissue.

  1. FEM thermal and stress analysis of bonded GaN-on-diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wenbo; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Xudong; Bu, Renan; Wang, Hongxing; Hou, Xun

    2017-09-01

    A three-dimensional thermal and stress analysis of bonded GaN on diamond substrate is investigated using finite element method. The transition layer thickness, thermal conductivity of transition layer, diamond substrate thickness and the area ratio of diamond and GaN are considered and treated appropriately in the numerical simulation. The maximum channel temperature of GaN is set as a constant value and its corresponding heat power densities under different conditions are calculated to evaluate the influences that the diamond substrate and transition layer have on GaN. The results indicate the existence of transition layer will result in a decrease in the heat power density and the thickness and area of diamond substrate have certain impact on the magnitude of channel temperature and stress distribution. Channel temperature reduces with increasing diamond thickness but with a decreasing trend. The stress is reduced by increasing diamond thickness and the area ratio of diamond and GaN. The study of mechanical and thermal properties of bonded GaN on diamond substrate is useful for optimal designs of efficient heat spreader for GaN HEMT.

  2. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite...... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...... implantation. Implantation of cobalt and argon clusters into two different allotropic forms of carbon, namely, graphite and diamond is analysed and compared in order to approach universal theory of cluster stopping in matter....

  3. Lattice site of helium implanted in Si and diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Single crystals of silicon and diamond were implanted at 300K with 70 keV 3 He. Ion channeling analyses were executed by application of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis. Helium exhibits a non-random lattice site in the channeling angular distributions for silicon and diamond. A major fraction of the implanted He was qualitatively identified to be near to the tetrahedral interstice in both materials

  4. FEM thermal and stress analysis of bonded GaN-on-diamond substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional thermal and stress analysis of bonded GaN on diamond substrate is investigated using finite element method. The transition layer thickness, thermal conductivity of transition layer, diamond substrate thickness and the area ratio of diamond and GaN are considered and treated appropriately in the numerical simulation. The maximum channel temperature of GaN is set as a constant value and its corresponding heat power densities under different conditions are calculated to evaluate the influences that the diamond substrate and transition layer have on GaN. The results indicate the existence of transition layer will result in a decrease in the heat power density and the thickness and area of diamond substrate have certain impact on the magnitude of channel temperature and stress distribution. Channel temperature reduces with increasing diamond thickness but with a decreasing trend. The stress is reduced by increasing diamond thickness and the area ratio of diamond and GaN. The study of mechanical and thermal properties of bonded GaN on diamond substrate is useful for optimal designs of efficient heat spreader for GaN HEMT.

  5. Diamond thin films: giving biomedical applications a new shine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, P A; May, P W

    2017-09-01

    Progress made in the last two decades in chemical vapour deposition technology has enabled the production of inexpensive, high-quality coatings made from diamond to become a scientific and commercial reality. Two properties of diamond make it a highly desirable candidate material for biomedical applications: first, it is bioinert, meaning that there is minimal immune response when diamond is implanted into the body, and second, its electrical conductivity can be altered in a controlled manner, from insulating to near-metallic. In vitro, diamond can be used as a substrate upon which a range of biological cells can be cultured. In vivo , diamond thin films have been proposed as coatings for implants and prostheses. Here, we review a large body of data regarding the use of diamond substrates for in vitro cell culture. We also detail more recent work exploring diamond-coated implants with the main targets being bone and neural tissue. We conclude that diamond emerges as one of the major new biomaterials of the twenty-first century that could shape the way medical treatment will be performed, especially when invasive procedures are required. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  7. Generation of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond with Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jin-Ming; Chen Xiang-Dong; Gong Zhao-Jun; Sun Fang-Wen; Han Zheng-Fu; Guo Guang-Can; Fan Le-Le; Zou Chong-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy defect color centers are created in a high purity single crystal diamond by nitrogen-ion implantation. Both optical spectrum and optically detected magnetic resonance are measured for these artificial quantum emitters. Moreover, with a suitable mask, a lattice composed of nitrogen-vacancy centers is fabricated. Rabi oscillation driven by micro-waves is carried out to show the quality of the ion implantation and potential in quantum manipulation. Along with compatible standard lithography, such an implantation technique shows high potential in future to make structures with nitrogen-vacancy centers for diamond photonics and integrated photonic quantum chip

  8. Deposition of diamond-like carbon films by plasma source ion implantation with superposed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on silicon wafer substrate by plasma source ion implantation with superposed negative pulse. Methane and acetylene gases were used as working gases for plasma. A negative DC voltage and a negative pulse voltage were superposed and applied to the substrate holder. The DC voltage was changed in the range from 0 to -4 kV and the pulse voltage was changed from 0 to -18 kV. The surface of DLC films was very smooth. The deposition rate of DLC films increased with increasing in superposed DC bias voltage. Carbon ion implantation was confirmed for the DLC film deposited from methane plasma with high pulse voltage. I D /I G ratios of Raman spectroscopy were around 1.5 independent on pulse voltage. The maximum hardness of 20.3 GPa was observed for the film prepared with high DC and high pulse voltage

  9. Adherence of diamond films on refractory metal substrates for thermionic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, B.H.; Ramalingam, M.L.; Adams, S.F.; Cloyd, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond films are currently being considered as electrical insulation material for application in the thermionic fuel element of a power producing nuclear reactor system. The function of the diamond insulator in this application is to electrically isolate the collector of each cell in the TFE from the coolant and outer sheath. Deposition of diamond films on plane surfaces of Si/SiO 2 have already been demonstrated to be quite effective. However, the diamond films on refractory metal surfaces tend to spall off in the process of deposition revealing an inefficient adherence characteristic between the film and the substrate. This paper is geared towards explaining this deficiency by way of selected experimentation and the use of analytical tools to predict uncertainties such as the mismatch in coefficient of expansion, micrographic study of the interface between the film and the substrate and X-ray diffraction spectra. The investigation of the adherence characteristics of several diamond films on Mo and Nb substrates revealed that there was an allowable stress that resulted in the formation of the critical thickness for the diamond film

  10. Development of a templated approach to fabricate diamond patterns on various substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Olga; Cervenka, Jiri; Karle, Timothy J; Fox, Kate; Gibson, Brant C; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Greentree, Andrew D; Prawer, Steven

    2014-06-11

    We demonstrate a robust templated approach to pattern thin films of chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline diamond grown from monodispersed nanodiamond (mdND) seeds. The method works on a range of substrates, and we herein demonstrate the method using silicon, aluminum nitride (AlN), and sapphire substrates. Patterns are defined using photo- and e-beam lithography, which are seeded with mdND colloids and subsequently introduced into microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor to grow patterned nanocrystalline diamond films. In this study, we investigate various factors that affect the selective seeding of different substrates to create high quality diamond thin films, including mdND surface termination, zeta potential, surface treatment, and plasma cleaning. Although the electrostatic interaction between mdND colloids and substrates is the main process driving adherence, we found that chemical reaction (esterification) or hydrogen bonding can potentially dominate the seeding process. Leveraging the knowledge on these different interactions, we optimize fabrication protocols to eliminate unwanted diamond nucleation outside the patterned areas. Furthermore, we have achieved the deposition of patterned diamond films and arrays over a range of feature sizes. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mdND-substrate interaction that will enable the fabrication of integrated nanocrystalline diamond thin films for microelectronics, sensors, and tissue culturing applications.

  11. The role of ion-implantation in the realization of spintronic devices in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Rafi, E-mail: kalish@si-sun1.technion.ac.il [Physics Department and Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2012-02-01

    The application of single photons emitted by specific quantum systems is promising for quantum computers, cryptography and for other future nano-applications. These heavily rely on ion implantation both for selective single ion implantations as well as for the introduction of controlled damage with specific properties. Of particular promise is the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV{sup -}) defect center in diamond. This center has many desirable luminescence properties required for spintronic devices operational at room temperature, including a long relaxation time of the color center, emission of photons in the visible and the fact that it is produced in diamond, a material with outstanding mechanical and optical properties. This center is usually realized by nitrogen and/or vacancy producing ion implantations into diamond which, following annealing, leads to the formation of the desired NV{sup -} center. The single photons emitted by the decay of this center have to be transported to allow their exploitation. This can be best done by realizing very thin wave guides in single crystal diamond with/or without nano-scale cavities in the same diamond in which NV centers are produced. For this, advantage is taken of the unique property of heavily ion-damaged diamond to be converted, following annealing, to etchable graphite. Thus a free standing submicron thick diamond membrane containing the NV center can be obtained. If desirable, specific photonic crystal structures can be realized in them by the use of FIB. The various ion-implantation schemes used to produce NV centers in diamond, free standing diamond membranes, and photonic crystal structures in them are reviewed. The scientific problems and the technological challenges that have to be solved before actual practical realization of diamond based spintronic devices can be produced are discussed.

  12. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H; Morita, Y; Ohshima, T

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  13. Study of the effects of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Agulló-Rueda, F.; Gordillo, N.; Maira, A.; Moreno-Cerrada, D.; Ramos, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Boron-doped diamond is a material with a great technological and industrial interest because of its exceptional chemical, physical and structural properties. At modest boron concentrations, insulating diamond becomes a p-type semiconductor and at higher concentrations a superconducting metal at low temperature. The most conventional preparation method used so far, has been the homogeneous incorporation of boron doping during the diamond synthesis carried out either with high-pressure sintering of crystals or by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of films. With these methods, high boron concentration can be included without distorting significantly the diamond crystalline lattice. However, it is complicated to manufacture boron-doped microstructures. A promising alternative to produce such microstructures could be the implantation of focused high-energy boron ions, although boron fluences are limited by the damage produced in diamond. In this work, the effect of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in single crystals of diamond is studied under different irradiation fluences and conditions. Micro-Raman spectra of the sample were measured before and after annealing at 1000 °C as a function of irradiation fluence, for both superficial and buried boron implantation, to assess the changes in the diamond lattice by the creation of vacancies and defects and their degree of recovery after annealing.

  14. Optical properties of implanted Xe color centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Russell; Ke, Li; Martin, Aiden; Wang, Ziyu; Kianinia, Mehran; Green, Ben; Gao, Wei-bo; Aharonovich, Igor

    2018-03-01

    Optical properties of color centers in diamond have been the subject of intense research due to their promising applications in quantum photonics. In this work we study the optical properties of Xe related color centers implanted into nitrogen rich (type IIA) and an ultrapure, electronic grade diamond. The Xe defect has two zero phonon lines at ∼794 nm and 811 nm, which can be effectively excited using both green and red excitation, however, its emission in the nitrogen rich diamond is brighter. Near resonant excitation is performed at cryogenic temperatures and luminescence is probed under strong magnetic field. Our results are important towards the understanding of the Xe related defect and other near infrared color centers in diamond.

  15. Effects of substrate pretreatments on diamond synthesis for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Y. [Prefectural Industrial Research Inst., Shizuoka (Japan); Takaya, M. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Tsudanuma 2-chome, Narashino-shi, 275 (Japan)

    1998-07-08

    Diamond synthesis for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics after various substrate pretreatments has been carried out by the microwave-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using a mixture of methane and hydrogen gases. Four types of pretreatments for various substrates were performed as follows: scratching with diamond powder (I), applying O{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} combustion flames (II), polishing with alumina (III), and platinum vapor deposition (IV). The products deposited on the substrate were examined with micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). It was found that the application of O{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flames as a pretreatment of the substrate in diamond synthesis was suitable, because a higher density of diamond nucleation could be obtained, and a film-like diamond could be formed on the surface in a shorter time than without applying them. The diamond could be synthesized on the surface for all four types of substrate pretreatments performed in the present study. The effects of the substrate pretreatments on the surface morphology of grown diamond were that a film-like diamond for (I) or (II), a particle-like diamond for (III) and a particle and/or a film-like diamond for (IV) were formed on the surface. The surface morphology of grown diamond depended very much on the substrate temperature under deposition. (orig.) 18 refs.

  16. Implantation sites of Ce and Gd in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Bharuth-Ram, K; Hofsäss, H C; Ronning, C; Dietrich, M

    2002-01-01

    The implantation sites of rare earth (RE) probes /sup 141/Ce (t/sub 1 /2/=32 d) and /sup 149/Gd (t/sub 1/2/=9.28 d) in diamond have been investigated using the emission channeling (EC) technique. Parent isotopes /sup 141/Cs and /sup 149/Dy were implanted into type IIa, diamond samples at an energy of 60 keV at the online isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. /sup 141/Cs decays through the chain /sup 141/Cs-/sup 141/Ba-/sup 141/La-/sup 141/Ce-/sup 141/ Pr. EC measurements were made on the 102 keV conversion electrons emitted in the decay of /sup 141/Pr to its ground state. The decay of /sup 149 /Dy follows the chain /sup 149/Dy-/sup 149/Tb-/sup 149/Gd-/sup 149 /Eu-/sup 149/Sm. EC measurements were made on the 101 keV electrons emitted in the decay of /sup 149/Eu. Two-dimensional channeling patterns of the conversion electrons were obtained along and axial directions by raster scans with a Si surface barrier detector. Comparison of the observed patterns with simulated spectra show that in diamond 45-50% of the RE...

  17. SiC interlayer by laser-cladding on WC-Co substrates for CVD diamond deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin, Andre; Fraga, Mariana Amorim; Vieira, Jose; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Corat, Evaldo Jose, E-mail: andrecontin@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, Raonei Alves [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UNIFESSPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Getulio [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Despite their huge industrial potential and commercial interest, the direct diamond coating on cemented carbide (WC-Co) is limited, mainly because of the catalytic effect of Cobalt (Co) and the high difference in thermal expansion coefficient [1]. This results in poor adherence between diamond and WC-Co. In addition, the low diamond film adhesion to the cemented carbide useless for machining applications. Removal of Co binder from the substrate surface by superficial etching is one of the techniques used to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC-Co. For the present study, diamond films were deposited on WC-Co substrates with an intermediate barrier to block the Co diffusion to the surface substrate. The laser cladding process produced the SiC barrier, in which a powder layer is melted by a laser irradiation to create the coating on the substrate. The use of laser cladding is the novel method for an intermediate barrier for cemented carbides. The advantages of laser cladding include a faster processing speed, precision, versatility. We reported the application of pretreatment method called ESND (Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond). The nucleation density was around 10{sup 11}part/cm{sup 2}. Diamond films were grown by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. Characterization of samples included Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Scattering Spectroscopy. Results showed that laser irradiation formed stable Co compounds in the interfacial barrier. It is because nucleation and good quality of diamond film since the cobalt are no longer free to migrate to the surface during the CVD diamond deposition. Reference: [1] Y. X. Cui, B. Shen, F. H. Sun. Diamond deposition on WC–Co substrate with amorphous SiC interlayer, Surface Engineering, 30, (2014) 237-243. (author)

  18. UV detectors based on epitaxial diamond films grown on single-crystal diamond substrates by vapor-phase synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharonov, G.V.; Petrov, S.A.; Bol'shakov, A.P.; Ral'chenko, V.G.; Kazyuchits, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for use of CVD-technology for epitaxial growth of single-crystal diamond films of instrumental quality in UHF plasma for the production of optoelectronic devices are discussed. A technology for processing diamond single crystals that provides a perfect surface crystal structure with roughness less than 0,5 nm was developed. It was demonstrated that selective UV detectors based on synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates coated with single-crystal films can be produced. A criterion for selecting clean and structurally perfect single crystals of synthetic diamond was developed for the epitaxial growth technology. (authors)

  19. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films — Coating characterization and first cell biological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strąkowska, Paulina [Gdańsk University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty (Poland); Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Informatics (Poland); Beutner, René [Max Bergmann Center, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany); Gnyba, Marcin [Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Informatics (Poland); Zielinski, Andrzej [Gdańsk University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty (Poland); Scharnweber, Dieter, E-mail: Dieter.Scharnweber@tu-dresden.de [Max Bergmann Center, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD > HAp/B-NCD > uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  20. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films — Coating characterization and first cell biological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD > HAp/B-NCD > uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  1. Investigation of low-resistivity from hydrogenated lightly B-doped diamond by ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xia Yan et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implanted boron (B ions (dosage: 5×1014 cm-2 into diamond and then hydrogenated the sample by implantating hydrogen ions at room temperature. A p-type diamond material with a low resistivity of 7.37 mΩ cm has been obtained in our experiment, which suggests that the hydrogenation of B-doped diamond results in a low-resistivity p-type material. Interestingly, inverse annealing, in which carrier concentration decreased with increasing annealing temperature, was observed at annealing temperatures above 600 °C. In addition, the formation mechanism of a low-resistivity material has been studied by density functional theory calculation using a plane wave method.

  2. Luminescence of natural IIa diamond implanted with nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varichenko, V.S.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Stelmakh, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations on the influence of defect environment in the irradiated diamond lattice are presented. The N + implantation with energies from 60 keV up to 60 MeV was used both as method of introducing nitrogen containing defects into the diamond and as a good tool to create different environment of these defects. Photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and annealing measurements show that the action of defect environment is revealed through the effective pressure affecting the thermal stability of defects and their inhomogeneous distortion

  3. Study of carbide-forming element interlayers for diamond nucleation and growth on silicon and WC-Co substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond nucleation and growth on several typical carbide-forming elements (CFE) (Ti, Cr and W) coated Si and WC-Co substrates were studied. The ion beam sputtered CFE interlayers show an amorphous/nanocrystalline microstructure. The diamond formed on the CFE coated substrates shows higher nucleation density and rate and finer grain structure than on uncoated substrates. Consequently, nanocrystalline diamond thin films can be formed on the CFE coated substrates under conventional microcrystalline diamond growth conditions. Among the three tested CFE interlayers, diamond has the highest nucleation density and rate on W layer and the lowest on Ti layer. The diamond nucleation density and rate on CFE coated WC-Co are much higher than those on widely used metal nitride coated WC-Co.

  4. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin, E-mail: xin.jiang@uni-siegen.de

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite gradient interlayers were synthesized. • The interlayer features a cross-sectional gradient with increasing diamond content. • Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process. • The adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. • The stress was suppressed by manipulating the distribution of diamond and silicon carbide. - Abstract: Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co{sub 2}Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  5. Simulation and visualization of ion-implantation in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Joan; Silverman, Amihai; Ierushalmi, Niv; Sorkin, Anastassia; Kalish, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    We have explored aspects of ion implantation in diamonds with molecular dynamics and tightbinding atomistic simulations. Relevant experiments and their potential applications as well as our computer models and computational approaches are described. Our simulations have been designed to answer questions proposed by experimental researchers concerning optimal laboratory schedules for the preparation of samples with potential applications to diamond membranes and NV centers for quantum computers. Simulation and visualization of results enable us to peek inside samples where experimental techniques cannot tread. In order to provide the requisite Brazilian component a new connection between these models and bootstrap percolation is made

  6. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuezhang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wei Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yu Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nucleation density was increased to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  7. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuezhang; Wei Qiuping; Yu Zhiming; Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. ► The nucleation density was increased to 10 11 cm −2 . ► Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. ► Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp 3 -bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10 11 cm −2 , and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  8. Improved generation of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naydenov, Boris; Beck, Johannes; Steiner, Matthias; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg [3. Institute of Physics, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Richter, Vladimir; Kalish, Rafi [Solid State Institute, Technion City, Haifa (Israel); Achard, Jocelyn [Laboratoire d' Ingenieurie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions, CNRS, Villetaneuse (France)

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently attracted the attention of many research groups due to their possible application as quantum bits (qubits), ultra low magnetic field sensors and single photon sources. These color centers can be produced by nitrogen ion implantation, although the yield is usually below 5 % at low ion energies. Here we report an increase of the NV production efficiency by subsequently implanting carbon ions in the area of implanted nitrogen ions. This method improves the production yield by more than 50 %. We also show that very low nitrogen concentration (below 0.1 ppb) in diamond can be determined by converting the intrinsic nitrogen atoms to single NV centers and detecting the latter using a confocal microscope.

  9. Ion implantation methods for semiconductor substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Mamine, T.; Hayashi, H.; Nishiyama, K.

    1980-01-01

    A method of ion implantation for controlling the life time of minority carriers in a semiconductor substrate and hence to reduce the temperature dependency of the life time, comprises implanting iron ions into an N type semiconductor substrate with a dosage of 10 10 to 10 15 ions cm -2 , and then heat-treating the implanted substrate at 850 0 to 1250 0 C. The method is applicable to the production of diodes, transistors, Si controlled rectifiers and gate controlled switching devices. (author)

  10. The adhesion and tribology analysis of polycrystalline diamond coated on Si3N4 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, E.; Purniawan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cauliflower and octahedral structure of polycrystalline diamond was deposited on silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) substrate by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD). In our earlier work, the effects of deposition parameters namely, % Methane (CH 4 ) diluted in hydrogen (H 2 ), microwave power and chamber pressure on surface morphology were studied. In the present work the polycrystalline diamond coating adhesion and tribology behaviour were investigated. Rockwell C hardness tester and pin-on-disk tribometer were used to determine the adhesion and tribology properties on diamond coating, respectively. The morphology of the diamond before and after indentation was observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Based on the adhesion analysis results, it was found that octahedral morphology has better adhesion than cauliflower structure. It was indicated by few cracks and less peel-off than cauliflower structure of polycrystalline diamond after indentation. Based on tribology analysis, polycrystalline diamond coated on substrate has better tribology properties than uncoated substrate. (author)

  11. Effect of substrates on tribological properties of diamond-like carbon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhui ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to well investigate the effect of different substrates on the friction and wear of diamond-like carbon (DLC coating, the DLC coatings are deposited on substrates like the high-speed steel (HSS, SiC and 304 stainless steel by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The diamond-like carbon is prepared. The microstructure of the coatings is characterized using SEM, TEM and Raman. The SEM results exhibit that the total thickness of the coatings is about 6.5 μm, and there's apparent interfaces between layers. The TEM results imply that the coatings have an amorphous structure. Raman spectrum exhibits that G and D peaks are observed, which implies that the deposition coatings are diamond-like carbon coating. The results of tribological tests show that the substrates have a significant effect on the friction and wear of the coating. For different substrates, the transfer film is found on the steel counterpart surface, the wear track of the HSS has a lowest width, and the DLC coating that deposited on HSS exhibits the lowest wear and low friction coefficient (about 0.1.The microstructure of different substrates wear track surfaces is analyzed by using Raman spectrum, and the lowest wear of the HSS is attributed to the lower degree of the graphitization. The research provides reference for preparing the DLC coating with excellent tribological properties.

  12. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films - Coating characterization and first cell biological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD>HAp/B-NCD>uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  13. Note: Laser ablation technique for electrically contacting a buried implant layer in single crystal diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M. P.; Baldwin, J. W.; Butler, J. E.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of thin, buried, and electrically conducting layers within an otherwise insulating diamond by annealed ion implantation damage is well known. Establishing facile electrical contact to the shallow buried layer has been an unmet challenge. We demonstrate a new method, based on laser micro-machining (laser ablation), to make reliable electrical contact to a buried implant layer in diamond. Comparison is made to focused ion beam milling.

  14. Polycrystalline Diamond Coating of Additively Manufactured Titanium for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Aaqil; Tran, Nhiem; Lau, Desmond W; Elbourne, Aaron; Zhan, Hualin; Stacey, Alastair D; Mayes, Edwin L H; Sarker, Avik; Ivanova, Elena P; Crawford, Russell J; Tran, Phong A; Gibson, Brant C; Greentree, Andrew D; Pirogova, Elena; Fox, Kate

    2018-03-14

    Additive manufacturing using selective laser melted titanium (SLM-Ti) is used to create bespoke items across many diverse fields such as medicine, defense, and aerospace. Despite great progress in orthopedic implant applications, such as for "just in time" implants, significant challenges remain with regards to material osseointegration and the susceptibility to bacterial colonization on the implant. Here, we show that polycrystalline diamond coatings on these titanium samples can enhance biological scaffold interaction improving medical implant applicability. The highly conformable coating exhibited excellent bonding to the substrate. Relative to uncoated SLM-Ti, the diamond coated samples showed enhanced mammalian cell growth, enriched apatite deposition, and reduced microbial S. aureus activity. These results open new opportunities for novel coatings on SLM-Ti devices in general and especially show promise for improved biomedical implants.

  15. Diamond films on stainless steel substrates with an interlayer applied by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin, Andre; Alves, Kenya Aparecida; Damm, Djoille Denner; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Corat, Evaldo Jose, E-mail: andrecontin@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (LAS/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais; Campos, Raonei Alves [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UNIFESSPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Getulio de [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (DedALO/IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Desenvolvimento de Aplicacoes de Lasers e Optica

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this work is the Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) of diamond films on stainless steel substrates using a new technique for intermediate barrier forming, made by laser cladding process. In this technique, a powder layer is irradiated by a laser beam to melt the powder layer and the substrate surface layer to create the interlayer. The control of the laser beam parameters allows creating homogeneous coating layers, in rather large area in few seconds. In this work, the silicon carbide powder (SiC) was used to create an intermediate layer. Before the diamond growth, the samples were subjected to the seeding process with diamond powder. The diamond deposition was performed using Hot-Filament CVD reactor and the characterizations were Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman Scattering Spectroscopy and Scratch Test. (author)

  16. Large area diamond-like carbon coatings by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.R.; Proctor, G.; Jones, A.M.; Bull, S.J.; Chivers, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto large geometry components in the Harwell Blue Tank ion implantation facility. To modify the substrate surface and to crack the low vapour pressure oil which is evaporated and condensed onto the surface, a 40 Kev nitrogen ion bucket ion source is used. The coating of areas up to 1 metre in diameter is common and with component manipulation larger areas may be coated. Since the component temperature never exceeds 80 o C during the process, a wide range of materials may be coated including specialist tool steels and even certain high density polymers. In order to produce hard wear resistant coatings with extremely low coefficients of friction (0.02-0.15) and a range of mechanical and electrical properties, various oil precursors have been investigated. The production and assessment of such coatings, including measurements of their tribiological performance, is presented. Applications for wear resistance, corrosion protection and electrically conducting coatings are discussed with examples drawn from engineering, electronics and biomedicine. (7 figures, 13 references). (UK)

  17. Diamond film deposition on WC–Co and steel substrates with a CrN interlayer for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Maneesh; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The most renowned property of diamond is its exceptional hardness. By depositing diamond films on tungsten carbide (WC–Co) and steel substrates, the hardness of diamond can be combined with the toughness of these materials, resulting in an excellent wear resistance material for tribological applications. However, poor adhesion of diamond coating on these substrates leads to a lesser lifetime for the diamond coated tools than expected. The prime reasons for the lack of proper adhesion are the preferential formation of graphitic layer at the interface due to the catalytic activities of cobalt/iron and the interfacial residual stresses due to the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of diamond (1.5  ×  10 −6 K −1 ) and WC–Co (5.2  ×  10 −6 K −1 ) or steel (12  ×  10 −6 K −1 ). In this review, we discuss the possibility of using a Cr–N interlayer as a diffusion barrier to prevent the catalytic activities of cobalt/iron and also to relax the interfacial residual stresses to some extent to enhance the adhesion of diamond coatings on these substrates. An overview of the most pertinent results of the last two decades, including the recent progress is introduced. We describe in detail how the Cr–N interlayer with the desired properties is fabricated. We give a concise overview of diamond deposition process, including the methods to vary the grain size from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline, which are suitable for some tribological applications. We describe in detail on surface and interface analysis, residual stress measurements, assessment adhesion strength and tribological performance of diamond coated WC–Co and steel substrates using various characterization techniques. We conclude by highlighting the current progress and future perspectives of diamond coatings on these substrates for tribological applications. (topical review)

  18. Comparison of the quality of single-crystal diamonds grown on two types of seed substrates by MPCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Guo, Yanzhao; Lin, Liangzhen; Zheng, Yuting; Hei, Lifu; Liu, Jinlong; Wei, Junjun; Chen, Liangxian; Li, Chengming

    2018-06-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) was used to grow single-crystal diamonds on two types of single-crystal diamond seed substrates prepared by high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The quality of diamonds grown on the different seed substrates was compared. Fluorescence characteristics showed that the sectors of the HPHT seed substrates were obviously partitioned. Raman and absorption spectra showed that the CVD seed substrate produced higher-quality crystals with fewer nitrogen impurities. X-ray topography showed that the HPHT seed substrate had obvious growth sector boundaries, inclusions, dislocations, and stacking faults. The polarization characteristics of HPHT seed substrate were obvious, and the stress distribution was not uniform. When etching HPHT and CVD seed substrates using the same parameters, the etching morphology and extent of different growth sectors of the two substrates differed. Although extended defects were inevitably formed at the interface and propagated in the CVD layer, the dislocation density of a 1 mm-thick CVD layer grown on a CVD seed substrate was only half that of a 1 mm-thick CVD layer grown on an HPHT seed substrate. Therefore, the use of CVD seed substrate enabled the growth of a relatively higher-quality CVD single-crystal diamond.

  19. Adhesive bonding and brazing of nanocrystalline diamond foil onto different substrate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodes, Matthias A.; Sailer, Stefan; Rosiwal, Stefan M.; Singer, Robert F.

    2013-10-01

    Diamond coatings are used in heavily stressed industrial applications to reduce friction and wear. Hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) is the favourable coating method, as it allows a coating of large surface areas with high homogeneity. Due to the high temperatures occurring in this CVD-process, the selection of substrate materials is limited. With the desire to coat light materials, steels and polymers a new approach has been developed. First, by using temperature-stable templates in the HFCVD and stripping off the diamond layer afterwards, a flexible, up to 150 μm thick and free standing nanocrystalline diamond foil (NCDF) can be produced. Afterwards, these NCDF can be applied on technical components through bonding and brazing, allowing any material as substrate. This two-step process offers the possibility to join a diamond layer on any desired surface. With a modified scratch test and Rockwell indentation testing the adhesion strength of NCDF on aluminium and steel is analysed. The results show that sufficient adhesion strength is reached both on steel and aluminium. The thermal stress in the substrates is very low and if failure occurs, cracks grow undercritically. Adhesion strength is even higher for the brazed samples, but here crack growth is critical, delaminating the diamond layer to some extent. In comparison to a sample directly coated with diamond, using a high-temperature CVD interlayer, the brazed as well as the adhesively bonded samples show very good performance, proving their competitiveness. A high support of the bonding layer could be identified as crucial, though in some cases a lower stiffness of the latter might be acceptable considering the possibility to completely avoid thermal stresses which occur during joining at higher temperatures.

  20. CVD of alternated microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films on WC-TIC-CO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel

    2010-01-01

    CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)

  1. Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction {sup 11}B(p, α){sup 8}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ynsa, M.D., E-mail: m.ynsa@uam.es [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ramos, M.A. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Skukan, N. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Torres-Costa, V. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Jakšić, M. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-04-01

    Diamond is an especially attractive material because of its gemological value as well as its unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. One of these properties is that boron-doped diamond is an electrically p-type semiconducting material at practically any boron concentration. This property makes it possible to use diamonds for multiple industrial and technological applications. Boron can be incorporated into pure diamond by different techniques including ion implantation. Although typical energies used to dope diamond by ion implantation are about 100 keV, implantations have also been performed with energies above MeV. In this work CMAM microbeam setup has been used to demonstrate capability to implant boron with high energies. An 8 MeV boron beam with a size of about 5 × 3 μm{sup 2} and a beam current higher than 500 pA has been employed while controlling the beam position and fluence at all irradiated areas. The subsequent mapping of the implanted boron in diamond has been obtained using the strong and broad nuclear reaction {sup 11}B(p, α){sup 8}Be at E{sub p} = 660 keV. This reaction has a high Q-value (8.59 MeV for α{sub 0} and 5.68 MeV for α{sub 1}) and thus is almost interference-free. The sensitivity of the technique is studied in this work.

  2. Determining the internal quantum efficiency of shallow-implanted nitrogen-vacancy defects in bulk diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya; Boll, Mads; Israelsen, Niels Møller

    2016-01-01

    -implanted NV defects in a single-crystal bulk diamond. Using a spherical metallic mirror with a large radius of curvature compared to the optical spot size, we perform calibrated modifications of the local density of states around NV defects and observe the change of their total decay rate, which is further...... used for IQE quantification. We also show that at the excitation wavelength of 532 nm, photo-induced relaxation cannot be neglected even at moderate excitation powers well below the saturation level. For NV defects shallow implanted 4.5 ± 1 and 8 ± 2 nm below the diamond surface, we determine...

  3. Implantation of keV-energy argon clusters and radiation damage in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai

    2012-01-01

    We show that for impacting argon clusters, both mean projected ranges of the constituents and depths of radiation damage in diamond scale linearly with momentum. The same dependence was earlier found for keV-energy cluster implantation in graphite, thus suggesting the universality of this scaling...... law. For diamond, a good agreement for the value of displacement energy for the case of cluster impact is found by comparing the calculated target sputtering and experimentally measured depth of radiation damage....

  4. Structure carbon materials: clusters, nanotubes, ion-implant polymers and diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapchuk, N.M.; Odzhaev, V.B.; Poklonskij, N.A.; Sviridov, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes the series of research works dealing with the physics of nanostructured carbon materials, which were awarded a Sevchenko Prize in 2008. The paper considers the mechanism of synthesis of 3D carbon nanospecies and their nanomechanics, magnetic properties of ion-implanted diamonds, as well as the regularities of formation of novel forms of amorphous hydrogenated carbon and metal-carbon nanocomposites via ion bombardment of polymers, as well as electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of ion-implanted polymers an their possible applications in micro- and nanoelectronics. (authors)

  5. Ion implantation and diamond-like coatings of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaczynski, G. W.; Hamdi, A. H.; Elmoursi, A. A.; Qiu, X.

    1997-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the wear resistance of some key automotive components, General Motors Research and Development Center initiated a study to determine the potential of surface modification as a means of improving the tribological properties of automotive parts, and to investigate the feasibility of mass producing such parts. This paper describes the plasma immersion ion implantation system that was designed for the study of various options for surface treatment, and it discusses bench testing procedures used for evaluating the surface-treated samples. In particular, both tribological and microstructural analyses are discussed for nitrogen implants and diamond-like hydrocarbon coatings of some aluminum alloys.

  6. Effects of electrical conductivity of substrate materials on microstructure of diamond-like carbon films prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, S; Sonoda, T

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared by a bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation, and the structural differences between DLC films deposited on different electrical conductive substrates, i.e., conductive Si wafers and insulating glass plates are examined by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS). In the Raman measurements, graphite (G) and disorder (D) peaks are observed for both samples. However, the additional photo luminescence is overlapped on the spectra in the case of on-glass sample. To elucidate the structural difference, the intensity ratio of D to G peak (I(D)/I(G)), G peak position and full width at half maximum (FWHM) are obtained by curve fitting using Gaussian function and linear baseline. It is found that the I(D)/I(G) is lower, G peak position is higher and FWHM of G peak is narrower for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. According to Robertson [1], lower I(D)/I(G) seems more sp 3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. In contrast, higher G peak position and narrower FWHM of G peak suggest less sp 3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. The results of XPS analysis with C1s spectra reveal that sp 3 ratio, i.e., the intensity ratio of sp 3 /(sp 3 +sp 2 ) is smaller for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. The inconsistency of the trend between I(D)/I(G) and other parameters (G peak position and FWHM of G peak) might be caused by the overlap of photo luminescence signal on Raman spectrum as to on-glass sample. From these results, it is considered that sp 3 C-C bonding is reduced in amount when using insulating substrate in comparison with conductive substrate.

  7. Optical absorption analysis on diamond crystals modified by H2+ implantation and subsequent annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.Q.; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Goppelt-Langer, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The optical absorption analysis on synthetic diamond irradiated by molecular hydrogen ions (H 2 + ) with 40 keV, 10 15 -10 17 H/cm 2 , at 100 K, showed that the absorption coefficient (α) of modified layer in UV-VIS range was increased with the implanted dose and decreased with thermal annealing. While its relative optical band gap (E r,opt ) was decreased with ion fluence and proportional to the annealing temperature. The possible microstructure of atomic coordination for as-implanted and subsequent annealing samples was discussed tentatively. In addition the optical inhomogeneity of the type Ib diamond has been revealed by absorption topograph at λ=430 nm. (author)

  8. Nucleation of microwave plasma CVD diamond on molybdenum (Mo) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inderjeet, K.; Ramesh, S.

    2000-01-01

    Molybdenum is a metal, which is gaining increasing significance in industrial applications. The main use of Mo is as all alloying element added in small amounts to steel, irons and non- ferrous alloys in order to enhance the strength, toughness and wear resistance. Mo is also vastly being employed in the automotive and aircraft industries, mainly due to its low coefficient of friction. Diamond, on be other hand, is a unique material for innumerable applications because of its usual combination of physical and chemical properties. Several potential applications can be anticipated for diamond in many sectors including electronics, optics, as protective corrosion resistant coatings, cutting tools, etc. With the enhancement in science and technology, diamond microcrystals and thin films are now being produced from the vapour phase by a variety of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques; such as microwave plasma CVD. With such technology being made available, it is envisage that diamond-coated molybdenum would further enhance the performance and to open up new avenue for Mo in various industries. Therefore, it is the aim of the present work to study the nucleation and growth of diamond particles on Mo surface by employing microwave plasma CVD (MAPCVD). In the present work, diamond deposition was carried out in several stages by varying the deposition distance. The nucleation and growth rate were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the existence of diamond was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It has been found that the nucleation and growth rate of diamond particles were influenced by the deposition height between the substrate and plasma. Under the optimum condition, well defined diamond crystallites distributed homogeneously throughout the surface, could be obtained. Some of the important parameters controlling the deposition and growth of diamond particles on Mo surface are discussed. (author)

  9. Ion-implantation of erbium into the nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Babchenko, Oleg; Cajzl, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Prajzler, Václav; Remeš, Zdeněk; Varga, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7-8 (2016), s. 679-684 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * optical waveguides * erbium * luminescence * ion implantation * CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2016

  10. Damage, trapping and desorption at the implantation of helium and deuterium in graphite, diamond and silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.A.R.

    1995-07-01

    The production, thermal stability and structure of ion induced defects have been studied by Rutherford backscattering in channeling geometry for the implantation of helium and deuterium in graphite, diamond and silicon carbide with energies of 8 and 20 keV. At the implantation of deuterium and helium ions more defects were measured in graphite than in diamond or silicon carbide at equal experimental conditions. This is due to increased backscattering in graphite, which is caused by the splitting and tilting of crystallites and a local reordering of lattice atoms around defects. At 300 K, Helium produces more defects in all three materials than deuterium with equal depth distribution of defects. The ratio of the defects produced by helium and deuterium agrees very well with the corresponding ratio of the energy deposited in nuclear collisions. In graphite, only small concentrations of deuterium induced defects anneal below 800 K, while in diamond small concentrations of deuterium as well as of helium induced defects anneal mostly below 800 K. This annealing behavior is considered to be due to recombination of point defects. The buildup of helium and deuterium in graphite is different. The trapping of deuterium proceeds until saturation is reached, while in the case of helium trapping is interrupted by flaking. In diamond, deuterium as well as helium are trapped almost completely until at higher fluences reemission starts and saturation is reached. Two desorption mechanisms were identified for the thermal desorption of helium from base-oriented graphite. Helium implanted at low fluences desorbs diffusing to the surface, while for the implantation of high fluences the release of helium due to blistering dominates. The desorption of deuterium from graphite and diamond shows differences. While in graphite the desorption starts already at 800 K, in diamond up to 1140 K only little desorption can be observed. These differences can be explained by the different transport

  11. Interlayers Applied to CVD Diamond Deposition on Steel Substrate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoille Denner Damm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Academics and industry have sought after combining the exceptional properties of diamonds with the toughness of steel. Since the early 1990s several partial solutions have been found but chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond deposition on steel substrate continues to be a persistent problem. The main drawbacks are the high carbon diffusion from gas phase into substrate, the transition metals on the material surface that catalyze sp2 bond formation, instead of sp3 bonds, and the high thermal expansion coefficient (TEC mismatch between diamond and steels. An intermediate layer has been found necessary to increase diamond adhesion. Literature has proposed many efficient intermediate layers as a diffusion barrier for both, carbon and iron, but most intermediate layers shown have not solved TEC mismatch. In this review, we briefly discuss the solutions that exclusively work as diffusion barrier and discuss in a broader way the ones that also solve, or may potentially solve, the TEC mismatch problem. We examine some multilayers, the iron borides, the chromium carbides, and vanadium carbides. We go through the most relevant results of the last two and a half decades, including recent advances in our group. Vanadium carbide looks promising since it has shown excellent diffusion barrier properties, its TEC is intermediary between diamond and steel and, it has been thickened to manage thermal stress relief. We also review a new deposition technique to set up intermediate layers: laser cladding. It is promising because of its versatility in mixing different materials and fusing and/or sintering them on a steel surface. We conclude by remarking on new perspectives.

  12. Effect of substrate roughness on growth of diamond by hot filament ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings are grown on Si (100) substrate by hot filament CVD technique. We investigate ... toughness of the film as the crystal changes its phase from monocrystalline to .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the.

  13. Hermetic diamond capsules for biomedical implants enabled by gold active braze alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Samantha G; Escudié, Mathilde C; Stacey, Alastair D; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Fox, Kate; Ahnood, Arman; Apollo, Nicholas V; Kua, Dunstan C; Lee, Aaron Z; McGowan, Ceara; Saunders, Alexia L; Burns, Owen; Nayagam, David A X; Williams, Richard A; Garrett, David J; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    As the field of biomedical implants matures the functionality of implants is rapidly increasing. In the field of neural prostheses this is particularly apparent as researchers strive to build devices that interact with highly complex neural systems such as vision, hearing, touch and movement. A retinal implant, for example, is a highly complex device and the surgery, training and rehabilitation requirements involved in deploying such devices are extensive. Ideally, such devices will be implanted only once and will continue to function effectively for the lifetime of the patient. The first and most pivotal factor that determines device longevity is the encapsulation that separates the sensitive electronics of the device from the biological environment. This paper describes the realisation of a free standing device encapsulation made from diamond, the most impervious, long lasting and biochemically inert material known. A process of laser micro-machining and brazing is described detailing the fabrication of hermetic electrical feedthroughs and laser weldable seams using a 96.4% gold active braze alloy, another material renowned for biochemical longevity. Accelerated ageing of the braze alloy, feedthroughs and hermetic capsules yielded no evidence of corrosion and no loss of hermeticity. Samples of the gold braze implanted for 15 weeks, in vivo, caused minimal histopathological reaction and results were comparable to those obtained from medical grade silicone controls. The work described represents a first account of a free standing, fully functional hermetic diamond encapsulation for biomedical implants, enabled by gold active alloy brazing and laser micro-machining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanostructured diamond film deposition on curved surfaces of metallic temporomandibular joint implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Marc D; Vohra, Yogesh K [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2002-10-21

    Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition of nanostructured diamond films was carried out on curved surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V alloy machined to simulate the shape of a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dental implant. Raman spectroscopy shows that the deposited films are uniform in chemical composition along the radius of curvature of the TMJ condyle. Thin film x-ray diffraction reveals an interfacial carbide layer and nanocrystalline diamond grains in this coating. Nanoindentation hardness measurements show an ultra-hard coating with a hardness value of 60{+-}5 GPa averaged over three samples. (rapid communication)

  15. Adherent diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide substrates with new Fe/Ni/Co binder phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polini, Riccardo; Delogu, Michele; Marcheselli, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    WC-Co hard metals continue to gain importance for cutting, mining and chipless forming tools. Cobalt metal currently dominates the market as a binder because of its unique properties. However, the use of cobalt as a binder has several drawbacks related to its hexagonal close-packed structure and market price fluctuations. These issues pushed the development of pre-alloyed binder powders which contain less than 40 wt.% cobalt. In this paper we first report the results of extensive investigations of WC-Fe/Ni/Co hard metal sintering, surface pretreating and deposition of adherent diamond films by using an industrial hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor. In particular, CVD diamond was deposited onto WC-Fe/Ni/Co grades which exhibited the best mechanical properties. Prior to deposition, the substrates were submitted to surface roughening by Murakami's etching and to surface binder removal by aqua regia. The adhesion was evaluated by Rockwell indentation tests (20, 40, 60 and 100 kg) conducted with a Brale indenter and compared to the adhesion of diamond films grown onto Co-cemented tungsten carbide substrates, which were submitted to similar etching pretreatments and identical deposition conditions. The results showed that diamond films on medium-grained WC-6 wt.% Fe/Ni/Co substrates exhibited good adhesion levels, comparable to those obtained for HFCVD diamond on Co-cemented carbides with similar microstructure

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of boron implanted into diamond (0 0 1) 2 x 1 reconstruction surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongbin; Dai Yongbin; Hu Xiaojun; Sheng Heshen; He Xianchang

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations, utilizing the Tersoff many-body potential, are used to investigate the microscopic processes of a single boron atom with energy of 500 eV implanted into the diamond (0 0 1) 2 x 1 reconstruction surface. The lifetime of thermal spike created by B bombardment is about 0.18 ps by calculating the variation of the mean coordination numbers with time. The formation of the split-interstitial composed of projectile and lattice atom (B-C) is observed. The total potential energy of the system decreases about 0.56 eV with a stable B split-interstitial in diamond. The lattice relaxations in the diamond (0 0 1) 2 x 1 reconstruction surface or near surface of simulated have been discussed. The outermost layer atoms tend to move inward, and the other atoms move outward. The interplanar distance between the outermost layer and the second layer has been shortened by 15% compared with its starting interplanar distance. Stress distribution in the calculated diamond configuration is inhomogeneous. After boron implanted into diamond with the energy of 500 eV, there is an excess of compressively stressed atoms in the lattice, which induces the total stress being compressive

  17. Growth, microstructure, and field-emission properties of synthesized diamond film on adamantane-coated silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Rajanish N.; Chang Li

    2010-01-01

    Diamond nucleation on unscratched Si surface is great importance for its growth, and detailed understanding of this process is therefore desired for many applications. The pretreatment of the substrate surface may influence the initial growth period. In this study, diamond films have been synthesized on adamantane-coated crystalline silicon {100} substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from a gaseous mixture of methane and hydrogen gases without the application of a bias voltage to the substrates. Prior to adamantane coating, the Si substrates were not pretreated such as abraded/scratched. The substrate temperature was ∼530 deg. C during diamond deposition. The deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These measurements provide definitive evidence for high-crystalline quality diamond film, which is synthesized on a SiC rather than clean Si substrate. Characterization through atomic force microscope allows establishing fine quality criteria of the film according to the grain size of nanodiamond along with SiC. The diamond films exhibit a low-threshold (55 V/μm) and high current-density (1.6 mA/cm 2 ) field-emission (FE) display. The possible mechanism of formation of diamond films and their FE properties have been demonstrated.

  18. Wireless induction coils embedded in diamond for power transfer in medical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Md Kabir Uddin; Fallon, James; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Seligman, Peter; Garrett, David J

    2017-08-26

    Wireless power and data transfer to medical implants is a research area where improvements in current state-of-the-art technologies are needed owing to the continuing efforts for miniaturization. At present, lithographical patterning of evaporated metals is widely used for miniature coil fabrication. This method produces coils that are limited to low micron or nanometer thicknesses leading to high impedance values and thus limiting their potential quality. In the present work we describe a novel technique, whereby trenches were milled into a diamond substrate and filled with silver active braze alloy, enabling the manufacture of small, high cross-section, low impedance microcoils capable of transferring up to 10 mW of power up to a distance of 6 mm. As a substitute for a metallic braze line used for hermetic sealing, a continuous metal loop when placed parallel and close to the coil surface reduced power transfer efficiency by 43%, but not significantly, when placed perpendicular to the microcoil surface. Encapsulation of the coil by growth of a further layer of diamond reduced the quality factor by an average of 38%, which can be largely avoided by prior oxygen plasma treatment. Furthermore, an accelerated ageing test after encapsulation showed that these coils are long lasting. Our results thus collectively highlight the feasibility of fabricating a high-cross section, biocompatible and long lasting miniaturized microcoil that could be used in either a neural recording or neuromuscular stimulation device.

  19. Tribological performance of polycrystalline tantalum-carbide-incorporated diamond films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mahtab; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Ahmed, E.; Malik, Abdul Sattar; Shah, Z. A.; Ahmad, Naseeb; Mehtab, Ujala; Raza, Rizwan

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline tantalum-carbide-incorporated diamond coatings have been made on unpolished side of Si (100) wafer by hot filament chemical vapor deposition process. Morphology of the coatings has been found to vary from (111) triangular-facetted to predominantly (111) square-faceted by increasing the concentration of tantalum carbide. The results have been compared to those of a diamond reference coating with no tantalum content. An increase in roughness has been observed with the increase of tantalum carbide (TaC) due to change in morphology of the diamond films. It is noticed that roughness of the coatings increases as grains become more square-faceted. It is found that diamond coatings involving tantalum carbide are not as resistant as diamond films with no TaC content and the coefficient of friction for such coatings with microcrystalline grains can be manipulated to 0·33 under high vacuum of 10-7 Torr. Such a low friction coefficient value enhances tribological behavior of unpolished Si substrates and can possibly be used in sliding applications.

  20. Optical and electronic properties of sub-surface conducting layers in diamond created by MeV B-implantation at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems van Beveren, L. H., E-mail: laurensw@unimelb.edu.au; Bowers, H.; Ganesan, K.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.; Prawer, S. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Liu, R. [SIMS Facility, Office of the Deputy-Vice Chancellor (Research and Development) Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales 2751 (Australia)

    2016-06-14

    Boron implantation with in-situ dynamic annealing is used to produce highly conductive sub-surface layers in type IIa (100) diamond plates for the search of a superconducting phase transition. Here, we demonstrate that high-fluence MeV ion-implantation, at elevated temperatures avoids graphitization and can be used to achieve doping densities of 6 at. %. In order to quantify the diamond crystal damage associated with implantation Raman spectroscopy was performed, demonstrating high temperature annealing recovers the lattice. Additionally, low-temperature electronic transport measurements show evidence of charge carrier densities close to the metal-insulator-transition. After electronic characterization, secondary ion mass spectrometry was performed to map out the ion profile of the implanted plates. The analysis shows close agreement with the simulated ion-profile assuming scaling factors that take into account an average change in diamond density due to device fabrication. Finally, the data show that boron diffusion is negligible during the high temperature annealing process.

  1. Room-temperature deposition of diamond-like carbon field emitter on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Iliev, M.N.; Liu, J.R.; Ma, K.B.; Chu, W.-K.; Badi, N.; Bensaoula, A.; Svedberg, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    Room-temperature fabrication of diamond-like carbon electron field emitters on flexible polyimide substrate is reported. These thin film field emitters are made using an Ar gas cluster ion beam assisted C 6 vapor deposition method. The bond structure of the as-deposited diamond-like carbon film was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The field emission characteristics of the deposited films were also measured. Electron current densities over 15 mA/cm 2 have been recorded under an electrical field of about 65 V/μm. These diamond-like carbon field emitters are easy and inexpensive to fabricate. The results are promising for flexible field-emission fabrication without the need of complex patterning and tip shaping as compared to the Spindt-type field emitters

  2. Tribological performance of ultrathin diamond-like carbon films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, J X; Li, E Q; Tian, Z; Pan, X F; Xu, J; Jin, L; Yang, H G

    2008-01-01

    Ultrathin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thicknesses of 5-60 nm have been prepared on Si by plasma-based ion implantation. Raman spectrum and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that these DLC films present high sp 3 /sp 2 ratios. XPS also displays that each DLC film firmly adheres to the Si substrate owing to a C-Si transition layer. Atomic force microscopy shows that the DLC films are smooth and compact with average roughness (R a ) of about 0.25 nm. Sliding friction experiments reveal that these DLC films show significantly improved tribological performance. With increase of DLC film thickness, the sp 3 /sp 2 ratio increases, the roughness decreases, the hardness increases, the adhesive wear lightens and thereby the tribological performance becomes enhanced. Also, the effects of the applied load and the reciprocating frequency on the tribological performance are discussed

  3. Influence of chemical pretreatment of hard metal substrates for diamond deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, V.; Kluwe, H.; Schmiler, B.; Deuerler, F.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond coated cutting tools are of increasing importance in the fields of high speed cutting, dry machining or machining of special materials such as metal-matrix-composites. A well known problem is the poor adhesion of diamond films on hard metals due to the Co- or Ni-binder that catalyzes the formation of graphite. Several methods - such as the application of intermediate layers or mechanical or chemical pretreatment of the hard metal substrate - have been developed to overcome this effect. Usually chemical pretreatment is used in order to reduce the concentration of binder phase on the surface that is to be coated. Surprisingly pretreatment with agents such as Murakami's solution result in improved adhesion and nucleation of diamond films while the concentration of the binder phase on the surface is enhanced. This 'contradiction' can be explained by proving that the surface is converted into a very thin oxide/hydroxide film. (author)

  4. Diamond-like carbon coatings with zirconium-containing interlayers for orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Lackner, Juergen; Fleming, Robert A; Goss, Josh; Chen, Jingyi; Zou, Min

    2017-04-01

    Six types of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with zirconium (Zr)-containing interlayers on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) were investigated for improving the biotribological performance of orthopedic implants. The coatings consist of three layers: above the substrate a layer stack of 32 alternating Zr and ZrN sublayers (Zr:ZrN), followed by a layer comprised of Zr and DLC (Zr:DLC), and finally a N-doped DLC layer. The Zr:ZrN layer is designed for increasing load carrying capacity and corrosion resistance; the Zr:DLC layer is for gradual transition of stress, thus enhancing layer adhesion; and the N-doped DLC layer is for decreasing friction, squeaking noises and wear. Biotribological experiments were performed in simulated body fluid employing a ball-on-disc contact with a Si 3 N 4 ball and a rotational oscillating motion to mimic hip motion in terms of gait angle, dynamic contact pressures, speed and body temperature. The results showed that the Zr:DLC layer has a substantial influence on eliminating delamination of the DLC from the substrates. The DLC/Si 3 N 4 pairs significantly reduced friction coefficient, squeaking noise and wear of both the Si 3 N 4 balls and the discs compared to those of the Ti-6Al-4V/Si 3 N 4 pair after testing for a duration that is equivalent to one year of hip motion in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Softening the ultra-stiff: Controlled variation of Young’s modulus in single-crystal diamond by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiato, A.; Lorusso, M.; Bernardi, E.; Picollo, F.; Bosia, F.; Ugues, D.; Zelferino, A.; Damin, A.; Baima, J.

    2016-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study on the variation of the elastic properties of defective single-crystal diamond is presented for the first time, by comparing nano-indentation measurements on MeV-ion-implanted samples with multi-scale modeling consisting of both ab initio atomistic calculations and meso-scale Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. It is found that by locally introducing defects in the 2 × 10 18 –5 × 10 21  cm −3 density range, a significant reduction of Young’s modulus, as well as of density, can be induced in the diamond crystal structure without incurring in the graphitization of the material. Ab initio atomistic simulations confirm the experimental findings with a good degree of confidence. FEM simulations are further employed to verify the consistency of measured deformations with a stiffness reduction, and to derive strain and stress levels in the implanted region. Combining these experimental and numerical results, we also provide insight into the mechanism responsible for the depth dependence of the graphitization threshold in diamond. This work prospects the possibility of achieving accurate tunability of the mechanical properties of single-crystal diamond through defect engineering, with significant technological applications, e.g. the fabrication and control of the resonant frequency of diamond-based micromechanical resonators.

  6. Creation and characterization of He-related color centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: forneris@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Tengattini, A.; Tchernij, S. Ditalia [Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Picollo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Battiato, A. [Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Traina, P.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Moreva, E.; Brida, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); and others

    2016-11-15

    Diamond is a promising material for the development of emerging applications in quantum optics, quantum information and quantum sensing. The fabrication and characterization of novel luminescent defects with suitable opto-physical properties is therefore of primary importance for further advances in these research fields. In this work we report on the investigation in the formation of photoluminescent (PL) defects upon MeV He implantation in diamond. Such color centers, previously reported only in electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence regime, exhibited two sharp emission lines at 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm, without significant phonon sidebands. A strong correlation between the PL intensities of the above-mentioned emission lines and the He implantation fluence was found in the 10{sup 15}–10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} fluence range. The PL emission features were not detected in control samples, i.e. samples that were either unirradiated or irradiated with different ion species (H, C). Therefore, the PL features are attributed to optically active defects in the diamond matrix associated with He impurities. The intensity of the 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm emission lines was investigated as a function of the annealing temperature of the diamond substrate. The emission was observed upon annealing at temperatures higher than 500 °C, at the expenses of the concurrently decreasing neutral-vacancy-related GR1 emission intensity. Therefore, our findings indicate that the luminescence originates from the formation of a stable lattice defect. Finally, photoluminescence from He-related defects was observed under different laser excitations wavelengths (i.e. 532 nm and 405 nm), thus providing promising evidence of a broad spectral range for optical stimulation. - Highlights: • Creation of luminescent defects in single-crystal diamond upon He implantation. • First observation of photoluminescent emission from two sharp emission lines at 536.5 and 560.5 nm. • Attribution of the

  7. Creation and characterization of He-related color centers in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forneris, J.; Tengattini, A.; Tchernij, S. Ditalia; Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Traina, P.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Moreva, E.; Brida, G.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material for the development of emerging applications in quantum optics, quantum information and quantum sensing. The fabrication and characterization of novel luminescent defects with suitable opto-physical properties is therefore of primary importance for further advances in these research fields. In this work we report on the investigation in the formation of photoluminescent (PL) defects upon MeV He implantation in diamond. Such color centers, previously reported only in electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence regime, exhibited two sharp emission lines at 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm, without significant phonon sidebands. A strong correlation between the PL intensities of the above-mentioned emission lines and the He implantation fluence was found in the 10 15 –10 17 cm −2 fluence range. The PL emission features were not detected in control samples, i.e. samples that were either unirradiated or irradiated with different ion species (H, C). Therefore, the PL features are attributed to optically active defects in the diamond matrix associated with He impurities. The intensity of the 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm emission lines was investigated as a function of the annealing temperature of the diamond substrate. The emission was observed upon annealing at temperatures higher than 500 °C, at the expenses of the concurrently decreasing neutral-vacancy-related GR1 emission intensity. Therefore, our findings indicate that the luminescence originates from the formation of a stable lattice defect. Finally, photoluminescence from He-related defects was observed under different laser excitations wavelengths (i.e. 532 nm and 405 nm), thus providing promising evidence of a broad spectral range for optical stimulation. - Highlights: • Creation of luminescent defects in single-crystal diamond upon He implantation. • First observation of photoluminescent emission from two sharp emission lines at 536.5 and 560.5 nm. • Attribution of the emission lines to

  8. Raman Microscopic Analysis of Internal Stress in Boron-Doped Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Bennet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the induced stress on undoped and boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films by confocal Raman microscopy is performed in this study to investigate its correlation with sample chemical composition and the substrate used during fabrication. Knowledge of this nature is very important to the issue of long-term stability of BDD coated neurosurgical electrodes that will be used in fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, as potential occurrence of film delaminations and dislocations during their surgical implantation can have unwanted consequences for the reliability of BDD-based biosensing electrodes. To achieve a more uniform deposition of the films on cylindrically-shaped tungsten rods, substrate rotation was employed in a custom-built chemical vapor deposition reactor. In addition to visibly preferential boron incorporation into the diamond lattice and columnar growth, the results also reveal a direct correlation between regions of pure diamond and enhanced stress. Definite stress release throughout entire film thicknesses was found in the current Raman mapping images for higher amounts of boron addition. There is also a possible contribution to the high values of compressive stress from sp2 type carbon impurities, besides that of the expected lattice mismatch between film and substrate.

  9. Morphology of Diamond Layers Grown on Different Facets of Single Crystal Diamond Substrates by a Microwave Plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny E. Ashkinazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial growth of diamond films on different facets of synthetic IIa-type single crystal (SC high-pressure high temperature (HPHT diamond substrate by a microwave plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 gas mixture with the high concentration (4% of nitrogen is studied. A beveled SC diamond embraced with low-index {100}, {110}, {111}, {211}, and {311} faces was used as the substrate. Only the {100} face is found to sustain homoepitaxial growth at the present experimental parameters, while nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are produced on other planes. This observation is important for the choice of appropriate growth parameters, in particular, for the production of bi-layer or multilayer NCD-on-microcrystalline diamond (MCD superhard coatings on tools when the deposition of continuous conformal NCD film on all facet is required. The development of the film morphology with growth time is examined with SEM. The structure of hillocks, with or without polycrystalline aggregates, that appear on {100} face is analyzed, and the stress field (up to 0.4 GPa within the hillocks is evaluated based on high-resolution mapping of photoluminescence spectra of nitrogen-vacancy NV optical centers in the film.

  10. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  11. Dry And Ringer Solution Lubricated Tribology Of Thin Osseoconductive Metal Oxides And Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldhauser W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Achieving fast and strong adhesion to jawbone is essential for dental implants. Thin deposited films may improve osseointegration, but they are prone to cohesive and adhesive fracture due to high stresses while screwing the implant into the bone, leading to bared, less osteoconductive substrate surfaces and nano- and micro-particles in the bone. Aim of this work is the investigation of the cohesion and adhesion failure stresses of osteoconductive tantalum, titanium, silicon, zirconium and aluminium oxide and diamond-like carbon films. The tribological behaviour under dry and lubricated conditions (Ringer solution reveals best results for diamond-like carbon, while cohesion and adhesion of zirconium oxide films is highest.

  12. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  13. Method of beryllium implantation in germanium substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Kaneda, T.; Shirai, T.

    1983-01-01

    A semiconductor device is disclosed, as well as a method for manufacturing it in which ions of beryllium are implanted into a germanium substrate to form a layer containing p-type impurity material. There after the substrate is heated at a temperature in the range of 400 0 C. to 700 0 C. to diffuse the beryllium ions into the substrate so that the concentration of beryllium at the surface of the impurity layer is in the order of 10 17 cm- 3 or more. In one embodiment, a p-type channel stopper is formed locally in a p-type germanium substrate and an n-type active layer is formed in a region surrounded by, and isolated from, the channel stopper region. In another embodiment, a relatively shallow p-type active layer is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate and p-type guard ring regions are formed surrounding, and partly overlapping said p-type active layer. In a further embodiment, a p-type island region is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate, and an n-type region is formed within said p-type region. In these embodiments, the p-type channel stopper region, p-type guard ring regions and the p-type island region are all formed by implanting ions of beryllium into the germanium substrate

  14. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Kalpataru, E-mail: panda@afm.eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phy.kalpa@gmail.com; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, I-Nan, E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-20

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17 V/μm with high EFE current density of 5.08 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 7.0 V/μm. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local current–voltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  15. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Kalpataru; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17 V/μm with high EFE current density of 5.08 mA/cm 2 at an applied field of 7.0 V/μm. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local current–voltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  16. Catalytic growth of carbon nanowires on composite diamond/silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellam, Amine [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Miska, Patrice [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département P2M (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Ghanbaja, Jaafar [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Barrat, Silvère, E-mail: Silvere.Barrat@ijl.nancy-universite.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) films and carbon nanowires (CNWs) provide individually highly attractive properties for science and technology applications. The possibility of carbon composite materials made from a combination of these materials remains a potential approach widely discussed in literature but modestly investigated. We report in this work an early attempt to explore this opportunity in the light of some specific experimental considerations. Carbon nanowires (CNWs) are grown at low temperature without the conventional use of external hydrocarbon vapor source on silicon substrates partially covered by a thin film of coalesced micrometric CVD diamond. Composite substrates constituted by PCD on silicon were first cleaned with H{sub 2} plasma then used for the PVD deposition of 5 nm Ni thin films. Then, samples were heat treated in a CVD reactor at 580 °C in the presence of pure H{sub 2} pressure of 60 hPa at different annealing times. Comparative effect of annealing time on the dewetting of Ni thin films and the subsequent CNWs growth process was considered in this work using systematic observations by SEM. Possible mechanisms underlying CNWs growth in pure H{sub 2} gas were proposed. The nature and structure of these CNWs have been investigated by TEM microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy on the sample showing the highest CNWs density.

  17. Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films grown on Ir(100) substrates via patterned nucleation growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Taro; Kodama, Hideyuki; Kono, Shozo; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Sawabe, Atsuhito

    2015-01-01

    The potential of patterned nucleation growth (PNG) technique to control the wafer bowing of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond films was investigated. The heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films were grown on an Ir(100) substrate via PNG technique with different patterns of nucleation regions (NRs), which were dot-arrays with 8 or 13 μm pitch aligned to < 100 > or < 110 > direction of the Ir(100) substrate. The wafer bows and the local stress distributions of the free-standing films were measured using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer. For each NR pattern, the stress evolutions within the early stage of diamond growth were also studied together with a scanning electron microscopic observation of the coalescing diamond particles. These investigations revealed that the NR pattern, in terms of pitch and direction of dot-array, strongly affects the compressive stress on the nucleation side of the diamond film and dominantly contributes to the elastic deformation of the free-standing film. This indicates that the PNG technique with an appropriate NR pattern is a promising solution to fabricate free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond films with extremely small bows. - Highlights: • Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films • Effect of patterned nucleation and growth (PNG) technique on wafer bowing reduction • Influence of nucleation region patterns of PNG on wafer bowing • Internal stress analysis of PNG films via confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy

  18. Quantitative analysis of swelling on annealing of hydrogen ion implanted diamond single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Local swelling observed upon high-temperature annealing of natural diamond single crystals implanted by 350-keV hydrogen ions with a dose of 12 10 16 cm 2 is studied. Based on room-temperature measurements, Griffith cracking criterion in combination with gas law, model quantitative calculations of the swelling size and the amount of hydrogen molecules in a swelling have been carried out for the first time. At room temperature, T 1 293 K, the amount of local elastic stresses in the upper layer of the diamond is counterbalanced by inner hydrogen pressure. Behavior of the gas bubbles with the annealing temperature increase up to 1693 K and repeated annealing at a temperature of 1743 K has been calculated [ru

  19. Study on tribological behavior and cutting performance of CVD diamond and DLC films on Co-cemented tungsten carbide substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongcan; Shen Bin; Sun Fanghong

    2010-01-01

    The tribological behaviors of diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films play a major role on their machining and mechanical applications. In this study, diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are deposited on the cobalt cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate respectively adopting the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique and the vacuum arc discharge with a graphite cathode, and their friction properties are evaluated on a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer with counterfaces of silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) ceramic, cemented tungsten carbide (WC) and ball-bearing steel materials, under the ambient air without lubricating condition. Moreover, to evaluate their cutting performance, comparative turning tests are conducted using the uncoated WC-Co and as-fabricated CVD diamond and DLC coated inserts, with glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) composite materials as the workpiece. The as-deposited HFCVD diamond and DLC films are characterized with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry. Furthermore, Rocwell C indentation tests are conducted to evaluate the adhesion of HFCVD diamond and DLC films grown onto WC-Co substrates. SEM and 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry are also used to investigate the worn region on the surfaces of diamond and DLC films. The friction tests suggest that the obtained friction coefficient curves that of various contacts exhibit similar evolution tendency. For a given counterface, DLC films present lower stable friction coefficients than HFCVD diamond films under the same sliding conditions. The cutting tests results indicate that flank wear of the HFCVD diamond coated insert is lower than that of DLC coated insert before diamond films peeling off.

  20. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  1. Improved stability of titanium based boron-doped chemical vapor deposited diamond thin-film electrode by modifying titanium substrate surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, P.Y.; Lin, F.Y.; Shih, H.C.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Varnin, V.P.; Pleskov, Yu.V.; Hsu, S.F.; Chou, S.S.; Hsu, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    The film quality and electrochemical properties of BDD (boron-doped diamond) thin films grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique on titanium substrates that had been subjected to a range of pre-treatment processes were evaluated. The pre-roughened Ti-substrates are shown to support more adherent BDD films. It is evident that acid-etching the Ti-substrate involves surface hydrogenation that enhances nucleation and formation of diamond thereon. The prepared BDD film exhibits wide potential window and electrochemical reversibility. It also demonstrated a better long-term electrochemical stability based on the low variation in voltametric background current upon the exposing of the electrodes to repeated cycles of electrochemical metal deposition/stripping process

  2. Carbon diffusion in uncoated and titanium nitride coated iron substrates during microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Manory, R.R.; Paterson, P.J.K.; Stuart, Sue-Anne

    1992-01-01

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the effectiveness of thin films of TiN as barriers to carbon diffusion during Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of diamond onto Fe substrates. Auger Depth Profiling was used to monitor the C concentration in the TiN layer, through the interface and into the substrate both before and after CVD diamond deposition. The results show that a layer of TiN only 250 Angstroems thick is sufficient to inhibit soot formation on the Fe surface and C diffusion into the Fe bulk. 14 refs., 4 figs

  3. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy of the ion implantation damage in annealed diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derry, T.E. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials and School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)], E-mail: Trevor.Derry@wits.ac.za; Nshingabigwi, E.K. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials and School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Department of Physics, National University of Rwanda, P.O. Box 117, Huye (Rwanda); Levitt, M. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials and School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Neethling, J. [DST/NRF CoE-SM and Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Naidoo, S.R. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials and School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    It has formerly been shown that low-damage levels, produced during the implantation doping of diamond as a semiconductor, anneal easily while high levels 'graphitize' (above about 5.2 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}). The difference in the defect types and their profiles, in the two cases, has never been directly observed. We have succeeded in using cross-section transmission electron microscopy to do so. The experiments were difficult because the specimens must be polished to {approx}40 {mu}m thickness, then implanted on edge and annealed, before final ion beam thinning to electron transparency. The low-damage micrographs reveal some deeply penetrating dislocations, whose existence had been predicted in earlier work.

  4. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy of the ion implantation damage in annealed diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.; Nshingabigwi, E.K.; Levitt, M.; Neethling, J.; Naidoo, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    It has formerly been shown that low-damage levels, produced during the implantation doping of diamond as a semiconductor, anneal easily while high levels 'graphitize' (above about 5.2 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 ). The difference in the defect types and their profiles, in the two cases, has never been directly observed. We have succeeded in using cross-section transmission electron microscopy to do so. The experiments were difficult because the specimens must be polished to ∼40 μm thickness, then implanted on edge and annealed, before final ion beam thinning to electron transparency. The low-damage micrographs reveal some deeply penetrating dislocations, whose existence had been predicted in earlier work.

  5. Abutment Coating With Diamond-Like Carbon Films to Reduce Implant-Abutment Bacterial Leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mayra; Sangalli, Jorgiana; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Ferreira, Leandro Lameirão; da Silva Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2016-02-01

    The influence of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on bacterial leakage through the interface between abutments and dental implants of external hexagon (EH) and internal hexagon (IH) designs was evaluated. Film deposition was performed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Sets of implants and abutments (n = 30 per group, sets of 180 implants) were divided according to connection design and treatment of the abutment base: 1) no treatment (control); 2) DLC film deposition; and 3) Ag-DLC film deposition. Under sterile conditions, 1 μL Enterococcus faecalis was inoculated inside the implants, and abutments were tightened. The sets were tested for immediate external contamination, suspended in test tubes containing sterile culture broth, and followed for 5 days. Turbidity of the broth indicated bacterial leakage. At the end of the period, the abutments were removed and the internal content of the implants was collected with paper points and plated in Petri dishes. After 24-hour incubation, they were assessed for bacterial viability and colony-forming unit counting. Bacterial leakage was analyzed by χ(2) and Fisher exact tests (α = 5%). The percentage of bacterial leakage was 16.09% for EH implants and 80.71% for IH implants (P DLC and Ag-DLC films do not significantly reduce the frequency of bacterial leakage and bacteria load inside the implants.

  6. Channeling implantation of high energy carbon ions in a diamond crystal: Determination of the induced crystal amorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Fazinić, S.; Petrović, S.

    2018-02-01

    This work reports on the induced diamond crystal amorphization by 4 MeV carbon ions implanted in the 〈1 0 0〉 oriented crystal and its determination by application of RBS/C and EBS/C techniques. The spectra from the implanted samples were recorded for 1.2, 1.5, 1.75 and 1.9 MeV protons. For the two latter ones the strong resonance of the nuclear elastic scattering 12C(p,p0)12C at 1.737 MeV was explored. The backscattering channeling spectra were successfully fitted and the ion beam induced crystal amorphization depth profile was determined using a phenomenological approach, which is based on the properly defined Gompertz type dechanneling functions for protons in the 〈1 0 0〉 diamond crystal channels and the introduction of the concept of ion beam amorphization, which is implemented through our newly developed computer code CSIM.

  7. Surface properties and field emission characteristics of chemical vapor deposition diamond grown on Fe/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakuri, Kenji; Yokoyama, Takahiro; Enomoto, Hirofumi; Mutsukura, Nobuki; Friedbacher, Gernot

    2001-01-01

    Electron field emission characteristics of diamond grains fabricated on iron dot-patterned silicon (Fe/Si) substrates at different methane concentrations have been investigated. The characteristics of the samples could be improved by control of the methane concentration during diamond fabrication. Etching treatment of the as-grown diamond has enhanced the emission properties both with respect to current and threshold voltage. In order to study the influence of etching effects on the field emission characteristics, the respective surfaces were studied by Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). ESCA revealed intensive graphite and FeO x peaks on the sample surface grown at high methane concentration. For the etched samples, the peaks of diamond and silicon carbide were observed, and the peaks of nondiamond carbon disappeared. The experimental results show that the etching process removes graphitic and nondiamond carbon components. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  8. Coating dental implant abutment screws with diamondlike carbon doped with diamond nanoparticles: the effect on maintaining torque after mechanical cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepesqueur, Laura Soares; de Figueiredo, Viviane Maria Gonçalves; Ferreira, Leandro Lameirão; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Massi, Marcos; Bottino, Marco Antônio; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of maintaining torque after mechanical cycling of abutment screws that are coated with diamondlike carbon and coated with diamondlike carbon doped with diamond nanoparticles, with external and internal hex connections. Sixty implants were divided into six groups according to the type of connection (external or internal hex) and the type of abutment screw (uncoated, coated with diamondlike carbon, and coated with diamondlike carbon doped with diamond nanoparticles). The implants were inserted into polyurethane resin and crowns of nickel chrome were cemented on the implants. The crowns had a hole for access to the screw. The initial torque and the torque after mechanical cycling were measured. The torque values maintained (in percentages) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test, with a significance level of 5%. The largest torque value was maintained in uncoated screws with external hex connections, a finding that was statistically significant (P = .0001). No statistically significant differences were seen between the groups with and without coating in maintaining torque for screws with internal hex connections (P = .5476). After mechanical cycling, the diamondlike carbon with and without diamond doping on the abutment screws showed no improvement in maintaining torque in external and internal hex connections.

  9. Optical and electrical properties of boron doped diamond thin conductive films deposited on fused silica glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficek, M.; Sobaszek, M.; Gnyba, M. [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Ryl, J. [Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Material Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Gołuński, Ł. [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Smietana, M.; Jasiński, J. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, 75 Koszykowa St., 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Caban, P. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska St., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Bogdanowicz, R., E-mail: rbogdan@eti.pg.gda.pl [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Growth of 60% of transmittance diamond films with resistivity as low as 48 Ω cm. • Two step seeding process of fused silica: plasma hydrogenation and wet seeding. • Nanodiamond seeding density of 2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} at fused silica substrates. • High refractive index (2.4 @550 nm) was achieved for BDD films deposited at 500 °C. - Abstract: This paper presents boron-doped diamond (BDD) film as a conductive coating for optical and electronic purposes. Seeding and growth processes of thin diamond films on fused silica have been investigated. Growth processes of thin diamond films on fused silica were investigated at various boron doping level and methane admixture. Two step pre-treatment procedure of fused silica substrate was applied to achieve high seeding density. First, the substrates undergo the hydrogen plasma treatment then spin-coating seeding using a dispersion consisting of detonation nanodiamond in dimethyl sulfoxide with polyvinyl alcohol was applied. Such an approach results in seeding density of 2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. The scanning electron microscopy images showed homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with minimal grain size of 200 nm for highly boron doped films. The sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio was calculated using Raman spectra deconvolution method. A high refractive index (range of 2.0–2.4 @550 nm) was achieved for BDD films deposited at 500 °C. The values of extinction coefficient were below 0.1 at λ = 550 nm, indicating low absorption of the film. The fabricated BDD thin films displayed resistivity below 48 Ohm cm and transmittance over 60% in the visible wavelength range.

  10. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  11. P-type diamond stripper foils for tandem ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, A.W.; Koba, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are developing a stripper foil composed of a p-type diamond membrane. This diamond stripper foil should have a significantly longer lifetime than any conventional stripper foil material. To be useful for stripper foils, the boron-doped blue diamond films must be thinner than 0.8 μm and pore-free. Two methods are compared for their ability to achieve a high nucleation areal density on a W substrate. Some W substrates were first coated with think layer of boron (≤20 nm) in order to enhance nucleation. Other W substrates were scratched with submicron diamond particles. A schematic diagram of the stripper foil is shown. Stripper foils were created by etching away the central area of W substrates. The diamond membrane was then supported by an annulus of W. Tungsten was selected as a ring-support material because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity, relatively low thermal expansion, and proven suitability as a substrate for diamond CVD. Warping or fracture of the diamond film after substrate etch-back was investigated

  12. Thin diamond films for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.S.; Meilunas, R.; Ong, T.P.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diamond films have been deposited on Si, Mo and many other substrates by microwave and radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Although the adhesion between the diamond film and most of the metal substrates is poor due to residual thermal stress from the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients, the authors have developed processes to promote the growth of uniform and continuous diamond films with enhanced adhesion to metal substrates for tribological applications. The tribological properties of these films are measured using a ring-on-block tribotester. The coefficients of friction of diamond films sliding against a 52100 steel ring under the same experimental conditions are found to be significantly different depending on the morphology, grain size and roughness of the diamond films. However, under all cases tested, it is found that for uniform and continuous diamond films with small grain size of 1-3 micrometers, the coefficient of friction of the diamond film sliding against a steel ring under lubrication of a jet of mineral oil is about 0.04

  13. Prospects for the synthesis of large single-crystal diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnitskiy, R A

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of diamond have stimulated the study of and search for its applications in many fields, including optics, optoelectronics, electronics, biology, and electrochemistry. Whereas chemical vapor deposition allows the growth of polycrystalline diamond plates more than 200 mm in diameter, most current diamond application technologies require large-size (25 mm and more) single-crystal diamond substrates or films suitable for the photolithography process. This is quite a challenge, because the largest diamond crystals currently available are 10 mm or less in size. This review examines three promising approaches to fabricating large-size diamond single crystals: growing large-size single crystals, the deposition of heteroepitaxial diamond films on single-crystal substrates, and the preparation of composite diamond substrates. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. High-intensity laser for Ta and Ag implantation into different substrates for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutroneo, M., E-mail: cutroneo@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, AS CR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute, AS CR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Matousek, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    High-intensity lasers generating non-equilibrium plasma, can be employed to accelerate ions in the keV–MeV region, useful for many applications. In the present work, we performed study of ion implantation into different substrates by using a high-intensity laser at the PALS laboratory in Prague. Multi-energy ions generated by plasma from Ta and Ag targets were implanted into polyethylene and metallic substrates (Al, Ti) at energies of tens of keV per charge state. The ion emission was monitored online using time-of-flight detectors and electromagnetic deflection systems. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to characterise the elemental composition in the implanted substrates by ion plasma emission and to provide the implanted ion depth profiling. These last measurements enable offline plasma characterisation and provide information on the useful potentiality of multi-ion species and multi-energy ion implantation into different substrates. XPS analysis gives information on the chemical bonds and their modifications in the first superficial implanted layers. The depth distributions of implanted Ta and Ag ions were compared with the theoretical ones achieved by using the SRIM-2012 simulation code.

  15. Optically transparent boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films for spectroelectrochemical measurements on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Pluciński, J.; Siuzdak, K.; Skowroński, Ł.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication process of optically transparent boron nanocrystalline diamond (B- NCD) electrode on silicon and quartz substrate was shown. The B-NCD films were deposited on the substrates using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWPACVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 °C. A homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with high sp 3 content in B-NCD films and film thickness depending from substrate in the range of 60-300 nm was obtained. The high refraction index and transparency in visible (VIS) wavelength range was achieved. Moreover, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine reaction reversibility at the B-NCD electrode. CV measurements in aqueous media consisting of 1 mM K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 demonstrated relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 503 mV for B-NCD/silicon and 110 mv for B-NCD/quartz

  16. Adhesion of staphylococcal and Caco-2 cells on diamond-like carbon polymer hybrid coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnari, Teemu J; Soininen, Antti; Esteban, Jaime; Zamora, Nieves; Alakoski, Esa; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Lappalainen, Reijo; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Gomez-Barrena, Enrique; Tiainen, Veli-Matti

    2008-09-01

    Staphylococci cause the majority of the nosocomial implant-related infections initiated by adhesion of planktonic bacteria to the implant surface. It was hypothesized that plasma accelerating filtered pulsed arc discharge method enables combination of the advantageous properties of diamond with the antisoiling properties of polymers. Diamond-like carbon polytetrafluoroethylene hybrid (DLC-PTFE-h) coating was produced. The adhesion of S. aureus ATCC 25923 (10(8) colony-forming units/mL) to surfaces diminished from 2.32%, 2.35%, and 2.57% of high quality DLC, titanium, and oxidized silicon, respectively, to 1.93% of DLC-PTFE-h. For S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 the corresponding figures were 3.90%, 3.32%, 3.47%, and 2.57%. Differences in bacterial adhesion between recombinant DLC-PTFE-h and other materials were statistically significant (p DLC-PTFE-h as to DLC, titanium, or silicon, which were all in the MTT test found to be cytocompatible. DLC-PTFE-h coating can be used to modify the surface properties of any surgical implants and is an unfavorable substrate for staphylococcal cells, but compatible with human Caco-2 cells. DLC-PTFE-h coating may help in the combat against Staphylococcus-related implant infections which usually require both antibiotics and surgical removal of the implant for cure.

  17. Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and diffusion to silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Akasaka, Y.; Horie, K.

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and drive-in diffusion to silicon substrate have been investigated by MeV He + backscattering analysis and also by electrical measurements. The range distributions of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon are well fitted to Gaussian distributions over the energy range 60--350 keV. The measured values of R/sub P/ and ΔR/sub P/ are about 10 and 20% larger than the theoretical predictions, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon is expressed as D=0.63 exp[(-3.22 eV/kT)] and is independent of the arsenic concentration. The drive-in diffusion of arsenic from the implanted polycrystalline silicon layer into the silicon substrate is significantly affected by the diffusion atmosphere. In the N 2 atmosphere, a considerable amount of arsenic atoms diffuses outward to the ambient. The outdiffusion can be suppressed by encapsulation with Si 3 N 4 . In the oxidizing atmosphere, arsenic atoms are driven inward by growing SiO 2 due to the segregation between SiO 2 and polycrystalline silicon, and consequently the drive-in diffusion of arsenic is enhanced. At the interface between the polycrystalline silicon layer and the silicon substrate, arsenic atoms are likely to segregate at the polycrystalline silicon side

  18. Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piracha, Afaq H; Rath, Patrik; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Kühn, Stefan; Pernice, Wolfram H P; Prawer, Steven

    2016-05-11

    Diamond has emerged as a promising platform for nanophotonic, optical, and quantum technologies. High-quality, single crystalline substrates of acceptable size are a prerequisite to meet the demanding requirements on low-level impurities and low absorption loss when targeting large photonic circuits. Here, we describe a scalable fabrication method for single crystal diamond membrane windows that achieves three major goals with one fabrication method: providing high quality diamond, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy; achieving homogeneously thin membranes, enabled by ion implantation; and providing compatibility with established planar fabrication via lithography and vertical etching. On such suspended diamond membranes we demonstrate a suite of photonic components as building blocks for nanophotonic circuits. Monolithic grating couplers are used to efficiently couple light between photonic circuits and optical fibers. In waveguide coupled optical ring resonators, we find loaded quality factors up to 66 000 at a wavelength of 1560 nm, corresponding to propagation loss below 7.2 dB/cm. Our approach holds promise for the scalable implementation of future diamond quantum photonic technologies and all-diamond photonic metrology tools.

  19. Biofunctionalization of scaffold material with nano-scaled diamond particles physisorbed with angiogenic factors enhances vessel growth after implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Magdalena M; Stigler, Robert; Wu, Xujun; Waag, Thilo; Buschmann, Peter; Kern, Johann; Untergasser, Gerold; Rasse, Michael; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Krueger, Anke; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Biofunctionalized scaffold facilitates complete healing of large defects. Biological constraints are induction and ingrowth of vessels. Angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor or angiopoietin-1 can be bound to nano-scaled diamond particles. Corresponding bioactivities need to be examined after biofunctionalization. We therefore determined the physisorptive capacity of distinctly manufactured, differently sized nDP and the corresponding activities of bound factors. The properties of biofunctionalized nDPs were investigated on cultivated human mesenchymal stem cells and on the developing chicken embryo chorio-allantoic membrane. Eventually porous bone substitution material was coated with nDP to generate an interface that allows biofactor physisorption. Angiopoietin-1 was applied shortly before scaffold implantation into an osseous defect in sheep calvaria. Biofunctionalized scaffolds exhibited significantly increased rates of angiogenesis already one month after implantation. Conclusively, nDP can be used to ease functionalization of synthetic biomaterials. With the advances in nanotechnology, many nano-sized materials have been used in the biomedical field. This is also true for nano-diamond particles (nDP). In this article, the authors investigated the physical properties of functionalized nano-diamond particles in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. The positive findings would help improve understanding of these nanomaterials in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Mohlfeld, A.; Gey, C.; Winkler, J.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  1. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  2. Regrowth zones in laser annealed radiation damaged diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Kalish, R.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa

    1993-01-01

    Focused laser annealing of ion implanted diamond with a 15 μm diameter laser spot produces as variety of effects that depend on the power density of the laser. Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) provides a relatively straight forward, rapid, method to analyse the annealed regions of the diamond to characterize the effects. In order of increasing laser power density, effects that are observed include: regrowth of the end of range damage of the ion implantation, formation of a buried graphitic layer and complete graphitization of the surface of the diamond down to the bottom of the original damage layer. Information provided by CCM leads to an understanding the causes of these effects and provides insight into the carbon phase diagram in the neighbourhood of the graphite to diamond phase transition. Analysis of the effects of laser annealing by CCM are complicated by the swelling of the diamond lattice caused by the original ion implantation, compaction following regrowth and the effect of the analysis beam irradiation itself. 12 refs., 5 figs

  3. Isotopically pure single crystal epitaxial diamond films and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banholzer, W.F.; Anthony, T.R.; Williams, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the production of single crystal diamond consisting of isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. In the present invention, isotopically pure single crystal diamond is grown on a single crystal substrate directly from isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. One method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises the steps of placing in a reaction chamber a single substrate heated to an elevated diamond forming temperature. Another method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises diffusing isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13 through a metallic catalyst under high pressure to a region containing a single crystal substrate to form an isotopically pure single crystal diamond layer on said single crystal substrate

  4. High microwave performance ion-implanted GaAs MESFETs on InP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Kato, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation was employed, for the first time, in fabricating GaAs MESFETs in undoped 2 μm thick GaAs epitaxial layers directly grown on InP substrates by low-pressure MOVPE. The Si-ion-implanted GaAs layer on InP substrates showed excellent electrical characteristics: a mobility of 4300 cm 2 /Vs with a carrier density of 2 x 10 17 cm -3 at room temperature. The MESFET (0.8 μm gate length) exhibited a current-gain cutoff frequency of 25 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation of 53 GHz, the highest values yet reported to GaAs MESFETs on InP substrates. These results demonstrate the high potential of ion-implanted MESFETs as electronic devices for high-speed InP-based OEICs. (author)

  5. Influence of implantation energy on the electrical properties of ultrathin gate oxides grown on nitrogen implanted Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, E.; Skarlatos, D.; Tsamis, C.; Normand, P.; Tsoukalas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes with gate oxides, in the range of 2.5-3.5 nm, grown either on 25 or 3 keV nitrogen-implanted Si substrates at (0.3 or 1) x10 15 cm -2 dose, respectively, are investigated. The dependence of N 2 + ion implant energy on the electrical quality of the growing oxide layers is studied through capacitance, equivalent parallel conductance, and gate current measurements. Superior electrical characteristics in terms of interface state trap density, leakage current, and breakdown fields are found for oxides obtained through 3 keV nitrogen implants. These findings together with the full absence of any extended defect in the silicon substrate make the low-energy nitrogen implantation technique an attractive option for reproducible low-cost growth of nanometer-thick gate oxides

  6. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  7. Room temperature diamond-like carbon coatings produced by low energy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, B.; Leveneur, J. [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2014-07-15

    Nanometre-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) were produced at room temperature with ion implantation using 6 kV C{sub 3}H{sub y}{sup +} ion beams. Ion beam analysis measurements showed that the coatings contain no heavy Z impurities at the level of 100 ppm, have a homogeneous stoichiometry in depth and a hydrogen concentration of typically 25 at.%. High resolution TEM analysis showed high quality and atomically flat amorphous coatings on wafer silicon. Combined TEM and RBS analysis gave a coating density of 3.25 g cm{sup −3}. Raman spectroscopy was performed to probe for sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonds in the coatings. The results indicate that low energy ion implantation with 6 kV produces hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with a sp{sup 3} content of about 20%. Results highlight the opportunity of developing room temperature DLC coatings with ion beam technology for industrial applications.

  8. The role of the substrate in the high energy boron implantation damage recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, I.; Di Piazza, L.; Laurin, L.; Mariani, M.; Mauri, A.G.; Polignano, M.L.; Ricci, E.; Sammiceli, F.; Spoldi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the role of the Si substrate in the high energy boron implantation damage recovering is studied. The boron implants were carried out in Czochralski grown (1 0 0) polished Si substrates as well as in epitaxial Si layers grown on (1 0 0) Si by chemical vapor deposition. The boron implantation dose was 2 x 10 14 cm -2 and the implantation energy was 600 keV. The recovery annealing was a furnace annealing at 1000 deg. C for 40 min. The defects formed by high energy boron implantation have been observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order to increase the statistics some junctions were formed on the buried p-well and electrically characterized. For the epitaxial wafers it was found that the number and the size of the dislocations change according to the doping of the substrate. For the Czochralski wafers it was found that the morphology and the size of the dislocations change according to the presence of the wafer pre-annealing (whether conventional furnace annealing or Magic Denuded Zone process).

  9. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Anderson, Richard J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L.; Rye, Michael J.

    2017-04-11

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  10. First result on biased CMOS MAPs-on-diamond devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanxheri, K., E-mail: keida.kanxheri@pg.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Citroni, M.; Fanetti, S. [LENS Firenze, Florence (Italy); Lagomarsino, S. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy); INFN Firenze, Pisa (Italy); Morozzi, A. [Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Parrini, G. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy); Passeri, D. [Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy); INFN Firenze, Pisa (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Recently a new type of device, the MAPS-on-diamond, obtained bonding a thinned to 25 μm CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor to a standard 500 μm pCVD diamond substrate, has been proposed and fabricated, allowing a highly segmented readout (10×10 μm pixel size) of the signal produced in the diamond substrate. The bonding between the two materials has been obtained using a new laser technique to deliver the needed energy at the interface. A biasing scheme has been adopted to polarize the diamond substrate to allow the charge transport inside the diamond without disrupting the functionalities of the CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor. The main concept of this class of devices is the capability of the charges generated in the diamond by ionizing radiation to cross the silicon–diamond interface and to be collected by the MAPS photodiodes. In this work we demonstrate that such passage occurs and measure its overall efficiency. This study has been carried out first calibrating the CMOS MAPS with monochromatic X-rays, and then testing the device with charged particles (electrons) either with and without biasing the diamond substrate, to compare the amount of signal collected.

  11. Enhancement of c-axis texture of AlN films by substrate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.H.; Yeh, J.M.; Hwang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Highly oriented AlN films are successfully deposited on B + implanted Si(1 1 1) substrates in a radio frequency inductively coupled plasma (RF/ICP) system. The implanted energy and dose used for the B + implanted Si(1 1 1) substrates are 200 keV and 10 15 cm -2 , respectively. The c-axis texture of AlN films can be affected by RF gun power and ion implantation. Experimental results show that the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of AlN(0 0 2) in the X-ray rocking curve measurements decreases with increasing RF gun power. The optimum condition is at 500 W, where the FWHM of the AlN films deposited on Si(1 1 1) with and without B + implantation are 2.77 and 3.17, respectively. In average, the FWHM of the AlN films on B + implanted Si(1 1 1) are less than those on Si(1 1 1) by a factor of ∼10%. The enhancement of c-axis of AlN films due to B + implantation is attributed to the reduction of AlN grains. Raman spectra also suggest that ion implantation plays a role in reducing the tensile stress in AlN films deposited on B + implanted Si(1 1 1)

  12. Effect of substrate temperature on the radiation damage from MeV Si implantation in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X.K.; Shao Lin; Rusakova, Irene; Wang, X.M.; Ma, K.B.; Chen, H.; Liu, Jiarui; Chu, W.-K.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage by MeV implantation of Si in Si and its evolution under thermal annealing. Si wafers were implanted with MeV Si at various substrate temperatures. Damages were characterized by Rutherford-backscattering (RBS) channeling and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Defect formation after post-implantation annealing is very sensitive to the substrate temperatures during implantation. When the substrate temperature was decreased to 200 K, TEM revealed two distinct bands of damage after annealing: one around the mean projected ion range and another at half the projected range. Our study indicates that the formation of defects at half range results from the solid phase epitaxy growth of initial buried amorphous layers

  13. Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  14. Diamond-like carbon coatings on a CoCrMo implant alloy: A detailed XPS analysis of the chemical states at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Falub, C.V.; Thorwarth, G.; Voisard, C.; Hauert, R.

    2011-01-01

    Low friction and wear resistant coatings have a long history of successful applications in industry. It has long been hoped that these coatings, especially diamond-like carbon (DLC), could also be used successfully in load-bearing joint implants, extending implant life time considerably. However, despite several medical studies carried out so far, no regular DLC-coated implants are available on the market. In most cases, failure was due to insufficient long-term stability of the adhesion of such coatings on implants in vivo. That is because introducing a coated implant not only brings the coating into contact with the body environment but also the interface that controls the adhesion. This usually reactively formed interface must be considered to be at least one additional material which must be not only biocompatible, but also unsusceptible to corrosive attack. The aim of this paper is to analyze in detail the interface, i.e., the transition region between the substrate and the coating. This knowledge is necessary in order to find the right measures to ensure the long-term stability of the adhesion. Results for DLC coatings on a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy are presented. It is shown that a very thin interface layer is formed, with the alloy on one side and the carbon film on the other side. This layer consists of a mixture of carbides from all the metals of the base material. This result is obtained by means of measuring depth profiles using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy because these spectra yield not only the chemical composition of the interface but a detailed analysis provides information on the chemical states across the interface.

  15. THIN DIAMOND FILMS FOR SNS H INJECTIONS STRIPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAW, R.W.; HERR, A.D.; FEIGERLE, C.S.; CUTLER, R.J.; LIAW, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the preparation and testing of thin diamond foils for use in stripping the SNS H - Linac beam. A long useful lifetime for these foils is desirable to improve operational efficiency. Preliminary data presented at PAC 2001 indicated that diamond foils were superior to conventional evaporated carbon foils, exhibiting lifetimes approximately five-fold longer [1]. That work employed a fully supported diamond foil, a format that is not acceptable for the SNS application; at least two edges of the approximately 1 x 1 cm foils must be free standing to allow for beam rastering. Residual stress in a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond foil results in film distortion (scrolling) when the film is released from its silicon growth substrate. We have attacked this problem by initially patterning the surface of CVD growth substrates with a 50 or 100 line/inch trapezoidal grating, followed by conformal diamond film growth on the patterned substrate. Then removal of the substrate by chemical etching produced a foil that possessed improved mechanical integrity due to its corrugation. The high nucleation density required to grow continuous, pinhole free diamond foils of the desired thickness (1 (micro)m, 350 (micro)g/cm 2 ) was achieved by a combination of substrate surface scratching and seeding. A variety of diamond foils have been tested using the BNL 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole H - beam to simulate energy loss in the SNS. Those include flat, corrugated, microcrystalline, and nanocrystalline foils. Foil lifetimes are reported

  16. D.C. Arcjet Diamond Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Derrek Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films synthesized by a D.C. (direct current) arcjet device was reported for the first time in 1988. This device is capable of higher diamond growth rates than any other form of diamond CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process due to its inherent versatility with regard to the enthalpy and fluid properties of the diamond-depositing vapor. Unfortunately, the versatility of this type of device is contrasted by many difficulties such as arc stability and large heat fluxes which make applying it toward diamond deposition a difficult problem. The purpose of this work was to convert the dc arcjet, which is primarily a metallurgical device, into a commercially viable diamond CVD process. The project was divided into two parts: process development and diagnostics. The process development effort concentrated on the certain engineering challenges. Among these was a novel arcjet design that allowed the carbon-source gas to be injected downstream of the tungsten cathode while still facilitating mixture with the main gas feed. Another engineering accomplishment was the incorporation of a water -cooled substrate cooler/spinner that maintained the substrate at the proper temperature, provided the substrate with a large thermal time constant to reduce thermal shock of the diamond film, and enabled the system to achieve a four -inch diameter growth area. The process diagnostics effort concentrated on measurements aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the properties of the plasma jet such as temperature, plasma density, Mach number, pressure at the substrate, etc. The plasma temperature was determined to be 5195 K by measuring the rotational temperature of C _2 via optical emission spectroscopy. The Mach number of the plasma jet was determined to be ~6.0 as determined by the ratio of the stagnation pressures before and after the shock wave in the plasma jet. The C_2 concentration in the plasma jet was determined to be {~10 }^{12} cm^ {-3} by

  17. Analyses of Biofilm on Implant Abutment Surfaces Coating with Diamond-Like Carbon and Biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huacho, Patricia Milagros Maquera; Nogueira, Marianne N Marques; Basso, Fernanda G; Jafelicci Junior, Miguel; Francisconi, Renata S; Spolidorio, Denise M P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface free energy (SFE), wetting and surface properties as well as antimicrobial, adhesion and biocompatibility properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated surfaces. In addition, the leakage of Escherichia coli through the abutment-dental implant interface was also calculated. SFE was calculated from contact angle values; R a was measured before and after DLC coating. Antimicrobial and adhesion properties against E. coli and cytotoxicity of DLC with human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were evaluated. Further, the ability of DLC-coated surfaces to prevent the migration of E. coli into the external hexagonal implant interface was also evaluated. A sterile technique was used for the semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (semi-quantitative PCR). The surfaces showed slight decreases in cell viability (p0.05). It was concluded that DLC was shown to be a biocompatible material with mild cytotoxicity that did not show changes in R a, SFE, bacterial adhesion or antimicrobial properties and did not inhibit the infiltration of E. coli into the abutment-dental implant interface.

  18. Diamond nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Beha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.

  19. Diamond: a material for acoustic devices

    OpenAIRE

    MORTET, Vincent; WILLIAMS, Oliver; HAENEN, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Diamond has been foreseen to replace silicon for high power, high frequency electronic applications or for devices that operates in harsh environments. However, diamond electronic devices are still in the laboratory stage due to the lack of large substrates and the complexity of diamond doping. On another hand, surface acoustic wave filters based on diamond are commercially available. Diamond is especially suited for acoustic applications because of its exceptional mechanical properties. The ...

  20. Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    1995-01-01

    What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)

  1. Tribological effects of oxygen ion implantation into stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Vilaithong, T.; Yu, L.D.; Monteiro, O.R.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of sub-surface oxide layers by hybrid metal-gas co-implantation into steel and other metals can improve their tribological properties. In this report, we compare the wear and friction performance of previously studied Al + O hybrid implants with that produced by single species oxygen ion (O + ) implantation under similar conditions. The substrates were AISI 304L stainless steel discs polished to a final mirror finish using 1 μm diamond paste, and the ion implantation was done using a conventional swept-beam technique at ion energies of 70 or 140 keV and doses of up to 1x10 17 cm -2 . The wear and friction behaviour of the implanted and unimplanted material was measured with a pin-on-disc tribometer. Here we describe the experimental procedure and results, and discuss the improvement relative to that achieved with surface layers modified by metal-gas co-implantation

  2. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraimovitch, D., E-mail: dimitryf@mail.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Lefeuvre, G. [Micron Semiconductor Ltd. Royal Buildings, Marlborough Road, Lancing Business Park, BN15 8SJ (United Kingdom); Ruzin, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  3. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  4. Employment of an ion implantation technique for catalyst coating on various substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Chattha, J.A.; Zlobin, V.N.; Vasilve, I.P.; Cherkasov, J.A.; Gawrilenko, P.N.

    2001-01-01

    Catalysts are widely used in the chemical industry as well as in the production of vehicle catalytic converters. Precious metals are employed increasingly as catalytic materials. Traditional methods of coating, such as impregnation, are thought to reduce the porosity and specific area of catalyst thus reducing the catalytic efficiency. Apart from that, impregnation technology leads to the high expense of precious metals. To reduce the content of noble metals in catalysts the ion implantation method of coating has been investigated. Several samples of catalysts on various substrates were prepared by ion implantation technique and tested. New catalysts have shown high nitric oxides (NO/sub x/) and carbon monoxide (CO) conversion efficiency, with the content of noble metals reduced substantially. Experiment has also shown that specific area of substrates coated by an ion implantation had not decreased. Schematic of an ion implanter and experimental results are provided. (author)

  5. A nitrogen doped low-dislocation density free-standing single crystal diamond plate fabricated by a lift-off process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki, E-mail: mokuno-y@aist.go.jp; Kato, Yukako; Tsubouchi, Nobuteru; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Hideaki; Shikata, Shinichi [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    A nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond plate with a low dislocation density is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a high pressure high temperature synthetic type IIa seed substrate by ion implantation and lift-off processes. To avoid sub-surface damage, the seed surface was subjected to deep ion beam etching. In addition, we introduced a nitrogen flow during the CVD step to grow low-strain diamond at a relatively high growth rate. This resulted in a plate with low birefringence and a dislocation density as low as 400 cm{sup −2}, which is the lowest reported value for a lift-off plate. Reproducing this lift-off process may allow mass-production of single crystal CVD diamond plates with low dislocation density and consistent quality.

  6. Novel diamond-coated tools for dental drilling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M J; Sein, H; Ahmed, W; Woodwards, R

    2007-01-01

    The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools has been the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life in orthodontic applications. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co metal and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size of 1 - 3 microm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates it is necessary to etch cobalt from the surface and prepare it for subsequent diamond growth. Alternatively, a titanium nitride (TiN) interlayer can be used prior to diamond deposition. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films to TiN and etched WC substrates. Diamond film quality and purity has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. The performances of diamond-coated WC-Co tools, uncoated WC-Co tools, and diamond embedded (sintered) tools have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human tooth, borosilicate glass, and acrylic tooth materials. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools when machining biomedical materials such as those described above. It is shown that using an interlayer such as TiN prior to diamond deposition provides the best surface preparation for producing dental tools.

  7. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on three-dimensional shape substrate model by liquid electrochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.Y.; Zhang, G.F.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, D.D.; Cong, Y.; Buck, V.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) shape substrate model by electrolysis of 2-propanol solution at low temperature (60 °C). This 3D shape model was composed of a horizontally aligned stainless steel wafer and vertically aligned stainless steel rods. Morphology and microstructure of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results suggested there were only differences in film uniformity and thickness for two kinds of samples. The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited on horizontally aligned substrate were smooth and homogeneous. And the film thickness of DLC films gained on the vertical substrates decreased along vertical direction. It is believed that bubble formation could enhance nucleation on the wetted capillary area. This experiment shows that deposition of DLC films by liquid phase deposition on 3D shape conductive substrates is possible. - Highlights: • DLC film is expected to be deposited on complex surface/shape substrate. • DLC film is deposited on 3D shape substrate by liquid electrochemical method. • Horizontal substrate is covered by smooth and homogeneous DLC films. • Film thickness decreases along vertical direction due to boiling effect

  8. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on three-dimensional shape substrate model by liquid electrochemical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.Y. [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Zhang, G.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024, Dalian China (China); Zhao, Y.; Liu, D.D. [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Cong, Y., E-mail: congyan@ciomp.ac.cn [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Buck, V. [Thin Film Technology Group, Faculty of Physics, University Duisburg-Essen and CeNIDE, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) shape substrate model by electrolysis of 2-propanol solution at low temperature (60 °C). This 3D shape model was composed of a horizontally aligned stainless steel wafer and vertically aligned stainless steel rods. Morphology and microstructure of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results suggested there were only differences in film uniformity and thickness for two kinds of samples. The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited on horizontally aligned substrate were smooth and homogeneous. And the film thickness of DLC films gained on the vertical substrates decreased along vertical direction. It is believed that bubble formation could enhance nucleation on the wetted capillary area. This experiment shows that deposition of DLC films by liquid phase deposition on 3D shape conductive substrates is possible. - Highlights: • DLC film is expected to be deposited on complex surface/shape substrate. • DLC film is deposited on 3D shape substrate by liquid electrochemical method. • Horizontal substrate is covered by smooth and homogeneous DLC films. • Film thickness decreases along vertical direction due to boiling effect.

  9. Strain-induced ordered structure of titanium carbide during depositing diamond on Ti alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.J., E-mail: lixj@alum.imr.ac.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun, 130012 (China); He, L.L., E-mail: llhe@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Lab of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Y.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon S7N 5A9, SK (Canada); Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon S7N 5A9, SK (Canada); Hirose, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    During the deposition of diamond films on Ti alloy substrates, titanium carbide is a common precipitated phase, preferentially formed at the interfacial region. However, in this case, the precipitation of an ordered structure of titanium carbide has not been reported. In our work, a long periodic ordered structure of TiC has been observed at the deposited diamond film/Ti alloy interface by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The long periodic ordered structure is identified as 6H-type. The formation mechanism is revealed by comparative studies on the different structures of TiC precipitated under different diamond deposition conditions in terms of deposition time, atmosphere and temperature. A large number of carbon vacancies in the interfacial precipitated TiC phase are verified through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) quantification analysis. However, an ordered arrangement of these carbon vacancies occurs only when the interfacial stress is large enough to induce the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. The supplementary analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) further confirms that additional diffraction peaks presented in the XRD patterns are corresponding to the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. - Highlights: •Different structures of TiC are observed during deposited diamond on Ti alloy. •One is common NaCl structure, the other is periodic structure. •The periodic structure is identified as 6H-type by HRTEM. •Carbon vacancies are verified to always exist in the TiC phase. •The precipitation of 6H-type TiC is mainly affected by interfacial stress.

  10. Strain-induced ordered structure of titanium carbide during depositing diamond on Ti alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.J.; He, L.L.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2017-01-01

    During the deposition of diamond films on Ti alloy substrates, titanium carbide is a common precipitated phase, preferentially formed at the interfacial region. However, in this case, the precipitation of an ordered structure of titanium carbide has not been reported. In our work, a long periodic ordered structure of TiC has been observed at the deposited diamond film/Ti alloy interface by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The long periodic ordered structure is identified as 6H-type. The formation mechanism is revealed by comparative studies on the different structures of TiC precipitated under different diamond deposition conditions in terms of deposition time, atmosphere and temperature. A large number of carbon vacancies in the interfacial precipitated TiC phase are verified through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) quantification analysis. However, an ordered arrangement of these carbon vacancies occurs only when the interfacial stress is large enough to induce the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. The supplementary analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) further confirms that additional diffraction peaks presented in the XRD patterns are corresponding to the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. - Highlights: •Different structures of TiC are observed during deposited diamond on Ti alloy. •One is common NaCl structure, the other is periodic structure. •The periodic structure is identified as 6H-type by HRTEM. •Carbon vacancies are verified to always exist in the TiC phase. •The precipitation of 6H-type TiC is mainly affected by interfacial stress.

  11. Tribological wear behavior of diamond reinforced composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Gunjan, Manoj Kumar; Mondal, D.P.; Pathak, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, diamond reinforced composite (DRC) coating has been applied on mild steel substrate using thermal spray coating technique. The composite powder consists of diamond, tungsten carbide, and bronze, which was mixed in a ball mill prior deposition by thermal spray. The microstructure and the distribution of diamond and tungsten carbide particle in the bronze matrix were studied. The DRC-coated mild steel substrates were assessed in terms of their high stress abrasive wear and compared with that of uncoated mild steel substrates. It was observed that when sliding against steel, the DRC-coated sample initially gains weight, but then loses the transferred counter surface material. In case of abrasive wear, the wear rate was greatly reduced due to the coating; wherein the wear rate decreased with increase in diamond content

  12. An electrical conductivity inspection methodology of polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, G.; Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-05-01

    The polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) is widely used in oil and gas drilling operations. It is manufactured by sintering diamond powder onto a tungsten carbide substrate at 6 GPa and 1500 C. During sintering, molten cobalt from the substrate infiltrates the diamond table. The residual metal content correlates with cutter performance. We present an instrument that employs electrical impedance tomography capable of imaging the 3D metal content distribution in the diamond table. These images can be used to predict cutter performance as well as detect flaws.

  13. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienhard V, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of impinging jets and diamond substrates may provide an effective solution to a class of extremely high heat flux problems in which very localized heat loads must be removed. Some potential applications include the cooling of high-heat-load components in synchrotron x-ray, fusion, and semiconductor laser systems. Impinging liquid jets are a very effective vehicle for removing high heat fluxes. The liquid supply arrangement is relatively simple, and low thermal resistances can be routinely achieved. A jet's cooling ability is a strong function of the size of the cooled area relative to the jet diameter. For relatively large area targets, the critical heat fluxes can approach 20 W/mm 2 . In this situation, burnout usually originates at the outer edge of the cooled region as increasing heat flux inhibits the liquid supply. Limitations from liquid supply are minimized when heating is restricted to the jet stagnation zone. The high stagnation pressure and high velocity gradients appear to suppress critical flux phenomena, and fluxes of up to 400 W/mm 2 have been reached without evidence of burnout. Instead, the restrictions on heat flux are closely related to properties of the cooled target. Target properties become an issue owing to the large temperatures and large temperature gradients that accompany heat fluxes over 100 W/mm 2 . These conditions necessitate a target with both high thermal conductivity to prevent excessive temperatures and good mechanical properties to prevent mechanical failures. Recent developments in synthetic diamond technology present a possible solution to some of the solid-side constraints on heat flux. Polycrystalline diamond foils can now be produced by chemical vapor deposition in reasonable quantity and at reasonable cost. Synthetic single crystal diamonds as large as 1 cm 2 are also available

  14. Novel morphology of chemical vapor deposited diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, C.J. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, A.J.S.; Abe, I.; Pinto, J.L. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Gracio, J. [TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Buijnsters, J.G. [Institute for Molecules and Materials (IMM), Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    We have obtained simultaneously nanocrystalline and {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted large-grained polycrystalline diamond films not only on different substrates but also on the same substrate in only one deposition run using a novel approach for substrate arrangement. Furthermore, interesting unusual morphologies and microstructures composed by non-faceted nanostructures and terminated with large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt are found near the edges of the top square sample. The morphology variation is likely caused by the so called edge effect, where a strong variation in temperature is also present. We have modelled the temperature distribution on the substrates by computer simulations using the finite element method. The novel feature, namely the coexistence of oval non-faceted nanocrystalline diamond grains and large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt in one diamond grain, is in the transition from {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted polycrystalline diamond to cauliflower-like nanocrystalline diamond. The formation mechanism is discussed based on the temperature analysis and other simulation results described in the literature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Huang Yuhong; Butz, Frank; Ogawa, Takahiro; Lin, Audrey; Wang, Chiachien Jake

    2007-01-01

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO 2 . The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths

  16. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Ichiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Huang Yuhong [Chemat Technology, Incorporated, Northridge, CA (United States); Butz, Frank [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ogawa, Takahiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, Audrey [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Chiachien Jake [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-06-20

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO{sub 2}. The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths.

  17. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shuwen; Jiang Bin; Li Yan; Li Yanrong; Yin Guangfu; Zheng Changqiong

    2004-01-01

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy

  18. Diamond as a scaffold for bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Palamara, Joseph; Judge, Roy; Greentree, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Diamond is an attractive material for biomedical implants. In this work, we investigate its capacity as a bone scaffold. It is well established that the bioactivity of a material can be evaluated by examining its capacity to form apatite-like calcium phosphate phases on its surface when exposed to simulated body fluid. Accordingly, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition were exposed to simulated body fluid and assessed for apatite growth when compared to the bulk silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both UNCD and PCD are capable of acting as a bone scaffold. The composition of deposited apatite suggests that UNCD and PCD are suitable for in vivo implantation with UNCD possible favoured in applications where rapid osseointegration is essential.

  19. Study on effect of plasma surface treatments for diamond deposition by DC arc plasmatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In-Je; Joa, Sang-Beom; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2013-11-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity and wear resistance of ceramic materials in the field of renewable energy technologies, diamond coating by plasma processing has been carried out in recent years. This study's goal is to improve diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates by plasma surface treatments. Before diamond deposition was carried out in a vacuum, plasma surface treatments using Ar gas were conducted to improve conditions for deposition. We also conducted plasma processing for diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates using a DC arc Plasmatron. The Al2O3 ceramic substrates with diamond film (5 x 15 mm2), were investigated by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). Then, the C-H stretching of synthetic diamond films by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was studied. We identified nanocrystalline diamond films on the Al2O3 ceramic substrates. The results showed us that the deposition rate of diamond films was 2.3 microm/h after plasma surface treatments. Comparing the above result with untreated ceramic substrates, the deposition rate improved with the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films.

  20. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-01-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently. PMID:26955791

  1. Transition Metal Ion Implantation into Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings: Development of a Base Material for Gas Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Markwitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrometre thick diamond-like carbon (DLC coatings produced by direct ion deposition were implanted with 30 keV Ar+ and transition metal ions in the lower percentage (<10 at.% range. Theoretical calculations showed that the ions are implanted just beneath the surface, which was confirmed with RBS measurements. Atomic force microscope scans revealed that the surface roughness increases when implanted with Ar+ and Cu+ ions, whereas a smoothing of the surface from 5.2 to 2.7 nm and a grain size reduction from 175 to 93 nm are measured for Ag+ implanted coatings with a fluence of 1.24×1016 at. cm−2. Calculated hydrogen and carbon depth profiles showed surprisingly significant changes in concentrations in the near-surface region of the DLC coatings, particularly when implanted with Ag+ ions. Hydrogen accumulates up to 32 at.% and the minimum of the carbon distribution is shifted towards the surface which may be the cause of the surface smoothing effect. The ion implantations caused an increase in electrical conductivity of the DLC coatings, which is important for the development of solid-state gas sensors based on DLC coatings.

  2. Noble gas studies in vapor-growth diamonds: Comparison with shock-produced diamonds and the origin of diamonds in ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junichi; Fukunaga, Kazuya; Ito, Keisuke (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The authors synthesized vapor-trowth diamonds by two kinds of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using microwave (MWCVD) and hot filament (HFCVD) ionization of gases, and examined elemental abundances and isotopic compositions of the noble gases trapped in the diamonds. It is remarkable that strong differences existed in the noble gas concentrations in the two kinds of CVD diamonds: large amounts of noble gases were trapped in the MWCVD diamonds, but not in the HFCVD diamonds. The heavy noble gases (Ar to Xe) in the MWCVD diamonds were highly fractionated compared with those in the ambient atmosphere, and are in good agreement with the calculated fractionation patterns for plasma at an electron temperature of 7,000-9,000 K. These results strongly suggest that the trapping mechanism of noble gases in CVD diamonds is ion implantation during diamond growth. The degrees of fractionation of heavy noble gases were also in good agreement with those in ureilites. The vapor-growth hypothesis is discussed in comparison with the impact-shock hypothesis as a better model for the origin of diamonds in ureilites. The diamond (and graphite, amorphous carbon, too) may have been deposited on early condensates such as Re, Ir, W, etc. This model explains the chemical features of vein material in ureilites; the refractory siderophile elements are enriched in carbon and noble gases and low in normal siderophiles. The vapor-growth model is also compatible with the oxygen isotopic data of ureilites which suggests that nebular processes are primarily responsible for the composition of ureilites.

  3. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Williams, G.V.M.; Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Markwitz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports for the first time redistribution of hydrogen atoms in diamond like carbon thin films during ion implantation of low energy magnetic ions. • The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. • Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications. - Abstract: Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C_3H_6 deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  4. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Becker, H.-W. [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Williams, G.V.M. [The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports for the first time redistribution of hydrogen atoms in diamond like carbon thin films during ion implantation of low energy magnetic ions. • The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. • Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications. - Abstract: Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C{sub 3}H{sub 6} deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  5. Structural transformation of implanted diamond layers during high temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubanov, S.; Fairchild, B.A.; Suvorova, A.; Olivero, P.; Prawer, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years graphitization of ion-beam induced amorphous layers became the basic tool for device fabrication in diamond. The etchable graphitic layers can be removed to form free-standing membranes into which the desired structures can be sculpted using FIB milling. The optical properties of the devices fabricated using this method are assumed on the model of sharp diamond–air interface. The real quality of this interface could depend on degree of graphitization of the amorphous damage layers after annealing. In the present work the graphitization process was studied using conventional and analytical TEM. It was found that annealing at 550 °C results in a partial graphitization of the implanted volume with formation of the nano-crystalline graphitic phase sandwiched between layers of tetrahedral amorphous carbon. Annealing at 1400 °C resulted in complete graphitization of the amorphous layers. The average size of graphite nano-crystals did not exceed 5 nm with predominant orientation of c-planes normal to the sample surface.

  6. Application of Chlorine-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chenyu; Altemir, David A.; Margrave, John L.; Hauge, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Low temperature deposition of diamond has been achieved by a chlorine-assisted diamond chemical vapor deposition (CA-CVD) process. This method begins with the thermal dissociation of molecular chlorine into atomic chlorine in a resistively heated graphite furnace at temperatures between 1300 and 1500 deg. C. The atomic chlorine, upon mixing, subsequently reacts with molecular hydrogen and hydrocarbons. The rapid exchange reactions between the atomic chlorine, molecular hydrogen, and hydrocarbons give rise to the atomic hydrogen and carbon precursors required for diamond deposition. Homoepitaxial diamond growth on diamond substrates has been studied over the substrate temperature range of 100-950 C. It was found that the diamond growth rates are approximately 0.2 microns/hr in the temperature range between 102 and 300 C and that the growth rates do not decrease significantly with a decrease in substrate temperature. This is unique because the traditional diamond deposition using H2/CH4 systems usually disappears at substrate temperatures below approx. 500 deg. C. This opens up a possible route to the deposition of diamond on low-melting point materials such as aluminum and its alloys.

  7. Scientific Fundamentals and Technological Development of Novel Biocompatible/Corrosion Resistant Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Coating Enabling Next Generation Superior Metal-Based Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Karam

    Current Ti-based dental implants exhibit failure (2-10%), due to various mechanisms, including chemical corrosion of the surface of the TiO2 naturally covered Ti-based implants. This thesis focused on developing a unique biocompatible/bio-inert/corrosion resistant/low cost Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) coating (with 3-5 nm grain size) for encapsulation of Tibased micro-implants to potentially eliminate the corrosion/mechanical induced failure of current commercial Ti-based dental implants. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) and Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) processes were used to grow UNCD coatings. The surface topography and chemistry of UNCD coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS) respectively. In conclusion, this thesis contributed to establish the optimal conditions to grow UNCD coatings on the complex 3-D geometry of Ti-based micro-implants, with geometry similar to real implants, relevant to developing UNCD-coated Ti-based dental implants with superior mechanical/chemical performance than current Ti-based implants.

  8. Interfacial microstructure and performance of brazed diamond grits with Ni-Cr-P alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y. [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)], E-mail: cywang@gdut.edu.cn; Zhou, Y.M.; Zhang, F.L.; Xu, Z.C. [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-05-12

    The reaction mechanism of the interface among diamond, commercial Ni-Cr-P alloy and steel substrate has been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The reaction layers formed among diamond, brazing alloy and steel substrate produced good wettability of diamond grits for achieving better quality tools. The reaction layer between diamond and brazing alloy comprised a reaction layer of brazing alloy and a reaction layer of diamond. Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} formed in the reaction layer of brazing alloy was the main reason for improving the bonding strength of Ni-Cr alloy to the diamond grits. A reaction layer of diamond may be a graphitization layer formed on the surface of diamond under high temperature brazing. The reaction layer of brazing alloy and steel substrate was the co-diffusion of Ni, Cr and Fe between the brazing alloy and the steel substrate. The life and sharpness of brazed diamond boring drill bits fabricated in this study were superior to the electroplated one in the market owing to its high protrusion and bonding strength.

  9. The enhanced nucleation factors and field electron emission property of diamond synthesized by RF-PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guangmin [College of Physics, Changchun Normal University, Jilin Province, Changchun 130032 (China); Xu Qiang [Changchun Institute of Technology, Changchun 130021 (China); Wang Xin [Department of Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Mobile Materials, MOE, and State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zheng Weitao, E-mail: wtzheng@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Mobile Materials, MOE, and State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Submicron-diamond, microcrystalline diamond, and nanocrystalline diamond were synthesized using different substrates and pretreatment methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three techniques have been developed to create some density of diamond on substrate surfaces by PECVD deposition procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field electron emission property was also investigated. - Abstract: In this work, submicron-diamond (SD), microcrystalline diamond (MD), and nanocrystalline diamond (ND) were synthesized using different substrates and pretreatment methods. In order to investigate influencing factors on nucleation, three techniques have been developed to create some density of diamond on substrate surfaces: (a) with chemical-etching technique (NaOH water solution at 80 Degree-Sign C for 3, 8, 15 min, respectively), (b) (Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}/Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O or Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O/Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O alcohol solution) dripping on silicon substrate, and (c) NaCl substrate directly by following a same PECVD deposition procedure. Furthermore, the field electron emission property was also investigated.

  10. Improvements in or relating to artefacts incorporating industrial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, N.E.W.; Poole, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A process for improving the wear characteristics of industrial diamonds is described which consists of implanting into the surface regions of the diamonds, ions of a material having an atomic weight greater than one and such as to affect the surface properties of the diamonds. Examples of the invention, in which N + and C + ions have been used, are cited. (U.K.)

  11. Ultrananocrystalline diamond film as an optimal cell interface for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Piyush; Akin, Demir; Gupta, Amit; Sherman, Debby; Shi, Bing; Auciello, Orlando; Bashir, Rashid

    2007-12-01

    Surfaces of materials that promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and growth are critical for new generation of implantable biomedical devices. These films should be able to coat complex geometrical shapes very conformally, with smooth surfaces to produce hermetic bioinert protective coatings, or to provide surfaces for cell grafting through appropriate functionalization. Upon performing a survey of desirable properties such as chemical inertness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance, and a high Young's modulus, diamond films emerge as very attractive candidates for coatings for biomedical devices. A promising novel material is ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) in thin film form, since UNCD possesses the desirable properties of diamond and can be deposited as a very smooth, conformal coating using chemical vapor deposition. In this paper, we compared cell adhesion, proliferation, and growth on UNCD films, silicon, and platinum films substrates using different cell lines. Our results showed that UNCD films exhibited superior characteristics including cell number, total cell area, and cell spreading. The results could be attributed to the nanostructured nature or a combination of nanostructure/surface chemistry of UNCD, which provides a high surface energy, hence promoting adhesion between the receptors on the cell surface and the UNCD films.

  12. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  13. Creation of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond with high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzagna, Sebastien; Meijer, Jan [Rubion, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Wildanger, Dominik; Hell, Stefan W. [Department of NanoBiophotonics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen (Germany); Mazarov, Paul; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg [3. Institute of Physics, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, diamond and the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centres constitute the best solid-state system in view of quantum-computing applications. It has also been shown recently that single NV centres could be used as nanoscale magnetic sensors. Such applications require the creation of single NV centres with very high resolution and with a high efficiency. The nano-implanter at the university of Bochum provides low energy nitrogen ions which can be implanted through a hole pierced in the tip of an atomic force microscope. Ultrapure diamond samples have been implanted with spot sizes of 50nm and less. Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy has been used to characterise and resolve the implanted spots.

  14. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S P; Jamieson, D N; Nugent, K W; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Development of a radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet for diamond-like carbon coatings on stainless steel substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Samadi, O.; Siadati, S. N.; Etaati, G. R.; Asadi, E.; Safari, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge was developed for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel substrates. The plasma jet was generated by argon-methane mixture and its physical parameters were investigated. Relation between the plasma jet length and width of the powered electrode was discussed. Optical and electrical characteristics were studied by optical emission spectroscopy, voltage and current probes, respectively. The evolutions of various species like ArI, C2 and CH along the jet axis were investigated. Electron temperature and density were estimated by Boltzmann plot method and Saha-Boltzmann equation, respectively. Finally, a diamond-like carbon coating was deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates by the atmospheric pressure radio frequency plasma jet in ambient air. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and Vickers hardness test were used to study the deposited films. The length of the jet was increased by increasing the width of the powered electrode. The estimated electron temperature and density were 1.43 eV and 1.39 × 1015 cm-3, respectively. Averaged Vicker's hardness of the coated sample was three times greater than that of the substrate. The SEM images of the deposited thin films revealed a 4.5 μm DLC coated for 20 min.

  17. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Jackson, Mark; Woodwards, Robert; Polini, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 μm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools

  18. Generation of Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Pairs in Bulk Diamond by Molecular Nitrogen Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Jun Gong; Xiang-Dong Chen; Cong-Cong Li; Shen Li; Bo-Wen Zhao; Fang-Wen Sun

    2016-01-01

    The coupled negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV − ) center system is a promising candidate for scalable quantum information techniques. In this work, ionized nitrogen molecules are implanted into bulk diamond to generate coupled NV − center pairs. The two-photon autocorrelation measurement and optically detected magnetic resonance measurement are carried out to confirm the production of the NV − center pair. Also, both 1.3 μs decoherence time and 4.9 kHz magnetic coupling strength of the NV − center pair are measured by controlling and detecting the spin states. Along with nanoscale manipulation and detection methods, such coupled NV − centers through short distance dipole-dipole interaction would show high potential in scalable quantum information processes. (paper)

  19. Diamond coating deposition by synergy of thermal and laser methods-A problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, Gordana S.; Trtica, Milan S.; Bogdanov, Zarko D.; Romcevic, Nebojsa Z.; Miljanic, Scepan S.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond coatings were deposited by synergy of the hot filament CVD method and the pulse TEA CO 2 laser, in spectroactive and spectroinactive diamond precursor atmospheres. Resulting diamond coatings are interpreted relying on evidence of scanning electron microscopy as well as microRaman spectroscopy. Thermal synergy component (hot filament) possesses an activating agent for diamond deposition, and contributes significantly to quality and extent of diamond deposition. Laser synergy component comprises a solid surface modification as well as the spectroactive gaseous atmosphere modification. Surface modification consists in changes of the diamond coating being deposited and, at the same time, in changes of the substrate surface structure. Laser modification of the spectroactive diamond precursor atmosphere means specific consumption of the precursor, which enables to skip the deposition on a defined substrate location. The resulting process of diamond coating elimination from certain, desired locations using the CO 2 laser might contribute to tailoring diamond coatings for particular applications. Additionally, the substrate laser modification could be optimized by choice of a proper spectroactive precursor concentration, or by a laser radiation multiple pass through an absorbing medium

  20. Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, R; Csiki, R; Wiesinger, M; Sachsenhauser, M; Stutzmann, M; Garrido, J A; Cattani-Scholz, A; Speranza, Giorgio; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K

    2014-08-27

    The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.

  1. Fabrication of planarised conductively patterned diamond for bio-applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wei [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Fox, Kate, E-mail: kfox@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Ganesan, Kumaravelu [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Turnley, Ann M. [Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Shimoni, Olga [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phong A. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Lohrmann, Alexander; McFarlane, Thomas; Ahnood, Arman; Garrett, David J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Meffin, Hamish [National Information and Communication Technology Australia, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); O' Brien-Simpson, Neil M.; Reynolds, Eric C. [Oral Health Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, 720 Swanston Street, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Prawer, Steven [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The development of smooth, featureless surfaces for biomedical microelectronics is a challenging feat. Other than the traditional electronic materials like silicon, few microelectronic circuits can be produced with conductive features without compromising the surface topography and/or biocompatibility. Diamond is fast becoming a highly sought after biomaterial for electrical stimulation, however, its inherent surface roughness introduced by the growth process limits its applications in electronic circuitry. In this study, we introduce a fabrication method for developing conductive features in an insulating diamond substrate whilst maintaining a planar topography. Using a combination of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, secondary diamond growth and silicon wet-etching, we have produced a patterned substrate in which the surface roughness at the interface between the conducting and insulating diamond is approximately 3 nm. We also show that the patterned smooth topography is capable of neuronal cell adhesion and growth whilst restricting bacterial adhesion. - Highlights: • We have fabricated a planar diamond device with conducting and insulating features. • A precise method is provided using CVD and RIE techniques to develop the substrate. • The step between conducting and insulating features is less than 3 nm. • Planar topography promotes neuronal cell adhesion and restricts bacterial adhesion. • Neuronal cells prefer conductive diamond (N-UNCD) to non-conductive diamond (UNCD)

  2. Surface analytical investigation of diamond coatings and nucleation processes by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1993-10-01

    Imaging SIMS for the investigation of substrate surfaces: the influence of the substrate surface on diamond nucleation is a major topic in the investigation of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond. It is well known that the nucleation density can be enhanced by scratching the substrate surface with abrasive powders. Diamond can nucleate at scratches or at residues of the polishing material. In the present work the surface of refractory metals (Mo, Nb, Ta, W) polished with silicon carbide and diamond powder is studied by imaging (2- or 3-D) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). In first experiments the distribution of SiC and/or diamond residues after polishing was determined. The reaction of diamond with the substrate during heating to deposition temperatures was investigated. Investigation of WC/Co hardmetal substrates: it is well known that Co contained in the binder phase of the hard metal inhibits a strong adhesion between the diamond film and the substrate, which is need for an application as cutting tool. Several attempts to improve the adhesion have been reported up to now. In this work a pre-treatment procedure leading to the formation of Co compounds (borides and silicides) which are stable under diamond deposition conditions were investigated. Furthermore, the application of intermediate sputter layers consisting of chromium and titanium were studied. Investigation of P-doped diamond coatings: in the quaternary phase diagram C-P-B-N exist some phases with diamond structure and superhard phases (e.g BP, c-BN). Also a hypothetical superhard phase of the composition C 3 N 4 is predicted. A scientific objective is the synthesis of such phases by chemical vapour deposition. An increase of the phosphorus concentration effects a distinct change in the morphology of the deposited coatings. A major advantage of SIMS is that the concentration profiles can be measured through the whole film, due to the sputter removal of the sample, and the interface

  3. Growth, characterization, and device development in monocrystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert F.

    1991-12-01

    The nucleation of diamond grains on an unscratched silicon wafer is enhanced by four order of magnitude relative to scratched substrates by using negative bias enhanced microwave plasma CVD in a 2 percent methane/hydrogen plasma for an initial period. In vacuo surface analysis has revealed that the actual nucleation occurs on the amorphous C coating present on the thin SiC layer which forms as the product of the initial reaction with the Si surface. It is believed that the C forms critical clusters which are favorable for diamond nucleation. Similar enhancement was observed together with the occurrence of textured diamond films in the use of bias pretreatment of cubic Beta SiC substrates. Approximately 50 percent of the initial diamond nuclei were aligned with the SiC substrate. In contrast, the use of the biasing pretreatment for one hour on polycrystalline substrates resulted in only about 7 percent coverage with diamond particles. Numerous techniques have been used to analyze the nucleation and growth phenomena, especially micro Raman and scanning tunneling microscopy. The latter technique has shown that the morphology of doped and undoped diamond nuclei are similar, as well as the fact that significant concentrations of vacancy related defects are present. In device related-studies, UV-photoemission studies have shown that TiC occurs at the Ti-diamond (100) interface after a 400 C anneal. The Schottky barrier height from this metal on p-type diamond was determined to be 1.0 eV. Indications of negative electron affinity (NEA) was observed and attributed to emission of electrons that are quasi-thermalized to the bottom of the conduction band. A disordered surface removes the NEA. The microwave performance of p-type (beta-doped) diamond MESFET's at 10 GHz has been further investigated. Elevated temperatures may be necessary to obtain sufficient free charge densities in the conducting channel but this will result in degraded device performance. Each of these

  4. Characterization of the Diamond-like Carbon Based Functionally Gradient Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon coatings have been used as solid lubricating coatings in vacuum technology for their goodphysical and chemical properties. In this paper, the hybrid technique of unbalanced magnetron sputtering and plasmaimmersion ion implantation (PIll) was adopted to fabricate diamond-like carbon-based functionally gradient film,N/TiN/Ti(N,C)/DLC, on the 304 stainless steel substrate. The film was characterized by using Raman spectroscopyand glancing X-ray diffraction (GXRD), and the topography and surface roughness of the film was observed usingAFM. The mechanical properties of the film were evaluated by nano-indentation. The results showed that the surfaceroughness of the film was approximately 0.732 nm. The hardness and elastic modulus, fracture toughness andinterfacial fracture toughness of N/TiN/Ti(N,C)/DLC functionally gradient film were about 19.84 GPa, 190.03 GPa,3.75 MPa.m1/2 and 5.68 MPa@m1/2, respectively. Compared with that of DLC monolayer and C/TiC/DLC multilayer,this DLC gradient film has better qualities as a solid lubricating coating.

  5. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond electrodes: optimization towards neural stimulation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, David J; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Fox, Kate; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Diamond is well known to possess many favourable qualities for implantation into living tissue including biocompatibility, biostability, and for some applications hardness. However, conducting diamond has not, to date, been exploited in neural stimulation electrodes due to very low electrochemical double layer capacitance values that have been previously reported. Here we present electrochemical characterization of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond electrodes grown in the presence of nitrogen (N-UNCD) that exhibit charge injection capacity values as high as 163 µC cm(-2) indicating that N-UNCD is a viable material for microelectrode fabrication. Furthermore, we show that the maximum charge injection of N-UNCD can be increased by tailoring growth conditions and by subsequent electrochemical activation. For applications requiring yet higher charge injection, we show that N-UNCD electrodes can be readily metalized with platinum or iridium, further increasing charge injection capacity. Using such materials an implantable neural stimulation device fabricated from a single piece of bio-permanent material becomes feasible. This has significant advantages in terms of the physical stability and hermeticity of a long-term bionic implant.

  6. Graphene grown out of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhi; Li, Wuxia; Xu, Jing; Xu, Shicong; Lu, Chao; Xu, Lifang; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-10-01

    Most applications of graphene need a suitable support substrate to present its excellent properties. But transferring graphene onto insulators or growing graphene on foreign substrates could cause properties diminishing. This paper reports the graphene growth directly out of diamond (111) by B doping, guided by first-principles calculations. The spontaneous graphene formation occurred due to the reconstruction of the diamond surface when the B doping density and profile are adequate. The resulting materials are defect free with high phase purity/carrier mobility, controllable layer number, and good uniformity, which can be potentially used directly for device fabrication, e.g., high-performance devices requiring good thermal conductivity.

  7. A multilayer innovative solution to improve the adhesion of nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulon-Quintin, A., E-mail: poulon@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Faure, C.; Teulé-Gay, L.; Manaud, J.P. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of the NCD adhesion on WC-12%Co substrates for tooling applications using a multi-interlayer additional system. • Reduction of the graphite layer thickness and continuity at the interface with the diamond. • Transmission electron microscopy study for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films grown under negative biased substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are widely used as surface overlay coating onto cermet WC-Co cutting tools to get better performances. To improve the diamond adhesion to the cermet substrate, suitable multi-layer systems have been added. They are composed of a cobalt diffusion barrier close to the substrate (single and sequenced nitrides layers) coated with a nucleation extra layer to improve the nucleus density of diamond during CVD processing. For all systems, before and after diamond deposition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been performed for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces and to evaluate the presence of graphitic species at the interface with the diamond. Innovative multilayer system dedicated to the regulation of cobalt diffusion coated with a bilayer system optimized for the carbon diffusion control, is shown as an efficient solution to significantly reduce the graphite layer formation at the interface with the diamond down to 10 nm thick and to increase the adhesion of NCD diamond layer as scratch-tests confirm.

  8. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  9. Electrochemical Behavior of Biomedical Titanium Alloys Coated with Diamond Carbon in Hanks' Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanavel, S.; Ponnusamy, S.; Mohan, L.; Radhika, R.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Ramasubramanian, K.

    2018-03-01

    Biomedical implants in the knee and hip are frequent failures because of corrosion and stress on the joints. To solve this important problem, metal implants can be coated with diamond carbon, and this coating plays a critical role in providing an increased resistance to implants toward corrosion. In this study, we have employed diamond carbon coating over Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys using hot filament chemical vapor deposition method which is well-established coating process that significantly improves the resistance toward corrosion, wears and hardness. The diamond carbon-coated Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy showed an increased microhardness in the range of 850 HV. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization studies in SBF solution (simulated body fluid solution) were carried out to understand the in vitro behavior of uncoated as well as coated titanium alloys. The experimental results showed that the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy is relatively higher when compared with diamond carbon-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys due to the presence of β phase in the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. Electrochemical impedance results showed that the diamond carbon-coated alloys behave as an ideal capacitor in the body fluid solution. Moreover, the stability in mechanical properties during the corrosion process was maintained for diamond carbon-coated titanium alloys.

  10. Mechanical and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Ensinger, W.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared by a plasma source ion implantation method with superposed negative pulse and negative DC voltage. Acetylene gas was used as working gas for plasma formation. A negative DC voltage and a negative pulse voltage were superposed and applied to the substrate holder. The DC voltage was changed in the range from 0 to -4.8 kV and the pulse voltage was changed from -18 to -13.2 kV. The films were annealed in the range of 200-450 deg. C for 1 h. The surface morphology of the films and the film thickness were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The hardness of DLC films was evaluated by an indentation method. Measurement of the electrical resistivity was performed using a four-point probe station. Furthermore, a ball-on-disc test with 2 N load was employed to obtain information about the friction properties and sliding wear resistance of the films. The surface of the DLC films was very smooth and featureless. The deposition rate was changed with the DC voltage and pulse conditions. Integrated intensity ratios I D /I G of Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity of the DLC films changed with DC voltage. The electrical resistivity decreased with increasing I D /I G ratio. The I D /I G ratio was increased and the electrical resistivity was decreased with annealing temperature owing to graphitization. Very low friction coefficients around 0.05 were obtained for as-deposited films.

  11. Nucleation and adhesion of diamond films on Co cemented tungsten carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, R.; Santarelli, M.; Traversa, E.

    1999-12-01

    Diamond deposits were grown using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on pretreated Co cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates with an average grain size of 6 {micro}m. Depositions were performed with 0.5 or 1.0% methane concentration and with substrate temperatures ranging from 750 to 1,000 C. Diamond nucleation densities were measured by scanning electron microscopy. Scratched and bias-enhanced nucleation pretreated substrates showed the larger nucleation densities. Etching of the WC performed by Murakami's reagent, followed by surface-Co dissolution (MP pretreatment), led to a roughened but scarcely nucleating surface. The performance of a scratching prior to the MP pretreatment allowed one to increase the nucleation density, due scratching-induced defects, confined in the outermost layer of WC grains, which act as nucleation sites. Smaller nucleation densities were observed with increasing the substrate temperature and reducing the methane concentration, confirming that diamond nucleates via a heterogeneous process. The adhesion of continuous films was evaluated by the reciprocal of the slope of crack radius-indentation load functions. The substrate pretreatments mainly affected the film adhesion, while the influence of CVD process conditions was minor. The two main factors that improve the diamond film adhesion are the coating-substrate contact area and the surface-Co removal.

  12. Growth, characterization and device development in monocrystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. F.; Glass, J. T.; Nemanich, R. J.; Bozeman, S. P.; Sowers, A. T.

    1995-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies concerned with interface interactions of diamond with Si, Ni, and Ni3Si substrates have been conducted. Oriented diamond films deposited on (100) Si were characterized by polar Raman, polar x-ray diffraction (XRD), and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These sutides showed that the diamond(100)/Si(100) interface adopted the 3:2-match arrangement rather than a 45 deg rotation. Extended Hueckel tight-binding (EHTB) electronic structure calculations for a model system revealed that the interface interaction favors the 3:2-match arrangement. Growth on polycrystalline Ni3Si resulted in oriented diamond particles; under the same growth conditions, graphite was formed on the nickel substrate. Our EHTB electronic structure calculations showed that the (111) and (100) surfaces of Ni3Si have a strong preference for diamond nucleation over graphite nucleation, but this was not the case for the (111) and (100) surfaces of Ni.

  13. Large single-crystal diamond substrates for ionizing radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Marco; Bellucci, Alessandro; Calvani, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniele M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia (ISM), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Sede Secondaria di Montelibretti, Monterotondo Stazione, Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The need for large active volume detectors for ionizing radiations and particles, with both large area and thickness, is becoming more and more compelling in a wide range of applications, spanning from X-ray dosimetry to neutron spectroscopy. Recently, 8.0 x 8.0 mm{sup 2} wide and 1.2 mm thick single-crystal diamond plates have been put on the market, representing a first step to the fabrication of large area monolithic diamond detectors with optimized charge transport properties, obtainable up to now only with smaller samples. The more-than-double thickness, if compared to standard plates (typically 500 μm thick), demonstrated to be effective in improving the detector response to highly penetrating ionizing radiations, such as γ-rays. Here we report on the first measurements performed on large active volume single-crystal diamond plates, both in the dark and under irradiation with optical wavelengths (190-1100 nm), X-rays, and radioactive γ-emitting sources ({sup 57}Co and {sup 22}Na). (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE SILICON INTERLAYER ON DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON FILMS DEPOSITED ON GLASS SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Antonio Lima Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films as a hard protective coating have achieved great success in a diversity of technological applications. However, adhesion of DLC films to substrates can restrict their applications. The influence of a silicon interlayer in order to improve DLC adhesion on glass substrates was investigated. Amorphous silicon interlayer and DLC films were deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from silane and methane, respectively. The bonding structure, transmittance, refraction index, and adherence of the films were also evaluated regarding the thickness of the silicon interlayer. Raman scattering spectroscopy did not show any substantial difference in DLC structure due to the interlayer thickness of the silicon. Optical measurements showed a sharp decrease of transmittance in the ultra-violet region caused by the fundamental absorption of the light. In addition, the absorption edge of transmittance shifted toward longer wavelength side in the ultra-violet region as the thickness of the silicon interlayer increased. The tribological results showed an increase of DLC adherence as the silicon interlayer increased, which was characterized by less cracks around the grooves.

  15. Fabrication of monolithic microfluidic channels in diamond with ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Boarino, L.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Enrico, E.; Forneris, J.; Gilardino, A.; Jakšić, M.; Sardi, F.; Skukan, N.; Tengattini, A.; Olivero, P.; Re, A.; Vittone, E.

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, we report on the monolithic fabrication by means of ion beam lithography of hollow micro-channels within a diamond substrate, to be employed for microfluidic applications. The fabrication strategy takes advantage of ion beam induced damage to convert diamond into graphite, which is characterized by a higher reactivity to oxidative etching with respect to the chemically inert pristine structure. This phase transition occurs in sub-superficial layers thanks to the peculiar damage profile of MeV ions, which mostly damage the target material at their end of range. The structures were obtained by irradiating commercial CVD diamond samples with a micrometric collimated C+ ion beam at three different energies (4 MeV, 3.5 MeV and 3 MeV) at a total fluence of 2 × 1016 cm-2. The chosen multiple-energy implantation strategy allows to obtain a thick box-like highly damaged region ranging from 1.6 μm to 2.1 μm below the sample surface. High-temperature annealing was performed to both promote the graphitization of the ion-induced amorphous layer and to recover the pristine crystalline structure in the cap layer. Finally, the graphite was removed by ozone etching, obtaining monolithic microfluidic structures. These prototypal microfluidic devices were tested injecting aqueous solutions and the evidence of the passage of fluids through the channels was confirmed by confocal fluorescent microscopy.

  16. A molecular dynamics study of energetic particle bombardment on diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongbin; Dai Yongbing; Hu Xiaojun; Shen Hesheng; He Xianchang

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations, utilizing the Tersoff many-body potential, are used to investigate the microscopic processes of a single boron atom with an energy of 500 eV implanted into the diamond (001) 2 x 1 reconstructed surface. By calculating the variation of the mean coordination number with time, the lifetime of a thermal spike created by B bombardment is about 0.18 ps. Formation of the split-interstitial composed of projectile and lattice atom (B-C) is observed. The total potential energy of the system decreases about 0.56 eV with a stable B split-interstitial existing in diamond. Lattice relaxations in the diamond (001) 2 x 1 reconstructed surface or near surface of the simulated have been discussed, and the results show that the outermost layer atoms tend to move inward and other atoms move outward, while the interplanar distance between the outermost layer and the second layer has been shortened by 15%, compared with its starting interplanar distance. Stress distribution in the calculated diamond configuration is inhomogeneous. After boron implanted into diamond with an energy of 500 eV, there is an excess of compressively stressed atoms in the lattice, which induces the total stress being compressive

  17. Gold nanoparticle formation in diamond-like carbon using two different methods: Gold ion implantation and co-deposition of gold and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araújo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe work in which gold nanoparticles were formed in diamond-like carbon (DLC), thereby generating a Au-DLC nanocomposite. A high-quality, hydrogen-free DLC thin film was formed by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition, into which gold nanoparticles were introduced using two different methods. The first method was gold ion implantation into the DLC film at a number of decreasing ion energies, distributing the gold over a controllable depth range within the DLC. The second method was co-deposition of gold and carbon, using two separate vacuum arc plasma guns with suitably interleaved repetitive pulsing. Transmission electron microscope images show that the size of the gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation is 3-5 nm. For the Au-DLC composite obtained by co-deposition, there were two different nanoparticle sizes, most about 2 nm with some 6-7 nm. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the implanted sample contains a smaller fraction of sp 3 bonding for the DLC, demonstrating that some sp 3 bonds are destroyed by the gold implantation.

  18. High density nitrogen-vacancy sensing surface created via He{sup +} ion implantation of {sup 12}C diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinsasser, Ed E., E-mail: edklein@uw.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2500 (United States); Stanfield, Matthew M.; Banks, Jannel K. Q. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Zhu, Zhouyang; Li, Wen-Di [HKU-Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation (HKU-SIRI), Shenzhen 518000 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Acosta, Victor M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Watanabe, Hideyuki [Correlated Electronics Group, Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Itoh, Kohei M. [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Fu, Kai-Mei C., E-mail: kaimeifu@uw.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2500 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    We present a promising method for creating high-density ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers with narrow spin-resonances for high-sensitivity magnetic imaging. Practically, narrow spin-resonance linewidths substantially reduce the optical and RF power requirements for ensemble-based sensing. The method combines isotope purified diamond growth, in situ nitrogen doping, and helium ion implantation to realize a 100 nm-thick sensing surface. The obtained 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} nitrogen-vacancy density is only a factor of 10 less than the highest densities reported to date, with an observed 200 kHz spin resonance linewidth over 10 times narrower.

  19. A comparative study on optical and magnetic resonance properties of near-surface NV centers in nano and bulk diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico Brandao

    2014-01-01

    Using shallow nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond for applications in magnetometry requires the generation of stable defects in the NV charge state in sufficiently high density and high quality spin properties. Recent studies reported about NV defects close to the surface created by ion implantation or during chemical vapor deposition growth technique and in nanodiamonds point to a scenario where defects are stabilized in the neutral charge state and that the minority of negatively charged state defects have poor spin properties, i.e.g shorter coherence times compared to NV defects deeply localized in bulk diamond. This undesirable behavior appears to result from the interaction with rapidly fluctuating electric fields created by moving charges at the surface and with interface effects associated with the termination of the diamond surface. Here we report studies of photoluminescence and magnetic resonance properties of shallow NV ensembles created by low energy nitrogen ion implantation in electronic grade diamond substrate and nanodiamonds with low nitrogen concentration. We verified the shallow NV center spin properties through pulsed optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) protocols and found longitudinal time constant (T1) of a few milliseconds and transversal relaxation time constant (T2) of a few microseconds for shallow defects implanted in bulk diamond. For nanodiamonds, the T2 coherence time is similar to the case in bulk sample but on the other hand the T1 coherence time is ten times shorter than in bulk. Additionally was found the T2* is around one microsecond for shallow NV defects in bulk samples meanwhile in nanodiamonds it is around twenty nanoseconds. It worth to mention that all the measurements were performed in NV ensembles which show just two ODMR resonance lines with applied magnetic field as if they were magnetically equivalent. In that sense we are trying to apply chirped pulses and Ramsey pulse sequence to check this assumption

  20. Real time monitoring of filament-assisted chemically vapor deposited diamond by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Cong; An, I.; Vedam, K.; Collins, R.W.; Nguyen, H.V.; Messier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry over the range 1.5-4.5 eV was applied as a real time probe of the processes occurring in the initial nucleation of thin film diamond by heated-filament assisted chemical vapor deposition. Using both untreated and diamond-polished c-Si substrates, as well as both carburized and uncarburized tungsten filaments, it was possible to separate and characterize competing phenomena, including the increase in surface temperature induced by filament ignition, the formation of carbide layers, contamination of the substrate by tungsten from the filament, annealing of diamond polishing damage, and, finally, diamond nucleation. An accurate measurement of the true temperature of the substrate surface averaged over the top 500 A can be obtained from the energy position of critical points in the c-Si band structure. For diamond deposition, we operated with an initial excess flow of CH 4 to stimulate nucleation. We applied real time feedback and manual control to reduce the CH 4 flow in the first monolayers of deposition. The thickness of diamond and an estimate of its nucleation density can be obtained from real time spectra, and the latter was in good agreement with that obtained from scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  1. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond coated on titanium for osteoblast adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh; Yang, Lei; Kothari, Abhishek; Sirinrath, Sirivisoot; Xiao, Xingcheng; Sheldon, Brian W; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    Diamond coatings with superior chemical stability, antiwear, and cytocompatibility properties have been considered for lengthening the lifetime of metallic orthopedic implants for over a decade. In this study, an attempt to tailor the surface properties of diamond films on titanium to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) adhesion was reported. The surface properties investigated here included the size of diamond surface features, topography, wettability, and surface chemistry, all of which were controlled during microwave plasma enhanced chemical-vapor-deposition (MPCVD) processes using CH4-Ar-H2 gas mixtures. The hardness and elastic modulus of the diamond films were also determined. H2 concentration in the plasma was altered to control the crystallinity, grain size, and topography of the diamond coatings, and specific plasma gases (O2 and NH3) were introduced to change the surface chemistry of the diamond coatings. To understand the impact of the altered surface properties on osteoblast responses, cell adhesion tests were performed on the various diamond-coated titanium. The results revealed that nanocrystalline diamond (grain sizes diamond and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic applications. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  2. Crack formation mechanisms during micro and macro indentation of diamond-like carbon coatings on elastic-plastic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Fischer-Cripps, A.C.; Swain, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    of cracking and the fracture mechanisms taking place. In the study various diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited onto stainless steel and tool steel were investigated. Results primarily for one DLC system will be presented here. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.......In the present study crack formation is investigated on both micro and macro scale using spherical indenter tips. in particular, systems consisting of elastic coatings that are well adhered to elastic-plastic substrates are studied. Depth sensing indentation is used on the micro scale and Rockwell...... indentation on the macro scale. The predominant driving force for coating failure and crack formation during indentation is plastic deformation of the underlying substrate. The aim is to relate the mechanisms creating both delamination and cohesive cracking on both scales with fracture mechanical models...

  3. Applications of diamond films and related materials; Proceedings of the 1st International Conference, Auburn, AL, Aug. 17-22, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua (Editor); Yoshikawa, Manasori (Editor); Murakawa, Masao (Editor); Feldman, Albert (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses the nucleation and growth of diamond from hydrocarbons, the cutting tool performance of CVD thick-film diamond, the characterization of CVD diamond grinding powder, industrial applications of crystalline diamond-coated tools, standardized SEM tribometry of diamond-coated substrates, residual stress in CVD diamond films, the optical properties of CVD diamond films, polycrystalline diamond films for optical applications, and diamond growth on ferrous metals. Also discussed are ion beam-irradiation smoothing of diamond films, electronic circuits on diamond substrates, diamond-laminated surfaces for evaporative spray cooling, electron devices based on the unique properties of diamond, diamond cold cathodes, thin-film diamond microstructure applications, Schottky diodes from flame-grown diamond, diamond films for thermionic applications, methods of diamond nucleation and selective deposition, high-rate/large-area diamond film production, halogen-assisted diamond growth, the economics of diamond technology, and the optical and mechanical properties of diamondlike films.

  4. Surface modification of polymeric substrates by plasma-based ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuji, S.; Sekiya, M.; Nakabayashi, M.; Endo, H.; Sakudo, N.; Nagai, K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) as a tool for polymer modification is studied. Polymeric films have good performances for flexible use, such as food packaging or electronic devices. Compared with inorganic rigid materials, polymers generally have large permeability for gases and moisture, which causes packaged contents and devices to degrade. In order to add a barrier function, surface of polymeric films are modified by PBII. One of the advantageous features of this method over deposition is that the modified surface does not have peeling problem. Besides, micro-cracks due to mechanical stress in the modified layer can be decreased. From the standpoint of mass production, conventional ion implantation that needs low-pressure environment of less than 10-3 Pa is not suitable for continuous large-area processing, while PBII works at rather higher pressure of several Pa. In terms of issues mentioned above, PBII is one of the most expected techniques for modification on flexible substrates. However, the mechanism how the barrier function appears by ion implantation is not well explained so far. In this study, various kinds of polymeric films, including polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), are modified by PBII and their barrier characteristics that depend on the ion dose are evaluated. In order to investigate correlations of the barrier function with implanted ions, modified surface is analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is assumed that the diffusion and sorption coefficients are changed by ion implantation, resulting in higher barrier function.

  5. Surface modification of polymeric substrates by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuji, S.; Sekiya, M.; Nakabayashi, M.; Endo, H.; Sakudo, N.; Nagai, K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) as a tool for polymer modification is studied. Polymeric films have good performances for flexible use, such as food packaging or electronic devices. Compared with inorganic rigid materials, polymers generally have large permeability for gases and moisture, which causes packaged contents and devices to degrade. In order to add a barrier function, surface of polymeric films are modified by PBII. One of the advantageous features of this method over deposition is that the modified surface does not have peeling problem. Besides, micro-cracks due to mechanical stress in the modified layer can be decreased. From the standpoint of mass production, conventional ion implantation that needs low-pressure environment of less than 10 -3 Pa is not suitable for continuous large-area processing, while PBII works at rather higher pressure of several Pa. In terms of issues mentioned above, PBII is one of the most expected techniques for modification on flexible substrates. However, the mechanism how the barrier function appears by ion implantation is not well explained so far. In this study, various kinds of polymeric films, including polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), are modified by PBII and their barrier characteristics that depend on the ion dose are evaluated. In order to investigate correlations of the barrier function with implanted ions, modified surface is analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is assumed that the diffusion and sorption coefficients are changed by ion implantation, resulting in higher barrier function

  6. Fabrication of planarised conductively patterned diamond for bio-applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Fox, Kate; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Turnley, Ann M; Shimoni, Olga; Tran, Phong A; Lohrmann, Alexander; McFarlane, Thomas; Ahnood, Arman; Garrett, David J; Meffin, Hamish; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; Prawer, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The development of smooth, featureless surfaces for biomedical microelectronics is a challenging feat. Other than the traditional electronic materials like silicon, few microelectronic circuits can be produced with conductive features without compromising the surface topography and/or biocompatibility. Diamond is fast becoming a highly sought after biomaterial for electrical stimulation, however, its inherent surface roughness introduced by the growth process limits its applications in electronic circuitry. In this study, we introduce a fabrication method for developing conductive features in an insulating diamond substrate whilst maintaining a planar topography. Using a combination of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, secondary diamond growth and silicon wet-etching, we have produced a patterned substrate in which the surface roughness at the interface between the conducting and insulating diamond is approximately 3 nm. We also show that the patterned smooth topography is capable of neuronal cell adhesion and growth whilst restricting bacterial adhesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Defects formed during ion beam modification of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Raman spectroscopy was found to be sensitive to the presence of these specific defects and also to the overall level of damage produced in the sample when diamond was implanted with doses in the range of 10{sup 16}-10{sup l8} ions/cm{sup 2} H or He with energies greater than 1 MeV. The main series of experiments discussed herein used 1x10{sup 16} -3x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} of 3.5 MeV He{sup +}. Use of a geometry in which ions were implanted into the edge of a diamond slab allowed the damage to be measured as a function of distance along the ion track by both Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) and Raman spectroscopy. 1 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Defects formed during ion beam modification of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K W; Prawer, S; Dooley, S P; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Raman spectroscopy was found to be sensitive to the presence of these specific defects and also to the overall level of damage produced in the sample when diamond was implanted with doses in the range of 10{sup 16}-10{sup l8} ions/cm{sup 2} H or He with energies greater than 1 MeV. The main series of experiments discussed herein used 1x10{sup 16} -3x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} of 3.5 MeV He{sup +}. Use of a geometry in which ions were implanted into the edge of a diamond slab allowed the damage to be measured as a function of distance along the ion track by both Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) and Raman spectroscopy. 1 refs., 1 fig.

  9. CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors

  10. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  11. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  12. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  13. Nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    CATLEDGE, S.A.; THOMAS, V.; VOHRA, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of orthopaedic devices being implanted, greater emphasis is being placed on ceramic coating technology to reduce friction and wear in mating total joint replacement components, in order to improve implant function and increase device lifespan. In this chapter, we consider ultra-hard carbon coatings, with emphasis on nanostructured diamond, as alternative bearing surfaces for metallic components. Such coatings have great potential for use in biomedical implants as a result of their extreme hardness, wear resistance, low friction and biocompatibility. These ultra-hard carbon coatings can be deposited by several techniques resulting in a wide variety of structures and properties. PMID:25285213

  14. Study on the Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Boron and Sulfur Codoped Diamond Films Deposited Using Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atomic-scale microstructure and electron emission properties of boron and sulfur (denoted as B-S codoped diamond films grown on high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP diamond and Si substrates were investigated using atom force microscopy (AFM, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS measurement techniques. The films grown on Si consisted of large grains with secondary nucleation, whereas those on HTHP diamond are composed of well-developed polycrystalline facets with an average size of 10–50 nm. SIMS analyses confirmed that sulfur was successfully introduced into diamond films, and a small amount of boron facilitated sulfur incorporation into diamond. Large tunneling currents were observed at some grain boundaries, and the emission character was better at the grain boundaries than that at the center of the crystal. The films grown on HTHP diamond substrates were much more perfect with higher quality than the films deposited on Si substrates. The local I-V characteristics for films deposited on Si or HTHP diamond substrates indicate n-type conduction.

  15. Surface smoothening effects on growth of diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Bilal Ahmad; Kumar, Shyam; Kartha, Moses J.; Varma, Raghava

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of the growth dynamics of the diamond film during initial time on diamond substrates. The diamond films are deposited using Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) method for different times. Surface morphology and its correlation with the number of hours of growth of thin films was invested using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Diamond films have smooth interface with average roughness of 48.6873nm. The initial growth dynamics of the thin film is investigated. Interestingly, it is found that there is a decrease in the surface roughness of the film. Thus a smoothening effect is observed in the grown films. The film enters into the growth regime in the later times. Our results also find application in building diamond detector.

  16. Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Huang, Houjin; Carlson, Cataleya; Schlager, John J; Omacr Sawa, Eiji; Hussain, Saber M; Dai, Liming

    2007-01-11

    Finely divided carbon particles, including charcoal, lampblack, and diamond particles, have been used for ornamental and official tattoos since ancient times. With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, nanotubes, nanodiamonds) attract a great deal of interest. Owing to their low chemical reactivity and unique physical properties, nanodiamonds could be useful in a variety of biological applications such as carriers for drugs, genes, or proteins; novel imaging techniques; coatings for implantable materials; and biosensors and biomedical nanorobots. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the possible hazards of nanodiamonds to humans and other biological systems. We have, for the first time, assessed the cytotoxicity of nanodiamonds ranging in size from 2 to 10 nm. Assays of cell viability such as mitochondrial function (MTT) and luminescent ATP production showed that nanodiamonds were not toxic to a variety of cell types. Furthermore, nanodiamonds did not produce significant reactive oxygen species. Cells can grow on nanodiamond-coated substrates without morphological changes compared to controls. These results suggest that nanodiamonds could be ideal for many biological applications in a diverse range of cell types.

  17. Diamond-like carbon coated ultracold neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heule, S.; Atchison, F.; Daum, M.; Foelske, A.; Henneck, R.; Kasprzak, M.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Kuzniak, M.; Lippert, T.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Straumann, U.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown recently that diamond-like carbon (DLC) with a sp 3 fraction above 60% is a better wall coating material for ultracold neutron applications than beryllium. We report on results of Raman spectroscopic and XPS measurements obtained for diamond-like carbon coated neutron guides produced in a new facility, which is based on pulsed laser deposition at 193 nm. For diamond-like carbon coatings on small stainless steel substrates we find sp 3 fractions in the range from 60 to 70% and showing slightly increasing values with laser pulse energy and pulse repetition rate

  18. CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN Coatings for Solid Film Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    When the main criteria for judging coating performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.1 and 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m, respectively, carbon- and nitrogen-ion-implanted, fine-grain CVD diamond and DLC ion beam deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond met the requirements regardless of environment (vacuum, nitrogen, and air).

  19. Electroluminescence Spectrum Shift with Switching Behaviour of Diamond Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 王丽军; 张启仁; 姚宁; 张兵临

    2003-01-01

    We report a special phenomenon on switching behaviour and the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum shift of doped diamond thin films. Nitrogen and cerium doped diamond thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition system and other special techniques. An EL device with a three-layer structure of nitrogen doped diamond/cerium doped diamond/SiO2 thin films was made. The EL device was driven by a direct-current power supply. Its EL character has been investigated, and a switching behaviour was observed. The EL light emission colour of diamond films changes from yellow (590nm) to blue (454 nm) while the switching behaviour appears.

  20. Thermal diffusivity of diamond films using a laser pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, S.; Winfree, W.P.; Crews, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. A laser pulse technique was developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate. The effective thermal diffusivity of a diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by laser pulses. An analytical model is presented to calculate the effective inplane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two-layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film

  1. Polarity Control of Heteroepitaxial GaN Nanowires on Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzl, Martin; Kraut, Max; Hoffmann, Theresa; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-06-14

    Group III-nitride materials such as GaN nanowires are characterized by a spontaneous polarization within the crystal. The sign of the resulting sheet charge at the top and bottom facet of a GaN nanowire is determined by the orientation of the wurtzite bilayer of the different atomic species, called N and Ga polarity. We investigate the polarity distribution of heteroepitaxial GaN nanowires on different substrates and demonstrate polarity control of GaN nanowires on diamond. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy is used to determine the polarity of individual selective area-grown and self-assembled nanowires over a large scale. At standard growth conditions, mixed polarity occurs for selective GaN nanowires on various substrates, namely on silicon, on sapphire and on diamond. To obtain control over the growth orientation on diamond, the substrate surface is modified by nitrogen and oxygen plasma exposure prior to growth, and the growth parameters are adjusted simultaneously. We find that the surface chemistry and the substrate temperature are the decisive factors for obtaining control of up to 93% for both polarity types, whereas the growth mode, namely selective area or self-assembled growth, does not influence the polarity distribution significantly. The experimental results are discussed by a model based on the interfacial bonds between the GaN nanowires, the termination layer, and the substrate.

  2. Effects of pretreatment processes on improving the formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li-Ju; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I-Nan.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pretreatment on the nuclei formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) on Si substrates were studied. Either precoating a thin layer of titanium (∼400 nm) or ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond and titanium mixed powder (D and T process) enhances the nucleation process on Si substrates markedly, and the UNCD nuclei formed and fully covered the Si substrate, when deposition was processed using the microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition process for 10 min. In contrast, during the same period, ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond powders (D process) can only form large UNCD clusters, which were scarcely distributed on Si substrates. The analyses using x-ray diffractometer, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis reveal that the titanium layer reacted with carbon species in the plasma, forming crystalline TiC phase, which facilitates the subsequent formation of UNCD nuclei. The beneficial effect of Ti layer on enhancing the nucleation of UNCD is presumably owing to high solubility and high diffusivity of carbon species in Ti materials, as compared with those of Si materials

  3. Diamond deposition using a planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Tucker, D. A.; Stoner, B. R.; Glass, J. T.; Hooke, W. M.

    1995-06-01

    A planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma has been used to deposit diamond onto scratched silicon. This plasma source has been developed recently for use in large area semiconductor processing and holds promise as a method for scale up of diamond growth reactors. Deposition occurs in an annulus which coincides with the area of most intense optical emission from the plasma. Well-faceted diamond particles are produced when the substrate is immersed in the plasma.

  4. Fabrication of a miniature diamond grinding tool using a hybrid process of micro-EDM and co-deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Lai, Yun-Cheng; Liu, Ching-Chang

    2008-01-01

    A novel miniature diamond grinding tool usable for the precise micro-grinding of miniature parts is presented. A hybrid process that combines 'micro-EDM' with 'precision co-deposition' is proposed. The metal substrate is micro-EDMed to a 50 µm diameter and micro diamonds with 0–2 µm grains are 'electroformed' on the substrate surface, producing a miniature multilayered grinding tool. Nickel and diamond act as binders and cutters, respectively. A partition plate with an array of drilled holes is designed to ensure good convection in the electroforming solution. The dispersion of diamond grains and displacement of nickel ions are noticeably improved. A miniature funnel mould enables the diamond grains to converge towards the cathode to increase their deposition probability on the substrate, thereby improving their distribution on the substrate surface. A micro ZrO 2 ceramic ferrule is finely ground by the developed grinding tool and then yields a surface roughness of R a = 0.085 µm. The proposed approach is applied during the final machining process

  5. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  6. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  7. Adhesion analysis of polycrystalline diamond films on molybdenum by means of scratch, indentation and sand abrasion testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijnsters, J.G.; Shankar, P.; Enckevort, W.J.P. van; Schermer, J.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2005-01-01

    Diamond films have been grown by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on molybdenum substrates under different growth conditions. The films grown with increasing substrate temperatures show a higher interconnection of diamond grains, whereas increasing methane concentrations in the 0.5-4.0%

  8. CVD diamond coatings on titanium : Characterisation by XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuccio, G [CNR, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica; [INFN-LNF, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Laboratorio Dafne Luce

    1996-09-01

    Here, the authors report an analysis carried out on diamond coatings on titanium substrates to show the potentially of x-ray diffraction techniques in the structural characterisation both of diamond thin films and of the other phases (TiC and TiH{sub 2}) present in the interfacial layer. It should be noted that the composition and microstructure of the interface layers strongly affect the characteristics of the diamond films, particularly adhesion, which is one of the most important elements determining the final quality of the coating.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond films on titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catledge, Shane Aaron

    The primary focus of this dissertation is the investigation of the processing-structure-property relationships of diamond films deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). By depositing a well-adhered protective layer of diamond on an alloy component, its hardness, wear-resistance, performance, and overall lifetime could be significantly increased. However, due to the large thermal expansion mismatch between the diamond film and metal (and the corresponding residual stress induced in the film), film adhesion is typically unsatisfactory and often results in immediate delamination after processing. Therefore, it is a major goal of this research to improve adhesion of the diamond film to the alloy substrate. Through the use of innovative processing techniques involving MPCVD deposition conditions and methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) chemistry, we have achieved diamond films which consistently adhere to the alloy substrate. In addition, we have discovered that, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well-faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond with extremely low surface roughness (as low as 27 nm). The relationship between processing and structure was studied using in-situ optical emission spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, surface profilometry, glancing-angle x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. We observe that when nitrogen is added to the H2/CH4 feedgas mixture, a carbon-nitrogen (CN) emission band arises and its relative abundance to the carbon dimer (C2) gas species is shown to have a pronounced influence on the diamond film structure. By appropriate choice of deposition chemistry and conditions, we can tailor the diamond film structure and its corresponding properties. The mechanical properties of interest in this thesis are those relating to the integrity of the film/substrate interface, as well as the

  10. Comparative study of SOI/Si hybrid substrates fabricated using high-dose and low-dose oxygen implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yemin; Chen Meng; Chen Jing; Wang Xiang; Wang Xi

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid substrates comprising both silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and bulk Si regions have been fabricated using the technique of patterned separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) with high-dose (1.5 x 10 18 cm -2 ) and low-dose ((1.5-3.5) x 10 17 cm -2 ) oxygen ions, respectively. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) was employed to examine the microstructures of the resulting materials. Experimental results indicate that the SOI/Si hybrid substrate fabricated using high-dose SIMOX is of inferior quality with very large surface height step and heavily damaged transitions between the SOI and bulk regions. However, the quality of the SOI/Si hybrid substrate is enhanced dramatically by reducing the implant dose. The defect density in transitions is reduced considerably. Moreover, the expected surface height difference does not exist and the surface is exceptionally flat. The possible mechanisms responsible for the improvements in quality are discussed

  11. Surface evolution and stability transition of silicon wafer subjected to nano-diamond grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisheng Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain excellent physical properties and ultrathin devices, thinning technique plays an important role in semiconductor industry with the rapid development of wearable electronic devices. This study presents a physical nano-diamond grinding technique without any chemistry to obtain ultrathin silicon substrate. The nano-diamond with spherical shape repeats nano-cutting and penetrating surface to physically etch silicon wafer during grinding process. Nano-diamond grinding induces an ultrathin “amorphous layer” on silicon wafer and thus the mismatch strain between the amorphous layer and substrate leads to stability transition from the spherical to non-spherical deformation of the wafer. Theoretical model is proposed to predict and analyze the deformation of amorphous layer/silicon substrate system. Furthermore, the deformation bifurcation behavior of amorphous layer/silicon substrate system is analyzed. As the mismatch strain increases or thickness decreases, the amorphous layer/silicon substrate system may transit to non-spherical deformation, which is consistent to the experimental results. The amorphous layer stresses are also obtained to predict the damage of silicon wafer.

  12. Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission from nitrogen doped and undoped polycrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfimchev, S., E-mail: sergeyel@tx.technion.ac.il; Chandran, M.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen related centers in diamond film are mainly responsible for visible sub-band-gap photoelectron emission. • The influence of film thickness and substrate on the measured photoelectron emission yields was not found. • Nanocrystalline diamonds have low electron emission yields most likely because of high amount of defects. • Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission may increase with temperature due to electron trapping/detrapping processes. - Abstract: In this study the origin of visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission (PEE) from polycrystalline diamond films is investigated. The PEE yields as a function of temperature were studied in the wavelengths range of 360–520 nm. Based on the comparison of electron emission yields from diamond films deposited on silicon and molybdenum substrates, with different thicknesses and nitrogen doping levels, we suggested that photoelectrons are generated from nitrogen related centers in diamond. Our results show that diamond film thickness and substrate material have no significant influence on the PEE yield. We found that nanocrystalline diamond films have low electron emission yields, compared to microcrystalline diamond, due to the presence of high amount of defects in the former, which trap excited electrons before escaping into the vacuum. However, the low PEE yield of nanocrystalline diamond films was found to increase with temperature. The phenomenon was explained by the trap assisted photon enhanced thermionic emission (ta-PETE) model. According to the ta-PETE model, photoelectrons are trapped by shallow traps, followed by thermal excitation at elevated temperatures and escape into the vacuum. Activation energies of trap levels were estimated for undoped nanocrystalline, undoped microcrystalline and N-doped diamond films using the Richardson-Dushman equation, which gives 0.13, 0.39 and 0.04 eV, respectively. Such low activation energy of trap levels makes the ta-PETE process very

  13. Evaluation of the adhesion strength of diamond films brazed on K-10 type hard metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Sérgio Ivan dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The coating of cutting tools with diamond films considerably increases the tool performance due to the combination of the unique tribological properties of diamond with the bulk properties of the substrate (toughness. The tool performance, however, is strongly related to the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate. In this work our main goal was to propose and to test a procedure, based on a tensile strength test, to evaluate the adhesion strength of a diamond wafer brazed on a hard metal substrate, taking into account the effect of the brazing temperature and time. The temperature range studied was from 800 to 980 °C and the brazing time ranged from 3 to 40 min. The obtained results could be used to optimize the costs and time required to the production of high performance cutting tools with brazed diamond wafers.

  14. Fabrication of Diamond Based Sensors for Use in Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi K. Samudrala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. We demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.

  15. The Influence of Titanium Dioxide on Diamond-Like Carbon Biocompatibility for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Wachesk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC films make them suitable for implantable medical and odontological interests. Despite their good interactions with biological environment, incorporated nanoparticles can significantly enhance DLC properties. This manuscript studies the potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2 incorporated-DLC films in dental applications. In this scene, both osteoblasts attachment and spreading on the coatings and their corrosion characteristics in artificial saliva were investigated. The films were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman scattering spectroscopy characterized the film structure. As the concentration of TiO2 increased, the films increased the osteoblast viability (MTT assay, becoming more thermodynamically favorable to cell spreading (WAd values became more negative. The increasing number of osteoblast nuclei indicates a higher adhesion between the cells and the films. The potentiodynamic polarization test in artificial saliva shows an increase in corrosion protection when TiO2 are present. These results show the potential use of TiO2-DLC films in implantable surfaces.

  16. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D N; Prawer, S; Gonon, P; Walker, R; Dooley, S; Bettiol, A; Pearce, J [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs

  19. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Michael John

    Realizing complex three-dimensional structures in a range of material systems is critical to a variety of emerging nanotechnologies. This is particularly true of nanomechanical and nanophotonic systems, both relying on free-standing small-scale components. In the case of nanomechanics, necessary mechanical degrees of freedom require physically isolated structures, such as suspended beams, cantilevers, and membranes. For nanophotonics, elements like waveguides and photonic crystal cavities rely on light confinement provided by total internal reflection or distributed Bragg reflection, both of which require refractive index contrast between the device and surrounding medium (often air). Such suspended nanostructures are typically fabricated in a heterolayer structure, comprising of device (top) and sacrificial (middle) layers supported by a substrate (bottom), using standard surface nanomachining techniques. A selective, isotropic etch is then used to remove the sacrificial layer, resulting in free-standing devices. While high-quality, crystalline, thin film heterolayer structures are readily available for silicon (as silicon-on-insulator (SOI)) or III-V semiconductors (i.e. GaAs/AlGaAs), there remains an extensive list of materials with attractive electro-optic, piezoelectric, quantum optical, and other properties for which high quality single-crystal thin film heterolayer structures are not available. These include complex metal oxides like lithium niobate (LiNbO3), silicon-based compounds such as silicon carbide (SiC), III-V nitrides including gallium nitride (GaN), and inert single-crystals such as diamond. Diamond is especially attractive for a variety of nanoscale technologies due to its exceptional physical and chemical properties, including high mechanical hardness, stiffness, and thermal conductivity. Optically, it is transparent over a wide wavelength range (from 220 nm to the far infrared), has a high refractive index (n ~ 2.4), and is host to a vast

  20. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  1. Photochemical modification of diamond powder with sulfur functionalities and its behavior on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Ohana, T; Hagiwara, Y; Tsubota, T

    2010-01-01

    A useful method of modifying the surface of diamond powders with sulfur-containing functionalities was developed by the use of the photolysis of elemental sulfur. The introduction of sulfur-containing functional groups on the diamond surfaces was confirmed by means of XPS, DRIFT and mass spectroscopy analyses. The sulfur-modified diamond powders exhibited surface-attachment behavior to gold surfaces through the sulfur-containing linkage. In brief, exposure of the modified diamond powders to gold colloids resulted in gold nanoparticles being attached to the diamond powders. Treatment of the modified diamond powders with gold thin film on Si substrate afforded alignment of surface-attached diamond powders through sulfur linkages by self-assembly.

  2. Silicon exfoliation by hydrogen implantation: Actual nature of precursor defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuisseu, Pauline Sylvia Pokam, E-mail: pauline-sylvia.pokam-kuisseu@cnrs-orleans.fr [CEMHTI-CNRS, 3A, rue de la férollerie, 45071 Orléans (France); Pingault, Timothée; Ntsoenzok, Esidor [CEMHTI-CNRS, 3A, rue de la férollerie, 45071 Orléans (France); Regula, Gabrielle [IM2NP-CNRS-Université d’Aix-Marseille, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France); Mazen, Frédéric [CEA-Leti, MINATEC campus, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sauldubois, Audrey [Université d’Orléans, rue de Chartres – Collegium ST, 45067 Orléans (France); Andreazza, Caroline [ICMN-CNRS-Université d’Orléans, 1b rue de la férollerie, 45071 Orléans (France)

    2017-06-15

    MeV energy hydrogen implantation in silicon followed by a thermal annealing is a very smart way to produce high crystalline quality silicon substrates, much thinner than what can be obtained by diamond disk or wire sawing. Using this kerf-less approach, ultra-thin substrates with thicknesses between 15 µm and 100 µm, compatible with microelectronic and photovoltaic applications are reported. But, despite the benefits of this approach, there is still a lack of fundamental studies at this implantation energy range. However, if very few papers have addressed the MeV energy range, a lot of works have been carried out in the keV implantation energy range, which is the one used in the smart-cut® technology. In order to check if the nature and the growth mechanism of extended defects reported in the widely studied keV implantation energy range could be extrapolated in the MeV range, the thermal evolution of extended defects formed after MeV hydrogen implantation in (100) Si was investigated in this study. Samples were implanted at 1 MeV with different fluences ranging from 6 × 10{sup 16} H/cm{sup 2} to 2 × 10{sup 17} H/cm{sup 2} and annealed at temperatures up to 873 K. By cross-section transmission electron microscopy, we found that the nature of extended defects in the MeV range is quite different of what is observed in the keV range. In fact, in our implantation conditions, the generated extended defects are some kinds of planar clusters of gas-filled lenses, instead of platelets as commonly reported in the keV energy range. This result underlines that hydrogen behaves differently when it is introduced in silicon at high or low implantation energy. The activation energy of the growth of these extended defects is independent of the chosen fluence and is between (0.5–0.6) eV, which is very close to the activation energy reported for atomic hydrogen diffusion in a perfect silicon crystal.

  3. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S

    2014-04-07

    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

  4. Indigenous development of diamond detectors for monitoring neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arvind; Amit Kumar; Topkar, Anita; Pithawa, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    High purity synthetic chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond has several outstanding characteristics that make it as an important material for detector applications specifically for extreme environmental conditions like high temperature, high radiation, and highly corrosive environments. Diamond detectors are especially considered promising for monitoring fast neutrons produced by the D-T nuclear fusion reactions in next generation fusion facilities such as ITER. When fast neutrons interact with carbon, elastic, inelastic and (n,α) type reactions can occur. These reactions can be employed for the detection of fast neutrons using diamond. We have initiated the development of diamond detectors based on synthetic CVD substrates. In this paper, the first test of a polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with fast neutrons is reported. The test results demonstrate that this detector can be used for monitoring fast neutrons. The diamond detectors have been fabricated using 5 mm x 5 mm, 300 μm polycrystalline diamond substrates. Aluminum metallization has been used on both sides of the detector to provide electrical contacts. The performance of fabricated detectors was first evaluated using current and capacitance measurements. The leakage current was observed to be stable and about a few pAs for voltages up to 300V. The capacitance-voltage characteristics showed a constant capacitance which is as expected. To confirm the response of the detector to charged particles, the pulse height spectrum (PHS) was obtained using 238 Pu- 239 Pu dual α- source. The PHS showed a continuum without any peak due to polycrystalline nature of diamond film. The response of the detector to fast neutrons has been studied using the fast neutron facility at NXF, BARC. The PHS obtained for a neutron yield of 4 x 10 8 n/s is shown. The average counts per second (cps) measured for diamond detector for different neutron yields is shown. The plot shows linearity with coefficient of determination R

  5. Switching polarity of oxidized detonation diamond nanoparticles on substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Štěpán; Petit, T.; Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 10 (2013), s. 2095-2099 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond nanoparticles * gold nanoparticles * Kelvin force microscopy * surface charge * work function Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.525, year: 2013

  6. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao

    2015-04-01

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) - tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  7. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao, E-mail: h.ye@aston.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin [Miba Coating Group: Teer Coatings Ltd, West-Stone-House, West-Stone, Berry-Hill-Industrial-Estate, WR9 9AS, Droitwich (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) – tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  8. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kundrát

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42 substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo – tungsten (W interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  9. On-machine measurement of a slow slide servo diamond-machined 3D microstructure with a curved substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Yang, Shunyao; Ju, Bing-Feng; Jiang, Jiacheng; Sun, Anyu

    2015-01-01

    A scanning tunneling microscope-based multi-axis measuring system is specially developed for the on-machine measurement of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures, to address the quality control difficulty with the traditional off-line measurement process. A typical 3D microstructure of the curved compound eye was diamond-machined by the slow slide servo technique, and then the whole surface was on-machine scanned three-dimensionally based on the tip-tracking strategy by utilizing a spindle, two linear motion stages, and an additional rotary stage. The machined surface profile and its shape deviation were accurately measured on-machine. The distortion of imaged ommatidia on the curved substrate was distinctively evaluated based on the characterized points extracted from the measured surface. Furthermore, the machining errors were investigated in connection with the on-machine measured surface and its characteristic parameters. Through experiments, the proposed measurement system is demonstrated to feature versatile on-machine measurement of 3D microstructures with a curved substrate, which is highly meaningful for quality control in the fabrication field. (paper)

  10. Growing of synthetic diamond boron-doped films for analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Rita de Cassia Mendes de; Suarez-Iha, Maria Encarnacion Vazquez; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Iha, Koshun

    1999-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology affords the possibility of producing synthetic diamond film electrodes, with several advantageous properties due the unique characteristics of diamond. In this work, we present the study of boron-doped diamond films growth on molybdenum and silicon substrates, using boron trioxide as dopant in a filament assisted CVD reactor. The objective was to obtain semiconductor diamond for use as electrode. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to confirm morphology and doping levels. We have assembled electrodes with the various samples, Pt, Mo, Si and diamond, by utilizing brass and left as base materials. The electrodes were tested in neutralization potentiometric titrations for future use in electroanalysis. Boron-doped electrodes have very good performance compared with Pt, widely used in analytical chemistry. (author)

  11. Optical and mechanical properties of diamond like carbon films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si (111) substrates by microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process using plasma of argon and methane gases. During deposition, a d.c. self-bias was applied to the substrates by application of 13.56 MHz rf power.

  12. Plasma boriding of a cobalt–chromium alloy as an interlayer for nanostructured diamond growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Jubinsky, Matthew; Catledge, Shane A., E-mail: catledge@uab.edu

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Metal-boride layer creates a compatible surface for NSD deposition. • PECVD boriding on CoCrMo produces robust metal-boride layer. • Deposition temperature comparison shows 750 °C boriding masks surface cobalt. • EDS shows boron diffusion as well as deposition. • Nanoindentation hardness of CoCrMo substantially increases after boriding. - Abstract: Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond coatings can potentially improve the wear resistance of cobalt–chromium medical implant surfaces, but the high cobalt content in these alloys acts as a catalyst to form graphitic carbon. Boriding by high temperature liquid baths and powder packing has been shown to improve CVD diamond compatibility with cobalt alloys. We use the microwave plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD process to deposit interlayers composed primarily of the borides of cobalt and chromium. The use of diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) in the plasma feedgas allows for the formation of a robust boride interlayer for suppressing graphitic carbon during subsequent CVD of nano-structured diamond (NSD). This metal–boride interlayer is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt for improving nucleation and adhesion of NSD coatings on a CoCrMo alloy. Migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer is significantly reduced and undetectable on the surface of the subsequently-grown NSD coating. The effects of PECVD boriding are compared for a range of substrate temperatures and deposition times and are evaluated using glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Boriding of CoCrMo results in adhered nanostructured diamond coatings with low surface roughness.

  13. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structure and quantum transport in the graphene–C(111) diamond surface system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selli, Daniele; Baburin, Igor; Leoni, Stefano; Seifert, Gotthard; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of a graphene monolayer with the C(111) diamond surface using ab initio density functional theory. To accommodate the lattice mismatch between graphene and diamond, the overlayer deforms into a wavy structure that binds strongly to the diamond substrate. The detached ridges of the wavy graphene overlayer behave electronically as free-standing polyacetylene chains with delocalized π electrons, separated by regions containing only sp 3 carbon atoms covalently bonded to the (111) diamond surface. We performed quantum transport calculations for different geometries of the system to study how the buckling of the graphene layer and the associated bonding to the diamond substrate affect the transport properties. The system displays high carrier mobility along the ridges and a wide transport gap in the direction normal to the ridges. These intriguing, strongly anisotropic transport properties qualify the hybrid graphene–diamond system as a viable candidate for electronic nanodevices. (paper)

  14. Investigation of the nucleation process of chemical vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katai, S.

    2001-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to contribute to the understanding of the bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) process during the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond on silicon. The investigation of both the gas phase environment above the substrate surface, by in situ mass selective energy analysis of ions, and of the surface composition and structure by in vacuo surface analytic methods (XPS, EELS) have been carried out. In both cases, the implementation of these measurements required the development and construction of special experimental apparatus as well. The secondary aim of this work was to give orientation to our long term goal of growing diamond films with improved quality. For this reason, (1) contaminant levels at the diamond-silicon interface after growth were studied by SIMS, (2) the internal stress distribution of highly oriented free-standing diamond films were studied by Raman spectroscopy, and (3) an attempt was made to produce spatially regular oriented nuclei formation by nucleating on a pattern created by laser treatment on silicon substrates. (orig.)

  15. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  16. Properties of planar structures based on Policluster films of diamond and AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanin, A. F.; Luchnikov, A. P.; Nalimov, S. A.; Bagdasarian, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    AlN films doped with zinc were grown on Si substrates by RF magnetron reactive sputtering of a compound target. Policluster films of diamond doped with boron were formed on layered Si/AlN substrates from the gas phase hydrogen and methane, activated arc discharge. By electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy the composition and structure of synthetic policluster films of diamond and AlN films were studied. Photovoltaic devices based on the AlN/PFD layered structure are presented.

  17. Plasmon-Organic Fiber Interactions in Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Nanostructured Gold Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cielecki, Pawel Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence of such p......Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence...

  18. Ferromagnetism appears in nitrogen implanted nanocrystalline diamond films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Sun, S. J.; Varga, M.; Chou, H.; Hsu, H.S.; Kromka, A.; Horák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 394, Nov (2015), s. 477-480 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : diamond * nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials * fine-particle systems * nanocrystalline materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  19. Cyclic voltammetry response of an undoped CVD diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabisiak, K., E-mail: kfab@ukw.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstancow Wielkopolskich 2, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Torz-Piotrowska, R. [Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, UTLS Seminaryjna 3, 85-326 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Staryga, E. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szybowicz, M. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Paprocki, K.; Popielarski, P.; Bylicki, F. [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstancow Wielkopolskich 2, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Wrzyszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation was found between diamond quality and its electrochemical performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrode sensitivity depends on the content of sp{sup 2} carbon phase in diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sp{sup 2} carbon phase content has little influence on the CV peak separation ({Delta}E{sub p}). - Abstract: The polycrystalline undoped diamond layers were deposited on tungsten wire substrates by using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. As a working gas the mixture of methanol in excess of hydrogen was used. The morphologies and quality of as-deposited films were monitored by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The electrochemical activity of the obtained diamond layers was monitored by using cyclic voltammetry measurements. Analysis of the ferrocyanide-ferricyanide couple at undoped diamond electrode suggests that electrochemical reaction at diamond electrode has a quasireversibile character. The ratio of the anodic and cathodic peak currents was always close to unity. In this work we showed that the amorphous carbon admixture in the CVD diamond layer has a crucial influence on its electrochemical performance.

  20. Diamond growth on Fe-Cr-Al alloy by H2-plasma enhanced graphite etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. S.; Hirose, A.

    2007-01-01

    Without intermediate layer and surface pretreatment, adherent diamond films with high initial nucleation density have been deposited on Fe-15Cr-5Al (wt. %) alloy substrate. The deposition was performed using microwave hydrogen plasma enhanced graphite etching in a wide temperature range from 370 to 740 degree sign C. The high nucleation density and growth rate of diamond are primarily attributed to the unique precursors used (hydrogen plasma etched graphite) and the chemical nature of the substrate. The improvement in diamond adhesion to steel alloys is ascribed to the important role played by Al, mitigation of the catalytic function of iron by suppressing the preferential formation of loose graphite intermediate phase on steel surface

  1. X-ray diffraction characterization of epitaxial CVD diamond films with natural and isotopically modified compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorov, I. A., E-mail: igor.prokhorov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Materials Science Laboratory, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics”, Kaluga Branch (Russian Federation); Voloshin, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Ralchenko, V. G.; Bolshakov, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Romanov, D. A. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Kaluga Branch (Russian Federation); Khomich, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sozontov, E. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Comparative investigations of homoepitaxial diamond films with natural and modified isotopic compositions, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on type-Ib diamond substrates, are carried out using double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and topography. The lattice mismatch between the substrate and film is precisely measured. A decrease in the lattice constant on the order of (Δa/a){sub relax} ∼ (1.1–1.2) × 10{sup –4} is recorded in isotopically modified {sup 13}C (99.96%) films. The critical thicknesses of pseudomorphic diamond films is calculated. A significant increase in the dislocation density due to the elastic stress relaxation is revealed by X-ray topography.

  2. Al and Cu Implantation into Silicon Substrate for Ohmic Contact in Solar Cell Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sulamdari; Sudjatmoko; Wirjoadi; Yunanto; Bambang Siswanto

    2002-01-01

    Research on the implantation of Al and Cu ions into silicon substrate for ohmic contact in solar cell fabrication has been carried using ion accelerator machine. Al and Cu ions are from 98% Al and 99.9% Cu powder ionized in ion source system. provided in ion implantor machine. Before implantation process, (0.5 x 1) cm 2 N type and P type silicon were washed in water and then etched in Cp-4A solution. After that, P type silicon were implanted with Al ions and N type silicon were implanted with Cu ions with the ions dose from 10 13 ion/cm 2 - 10 16 ion/cm 2 and energy 20 keV - 80 keV. Implanted samples were then annealed at temperature 400 o C - 850 o C. Implanted and annealed samples were characterized their resistivities using four point probe FPP-5000. It was found that at full electrically active conditions the ρ s for N type was 1.30 x 10 8 Ω/sq, this was achieved at ion dose 10 13 ion/cm 2 and annealing temperature 500 o C. While for P type, the ρ s was 1.13 x 10 2 Ω/sq, this was achieved at ion dose 10 13 ion/cm 2 and energy 40 keV, and annealing temperature 500 o C. (author)

  3. Low propagation loss in a one-port SAW resonator fabricated on single-crystal diamond for super-high-frequency applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Odawara, Tatsuya; Yamada, Haruya; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Torii, Hironori; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi

    2013-05-01

    Diamond has the highest known SAW phase velocity, sufficient for applications in the gigahertz range. However, although numerous studies have demonstrated SAW devices on polycrystalline diamond thin films, all have had much larger propagation loss than single-crystal materials such as LiNbO3. Hence, in this study, we fabricated and characterized one-port SAW resonators on single-crystal diamond substrates synthesized using a high-pressure and high-temperature method to identify and minimize sources of propagation loss. A series of one-port resonators were fabricated with the interdigital transducer/ AlN/diamond structure and their characteristics were measured. The device with the best performance exhibited a resonance frequency f of 5.3 GHz, and the equivalent circuit model gave a quality factor Q of 5509. Thus, a large fQ product of approximately 2.9 × 10(13) was obtained, and the propagation loss was found to be only 0.006 dB/wavelength. These excellent properties are attributed mainly to the reduction of scattering loss in a substrate using a single-crystal diamond, which originated from the grain boundary of diamond and the surface roughness of the AlN thin film and the diamond substrate. These results show that single-crystal diamond SAW resonators have great potential for use in low-noise super-high-frequency oscillators.

  4. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8–17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9–5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm"2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  5. i-anvils : in situ measurements of pressure, temperature and conductivity in diamond anvil cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, P.; Bureau, H.; Kubsky, S.; Meijer, J.; Datchi, F.; Ninet, S.; Estève, I.

    2011-12-01

    The precise determination of the pressure and temperature conditions during diamond anvils cells (DAC) experiments is of primary importance. Such determinations are critical more especially for the fields corresponding to "low pressures" (micro-structures are implanted in the diamond anvil lattice a few micrometers below the surface, the sensors are located a few μm below the center of the diamond culet (sample chamber position). When conductive electrodes are implanted at the position of the sample chamber on the culet of the anvil, instead of P,T sensors, they allow in situ measurements of electrical properties of the loaded sample at high P,T conditions in a DAC. The principle consists of applying an electrical potential across the structures through external contacts placed on the slopes of the anvil. The resistivity of these structures is sensitive to pressure and temperature applied in the sample chamber. The electrical transport properties of the sample can be measured the same way when electrodes have been implanted on the culet. Here we will present our last progresses, more especially using the focus ion beam (FIB) technology to perform contacts and electrodes. Progresses about the i-anvils connexions with the electronic devices will also be shown. We will present the last P and T sensors calibrations. Furnaces are also introduced through Boron implantation into the anvils, allowing the possibility to reach intermediate temperatures between externally heated DAC (up to 1100°C) and laser heated DAC (from 1500°C to a few thousands). Preliminary tests and the interest of such devices will be discussed at the meeting. A new diamond anvil cell has been especially designed for this purpose. This DAC allows in situ spectroscopies and X-Ray characterisation of geological fluids in their equilibrium conditions in the crust and in the upper mantle. Preliminary results will be presented.

  6. Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K. [US Synthetic, 1260 South 1600 West, Orem, UT 84058 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

  7. Ion implantation in semiconductor bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ions are selectively implanted into layers of a semiconductor substrate of, for example, semi-insulating gallium arsenide via a photoresist implantation mask and a metallic layer of, for example, titanium disposed between the substrate surface and the photoresist mask. After implantation the mask and metallic layer are removed and the substrate heat treated for annealing purposes. The metallic layer acts as a buffer layer and prevents possible contamination of the substrate surface, by photoresist residues, at the annealing stage. Such contamination would adversely affect the electrical properties of the substrate surface, particularly gallium arsenide substrates. (author)

  8. SERS activity of Ag decorated nanodiamond and nano-β-SiC, diamond-like-carbon and thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva; Ravulapalli, Satyavathi; Gangadharini, Upender; Ojha, Harish; Desai, Narayana Rao; Bansal, Chandrahas

    2015-09-07

    In the recent past surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based bio-sensing has gained prominence owing to the simplicity and efficiency of the SERS technique. Dedicated and continuous research efforts have been made to develop SERS substrates that are not only stable, durable and reproducible but also facilitate real-time bio-sensing. In this context diamond, β-SiC and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and other related thin films have been promoted as excellent candidates for bio-technological applications including real time bio-sensing. In this work, SERS activities of nanodiamond, nano-β-SiC, DLC, thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces were examined. DLC and thermally annealed diamond thin films were found to show SERS activity without any metal nanostructures on their surfaces. The observed SERS activities of the considered surfaces are explained in terms of the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism and charge transfer resonance process.

  9. Low-Energy, Hydrogen-Free Method of Diamond Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Diamond thin films were deposited on copper substrate by the Vapor Solid (VS) deposition method using a mixture of fullerene C(sub 60) and graphite as the source material. The deposition took place only when the substrate was kept in a narrow temperature range of approximately 550-650 C. Temperatures below and above this range results in the deposition of fullerenes and other carbon compounds, respectively.

  10. Raman spectroscopy study of the influence of processing conditions on the structure of polycrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurti, R.; Shanov, V.; Singh, R.N.; Mamedov, S.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond films are prepared by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on Si (100) substrates using the H 2 -Ar-CH 4 gases. Raman scattering data, including the peak position, intensity, area, and width, are analyzed in depth and used to obtain the sp 3 - and sp 2 -bonded carbon contents and the nature of internal stresses in the films. Polarization behavior of the Raman peaks is analyzed to assess its role on the quantitative analysis of the diamond films, which suggested that the 1150 cm -1 Raman peak in nanocrystalline diamond films could be attributed to sp 2 -bonded carbon. The role of the H 2 /Ar content in the gas mixture and substrate temperature on the characteristics of the diamond film is studied. Thickness and grain size of diamond films are also determined by scanning electron microscopy and related to the deposition conditions and Raman results. Deposition conditions, which led to highest sp 3 -bonded carbon content and growth rate, are identified

  11. Bacterial Adhesion to Diamond-like Carbon as Compared to Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soininen, Antti; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Konttinen, Yrjo T.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    Recent studies suggest that diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are suitable candidates for application on biomedical devices and implants, due to their high hardness, low friction, high wear and corrosion resistance, chemical inertness, smoothness, and tissue and blood compatibility. However, most

  12. A quantitative in vitro method to predict the adhesion lifetime of diamond-like carbon thin films on biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falub, Claudiu Valentin; Thorwarth, Götz; Affolter, Christian; Müller, Ulrich; Voisard, Cyril; Hauert, Roland

    2009-10-01

    A quantitative method using Rockwell C indentation was developed to study the adhesion of diamond-like carbon (DLC) protective coatings to the CoCrMo biomedical implant alloy when immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37 degrees C. Two kinds of coatings with thicknesses ranging from 0.5 up to 16 microns were investigated, namely DLC and DLC/Si-DLC, where Si-DLC denotes a 90 nm thick DLC interlayer containing Si. The time-dependent delamination of the coating around the indentation was quantified by means of optical investigations of the advancing crack front and calculations of the induced stress using the finite element method (FEM). The cause of delamination for both types of coatings was revealed to be stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of the interface material. For the DLC coating a typical SCC behavior was observed, including a threshold region (60J m(-2)) and a "stage 1" crack propagation with a crack-growth exponent of 3.0, comparable to that found for ductile metals. The DLC/Si-DLC coating exhibits an SCC process with a crack-growth exponent of 3.3 and a threshold region at 470 Jm(-2), indicating an adhesion in PBS at 37 degrees C that is about eight times better than that of the DLC coating. The SCC curves were fitted to the reaction controlled model typically used to explain the crack propagation in bulk soda lime glass. As this model falls short of accurately describing all the SCC curves, limitations of its application to the interface between a brittle coating and a ductile substrate are discussed.

  13. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Employed as Seeds for the Induction of Microcrystalline Diamond Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resto Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. X-ray diffraction, visible, and ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy , electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were employed to study the carbon bonding nature of the films and to analyze the carbon clustering around the seed nanoparticles leading to diamond synthesis. The results indicate that iron oxide nanoparticles lose the O atoms, becoming thus active C traps that induce the formation of a dense region of trigonally and tetrahedrally bonded carbon around them with the ensuing precipitation of diamond-type bonds that develop into microcrystalline diamond films under chemical vapor deposition conditions. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  14. Magnetic and cytotoxic properties of hot-filament chemical vapour deposited diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Hudson, E-mail: hudsonzanin@gmail.com [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Peterlevitz, Alfredo Carlos; Ceragioli, Helder Jose [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ana Amelia; Belangero, William Dias [Laboratorio de Biomateriais em Ortopedia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Cinco de Junho 350 CEP 13083970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) magnetic diamond samples were produced by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) on AISI 316 substrates. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) measurements indicated the presence of Fe, Cr and Ni in the MCD and NCD samples, and all samples showed similar magnetisation properties. Cell viability tests were realised using Vero cells, a type of fibroblastic cell line. Polystyrene was used as a negative control for toxicity (NCT). The cells were cultured under standard cell culture conditions. The proliferation indicated that these magnetic diamond samples were not cytotoxic. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycrystalline diamonds doped with Fe, Cr and Ni acquire ferromagnetic properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CVD diamonds have been prepared with magnetic and semiconductor properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro/nanocrystalline diamonds show good cell viability with fibroblast proliferation.

  15. Optical investigations on the wide bandgap semiconductors diamond and aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilov, Nikolai

    2007-07-01

    In the context of this thesis, new results about optical defects and intrinsic properties of diamond, AlN and AlGaN alloys have been obtained. The main experimental techniques used were low temperature cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectroscopy. First, different aspects of intentional and background doping of diamond were discussed. Thus, the most commonly observed green luminescence emission from boron doped HPHT diamonds has been studied by means of temperature dependent CL in a wide temperature range from 10 K to 450 K. One further subject, addressing deep defect nitrogen related luminescence was a study of nitrogen addition in combustion flame grown CVD diamond layers. Two further topics concern intrinsic excitations in diamond, free excitons and electron-hole drops. Several important parameters like the critical density, the critical temperature, and the low-temperature density inside the drops were evaluated. The ground state density of the electron-hole condensate in diamond is about {approx} 42 times larger than that in Si, and the critical temperature takes very high values in the range of 165K.. 173K. Cathodoluminescence investigations on epitaxial wurtzite AlN layers grown on sapphire, SiC, and Si substrates, have shown that although the material is generally of good optical quality, deep level luminescence are still dominating the spectra. Relatively sharp near-band-edge transitions have been observed in all three samples that exhibit significantly reduced line widths for the AlN/sapphire and the AlN/SiC samples. Much broader emission lines in the near band-gap region have been observed for the first time from the AlN sample grown on Si (111) substrate. Temperature dependent CL measurements and numerical line decompositions reveal complicated substructures in the excitonic lines. The temperature dependence of the energy positions and broadening parameters of the transition have been studied and compared with the other materials. Epitaxial Al

  16. Effect of Nano-Ni Catalyst on the Growth and Characterization of Diamond Films by HFCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Teng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different catalysts, nanodiamond seed, nano-Ni, diamond powder, and mixture of nano-Ni/diamond powder, were used to activate Si wafers for diamond film growth by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD. Diamond crystals were shown to grow directly on both large diamond powder and small nanodiamond seed, but a better crystallinity of diamond film was observed on the ultrasonicated nanodiamond seeded Si substrate. On the other hand, nano-Ni nanocatalysts seem to promote the formation of amorphous carbon but suppress transpolyacetylene (t-PA phases at the initial growth of diamond films. The subsequent nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on the amorphous carbon layer leads to generation of the spherical diamond particles and clusters prior to coalescence into continuous diamond films based on the CH3 addition mechanism as characterized by XRD, Raman, ATR/FT-IR, XPS, TEM, SEM, and AFM techniques. Moreover, a 36% reduction in surface roughness of diamond film assisted by nano-Ni catalyst is quite significant.

  17. Laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy as a diagnostic for the characterisation of diamond and diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.

    1990-10-01

    Invariably when manufacturing an artificial diamond film a mixture of carbon is deposited - tetragonally bonded (diamond), trigonally bonded (graphite) and other allotropic crystalline forms and amorphous carbons. This imposes a need for careful analysis to determine exactly what carbon types constitute the films. Raman spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to crystal and atomic structure and has a number of advantages which make it one of the most useful techniques for interrogating diamond and DLC thin films. Although Raman spectroscopy alone cannot fully characterise the film, it can give more information than simply what particular form of carbon or other impurities are present in the film. It can be used to determine the ratio of sp 2 to sp 3 bonding within the film, and to some extent the crystallite or domain size and the internal stress of the film. The use of laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in the analysis of diamond and DLC thin films is demonstrated for a variety of carbon films on various substrates and the characterisation of these films is discussed. (author)

  18. Nanomechanical and in situ TEM characterization of boron carbide thin films on helium implanted substrates: Delamination, real-time cracking and substrate buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Framil Carpeño, David, E-mail: david.framil-carpeno@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Ohmura, Takahito; Zhang, Ling [Strength Design Group, Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Leveneur, Jérôme [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Gracefield, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Seal, Christopher [International Centre for Advanced Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kennedy, John [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Gracefield, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Hyland, Margaret [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-15

    Boron carbide coatings deposited on helium-implanted and unimplanted Inconel 600 were characterized using a combination of nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy. Real-time coating, cracking and formation of slip bands were recorded using in situ TEM-nanoindentation, allowing site specific events to be correlated with specific features in their load–displacement curves. Cross-sections through the residual indent impression showed a correlation between pop-outs in the load–displacement curves and coating delamination, which was confirmed with cyclic indentation experiments. Inconel exhibits (-11-1) and (1-1-1) twin variants in its deformed region beneath the indenter, organized in bands with a ladder-like arrangement. The nanomechanical properties of the metal–ceramic coating combinations exhibit a marked substrate effect as a consequence of helium implantation.

  19. Nanomechanical and in situ TEM characterization of boron carbide thin films on helium implanted substrates: Delamination, real-time cracking and substrate buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Framil Carpeño, David; Ohmura, Takahito; Zhang, Ling; Leveneur, Jérôme; Dickinson, Michelle; Seal, Christopher; Kennedy, John; Hyland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Boron carbide coatings deposited on helium-implanted and unimplanted Inconel 600 were characterized using a combination of nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy. Real-time coating, cracking and formation of slip bands were recorded using in situ TEM-nanoindentation, allowing site specific events to be correlated with specific features in their load–displacement curves. Cross-sections through the residual indent impression showed a correlation between pop-outs in the load–displacement curves and coating delamination, which was confirmed with cyclic indentation experiments. Inconel exhibits (-11-1) and (1-1-1) twin variants in its deformed region beneath the indenter, organized in bands with a ladder-like arrangement. The nanomechanical properties of the metal–ceramic coating combinations exhibit a marked substrate effect as a consequence of helium implantation

  20. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/diamond double-layered structure for improved field electron emission stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@mail.usask.ca; Yang, Q.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.S.

    2013-12-31

    A double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized on silicon substrate by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. The synthesis was achieved by first depositing a layer of diamond on silicon and then depositing a top layer of vertically aligned CNTs by applying a negative bias on the substrate holder. The growth of CNTs was catalyzed by a thin layer of spin-coated iron nitride. The surface morphology and structure of the CNTs/diamond double-layered structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrum, and Raman Spectroscopy. Their field electron emission (FEE) properties were measured by KEITHLEY 237 high voltage measurement unit, showing much higher FEE current stability than single layered CNTs. - Highlights: • A new double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned CNTs and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. • This double-layered structure exhibits superior field electron emission stability. • The improvement of emission stability is due to the combination of the unique properties of diamond and CNTs.

  1. n-type diamond growth by phosphorus doping on (0 0 1)-oriented surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Okushi, Hideyo

    2007-01-01

    The properties of phosphorus incorporation for n-type doping of diamond are discussed and summarized. Doping of (0 0 1)-oriented diamond is introduced and compared with results achieved on (1 1 1) diamond. This review describes detailed procedures and conditions of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth and characteristics of electrical properties of phosphorus-doped diamond. The phosphorus incorporation was characterized by SIMS analysis including mapping. n-type conductivity is evaluated by Hall-effect measurements over a temperature regime of 300-1000 K. The crystal perfection of (0 0 1)-oriented n-type diamond is also evaluated by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction and cathodoluminescence analyses. The results show that phosphorus atoms are incorporated into the diamond network during (0 0 1) CVD diamond growth and that phosphorus acts as a donor as in (1 1 1)-oriented diamond. This result eliminates the restriction on substrate orientation, which had previously created a bottleneck in the development of diamond electronic devices. (review article)

  2. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.; Plum, Michael A.; Wilson, Leslie L.; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I.; Takagi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 (micro)g/cm 2 foils as large as 17 x 25 mm 2 have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 (micro)C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H - ) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  3. Boron-doped diamond electrode: synthesis, characterization, functionalization and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, John H T; Male, Keith B; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, conductive diamond electrodes for electrochemical applications have been a major focus of research and development. The impetus behind such endeavors could be attributed to their wide potential window, low background current, chemical inertness, and mechanical durability. Several analytes can be oxidized by conducting diamond compared to other carbon-based materials before the breakdown of water in aqueous electrolytes. This is important for detecting and/or identifying species in solution since oxygen and hydrogen evolution do not interfere with the analysis. Thus, conductive diamond electrodes take electrochemical detection into new areas and extend their usefulness to analytes which are not feasible with conventional electrode materials. Different types of diamond electrodes, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline, have been synthesized and characterized. Of particular interest is the synthesis of boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by chemical vapor deposition on various substrates. In the tetrahedral diamond lattice, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to its neighbors forming an extremely robust crystalline structure. Some carbon atoms in the lattice are substituted with boron to provide electrical conductivity. Modification strategies of doped diamond electrodes with metallic nanoparticles and/or electropolymerized films are of importance to impart novel characteristics or to improve the performance of diamond electrodes. Biofunctionalization of diamond films is also feasible to foster several useful bioanalytical applications. A plethora of opportunities for nanoscale analytical devices based on conducting diamond is anticipated in the very near future.

  4. Effect of pulse biasing on the morphology of diamond films grown by hot filament CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beake, B.D.; Hussain, I.U.; Rego, C.; Ahmed, W.

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond due to its unique mechanical, optical and electronic properties, which make it useful for many applications. For use in optical and electronic applications further developments in the CVD process are required to control the surface morphology and crystal size of the diamond films. These will require a detailed understanding of both the nucleation and growth processes that effect the properties. The technique of bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) of diamond offers better reproducibility than conventional pre-treatment methods such as mechanical abrasion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used study the surface modification of diamond films on silicon substrates during pulse biased growth in a hot filament CVD reactor. Pre-abraded silicon substrates were subjected to a three-step sequential growth process: (i) diamond deposition under standard CVD conditions, (ii) bias pre-treatment and (iii) deposition under standard conditions. The results show that the bias pre-treatment time is a critical parameter controlling the surface morphology and roughness of the diamond films deposited. Biasing reduces the surface roughness from 152 nm for standard CVD diamond to 68 nm for the 2.5 minutes pulse biased film. Further increase in the bias time results in an increase in surface roughness and crystallite size. (author)

  5. Chromium-doped DLC for implants prepared by laser-magnetron deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zemek, Josef; Mikšovský, Jan; Kubinová, Šárka; Remsa, Jan; Kopeček, Jaromir; Jurek, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are frequently used for coating of implants. The problem of DLC layers lies in bad layer adhesion to metal implants. Chromium is used as a dopant for improvement of adhesion of DLC films. DLC and Cr-DLC layers were deposited on silicon, Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo substrates by a hybrid technology using combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering. The topology of layers was studied using SEM, AFM and mechanical profilometer. Carbon and chromium content and concentration of trivalent and toxic hexavalent chromium bonds were determined by XPS and WDS. It follows from the scratch tests that Cr doping improved adhesion of DLC layers. Ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and deionized water were used to measure the contact angles. The surface free energy (SFE) was calculated. The antibacterial properties were studied using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The influence of SFE, hydrophobicity and surface roughness on antibacterial ability of doped layers is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km

  7. Diamond nanowires: a novel platform for electrochemistry and matrix-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-05-27

    Over the last decades, carbon-based nanostructures have generated a huge interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints owing to their physicochemical characteristics, markedly different from their corresponding bulk states. Among these nanostructured materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and more recently graphene and its derivatives, hold a central position. The large amount of work devoted to these materials is driven not only by their unique mechanical and electrical properties, but also by the advances made in synthetic methods to produce these materials in large quantities with reasonably controllable morphologies. While much less studied than CNTs and graphene, diamond nanowires, the diamond analogue of CNTs, hold promise for several important applications. Diamond nanowires display several advantages such as chemical inertness, high mechanical strength, high thermal and electrical conductivity, together with proven biocompatibility and existence of various strategies to functionalize their surface. The unique physicochemical properties of diamond nanowires have generated wide interest for their use as fillers in nanocomposites, as light detectors and emitters, as substrates for nanoelectronic devices, as tips for scanning probe microscopy as well as for sensing applications. In the past few years, studies on boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) focused on increasing their electrochemical active surface area to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to planar diamond interfaces. The first part of the present review article will cover the promising applications of BDD NWS for label-free sensing. Then, the potential use of diamond nanowires as inorganic substrates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, a powerful label-free approach for quantification and identification of small compounds, will be discussed.

  8. Diamond Nanowires: A Novel Platform for Electrochemistry and Matrix-Free Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, carbon-based nanostructures have generated a huge interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints owing to their physicochemical characteristics, markedly different from their corresponding bulk states. Among these nanostructured materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and more recently graphene and its derivatives, hold a central position. The large amount of work devoted to these materials is driven not only by their unique mechanical and electrical properties, but also by the advances made in synthetic methods to produce these materials in large quantities with reasonably controllable morphologies. While much less studied than CNTs and graphene, diamond nanowires, the diamond analogue of CNTs, hold promise for several important applications. Diamond nanowires display several advantages such as chemical inertness, high mechanical strength, high thermal and electrical conductivity, together with proven biocompatibility and existence of various strategies to functionalize their surface. The unique physicochemical properties of diamond nanowires have generated wide interest for their use as fillers in nanocomposites, as light detectors and emitters, as substrates for nanoelectronic devices, as tips for scanning probe microscopy as well as for sensing applications. In the past few years, studies on boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs focused on increasing their electrochemical active surface area to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to planar diamond interfaces. The first part of the present review article will cover the promising applications of BDD NWS for label-free sensing. Then, the potential use of diamond nanowires as inorganic substrates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, a powerful label-free approach for quantification and identification of small compounds, will be discussed.

  9. Nanocrystalline diamond: In vitro biocompatibility assessment by MG63 and human bone marrow cells cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M; Dias, A G; Gomes, P S; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) has a great potential for prosthetic implants coating. Nevertheless, its biocompatibility still has to be better understood. To do so, we employed several materials characterization techniques (SEM, AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy) and cell culture assays using MG63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. Biochemical routines (MTT assays, Lowry's method, ALP activity) supported by SEM and confocal microscopy characterization were carried out. We used silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates for NCD coatings based on a previous demonstration of the superior adhesion and tribological performance of these NCD coated ceramics. Results demonstrate an improved human osteoblast proliferation and the stimulation of differentiated markers, like ALP activity and matrix mineralization, compared with standard polystyrene tissue culture plates. The nanometric featuring of NCD, associated to its chemical affinity are key points for bone regeneration purposes.

  10. The Field Emission Characteristics of Titanium-Doped Nano-Diamonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan-Ning; ZHANG Zhi-Yong; ZHANG Fu-Chun; DONG Jun-Tang; ZHAO Wu; ZHAI Chun-Xue; ZHANG Wei-Hu

    2012-01-01

    An electrophoresis solution,prepared in a specific ratio of titanium (Ti)-doped nano-diamond,is dispersed by ultrasound and the nano-diamond coating is then deposited on a polished Ti substrate by electrophoresis.After high-temperature vacuum annealing,the appearance of the surface and the microstructures of the coating are observed by a metallomicroscope,scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.The field emission characteristics and luminescence features are also tested,and the mechanism of the field emission characteristics of the Ti-doped nano-diamond is analyzed.The experimental results show that under the same conditions,the diamond-coated surface (by deposition) is more uniform after doping with 5 mg of Ti powder.Compared with the undoped nano-diamond cathode,the turn-on fields decline from 6.95 to 5.95 V/μm.When the electric field strength is 13.80 V/μm,the field emission current density increases to 130.00 μA/cm2.Under the applied fields,the emission current is stable and the luminescence is at its best,while the field emission characteristics of the 10 mg Ti-doped coating become worse,as does the luminescence.The reason for this could be that an excessive amount of TiC is generated on the surface of the coating.%An electrophoresis solution, prepared in a speciGc ratio of titanium (Ti)-doped nano-diamond, is dispersed by ultrasound and the nano-diamond coating is then deposited on a polished Ti substrate by electrophoresis. After high-temperature vacuum annealing, the appearance of the surface and the microstructures of the coating are observed by a metallomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The field emission characteristics and luminescence features are also tested, and the mechanism of the field emission characteristics of the Ti-doped nano-diamond is analyzed. The experimental results show that under the same conditions, the diamond-coated surface (by deposition) is more uniform after doping with 5 mg of Ti

  11. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  12. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  13. Study of indium-defect interactions in diamond using 2-D CEEC

    CERN Document Server

    Storbeck, E J; Wahl, U; Connell, S H; Sellschop, J P Friedel

    2000-01-01

    Channeling has, since its inception, proven to be a valuable tool in locating the geometric position of atoms in the crystal lattice. Allied with powerful theoretical models, it can yield detailed information on the positions that these impurities occupy. $^{111}$In, a radioactive isotope with a conveniently short half-life, is an often-used probe of heavy-atom doping of materials. Previous work has centred on the lattice location of $^{111}$In implanted in type IIa diamond. Theoretical calculations on this `pure' system have also recently been made. We have performed the first studies of $^{111}$In implanted into various carefully selected, defect-rich diamond systems and obtained fractions for the sites occupied. The defect systems investigated include nitrogen in various configurations, boron, hydrogen and vacancies. The use of two-dimensional conversion-electron emission channeling (CEEC) has enabled the system to be studied in greater detail than with conventional one-dimensional CEEC. Coupled with the a...

  14. Influence of coil current modulation on polycrystalline diamond film deposition by irradiation of Ar/CH4/H2 inductively coupled thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsuin, Toshiki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Arai, T.; Uesugi, Y.; Ishijima, T.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the application of an Ar/CH4/H2 inductively coupled thermal plasma with and without coil current modulation to synthesise diamond films. Induction thermal plasma with coil current modulation is referred to as modulated induction thermal plasma (M-ITP), while that without modulation is referred to as non-modulated ITP (NM-ITP). First, spectroscopic observations of NM-ITP and M-ITP with different modulation waveforms were made to estimate the composition in flux from the thermal plasma by measuring the time evolution in the spectral intensity from the species. Secondly, we studied polycrystalline diamond film deposition tests on a Si substrate, and we studied monocrystalline diamond film growth tests using the irradiation of NM-ITP and M-ITP. From these tests, diamond nucleation effects by M-ITP were found. Finally, following the irradiation results, we attempted to use a time-series irradiation of M-ITP and NM-ITP for polycrystalline diamond film deposition on a Si substrate. The results indicated that numerous larger diamond particles were deposited with a high population density on the Si substrate by time-series irradiation.

  15. γ radiation thermoluminescence performance of HFCVD diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastelum, S.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films have been proposed as detectors and dosimeters of ionizing radiation with prospective applications in high-energy photon dosimetry applications. We present a comparison study on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of two diamond film samples grown by the hot filament CVD method having thickness of 180 and 500 μm and exposed to γ radiation in the 1-300 Gy dose range. The 180 μm thick sample deposited on silicon substrate displayed a TL glow curve peaked at 145 deg. C. The 500 μm, which was a free standing sample, exhibited higher intensity and a well defined first order kinetics TL glow peak around 289 deg. C. Both diamond samples showed a linear dose behavior in the 1-50 Gy range and sublinear behavior for higher doses. The 180 and 500 μm samples presented about 80% and 30% TL losses in a 24 h period, respectively, with both samples showing excellent TL reproducibility. The results indicate that the 500 μm CVD diamond film exhibited a good TL behavior adequate for γ radiation dosimetry

  16. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hébert, Clément, E-mail: clement.hebert@cea.fr [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine [INSERM, U836, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Garçon, Laurie Amandine [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CEA/INAC/SPrAM/CREAB, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mermoux, Michel [Université Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Eon, David [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mailley, Pascal [CEA-LETI-DTBS Minatec, 17 rue des Martyres, 38054 Grenoble (France); Omnès, Franck [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of all-diamond microelectrode array • Evaluation of as-grown nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond for electrical neural interfacing • MRI compatibility of nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond.

  17. Realization of a diamond based high density multi electrode array by means of Deep Ion Beam Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Bernardi, E.; Boarino, L.; Enrico, E.; Forneris, J.; Gatto Monticone, D.; Olivero, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we report about a parallel-processing ion beam fabrication technique whereby high-density sub-superficial graphitic microstructures can be created in diamond. Ion beam implantation is an effective tool for the structural modification of diamond: in particular ion-damaged diamond can be converted into graphite, therefore obtaining an electrically conductive phase embedded in an optically transparent and highly insulating matrix. The proposed fabrication process consists in the combination of Deep Ion Beam Lithography (DIBL) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling. FIB micromachining is employed to define micro-apertures in the contact masks consisting of thin (<10 μm) deposited metal layers through which ions are implanted in the sample. A prototypical single-cell biosensor was realized with the above described technique. The biosensor has 16 independent electrodes converging inside a circular area of 20 μm diameter (typical neuroendocrine cells size) for the simultaneous recording of amperometric signals

  18. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  19. Application of printed nanocrystalline diamond film for electron emission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuxia; Wei Shuyi; Lei Chongmin; Wei Jie; Lu Bingheng; Ding Yucheng; Zhu Changchun

    2011-01-01

    The low-cost and large area screen-printed nano-diamond film (NDF) for electronic emission was fabricated. The edges and corners of nanocrystalline diamond are natural field-emitters. The nano-diamond paste for screen-printing was fabricated of mixing nano-graphite and other inorganic or organic vehicles. Through enough disperse in isopropyl alcohol by ultrasonic nano-diamond paste was screen-printed on the substrates to form NDF. SEM images showed that the surface morphology of NDF was improved, and the nano-diamond emitters were exposed from NDF through the special thermal-sintering technique and post-treatment process. The field emission characteristics of NDF were measured under all conditions with 10 -6 Pa pressure. The results indicated that the field emission stability and emission uniformity of NDF were improved through hydrogen plasma post-treatment process. The turn-on field decreased from 1.60 V/μm to 1.25 V/μm. The screen-printed NDF can be applied to the displays electronic emission cathode for low-cost outdoor in large area.

  20. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...

  1. Ion and electron beam studies and applications of natural and synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellschop, J.P.F.; Connell, S.H.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Stemmet, M.C.; Naidoo, S.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Haricharun, H.

    1992-01-01

    'Nuclear' probes are shown to be powerful diagnostic analytical tools for the interrogation of diamond, whether natural or synthetic. The full sweep of such probes ranges from electrons to heavy ions, and spans energies over the keV to GeV range. Neutrons are singularly appropriate for the bulk trace element analysis of diamond, while charged particle (activation) analysis is appropriate for lighter element determination, and for surface and depth profiling specification. Energetic ions are effectively deployed for the study of the amorpisation and extrusion of diamond, and for ion implantation with the view to the production of devices in diamond. Resonant nuclear reactions are used effectively in establishing the 'macroscopic' distribution of dopants, while the used of pulsed ion beams in time dependent perturbed angular distribution studies gives information on 'microscopic' lattice location of impurities. Ion channeling in diamond sets near-theoretical parameterization of Lindhard channeling theory. Electron and positron channeling is interesting in its own right, and in the former case is shown to give rise to channeling radiation for few-MeV electron energies. At GeV electron energies, channeling is important as a powerful, polarized monochromatic photon source. Muons are an elegant tool in diamond studies, and the formation of muonium permits of (radiation damage-free) hydrogen-equivalent studies. Two relatively unused nuclear techniques, Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation, are shown to give unique information on diamond. Finally the use of diamond as a detector of radiation is indicated. (author)

  2. Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.

  3. Activation behavior of boron implanted poly-Si on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, M.; Shimamura, K.; Tsubokawa, H.; Tokushige, K.; Furuta, H.; Hirao, T.

    2010-01-01

    The activation behavior of boron (B) implanted poly-Si films on glass substrates has been investigated. The effect of B dose and annealing temperature on crystal defects and electrical properties of the films were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurement. It was found that the maximum activation ratio of the film with B dose of 1 x 10 15 cm -2 was obtained when Raman peak associated with disordered amorphous silicon disappeared. However, reverse anneal was observed in the film when the annealing temperature further increased. The results from secondary ion mass spectrometry and Hall measurement revealed that B segregation at the top and bottom interface and deactivation of B substitutional occurred simultaneously in the high-dose specimens when the annealing temperature increased from 600 to 750 o C.

  4. Novel phase of carbon, ferromagnetism, and conversion into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Jagdish; Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new phase of carbon (referred to as Q-carbon) and address fundamental issues related to direct conversion of carbon into diamond at ambient temperatures and pressures in air without any need for catalyst and presence of hydrogen. The Q-carbon is formed as result of quenching from super undercooled state by using high-power nanosecond laser pulses. We discuss the equilibrium phase diagram (P vs. T) of carbon and show that by rapid quenching kinetics can shift thermodynamic graphite/diamond/liquid carbon triple point from 5000 K/12 GPa to super undercooled carbon at atmospheric pressure in air. It is shown that nanosecond laser heating of diamond-like amorphous carbon on sapphire, glass, and polymer substrates can be confined to melt carbon in a super undercooled state. By quenching the carbon from the super undercooled state, we have created a new state of carbon (Q-carbon) from which nanodiamond, microdiamond, microneedles, and single-crystal thin films are formed depending upon the nucleation and growth times allowed for diamond formation. The Q-carbon quenched from liquid is a new state of solid carbon with a higher mass density than amorphous carbon and a mixture of mostly fourfold sp 3 (75%–85%) with the rest being threefold sp 2 bonded carbon (with distinct entropy). It is expected to have new and improved mechanical hardness, electrical conductivity, chemical, and physical properties, including room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) and enhanced field emission. Here we present interesting results on RTFM, enhanced electrical conductivity and surface potential of Q-carbon to emphasize its unique properties. The Q-carbon exhibits robust bulk ferromagnetism with estimated Curie temperature of about 500 K and saturation magnetization value of 20 emu g −1 . From the Q-carbon, diamond phase is nucleated and a variety of micro- and nanostructures and large-area single-crystal diamond sheets are grown by allowing growth times

  5. Low temperature diamond growth by linear antenna plasma CVD over large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izak, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Potocky, Stepan; Kromka, Alexander; Varga, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there is a great effort to increase the deposition area and decrease the process temperature for diamond growth which will enlarge its applications including use of temperature sensitive substrates. In this work, we report on the large area (20 x 30 cm 2 ) and low temperature (250 C) polycrystalline diamond growth by pulsed linear antenna microwave plasma system. The influence of substrate temperature varied from 250 to 680 C, as controlled by the table heater and/or by microwave power, is studied. It was found that the growth rate, film morphology and diamond to non-diamond phases (sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds) are influenced by the growth temperature, as confirmed by SEM and Raman measurements. The surface chemistry and growth processes were studied in terms of activation energies (E a ) calculated from Arrhenius plots. The activation energies of growth processes were very low (1.7 and 7.8 kcal mol -1 ) indicating an energetically favourable growth process from the CO 2 -CH 4 -H 2 gas mixture. In addition, from activation energies two different growth regimes were observed at low and high temperatures, indicating different growth mechanism. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Modelling of diamond deposition microwave cavity generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassouni, K; Silva, F; Gicquel, A

    2010-01-01

    Some aspects of the numerical modelling of diamond deposition plasmas generated using microwave cavity systems are discussed. The paper mainly focuses on those models that allow (i) designing microwave cavities in order to optimize the power deposition in the discharge and (ii) estimating the detailed plasma composition in the vicinity of the substrate surface. The development of hydrogen plasma models that may be used for the self-consistent simulation of microwave cavity discharge is first discussed. The use of these models for determining the plasma configuration, composition and temperature is illustrated. Examples showing how to use these models in order to optimize the cavity structure and to obtain stable process operations are also given. A transport model for the highly reactive H 2 /CH 4 moderate pressure discharges is then presented. This model makes possible the determination of the time variation of plasma composition and temperature on a one-dimensional domain located on the plasma axis. The use of this model to analyse the transport phenomena and the chemical process in diamond deposition plasmas is illustrated. The model is also utilized to analyse pulsed mode discharges and the benefit they can bring as far as diamond growth rate and quality enhancement are concerned. We, in particular, show how the model can be employed to optimize the pulse waveform in order to improve the deposition process. Illustrations on how the model can give estimates of the species density at the growing substrate surface over a wide domain of deposition conditions are also given. This brings us to discuss the implication of the model prediction in terms of diamond growth rate and quality. (topical review)

  7. Optoelectronic properties of p-diamond/n-GaN nanowire heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Fabian; Hetzl, Martin; Weiszer, Saskia; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin; Wolfer, Marco; Nebel, Christoph E.; Kato, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, nanodiodes comprised of n-GaN nanowires on p-diamond substrates are investigated. The electric transport properties are discussed on the basis of simulations and determined experimentally for individual p-diamond/n-GaN nanodiodes by applying conductive atomic force microscopy. For low doping concentrations, a high rectification ratio is observed. The fabrication of a prototype nanoLED device on the basis of ensemble nanowire contacts is presented, showing simultaneous electroluminescence in the UV and the green spectral range which can be ascribed to hole injection into the n-GaN nanowires and electron injection into the p-diamond, respectively. In addition, the operation and heat distribution of the nanoLED device are visualized by active thermographic imaging

  8. GaN-based micro-LED arrays on flexible substrates for optical cochlear implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goßler, Christian; Bierbrauer, Colin; Moser, Rüdiger; Kunzer, Michael; Holc, Katarzyna; Pletschen, Wilfried; Köhler, Klaus; Wagner, Joachim; Schwarz, Ulrich T; Schwaerzle, Michael; Ruther, Patrick; Paul, Oliver; Neef, Jakob; Keppeler, Daniel; Hoch, Gerhard; Moser, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Currently available cochlear implants are based on electrical stimulation of the spiral ganglion neurons. Optical stimulation with arrays of micro-sized light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) promises to increase the number of distinguishable frequencies. Here, the development of a flexible GaN-based micro-LED array as an optical cochlear implant is reported for application in a mouse model. The fabrication of 15 µm thin and highly flexible devices is enabled by a laser-based layer transfer process of the GaN-LEDs from sapphire to a polyimide-on-silicon carrier wafer. The fabricated 50 × 50 µm 2 LEDs are contacted via conducting paths on both p- and n-sides of the LEDs. Up to three separate channels could be addressed. The probes, composed of a linear array of the said µLEDs bonded to the flexible polyimide substrate, are peeled off the carrier wafer and attached to flexible printed circuit boards. Probes with four µLEDs and a width of 230 µm are successfully implanted in the mouse cochlea both in vitro and in vivo. The LEDs emit 60 µW at 1 mA after peel-off, corresponding to a radiant emittance of 6 mW mm −2 . (paper)

  9. Patterned hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline diamond layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, M., E-mail: michael.mertens@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Mohr, M.; Brühne, K.; Fecht, H.J. [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Łojkowski, M.; Święszkowski, W. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Łojkowski, W. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties on fluorine-, hydrogen- and oxygen- terminated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films. • Micropatterned - multi-terminated layers with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas on one sample. • Visualization of multi-terminated surfaces by e.g. SEM and LFM. • Roughness and friction investigations on different terminated surfaces. • Smooth and biocompatible surfaces with same roughness regardless of hydrophobicity for microbiological investigations. - Abstract: In this work, we show that ultra nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces have been modified to add them hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. The nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. This allows growing diamond on different substrates which can be even 3D or structured. Silicon and, for optical applications, transparent quartz glass are the preferred substrates for UNCD layers growth. Fluorine termination leads to strong hydrophobic properties as indicated by a high contact angle for water of more than 100°. Hydrogen termination shows lesser hydrophobic behavior. Hydrophilic characteristics has been realised with oxygen termination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements confirm the oxygen and fluorine- termination on the nanocrystalline diamond surface. Further, by micropatterning using photolithography, multi-terminated layers have been created with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas. In addition, we have shown that retermination is achieved, and the properties of the surface have been changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and vice versa. Micro- roughness and stress in the grown film influences slightly the wetting angle as well. The opportunity to realize local differences in hydrophobicity on nanocrystalline diamond layers, in any size or geometry, offers interesting applications for example in

  10. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiso, Hisato; Yoshida, Mikiko; Nakano, Shizuka; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase

  11. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiso, Hisato [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yoshida, Mikiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Nakano, Shizuka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yasui, Haruyuki [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase.

  12. Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)

  13. Kinetics of hydroxyapatite deposition on solid substrates modified by sequential implantation of Ca and P ions - Part I. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecheva, Emilia V.; Pramatarova, Liliana D.; Maitz, Manfred F.; Pham, Mihn T.; Kondyuirin, Alexey V.

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the kinetics of hydroxyapatite (HA) deposition on solid substrates from liquid precursor (simulated body fluid, SBF) is investigated. The surfaces of stainless steel, silicon and silica glass substrates are modified by sequential implantation of Ca and P ions. Three groups of samples of each material: (i) ion-implanted; (ii) ion-implanted and thermally treated at 873 K in air for 60 min; and (iii) untreated are prepared. To investigate the kinetics of the HA deposition, all three groups of samples are introduced at equal conditions into SBF whose supersaturation is maintained during the whole 6-day period of immersion. The layers are analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Both techniques complement each other and show the formation of HA with incorporated CO 32- and HPO 42- groups. Following the kinetics of the deposition process, it is concluded that the speed of deposition is different on the three materials modified by Ca and P implantation and by oxidation, compared to untreated samples but in order to distinguish clearly the effect of the ion implantation and oxidation the very initial moment of nucleation and layer growth should be more carefully investigated.

  14. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Structural characteristics of single crystalline GaN films grown on (111) diamond with AlN buffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécz, Béla; Tóth, Lajos; Barna, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    Hexagonal GaN films with the [0001] direction parallel to the surface normal were grown on (111) oriented single crystalline diamond substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Pre-treatments of the diamond surface with the nitrogen plasma beam, prior the nucleation of a thin AlN layer......, eliminated the inversion domains and reduced the density of threading dislocations in the GaN epilayers. The films have an in-plane epitaxial relationship [1010]GaN//[110]diamond. Thus GaN (0001) thin films of single epitaxial relationship and of single polarity were realised on diamond with AlN buffer....

  16. Phenomenological effets of tantalum incorporation into diamond films: Experimental and first principle studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Mahtab, E-mail: mahtabullah@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Ahmad, E. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Raza, Rizwan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore-54000 (Pakistan); Hussain, Fayyaz [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Hussain, Akhtar; Iqbal, Muhammad [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of tantalum incorporated diamonds films using HFCVD technique. • Decrease in resistivity by increasing tantalum content in diamond thin films. • Electronic structure calculations of tantalum incorporated diamonds films through VASP code. • A rise of bond length and bond angles by addition of tantalum in the diamond lattice. • Confirmation of decrease of resistivity by adding tantalum due to creation of impurity states in the bandgap. - Abstract: Tantalum (Ta) incorporated diamond films are synthesized on silicon substrate by chemical vapor deposition under gas mixture of CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. Characterizations of the resulting films indicate that morphology and resistivity of as-grown diamond films are significantly influenced by the process parameters and the amount of tantalum incorporated in the diamond films. XRD plots reveal that diamond films are composed of TaC along with diamond for higher concentration of tantalum and Ta{sub 2}C phases for lower concentration of tantalum. EDS spectra confirms the existence of tantalum in the diamond films. Resistivity measurements illustrate a sudden fall of about two orders of magnitude by the addition of tantalum in the diamond films. Band structure of Ta-incorporated diamond has been investigated based on density functional theory (DFT) using VASP code. Band structure calculations lead to the semiconducting behavior of Ta-incorporated diamond films because of the creation of defects states inside the band gap extending towards conduction band minimum. Present DFT results support experimental trend of resistivity that with the incorporation of tantalum into diamond lattice causes a decrease in the resistivity of diamond films so that tantalum-incorporated diamond films behave like a good semiconductor.

  17. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K W; Prawer, S; Weiser, P S; Dooley, S P [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Stress in tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon (WC-DLC) multilayer coatings have been prepared by sputter deposition from a tungsten-carbide target and periodic switching on and off of the reactive acetylene gas flow. The stress in the resulting WC-DLC multilayers has been studied by substrate curvature.

  20. Electron field emission for ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A. R.; Auciello, O.; Ding, M. Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Huang, Y.; Zhirnov, V. V.; Givargizov, E. I.; Breskin, A.; Chechen, R.; Shefer, E. (and others)

    2001-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films 0.1--2.4 {mu}m thick were conformally deposited on sharp single Si microtip emitters, using microwave CH{sub 4}--Ar plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in combination with a dielectrophoretic seeding process. Field-emission studies exhibited stable, extremely high (60--100 {mu}A/tip) emission current, with little variation in threshold fields as a function of film thickness or Si tip radius. The electron emission properties of high aspect ratio Si microtips, coated with diamond using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process were found to be very different from those of the UNCD-coated tips. For the HFCVD process, there is a strong dependence of the emission threshold on both the diamond coating thickness and Si tip radius. Quantum photoyield measurements of the UNCD films revealed that these films have an enhanced density of states within the bulk diamond band gap that is correlated with a reduction in the threshold field for electron emission. In addition, scanning tunneling microscopy studies indicate that the emission sites from UNCD films are related to minima or inflection points in the surface topography, and not to surface asperities. These data, in conjunction with tight binding pseudopotential calculations, indicate that grain boundaries play a critical role in the electron emission properties of UNCD films, such that these boundaries: (a) provide a conducting path from the substrate to the diamond--vacuum interface, (b) produce a geometric enhancement in the local electric field via internal structures, rather than surface topography, and (c) produce an enhancement in the local density of states within the bulk diamond band gap.

  1. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liskova J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Liskova,1 Oleg Babchenko,2 Marian Varga,2 Alexander Kromka,2 Daniel Hadraba,1 Zdenek Svindrych,1 Zuzana Burdikova,1 Lucie Bacakova1 1Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are promising materials for bone implant coatings because of their biocompatibility, chemical resistance, and mechanical hardness. Moreover, NCD wettability can be tailored by grafting specific atoms. The NCD films used in this study were grown on silicon substrates by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and grafted by hydrogen atoms (H-termination or oxygen atoms (O-termination. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were used for biological studies on H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films. The adhesion, growth, and subsequent differentiation of the osteoblasts on NCD films were examined, and the extracellular matrix production and composition were quantified. The osteoblasts that had been cultivated on the O-terminated NCD films exhibited a higher growth rate than those grown on the H-terminated NCD films. The mature collagen fibers were detected in Saos-2 cells on both the H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films; however, the quantity of total collagen in the extracellular matrix was higher on the O-terminated NCD films, as were the amounts of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. Nevertheless, the expression of genes for osteogenic markers – type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin – was either comparable on the H-terminated and O-terminated films or even lower on the O-terminated films. In conclusion, the higher wettability of the O-terminated NCD films is promising for adhesion and growth of osteoblasts. In addition, the O-terminated surface also seems to support the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and extracellular matrix

  2. Cosmogenic helium and volatile-rich fluid in Sierra leone alluvial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConville, P.; Reynolds, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pursuant to the discovery elsewhere of cosmogenic 10 Be in alluvial diamond fragments from Zaire, noble gas measurements were made on two identical splits of a finely powdered, harshly acid-washed sample derived from selected (for clarity) fragments of a single alluvial diamond from Sierra Leone (sample LJA → L4 and L5). Essentially identical results were obtained for both splits. Isotopic ratios for Ar, Kr, and Xe were atmospheric and their elemental abundances were high relative to published data, owing to shock implantation in the crushing as verified in a supplementary experiment. No neon was detected above blank level. 3 He was exceptionally abundant, 4 He exceptionally depleted, possibly from the acid wash, and the ratio 3 He/ 4 He almost unprecedentedly high at an R/R a value of 246 ± 16. The results support the hypothesis that excess 3 He in diamonds is cosmogenic, although a cosmic-ray exposure of 5, 35, or (impossibly) 152 Ma for cyclic gardening of the sample to a maximum depth of 0, 4.6 m, or 20 m, respectively, is required. Troublesome for the cosmogenic hypothesis is a sample from very deep in the Finsch mine, South Africa, found by Zadnik et al (1987) to have an R/R a value of 1,000. This paper includes histograms of noble gas data published prior to mid-1988 for diamonds of known provenance. The Sierra Leone diamond studied in the supplementary experiment belongs to a distinct population of 40* Ar-rich diamonds consisting mostly of cubic diamonds for Zaire

  3. Diamond-like carbon layers grown by electrochemical method-structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulesza, S.; Szatkowski, J.; Lulinska, E.; Kozanecki, M.

    2008-01-01

    A simple method of production of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on various substrates by means of electrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons under ambient conditions is described in the paper. The amount of sp 3 -hybridized carbon clusters within deposited films is a key parameter of their structural quality, and is investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results indicate that although the electrolysis generally leads to granular DLC films contaminated with graphitic inclusions, providing current density larger than 520 mA cm -2 at 1700 V, sp 3 -rich microcrystals with sharp edges can be found as well. Micro-Raman spectroscopic data strongly suggest that these microcrystals are minute diamonds, which eventually opens up a new perspective for a low-temperature synthesis of diamond-related materials

  4. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  5. Temperature dependence of stress in CVD diamond films studied by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dychalska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of residual stress and its components with increasing temperature in chemical vapor deposited (CVD diamond films has a crucial impact on their high temperature applications. In this work we investigated temperature dependence of stress in CVD diamond film deposited on Si(100 substrate in the temperature range of 30 °C to 480 °C by Raman mapping measurement. Raman shift of the characteristic diamond band peaked at 1332 cm-1 was studied to evaluate the residual stress distribution at the diamond surface. A new approach was applied to calculate thermal stress evolution with increasing tempera­ture by using two commonly known equations. Comparison of the residts obtained from the two methods was presented. The intrinsic stress component was calculated from the difference between average values of residual and thermal stress and then its temperature dependence was discussed.

  6. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  7. Grating-assisted coupling to nanophotonic circuits in microcrystalline diamond thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Rath

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic diamond films can be prepared on a waferscale by using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on suitable substrates such as silicon or silicon dioxide. While such films find a wealth of applications in thermal management, in X-ray and terahertz window design, and in gyrotron tubes and microwave transmission lines, their use for nanoscale optical components remains largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that CVD diamond provides a high-quality template for realizing nanophotonic integrated optical circuits. Using efficient grating coupling devices prepared from partially etched diamond thin films, we investigate millimetre-sized optical circuits and achieve single-mode waveguiding at telecoms wavelengths. Our results pave the way towards broadband optical applications for sensing in harsh environments and visible photonic devices.

  8. Nanodiamond resonators fabricated on 8″ Si substrates using adhesive wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V.; Lisec, T.; Yoshikawa, T.; Reusch, M.; Iankov, D.; Giese, C.; Žukauskaitė, A.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the adhesive wafer bonding of diamond thin films onto 8″ silicon substrates is reported. In order to characterize bonded nano-crystalline diamond layers, vibrometry and interferometry studies of micro-fabricated flexural beam and disk resonators were carried out. In particular, surface topology along with resonant frequencies, eigenmodes and mechanical quality factors were recorded and analyzed in order to obtain physical parameters of the transferred films. The vibration properties of the bonded resonators were compared to those fabricated directly on 3″ silicon substrates.

  9. Improved dental implant drill durability and performance using heat and wear resistant protective coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; İlday, Serim; Bengu, Erman

    2018-03-02

    Dental implant drilling procedure is an essential step for implant surgery and frictional heat appeared in bone during drilling is a key factor affecting the success of an implant. The aim of this study is to increase the dental implant drill lifetime and performance using heat- and wear-resistant protective coatings hence to decrease the alveolar bone temperature caused by the dental implant drilling procedure. Commercially obtained stainless steel drills were coated with titanium aluminum nitride, diamond-like carbon, titanium boron nitride, and boron nitride coatings via magnetron-sputter deposition. Drilling procedure was performed on a bovine femoral cortical bone under the conditions mimicking clinical practice, where the tests were performed both under water-assisted cooling and under the conditions without any cooling was applied. Coated drill performances and durabilities were compared to that of three commonly used commercial drills which surfaces are made from namely; zirconia, black diamond and stainless steel. Protective coatings with boron nitride, titanium boron nitride and diamond-like carbon have significantly improved drill performance and durability. Especially boron nitride-coated drills have performed within safe bone temperature limits for 50 drillings even without any cooling is applied. Titanium aluminium nitride coated drills did not show any improvement over commercially obtained stainless steel drills. Surface modification using heat and wear resistant coatings is an easy and highly effective way to improve implant drill performance and durability, which can reflect positively on surgical procedure and healing period afterwards. The noteworthy success of different types of coatings is novel and likely to be applicable to various other medical systems.

  10. Gas Permeation, Mechanical Behavior and Cytocompatibility of Ultrathin Pure and Doped Diamond-Like Carbon and Silicon Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen M. Lackner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protective ultra-thin barrier films gather increasing economic interest for controlling permeation and diffusion from the biological surrounding in implanted sensor and electronic devices in future medicine. Thus, the aim of this work was a benchmarking of the mechanical oxygen permeation barrier, cytocompatibility, and microbiological properties of inorganic ~25 nm thin films, deposited by vacuum deposition techniques on 50 µm thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK foils. Plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (direct deposition from an ion source was applied to deposit pure and nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon films, while physical vapor deposition (magnetron sputtering in pulsed DC mode was used for the formation of silicon as well as titanium doped diamond-like carbon films. Silicon oxide films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The results indicate a strong influence of nanoporosity on the oxygen transmission rate for all coating types, while the low content of microporosity (particulates, etc. is shown to be of lesser importance. Due to the low thickness of the foil substrates, being easily bent, the toughness as a measure of tendency to film fracture together with the elasticity index of the thin films influence the oxygen barrier. All investigated coatings are non-pyrogenic, cause no cytotoxic effects and do not influence bacterial growth.

  11. Adhesion enhancement of diamond-like carbon thin films on Ti alloys by incorporation of nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.Z.; Tang, Y.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Coating adherent diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films directly on Ti alloys is technologically difficult. This research incorporates nanodiamond particles to form a diamond/DLC composite interlayer to enhance the adhesion of DLC thin films on Ti6Al4V substrates. Initially, nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a methane–hydrogen gas mixture. A DLC thin film was then deposited, on top of the nanodiamond particles, by direct ion beam deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the microstructure and chemical bonding of the deposited particles and films, and Rockwell indentation testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the deposited films. The results indicate that the pre-deposited nanodiamond particles significantly enhance the interfacial adhesion between the DLC thin film and the Ti6Al4V substrate, possibly by enhanced interfacial bonding, mechanical interlocking, and stress relief. - Highlights: ► Nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V before DLC deposition. ► Diamond/DLC composite film was formed by incorporation of nanodiamond particles. ► Greatly enhanced adhesion of diamond/DLC composite film on Ti6Al4V was achieved. ► Enhanced adhesion is by increased interfacial bonding and mechanical interlocking

  12. Adhesion enhancement of diamond-like carbon thin films on Ti alloys by incorporation of nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.Z.; Tang, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9 (Canada); Li, Y.S. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5E2 (Canada); Yang, Q., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Coating adherent diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films directly on Ti alloys is technologically difficult. This research incorporates nanodiamond particles to form a diamond/DLC composite interlayer to enhance the adhesion of DLC thin films on Ti6Al4V substrates. Initially, nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a methane–hydrogen gas mixture. A DLC thin film was then deposited, on top of the nanodiamond particles, by direct ion beam deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the microstructure and chemical bonding of the deposited particles and films, and Rockwell indentation testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the deposited films. The results indicate that the pre-deposited nanodiamond particles significantly enhance the interfacial adhesion between the DLC thin film and the Ti6Al4V substrate, possibly by enhanced interfacial bonding, mechanical interlocking, and stress relief. - Highlights: ► Nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V before DLC deposition. ► Diamond/DLC composite film was formed by incorporation of nanodiamond particles. ► Greatly enhanced adhesion of diamond/DLC composite film on Ti6Al4V was achieved. ► Enhanced adhesion is by increased interfacial bonding and mechanical interlocking.

  13. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengui, U.A.; Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F.; Hamanaka, M.H.M.O.; Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films

  14. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengui, U.A., E-mail: ursulamengui@gmail.com [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Hamanaka, M.H.M.O. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Divisão de Superfícies de Interação e Displays, Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP 65) km 143.6, CP 6162, CEP 13089-500, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films.

  15. Carbon and nitrogen in Type 2 supernova diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Donald D.; Eleid, Mounib; Brown, Lawrence E.

    1993-03-01

    Abundant diamonds found in meteorites seem either to have condensed within supernova interiors during their expansions and coolings or to have been present around those explosions. Either alternative allows implantation of Xe-HL prior to interstellar mixing. A puzzling feature is the near normalcy of the carbon isotopes, considering that the only C-rich matter, the He-burning shell, is pure C-12 in that region. That last fact has caused many to associate supernova carbon with C-12 carbon, so that its SUNOCONS have been anticipated as very C-12-rich. We show that this expectation is misleading because the C-13-rich regions of Type 2's have been largely overlooked in this thinking. We here follow the idea that the diamonds nucleated in the C-12-rich He shell, the only C-rich site for nucleation, but then attached C-13-rich carbon during turbulent encounters with overlying C-13-rich matter. That is, the initial diamonds continued to grow during the same collisional encounters that cause the Xe-HL implantation. Instead of interacting with the small carbon mass having 13/12 = 0.2 in the upper He zone, however, we have calculated the remnants of the initial H-burning core, which left behind C-13-rich matter as it receded during core hydrogen burning. Howard et al. described why the velocity mixing would be essential to understanding the implantation of both the Xe-H and Xe-L components. Velocity mixing is now known to occur from the X-ray and gamma-ray light curves of supernova 1987A. Using the stellar evolution code developed at Goettingen, we calculated at Clemson the evolution of a grid of massive stars up to the beginning of core He burning. We paid attention to all H-burning reactions throughout the star, to the treatment of both convection and semiconvection, and to the recession of the outer boundary of the convective H-burning core as the star expands toward a larger redder state. This program was to generate a careful map of the CNO isotope distribution as He

  16. Synthesis of diamond films by pulsed liquid injection chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of acetone and water as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apatiga, L.M.; Morales, J.

    2009-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition reactor based on the flash evaporation of an organic liquid precursor was used to grow diamond films on Si substrates. An effective pulsed liquid injection mechanism consisting of an injector, normally used for fuel injection in internal combustion engines, injects micro-doses of the precursor to the evaporation zone at 280 o C and is instantly evaporated. The resulting vapor mixture is transported by a carrier gas to the high-temperature reaction chamber where the diamond nucleates and grows on the substrate surface at temperatures ranging from 750 to 850 o C. The injection frequency, opening time, number of pulses and other injector parameters are controlled by a computer-driven system. The diamond film morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The as-deposited diamond films show a ball-shaped morphology with a grain size that varies from 100 to 400 nm, as well as the characteristic diamond Raman band at 1332 cm -1 . The effects of the experimental parameters and operation principle on the diamond films quality are analyzed and discussed in terms of crystallinity, composition, structure, and morphology.

  17. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  18. A Comparative Study of Three Different Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques of Carbon Nanotube Growth on Diamond Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty T. Quinton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares between the methods of growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs on diamond substrates and evaluates the quality of the CNTs and the interfacial strength. One potential application for these materials is a heat sink/spreader for high-power electronic devices. The CNTs and diamond substrates have a significantly higher specific thermal conductivity than traditional heat sink/spreader materials making them good replacement candidates. Only limited research has been performed on these CNT/diamond structures and their suitability of different growth methods. This study investigates three potential chemical vapor deposition (CVD techniques for growing CNTs on diamond: thermal CVD (T-CVD, microwave plasma-enhanced CVD (MPE-CVD, and floating catalyst thermal CVD (FCT-CVD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to analyze the morphology and topology of the CNTs. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the quality of the CNTs by determining the ID/IG peak intensity ratios. Additionally, the CNT/diamond samples were sonicated for qualitative comparisons of the durability of the CNT forests. T-CVD provided the largest diameter tubes, with catalysts residing mainly at the CNT/diamond interface. The MPE-CVD process yielded non uniform defective CNTs, and FCT-CVD resulted in the smallest diameter CNTs with catalyst particles imbedded throughout the length of the nanotubes.

  19. Creating nitrogen–vacancy ensembles in diamond for coupling with flux qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ya-Rui; Xing Jian; Chang Yan-Chun; Yan Zhi-Guang; Deng Hui; Wu Yu-Lin; Lü Li; Pan Xin-Yu; Zhu Xiao-Bo; Zheng Dong-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid quantum system of negatively charged nitrogen−vacancy (NV − ) centers in diamond and superconducting qubits provide the possibility to extend the performances of both systems. In this work, we numerically simulate the coupling strength between NV − ensembles and superconducting flux qubits and obtain a lower bound of 10 16 cm −3 for NV − concentration to achieve a sufficiently strong coupling of 10 MHz when the gap between NV-ensemble and flux qubit is 0. Moreover, we create NV − ensembles in different types of diamonds by 14 N + and 12 C + ion implantation, electron irradiation, and high temperature annealing. We obtain an NV − concentration of 1.05 × 10 16 cm −3 in the diamond with 1-ppm nitrogen impurity, which is expected to have a long coherence time for the low nitrogen impurity concentration. This shows a step toward performance improvement of flux qubit-NV − hybrid system. (paper)

  20. Method of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond using methanol-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Briefly described, methods of forming diamond are described. A representative method, among others, includes: providing a substrate in a reaction chamber in a non-magnetic-field microwave plasma system; introducing, in the absence of a gas stream, a liquid precursor substantially free of water and containing methanol and at least one carbon and oxygen containing compound having a carbon to oxygen ratio greater than one, into an inlet of the reaction chamber; vaporizing the liquid precursor; and subjecting the vaporized precursor, in the absence of a carrier gas and in the absence in a reactive gas, to a plasma under conditions effective to disassociate the vaporized precursor and promote diamond growth on the substrate in a pressure range from about 70 to 130 Torr.

  1. Science and technology of biocompatible thin films for implantable biomedical devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Kabius, B.; Auciello, O.; Materials Science Division

    2010-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reviewing research to develop two critical biocompatible film technologies to enable implantable biomedical devices, namely: (1) development of bioinert/biocompatible coatings for encapsulation of Si chips implantable in the human body (e.g., retinal prosthesis implantable in the human eye) - the coating involves a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film or hybrid biocompatible oxide/UNCD layered films; and (2) development of biocompatible films with high-dielectric constant and microfabrication process to produce energy storage super-capacitors embedded in the microchip to achieve full miniaturization for implantation into the human body.

  2. The bonding of protective films of amorphic diamond to titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C. B.; Davanloo, F.; Lee, T. J.; Jander, D. R.; You, J. H.; Park, H.; Pivin, J. C.

    1992-04-01

    Films of amorphic diamond can be deposited from laser plasma ions without the use of catalysts such as hydrogen or fluorine. Prepared without columnar patterns of growth, the layers of this material have been reported to have ``bulk'' values of mechanical properties that have suggested their usage as protective coatings for metals. Described here is a study of the bonding and properties realized in one such example, the deposition of amorphic diamond on titanium. Measurements with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy showed that the diamond coatings deposited from laser plasmas were chemically bonded to Ti substrates in 100-200-Å-thick interfacial layers containing some crystalline precipitates of TiC. Resistance to wear was estimated with a modified sand blaster and in all cases the coating was worn away without any rupture or deterioration of the bonding layer. Such wear was greatly reduced and lifetimes of the coated samples were increased by a factor of better than 300 with only 2.7 μm of amorphic diamond.

  3. Electrophoretic preparation and characterization of porous electrodes from diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Lyda La Torre; Soto, Keyla; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R [Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscale Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PO Box 23346 San Juan, PR 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)

    2007-04-15

    We carried out chemical purification of commercially available diamond nanoparticles by refluxing in aqueous HNO{sub 3} and characterized the samples by spectroscopic and surface techniques before and after purification. As a first step in the preparation of electrodes for electrochemistry, we have electrophoretically deposited thin, highly uniform films of controlled thickness (1-8 {mu}m) on silicon substrates using the purified diamond nanoparticles. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films obtained were homogeneous in thickness and without macroscopic holes or cracks. Such structures could also be used in many other applications such as fuel cells or lithium batteries. We have performed cyclic voltammetry experiments with these electrodes. The voltammograms of diamond nanoparticles electrophoretically deposited on silicon indicate hydrogen evolution. This demonstrates that the material is useful as electrocatalitic support. This conclusion is supported by the cyclic voltammograms obtained using ferrycyanide (III) chloride and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes. However, these redox probes showed very small peak currents. This behavior could be improved by doping the diamond nanoparticles with an impurity such as boron.

  4. Electrophoretic preparation and characterization of porous electrodes from diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Lyda La Torre; Soto, Keyla; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2007-01-01

    We carried out chemical purification of commercially available diamond nanoparticles by refluxing in aqueous HNO 3 and characterized the samples by spectroscopic and surface techniques before and after purification. As a first step in the preparation of electrodes for electrochemistry, we have electrophoretically deposited thin, highly uniform films of controlled thickness (1-8 μm) on silicon substrates using the purified diamond nanoparticles. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films obtained were homogeneous in thickness and without macroscopic holes or cracks. Such structures could also be used in many other applications such as fuel cells or lithium batteries. We have performed cyclic voltammetry experiments with these electrodes. The voltammograms of diamond nanoparticles electrophoretically deposited on silicon indicate hydrogen evolution. This demonstrates that the material is useful as electrocatalitic support. This conclusion is supported by the cyclic voltammograms obtained using ferrycyanide (III) chloride and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes. However, these redox probes showed very small peak currents. This behavior could be improved by doping the diamond nanoparticles with an impurity such as boron

  5. Low-temperature (200 C or below) fabrication of diamond films for electronic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, A.

    2003-01-01

    Fabrication of Diamond (including Diamond Like Carbon: DLC) films as electronic materials, for example: to be used as electron-emitter, requires several following conditions. They are: 1 ) Low temperature fabrication (or deposition on several substrates and sometimes ones with low melting point, like glasses) below 400 C, 2) Wide area film deposition onto wide substrates of several square inches, like Si wafer and glass substrate, 3) Reproducible deposition of well defined film quality, 4) others. In these respects, we have initiated, in the author's laboratories at Osaka University and Kochi University of Technology, a quite new approach to satisfy the above requirements by using microwave plasma CVD under a magnetic field to be called as m agneto-active plasma CVD . The films fabricated by the magnets-active plasma CVD and also recently by cathodic arc methods combined with cur special nano-seeding method, have been utilized for electron emitter to exhibit very high efficiency. (Author)

  6. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  7. Trapezoidal diffraction grating beam splitters in single crystal diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Marcell; Graziosi, Teodoro; Quack, Niels

    2018-02-01

    Single Crystal Diamond has been recognized as a prime material for optical components in high power applications due to low absorption and high thermal conductivity. However, diamond microstructuring remains challenging. Here, we report on the fabrication and characterization of optical diffraction gratings exhibiting a symmetric trapezoidal profile etched into a single crystal diamond substrate. The optimized grating geometry diffracts the transmitted optical power into precisely defined proportions, performing as an effective beam splitter. We fabricate our gratings in commercially available single crystal CVD diamond plates (2.6mm x 2.6mm x 0.3mm). Using a sputter deposited hard mask and patterning by contact lithography, the diamond is etched in an inductively coupled oxygen plasma with zero platen power. The etch process effectively reveals the characteristic {111} diamond crystal planes, creating a precisely defined angled (54.7°) profile. SEM and AFM measurements of the fabricated gratings evidence the trapezoidal shape with a pitch of 3.82μm, depth of 170 nm and duty cycle of 35.5%. Optical characterization is performed in transmission using a 650nm laser source perpendicular to the sample. The recorded transmitted optical power as function of detector rotation angle shows a distribution of 21.1% in the 0th order and 23.6% in each +/-1st order (16.1% reflected, 16.6% in higher orders). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of diffraction gratings with trapezoidal profile in single crystal diamond. The fabrication process will enable beam splitter gratings of custom defined optical power distribution profiles, while antireflection coatings can increase the efficiency.

  8. Implant Fixture Heat Transfer During Abutment Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, Khalil; Alkeraidis, Abdullah; Al-Dwairi, Ziad Nawaf; Altahawi, Hamdi; Lynch, Edward

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of water flow rate on the heat transmission in implants during abutment preparation using a diamond bur in a high-speed dental turbine. Titanium-alloy abutments (n = 32) were connected to a titanium-alloy implant embedded in an acrylic resin within a water bath at a controlled temperature of 37°C. The specimens were equally distributed into 2 groups (16 each) according to the water flow rate used during the preparation phase. Group 1 had a water flow rate of 24 mL/min, and group 2 had a water flow rate of 40 mL/min. Each abutment was prepared in the axial plane for 1 minute and in the occlusal plane for 1 minute with a coarse tapered diamond bur using a high-speed dental handpiece. Thermocouples embedded at the cervix of the implant surface were used to record the temperature of heat transmission from the abutment preparation. Heat generation was measured at 3 distinct times (immediately and 30 seconds and 60 seconds after the end of preparation). Statistical analyses were carried out using 2-way analysis of variance and the Student t test. Water flow rates (24 mL vs 40 mL) and time interval had no statistically significant effect on the implant's temperature change during the abutment preparation stage (P = .431 and P = .064, respectively). Increasing the water flow rate from 24 to 40 mL/min had no influence on the temperature of the implant fixture recorded during preparation of the abutment.

  9. Beta Radiation Enhanced Thermionic Emission from Diamond Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Croot

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-based thermionic emission devices could provide a means to produce clean and renewable energy through direct heat-to-electrical energy conversion. Hindering progress of the technology are the thermionic output current and threshold temperature of the emitter cathode. In this report, we study the effects on thermionic emission caused by in situ exposure of the diamond cathode to beta radiation. Nitrogen-doped diamond thin films were grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on molybdenum substrates. The hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond was studied using a vacuum diode setup with a 63Ni beta radiation source-embedded anode, which produced a 2.7-fold increase in emission current compared to a 59Ni-embedded control. The emission threshold temperature was also examined to further assess the enhancement of thermionic emission, with 63Ni lowering the threshold temperature by an average of 58 ± 11 °C compared to the 59Ni control. Various mechanisms for the enhancement are discussed, with a satisfactory explanation remaining elusive. Nevertheless, one possibility is discussed involving excitation of preexisting conduction band electrons that may skew their energy distribution toward higher energies.

  10. Diamond encapsulated photovoltaics for transdermal power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnood, A; Fox, K E; Apollo, N V; Lohrmann, A; Garrett, D J; Nayagam, D A X; Karle, T; Stacey, A; Abberton, K M; Morrison, W A; Blakers, A; Prawer, S

    2016-03-15

    A safe, compact and robust means of wireless energy transfer across the skin barrier is a key requirement for implantable electronic devices. One possible approach is photovoltaic (PV) energy delivery using optical illumination at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths, to which the skin is highly transparent. In the work presented here, a subcutaneously implantable silicon PV cell, operated in conjunction with an external NIR laser diode, is developed as a power delivery system. The biocompatibility and long-term biostability of the implantable PV is ensured through the use of an hermetic container, comprising a transparent diamond capsule and platinum wire feedthroughs. A wavelength of 980 nm is identified as the optimum operating point based on the PV cell's external quantum efficiency, the skin's transmission spectrum, and the wavelength dependent safe exposure limit of the skin. In bench-top experiments using an external illumination intensity of 0.7 W/cm(2), a peak output power of 2.7 mW is delivered to the implant with an active PV cell dimension of 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.06 mm(3). This corresponds to a volumetric power output density of ~20 mW/mm(3), significantly higher than power densities achievable using inductively coupled coil-based approaches used in other medical implant systems. This approach paves the way for further ministration of bionic implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical implants and methods of making medical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Wendy J; Yonker, Clement R; Fulton, John L; Tarasevich, Barbara J; McClain, James B; Taylor, Doug

    2014-09-16

    A medical implant device having a substrate with an oxidized surface and a silane derivative coating covalently bonded to the oxidized surface. A bioactive agent is covalently bonded to the silane derivative coating. An implantable stent device including a stent core having an oxidized surface with a layer of silane derivative covalently bonded thereto. A spacer layer comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) is covalently bonded to the layer of silane derivative and a protein is covalently bonded to the PEG. A method of making a medical implant device including providing a substrate having a surface, oxidizing the surface and reacting with derivitized silane to form a silane coating covalently bonded to the surface. A bioactive agent is then covalently bonded to the silane coating. In particular instances, an additional coating of bio-absorbable polymer and/or pharmaceutical agent is deposited over the bioactive agent.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond-coated MEMS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Sobaszek, Michał; Ficek, Mateusz; Kopiec, Daniel; Moczała, Magdalena; Orłowska, Karolina; Sawczak, Mirosław; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication processes of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) films on silicon-based micro- and nano-electromechanical structures have been investigated. B-NCD films were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method. The variation in B-NCD morphology, structure and optical parameters was particularly investigated. The use of truncated cone-shaped substrate holder enabled to grow thin fully encapsulated nanocrystalline diamond film with a thickness of approx. 60 nm and RMS roughness of 17 nm. Raman spectra present the typical boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond line recorded at 1148 cm-1. Moreover, the change in mechanical parameters of silicon cantilevers over-coated with boron-doped diamond films was investigated with laser vibrometer. The increase of resonance to frequency of over-coated cantilever is attributed to the change in spring constant caused by B-NCD coating. Topography and electrical parameters of boron-doped diamond films were investigated by tapping mode AFM and electrical mode of AFM-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The crystallite-grain size was recorded at 153 and 238 nm for boron-doped film and undoped, respectively. Based on the contact potential difference data from the KPFM measurements, the work function of diamond layers was estimated. For the undoped diamond films, average CPD of 650 mV and for boron-doped layer 155 mV were achieved. Based on CPD values, the values of work functions were calculated as 4.65 and 5.15 eV for doped and undoped diamond film, respectively. Boron doping increases the carrier density and the conductivity of the material and, consequently, the Fermi level.

  13. Electronic and optical properties of diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Wojciech; Garrido, Jose; Niedermeier, Martin; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institute, TU Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Williams, Oliver; Haenen, Ken [Institute for Materials Research, University of Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Different diamond substrates (single crystalline: SCD, poly-crystalline: PCD and nano-crystalline: NCD) were used to investigate the electronic and optical properties of the diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures. Layers of a poly[ethynyl-(2-decyloxy-5methoxy)benzene] - PEB, pentacene and 4-nitro-biphenyl-4-diazonium cations - Ph-Ph-NO{sub 2} were prepared by spin coating, thermal evaporation and grafting, respectively. The measurements of the electronic transport along the organic layer were performed using a Hg probe as well as Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 70-400 K. The I-V characteristics of the B-doped diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures were measured at room temperature by means of the Hg probe. Undoped IIa and undoped PCD films were used for a study of the optical and optoelectronic properties of prepared heterostructures. The influence of the organic layer homogeneity and layer thickness on the optical properties will be discussed. Furthermore, preliminary data on perpendicular and parallel transport in the heterostructures layer will be reported.

  14. Effect of low-damage inductively coupled plasma on shallow nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Momenzadeh, S. Ali; Wang, Ya; Denisenko, Andrej, E-mail: a.denisenko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de [3. Institute of Physics, Research Center SCoPE and IQST, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Konuma, Mitsuharu [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M. [Element Six Innovation, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QR (United Kingdom); Wrachtrup, Jörg [3. Institute of Physics, Research Center SCoPE and IQST, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-08-17

    Near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have been successfully employed as atomic-sized magnetic field sensors for external spins over the last years. A key challenge is still to develop a method to bring NV centers at nanometer proximity to the diamond surface while preserving their optical and spin properties. To that aim we present a method of controlled diamond etching with nanometric precision using an oxygen inductively coupled plasma process. Importantly, no traces of plasma-induced damages to the etched surface could be detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confocal photoluminescence microscopy techniques. In addition, by profiling the depth of NV centers created by 5.0 keV of nitrogen implantation energy, no plasma-induced quenching in their fluorescence could be observed. Moreover, the developed etching process allowed even the channeling tail in their depth distribution to be resolved. Furthermore, treating a {sup 12}C isotopically purified diamond revealed a threefold increase in T{sub 2} times for NV centers with <4 nm of depth (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance signal from protons at the diamond surface) in comparison to the initial oxygen-terminated surface.

  15. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Jung, E-mail: dslim@korea.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Device Materials, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-17

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a {zeta}-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and {approx} 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  16. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon; Song, Min-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a ζ-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and ∼ 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 ± 0.4 x 10 11 cm -2 ) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  17. Porous boron doped diamonds as metal-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Ni; Huang, Hao; Wu, Aimin; Cao, Guozhong; Hou, Xiaoduo; Zhang, Guifeng

    2018-05-01

    Porous boron doped diamonds (BDDs) were obtained on foam nickel substrates with a porosity of 80%, 85%, 90% and 95% respectively by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that uniform and compact BDDs with a cauliflower-like morphology have covered the overall frame of the foam nickel substrates. Raman spectroscopy shows that the BDDs have a poor crystallinity due to heavily doping boron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis effectively demonstrates that boron atoms can be successfully incorporated into the crystal lattice of diamonds. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the oxygen reduction potential is unaffected by the specific surface area (SSA), and both the onset potential and the limiting diffusion current density are enhanced with increasing SSA. It is also found that the durability and methanol tolerance of the boron doped diamond catalysts are attenuated as the increasing of SSA. The SSA of the catalyst is directly proportional to the oxygen reduction activity and inversely to the durability and methanol resistance. These results provide a reference to the application of porous boron doped diamonds as potential cathodic catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution by adjusting the SSA.

  18. Combined Scanning Nanoindentation and Tunneling Microscope Technique by Means of Semiconductive Diamond Berkovich Tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, O; Novikov, N; Gontar, A; Grushko, V; Shcherbakov, A

    2007-01-01

    A combined Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) - nanoindentation instrument enables submicron resolution indentation tests and in-situ scanning of structure surfaces. A newly developed technique is based on the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with integrated Berkovich diamond semiconductive tip. Diamond tips for a combined SPM were obtained using the developed procedure including the synthesis of the semiconductive borondoped diamond monocrystals by the temperature gradient method at high pressure - high temperature conditions and fabrication of the tips from these crystals considering their zonal structure. Separately grown semiconductive diamond single crystals were studied in order to find the best orientation of diamond crystals. Optimal scanning characteristics and experimental data errors were calculated by an analysis of the general functional dependence of the tunneling current from properties of the tip and specimen. Tests on the indentation and scanning of the gold film deposited on the silicon substrate employing the fabricated tips demonstrated their usability, acceptable resolution and sensitivity

  19. Characteristics of ZnO/diamond thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y W; Lee, J G; Baik, Y J; Kim, H J; Jung, H J; Choi, W K; Cho, B H; Park, C Y

    1999-01-01

    Due to its high Young's modulus, diamond has the highest acoustic wave velocity among all materials and is expected to be a candidate substrate for high-frequency surface acoustic wave(SAW) devices. In this study, the deposition of ZnO, as a piezoelectric layer, on a diamond substrate is investigated. ZnO has been fabricated by using RF magnetron sputtering with a ZnO target and various Ar/O sub 2 gas ratios, RF powers, and substrate temperatures at a vacuum of 10 sup - sup 5 Torr. The sputtered ZnO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and I-V characteristics. All the films show only a (002) orientation. The atomic concentration of the sputtered ZnO films is changed by the oxygen gas ratio, and the ZnO films are grown with a homogeneous composition over their entire thickness. The electrical resistivity of the films varied from 4x10 sup 3 to 7x10 sup 8 OMEGA cm, depending on the Ar/O sub 2 gas ratio. The phase...

  20. Synchrotron Bragg diffraction imaging characterization of synthetic diamond crystals for optical and electronic power device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, Thu Nhi; Morse, J; Caliste, D; Fernandez, B; Eon, D; Härtwig, J; Barbay, C; Mer-Calfati, C; Tranchant, N; Arnault, J C; Lafford, T A; Baruchel, J

    2017-04-01

    Bragg diffraction imaging enables the quality of synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates and their overgrown, mostly doped, diamond layers to be characterized. This is very important for improving diamond-based devices produced for X-ray optics and power electronics applications. The usual first step for this characterization is white-beam X-ray diffraction topography, which is a simple and fast method to identify the extended defects (dislocations, growth sectors, boundaries, stacking faults, overall curvature etc. ) within the crystal. This allows easy and quick comparison of the crystal quality of diamond plates available from various commercial suppliers. When needed, rocking curve imaging (RCI) is also employed, which is the quantitative counterpart of monochromatic Bragg diffraction imaging. RCI enables the local determination of both the effective misorientation, which results from lattice parameter variation and the local lattice tilt, and the local Bragg position. Maps derived from these parameters are used to measure the magnitude of the distortions associated with polishing damage and the depth of this damage within the volume of the crystal. For overgrown layers, these maps also reveal the distortion induced by the incorporation of impurities such as boron, or the lattice parameter variations associated with the presence of growth-incorporated nitrogen. These techniques are described, and their capabilities for studying the quality of diamond substrates and overgrown layers, and the surface damage caused by mechanical polishing, are illustrated by examples.

  1. Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Picollo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3 to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release.

  2. Thermal diffusion boron doping of single-crystal natural diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Mikael, Solomon; Mi, Hongyi; Venkataramanan, Giri; Ma, Zhenqiang, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wu, Henry; Morgan, Dane [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Blanchard, James P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zhou, Weidong [Department of Electrical Engineering, NanoFAB Center, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States); Gong, Shaoqin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    With the best overall electronic and thermal properties, single crystal diamond (SCD) is the extreme wide bandgap material that is expected to revolutionize power electronics and radio-frequency electronics in the future. However, turning SCD into useful semiconductors requires overcoming doping challenges, as conventional substitutional doping techniques, such as thermal diffusion and ion implantation, are not easily applicable to SCD. Here we report a simple and easily accessible doping strategy demonstrating that electrically activated, substitutional doping in SCD without inducing graphitization transition or lattice damage can be readily realized with thermal diffusion at relatively low temperatures by using heavily doped Si nanomembranes as a unique dopant carrying medium. Atomistic simulations elucidate a vacancy exchange boron doping mechanism that occurs at the bonded interface between Si and diamond. We further demonstrate selectively doped high voltage diodes and half-wave rectifier circuits using such doped SCD. Our new doping strategy has established a reachable path toward using SCDs for future high voltage power conversion systems and for other novel diamond based electronic devices. The novel doping mechanism may find its critical use in other wide bandgap semiconductors.

  3. Thermal diffusion boron doping of single-crystal natural diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Mikael, Solomon; Mi, Hongyi; Venkataramanan, Giri; Ma, Zhenqiang; Wu, Henry; Morgan, Dane; Blanchard, James P.; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin

    2016-01-01

    With the best overall electronic and thermal properties, single crystal diamond (SCD) is the extreme wide bandgap material that is expected to revolutionize power electronics and radio-frequency electronics in the future. However, turning SCD into useful semiconductors requires overcoming doping challenges, as conventional substitutional doping techniques, such as thermal diffusion and ion implantation, are not easily applicable to SCD. Here we report a simple and easily accessible doping strategy demonstrating that electrically activated, substitutional doping in SCD without inducing graphitization transition or lattice damage can be readily realized with thermal diffusion at relatively low temperatures by using heavily doped Si nanomembranes as a unique dopant carrying medium. Atomistic simulations elucidate a vacancy exchange boron doping mechanism that occurs at the bonded interface between Si and diamond. We further demonstrate selectively doped high voltage diodes and half-wave rectifier circuits using such doped SCD. Our new doping strategy has established a reachable path toward using SCDs for future high voltage power conversion systems and for other novel diamond based electronic devices. The novel doping mechanism may find its critical use in other wide bandgap semiconductors.

  4. An all optical system for studying temperature induced changes in polycrystalline diamond deposited on a tungsten carbide substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this poster the authors discussed the ability to heat an industrial diamond sample by means of optical absorption of a CO2 laser beam, and then measure the resulting temperature on the surface of the diamond optically by means of radiometry...

  5. DC plasma ion implantation in an inductively coupled RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silawatshananai, C.; Matan, N.; Pakpum, C.; Pussadee, N.; Srisantitam, P.; Davynov, S.; Vilaithong, T.

    2004-01-01

    Various modes of plasma ion implantation have been investigated in a small inductively coupled 13.6 MHz RF plasma source. Plasma ion implantation with HVDC(up to -10 kV bias) has been investigated in order to incorporate with the conventional implantation of diamond like carbon. In this preliminary work, nitrogen ions are implanted into the stainless steel sample with a dose of 5.5 x 10 -2 cm for a short implanting time of 7 minutes without target cooling. Surface properties such as microhardness, wear rate and the friction coefficient have been improved. X-ray and SEM analyses show distinct structural changes on the surface. A combination of sheath assisted implantation and thermal diffusion may be responsible for improvement in surface properties. (orig.)

  6. Planarization of the diamond film surface by using the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Planarization of the free-standing diamond film surface as smooth as possible could be obtained by using the hydrogen plasma etching with the diffusion of the carbon species into the metal alloy (Fe, Cr, Ni). For this process, we placed the free-standing diamond film between the metal alloy and the Mo substrate like a metal-diamond-molybdenum (MDM) sandwich. We set the sandwich-type MDM in a microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. The sandwich-type MDM was heated over ca. 1000 .deg. C by using the hydrogen plasma. We call this process as the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process. After etching the free-standing diamond film surface, we investigated surface roughness, morphologies, and the incorporated impurities on the etched diamond film surface. Finally, we suggest that the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process is an adequate etching technique for the fabrication of the diamond film surface applicable to electronic devices

  7. Microstructure of buried CoSi2 layers formed by high-dose Co implantation into (100) and (111) Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Van Ommen, A.H.; Vandenhoudt, D.E.W.; Ottenheim, J.J.M.; de Jong, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Heteroepitaxial Si/CoSi 2 /Si structures have been synthesized by implanting 170-keV Co + with doses in the range 1--3x10 17 Co + ions/cm 2 into (100) and (111) Si substrates and subsequent annealing. The microstructure of both the as-implanted and annealed structures is investigated in great detail by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. In the as-implanted samples, the Co is present as CoSi 2 precipitates, occurring both in aligned (A-type) and twinned (B-type) orientation. For the highest dose, a continuous layer of stoichiometric CoSi 2 is already formed during implantation. It is found that the formation of a connected layer, already during implantation, is crucial for the formation of a buried CoSi 2 layer upon subsequent annealing. Particular attention is given to the coordination of the interfacial Co atoms at the Si/CoSi 2 (111) interfaces of both types of precipitates. We find that the interfacial Co atoms at the A-type interfaces are fully sevenfold coordinated, whereas at the B-type interfaces they appear to be eightfold coordinated

  8. Diamond identifaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    X-ray topography on diamonds allows for unique identification of diamonds. The method described consists of the registration of crystal defects, inclusions etc. of a diamond, resulting in a 'finger print' of the individual jewel which can only be changed by its complete destruction

  9. Development of CVD Diamond for Industrial Applications Final Report CRADA No. TC-2047-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olstad, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jory, H. [Communications and Power Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Vikharov, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-08

    This project was a collaborative effort to develop and demonstrate a new millimeter microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition(CVD) process for manufacturing large diamond disks with greatly reduced processing times and costs from those now available. In the CVD process, carbon based gases (methane) and hydrogen are dissociated into plasma using microwave discharge and then deposited layer by layer as polycrystalline diamond onto a substrate. The available low frequency (2.45GHz) microwave sources used elsewhere (De Beers) result in low density plasmas and low deposition rates: 4 inch diamond disks take 6-8 weeks to process. The new system developed in this project uses a high frequency 30GHz Gyrotron as the microwave source and a quasi-optical CVD chamber resulting in a much higher density plasma which greatly reduced the diamond processing times (1-2 weeks)

  10. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Clément; Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine; Garçon, Laurie Amandine; Mermoux, Michel; Eon, David; Mailley, Pascal; Omnès, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineered diamond nanopillars as mobile probes for high sensitivity metrology in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, P.; de Las Casas, C. F.; Heremans, F. J.; Awschalom, D. D.; Aleman, B. J.; Ohno, K.; Lee, J. C.; Hu, E. L.

    2015-03-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center`s optical addressability and exceptional spin coherence properties at room temperature, along with diamond`s biocompatibility, has put this defect at the frontier of metrology applications in biological environments. To push the spatial resolution to the nanoscale, extensive research efforts focus on using NV centers embedded in nanodiamonds (NDs). However, this approach has been hindered by degraded spin coherence properties in NDs and the lack of a platform for spatial control of the nanoparticles in fluid. In this work, we combine the use of high quality diamond membranes with a top-down patterning technique to fabricate diamond nanoparticles with engineered and highly reproducible shape, size, and NV center density. We obtain NDs, easily releasable from the substrate into a water suspension, which contain single NV centers exhibiting consistently long spin coherence times (up to 700 μs). Additionally, we demonstrate highly stable, three-dimensional optical trapping of the nanoparticles within a microfluidic circuit. This level of control enables a bulk-like DC magnetic sensitivity and gives access to dynamical decoupling techniques on contactless, miniaturized diamond probes. This work was supported by DARPA, AFOSR, and the DIAMANT program.

  12. Diamond identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of producing sets of records of the internal defects of diamonds as a means of identification of the gems by x-ray topography are described. To obtain the records one can either use (a) monochromatic x-radiation reflected at the Bragg angle from crystallographically equivalent planes of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections from each such plane being recorded from a number of directions of view, or (b) white x-radiation incident upon the diamond in directions having a constant angular relationship to each equivalent axis of symmetry of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections being recorded for each direction of the incident x-radiation. By either method an overall point-to-point three dimensional representation of the diamond is produced. (U.K.)

  13. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  14. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.

  16. Microcontact printing of monodiamond nanoparticles: an effective route to patterned diamond structure fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Song, Bo; Staedler, Thorsten; Jiang, Xin

    2011-10-04

    By combining microcontact printing with a nanodiamond seeding technique, a precise micrometer-sized chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond pattern have been obtained. On the basis of the guidance of basic theoretical calculations, monodisperse detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) were chosen as an "ink" material and oxidized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was selected to serve as a stamp because it features a higher interaction energy with the DNDs compared to that of the original PDMS. The adsorption kinetics shows an approximately exponential law with a maximum surface DND density of 3.4 × 10(10) cm(-2) after 20 min. To achieve a high transfer ratio of DNDs from the PDMS stamp to a silicon surface, a thin layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was spin coated onto the substrates. A microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the CVD diamond on the seeded substrate areas. Precise diamond patterns with a low expansion ratio (3.6%) were successfully prepared after 1.5 h of deposition. Further increases in the deposition time typically lead to a high expansion rate (∼0.8 μm/h). The general pattern shape, however, did not show any significant change. Compared with conventional diamond pattern deposition methods, the technique described here offers the advantages of being simple, inexpensive, damage-free, and highly compatible, rendering it attractive for a broad variety of industrial applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Diamond-based heat spreaders for power electronic packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemet, Thomas

    As any semiconductor-based devices, power electronic packages are driven by the constant increase of operating speed (higher frequency), integration level (higher power), and decrease in feature size (higher packing density). Although research and innovation efforts have kept these trends continuous for now more than fifty years, the electronic packaging technology is currently facing a challenge that must be addressed in order to move toward any further improvements in terms of performances or miniaturization: thermal management. Thermal issues in high-power packages strongly affect their reliability and lifetime and have now become one of the major limiting factors of power modules development. Thus, there is a strong need for materials that can sustain higher heat flux levels while safely integrating into the electronic package architecture. In such context, diamond is an attractive candidate because of its outstanding thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and high electrical resistivity. Its low heat capacity relative to metals such as aluminum or copper makes it however preferable for heat spreading applications (as a heat-spreader) rather than for dissipating the heat flux itself (as a heat sink). In this study, a dual diamond-based heat-spreading solution is proposed. Polycrystalline diamond films were grown through laser-assisted combustion synthesis on electronic substrates (in the U.S) while, in parallel, diamond-reinforced copper-matrix composite films were fabricated through tape casting and hot pressing (in France). These two types of diamond-based heat-spreading films were characterized and their microstructure and chemical composition were related to their thermal performances. Particular emphasize was put on the influence of interfaces on the thermal properties of the materials, either inside a single material (grain boundaries) or between dissimilar materials (film/substrate interface, matrix/reinforcement interface). Finally, the packaging

  18. Theoretical studies on a TeO2/ZnO/diamond-layered structure for zero TCD SAW devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Namrata; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-08-01

    High-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on diamond substrate are useful because of their very high SAW velocity. In the present work, SAW propagation characteristics, such as phase velocity, coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) of a TeO2/ZnO/diamond-layered structure, are examined using theoretical calculations. The ZnO/diamond bi-layer structure is found to exhibit a high positive TCD value. A zero TCD device structure is obtained after integration with a TeO2 over layer having a negative TCD value. Introduction of a non-piezoelectric TeO2 over layer on the bi-layer structure (ZnO/diamond) increases the coupling coefficient. A relatively low thickness of TeO2 thin film (~(1.6-3.1) × 10-3λ) is required to achieve temperature-stable SAW devices based on diamond.

  19. Influence of brazing parameters and alloy composition on interface morphology of brazed diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, Ulrich E. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: klotz@fem-online.de; Liu Chunlei [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Khalid, Fazal A. [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, GIK Institute, Topi, NWFP (Pakistan); Elsener, Hans-Rudolf [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Active brazing is an effective technique for joining diamond or cBN grit to metallic substrates. This technique is currently used to manufacture superabrasive, high-performance tools. The investigation of interface reactions between diamond and active brazing alloys plays an important role in understanding and improving the brazing process and the resultant tool performance. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling enabled the high resolution investigation of these extremely difficult to prepare metal-diamond joints. The interfacial nanostructure is characterized by the formation of two layers of TiC with different morphologies. First a cuboidal layer forms directly on the diamond and reaches a thickness of approximately 70 nm. Then a second layer with columnar TiC crystals grows on the first layer into the brazing filler metal by a diffusion-controlled process. The combined thickness of both TiC layers varies between 50 nm and 600 nm depending on the brazing temperature and holding time.

  20. Low-temperature synthesis of diamond films by photoemission-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, Mayuri, E-mail: kawata@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Ojiro, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Shuichi; Takakuwa, Yuji [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Okano, Ken [International Christian University, 3-10-2 Osawa, Mitaka 181-8585 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Photoemission-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PA-PECVD), a process in which photoelectrons emitted from a substrate irradiated with ultraviolet light are utilized as a trigger for DC discharge, was investigated in this study; specifically, the DC discharge characteristics of PA-PECVD were examined for an Si substrate deposited in advance through hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with a nitrogen-doped diamond layer of thickness ∼1 μm. Using a commercially available Xe excimer lamp (hν = 7.2 eV) to illuminate the diamond surface with and without hydrogen termination, the photocurrents were found to be 3.17 × 10{sup 12} and 2.11 × 10{sup 11} electrons/cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The 15-fold increase in photocurrent was ascribed to negative electron affinity (NEA) caused by hydrogen termination on the diamond surfaces. The DC discharge characteristics revealed that a transition bias voltage from a Townsend-to-glow discharge was considerably decreased because of NEA (from 490 to 373 V for H{sub 2} gas and from 330 to 200 V for Ar gas), enabling a reduction in electric power consumption needed to synthesize diamond films through PA-PECVD. In fact, the authors have succeeded in growing high-quality diamond films of area 2.0 cm{sup 2} at 540 °C with a discharge power of only 1.8 W, plasma voltage of 156.4 V, and discharge current of 11.7 mA under the glow discharge of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar mixed gases. In addition to having only negligible amounts of graphite and amorphous carbon, the diamond films exhibit a relatively high diamond growth rate of 0.5 μm/h at temperatures as low as 540 °C, which is attributed to Ar{sup +} ions impinging on the diamond surface, and causing the removal of hydrogen atoms from the surface through sputtering. This process leads to enhanced CH{sub x} radical adsorption, because the sample was applied with a negative potential to accelerate photoelectrons in PA-PECVD.

  1. The use of Raman scattering for studying the defects created by implantation in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhange, J.F.; Beserman, R.; Bourgoin, J.

    1974-01-01

    The evolution of Raman scattering with the dose of implanted ions and annealing temperature in silicon and diamond was studied. The variation in the concentration of the defects introduced by implantation, with the dose and annealing temperature were deduced. These results were compared with results obtained using electron paramagnetic resonance. The comparison shows that Raman scattering is a good technique to study the behavior of the defects in ion implanted semiconductors [fr

  2. Graphene-on-diamond devices with increased current-carrying capacity: carbon sp2-on-sp3 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Liu, Guanxiong; Sumant, Anirudha V; Goyal, Vivek; Balandin, Alexander A

    2012-03-14

    Graphene demonstrated potential for practical applications owing to its excellent electronic and thermal properties. Typical graphene field-effect transistors and interconnects built on conventional SiO(2)/Si substrates reveal the breakdown current density on the order of 1 μA/nm(2) (i.e., 10(8) A/cm(2)), which is ~100× larger than the fundamental limit for the metals but still smaller than the maximum achieved in carbon nanotubes. We show that by replacing SiO(2) with synthetic diamond, one can substantially increase the current-carrying capacity of graphene to as high as ~18 μA/nm(2) even at ambient conditions. Our results indicate that graphene's current-induced breakdown is thermally activated. We also found that the current carrying capacity of graphene can be improved not only on the single-crystal diamond substrates but also on an inexpensive ultrananocrystalline diamond, which can be produced in a process compatible with a conventional Si technology. The latter was attributed to the decreased thermal resistance of the ultrananocrystalline diamond layer at elevated temperatures. The obtained results are important for graphene's applications in high-frequency transistors, interconnects, and transparent electrodes and can lead to the new planar sp(2)-on-sp(3) carbon-on-carbon technology. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  3. Controlled surface chemistry of diamond/β-SiC composite films for preferential protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Yang, Yang; Zhuang, Hao; Schlemper, Christoph; Wesner, Daniel; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Wenjun; Jiang, Xin

    2014-02-04

    Diamond and SiC both process extraordinary biocompatible, electronic, and chemical properties. A combination of diamond and SiC may lead to highly stable materials, e.g., for implants or biosensors with excellent sensing properties. Here we report on the controllable surface chemistry of diamond/β-SiC composite films and its effect on protein adsorption. For systematic and high-throughput investigations, novel diamond/β-SiC composite films with gradient composition have been synthesized using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the diamond/β-SiC ratio of the composite films shows a continuous change from pure diamond to β-SiC over a length of ∼ 10 mm on the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was employed to unveil the surface termination of chemically oxidized and hydrogen treated surfaces. The surface chemistry of the composite films was found to depend on diamond/β-SiC ratio and the surface treatment. As observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, albumin and fibrinogen were preferentially adsorbed from buffer: after surface oxidation, the proteins preferred to adsorb on diamond rather than on β-SiC, resulting in an increasing amount of proteins adsorbed to the gradient surfaces with increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. By contrast, for hydrogen-treated surfaces, the proteins preferentially adsorbed on β-SiC, leading to a decreasing amount of albumin adsorbed on the gradient surfaces with increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. The mechanism of preferential protein adsorption is discussed by considering the hydrogen bonding of the water self-association network to OH-terminated surfaces and the change of the polar surface energy component, which was determined according to the van Oss method. These results suggest that the diamond/β-SiC gradient film can be a promising material for biomedical applications which

  4. Detection of diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.; Blondeel, E.J.G.; Taylor, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond particles are distinguished from non-diamond, associated particles on the basis of their higher refractive index. The particles are brought to a specific location, typically in a stream of water flowing full in a vertical duct, and a beam of collimated electromagnetic radiation is directed at them. An array of radiation detectors is provided to detect refracted and/or reflected radiation. The array is so configured that the responses of the detectors, considered collectively, will be indicative of the presence of a diamond when a diamond is in fact present. However, when a particle having a substantially lower refractive index is present, the responses of the detectors will not be so indicative. The diamond and non-diamond particles can subsequently be sorted from one another

  5. Implant damage and redistribution of indium in indium-implanted thin silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peng; An Zhenghua; Zhu Ming; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Montgomery, Neil; Biswas, Sukanta

    2004-01-01

    The indium implant damage and diffusion behavior in thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) with a 200 nm top silicon layer were studied for different implantation energies and doses. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in the channeling mode (RBS/C) was used to characterize the implant damage before and after annealing. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to study the indium transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior in the top Si layer of the SOI structure. An anomalous redistribution of indium after relatively high energy (200 keV) and dose (1 x 10 14 cm -2 ) implantation was observed in both bulk Si and SOI substrates. However, there exist differences in these two substrates that are attributable to the more predominant out-diffusion of indium as well as the influence of the buried oxide layer in the SOI structure

  6. Fabrication of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond nanoflowers based on 3D Cu(OH)2 dendritic architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Huijun; Hong, Sukin; Lee, Seungkoo; Lim, Daesoon; Jin, Juneon; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2012-01-01

    Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used to prepare boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDND) nanoflowers on a Cu substrate with a Cu(OH) 2 dendritic architecture that had been formed by using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) method with nanodiamond particles. The formation of diamond nanoflowers is controlled by the reaction time between the Cu(OH) 2 nanoflowers and the polymeric linker for the electrostatic attachment of nanodiamonds and by the deposition time for CVD diamond growth with a high nucleation density. Through analysis by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of BDND nanoflowers are determined, and a possible explanation is provided.

  7. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  8. Synthetic diamond in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskov, Yurii V

    1999-01-01

    The results of studies on the electrochemistry of diamond carried out during the last decade are reviewed. Methods for the preparation, the crystalline structure and the main electrophysical properties of diamond thin films are considered. Depending on the doping conditions, the diamond behaves as a superwide-gap semiconductor or as a semimetal. It is shown that the 'metal-like' diamond is corrosion-resistant and can be used advantageously as an electrode in the electrosynthesis (in particular, for the electroreduction of compounds that are difficult to reduce) and electroanalysis. Kinetic characteristics of some redox reactions and the impedance parameters for diamond electrodes are presented. The results of comparative studies of the electrodes made of diamond single crystals, polycrystalline diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon, which reveal the effect of the crystalline structure (e.g., the influence of intercrystallite boundaries) on the electrochemical properties of diamond, are presented. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  9. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  10. Defect studies of thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlček, M; Čížek, J; Procházka, I; Novotný, M; Bulíř, J; Lančok, J; Anwand, W; Brauer, G; Mosnier, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Thin ZnO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on four different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0), fused silica and nanocrystalline synthetic diamond. Defect studies by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) revealed significantly higher concentration of defects in the studied films when compared to a bulk ZnO single crystal. The concentration of defects in the films deposited on single crystal sapphire and MgO substrates is higher than in the films deposited on amorphous fused silica substrate and nanocrystalline synthetic diamond. Furthermore, the effect of deposition temperature on film quality was investigated in ZnO films deposited on synthetic diamond substrates. Defect studies performed by SPIS revealed that the concentration of defects firstly decreases with increasing deposition temperature, but at too high deposition temperatures it increases again. The lowest concentration of defects was found in the film deposited at 450° C.

  11. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Betina; Jarlstad Olesen, Morten T; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2017-01-01

    Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy (SMEPT) is a biomedical platform developed to perform a localized synthesis of drugs mediated by implantable biomaterials. This approach combines the benefits and at the same time offers to overcome the drawbacks for traditional pill-based drug administra......Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy (SMEPT) is a biomedical platform developed to perform a localized synthesis of drugs mediated by implantable biomaterials. This approach combines the benefits and at the same time offers to overcome the drawbacks for traditional pill-based drug...

  12. Diamond semiconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polowczyk, M.; Klugmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Many efforts to apply the semiconducting diamond for construction of electronic elements: resistors, thermistors, photoresistors, piezoresistors, hallotrons, pn diodes, Schottky diodes, IMPATT diodes, npn transistor, MESFETs and MISFETs are reviewed. Considering the possibilities of acceptor and donor doping, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of diamond as well as high electric-field breakdown points, that diamond devices could be used at about 30-times higher frequency and more then 8200 times power than silicon devices. Except that, due to high heat resistant of diamond, it is concluded that diamond devices can be used in environment at high temperature, range of 600 o C. (author)

  13. Multilayer coatings containing diamond and other hard materials on hardmetal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepf, A.; Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of hardmetal cutting tools, coatings of hard materials were established. Especially the production of multilayer coatings, which combine useful properties of different materials was a topic of industrial and academic research. The present work examined the possibilities of combining diamond as basic layer with protective CVD layers of TiC, TiN, Ti(C,N) and Al 2 O 3 . All these combinations could be realized and some showed quite good adherence under strain, which offers possibilities for technical applications. (author)

  14. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procházka, Václav, E-mail: prochazkav@fzu.cz [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Cifra, Michal [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Chaberská 57, 182 51 Prague (Czech Republic); Kulha, Pavel [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Ižák, Tibor [Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Rezek, Bohuslav [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Kromka, Alexander [Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 16629 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Interaction of non-adherent yeast cells with H-terminated diamond described. • Effect of cell culture solutions on H-diamond SGFET (positive potential shifts). • H-diamond sensitive to metabolic activity of yeast cells (negative potential shift). - Abstract: Diamond thin films provide unique features as substrates for cell cultures and as bio-electronic sensors. Here we employ solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFET) based on nanocrystalline diamond thin films with H-terminated surface which exhibits the sub-surface p-type conductive channel. We study an influence of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on electrical characteristics of the diamond SGFETs. Two different cell culture solutions (sucrose and yeast peptone dextrose–YPD) are used, with and without the cells. We have found that transfer characteristics of the SGFETs exhibit a negative shift of the gate voltage by −26 mV and −42 mV for sucrose and YPD with cells in comparison to blank solutions without the cells. This effect is attributed to a local pH change in close vicinity of the H-terminated diamond surface due to metabolic processes of the yeast cells. The pH sensitivity of the diamond-based SGFETs, the role of cell and protein adhesion on the gate surface and the role of negative surface charge of yeast cells on the SGFETs electrical characteristics are discussed as well.

  15. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procházka, Václav; Cifra, Michal; Kulha, Pavel; Ižák, Tibor; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Interaction of non-adherent yeast cells with H-terminated diamond described. • Effect of cell culture solutions on H-diamond SGFET (positive potential shifts). • H-diamond sensitive to metabolic activity of yeast cells (negative potential shift). - Abstract: Diamond thin films provide unique features as substrates for cell cultures and as bio-electronic sensors. Here we employ solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFET) based on nanocrystalline diamond thin films with H-terminated surface which exhibits the sub-surface p-type conductive channel. We study an influence of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on electrical characteristics of the diamond SGFETs. Two different cell culture solutions (sucrose and yeast peptone dextrose–YPD) are used, with and without the cells. We have found that transfer characteristics of the SGFETs exhibit a negative shift of the gate voltage by −26 mV and −42 mV for sucrose and YPD with cells in comparison to blank solutions without the cells. This effect is attributed to a local pH change in close vicinity of the H-terminated diamond surface due to metabolic processes of the yeast cells. The pH sensitivity of the diamond-based SGFETs, the role of cell and protein adhesion on the gate surface and the role of negative surface charge of yeast cells on the SGFETs electrical characteristics are discussed as well.

  16. Theoretical studies on a TeO2/ZnO/diamond-layered structure for zero TCD SAW devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, Namrata; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on diamond substrate are useful because of their very high SAW velocity. In the present work, SAW propagation characteristics, such as phase velocity, coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) of a TeO 2 /ZnO/diamond-layered structure, are examined using theoretical calculations. The ZnO/diamond bi-layer structure is found to exhibit a high positive TCD value. A zero TCD device structure is obtained after integration with a TeO 2 over layer having a negative TCD value. Introduction of a non-piezoelectric TeO 2 over layer on the bi-layer structure (ZnO/diamond) increases the coupling coefficient. A relatively low thickness of TeO 2 thin film (∼(1.6–3.1) × 10 −3 λ) is required to achieve temperature-stable SAW devices based on diamond

  17. Evaluation of Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface During Removal of Metal Copings Cemented onto Titanium Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, Umut; Cakan, Murat; Delilbasi, Cagri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the temperature increase due to heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when the abutment screw channel is accessed or a metal-ceramic crown is sectioned buccally with diamond or tungsten carbide bur using an air rotor, with or without irrigation. Cobalt-chromium copings were cemented onto straight titanium abutments. The temperature changes during removal of the copings were recorded over a period of 1 minute. The sectioning of coping with diamond bur and without water irrigation generated the highest temperature change at the cervical part of the implant. Both crown removal methods resulted in an increase in temperature at the implant-bone interface. However, this temperature change did not exceed 47°C, the potentially damaging threshold for bone reported in the literature.

  18. Coating of diamond-like carbon nanofilm on alumina by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasatien, Chotiwan; Tonanon, Nattaporn; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanofilms with thickness varied from under one hundred to a few hundred nanometers have been successfully deposited on alumina substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. To obtain dense continuous DLC nanofilm coating over the entire sample surface, alumina substrates were pre-treated to enhance the nucleation density. Raman spectra of DLC films on samples showed distinct diamond peak at around 1332 cm(-1), and the broad band of amorphous carbon phase at around 1550 cm(-1). Full width at half maximum height (FWHM) values indicated good formation of diamond phase in all films. The result of nano-indentation test show that the hardness of alumina samples increase from 7.3 +/- 2.0 GPa in uncoated samples to 15.8 +/- 4.5-52.2 +/- 2.1 GPa in samples coated with DLC depending on the process conditions. It is observed that the hardness values are still in good range although the thickness of the films is less than a hundred nanometer.

  19. Strain evolution in Si substrate due to implantation of MeV ion observed by extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Ghatak, J.; Satyam, P. V.; Akimoto, K.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the strain introduced in a Si(111) substrate due to MeV ion implantation using extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction and measured the rocking curves of asymmetrical 113 diffraction for the Si substrates implanted with a 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion at fluence values of 1x10 13 , 5x10 13 , and 1x10 14 /cm 2 . The measured curves consisted of a bulk peak and accompanying subpeak with an interference fringe. The positional relationship of the bulk peak to the subpeak and the intensity variation of those peaks with respect to the wavelengths of the x rays indicated that crystal lattices near the surface were strained; the lattice spacing of surface normal (111) planes near the surface was larger than that of the bulk. Detailed strain profiles along the depth direction were successfully estimated using a curve-fitting method based on Darwin's dynamical diffraction theory. Comparing the shapes of resultant strain profiles, we found that a strain evolution rapidly occurred within a depth of ∼300 nm at fluence values between 1x10 13 and 5x10 13 /cm 2 . This indicates that formation of the complex defects progressed near the surface when the fluence value went beyond a critical value between 1x10 13 and 5x10 13 /cm 2 and the defects brought a large strain to the substrate.

  20. Thermochemical micro imprinting of single-crystal diamond surface using a nickel mold under high-pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imoto, Yuji; Yan, Jiwang, E-mail: yan@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2017-05-15

    Graphical abstract: A Ni mold and thermochemically imprinted microstructures on diamond. - Highlights: • A thermochemical method for micro machining/patterning of diamond is proposed. • Various kinds of microstructures were imprinted on diamond using a Ni mold. • A graphite layer is formed during imprinting which can be removed by acid. • The processing depth depends strongly on pressure and temperature. - Abstract: Single-crystal diamond is an important material for cutting tools, micro electro mechanical systems, optical devices, and semiconductor substrates. However, the techniques for producing microstructures on diamond surface with high efficiency and accuracy have not been established. This paper proposes a thermochemical imprinting method for transferring microstructures from a nickel (Ni) mold onto single-crystal diamond surface. The Ni mold was micro-structured by a nanoindenter and then pressed against the diamond surface under high temperature and pressure in argon atmosphere. Results show that microstructures on the Ni mold were successfully transferred onto the diamond surface, and their depth increased with both pressure and temperature. Laser micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses indicate that a graphite layer was formed over the contact area between diamond and Ni during pressing, and after washing by a mixed acid, the graphite layer could be completely removed. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a cost-efficient fabrication method for large-area microstructures on single-crystal diamond.

  1. Effects of incident energy and angle on carbon cluster ions implantation on silicon substrate: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ye; Sang, Shengbo; Zhou, Bing; Deng, Xiao; Chai, Jing; Ji, Jianlong; Ge, Yang; Huo, Yuanliang; Zhang, Wendong

    2017-09-01

    Carbon cluster ion implantation is an important technique in fabricating functional devices at micro/nanoscale. In this work, a numerical model is constructed for implantation and implemented with a cutting-edge molecular dynamics method. A series of simulations with varying incident energies and incident angles is performed for incidence on silicon substrate and correlated effects are compared in detail. Meanwhile, the behavior of the cluster during implantation is also examined under elevated temperatures. By mapping the nanoscopic morphology with variable parameters, numerical formalism is proposed to explain the different impacts on phrase transition and surface pattern formation. Particularly, implantation efficiency (IE) is computed and further used to evaluate the performance of the overall process. The calculated results could be properly adopted as the theoretical basis for designing nano-structures and adjusting devices’ properties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51622507, 61471255, 61474079, 61403273, 51502193, 51205273), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi (Nos. 201601D021057, 201603D421035), the Youth Foundation Project of Shanxi Province (Nos. 2015021097), the Doctoral Fund of MOE of China (No. 20131402110013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2015AA042601), and the Specialized Project in Public Welfare from The Ministry of Water Resources of China (Nos. 1261530110110).

  2. Effective implantation of light emitting centers by plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam methods into nanosized diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himics, L.; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Tóth, A.; Koós, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of nitrogen implantation of nanodiamond using two low ion energy ion implantation methods were compared. • Formation of complex nitrogen-related defect centers was promoted by subsequent helium implantation and heat treatments. • Depth profiles of the implanted ions and the generated vacancies were determined using SRIM calculations. • The presence of nitrogen impurity was demonstrated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. • A new nitrogen related band was detected in the photoluminescence spectrum of the implanted samples that was attributed to the N3 color center in nanodiamond. - Abstract: Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam, were used to introduce nitrogen ions into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of light emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp 2 carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon energies was observed in the light emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen ions and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation

  3. Sputtered tungsten-based ternary and quaternary layers for nanocrystalline diamond deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael J; Rahil, Issam; Zou, Yujiao; Imhoff, Luc; Catledge, Shane A; Nouveau, Corinne; Stanishevsky, Andrei V

    2012-06-01

    Many of today's demanding applications require thin-film coatings with high hardness, toughness, and thermal stability. In many cases, coating thickness in the range 2-20 microm and low surface roughness are required. Diamond films meet many of the stated requirements, but their crystalline nature leads to a high surface roughness. Nanocrystalline diamond offers a smoother surface, but significant surface modification of the substrate is necessary for successful nanocrystalline diamond deposition and adhesion. A hybrid hard and tough material may be required for either the desired applications, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond film growth. One possibility is a composite system based on carbides or nitrides. Many binary carbides and nitrides offer one or more mentioned properties. By combining these binary compounds in a ternary or quaternary nanocrystalline system, we can tailor the material for a desired combination of properties. Here, we describe the results on the structural and mechanical properties of the coating systems composed of tungsten-chromium-carbide and/or nitride. These WC-Cr-(N) coatings are deposited using magnetron sputtering. The growth of adherent nanocrystalline diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated on these coatings. The WC-Cr-(N) and WC-Cr-(N)-NCD coatings are characterized with atomic force microscopy and SEM, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation.

  4. Synthesis of thick diamond films by direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Zeng Sun; Bai Yi Zhen; Lu Xian Yi

    2002-01-01

    The method of direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition has been established. A long-time stable glow discharge at large discharge current and high gas pressure has been achieved by using a hot cathode in the temperature range from 1100 degree C to 1500 degree C and non-symmetrical configuration of the poles, in which the diameter of the cathode is larger than that of anode. High-quality thick diamond films, with a diameter of 40-50 mm and thickness of 0.5-4.2 mm, have been synthesized by this method. Transparent thick diamond films were grown over a range of growth rates between 5-10 mu m/h. Most of the thick diamond films have thermal conductivities of 10-12 W/K centre dot cm. The thick diamond films with high thermal conductivity can be used as a heat sink of semiconducting laser diode array and as a heat spreading and isolation substrate of multichip modules. The performance can be obviously improved

  5. Diamondlike carbon deposition on plastic films by plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, T; Shinohara, M; Takagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Application of pulsed high negative voltage (approx 10 mu s pulse width, 300-900 pulses per second) to a substrate is found to induce discharge, thereby increasing ion current with an inductively coupled plasma source. This plasma source ion beam implantation (PSII) technique is investigated for the pretreatment and deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin layer on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) film. Pretreatment of PET with N sub 2 and Ar plasma is expected to provide added barrier effects when coupled with DLC deposition, with possible application to fabrication of PET beverage bottles. PSII treatment using N sub 2 and Ar in separate stages is found to change the color of the PET film, effectively increasing near-ultraviolet absorption. The effects of this pretreatment on the chemical bonding of C, H, and O are examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). DLC thin film was successfully deposited on the PET film. The surface of the DLC thin layer is observed to be smooth by scanning electron mic...

  6. Ion-implanted Si-nanostructures buried in a SiO{sub 2} substrate studied with soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.; Rubensson, J.E.; Eisebitt, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In recent years silicon nanostructures have gained great interest because of their optical luminescence, which immediately suggests several applications, e.g., in optoelectronic devices. Nanostructures are also investigated because of the fundamental physics involved in the underlying luminescence mechanism, especially attention has been drawn to the influence of the reduced dimensions on the electronic structure. The forming of stable and well-defined nanostructured materials is one goal of cluster physics. For silicon nanostructures this goal has so far not been reached, but various indirect methods have been established, all having the problem of producing less well defined and/or unstable nanostructures. Ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a promising new technique to overcome some of these difficulties. In this experiment the authors investigate the electronic structure of ion-implanted silicon nanoparticles buried in a stabilizing SiO{sub 2} substrate. Soft X-ray emission (SXE) spectroscopy features the appropriate information depth to investigate such buried structures. SXE spectra to a good approximation map the local partial density of occupied states (LPDOS) in broad band materials like Si. The use of monochromatized synchrotron radiation (MSR) allows for selective excitation of silicon atoms in different chemical environments. Thus, the emission from Si atom sites in the buried structure can be separated from contributions from the SiO{sub 2} substrate. In this preliminary study strong size dependent effects are found, and the electronic structure of the ion-implanted nanoparticles is shown to be qualitatively different from porous silicon. The results can be interpreted in terms of quantum confinement and chemical shifts due to neighboring oxygen atoms at the interface to SiO{sub 2}.

  7. Dielectric coatings on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Baker, P.; Milam, D.

    1976-01-01

    Large aperture, beryllium substrate-based mirrors have been used to focus high intensity pulsed laser beams. Finished surfaces have high reflectivity, low wavefront distortion, and high laser damage thresholds. This paper describes the development of a series of metallic coatings, surface finishing techniques, and dielectric overcoatings to meet specified performance requirements. Beryllium substrates were coated with copper, diamond-machined to within 5 micro-inches to final contour, nickel plated, and abrasively figured to final contour. Bond strengths for several bonding processes are presented. Dielectric overcoatings were deposited on finished multimetallic substrates to increase both reflectivity and the damage thresholds. Coatings were deposited using both high and low temperature processes which induce varying stresses in the finished coating substrate system. Data are presented to show the evolution of wavefront distortion, reflectivity, and damage thresholds throughout the many steps involved in fabrication

  8. Continuous functionally graded porous titanium scaffolds manufactured by selective laser melting for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changjun; Li, Yan; Wang, Qian; Wen, Shifeng; Wei, Qingsong; Yan, Chunze; Hao, Liang; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    A significant requirement for a bone implant is to replicate the functional gradient across the bone to mimic the localization change in stiffness. In this work, continuous functionally graded porous scaffolds (FGPSs) based on the Schwartz diamond unit cell with a wide range of graded volume fraction were manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). The micro-topology, strut dimension characterization and effect of graded volume fraction on the mechanical properties of SLM-processed FGPSs were systematically investigated. The micro-topology observations indicate that diamond FGPSs with a wide range of graded volume fraction from 7.97% to 19.99% were fabricated without any defects, showing a good geometric reproduction of the original designs. The dimensional characterization demonstrates the capability of SLM in manufacturing titanium diamond FGPSs with the strut size of 483-905µm. The elastic modulus and yield strength of the titanium diamond FGPSs can be tailored in the range of 0.28-0.59GPa and 3.79-17.75MPa respectively by adjusting the graded volume fraction, which are comparable to those of the cancellous bone. The mathematical relationship between the graded porosity and compression properties of a FGPS was revealed. Furthermore, two equations based on the Gibson and Ashby model have been established to predict the modulus and yield strength of SLM-processed diamond FGPSs. Compared to homogeneous diamond porous scaffolds, FGPSs provide a wide range of mutative pore size and porosity, which are potential to be tailored to optimize the pore space for bone tissue growth. The findings provide a basis of new methodologies to design and manufacture superior graded scaffolds for bone implant applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  10. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  11. Effects of temperature and Mo2C layer on stress and structural properties in CVD diamond film grown on Mo foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Fen; Wei, Qiuping; Yu, Z.M.; Luo, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiongwei; Long, Hangyu; Wu, Xianzhe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Polycrystalline diamond films were grown on Mo foil substrates by HF-CVD. •We investigated the temperature dependence of the film stress for each sample. •We show that how the thermal stress and intrinsic stress affects the total stress. •The stress of Mo foil substrate obtained by XRD was investigated in this study. •The effect of Mo 2 C interface layer for stress of multilayer system was considered. -- Abstract: Polycrystalline diamond films have been prepared by hot-filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) on Mo foils. The morphology, growth rate, phase composition, element distribution and residual stress of the films at different temperature were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrum, field emission electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the residual stress of the diamond films is compressive. The thermal stress plays a decisive role in the total stress, while the intrinsic stress can change the trend of the total stress. The residual stress of substrate gradually changes from tensile stress to compressive stress with the increase of the deposited temperature. A Mo 2 C interlayer is formed during deposition process, and this layer has an important influence on the stresses of films and substrates

  12. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films

  13. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  14. High Q diamond hemispherical resonators: fabrication and energy loss mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, Jonathan J; Bancu, Mirela G; Bauer, Joseph M; Cook, Eugene H; Kumar, Parshant; Nyinjee, Tenzin; Perlin, Gayatri E; Ricker, Joseph A; Teynor, William A; Weinberg, Marc S; Newton, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated polycrystalline diamond hemispheres by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD) in spherical cavities wet-etched into a high temperature glass substrate CTE matched to silicon. Hemispherical resonators 1.4 mm in diameter have a Q of up to 143 000 in the fundamental wineglass mode, for a ringdown time of 2.4 s. Without trimming, resonators have the two degenerate wineglass modes frequency matched as close as 2 Hz, or 0.013% of the resonant frequency (∼16 kHz). Laser trimming was used to match resonant modes on hemispheres to 0.3 Hz. Experimental and FEA energy loss studies on cantilevers and hemispheres examine various energy loss mechanisms, showing that surface related losses are dominant. Diamond cantilevers with a Q of 400 000 and a ringdown time of 15.4 s were measured, showing the potential of polycrystalline diamond films for high Q resonators. These resonators show great promise for use as hemispherical resonant gyroscopes (HRGs) on a chip. (paper)

  15. Local structure of the silicon implanted in a graphite single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Yuji; Shimoyama, Iwao; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Solid carbon forms two kinds of local structures, i.e., diamond-like and two-dimensional graphite structures. In contrast, silicon carbide tends to prefer only diamond structure that is composed of sp 3 bonds. In order to clarify weather or not two-dimensional graphitic Si x C layer exists, we investigate the local structures of Si x C layer produced by Si + -ion implantation into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by means of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The energy of the resonance peak in the Si K-edge NEXAFS spectra for Si + -implanted HOPG is lower than those for any other Si-containing materials. The intensity of the resonance peak showed a strong polarization dependence. These results suggests that the final state orbitals around Si atoms have π*-like character and the direction of this orbital is perpendicular to the graphite plane. It is elucidated that the Si-C bonds produced by the Si + -ion implantation are nearly parallel to the graphite plane, and Si x C phase forms a two-dimensionally spread graphite-like layer with sp 2 bonds. (author)

  16. Synchrotron Bragg diffraction imaging characterization of synthetic diamond crystals for optical and electronic power device applications1 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, Thu Nhi; Morse, J.; Caliste, D.; Fernandez, B.; Eon, D.; Härtwig, J.; Mer-Calfati, C.; Tranchant, N.; Arnault, J. C.; Lafford, T. A.; Baruchel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Bragg diffraction imaging enables the quality of synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates and their overgrown, mostly doped, diamond layers to be characterized. This is very important for improving diamond-based devices produced for X-ray optics and power electronics applications. The usual first step for this characterization is white-beam X-ray diffraction topography, which is a simple and fast method to identify the extended defects (dislocations, growth sectors, boundaries, stacking faults, overall curvature etc.) within the crystal. This allows easy and quick comparison of the crystal quality of diamond plates available from various commercial suppliers. When needed, rocking curve imaging (RCI) is also employed, which is the quantitative counterpart of monochromatic Bragg diffraction imaging. RCI enables the local determination of both the effective misorientation, which results from lattice parameter variation and the local lattice tilt, and the local Bragg position. Maps derived from these parameters are used to measure the magnitude of the distortions associated with polishing damage and the depth of this damage within the volume of the crystal. For overgrown layers, these maps also reveal the distortion induced by the incorporation of impurities such as boron, or the lattice parameter variations associated with the presence of growth-incorporated nitrogen. These techniques are described, and their capabilities for studying the quality of diamond substrates and overgrown layers, and the surface damage caused by mechanical polishing, are illustrated by examples. PMID:28381981

  17. Study of hard diamond-like carbon films deposited in an inductively coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiji; Ma Tengcai

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition of the hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma source (ICPS). The microscopy, microhardness, deposition rate and structure characteristic of the DLC films were analyzed. It is shown that the ICPS is suitable for the hard DLC film deposition at relatively low substrate negative bias voltage, and the substrate negative bias voltage greatly affects chemical vapor deposition of the DLC film and its quality

  18. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped and nitrogen-doped CVD diamond exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza-Flores, M.; Gastelum, S.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Favalli, A.

    2008-01-01

    It is known that the thermoluminescence (TL) performance of CVD diamond depends on the impurity concentration and doping materials introduced during growing. We report on the TL properties of undoped and 750 ppm nitrogen-doped CVD diamond grown on (0 0 1) silicon substrate. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation from a Gammacell 200 Nordion irradiator in the 10-500 Gy dose range at 627 mGy/min dose rate. The nitrogen-doped CVD diamond sample exhibited a TL glow curve peaked around 537 K and a small shoulder about 411 K and a linear dose behavior in the 10-60 Gy dose range. In contrast, the undoped specimen showed a 591 K peaked TL glow curve and linear dose response for 10-100 Gy doses. However, both samples displayed a non-linear dose response for doses higher than 100 Gy. The doping effects seem to cause a higher TL efficiency, which may be attributed to the differences in the diamond bonding and amorphous carbon on the CVD samples as well as to the presence of nitrogen. In addition, the nitrogen content may produce some structural and morphological surface effects, which may account for the distinctive TL features and dose response of the diamond samples

  19. Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Dispersed DLC/PDMS Substrates and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture(Researches)

    OpenAIRE

    伴, 雅人; Masahito, Ban

    2016-01-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) dispersed DLC (diamond-like carbon) thin film deposited PDMS substrates were fabricated with plasma treatments and dip coating methods. It was found from cell culture tests using the substrates as scaffolds human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) indicated larger F-actin areas compared with the substrates without GO and/or DLC.

  20. Application of heat treatment and dispersive strengthening concept in interlayer deposition to enhance diamond film adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Chiiruey [Tatung Inst. of Technol., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Kuo Chengtzu; Chang Rueyming [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30050 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-10-31

    Two different deposition processes were carried out to enhance adherence of diamond films on WC+3-5%Co substrate with Ti-Si as the interlayer. One process can be called two-step diamond deposition process. Another process can be called interlayer heat treatment process. Diamond films were deposited by a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. Ti and Si interlayer are deposited by DC sputter and an E-gun, respectively. Film morphologies, interface structure and film quality were examined by SEM, XRD, Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The residual stresses and adhesion strengths of the films were determined by Raman spectroscopy and indentation adhesion testing, respectively. Comparing the regular one-step diamond deposition process with the present two different new processes, the average dP/dX values, which are a measure of the adherence of the film, are 354 kgf/mm, 494 kgf/mm and 787 kgf/mm, respectively. In other words, the interlayer heat treatment process gives the best film adherence on average. For the two-step diamond deposition process, the interlayer thickness and the percent diamond surface coverage of the first diamond deposition step are the main parameters, and there exists an optimum Ti thickness and percent diamond coverage for the best film adherence. The main contribution to better film adherence is not a large difference in residual stress, but is due to the following reasons. The interlayer heat treatment can transform amorphous Si to polycrystalline Si, and may form strong TiC and SiC bonding. The polycrystalline Si and the diamond particles from the first diamond deposition step can be an effective seeds to enhance diamond nucleation. (orig.) 11 refs.

  1. Adhesion analysis of polycrystalline diamond films on molybdenum by means of scratch, indentation and sand abrasion testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijnsters, J.G. [Applied Physics, IMM, Department of Applied Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Shankar, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Enckevort, W.J.P. van [Solid State Chemistry, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schermer, J.J. [Experimental Solid State Physics III, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meulen, J.J. ter [Applied Physics, IMM, Department of Applied Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: htmeulen@sci.kun.nl

    2005-03-01

    Diamond films have been grown by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on molybdenum substrates under different growth conditions. The films grown with increasing substrate temperatures show a higher interconnection of diamond grains, whereas increasing methane concentrations in the 0.5-4.0% range lead to a transition from micro- towards nanocrystalline films. X-ray diffraction analysis shows Mo{sub 2}C interlayer formation. Indentation, scratch and sand erosion tests are used to evaluate the adhesion strength of the diamond films. Using steel ball indenters (diameter 750 {mu}m), indentation and scratch adhesion tests are performed up to final loads of 200 N. Upon indentation, the load values at which diamond film failure such as flaking and detachment is first observed, increase for increasing temperatures in the deposition temperature range of 450-850 deg C. The scratch adhesion tests show critical load values in the range of 16-40 N normal load for films grown for 4 h. In contrast, diamond films grown for 24 h at a methane concentration of 0.5% do not show any failure at all upon scratching up to 75 N. Film failure upon indenting and scratching is also found to decrease for increasing methane concentration in the CVD gas mixture. The sand abrasion tests show significant differences in coating failure for films grown at varying CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} ratios. In contrast to the other tests, here best coating performance is observed for the films deposited with a methane concentration of 4%.

  2. Mechanism of leakage of ion-implantation isolated AlGaN/GaN MIS-high electron mobility transistors on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Song, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fan, Yaming; Deng, Xuguang; Li, Shuiming; Sun, Shichuang; Li, Xiajun; Yuan, Jie; Sun, Qian; Dong, Zhihua; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we systematically investigated the leakage mechanism of the ion-implantation isolated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) on Si substrate. By means of combined DC tests at different temperatures and electric field dependence, we demonstrated the following original results: (1) It is proved that gate leakage is the main contribution to OFF-state leakage of ion-implantation isolated AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs, and the gate leakage path is a series connection of the gate dielectric Si3N4 and Si3N4-GaN interface. (2) The dominant mechanisms of the leakage current through LPCVD-Si3N4 gate dielectric and Si3N4-GaN interface are identified to be Frenkel-Poole emission and two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH), respectively. (3) A certain temperature annealing could reduce the density of the interface state that produced by ion implantation, and consequently suppress the interface leakage transport, which results in a decrease in OFF-state leakage current of ion-implantation isolated AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs.

  3. Multiphoton-Excited Fluorescence of Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, J. M.; Perreault, J. D.; Acosta, V. M.; Belthangady, C.; Lebel, P.; Kim, M. H.; Nguyen, K.; Demas, V.; Bajaj, V.; Santori, C.

    2017-05-01

    Silicon-vacancy color centers in nanodiamonds are promising as fluorescent labels for biological applications, with a narrow, nonbleaching emission line at 738 nm. Two-photon excitation of this fluorescence offers the possibility of low-background detection at significant tissue depth with high three-dimensional spatial resolution. We measure the two-photon fluorescence cross section of a negatively charged silicon vacancy (Si -V- ) in ion-implanted bulk diamond to be 0.74 (19 )×10-50 cm4 s /photon at an excitation wavelength of 1040 nm. Compared to the diamond nitrogen-vacancy center, the expected detection threshold of a two-photon excited Si -V center is more than an order of magnitude lower, largely due to its much narrower linewidth. We also present measurements of two- and three-photon excitation spectra, finding an increase in the two-photon cross section with decreasing wavelength, and we discuss the physical interpretation of the spectra in the context of existing models of the Si -V energy-level structure.

  4. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  5. Evaluation of the nanotube intrinsic resistance across the tip-carbon nanotube-metal substrate junction by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiczak, Maguy; Otubo, Larissa; Alamarguy, David; Houzé, Frédéric; Volz, Sebastian; Noël, Sophie; Bai, Jinbo

    2011-04-14

    Using an atomic force microscope (AFM) at a controlled contact force, we report the electrical signal response of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) disposed on a golden thin film. In this investigation, we highlight first the theoretical calculation of the contact resistance between two types of conductive tips (metal-coated and doped diamond-coated), individual MWCNTs and golden substrate. We also propose a circuit analysis model to schematize the «tip-CNT-substrate» junction by means of a series-parallel resistance network. We estimate the contact resistance R of each contribution of the junction such as Rtip-CNT, RCNT-substrate and Rtip-substrate by using the Sharvin resistance model. Our final objective is thus to deduce the CNT intrinsic radial resistance taking into account the calculated electrical resistance values with the global resistance measured experimentally. An unwished electrochemical phenomenon at the tip apex has also been evidenced by performing measurements at different bias voltages with diamond tips. For negative tip-substrate bias, a systematic degradation in color and contrast of the electrical cartography occurs, consisting of an important and non-reversible increase of the measured resistance. This effect is attributed to the oxidation of some amorphous carbon areas scattered over the diamond layer covering the tip. For a direct polarization, the CNT and substrate surface can in turn be modified by an oxidation mechanism.

  6. Effect of sputtered titanium interlayers on the properties of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cuiping, E-mail: licp226@126.com, E-mail: limingji@163.com; Li, Mingji, E-mail: licp226@126.com, E-mail: limingji@163.com; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Dai, Wei; Xu, Sheng [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Hongji [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2016-04-07

    Ti interlayers with different thicknesses were sputtered on Si substrates and then ultrasonically seeded in a diamond powder suspension. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films were deposited using a dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition system on the seeded Ti/Si substrates. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy tests showed that the roughness of the prepared Ti interlayer increased with increasing thickness. The effects of Ti interlayers with various thicknesses on the properties of NCD films were investigated. The results show nucleation, growth, and microstructure of the NCD films are strongly influenced by the Ti interlayers. The addition of a Ti interlayer between the Si substrate and the NCD films can significantly enhance the nucleation rate and reduce the surface roughness of the NCD. The NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer possesses the fastest nucleation rate and the smoothest surface. Raman spectra of the NCD films show trans-polyacetylene relevant peaks reduce with increasing Ti interlayer thickness, which can owe to the improvement of crystalline at grain boundaries. Furthermore, nanoindentation measurement results show that the NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer displays a higher hardness and elastic modulus. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images of a cross-section show that C atoms diffuse into the Ti layer and Si substrate and form TiC and SiC hard phases, which can explain the enhancement of mechanical properties of NCD.

  7. The fabrication and evaluation of diamond cold cathodes for field emitter display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, N.A.

    1998-08-01

    Semiconducting diamond is a candidate wide-band gap material for applications in vacuum microelectronic devices. Its potential use in components that are operated at high frequencies, handle high powers or are subjected to extremes of temperature and radiation have yet to be commercially realised. The work presented below sets out to determine whether semiconducting diamond is a suitable material for such active electronic devices by examining the most efficient means of initiating electron emission from Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD), semiconducting diamond. Novel methods are reported for the incorporation of impurity atoms of Nitrogen and Phosphorus into CVD diamond that employ ion-implantation techniques. Demonstration of the efficient incorporation of these impurities to form donor states with low activation energies into polycrystalline diamond would facilitate efficient room temperature operation of pn junctions devices. The effectiveness of boron as a p-type dopant in CVD diamond films has enabled the investigation of potential field emitter structures using different boron concentrations in order to identify their respective conduction mechanisms and to make a comparison of their relative electron emission performance. It has been concluded that efficient electron emission is observed to originate from the interface of n + -p, silicon/diamond heterojunctions that employ thin p-type regions which are less than 5μm thick. The emission current may be controlled by the application of a low voltage forward bias of less than 1 volt. Only the np junction containing 400 ppm of boron in the p-diamond layer demonstrated forward biased electron emission. It is proposed that carrier conduction across the junction interface involves recombination and tunnelling steps between interface trap states. Furthermore it is believed that due to the junction interface being in direct contact with vacuum, within this region of the emitter structure, a surface conduction emission

  8. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H{sub 2} into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH, H{sub β}, and H{sub α} were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T{sub 2g} phonon at 1333 cm{sup −1} peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  9. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  10. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  11. Single crystal diamond detectors grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuve, C.; Angelone, M.; Bellini, V.; Balducci, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pillon, M.; Potenza, R.; Pucella, G.; Russo, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Sutera, C.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2007-01-01

    The detection properties of heteropitaxial (polycrystalline, pCVD) and homoepitaxial (single crystal, scCVD) diamond films grown by microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the Laboratories of Roma 'Tor Vergata' University are reported. The pCVD diamond detectors were tested with α-particles from different sources and 12 C ions produced by 15MV Tandem accelerator at Southern National Laboratories (LNS) in Catania (Italy). pCVDs were also used to monitor 14MeV neutrons produced by the D-T plasma at Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, U.K. The limit of pCVDs is the poor energy resolution. To overcome this problem, we developed scCVD diamonds using the same reactor parameters that optimized pCVD diamonds. scCVD were grown on a low cost (100) HPHT single crystal substrate. A detector 110μm thick was tested under α-particles and under 14MeV neutron irradiation. The charge collection efficiency spectrum measured under irradiation with a triple α-particle source shows three clearly resolved peaks, with an energy resolution of about 1.1%. The measured spectra under neutron irradiation show a well separated C(n,α 0 ) 9 Be12 reaction peak with an energy spread of 0.5MeV for 14.8MeV neutrons and 0.3MeV for 14.1MeV neutrons, which are fully compatible with the energy spread of the incident neutron beams

  12. Fabrication of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond nanoflowers based on 3D Cu(OH){sub 2} dendritic architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Huijun; Hong, Sukin; Lee, Seungkoo; Lim, Daesoon; Jin, Juneon; Hwang, Sungwoo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used to prepare boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDND) nanoflowers on a Cu substrate with a Cu(OH){sub 2} dendritic architecture that had been formed by using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) method with nanodiamond particles. The formation of diamond nanoflowers is controlled by the reaction time between the Cu(OH){sub 2} nanoflowers and the polymeric linker for the electrostatic attachment of nanodiamonds and by the deposition time for CVD diamond growth with a high nucleation density. Through analysis by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of BDND nanoflowers are determined, and a possible explanation is provided.

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  14. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    Natural diamond has been valued for its appearance and mechanical properties for at least two thousand years. As a gem stone diamond is unsurpassed. However, scientific work, especially in the last 20 years, has demonstrated that diamond has numerous surprising properties and many unique ones. Some of the extreme properties have been known for many years, but the true scale of diamond's other highly desirable features is still only coming to light as control in the synthesis of diamond, and hence material perfection, improves. The ultimate prize for man-made diamond is surely not in the synthesis of gem stones, but in delivering technological solutions enabled by diamond to the challenges facing our society today. If the special properties are to be exploited to their full potential, at least four crucial factors must be considered. First, there must be sufficient scientific understanding of diamond to make applications effective, efficient and economical. Secondly, the means of fabrication and control of properties have to be achieved so that diamond's role can be optimised. Thirdly, it is not enough that its properties are superior to existing materials: they must be so much better that it is worth initiating new technologies to exploit them. Finally, any substantial applications will have to address the society's major needs worldwide. The clear technology drivers for the 21st century come from the biomedical technologies, the demand for energy subject to global constraints, and the information technologies, where perhaps diamond will provide the major enabling technology [1]. The papers in this volume concern the solid state physics of diamond, and primarily concern the first two factors: understanding, and control of properties. They address many of the outstanding basic problems, such as the identification of existing defects, which affect the material's properties, both desirable and less so. Regarding future substantial applications, one paper discusses

  15. Electrochemical performances of diamond-like carbon coatings on carbon steel, stainless steel, and brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadinata, Samuel-Sudibyo; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Pan, Szu-Jung; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Tai, Chen-Yi; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto stainless steel, carbon steel and brass by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Atomic arrangement, chemical structure, surface morphology and cross-section microstructure of the DLC coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the DLC coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by performing an open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and a potentiodynamic polarization test. The experimental results showed that properly deposited DLC coatings could cause an increase of OCP by hundreds of millivolts and a reduction of anodic current density by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of the substrate. The results also demonstrated that electrochemical techniques could be used as tools to detect the soundness of the DLC coating by examining OCP and polarization curve, which varied with the form of defect and depended on the type of substrate. - Highlights: ► The substrate could affect the quality of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. ► Defect-free DLC coating exhibited extremely low anodic current density. ► The quality of DLC coating on metal could be evaluated by electrochemical test

  16. Electrochemical performances of diamond-like carbon coatings on carbon steel, stainless steel, and brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadinata, Samuel-Sudibyo; Lee, Ming-Tsung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Pan, Szu-Jung [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Wen-Ta, E-mail: wttsai@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tai, Chen-Yi [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto stainless steel, carbon steel and brass by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Atomic arrangement, chemical structure, surface morphology and cross-section microstructure of the DLC coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the DLC coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by performing an open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and a potentiodynamic polarization test. The experimental results showed that properly deposited DLC coatings could cause an increase of OCP by hundreds of millivolts and a reduction of anodic current density by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of the substrate. The results also demonstrated that electrochemical techniques could be used as tools to detect the soundness of the DLC coating by examining OCP and polarization curve, which varied with the form of defect and depended on the type of substrate. - Highlights: ► The substrate could affect the quality of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. ► Defect-free DLC coating exhibited extremely low anodic current density. ► The quality of DLC coating on metal could be evaluated by electrochemical test.

  17. Electronic and physico-chemical properties of nanometric boron delta-doped diamond structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicot, G.; Fiori, A.; Tran Thi, T. N.; Bousquet, J.; Delahaye, J.; Grenet, T.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E.; Volpe, P. N.; Tranchant, N.; Mer-Calfati, C.; Arnault, J. C.; Gerbedoen, J. C.; Soltani, A.; De Jaeger, J. C.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Araújo, D.; Jomard, F.

    2014-01-01

    Heavily boron doped diamond epilayers with thicknesses ranging from 40 to less than 2 nm and buried between nominally undoped thicker layers have been grown in two different reactors. Two types of [100]-oriented single crystal diamond substrates were used after being characterized by X-ray white beam topography. The chemical composition and thickness of these so-called delta-doped structures have been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and four probe resistivity measurements have been performed on mesa-patterned Hall bars. The temperature dependence of the hole sheet carrier density and mobility has been investigated over a broad temperature range (6 K  2 /Vs, independently of the layer thickness and the substrate type. Comparison with previously published data and theoretical calculations showed that scattering by ionized impurities explained only partially this low common value. None of the delta-layers showed any sign of confinement-induced mobility enhancement, even for thicknesses lower than 2 nm

  18. Microstructure evolution in carbon-ion implanted sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orwa, J. O.; McCallum, J. C.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Peng, J. L.; Rubanov, S.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon ions of MeV energy were implanted into sapphire to fluences of 1x10 17 or 2x10 17 cm -2 and thermally annealed in forming gas (4% H in Ar) for 1 h. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results obtained from the lower dose implant showed retention of implanted carbon and accumulation of H near the end of range in the C implanted and annealed sample. Three distinct regions were identified by transmission electron microscopy of the implanted region in the higher dose implant. First, in the near surface region, was a low damage region (L 1 ) composed of crystalline sapphire and a high density of plateletlike defects. Underneath this was a thin, highly damaged and amorphized region (L 2 ) near the end of range in which a mixture of i-carbon and nanodiamond phases are present. Finally, there was a pristine, undamaged sapphire region (L 3 ) beyond the end of range. In the annealed sample some evidence of the presence of diamond nanoclusters was found deep within the implanted layer near the projected range of the C ions. These results are compared with our previous work on carbon implanted quartz in which nanodiamond phases were formed only a few tens of nanometers from the surface, a considerable distance from the projected range of the ions, suggesting that significant out diffusion of the implanted carbon had occurred.

  19. Plasma CVD reactor with two-microwave oscillators for diamond film synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsu, M.; Miyake, M.; Maeda, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present the experimental results of a new type of microwave plasma CVD system, where two of 1.5 kW microwave sources were used for enlarging the plasma discharge and the diamond film growth. One of the microwave oscillators was used to produce the microwave plasma as in the conventional microwave plasma CVD device, while the second one was used to enlarge the plasma by introducing microwave from the launcher mounted at the substrate stage. We demonstrated the enlargement of plasma discharge area from 60 mm to 100 mm in diameter by using the two-microwave oscillators system. Characteristics of diamond films deposited using H 2 /CH 4 plasmas were also investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  20. Surface plasmon effect in electrodeposited diamond-like carbon films for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B.; Ray, Sekhar C.; Espinoza-González, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Roberto; Hevia, Samuel A.; Alvarez-Vega, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and nanocrystalline silver particles containing diamond-like carbon (DLC:Ag) films were electrodeposited on n-type silicon substrate (n-Si) to prepare n-Si/DLC and n-Si/DLC:Ag heterostructures for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in this cell structure and its overall performance have been studied in terms of morphology, optical absorption, current-voltage characteristics, capacitance-voltage characteristics, band diagram and external quantum efficiency measurements. Localized surface plasmon resonance effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in n-Si/DLC:Ag PV structure exhibited an enhancement of ∼28% in short circuit current density (JSC), which improved the overall efficiency of the heterostructures.

  1. High rate operation of micro-strip gas chambers on diamond-coated glass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Temmel, T; Cooke, R A; Donnel, S; Sastri, S A; Sonderer, N

    1996-01-01

    Very high rate operation of micro­strip gas chambers can be achieved using slightly conducting substrates. We describe preliminary measurements realized with detectors manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated, before the photo-lithographic processing, with a diamond layer having a surface resistivity of around 1014 ‡/o. Stable medium-term operation, and a rate capability largely exceeding the one obtained with identical plates manufactured on uncoated glass are demonstrated. If these results are confirmed by long-term measurements the diamond coating technology appears very attractive since it allows, with a moderate cost overhead, to use thin, commercially available glass with the required surface quality for the large-scale production of gas micro-strip detectors.

  2. Sticking non-stick: Surface and Structure control of Diamond-like Carbon in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. J.; Nelson, N.

    2016-10-01

    This short review article explores the practical use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Using as an example issues relating to the DLC coating of a hand-held surgical device, we draw on previous works using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensiometry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Utilising data from these techniques, we examine the surface structure, substrate-film interface and thin film microstructure, such as sp2/sp3 ratio (graphitic/diamond-like bonding ratio) and sp2 clustering. We explore the variations in parameters describing these characteristics, and relate these to the final device properties such as friction, wear resistance, and diffusion barrier integrity. The material and device characteristics are linked to the initial plasma and substrate conditions.

  3. Sticking non-stick: Surface and Structure control of Diamond-like Carbon in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B J; Nelson, N

    2016-01-01

    This short review article explores the practical use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Using as an example issues relating to the DLC coating of a hand-held surgical device, we draw on previous works using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensiometry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Utilising data from these techniques, we examine the surface structure, substrate-film interface and thin film microstructure, such as sp 2 /sp 3 ratio (graphitic/diamond-like bonding ratio) and sp 2 clustering. We explore the variations in parameters describing these characteristics, and relate these to the final device properties such as friction, wear resistance, and diffusion barrier integrity. The material and device characteristics are linked to the initial plasma and substrate conditions. (paper)

  4. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.

  5. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry

  6. Controlling Directional Liquid Motion on Micro- and Nanocrystalline Diamond/β-SiC Composite Gradient Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Xin; Kong, Tiantian; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhou, Xuechang; Tang, Yongbing

    2018-01-30

    In this Article, we report the synthesis of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond/β-SiC composite gradient films, using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique and its application as a robust and chemically inert means to actuate water and hazardous liquids. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy, the composition of the surface changed gradually from pure nanocrystalline diamond (hydrophobic) to a nanocrystalline β-SiC surface (hydrophilic). Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the presence of diamond, graphite, and β-SiC phases. The as-prepared gradient films were evaluated for their ability to actuate water. Indeed, water was transported via the gradient from the hydrophobic (hydrogen-terminated diamond) to the hydrophilic side (hydroxyl-terminated β-SiC) of the gradient surface. The driving distance and velocity of water is pivotally influenced by the surface roughness. The nanogradient surface showed significant promise as the lower roughness combined with the longer gradient yields in transport distances of up to 3.7 mm, with a maximum droplet velocity of nearly 250 mm/s measured by a high-speed camera. As diamond and β-SiC are chemically inert, the gradient surfaces can be used to drive hazardous liquids and reactive mixtures, which was signified by the actuation of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. We envision that the diamond/β-SiC gradient surface has high potential as an actuator for water transport in microfluidic devices, DNA sensors, and implants, which induce guided cell growth.

  7. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  8. Structural evolution of Ti destroyable interlayer in large-size diamond film deposition by DC arc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianchao; Li, Chengming; Liu, Jinlong; Wei, Junjun; Chen, Liangxian; Hua, Chenyi; Yan, Xiongbo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of titanium (Ti) interlayer was verified to reduce the residual stress of diamond films by self-fracturing and facilitate the harvest of a crack-free free-standing diamond film prepared by direct current (DC) arc plasma jet. In this study, the evolution of the Ti interlayer between large-area diamond film and substrate was studied and modeled in detail. The evolution of the interlayer was found to be relevant to the distribution of the DC arc plasma, which can be divided into three areas (arc center, arc main, and arc edge). The formation rate of titanium carbide (TiC) in the arc main was faster than in the other two areas and resulted in the preferred generation of crack in the diamond film in the arc main during cooling. Sandwich structures were formed along with the growth of TiC until the complete transformation of the Ti interlayer. The interlayer released stress via self-fracture. Avoiding uneven fragile regions that formed locally in the interlayer and achieving cooperatively released stress are crucial for the preparation of large crack-free diamond films.

  9. Deposition of DLC Film on Stainless Steel Substrates Coated by Nickel Using PECVD Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Zahra; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Vaghri, Elnaz; Saghaleini, Amir; Diudea, Mircea V

    2012-06-01

    Research on diamond-like carbon (DLC) films has been devoted to find both optimized conditions and characteristics of the deposited films on various substrates. In the present work, we investigate the quality of the DLC films grown on stainless steel substrates using different thickness of the nickel nanoparticle layers on the surface. Nickel nanoparticles were sputtered on the stainless steel substrates at 200 °C by a DC-sputtering system to make a good adherence between DLC coating and steel substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize the surface roughness and distribution function of the nickel nanoparticles on the substrate surface. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on stainless steel substrates coated by nickel using pure acetylene and C2H2/H2 with 15% flow ratio by DC-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) systems. Microstructural analysis by Raman spectroscopy showed a low intensity ratio ID/IG for DLC films by increasing the Ni layer thickness on the stainless steel substrates. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) evidenced the peaks attributed to C-H bending and stretching vibration modes in the range of 1300-1700 cm-1 and 2700-3100 cm-1, respectively, in good agreement with the Raman spectroscopy and confirmed the DLC growth in all samples.

  10. Sequential Electrodeposition of Platinum-Ruthenium at Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana González-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential electrodeposition of Pt and Ru on boron-doped diamond (BDD films, in 0.5 M H2SO4 by cyclic voltammetry, has been prepared. The potential cycling, in the aqueous solutions of the respective metals, was between 0.00 and 1.00 V versus Ag/AgCl. The catalyst composites, Pt and PtRu, deposited on BDD film substrates, were tested for methanol oxidation. The modified diamond surfaces were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy-X-ray fluorescence-energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The scanning Auger electron spectroscopy mapping showed the ruthenium signal only in areas where platinum was electrodeposited. Ruthenium does not deposit on the oxidized diamond surface of the boron-doped diamond. Particles with 5–10% of ruthenium with respect to platinum exhibited better performance for methanol oxidation in terms of methanol oxidation peak current and chronoamperometric current stability. The electrogenerated •OH radicals on BDD may interact with Pt surface, participating in the methanol oxidation as shown in oxidation current and the shift in the peak position. The conductive diamond surface is a good candidate as the support for the platinum electrocatalyst, because it ensures catalytic activity, which compares with the used carbon, and higher stability under severe anodic and cathodic conditions.

  11. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  12. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  13. Synthesis of high quality diamond film for the dosimeter realization in the radiotherapy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaissiere, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to master the MPCVD synthesis of heteroepitaxial diamond films of high crystalline quality on iridium substrate for radiotherapy dosimeters. This objective has led us to develop the epitaxial iridium layer grown on SrTiO 3 substrates (001). A vacuum frame equipped with an electron gun has been developed and calibrated. The obtained layers characterized by XRD, possess a structural quality equivalent to the state of the art/in literature. Bias Enhanced Nucleation (BEN)- MPCVD induces nucleation of 'domains' on the iridium surface, according a unique nucleation pathway. Significant work has been conducted on (BEN)-MPCVD optimization to obtain a reliable and reproducible method for generating homogeneous 'domains' on a surface of 5 x 5 mm 2 . Combined characterizations (SEM, XPS, AES) of 'domains' surface enabled us to establish the identity card of their chemical and morphological properties. We demonstrate that they contain diamond nuclei. In addition, the temporal expansion of these 'domains' seems to follow preferential directions <110> of iridium lattice during the (BEN)-MPCVD stage. From these results, self-supported heteroepitaxial diamond films 100μ-m thick have been grown. The correlation between their crystalline quality and their detection response was conducted with the LCD dosimeter team. The inhomogeneities in the crystal structure due to structural defects have been identified. To study more locally these samples, a measurement campaign was carried out by microbeam X on the DIFFABS line at Soleil Synchrotron. The combination of the different knowledge acquired during this thesis has allowed the fabrication and characterization of the first detector based on heteroepitaxial diamond at the LCD laboratory. (author) [fr

  14. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on polycarbonates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.T. [Department of Computer and Communication, Diwan College of Management, 72141 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctguo@dwu.edu.tw

    2008-04-30

    Diamond-like carbon films were coated on optical polycarbonate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gases was utilized to reduce the internal compressive stress of the deposited films. The structure of the DLC films was characterized as a function of film thickness using Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of G peak positions and the intensity ratio of I{sub D}/I{sub G} on the DLC film thicknesses was analyzed in detail. Other studies involving atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet visible spectrometry, and three adhesion tests were conducted. Good transparency in the visible region, and good adhesion between diamond-like carbon films and polycarbonate were demonstrated. One-time recordings before and after a DLC film was coated on compact rewritable disc substrates were analyzed as a case study. The results reveal that the diamond-like carbon film overcoating the optical polycarbonates effectively protects the storage media.

  15. Wear resistance of nano- and micro-crystalline diamond coatings onto WC-Co with Cr/CrN interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy); Barletta, Massimiliano, E-mail: barletta@ing.uniroma2.i [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy); Cristofanilli, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    Cr/CrN bi-layers have been used recently to promote the growth of high quality Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD) diamond coatings onto Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-6 wt.%Co) substrates. In the present investigation, the influence of the crystalline size of the diamond coatings on their wear endurance is looked into. Nano- (NDC) and micro-crystalline Diamond Coatings (MDC) were deposited by HFCVD onto untreated and Fluidized Bed (FB) treated Cr/CrN interlayers. NDCs, characterized by a cauliflower-like morphology, showed improved wear resistance. However, the superimposition of NDCs onto Cr/CrN interlayers micro-corrugated by FB treatment was found to be the most promising choice, leading to the formation of highly adherent and wear resistant coatings.

  16. Electrochemical characterization of doped diamond-coated carbon fibers at different boron concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E.C. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: erica@las.inpe.br; Diniz, A.V. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil); Trava-Airoldi, V.J. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [CTA-Divisao de Materiais, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12228-904 (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    Doped diamond films have been deposited on carbon fibers (felt) obtained from polyacrylonitrile at different levels of boron doping. For a successful coating of the fibers, an ultrasonic pretreatment in a bath of diamond powder dissolved in hexane was required. Films were grown on both sample sides, simultaneously, by hot filament-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique at 750 deg. C from a 0.5% H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixture at a total pressure of 6.5 x 10{sup 3} Pa. Boron was obtained from H{sub 2} forced to pass through a bubbler containing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolved in methanol. The doping level studied corresponds to films with acceptor concentrations in the range of 6.5 x 10{sup 18} to 1.5 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -} {sup 3}, obtained from Mott-Schottky plots. Scanning electron microscopy analyses evidenced fibers totally covered with high quality polycrystalline boron-doped diamond film, also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy spectra. Diamond electrodes grown on carbon fibers demonstrated similar electrochemical behavior obtained from films on Si substrate, for ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple as a function of boron content. The boron content influences electrochemical surface area. A lower boron concentration provides a higher growth rate that results in a higher surface area.

  17. Evaluation of the nanotube intrinsic resistance across the tip-carbon nanotube-metal substrate junction by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamarguy David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Using an atomic force microscope (AFM at a controlled contact force, we report the electrical signal response of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs disposed on a golden thin film. In this investigation, we highlight first the theoretical calculation of the contact resistance between two types of conductive tips (metal-coated and doped diamond-coated, individual MWCNTs and golden substrate. We also propose a circuit analysis model to schematize the «tip-CNT-substrate» junction by means of a series-parallel resistance network. We estimate the contact resistance R of each contribution of the junction such as R tip-CNT, R CNT-substrate and R tip-substrate by using the Sharvin resistance model. Our final objective is thus to deduce the CNT intrinsic radial resistance taking into account the calculated electrical resistance values with the global resistance measured experimentally. An unwished electrochemical phenomenon at the tip apex has also been evidenced by performing measurements at different bias voltages with diamond tips. For negative tip-substrate bias, a systematic degradation in color and contrast of the electrical cartography occurs, consisting of an important and non-reversible increase of the measured resistance. This effect is attributed to the oxidation of some amorphous carbon areas scattered over the diamond layer covering the tip. For a direct polarization, the CNT and substrate surface can in turn be modified by an oxidation mechanism.

  18. The effect of dose enhancement near metal interfaces on synthetic diamond based X-ray dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, D.; Lohstroh, A.; Albarakaty, H.

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of dose enhancement on the photocurrent performance at metallic interfaces in synthetic diamond detectors based X-ray dosimeters as a function of bias voltages. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the BEAMnrc code were carried out to simulate the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and compared against the equivalent photocurrent ratio from experimental investigations. The MC simulation results show that the sensitive region for the absorbed dose distribution covers a few micrometers distances from the interface. Experimentally, two single crystals (SC) and one polycrystalline (PC) synthetic diamond samples were fabricated into detectors with carbon based electrodes by boron and carbon ion implantation. Subsequently; the samples were each mounted inside a tissue equivalent encapsulation to minimize unintended fluence perturbation. Dose enhancement was generated by placing copper, lead or gold near the active volume of the detectors using 50 kVp and 100 kVp X-rays relevant for medical dosimetry. The results show enhancement in the detectors' photocurrent performance when different metals are butted up to the diamond bulk as expected. The variation in the photocurrent measurement depends on the type of diamond samples, their electrodes' fabrication and the applied bias voltages indicating that the dose enhancement near the detector may modify their electronic performance.

  19. Nucleation of diamond by pure carbon ion bombardment--a transmission electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.; Liao, M.Y.; Wang, Z.G.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of a film deposited by a 1 keV mass-selected carbon ion beam onto silicon held at 800 deg. C is presented. Initially, a graphitic film with its basal planes perpendicular to the substrate is evolving. The precipitation of nanodiamond crystallites in upper layers is confirmed by HRTEM, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The nucleation of diamond on graphitic edges as predicted by Lambrecht et al. [W. R. L. Lambrecht, C. H. Lee, B. Segall, J. C. Angus, Z. Li, and M. Sunkara, Nature, 364 607 (1993)] is experimentally confirmed. The results are discussed in terms of our recent subplantation-based diamond nucleation model

  20. Perfect alignment and preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers during chemical vapor deposition diamond growth on (111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michl, Julia; Zaiser, Sebastian; Jakobi, Ingmar; Waldherr, Gerald; Dolde, Florian; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Doherty, Marcus W.; Manson, Neil B.; Isoya, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic diamond production is a key to the development of quantum metrology and quantum information applications of diamond. The major quantum sensor and qubit candidate in diamond is the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center. This lattice defect comes in four different crystallographic orientations leading to an intrinsic inhomogeneity among NV centers, which is undesirable in some applications. Here, we report a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond growth technique on (111)-oriented substrates, which yields perfect alignment (94% ± 2%) of as-grown NV centers along a single crystallographic direction. In addition, clear evidence is found that the majority (74% ± 4%) of the aligned NV centers were formed by the nitrogen being first included in the (111) growth surface and then followed by the formation of a neighboring vacancy on top. The achieved homogeneity of the grown NV centers will tremendously benefit quantum information and metrology applications

  1. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  2. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  3. Selective area deposition of diamond films on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ižák, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Jirásek, Vít; Vanko, G.; Vallo, M.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 12 (2014), 2574-2580 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16549P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : circular high electron mobility transistors * diamond films * GaN substrates * microwave chemical vapor deposition * selective area deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  4. Growth of high quality AlN films on CVD diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-xian; Liu, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Cheng-ming; Wang, Yi-chao; An, Kang; Hua, Chen-yi; Liu, Jin-long; Wei, Jun-jun; Hei, Li-fu; Lv, Fan-xiu

    2018-02-01

    A highly oriented AlN layer has been successfully grown along the c-axis on a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the heterostructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nano-indentation and Four-probe meter. A compact AlN film was demonstrated on the diamond layer, showing columnar grains and a low surface roughness of 1.4 nm. TEM results revealed a sharp AlN/diamond interface, which was characterized by the presence of a distinct 10 nm thick buffer layer resulting from the initial AlN growth stage. The FWHM of AlN (002) diffraction peak and its rocking curve are as low as 0.41° and 3.35° respectively, indicating a highly preferred orientation along the c-axis. AlN sputtered films deposited on glass substrates show a higher bulk resistivity (up to 3 × 1012 Ω cm), compared to AlN films deposited on diamond (∼1010 Ω cm). Finally, the film hardness and Young's modulus of AlN films on diamond are 25.8 GPa and 489.5 GPa, respectively.

  5. Development of industrial ion implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Hoh; Jung, Kee Suk; Kim, Wan; Song, Woo Sub; Hwang, Chul Kyoo

    1994-02-01

    We developed an ion implanter fitted for the treatment of 12 inch or larger wafers to make 256 or higher Mega D-Ram wafers. Design features are dual usage of gas/solid for the ion source loading, production of multi-balanced ions, and the possible oxygen ion implantation. BOSII program was used for the ion optics calculation. Beams are triangularly scanned to wafers for the even implantation by a proper magnetic field application. More than 10 mA ion current is produced. For the efficient implantation to be made, target is made to rotate with tilted angle at a displaced axis. High speed tools, diamond tools, precision dies, and razor blades were implanted and the performance was evaluated after two or three times of line application. Of those materials studied, PCB drills and end mills are on the commercial treatment stages. Industrial materials as SKD-11, WC-Co, NAK-55 was compositely treated with ion beam and coating. Resultant properties were analyzed using AES, XRD, and TEM. For the case of xenon ions, excellent TiN coating resulted and its application to microcircuit lead frame increased the performance to more than 30 percent. 94 figs, 29 pix, 19 tabs, 50 refs. (Author)

  6. Development of industrial ion implantation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Hoh; Jung, Kee Suk; Kim, Wan; Song, Woo Sub; Hwang, Chul Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-01

    We developed an ion implanter fitted for the treatment of 12 inch or larger wafers to make 256 or higher Mega D-Ram wafers. Design features are dual usage of gas/solid for the ion source loading, production of multi-balanced ions, and the possible oxygen ion implantation. BOSII program was used for the ion optics calculation. Beams are triangularly scanned to wafers for the even implantation by a proper magnetic field application. More than 10 mA ion current is produced. For the efficient implantation to be made, target is made to rotate with tilted angle at a displaced axis. High speed tools, diamond tools, precision dies, and razor blades were implanted and the performance was evaluated after two or three times of line application. Of those materials studied, PCB drills and end mills are on the commercial treatment stages. Industrial materials as SKD-11, WC-Co, NAK-55 was compositely treated with ion beam and coating. Resultant properties were analyzed using AES, XRD, and TEM. For the case of xenon ions, excellent TiN coating resulted and its application to microcircuit lead frame increased the performance to more than 30 percent. 94 figs, 29 pix, 19 tabs, 50 refs. (Author).

  7. Implantation of organic matter through water onto solid substrates by a laser induced molecular jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Organic molecular dots were successfully produced by means of a nano second pulsed dye laser on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, with sizes of several hundred nanometres. The method involves the transfer of organic molecules from the source Coumarin 6 (C6) and poly [2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-venylene] (MEH-PPV) films onto a target material through a water filled space-gap using a laser induced molecular jet (LIMJ). In this way, the organic dots of Coumarin 6 and MEH-PPV molecules were successfully implanted onto the glass and ITO targets. The present results demonstrate the possibility to significantly improve photo electronic or photoelectric devices such as novel photonic crystal and molecular device sensors, and so on

  8. Thermal applications of low-pressure diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the last decade several applications of low-pressure diamond were developed. Main products are diamond heat-spreaders using its high thermal conductivity, diamond windows with their high transparency over a wide range of wavelengths and wear resistant tool coatings because of diamonds superhardness. A short description of the most efficient diamond deposition methods (microwave, DC-glow discharge, plasma-jet and arc discharge) is given. The production and applications of diamond layers with high thermal conductivity will be described. Problems of reproducibility of diamond deposition, the influence of impurities, the heat conductivity in electronic packages, reliability and economical mass production will be discussed. (author)

  9. Nano-SiC region formation in (100) Si-on-insulator substrate: Optimization of hot-C+-ion implantation process to improve photoluminescence intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tomohisa; Omata, Yuhsuke; Kanazawa, Rikito; Iguchi, Yusuke; Nakada, Shinji; Aoki, Takashi; Sasaki, Tomokazu

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally studied the optimization of the hot-C+-ion implantation process for forming nano-SiC (silicon carbide) regions in a (100) Si-on-insulator substrate at various hot-C+-ion implantation temperatures and C+ ion doses to improve photoluminescence (PL) intensity for future Si-based photonic devices. We successfully optimized the process by hot-C+-ion implantation at a temperature of about 700 °C and a C+ ion dose of approximately 4 × 1016 cm-2 to realize a high intensity of PL emitted from an approximately 1.5-nm-thick C atom segregation layer near the surface-oxide/Si interface. Moreover, atom probe tomography showed that implanted C atoms cluster in the Si layer and near the oxide/Si interface; thus, the C content locally condenses even in the C atom segregation layer, which leads to SiC formation. Corrector-spherical aberration transmission electron microscopy also showed that both 4H-SiC and 3C-SiC nanoareas near both the surface-oxide/Si and buried-oxide/Si interfaces partially grow into the oxide layer, and the observed PL photons are mainly emitted from the surface SiC nano areas.

  10. Very bright, near-infrared single photon emitters in diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. M. Lau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate activation of bright diamond single photon emitters in the near infrared range by thermal annealing alone, i.e., without ion implantation. The activation is crucially dependent on the annealing ambient. The activation of the single photon emitters is only observed when the sample is annealed in forming gas (4% H2 in Ar above temperatures of 1000 °C. By contrast, no emitters are activated by annealing in vacuum, oxygen, argon or deuterium. The emitters activated by annealing in forming gas exhibit very bright emission in the 730-760 nm wavelength range and have linewidths of ∼1.5-2.5 nm at room temperature.

  11. Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  13. Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Diamond technology has claimed an important role in industry since non-expensive methods of synthesis such as chemical vapour deposition allow to elaborate cheap polycrystalline diamond. This fact has increased the interest in the scientific community due to the outstanding properties of diamond. Since Pleskov published in 1987 the first paper in electrochemistry, many researchers around the world have studied different aspects of diamond electrochemistry such as reactivity, electrical structure, etc. As part of this worldwide interest these studies reveal new information about diamond electrodes. These studies report investigation of diamond electrodes characterized using structural techniques like scanning electrode microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A new electrochemical theory based on surface states is presented that explains the metal and the semiconductor behaviour in terms of the doping level of the diamond electrode. In an effort to characterise the properties of diamond electrodes the band edges for hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface are located in organic solvent, hence avoiding possible interference that are present in aqueous solution. The determination of the band edges is performed by Mott-Schottky studies. These allow the calculation of the flat band potential and therefore the band edges. Additional cyclic voltammetric studies are presented for both types of surface termination. Mott-Schottky data and cyclic voltammograms are compared and explained in terms of the band edge localisation. Non-degenerately p-type semiconductor behaviour is presented for hydrogen terminated boron doped diamond. Graphitic surface states on oxidised surface boron doped diamond are responsible for the electrochemistry of redox couples that posses similar energy. Using the simple redox couple 1,4-benzoquinone effect of surface termination