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Sample records for impaired woronin body

  1. Woronin bodies in Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski Corpúsculos de woronin em Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski

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    Rosemeire A.B. Pessoni

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski is an efficient microorganism for the production of extracellular inulinases and grows rapidly on medium containing sucrose or inulin as carbon source. Maintenance of this filamentous fungus on inulin medium induces secretion of large amounts of inulinases, but the resulting mycelium has thinner cell walls that easily collapse and break. Woronin bodies in hyphae of P. janczewskii grown on sucrose and inulin substrates were observed. No significant differences in the number, location, size and shape of Woronin bodies and level of plugging were observed in cultures of the fungus grown on the two carbon sources. The data indicate that the presence of Woronin bodies in P. janczewskii could not be associated with more easily damaged hyphae, although the function of these organelles in pore plugging has been confirmed.Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski é um microrganismo eficiente para a produção de inulisases extracelulares e cresce rapidamente em meio contendo sagarose ou inulina como fonte de carbono. A manutenção desse fungo filamentoso em meio com inulina induz a secreção de grandes quantidades de inulisanes, mas resulta na presença de um micélio com parede celulares mais finas, que facilmente colapsa e se danifica. A presença de corpúsculos de Woronin foi analisada nas hifas de P. janczewskii crescido em sacarose e inulina. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada no número, localização, tamanho e forma dos corpúsculos de Woronin e na obstrução dos poros dos septos nas culturas do fungo crescido nas duas diferentes fontes de carbono. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a presença dos corpúsculos de Woronin em P. janczewskii não pode ser associada com a presença de hifas mais facilmente danificadas, embora a função dessas organelas na obstrução dos poros dos septos tenha sido confirmada.

  2. Characterization of the major Woronin body protein HexA of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus.

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    Beck, Julia; Ebel, Frank

    2013-03-01

    In filamentous fungi, the septal pore controls the exchange between neighbouring hyphal compartments. Woronin bodies are fungal-specific organelles that plug the pore in case of physical damage. The Hex protein is their major and essential component. Hex proteins of different size are predicted in the data base for pathogenic and non-pathogenic Aspergillus species. However, using specific monoclonal antibodies, we identified 2 dominant HexA protein species of 20 and 25kDa in A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. nidulans, and A. oryzae. HexA and Woronin bodies were found in A. fumigatus hyphae, but also in resting conidia. Using monoclonal antibodies, a GFP-HexA fusion protein, and an RFP protein fused to the putative peroxisomal targeting sequence of HexA, we analyzed the spatial localization and dynamics of Woronin bodies in A. fumigatus as well as their formation from peroxisomes. In intact hyphae, some Woronin bodies were found in close proximity to the septal pore, while the majority was distributed in the cytoplasm. Septum-associated Woronin bodies show a minimal lateral movement, while the cytosolic Woronin bodies are highly dynamic. The distribution of Woronin bodies and their co-localization pattern with peroxisomes revealed no evidence that Woronin bodies arise predominantly at the apical tip of A. fumigatus hyphae. We found that Woronin bodies are able to plug septal pores of A. fumigatus in case of damage. Woronin bodies therefore contribute to the stress resistance and potentially also to the virulence of A. fumigatus, which renders them a potential target for future anti-fungal strategies.

  3. Huntington's disease impairs recognition of angry and instrumental body language.

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    de Gelder, Beatrice; Van den Stock, Jan; Balaguer, Ruth de Diego; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2008-01-15

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit motor impairments as well as cognitive and emotional deficits. So far impairments in the ability to recognize emotional stimuli have mostly been investigated by using facial expressions and emotional voices. Other important emotional signals are provided by the whole body. To investigate the impact of motor deficits on body recognition and the relation between motor disorders and emotion perception deficits, we tested recognition of emotional body language (instrumental, angry, fearful and sad) in 19 HD patients and their matched controls with a nonverbal whole body expression matching task. Results indicate that HD patients are impaired in recognizing both instrumental and angry whole body postures. Furthermore, the body language perception deficits are correlated with measures of motor deficit. Taken together the results suggest a close relationship between emotion recognition (specifically anger) and motor abilities.

  4. Body image and adolescence: A behavioral impairment model.

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    Senín-Calderón, Cristina; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan F; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by important physical and social changes that can lead to a negative body image. The purpose of this study was to find a model enabling the appearance of behavioral impairment related to body image (restrictions, avoidance, and checking) to be predicted by body image attitudes (concern or Appearance Orientation, and dissatisfaction or Appearance Evaluation), Gender, emotional symptomatology, self-consciousness, ideas of reference (IR) and age. A total of 661 participants (67.47% girls) with an average age of 17.14 years (SD=2.34) filled in the GHQ-28, SCS on self-consciousness, REF referential thinking scale, MBSRQ (AO and AE), and BIAQ. A partial mediation model was found for IR, age and depressive symptomatology between dissatisfaction and concern about body image and Gender, to behavioral impairment related to body image. The results found suggest that age, depressive symptomatology, and IR may be mediator variables in the relationship between dissatisfaction and concern about body image, on body image behavioral impairment. This relationship implies a severity to be considered in intervention and monitoring of body image behavioral impairments in adolescents.

  5. Reading Emotions from Body Movement: A Generalized Impairment in Schizophrenia.

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    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Østefjells, Tiril; Nymo, Katharina; Melle, Ingrid; Ueland, Torill

    2015-01-01

    Body language reading is a social cognitive process with importance for successful maneuvering of social situations. In this study, we investigated body language reading as assessed with human point-light displays in participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 84) compared to healthy control participants (n = 84), aiming to answer three questions: (1) whether persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have poorer body language reading abilities than healthy persons; (2) whether some emotions are easier to read from body language than others, and if this is the same for individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and (3) whether there are sex differences in body language reading in participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants. A fourth research aim concerned associations of body language reading with symptoms and functioning in participants with schizophrenia. Scores on the body language reading measure was first standardized using a separate sample of healthy control participants (n = 101). Further results showed that persons with schizophrenia had impaired body language reading ability compared to healthy persons. A significant effect of emotion indicated that some emotions (happiness, neutral) were easier to recognize and this was so for both individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. There were no sex differences for either diagnostic group. Body language reading ability was not associated with symptoms or functioning. In conclusion; schizophrenia was characterized by a global impairment in body language reading that was present for all emotions and across sex.

  6. Reading emotions from body movement: a generalized impairment in schizophrenia

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    Anja eVaskinn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Body language reading is a social cognitive process with importance for successful maneuvering of social situations. In this study, we investigated body language reading as assessed with human point-light displays in participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 84 compared to healthy control participants (n = 84, aiming to answer three questions: 1 whether persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have poorer body language reading abilities than healthy persons; 2 whether some emotions are easier to read from body language than others, and if this is the same for individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and 3 whether there are sex differences in body language reading in participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants. A fourth research aim concerned associations of body language reading with symptoms and functioning in participants with schizophrenia. Scores on the body language reading measure was first standardized using a separate sample of healthy control participants (n = 101. Further results showed that persons with schizophrenia had impaired body language reading ability compared to healthy persons. A significant effect of emotion indicated that some emotions (happiness, neutral were easier to recognize and this was so for both individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. There were no sex differences for either diagnostic group. Body language reading ability was not associated with symptoms or functioning. In conclusion; schizophrenia was characterized by a global impairment in body language reading that was present for all emotions and across sex.

  7. Active dehydration impairs upper and lower body anaerobic muscular power.

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    Jones, Leon C; Cleary, Michelle A; Lopez, Rebecca M; Zuri, Ron E; Lopez, Richard

    2008-03-01

    We examined the effects of active dehydration by exercise in a hot, humid environment on anaerobic muscular power using a test-retest (euhydrated and dehydrated) design. Seven subjects (age, 27.1 +/- 4.6 years; mass, 86.4 +/- 9.5 kg) performed upper and lower body Wingate anaerobic tests prior to and after a 1.5-hour recovery from a heat stress trial of treadmill exercise in a hot, humid environment (33.1 +/- 3.1C = 55.1 +/- 8.9% relative humidity) until a 3.1 +/- 0.3% body mass loss was achieved. Dehydration was confirmed by a significant body mass loss (P dehydrated compared to the euhydrated condition. Compared to the euhydrated condition, the dehydrated condition mean power was significantly (P = 0.014) decreased 7.17% in the upper body and 19.20% in the lower body. Compared to the euhydrated condition, the dehydrated condition peak power was significantly (P = 0.013) decreased 14.48% in the upper body and 18.36% in the lower body. No significant differences between the euhydrated and dehydrated conditions were found for decrease in power output (P = 0.219, power = 0.213). Our findings suggest that dehydration of 2.9% body mass decreases the ability to generate upper and lower body anaerobic power. Coaches and athletes must understand that sports performance requiring anaerobic strength and power can be impaired by inadequate hydration and may contribute to increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury.

  8. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Depression: The Role of Appearance-Based Teasing.

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    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D

    2016-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is associated with elevated social and occupational impairment and comorbid depression, but research on risk factors for body dysmorphic symptoms and associated outcomes is limited. Appearance-based teasing may be a potential risk factor. To examine the specificity of this factor, the authors assessed self-reported appearance-based teasing, body dysmorphic, and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, functional impairment (i.e., social, occupational, family impairment), and depression in a nonclinical sample of undergraduates. As hypothesized, appearance-based teasing was positively correlated with body dysmorphic symptoms. The correlation between teasing and body dysmorphic symptoms was stronger than that between teasing and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Last, body dysmorphic symptom severity and appearance-based teasing interacted in predicting functional impairment and depression. Specifically, appearance-based teasing was positively associated with depression and functional impairment only in those with elevated body dysmorphic symptoms. When a similar moderation was tested with obsessive-compulsive, in place of body dysmorphic, symptom severity, the interaction was nonsignificant. Findings support theory that appearance-based teasing is a specific risk factor for body dysmorphic symptoms and associated functional impairment.

  9. Impairments of Speech Fluency in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

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    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Gunawardena, Delani; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined connected speech in demented and non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed the speech production of 35 patients with Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including non-demented PD patients, patients with PD dementia (PDD), and patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), in a semi-structured…

  10. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

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    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

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    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  12. Body image in adult women: Associations with health behaviors, quality of life, and functional impairment.

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    Becker, Carolyn B; Verzijl, Christina L; Kilpela, Lisa S; Wilfred, Salome A; Stewart, Tiffany

    2017-05-01

    This study examined body image in adult women along with probable correlates including health behaviors, negative affect, quality of life, and functional impairment. Adult women ( N = 738, age = 25-86 years) completed an online survey assessing these domains. Women across all ages reported similar body image concerns. Negative body image significantly correlated with poorer wellness behaviors, negative affect, quality of life, and functional impairment. The inverse held for positive body image. The majority of correlations remained even when controlling for negative affect. Further research is warranted to investigate nature of the correlational relationships identified in this study.

  13. Mitochondrial processes are impaired in hereditary inclusion body myopathy.

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    Eisenberg, I.; Novershtern, N.; Itzhaki, Z.; Becker-Cohen, M.; Sadeh, M.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Friedman, N.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM) is an adult onset, slowly progressive distal and proximal myopathy. Although the causing gene, GNE, encodes for a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sialic acid, its primary function in HIBM remains unknown. To elucidate the pathological mechanisms leading fr

  14. Selective impairment of self body-parts processing in right brain-damaged patients.

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    Frassinetti, Francesca; Maini, Manuela; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Avanzi, Stefano; Cantagallo, Anna; Farnè, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    To investigate whether the processing of the visual appearance of one's own body, that is the corporeal self is a unified or modular function we submitted eight right brain-damaged (RBD) patients and a group of fourteen age-matched neurologically healthy subjects, to a visual matching-to-sample task testing for corporeal self processing. If corporeal self processing is a unique function (i.e., body- and face-parts are processed by the same network), patients impaired in self body-parts (i.e., showing no self-advantage) should be impaired also in self face-parts; alternatively, if corporeal self processing is a modular function (i.e., body- and face-parts are processed by different networks), patients impaired in self body-parts should be unimpaired in self face-parts, unless the face-module is also damaged by the lesion. Results showed that healthy participants were more accurate in processing pictures representing their own as compared to other people's body- and face-parts, showing the so-called self-advantage. The patients' findings revealed a simple dissociation, in that patients who were impaired in the processing of self-related body-parts showed a preserved self-advantage when processing self-related face-parts, thus providing initial evidence of a modular representation of the corporeal self.

  15. Neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa: Serotonin Dysfunctions Link Self-Starvation with Body Image Disturbances through an Impaired Body Memory

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    Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is still unclear, despite that it is a critical and potentially mortal illness. A recent neurobiological model considers AN as the outcome of dysfunctions in the neuronal processes related to appetite and emotionality (Kaye et al., 2009, 2013). However, this model still is not able to answer a critical question: What is behind body image disturbances (BIDs) in AN? The article starts its analysis from reviewing some of the studies exploring the effects of the serotonin systems in memory (episodic, working, and spatial) and its dysfunctions. The review suggests that serotonin disturbances may: (a) facilitate the encoding of third person (allocentric) episodic memories; (b) facilitate the consolidation of emotional episodic memories (e.g., teasing), if preceded by repeated stress; (c) reduce voluntary inhibition of mnestic contents; (d) impair allocentric spatial memory. If we discuss these results within the interpretative frame suggested by the “Allocentric Lock Hypothesis” (Riva, 2012, 2014), we can hypothesize that altered serotoninergic activity in AN patients: (i) improves their ability to store and consolidate negative autobiographical memories, including those of their body, in allocentric perspective; (ii) impairs their ability to trigger voluntary inhibition of the previously stored negative memory of the body; (iii) impairs their capacity to retrieve/update allocentric information. Taken together, these points suggest a possible link between serotonin dysfunctions, memory impairments and BIDs: the impossibility of updating a disturbed body memory using real time experiential data—I'm locked to a wrong body stored in long term memory—pushes AN patients to control body weight and shape even when underweight. PMID:27932968

  16. Does asymmetry in the stomatognathic system correlate with body posture impairments?: A systematic review

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    Dal Borgo B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the potential correlations between anatomical and functional asymmetry in the stomatognathic system and body posture impairments. Methods: Literature search using the Medline, SCOPUS, LILACS and SciELO databases, the Cochrane Library and a manual search. Experimental and observational studies were included with no restrictions as to the type of asymmetry. Type of asymmetry, treatment and/ or recording conditions, follow-up, postural examinations, main results and clinical implication were extracted, and risk of bias was assessed. Results: Eleven articles (including one randomized clinical trial were retrieved. The risk of bias was medium in 6 studies and high in the remaining investigations. Only three studies, all with a high risk of bias and without follow-up, reported significant correlations between the asymmetry in the stomatognathic system and body posture impairments. Discussion: According to the limited present evidence, asymmetry in the stomatognathic system does not appear to correlate with body posture impairments at a clinically relevant level.

  17. Early weaning impairs body composition in male mice

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    Maria Carolina Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta

  18. Impaired configural body processing in anorexia nervosa: evidence from the body inversion effect.

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    Urgesi, Cosimo; Fornasari, Livia; Canalaz, Francesca; Perini, Laura; Cremaschi, Silvana; Faleschini, Laura; Thyrion, Erica Zappoli; Zuliani, Martina; Balestrieri, Matteo; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from severe disturbances of body perception. It is unclear, however, whether such disturbances are linked to specific alterations in the processing of body configurations with respect to the local processing of body part details. Here, we compared a consecutive sample of 12 AN patients with a group of 12 age-, gender- and education-matched controls using an inversion effect paradigm requiring the visual discrimination of upright and inverted pictures of whole bodies, faces and objects. The AN patients presented selective deficits in the discrimination of upright body stimuli, which requires configural processing. Conversely, patients and controls showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of inverted bodies, which involves only detail-based processing, and in the discrimination of both upright and inverted faces and objects. Importantly, the body inversion effect negatively correlated with the persistence scores at the Temperament and Character Inventory, which evaluates increased tendency to convert a signal of punishment into a signal of reinforcement. These results suggest that the deficits of configural processing in AN patients may be associated with their obsessive worries about body appearance and to the excessive attention to details that characterizes their general perceptual style.

  19. Impaired recognition of body expressions in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.

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    Van den Stock, Jan; De Winter, François-Laurent; de Gelder, Beatrice; Rangarajan, Janaki Raman; Cypers, Gert; Maes, Frederik; Sunaert, Stefan; Goffin, Karolien; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Progressive deterioration of social cognition and emotion processing are core symptoms of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Here we investigate whether bvFTD is also associated with impaired recognition of static (Experiment 1) and dynamic (Experiment 2) bodily expressions. In addition, we compared body expression processing with processing of static (Experiment 3) and dynamic (Experiment 4) facial expressions, as well as with face identity processing (Experiment 5). The results reveal that bvFTD is associated with impaired recognition of static and dynamic bodily and facial expressions, while identity processing was intact. No differential impairments were observed regarding motion (static vs. dynamic) or category (body vs. face). Within the bvFTD group, we observed a significant partial correlation between body and face expression recognition, when controlling for performance on the identity task. Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis revealed that body emotion recognition was positively associated with gray matter volume in a region of the inferior frontal gyrus (pars orbitalis/triangularis). The results are in line with a supramodal emotion recognition deficit in bvFTD.

  20. Nonvisual multisensory impairment of body perception in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review of neuropsychological studies.

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    Santino Gaudio

    Full Text Available Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN. Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence.PubMed and PsycINFO were searched until March, 2014. To be included in the review, studies were mainly required to: investigate a sample of patients with current or past AN and a control group and use tasks that directly elicited one or more nonvisual sensory domains.Thirteen studies were included. They studied a total of 223 people with current or past AN and 273 control subjects. Overall, results show impairment in tactile and proprioceptive domains of body perception in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been poorly explored directly in AN patients. A limitation of this review is the relatively small amount of literature available.Our results showed that AN patients had a multisensory impairment of body perception that goes beyond visual misperception and involves tactile and proprioceptive sensory components. Furthermore, impairment of tactile and proprioceptive components may be associated with parietal cortex alterations in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been weakly explored directly. Further research, using multisensory approaches as well as neuroimaging techniques, is needed to better define the complexity of body image distortion in AN.The review suggests an altered capacity of AN patients in processing and integration of bodily signals: body parts are experienced as dissociated from their holistic and perceptive dimensions. Specifically, it is likely that not only perception but memory, and in particular sensorimotor/proprioceptive memory, probably shapes bodily experience in

  1. Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?

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    Hay Phillipa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors.

  2. Clinical and Cognitive Phenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment Evolving to Dementia with Lewy Bodies

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    Cagnin, Annachiara; Bussè, Cinzia; Gardini, Simona; Jelcic, Nela; Guzzo, Caterina; Gnoato, Francesca; Mitolo, Micaela; Ermani, Mario; Caffarra, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine which characteristics could better distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage, with particular emphasis on visual space and object perception abilities. Methods Fifty-three patients with mild cognitive deficits that were eventually diagnosed with probable DLB (MCI-DLB: n = 25) and AD (MCI-AD: n = 28) at a 3-year follow-up were retrospectively studied. At the first visit, the patients underwent cognitive assessment including the Qualitative Scoring Mini Mental State Examination Pentagon Test and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and questionnaires for cognitive fluctuations and sleep disorders were also administered. Results The best clinical predictor of DLB was the presence of soft extrapyramidal signs (mean UPDRS score: 4.04 ± 5.9) detected in 72% of patients, followed by REM sleep behavior disorder (60%) and fluctuations (60%). Wrong performances in the pentagon's number of angles were obtained in 44% of DLB and 3.7% of AD patients and correlated with speed of visual attention. Executive functions, visual attention and visuospatial abilities were worse in DLB, while verbal episodic memory impairment was greater in AD. Deficits in the visual-perceptual domain were present in both MCI-DLB and AD. Conclusions Poor performance in the pentagon's number of angles is specific of DLB and correlates with speed of visual attention. The dorsal visual stream seems specifically more impaired in MCI-DLB with respect to the ventral visual stream, the latter being involved in both DLB and AD. These cognitive features, associated with subtle extrapyramidal signs, should alert clinicians to a diagnostic hypothesis of DLB. PMID:26674638

  3. Clinical and Cognitive Phenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment Evolving to Dementia with Lewy Bodies

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    Annachiara Cagnin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine which characteristics could better distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI stage, with particular emphasis on visual space and object perception abilities. Methods: Fifty-three patients with mild cognitive deficits that were eventually diagnosed with probable DLB (MCI-DLB: n = 25 and AD (MCI-AD: n = 28 at a 3-year follow-up were retrospectively studied. At the first visit, the patients underwent cognitive assessment including the Qualitative Scoring Mini Mental State Examination Pentagon Test and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and questionnaires for cognitive fluctuations and sleep disorders were also administered. Results: The best clinical predictor of DLB was the presence of soft extrapyramidal signs (mean UPDRS score: 4.04 ± 5.9 detected in 72% of patients, followed by REM sleep behavior disorder (60% and fluctuations (60%. Wrong performances in the pentagon's number of angles were obtained in 44% of DLB and 3.7% of AD patients and correlated with speed of visual attention. Executive functions, visual attention and visuospatial abilities were worse in DLB, while verbal episodic memory impairment was greater in AD. Deficits in the visual-perceptual domain were present in both MCI-DLB and AD. Conclusions: Poor performance in the pentagon's number of angles is specific of DLB and correlates with speed of visual attention. The dorsal visual stream seems specifically more impaired in MCI-DLB with respect to the ventral visual stream, the latter being involved in both DLB and AD. These cognitive features, associated with subtle extrapyramidal signs, should alert clinicians to a diagnostic hypothesis of DLB.

  4. Body mass index, inflammatory biomarkers and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons.

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    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Kelso, Natalie E; Bryant, Vaughn; Burrell, Larry E; Míguez, Maria Jose; Gongvatana, Assawin; Tashima, Karen T; de la Monte, Suzanne; Cook, Robert L; Cohen, Ronald A

    2017-03-01

    To determine the relationships among body mass index (BMI), and HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and the potential mediating effects of inflammatory cytokines. Among the HIV-infected individuals (N = 90) included in this study, obesity was associated with slower processing speed (β = -.229, standard error (SE) = 2.15, p = .033), compared to participants with a normal BMI, after controlling for psychosocial and HIV clinical factors. Serum concentrations of the interleukin-16 (IL-16) cytokine were significantly associated with slowed processing speed (β = -.235, SE = 1.62, p = .033) but did not mediate the relationship between obesity and processing speed These findings suggest that obesity may contribute to cognitive processing speed deficits in HIV-infected adults. Elevated concentrations of IL-16 are also associated with slowing, though the results suggest that obesity and IL-16 may exert independent effects.

  5. Body Mass Index, Inflammatory Biomarkers and Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Persons

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    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N.; Kelso, Natalie E.; Bryant, Vaughn; Burrell, Larry E.; Míguez, Maria Jose; Gongvatana, Assawin; Tashima, Karen T.; de la Monte, Suzanne; Cook, Robert L.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationships among body mass index (BMI), and HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and the potential mediating effects of inflammatory cytokines. Among the HIV-infected individuals (N=90) included in this study, obesity was associated with slower processing speed (β = −.229, standard error (SE) = 2.15, p = .033), compared to participants with a normal BMI, after controlling for psychosocial and HIV clinical factors. Serum concentrations of the interleukin-16 (IL-16) cytokine were significantly associated with slowed processing speed (β = −.235, standard error (SE) = 1.62, p = .033) but did not mediate the relationship between obesity and processing speed These findings suggest that obesity may contribute to cognitive processing speed deficits in HIV-infected adults. Elevated concentrations of IL-16 are also associated with slowing, though the results suggest that obesity and IL-16 may exert independent effects. PMID:27319430

  6. Nature and Extent of Person Recognition Impairments Associated with Capgras Syndrome in Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Fiacconi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Capgras Syndrome (CS adopt the delusional belief that persons well-known to them have been replaced by an imposter. Several current theoretical models of CS attribute such misidentification problems to deficits in covert recognition processes related to the generation of appropriate affective autonomic signals. These models assume intact overt recognition processes for the imposter and, more broadly, for other individuals. As such, it has been suggested that CS could reflect the ‘mirror image’ of prosopagnosia. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether overt person recognition abilities are indeed always spared in CS. Furthermore, we examined whether CS might be associated with any impairments in overt affective judgments of facial expressions. We pursued these goals by studying a patient with Lewy Body Dementia (DLB who showed clear signs of CS, and by comparing him to another patient with DLB who did not experience CS, as well as to a group of healthy control participants. We assessed overt person recognition with three fame recognition tasks, using faces, voices, and names as cues. We also included measures of confidence and probed pertinent semantic knowledge. In addition, participants rated the intensity of fearful facial expressions. We found that CS was associated with overt person recognition deficits when probed with faces and voices, but not with names. Critically, these deficits were not present in the DLB patient without CS. In addition, CS was associated with impairments in overt judgments of affect intensity. Taken together, our findings cast doubt on the traditional view that CS is the mirror-image of prosopagnosia and that it spares overt recognition abilities. These findings can still be accommodated by models of CS that emphasize deficits in autonomic responding, to the extent that the potential role of interoceptive awareness in overt judgments is taken into account.

  7. Impaired cross-talk between mesolimbic food reward processing and metabolic signaling predicts body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J Simon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e. monetary and food related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m² over a normal (20 to 25 kg/m² and overweight (25 to 30 kg/m² BMI, to class I (30 to 35 kg/m² and class II (35 to 40 kg/m² obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging whilst performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn snack points or money coins which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the ventral striatum, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime. This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e. increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling.

  8. Body mass index, weight change, and clinical progression in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; Gill, Dawn P; Monsell, Sarah E; Brenowitz, Willa; Meranus, Dana H; Kukull, Walter; Gustafson, Deborah R

    2014-01-01

    The speed and severity of clinical progression after Alzheimer disease (AD) diagnosis varies and depends on multiple factors, most not well elucidated. We assessed whether body mass index (BMI) and 1-year weight change (WC) are associated with clinical progression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and early-stage AD. Longitudinal data comprising 2268 aMCI and 1506 AD participants in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set were used to examine nuances of clinical progression by BMI and WC, as well as potential variations in associations by age, sex, BMI (WC model), or apolipoprotein E genotype. In aMCI, high BMI (vs. moderate BMI) was associated with slower progression; weight loss (vs. no WC) was associated with faster progression. In AD, no significant differences were observed in clinical progression by BMI or WC. The association between BMI and clinical progression varied significantly by apolipoprotein E genotype in AD, and the association between WC and clinical progression varied significantly by sex and BMI in aMCI. Baseline BMI and 1-year WC in late life may serve as early prognostic indicators in aMCI and early-stage AD. If replicated, these results may help in counseling patients on anticipated clinical progression and suggest windows of opportunity for intervention.

  9. Impaired Integration of Emotional Faces and Affective Body Context in a Rare Case of Developmental Visual Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Hassin, Ran. R.; Bentin, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    In the current study we examined the recognition of facial expressions embedded in emotionally expressive bodies in case LG, an individual with a rare form of developmental visual agnosia who suffers from severe prosopagnosia. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that LG‘s agnosia is characterized by profoundly impaired visual integration. Unlike individuals with typical developmental prosopagnosia who display specific difficulties with face identity (but typically not expression) recognition, LG was also impaired at recognizing isolated facial expressions. By contrast, he successfully recognized the expressions portrayed by faceless emotional bodies handling affective paraphernalia. When presented with contextualized faces in emotional bodies his ability to detect the emotion expressed by a face did not improve even if it was embedded in an emotionally-congruent body context. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, LG displayed an abnormal pattern of contextual influence from emotionally-incongruent bodies. The results are interpreted in the context of a general integration deficit in developmental visual agnosia, suggesting that impaired integration may extend from the level of the face to the level of the full person. PMID:21482423

  10. Impaired integration of emotional faces and affective body context in a rare case of developmental visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Hassin, Ran R; Bentin, Shlomo

    2012-06-01

    In the current study we examined the recognition of facial expressions embedded in emotionally expressive bodies in case LG, an individual with a rare form of developmental visual agnosia (DVA) who suffers from severe prosopagnosia. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that LG's agnosia is characterized by profoundly impaired visual integration. Unlike individuals with typical developmental prosopagnosia who display specific difficulties with face identity (but typically not expression) recognition, LG was also impaired at recognizing isolated facial expressions. By contrast, he successfully recognized the expressions portrayed by faceless emotional bodies handling affective paraphernalia. When presented with contextualized faces in emotional bodies his ability to detect the emotion expressed by a face did not improve even if it was embedded in an emotionally-congruent body context. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, LG displayed an abnormal pattern of contextual influence from emotionally-incongruent bodies. The results are interpreted in the context of a general integration deficit in DVA, suggesting that impaired integration may extend from the level of the face to the level of the full person.

  11. Relation of Serial Changes in Childhood Body-Mass Index to Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Osmond, Clive; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Barker, David J.P.; Biswas, Sushant K. Dey; Ramji, Siddharth; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increased in people who have low birth weights and who subsequently become obese as adults. Whether their obesity originates in childhood and, if so, at what age are unknown. Understanding the origin of obesity may be especially important in developing countries, where type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing yet public health messages still focus on reducing childhood “undernutrition.” METHODS We evaluated glucose tolerance and plasma insulin concentrations in 1492 men and women 26 to 32 years of age who had been measured at birth and at intervals of three to six months throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence in a prospective, population-based study. RESULTS The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 10.8 percent, and that of diabetes was 4.4 percent. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes typically had a low body-mass index up to the age of two years, followed by an early adiposity rebound (the age after infancy when body mass starts to rise) and an accelerated increase in body-mass index until adulthood. However, despite an increase in body-mass index between the ages of 2 and 12 years, none of these subjects were obese at the age of 12 years. The odds ratio for disease associated with an increase in the body-mass index of 1 SD from 2 to 12 years of age was 1.36 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.57; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS There is an association between thinness in infancy and the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in young adulthood. Crossing into higher categories of body-mass index after the age of two years is also associated with these disorders. PMID:14985484

  12. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: a comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity and body image of children and adolescents with visual impairment (VI) in Brazil and Italy. For this, 41 children and adolescents with VI (19 Brazilian and 22 Italian) aged 10.22 ± 2.19 years old (18 girls and 23 boys) answered the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and an instrument with information about the disability, body weight and height. We analyzed the relationship between data from PAQ-C and OSIQ, as well as the gender, level of disability (blindness or low vision) and country using independent Mann-Whitney test. Body mass index (BMI) values were higher for Brazilian youths, with more than half of them classified as overweight and obese. Italian youths exhibited values of body image that were more positive and only 27% presented overweight or obesity. Blind children and adolescents were less active than those with low vision, but no differences were found between countries or genders. In Brazil, we detected significant correlations (p>0.05) between physical activity, body image and BMI, which more active youths presenting lower values of BMI and a better perception of body image. Physical activity seems to have a positive influence on body image and BMI for children and adolescents with VI, thus it should be encouraged especially for those with higher disability degrees.

  13. Impaired imitation of gestures in mild dementia: comparison of dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasuhiro; Okina, Tomoko; Suzuki, Norio

    2015-11-01

    To examine whether imitation of gestures provided useful information to diagnose early dementia in elderly patients. Imitation of finger and hand gestures was evaluated in patients with mild dementia; 74 patients had dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 100 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 52 with subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). Significantly, more patients with DLB (32.4%) compared with patients with AD (5%) or SVaD (11.5%) had an impaired ability to imitate finger gestures bilaterally. Also, significantly, more patients with DLB (36.5%) compared with patients with AD (5%) or SVaD (15.4%) had lower mean scores of both hands. In contrast, impairment of the imitation of bimanual gestures was comparable among the three patient groups (DLB 50%, AD 42%, SVaD 42.3%). Our study revealed that imitation of bimanual gestures was impaired non-specifically in about half of the patients with mild dementia, whereas imitation of finger gestures was significantly more impaired in patients with early DLB than in those with AD or SVaD. Although the sensitivity was not high, the imitation tasks may provide additional information for diagnosis of mild dementia, especially for DLB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Lack of agreement between the revised criteria of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Morán-Villota, Segundo; Barradas-González, Rosalinda; Herrera-Márquez, Rocio; Cruz López, Miguel; Kumate, Jesus; Wacher, Niels H

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the agreement between impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in children with excess body weight using the original and the revised definitions of IFG. Obese and overweight children aged 4-17 years were included (n = 533). Anthropometric parameters and biochemical tests (fasting and 2-h glucose tests after an oral glucose load [1.75 g/kg]) were performed. Case subjects with a fasting plasma glucose >/=126 mg/dl were excluded. The diagnostic parameters of the original and the revised definitions of IFG for detecting IGT were estimated. The analysis of agreement between these categories was made using the kappa test. The prevalence of IFG increased from 6.2 to 13.3% using the new criteria. The prevalence of IFG became closer to the prevalence of IGT (14.8%). The revised criteria increased the sensitivity from 26.6 to 36.7%. However, the new IFG definition was not useful for identifying IGT cases. Of the 71 case subjects with IFG, only 29 (40.8%) had IGT. In addition, 50 case subjects with IGT (9.4%) and 13 with diabetes (2.4%) had a fasting glycemia <100 mg/dl. A poor agreement was found between the 2003 IFG definition and abnormal 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (kappa = 0.359). The proportion of false-positive cases increased (36.3-59.1%) under the new definition. The new definition modestly increases the sensitivity of IFG for detecting IGT in children with excess body weight. Despite this, more than one-half of these cases are not detected. In addition, the false-positive rate was increased by 61%.

  15. Binge Drinking Induces Whole-Body Insulin Resistance by Impairing Hypothalamic Insulin Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtner, Claudia; Scherer, Thomas; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Filatova, Nika; Fasshauer, Martin; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Puchowicz, Michelle; Buettner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with a history of binge drinking have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Whether binge drinking impairs glucose homeostasis and insulin action is unknown. To test this, we treated Sprague-Dawley rats daily with alcohol (3 g/kg) for three consecutive days to simulate human binge drinking and found that these rats developed and exhibited insulin resistance even after blood alcohol concentrations had become undetectable. The animals were resistant to insulin for up to 54 hours after the last dose of ethanol, chiefly a result of impaired hepatic and adipose tissue insulin action. Because insulin regulates hepatic glucose production and white adipose tissue lipolysis, in part through signaling in the central nervous system, we tested whether binge drinking impaired brain control of nutrient partitioning. Rats that had consumed alcohol exhibited impaired hypothalamic insulin action, defined as the ability of insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus to suppress hepatic glucose production and white adipose tissue lipolysis. Insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, as assessed by insulin receptor and AKT phosphorylation, decreased after binge drinking. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed increased hypothalamic inflammation and expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a negative regulator of insulin signaling. Intracerebroventricular infusion of CPT-157633, a small-molecule inhibitor of PTP1B, prevented binge drinking–induced glucose intolerance. These results show that, in rats, binge drinking induces systemic insulin resistance by impairing hypothalamic insulin action and that this effect can be prevented by inhibition of brain PTP1B. PMID:23363978

  16. Evaluation of the Level of Students with Visual Impairments in Turkey in Terms of the Concepts of Mobility Prerequisites (Body Plane/Traffic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay Arslantekin, Banu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Visually impaired people are weak in terms of their learning words and concepts by hearing them and their experience of the world with their bodies. In addition to developing a standardized assessment tool in the Development of Orientation and Mobility Skill Assessment Tool (OMSAT/YOBDA) for Visually Impaired Students Project, supported…

  17. Evidence for impaired verbal identification but intact nonverbal recognition of fearful body postures in Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, John P; Bull, Peter

    2013-07-01

    While most studies of emotion recognition in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) have focused solely on the verbal decoding of affective states, the current research employed the novel technique of using both nonverbal matching and verbal labeling tasks to examine the decoding of emotional body postures and facial expressions. AS participants performed as accurately as controls at matching fear body postures, but were significantly less accurate than controls verbally identifying these same stimuli. This profile arguably indicates that that while the AS participants were aware that the fear body posture stimuli represented a distinct emotion, they were unsure as to which specific emotion. In addition, the AS participants took significantly longer than the controls to respond to anger body posture stimuli on a matching task. However, in contrast to previous studies, AS and control participants did not differ significantly in their responses to facial expression stimuli, in terms of either accuracy or response times.

  18. Body Awareness and Movement for Students with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePountis, Vicki; Cady, Deborah; Hallak, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This conference presentation examines concept development for congenitally blind students. It presents current research on best-practice for teaching this population. Examples of strategies to reinforce understanding of body concepts, spatial awareness, and positional language, while promoting mirroring, self regulation, and purposeful movement to…

  19. A central body fat distribution is related to renal function impairment, even in lean subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Navis, G; Janssen, WMT; de Zeeuw, D; Gans, ROB; de Jong, PE

    2003-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are believed to be associated with renal damage. Whether this depends on fat distribution is not known. We hypothesize that in addition to overweight, fat distribution may be associated with renal function abnormalities. Methods: We studied the relation between body

  20. Rapid body mass loss affects erythropoiesis and hemolysis but does not impair aerobic performance in combat athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, D; Feist, J; Jost, J; Kieser, M; Friedmann-Bette, B

    2016-05-01

    Rapid body mass loss (RBML) before competition was found to decrease hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) in elite boxers. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this observation. Fourteen well-trained combat athletes who reduced body mass before competitions (weight loss group, WLG) and 14 combat athletes who did not practice RBML (control group, CON) were tested during an ordinary training period (t-1), 1-2 days before an official competition (after 5-7 days RBML in WLG, t-2), and after a post-competition period (t-3). In WLG, body mass (-5.5%, range: 2.9-6.8 kg) and Hbmass (-4.1%) were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced after RBML and were still decreased by 1.6% (P < 0.05) and 2.6% (P < 0.001) at t-3 compared with t-1. After RBML, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, haptoglobin, triiodothyronine (FT3 ), and free androgen index (FAI) were decreased compared with t-1 and t-3. An increase occurred in ferritin and bilirubin. Peak treadmill-running performance and VO2peak did not change significantly, but performance at 4-mmol lactate threshold was higher after RBML (P < 0.05). In CON, no significant changes were found in any parameter. Apparently, the significant decrease in Hbmass after RBML in combat athletes was caused by impaired erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis without significant impact on aerobic performance capacity.

  1. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued, fear following post-training whole body irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid HJ Olsen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.. To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear-conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation 24 hours later. Animals were given two weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22 days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  2. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued fear following post-training whole-body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Reid H J; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  3. Anxiety and Shame as Risk Factors for Depression, Suicidality, and Functional Impairment in Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D; Wilhelm, Sabine; Tangney, June P; DiMauro, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with elevated depression, suicidality, functional impairment, and days housebound, yet little research has identified risk factors for these outcomes. Using path analysis, the present study examined anxiety and shame as risk factors for these outcomes across Internet-recruited self-report groups (BDD [n = 114], OCD [n = 114], and healthy control [HC; n = 133]). Paths from anxiety and shame to outcomes were similar and mostly significant across BDD and OCD, compared to non-significant paths for HCs, with one exception: the path from shame to depression was significant in the BDD group (b = 0.32) but non-significant in the OCD group (b = 0.07). Findings underscore similarities in BDD and OCD, supporting their reclassification into the same Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders category. Results emphasize the importance of targeting shame, in addition to anxiety, in treatments for BDD and OCD.

  4. [Functional impairment, fear of falling and body composition in institutionalized elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Romão Preto, Leonel; Nogueiro Santos, Ana Luisa; Mendes, Maria Eugénia; Pinto Novo, André; Pimentel, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    To analyze changes in the aging process of institutionalized elderly over a 24 months period, including physical condition, fear of falling, and body composition. A longitudinal, analytic and prospective study was implemented in 3 residential care homes for seniors. Data were collected using a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test, handgrip dynamometry and bioelectric impedance. The Portuguese version of the Falls Efficacy Scale was used for measure fear of falling. Fifty-one institutionalized elderly (82.5 ± 7.4 years) were included. In the 24 months analysis period, functional decline was observed (P<.05) in tests: sit to stand, harm curl, sit and reach and Up and Go. In average falls occurred 1.7 times. Were observed a decrease of self-efficacy to prevent falling, and falls prevalence was 42.1%. Results suggest a functional decrease, mainly in variables related with strength and muscular control of arms and legs, agility/dynamic balance and flexibility. Data don't highlight significant changes in body composition, however, tend to a muscle mass and bone mineral mass reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Deletion of muscle GRP94 impairs both muscle and body growth by inhibiting local IGF production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Elisabeth R; Park, SooHyun; James, Jose K; Makarewich, Catherine A; Philippou, Anastassios; Eletto, Davide; Lei, Hanqin; Brisson, Becky; Ostrovsky, Olga; Li, Zihai; Argon, Yair

    2012-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are critical for development and growth of skeletal muscles, but because several tissues produce IGFs, it is not clear which source is necessary or sufficient for muscle growth. Because it is critical for production of both IGF-I and IGF-II, we ablated glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in murine striated muscle to test the necessity of local IGFs for normal muscle growth. These mice exhibited smaller skeletal muscles with diminished IGF contents but with normal contractile function and no apparent endoplasmic reticulum stress response. This result shows that muscles rely on GRP94 primarily to support local production of IGFs, a pool that is necessary for normal muscle growth. In addition, body weights were ∼30% smaller than those of littermate controls, and circulating IGF-I also decreased significantly, yet glucose homeostasis was maintained with little disruption to the growth hormone pathway. The growth defect was complemented on administration of recombinant IGF-I. Thus, unlike liver production of IGF-I, muscle IGF-I is necessary not only locally but also globally for whole-body growth.

  6. Imidacloprid-induced impairment of mushroom bodies and behavior of the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Vaner V Tomé

    Full Text Available Declines in pollinator colonies represent a worldwide concern. The widespread use of agricultural pesticides is recognized as a potential cause of these declines. Previous studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid on pollinator colonies, but these investigations have mainly focused on adult honey bees. Native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae are key pollinators in neotropical areas and are threatened with extinction due to deforestation and pesticide use. Few studies have directly investigated the effects of pesticides on these pollinators. Furthermore, the existing impact studies did not address the issue of larval ingestion of contaminated pollen and nectar, which could potentially have dire consequences for the colony. Here, we assessed the effects of imidacloprid ingestion by stingless bee larvae on their survival, development, neuromorphology and adult walking behavior. Increasing doses of imidacloprid were added to the diet provided to individual worker larvae of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides throughout their development. Survival rates above 50% were only observed at insecticide doses lower than 0.0056 µg active ingredient (a.i./bee. No sublethal effect on body mass or developmental time was observed in the surviving insects, but the pesticide treatment negatively affected the development of mushroom bodies in the brain and impaired the walking behavior of newly emerged adult workers. Therefore, stingless bee larvae are particularly susceptible to imidacloprid, as it caused both high mortality and sublethal effects that impaired brain development and compromised mobility at the young adult stage. These findings demonstrate the lethal effects of imidacloprid on native stingless bees and provide evidence of novel serious sublethal effects that may compromise colony survival. The ecological and economic importance of neotropical stingless bees as pollinators

  7. Body Mass Index assessment of institutionalized aged people without cognitive impairment using clinical and nutritional factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Ruperto López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are recognized mortality risk factors in the general population. The aim of the study was to analyse the phenotypic distribution of body mass index (BMI, and to identify the prevalence of malnutrition and clinical and nutritional factors related to BMI in autonomous institutionalized elders. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study in 104 institutionalized aged people (73% female, mean of age 86.4 [±6.2] years and time on institutionalization 25.7 [±21.7] months. Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA, anthropometric measures and laboratory parameters were used for nutritional assessment. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA-101; RJL-System was used for body composition analysis. The sample was classified into BMI tertiles (Tn: T1=<26.2kg/m2; T2=26.3-29.7kg/m2; and T3=≥29.8kg/m2. Results: The phenotypic distribution of BMI was: overweight 51% and, prevalence of obesity 29.8%. Mean of BMI: 28.3 (±4.6 kg/m2. Nutritional risk or malnutrition were 60.6% and 11.5%, respectively in the sample. The tertiles of BMI showed significant differences with: mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps-skinfold thickness, total body water (TBW (all, p<0.001. Subjects into T1 had significantly higher nutritional risk or malnutrition compared with T2 and T3 counterparts (p=0.015. Waist-circumference, calf-circumference (at least, p<0.01, and TBW (p<0.001 were independent predictors of BMI in the linear regression analysis (R2=0.52. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity measured by BMI is not an exclusion criterion of malnutrition in the geriatric population. Nutritional screening by MNA and the conjoint use of clinical-nutritional parameters are useful for identifying at nutritional risk or malnutrition. Further studies are needed to define the potential nutritional risk factors associated with BMI in autonomous institutionalized aged.

  8. Parkinson's Disease-Related Impairments in Body Movement, Coordination and Postural Control Mechanisms When Performing 80° Lateral Gaze Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2015-09-01

    We investigated early signs of Parkinson's disease-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Thirty-six participants (18 Hoehn & Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition and 18 healthy controls) were studied in a stationary gaze condition and when performing 80° lateral gaze shifts at 0.125 and 0.25 Hz. Body sway, coordination and postural control mechanisms were analyzed. All participants performed the visual tasks adequately. The patients were not unstable in the stationary gaze condition. In both groups, mediolateral ankle- and hip-based postural control mechanisms were significantly more active under gaze shift conditions than under the stationary gaze condition. As expected, the patients exhibited significantly greater angular movements of the lower back and significantly lower angular movements of the head (relative to controls) when performing gaze shifts. When considering linear displacements (rather than angular movements), the patients exhibited significantly greater displacements of the lower back and lower, slower displacements of the head than controls under gaze shift conditions. Relative to controls, the patients performed "en block" body movements. Overall, our results show that the patients' ankle- and hip-based mediolateral postural control mechanisms did not adapt to the difficulty of the visual task being performed.

  9. Low body mass index is associated with impaired quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Wataru; Omoto, Atsushi; Ohta, Tamaki; Majima, Saori; Kimura, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Toru; Kohno, Masataka; Kawahito, Yutaka

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between quality of life (QOL) and rheumatoid chachesia, malnutrition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire (EQ5D) and Japanese Health Assessment Questionnaire (JHAQ) scores, body mass index (BMI), arm muscle area (AMA) and clinical indicators were measured in 385 RA patients. One-way analysis of variance for obtained data was conducted among three groups: 131 with low BMI (< 20), 163 with moderate (20-25) and 91 with high BMI (≥25). Then multiple regression analyses for JHAQ and EQ5D scores with nutritional and clinical indicators as independent variables were performed. EQ5D and JHAQ scores were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in the low BMI group than those in the moderate BMI group. Clinical indicators including doses of corticosteroid were similar among the three groups except for disease duration. Disease activity score (DAS) 28, disease duration, C-reactive protein and AMA were significant variables in the regression model for EQ5D. Low BMI deteriorates the QOL of RA patients. Muscle protein loss apparently leads to a reduction in BMI and QOL. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Impaired fasting glucose and body mass index as determinants of mortality in ALLHAT: is the obesity paradox real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ravi V; Abbasi, Siddique A; Yamal, José-Miguel; Davis, Barry R; Barzilay, Joshua; Einhorn, Paula T; Goldfine, Alison B; Goldfine, Allison

    2014-06-01

    Emerging literature suggests that obesity may be "protective" against mortality and cardiovascular outcomes, while dysglycemia may worsen outcomes regardless of obesity. The authors measured the association of weight, smoking, and glycemia with mortality in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Among 5423 ALLHAT participants without established diabetes or cardiovascular disease, 3980 (73%) had normal fasting glucose and 1443 (27%) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) levels at study entry. After a median of 4.9 years follow-up, 554 (10%) had died (37% cardiovascular). IFG was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.50), while obesity was associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.96). However, after excluding underweight individuals (body mass index [BMI] obesity nor IFG was associated with all-cause mortality [corrected]. Although obesity appeared protective against mortality, this association was not significant in never-smokers or after exclusion of BMI obesity paradox may result from confounding by a sicker, underweight referent population and smoking.

  11. Outer Electrospun Polycaprolactone Shell Induces Massive Foreign Body Reaction and Impairs Axonal Regeneration through 3D Multichannel Chitosan Nerve Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Peter; Wienecke, Soenke; Chakradeo, Tanmay; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    We report on the performance of composite nerve grafts with an inner 3D multichannel porous chitosan core and an outer electrospun polycaprolactone shell. The inner chitosan core provided multiple guidance channels for regrowing axons. To analyze the in vivo properties of the bare chitosan cores, we separately implanted them into an epineural sheath. The effects of both graft types on structural and functional regeneration across a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap were compared to autologous nerve transplantation (ANT). The mechanical biomaterial properties and the immunological impact of the grafts were assessed with histological techniques before and after transplantation in vivo. Furthermore during a 13-week examination period functional tests and electrophysiological recordings were performed and supplemented by nerve morphometry. The sheathing of the chitosan core with a polycaprolactone shell induced massive foreign body reaction and impairment of nerve regeneration. Although the isolated novel chitosan core did allow regeneration of axons in a similar size distribution as the ANT, the ANT was superior in terms of functional regeneration. We conclude that an outer polycaprolactone shell should not be used for the purpose of bioartificial nerve grafting, while 3D multichannel porous chitosan cores could be candidate scaffolds for structured nerve grafts. PMID:24818158

  12. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model.

  13. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bekrater-Bodmann

    Full Text Available The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP and residual limb pain (RLP, is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate

  14. Impaired executive function mediates the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and child ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Entringer, Sonja; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Hobel, Calvin J; Swanson, James M; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests exposure to adverse conditions in intrauterine life may increase the risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. High maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) has been shown to predict child ADHD symptoms, however the neurocognitive processes underlying this relationship are not known. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this association is mediated by alterations in child executive function. A population-based cohort of 174 children (mean age = 7.3 ± 0.9 (SD) yrs, 55% girls) was evaluated for ADHD symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist, and for neurocognitive function using the Go/No-go task. This cohort had been followed prospectively from early gestation and birth through infancy and childhood with serial measures of maternal and child prenatal and postnatal factors. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of child ADHD symptoms (F((1,158)) = 4.80, p = 0.03) and of child performance on the Go/No-go task (F((1,157)) = 8.37, p = 0.004) after controlling for key potential confounding variables. A test of the mediation model revealed that the association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and child ADHD symptoms was mediated by impaired executive function (inefficient/less attentive processing; Sobel Test: t = 2.39 (± 0.002, SEM), p = 0.02). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to report that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI-related alterations in child neurocognitive function may mediate its effects on ADHD risk. The finding is clinically significant and may extrapolate to an approximately 2.8-fold increase in the prevalence of ADHD among children of obese compared to those of non-obese mothers. These results add further evidence to the growing awareness that neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD may have their foundations very early in life.

  15. Impairment in emotion perception from body movements in individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder is associated with functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Lagerberg, Trine Vik; Bjella, Thomas D; Simonsen, Carmen; Andreassen, Ole A; Ueland, Torill; Sundet, Kjetil

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with bipolar disorder present with moderate impairments in social cognition during the euthymic state. The impairment extends to theory of mind and to the perception of emotion in faces and voices, but it is unclear if emotion perception from body movements is affected. The main aim of this study was to examine if participants with bipolar disorder perform worse than healthy control participants on a task using point-light displays of human full figures moving in a manner indicative of a basic emotion (angry, happy, sad, fearful, neutral/no emotion). A secondary research question was whether diagnostic subtypes (bipolar I, bipolar II) and history of psychosis impacted on this type of emotion perception. Finally, symptomatic, neurocognitive, and functional correlates of emotion perception from body movements were investigated. Fifty-three individuals with bipolar I (n = 29) or bipolar II (n = 24) disorder, and 84 healthy control participants were assessed for emotion perception from body movements. The bipolar group also underwent clinical, cognitive, and functional assessment. Research questions were analyzed using analyses of variance and bivariate correlations. The bipolar disorder group differed significantly from healthy control participants for emotion perception from body movements (Cohen's d = 0.40). Analyses of variance yielded no effects of sex, diagnostic subtype (bipolar I, bipolar II), or history of psychosis. There was an effect of emotion, indicating that some emotions are easier to recognize. The lack of a significant group × emotion interaction effect points, however, to this being so regardless of the presence of bipolar disorder. Performance was unrelated to manic and depressive symptom load but showed significant associations with neurocognition and functional capacity. Individuals with bipolar disorder had a small but significant impairment in the ability to perceive emotions from body movement. The impairment was global, i

  16. Impaired executive function mediates the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and child ADHD symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Buss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests exposure to adverse conditions in intrauterine life may increase the risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in childhood. High maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI has been shown to predict child ADHD symptoms, however the neurocognitive processes underlying this relationship are not known. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this association is mediated by alterations in child executive function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cohort of 174 children (mean age = 7.3 ± 0.9 (SD yrs, 55% girls was evaluated for ADHD symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist, and for neurocognitive function using the Go/No-go task. This cohort had been followed prospectively from early gestation and birth through infancy and childhood with serial measures of maternal and child prenatal and postnatal factors. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of child ADHD symptoms (F((1,158 = 4.80, p = 0.03 and of child performance on the Go/No-go task (F((1,157 = 8.37, p = 0.004 after controlling for key potential confounding variables. A test of the mediation model revealed that the association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and child ADHD symptoms was mediated by impaired executive function (inefficient/less attentive processing; Sobel Test: t = 2.39 (± 0.002, SEM, p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to report that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI-related alterations in child neurocognitive function may mediate its effects on ADHD risk. The finding is clinically significant and may extrapolate to an approximately 2.8-fold increase in the prevalence of ADHD among children of obese compared to those of non-obese mothers. These results add further evidence to the growing awareness that neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD may have their foundations very early in life.

  17. Proposal of a type strain for Frankia alni (Woronin 1866) Von Tubeuf 1895, emended description of Frankia alni, and recognition of Frankia casuarinae sp. nov. and Frankia elaeagni sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Schumann, Peter; Rohde, Manfred; Goodfellow, Michael; Fernandez, Maria P; Normand, Philippe; Tisa, Louis S; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Gtari, Maher

    2016-12-01

    Before the establishment of pure cultures, the species Frankia alni, 'Frankia casuarinae' and 'Frankia elaeagni' were proposed to encompass all causal agents of the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of dicotyledonous plants from the genera Alnus, Casuarina or Elaeagnus. The sole Frankia species with a validly published name, the type species F. alni, was described by Woronin (1866) as present in the root of alder. Until now no type strain has been designated for F. alni, even though the absence of a type strain has seriously inhibited the application of modern taxonomic methods to the genus Frankia. Thus, we propose that strain ACN14aT, isolated in pure culture from Alnus viridis ssp. crispa with morphological properties matching the original description of F. alni, be recognized as the type strain of this species according to Rule 18f of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. We compared ACN14aT to two strains, CcI3T and BMG5.12T, isolated from Casuarina cunninghamiana and Elaeagnus angustifolia, respectively, based on chemotaxonomy, phenotype microarray data and molecular data retrieved from genome sequences. All three tested strains grew as branched hyphae, produced vesicles and multilocular sporangia containing non-motile spores and metabolized short fatty acids, TCA-cycle intermediates and carbohydrates. Chemotaxonomically, the three strains were indistinguishable with respect to phospholipids (phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycophospholipids and phosphatidylglycerol) and cell-sugar composition (glucose, mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galactose and xylose, with the latter two being diagnostic for the genus). The major fatty acids identified in all three strains were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c, C15 : 0, C17 : 0 and C16 : 0. ACN14aT and BMG5.12T also shared C15 : 1ω6c, while C18 : 1ω9c was found to be unique to BMG5.12T. The major menaquinones identified in all three novel type strains were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and

  18. The Effect of Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Sighted Individuals and Those Who Are Visually Impaired: An Analysis Adjusted for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Dorota; Stemplewski, Rafał; Szeklicki, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exercise on postural stability in sighted participants and individuals who are visually impaired, adjusted for potential modulatory effects of physical activity level and body mass index (BMI). The study included 23 participants who were severely visually impaired and 23 sighted participants. Postural stability measurements were taken with open eyes (session I) and with closed eyes (session II). During each session, the mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements was determined using a force plate both before and after physical exercise. During testing with open eyes, the 2 groups did not differ significantly in terms of their postural response to physical exercise. When examined with closed eyes, the individuals who were visually impaired showed markedly greater postexercise increase in mean velocity of the COP displacement in the mediolateral direction. This intergroup difference was likely a consequence of significantly higher preexercise values of posturographic parameters observed in the sighted participants. More pronounced postexercise changes in the postural stability of sighted participants were associated with lower levels of physical activity and higher values of BMI. Further research is needed to explain the character of the abovementioned relationships in individuals who are visually impaired.

  19. Enzyme and cytokine effects on the impaired onset of the murine foreign-body reaction to dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khouw, IMSL; van Wachem, PB; Plantinga, JA; de Leij, LFMH; van Luyn, MJA

    2001-01-01

    Subcutaneous implantation of biodegradable hexamethylenediisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (HDSC) elicited little foreign-body reaction in mice in contrast to rats. If the factor(s) resulting in this minor foreign-body reaction are better understood, this knowledge can be used to modulat

  20. Wearing lower-body compression garment with medium pressure impaired exercise-induced performance decrement during prolonged running

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahiro Mizuno; Mari Arai; Fumihiko Todoko; Eri Yamada; Kazushige Goto

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of wearing a lower body compression garment (CG) exerting different pressure levels during prolonged running on exercise-induced muscle damage and the inflammatory response...

  1. The Research Progress in Negative Body Image of Hearing-impaired Students%听障学生负面身体意象的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 杨昭宁

    2014-01-01

    Negative body image refers to a passive cognition of one’s body, passive emotional experiences and the corresponding adjustment of one’s behaviors. The researches on the negative body image of hearing-impaired students have just started. Based on literature review, this article introduces the definitions of relevant concepts, research field, methods and theories, and analyzes the current researches on the negative body image of hearing-impaired students. Moreover, some limitations of the studies are discussed and the future directions are pointed out.%负面身体意象指个体对自己身体的消极认知、情感体验及相应的行为调控。有关听障学生这一特殊群体的负面身体意象相关研究刚刚起步,本文检索大量文献,通过对概念定义、研究领域、研究方法、理论假设等内容的整理,发现目前对负面身体意向的解释主要集中于自我图式理论、社会文化理论、符号互动自我理论和社会比较理论等假说;研究者多采用负面身体自我量表、多维自我身体意象关系问卷等调查工具,研究听障学生负面身体意象特征。结合现状,笔者提出研究展望,以期为后续研究提供参考。

  2. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17β exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Fürst, Rainer [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine, E-mail: ulbrich@wzw.tum.de [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17β (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 μg/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 μg/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 μg/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 μg E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 μg E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17β (E2) as an obesogen. ► We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ► Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ► Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage

  3. Self-reported nonrestorative sleep in fibromyalgia – relationship to impairments of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liedberg GM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gunilla M Liedberg,1 Mathilda Björk,2 Björn Börsbo31Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, 2Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenPurpose: The purpose of this study was: 1 to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2 to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. Results: Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up, we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy, impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion: This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological

  4. Impaired nutrient signaling and body weight control in a Na+ neutral amino acid cotransporter (Slc6a19)-deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G; Rasko, John E J; Bröer, Stefan

    2011-07-29

    Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na(+)-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B(0)AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B(0)AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation.

  5. Impaired Nutrient Signaling and Body Weight Control in a Na+ Neutral Amino Acid Cotransporter (Slc6a19)-deficient Mouse*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M.; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S.; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G.; Rasko, John E. J.; Bröer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B0AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na+-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B0AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B0AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation. PMID:21636576

  6. Simulation of the pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol in healthy adults and patients with impaired renal function using whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-fu LI; Kun WANG; Rui CHEN; Hao-ru ZHAO; Jin YANG; Qing-shan ZHENG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To develop and evaluate a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model of bisoprolol and to simulate its exposure and disposition in healthy adults and patients with renal function impairment.Methods:Bisoprolol dispositions in 14 tissue compartments were described by perfusion-limited compartments.Based the tissue composition equations and drug-specific properties such as log P,permeability,and plasma protein binding published in literatures,the absorption and whole-body distribution of bisoprolol was predicted using the ‘Advanced Compartmental Absorption Transit’ (ACAT)model and the whole-body disposition model,respectively.Renal and hepatic clearances were simulated using empirical scaling methods followed by incorporation into the WB-PBPK model.Model refinements were conducted after a comparison of the simulated concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters with the observed data in healthy adults following intravenous and oral administration.Finally,the WB-PBPK model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation was employed to predict the mean and variability of bisoprolol pharmacokinetics in virtual healthy subjects and patients.Results:The simulated and observed data after both intravenous and oral dosing showed good agreement for all of the dose levels in the reported normal adult population groups.The predicted pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC,Cmax,and Tmax) were reasonably consistent (<1.3-fold error) with the observed values after single oral administration of doses ranging from of 5 to 20 mg using the refined WB-PBPK model.The simulated plasma profiles after multiple oral administration of bisoprolol in healthy adults and patient with renal impairment matched well with the observed profiles.Conclusion:The WB-PBPK model successfully predicts the intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol across multiple dose levels in diverse normal adult human populations and patients with renal insufficiency.

  7. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of Janus kinase (JAK) 2 in mice impairs lipolysis and increases body weight, and leads to insulin resistance with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sally Yu; Luk, Cynthia T; Brunt, Jara J; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Lu, Shun-Yan; Schroer, Stephanie A; Woo, Minna

    2014-05-01

    The growing obesity epidemic necessitates a better understanding of adipocyte biology and its role in metabolism. The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway mediates signalling by numerous cytokines and hormones that regulate adipocyte function, illustrating the physiological importance of adipose JAK-STAT. The aim of this study was to investigate potential roles of adipocyte JAK2, an essential player in the JAK-STAT pathway, in adipocyte biology and metabolism. We generated adipocyte-specific Jak2 knockout (A-Jak2 KO) mice using the Cre-loxP system with Cre expression driven by the Ap2 (also known as Fabp4) promoter. Starting at 2-3 months of age, male and female A-Jak2 KO mice gradually gained more body weight than control littermates primarily due to increased adiposity. This was associated with reduced energy expenditure in A-Jak2 KO mice. In perigonadal adipose tissue, the expression of numerous genes involved in lipid metabolism was differentially regulated. In addition, adipose tissue from A-Jak2 KO mice displayed impaired lipolysis in response to isoprenaline, growth hormone and leptin stimulation, suggesting that adipose JAK2 directly modulates the lipolytic program. Impaired lipid homeostasis was also associated with disrupted adipokine secretion. Accordingly, while glucose metabolism was normal at 2 months of age, by 5-6 months of age, A-Jak2 KO mice had whole-body insulin resistance. Our results suggest that adipocyte JAK2 plays a critical role in the regulation of adipocyte biology and whole-body metabolism. Targeting of the JAK-STAT pathway could be a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  8. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol deficiency in Arabidopsis affects pigment composition in the prolamellar body and impairs thylakoid membrane energization and photoprotection in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Henrik; Schöttler, Mark A; Kelly, Amélie A; Sundqvist, Christer; Dörmann, Peter; Karim, Sazzad; Jarvis, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is the major lipid constituent of chloroplast membranes and has been proposed to act directly in several important plastidic processes, particularly during photosynthesis. In this study, the effect of MGDG deficiency, as observed in the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase1-1 (mgd1-1) mutant, on chloroplast protein targeting, phototransformation of pigments, and photosynthetic light reactions was analyzed. The targeting of plastid proteins into or across the envelope, or into the thylakoid membrane, was not different from wild-type in the mgd1 mutant, suggesting that the residual amount of MGDG in mgd1 was sufficient to maintain functional targeting mechanisms. In dark-grown plants, the ratio of bound protochlorophyllide (Pchlide, F656) to free Pchlide (F631) was increased in mgd1 compared to the wild type. Increased levels of the photoconvertible pigment-protein complex (F656), which is photoprotective and suppresses photooxidative damage caused by an excess of free Pchlide, may be an adaptive response to the mgd1 mutation. Leaves of mgd1 suffered from a massively impaired capacity for thermal dissipation of excess light due to an inefficient operation of the xanthophyll cycle; the mutant contained less zeaxanthin and more violaxanthin than wild type after 60 min of high-light exposure and suffered from increased photosystem II photoinhibition. This is attributable to an increased conductivity of the thylakoid membrane at high light intensities, so that the proton motive force is reduced and the thylakoid lumen is less acidic than in wild type. Thus, the pH-dependent activation of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and of the PsbS protein is impaired.

  9. Nutritional status and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis: A cross sectional study in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Simone; Maggiore, Laura; Forcella, Marica; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Grande, Giulia; Muzio, Fulvio; Mariani, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Aims Analysis of nutritional status and body composition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a University-Hospital setting, recruiting 59 patients with AD, 34 subjects with MCI and 58 elderly healthy controls (HC). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric parameters (body mass index; calf, upper arm and waist circumferences), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and subjects were grouped by cognitive status and gender. Results Sociodemographic variables did not differ among the three groups (AD, MCI and HC), except for females’ age, which was therefore used as covariate in a general linear multivariate model. MNA score was significantly lower in AD patients than in HC; MCI subjects achieved intermediate scores. AD patients (both sexes) had significantly (p<0.05) higher height-normalized impedance values and lower phase angles (body cell mass) compared with HC; a higher ratio of impedance to height was found in men with MCI with respect to HC. With BIVA method, MCI subjects showed a significant displacement on the RXc graph on the right side indicating lower soft tissues (Hotelling’s T2 test: men = 10.6; women = 7.9;p < 0,05) just like AD patients (Hotelling’s T2 test: men = 18.2; women = 16.9; p<0,001). Conclusion Bioelectrical parameters significantly differ from MCI and AD to HC; MCI showed an intermediate pattern between AD and HC. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate if BIVA could reflect early AD-changes in body composition in subjects with MCI. PMID:28187148

  10. Long-term influences of body-weight changes, independent of the attained weight, on risk of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, E; Holst, C; Astrup, A

    2005-01-01

    , but not by more recent weight gain in the later periods, probably because of the development of Type 2 diabetes leading to weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of attained level of body weight in middle-aged men, weight gain is associated with increased risk of IGT, and is greater in those not overweight......AIM: To investigate if weight gain during adulthood has effects on the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or Type 2 diabetes beyond effect of attained weight. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a longitudinal study of two cohorts: one of juvenile-onset obese (n...... = 0.004), and weight gain during both the early and later ages contributed to the increased risk. Obese men, maintaining weight since age 20, had lower risk of IGT than non-obese men who became similarly obese by age 51. The risk of Type 2 diabetes increased by weight gain in early adult life...

  11. Fat cell-specific ablation of rictor in mice impairs insulin-regulated fat cell and whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Lawrence, John C; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Keller, Susanna R; Kim, Jason K; Magnuson, Mark A; Harris, Thurl E

    2010-06-01

    Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC) 2, a kinase that phosphorylates and activates Akt, an insulin signaling intermediary that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. To determine the physiological role of rictor/mTORC2 in insulin signaling and action in fat cells, we developed fat cell-specific rictor knockout (FRic(-/-)) mice. Insulin signaling and glucose and lipid metabolism were studied in FRic(-/-) fat cells. In vivo glucose metabolism was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Loss of rictor in fat cells prevents insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt at S473, which, in turn, impairs the phosphorylation of downstream targets such as FoxO3a at T32 and AS160 at T642. However, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation at S9 is not affected. The signaling defects in FRic(-/-) fat cells lead to impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and decreased glucose transport. Furthermore, rictor-null fat cells are unable to suppress lipolysis in response to insulin, leading to elevated circulating free fatty acids and glycerol. These metabolic perturbations are likely to account for defects observed at the whole-body level of FRic(-/-) mice, including glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver, and hepatic steatosis. Rictor/mTORC2 in fat cells plays an important role in whole-body energy homeostasis by mediating signaling necessary for the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fat cells.

  12. Fat Cell–Specific Ablation of Rictor in Mice Impairs Insulin-Regulated Fat Cell and Whole-Body Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Lawrence, John C.; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Keller, Susanna R.; Kim, Jason K.; Magnuson, Mark A.; Harris, Thurl E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC) 2, a kinase that phosphorylates and activates Akt, an insulin signaling intermediary that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. To determine the physiological role of rictor/mTORC2 in insulin signaling and action in fat cells, we developed fat cell–specific rictor knockout (FRic−/−) mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin signaling and glucose and lipid metabolism were studied in FRic−/− fat cells. In vivo glucose metabolism was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. RESULTS Loss of rictor in fat cells prevents insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt at S473, which, in turn, impairs the phosphorylation of downstream targets such as FoxO3a at T32 and AS160 at T642. However, glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation at S9 is not affected. The signaling defects in FRic−/− fat cells lead to impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and decreased glucose transport. Furthermore, rictor-null fat cells are unable to suppress lipolysis in response to insulin, leading to elevated circulating free fatty acids and glycerol. These metabolic perturbations are likely to account for defects observed at the whole-body level of FRic−/− mice, including glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver, and hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS Rictor/mTORC2 in fat cells plays an important role in whole-body energy homeostasis by mediating signaling necessary for the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fat cells. PMID:20332342

  13. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A; Plouffe, Louise J; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-04-28

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  14. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  15. Storage of factor VIII variants with impaired von Willebrand factor binding in Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje van den Biggelaar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Point mutations resulting in reduced factor VIII (FVIII binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF are an important cause of mild/moderate hemophilia A. Treatment includes desmopressin infusion, which concomitantly increases VWF and FVIII plasma levels, apparently from storage pools containing both proteins. The source of these VWF/FVIII co-storage pools and the mechanism of granule biogenesis are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied intracellular trafficking of FVIII variants implicated in mild/moderate hemophilia A together with VWF in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells. The role of VWF binding was addressed using FVIII variants displaying reduced VWF interaction. Binding studies using purified FVIII proteins revealed moderate (Arg2150His, Del2201, Pro2300Ser to severe (Tyr1680Phe, Ser2119Tyr VWF binding defects. Expression studies in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells revealed that all FVIII variants were present within VWF-containing organelles. Quantitative studies showed that the relative amount of FVIII storage was independent of various mutations. Substantial amounts of FVIII variants are co-stored in VWF-containing storage organelles, presumably by virtue of their ability to interact with VWF at low pH. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the potential of FVIII co-storage with VWF is not affected in mild/moderate hemophilia A caused by reduced FVIII/VWF interaction in the circulation. These data support the hypothesis that Weibel-Palade bodies comprise the desmopressin-releasable FVIII storage pool in vivo.

  16. Impaired Lysosomal Integral Membrane Protein 2-dependent Peroxiredoxin 6 Delivery to Lamellar Bodies Accounts for Altered Alveolar Phospholipid Content in Adaptor Protein-3-deficient pearl Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Seunghyi; Wang, Ping; Young, Lisa R; Schwake, Michael; Saftig, Paul; Weng, Xialian; Meng, Ying; Neculai, Dante; Marks, Michael S; Gonzales, Linda; Beers, Michael F; Guttentag, Susan

    2016-04-15

    The Hermansky Pudlak syndromes (HPS) constitute a family of disorders characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and bleeding diathesis, often associated with lethal lung fibrosis. HPS results from mutations in genes of membrane trafficking complexes that facilitate delivery of cargo to lysosome-related organelles. Among the affected lysosome-related organelles are lamellar bodies (LB) within alveolar type 2 cells (AT2) in which surfactant components are assembled, modified, and stored. AT2 from HPS patients and mouse models of HPS exhibit enlarged LB with increased phospholipid content, but the mechanism underlying these defects is unknown. We now show that AT2 in the pearl mouse model of HPS type 2 lacking the adaptor protein 3 complex (AP-3) fails to accumulate the soluble enzyme peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in LB. This defect reflects impaired AP-3-dependent trafficking of PRDX6 to LB, because pearl mouse AT2 cells harbor a normal total PRDX6 content. AP-3-dependent targeting of PRDX6 to LB requires the transmembrane protein LIMP-2/SCARB2, a known AP-3-dependent cargo protein that functions as a carrier for lysosomal proteins in other cell types. Depletion of LB PRDX6 in AP-3- or LIMP-2/SCARB2-deficient mice correlates with phospholipid accumulation in lamellar bodies and with defective intraluminal degradation of LB disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, AP-3-dependent LB targeting is facilitated by protein/protein interaction between LIMP-2/SCARB2 and PRDX6 in vitro and in vivo Our data provide the first evidence for an AP-3-dependent cargo protein required for the maturation of LB in AT2 and suggest that the loss of PRDX6 activity contributes to the pathogenic changes in LB phospholipid homeostasis found HPS2 patients.

  17. Multi-modal MRI investigation of volumetric and microstructural changes in the hippocampus and its subfields in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Elijah; Gabel, Silvy; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Arnold, Robert; Passamonti, Luca; Vazquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Surendranathan, Ajenthan; Bevan-Jones, W Richard; Rowe, James B; O'Brien, John T

    2017-04-01

    Volumetric atrophy and microstructural alterations in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the hippocampus have been reported in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, no study to date has jointly investigated concomitant microstructural and volumetric changes of the hippocampus in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). A total of 84 subjects (23 MCI, 17 DLB, 14 AD, and 30 healthy controls) were recruited for a multi-modal imaging (3T MRI and DTI) study that included neuropsychological evaluation. Freesurfer was used to segment the total hippocampus and delineate its subfields. The hippocampal segmentations were co-registered to the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from the DTI images. Both AD and MCI groups showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes compared to DLB and controls, predominantly in the CA1 and subiculum subfields. Compared to controls, hippocampal MD was elevated in AD, but not in MCI. DLB was characterized by both volumetric and microstructural preservation of the hippocampus. In MCI, higher hippocampal MD was associated with greater atrophy of the hippocampus and CA1 region. Hippocampal volume was a stronger predictor of memory scores compared to MD within the MCI group. Through a multi-modal integration, we report novel evidence that the hippocampus in DLB is characterized by both macrostructural and microstructural preservation. Contrary to recent suggestions, our findings do not support the view that DTI measurements of the hippocampus are superior to volumetric changes in characterizing group differences, particularly between MCI and controls.

  18. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos triggered body weight increase and memory impairment depending on human apoE polymorphisms in a targeted replacement mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Basaure, Pia; Reverte, Ingrid; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2015-05-15

    Despite restrictions on their use, humans are still constantly exposed to organophosphates (OPs). A huge number of studies have ratified the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and suggested its association with neurodegenerative diseases, but data are still scarce. Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in lipid transport and distribution. In humans, the apoE4 isoform has been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE3 is the most prevalent isoform worldwide, and has been often established as the healthful one. The current study, performed in targeted replacement (TR) adult male mice, aimed to inquire whether genetic variations of the human apoE respond differently to a chronic dietary challenge with CPF. At four/five months of age, mice carrying apoE2, apoE3 or apoE4 were pair-fed a diet supplemented with CPF at 0 or 2mg/kg body weight/day for 13weeks. Cholinergic signs were monitored daily and body weight changes weekly. In the last week of treatment, learning and memory were assessed in a Barnes maze task. Dietary CPF challenge increased body weight only in apoE3 mice. Differences in the acquisition and retention of the Barnes maze were attributed to apoE genetic differences. Our results showed that apoE4 mice performed worse than apoE2 and apoE3 carriers in the acquisition period of the spatial task, and that apoE2 mice had poorer retention than the other two genotypes. On the other hand, CPF increased the search velocity of apoE2 subjects during the acquisition period. Retention was impaired only in CPF-exposed apoE3 mice. These results underline that gene×environment interactions need to be taken into account in epidemiological studies. Given that apoE3, the most common polymorphism in humans, has proved to be the most sensitive to CPF, the potential implications for human health merit serious thought.

  19. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual problem ...

  20. Lumbar spine and total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability: a pilot study of artefacts and disrupting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, S.; Rieken, R.; Evenhuis, H.M.; Penning, C. [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Intellectual Disability Medicine, Department of General Practice, PO Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tibboel, D. [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID) are susceptible for developing low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. BMD is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To describe the occurrence of factors that may influence the feasibility of DXA and the accuracy of DXA outcome in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. Based on literature and expert opinion, a list of disrupting factors was developed. Occurrence of these factors was assessed in 27 children who underwent DXA measurement. Disrupting factors that occurred most frequently were movement during measurement (82%), aberrant body composition (67%), small length for age (56%) and scoliosis (37%). The number of disrupting factors per child was mean 5.3 (range 1-8). No correlation was found between DXA outcomes and the number of disrupting factors. Factors that may negatively influence the accuracy of DXA outcome are frequently present in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. No systematic deviation of DXA outcome in coherence with the amount of disrupting factors was found, but physicians should be aware of the possible influence of disrupting factors on the accuracy of DXA. (orig.)

  1. Whole body exposure to 2.4 GHz WIFI signals: effects on cognitive impairment in adult triple transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaceur, Sana; Banasr, Sihem; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation aimed at evaluating the effects of long-term exposure to WIFI type radiofrequency (RF) signals (2.40 GHz), two hours per day during one month at a Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 1.60 W/kg. The effects of RF exposure were studied on wildtype mice and triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD) destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. Mice were divided into four groups: two sham groups (WT, TG; n=7) and two exposed groups (WTS, TGS; n=7). The cognitive interference task used in this study was designed from an analogous human cognitive interference task including the Flex field activity system test, the two-compartment box test and the Barnes maze test. Our data demonstrate for the first time that RF improves cognitive behavior of 3xTg-AD mice. We conclude that RF exposure may represent an effective memory-enhancing approach in Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Normal Vitamin Levels and Nutritional Indices in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia with Normal Body Mass Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstein, Ingun; Bøhmer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Evidence supports an association between vitamin deficiencies and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). If vitamin deficiencies are causative for AD development, they should be detectable during very early stages of AD. Here we investigated nutritional factors among home-living patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia due to AD, compared to healthy controls. Our study included 73 patients with AD (25 with MCI, 48 with dementia) and 63 cognitively intact age-matched controls. All participants underwent cognitive testing, somatic examination, and measurements of vitamins A, B1, B6, folate, B12, C, D, and E, and F2-α-isoprostane. Results are given as mean (SD). MMSE scores were 29.1 (1.0) for healthy controls, 27.4 (1.8) for patients with MCI, and 24.3 (3.2) for patients with dementia. Vitamin concentrations for the these groups, respectively, were as follows: B1 (nmol/l), 157 (29), 161 (35), and 161 (32); B6 (nmol/l), 57 (63), 71 (104), and 58 (44); folate (mmol/l), 23 (9), 26 (10), and 23 (11); B12 (pmol/l), 407 (159), 427 (116), and 397 (204); C (μmol/l), 63 (18), 61 (16), and 63 (29); A (μmol/l), 2.3 (0.6), 2.2 (0.5), and 2.3 (0.5); E (μmol/l), 36 (6.3), 36 (6.9), and 36 (8.2); 25-OH vitamin D (nmol/l), 65 (18), 61 (19), and 65 (20); and 8-iso-PGFα (pg/ml), 64 (27); 60 (19), and 66 (51). These concentrations did not significantly differ (p≤0.05) between the three groups. Our results do not support the hypothesis that vitamin deficiencies play a causative role in the development of early cognitive impairment. PMID:27716664

  3. Decreased body fat, elevated plasma transforming growth factor-β levels, and impaired BMP4-like signaling in biglycan-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Thompson, Joel C; Wilson, Patricia G; Nelson, Christina; Williams, Kevin Jon; Tannock, Lisa R

    2013-01-01

    Biglycan (BGN), a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, binds the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and inhibits its bioactivity in vitro. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether BGN plays an inhibitory role in vivo. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BGN deficiency on TGFβ activity in vivo by studying 1-year-old Bgn null and wild-type (WT) mice on an Ldlr-null background. Phenotypic and metabolic characterization showed that the Bgn null mice had lower body weight, shorter body length, and shorter femur length (all p kidney histology. Overall, we propose that this unexpected phenotype arises from the effects of BGN deficiency in vivo to elevate TGFβ levels while decreasing bone morphogenetic protein 4-like signaling.

  4. Glucosamine enhances body weight gain and reduces insulin response in mice fed chow diet but mitigates obesity, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in mice high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Sun; Park, Ji-Won; Nam, Moon-Suk; Cho, Hyeongjin; Han, Inn-Oc

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the potential of glucosamine (GlcN) to affect body weight gain and insulin sensitivity in mice normal and at risk for developing diabetes. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either chow diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD) and the half of mice from CD and HFD provided with a solution of 10% (w/v) GlcN. Total cholesterol and nonesterified free fatty acid levels were determined. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed. HepG2 human hepatoma cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin under normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) conditions. Effect of GlcN on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake was determined. JNK and Akt phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation were assayed by Western blotting. GlcN administration stimulated body weight gain (6.58±0.82 g vs. 11.1±0.42 g), increased white adipose tissue fat mass (percentage of bodyweight, 3.7±0.32 g vs. 5.61±0.34 g), and impaired the insulin response in livers of mice fed CD. However, GlcN treatment in mice fed HFD led to reduction of body weight gain (18.02±0.66 g vs. 16.22±0.96 g) and liver weight (2.27±0.1 vs. 1.85±0.12 g). Furthermore, obesity-induced insulin resistance and impaired Akt insulin signaling in the liver were alleviated by GlcN administration. GlcN inhibited the insulin response under low (5 mM) glucose conditions, whereas it restored the insulin response for Akt phosphorylation under high (25 mM) glucose conditions in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Uptake of 2-DG increased upon GlcN treatment under 5 mM glucose compared to control, whereas insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake decreased under 5 mM and increased under 25 mM glucose in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that GlcN increased body weight gain and reduced the insulin response for glucose maintenance when fed to normal CD mice, whereas it alleviated body weight gain and insulin resistance in HFD mice. Therefore, the current data support the integrative

  5. Cafeteria diet overfeeding in young male rats impairs the adaptive response to fed/fasted conditions and increases adiposity independent of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, H; Pomar, C A; Picó, C; Sánchez, J; Palou, A

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the effects of a short exposure to a cafeteria diet during early infancy in rats on their metabolic response to fed/fasting conditions in key tissues involved in energy homeostasis. Ten-day-old male pups were fed a control or a cafeteria diet for 12 days and then killed under ad libitum feeding conditions or 12 h fasting. The expression of key genes related to energy metabolism in liver, retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) and hypothalamus were analyzed. Despite no differences in body weight, cafeteria-fed animals had almost double the fat mass of control rats. They also showed higher food intake, higher leptinemia and altered hypothalamic expression of Neuropetide Y, suggesting a dysfunction in the control of food intake. Unlike controls, cafeteria-fed animals did not decrease WAT expression of Pparg, sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 or Cidea under fasting conditions, and displayed lower Pnpla2 expression than controls. In liver, compared with controls, cafeteria animals presented: (i) lower expression of genes related with fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis under ad libitum-fed conditions; (ii) higher expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and glucokinase under fasting conditions; (iii) greater expression of leptin and insulin receptors; and higher protein levels of insulin receptor and the pAMPK/AMPK ratio. A short period of exposure to a cafeteria diet in early infancy in rat pups is enough to disturb the metabolic response to fed/fasting conditions in key tissues involved in energy homeostasis, particularly in WAT, and hence induces an exacerbated body fat accumulation and increased metabolic risk, with no apparent effects on body weight.

  6. Pleiotropic effects of a disrupted K+ channel gene: Reduced body weight, impaired motor skill and muscle contraction, but no seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chi Shun; Grange, Robert W.; Joho, Rolf H.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the roles of K+ channels in the regulation and fine-tuning of cellular excitability, we generated a mutant mouse carrying a disrupted gene for the fast activating, voltage-gated K+ channel Kv3.1. Kv3.1−/− mice are viable and fertile but have significantly reduced body weights compared with their Kv3.1+/− littermates. Wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous Kv3.1 channel-deficient mice exhibit similar spontaneous locomotor and exploratory activity. In a test for coordinated moto...

  7. A Robot Hand Testbed Designed for Enhancing Embodiment and Functional Neurorehabilitation of Body Schema in Subjects with Upper Limb Impairment or Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Randall B.; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I.; Santos, Veronica J.

    2015-01-01

    Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation “phantom limb pain” and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech “rubber hand” illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the “BairClaw” presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger–object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced

  8. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Randall B; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I; Santos, Veronica J

    2015-01-01

    Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation "phantom limb pain" and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech "rubber hand" illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the "BairClaw" presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced cognitive burden.

  9. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall B. Hellman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation phantom limb pain and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF, rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech rubber hand illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the BairClaw presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced

  10. Disassociated relation between plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and increased body weight in Amerindian women: A long-term prospective study of natural body weight variation and impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgärde Folke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory cytokines are linked to obesity-related insulin resistance and may predict type 2 diabetes independently of obesity. We previously reported that a majority of a cohort of 73 non-diabetic women with normal plasma (p-glucose with Amerindian heritage in Lima, Peru, during a 5-year period increased both body weight and p-glucose levels, yet p-insulin was unaltered. A high proportion of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7 in serum (s and systolic blood pressure (SBP were independent predictors of high p-glucose. Whether cytokines also contributed is, however, not known. Methods During 5 years we prospectively investigated the relation between changed concentrations of p-tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, p-interleukin (IL-6 and circulating insulin and glucose in relation to the natural variation of body weight. Study variables included anthropometric measurements, p-insulin, TNF-α, IL-6, SBP and the proportion of 16:1n-7 in s-fatty acid composition. Results Weight and waist differences correlated negatively to the difference in p-TNF-α but positively to differences in p-IL-6 and p-insulin, whereas the increase of p-glucose from baseline to follow-up did not correlate with changes in levels of the two cytokines. In multiple regression analysis changes of TNF-α and insulin contributed independently to the variance in weight. P-insulin at baseline and weight change were determinants of fasting p-insulin at follow-up. Multiple regression analysis revealed that weight change (t-value = - 2.42; P = 0.018 and waist change (t-value = 2.41; P = 0.019 together with S-16:1n-7 (p Conclusion Our prospective study of Amerindian women revealed disassociations between changes in p-TNF-α and p-IL-6 in relation to variation in body weight. A high proportion of s-16:1n-7, SBP at baseline together with weight and waist changes were independent predictors of p-glucose at follow-up. The exact role of the opposite effects and clinical impact of p

  11. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their teen years. When they do, it's ... inflammation in the eye. It's often found in poor rural countries that have overcrowded living conditions and ...

  12. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impaired Semen Characteristics and Reduced Levels of Anti-Mullerian Hormone across a Wide Weight Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn M Andersen

    Full Text Available There is still controversy as to how body mass index (BMI affects male reproduction. We investigated how BMI is associated with semen quality and reproductive hormones in 166 men, including 38 severely obese men. Standard semen analysis and sperm DNA integrity analysis were performed, and blood samples were analysed for reproductive hormones. Adjusted for age and time of abstinence, BMI was negatively associated with sperm concentration (B = -0.088, P = 0.009, total sperm count (B = -0.223, P = 0.001, progressive sperm motility (B = -0.675, P = 0.007, normal sperm morphology (B = -0.078, P = 0.001, and percentage of vital spermatozoa (B = -0.006, P = 0.027. A negative relationship was observed between BMI and total testosterone (B = -0.378, P < 0.001, sex hormone binding globulin (B = -0.572, P < 0.001, inhibin B (B = -3.120, P < 0.001 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH (B = -0.009, P < 0.001. Our findings suggest that high BMI is negatively associated with semen characteristics and serum levels of AMH.

  13. Alleviation of Motor Impairments in Patients with Cerebral Palsy: Acute Effects of Whole-body Vibration on Stretch Reflex Response, Voluntary Muscle Activation and Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anne; Schönau, Eckhard; Gollhofer, Albert; Duran, Ibrahim; Ferrari-Malik, Anja; Freyler, Kathrin; Ritzmann, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Individuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP) often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects of WBV in subjects with spastic CP. 44 children with spastic CP were tested on neuromuscular activation and kinematics before and immediately after a 1-min bout of WBV (16-25 Hz, 1.5-3 mm). Assessment included (1) recordings of stretch reflex (SR) activity of the triceps surae, (2) electromyography (EMG) measurements of maximal voluntary muscle activation of lower limb muscles, and (3) neuromuscular activation during active range of motion (aROM). We recorded EMG of m. soleus (SOL), m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM), m. tibialis anterior, m. vastus medialis, m. rectus femoris, and m. biceps femoris. Angular excursion was recorded by goniometry of the ankle and knee joint. After WBV, (1) SOL SRs were decreased (p control. This facilitation of muscle and joint control is probably due to a reduction of spasticity-associated spinal excitability in favor of giving access for greater supraspinal input during voluntary motor control.

  14. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin; Ono, Maiko; Fang, Yaqun; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Begum, Nasrin; Higuchi, Makoto; Fujimori, Akira; Uehara, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ono, Tetsuya; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with (11)C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice.

  15. A myeloablative conditioning regimen for patients with impaired cardiac function undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation: reduced cyclophosphamide combined with etoposide and total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Akihide; Nannya, Yasuhito; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Oshima, Kumi; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-08-01

    To circumvent the cardiac toxicity of high-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) in the myeloablative conditioning for those with cardiac comorbidity, we developed a new cardiac sparing conditioning regimen (VP/rCY/TBI) composed of 12 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI), etoposide (VP-16) (40 mg/kg), and reduced CY (40 mg/kg). We assessed the feasibility of this regimen by retrospectively comparing the outcome of VP/rCY/TBI recipients (n = 18) with that of CY/TBI recipients (n = 140). VP/rCY/TBI recipients had significantly higher cumulative dose of anthracyclines, lower ejection fraction (EF), and poorer Karnofsky performance scales (KPS) than CY/TBI recipients. The cumulative incidences of disease progression were 34.9% in VP/rCY/TBI recipients and 19.0% in CY/TBI recipients (P = 0.33). Despite poorer KPS and more cardiac comorbidity in the VP/rCY/TBI recipients, no difference in the nonprogression mortality rates was observed among recipients of the two regimens (17.5 and 14.3%, respectively, P = 0.96). Severe cardiac toxicity within 28 days after transplantation occurred in 5.9 and 3.6% of VP/rCY/TBI and CY/TBI recipients, respectively (P = 0.64). Graft rejection was not observed in VP/rCY/TBI recipients. There is a possibility that VP/rCY/TBI regimen can be safely administered for patients with pretransplantation cardiac comorbidity while preserving antineoplastic effects. These observations merit further prospective study.

  16. Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rhonda F; Thorsteinsson, Einar B; Smithson, Michael; Birmingham, C Laird; Aljarallah, Hessah; Nolan, Christopher

    2017-09-19

    Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle are common co-occurring problems. There is a tendency for them to co-occur together more often than they occur alone. In some cases, there is clarity as to the time course and evolution of the phenomena. However, specific mechanism(s) that are proposed to explain a single co-occurrence cannot fully explain the more generalized tendency to develop concurrent symptoms and/or disorders after developing one of the phenomena. Nor is there a clinical theory with any utility in explaining the development of co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour and the mechanism(s) by which they occur. Thus, we propose a specific mechanism-dysregulation of core body temperature (CBT) that interferes with sleep onset-to explain the development of the concurrences. A detailed review of the literature related to CBT and the phenomena that can alter CBT or are altered by CBT is provided. Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance and certain behaviour (e.g. late-night eating, sedentarism) were linked to elevated CBT, especially an elevated nocturnal CBT. A number of existing therapies including drugs (e.g. antidepressants), behavioural therapies (e.g. sleep restriction therapy) and bright light therapy can also reduce CBT. An elevation in nocturnal CBT that interferes with sleep onset can parsimoniously explain the development and perpetuation of common co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour including overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, late-night eating, and sedentarism. Nonetheless, a significant correlation between CBT and the above symptoms, disorders and behaviour does not necessarily imply causation. Thus, statistical and methodological issues of relevance to this enquiry are discussed including the likely presence of autocorrelation. Level V, narrative review.

  17. Alleviation of Motor Impairments in Patients with Cerebral Palsy: Acute Effects of Whole-body Vibration on Stretch Reflex Response, Voluntary Muscle Activation and Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Krause

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIndividuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. Whole-body vibration (WBV has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects of WBV in subjects with spastic CP.Methods44 children with spastic CP were tested on neuromuscular activation and kinematics before and immediately after a 1-min bout of WBV (16–25 Hz, 1.5–3 mm. Assessment included (1 recordings of stretch reflex (SR activity of the triceps surae, (2 electromyography (EMG measurements of maximal voluntary muscle activation of lower limb muscles, and (3 neuromuscular activation during active range of motion (aROM. We recorded EMG of m. soleus (SOL, m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM, m. tibialis anterior, m. vastus medialis, m. rectus femoris, and m. biceps femoris. Angular excursion was recorded by goniometry of the ankle and knee joint.ResultsAfter WBV, (1 SOL SRs were decreased (p < 0.01 while (2 maximal voluntary activation (p < 0.05 and (3 angular excursion in the knee joint (p < 0.01 were significantly increased. No changes could be observed for GM SR amplitudes or ankle joint excursion. Neuromuscular coordination expressed by greater agonist–antagonist ratios during aROM was significantly enhanced (p < 0.05.DiscussionThe findings point toward acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects following one bout of WBV. Protocols demonstrate that pathological reflex responses are reduced (spinal level, while the execution of voluntary movement (supraspinal level is improved in regards to kinematic and neuromuscular control. This facilitation of muscle and joint control is probably due to a reduction of spasticity-associated spinal excitability in favor of giving access for greater supraspinal input during voluntary motor

  18. Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  19. All Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  20. The neural basis of body form and body action agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo; Pernigo, Simone; Lanteri, Paola; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-10-23

    Visual analysis of faces and nonfacial body stimuli brings about neural activity in different cortical areas. Moreover, processing body form and body action relies on distinct neural substrates. Although brain lesion studies show specific face processing deficits, neuropsychological evidence for defective recognition of nonfacial body parts is lacking. By combining psychophysics studies with lesion-mapping techniques, we found that lesions of ventromedial, occipitotemporal areas induce face and body recognition deficits while lesions involving extrastriate body area seem causatively associated with impaired recognition of body but not of face and object stimuli. We also found that body form and body action recognition deficits can be double dissociated and are causatively associated with lesions to extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex, respectively. Our study reports two category-specific visual deficits, called body form and body action agnosia, and highlights their neural underpinnings.

  1. Evacuation characteristics of visually impaired people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Evacuation characteristics for blind and visually impaired people are presented in the current study. The study was carried out in 2011 and engaged 40 participants in the age from 10 to 69 years. The participants had impairments for all of the four Danish categories for visual impairments (A......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...... speed depends on the degree of vision loss. The design of the building environment is important for the ability to orientation for people with reduced sight. Walls and handrails are important for the orientation possibilities for people with visual impairments. Furthermore, obstacles placed...

  2. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased visual ...

  3. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Cam Ray

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.

  4. Gadobutrol in Renally Impaired Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaely, Henrik J.; Aschauer, Manuela; Deutschmann, Hannes; Bongartz, Georg; Gutberlet, Matthias; Woitek, Ramona; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Kucharczyk, Walter; Hammerstingl, Renate; De Cobelli, Francesco; Rosenberg, Martin; Balzer, Thomas; Endrikat, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, international, multicenter, open-label study in 55 centers. Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for any gadobutrol-enhanced MRI were included. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of gadobutrol at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 908 patients were enrolled, including 586 with moderate and 284 with severe renal impairment who are at highest risk for developing NSF. The mean time since renal disease diagnosis was 1.83 and 5.49 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 184 patients (20.3%) underwent further contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based contrast agents within the 2-year follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF. Conclusions No safety concerns with gadobutrol in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment were identified. There were no NSF cases. PMID:27529464

  5. Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: a European population-based multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, E.; Topsakal, V.; Hendrickx, J.J.; Laer, L. van; Huyghe, J.R.; Eyken, E. van; Lemkens, N.; Hannula, S.; Maki-Torkko, E.; Jensen, M.; Demeester, K.; Tropitzsch, A.; Bonaconsa, A.; Mazzoli, M.; Espeso, A.; Verbruggen, K.; Huyghe, J.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Kunst, S.; Manninen, M.; Diaz-Lacava, A.; Steffens, M.; Wienker, T.F.; Pyykko, I.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Kremer, H.; Dhooge, I.; Stephens, D.; Orzan, E.; Pfister, M.; Bille, M.; Parving, A.; Sorri, M.; Heyning, P. van de; Camp, G. van

    2008-01-01

    A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure-t

  6. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  7. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  8. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impairment. Many children are identified as having a speech or language impairment after they enter the public school system. A teacher may notice difficulties in a child’s speech or communication skills and refer the child for ...

  9. Music Therapy for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Anita Louise; Crawford, Celeste

    1982-01-01

    The development and implementation of a music therapy program to achieve behavioral change in visually impaired children and adolescents are described. Goals targeted by the music therapist at the Cleveland Society for the Blind include altering unusual body movements, poor posture, and other mannerisms often associated with blindness. (SEW)

  10. Evacuation of People with Visual Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress

    and with a special focus on blind and visually impaired people. An experimental program is designed to obtain data on walking speeds horizontally and descending stairs, interaction between participants and their interaction with the building environment. Experiments are conducted in different buildings including...... for a safe and easy evacuation, challenge the movement for occupants having an impairment. Quantitative results on reaction times, walking speeds horizontally and descending stairs are also obtained from the experiments. It is found that N&M model correlates with results found able-bodied. This is expected...... since the model is based on data for this group. Likewise, the theoretical model is conservative estimate for the hearing impaired participants moving on horizontal planes. For all tested subpopulations the walking speed decreased with increasing person density, but the visually impaired participants...

  11. Hydrography - MO 2013 Section 303d Delisted Impaired Lakes (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains information about paired water bodies and pollutants that have been delisted from Missouri’s 303(d) List of impaired waters due to Total...

  12. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  13. A conceptual framework for evaluating impairments in myasthenia gravis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barnett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis is characterized by weakness and fatigability of different muscle groups, including ocular, bulbar and the limbs. Therefore, a measure of disease severity at the impairment level in myasthenia needs to reflect all the relevant impairments, as well as their variations with activity and fatigue. We conducted a qualitative study of patients with myasthenia, to explore their experiences and related impairments, aimed at developing a conceptual framework of disease severity at the impairment level in myasthenia gravis. METHODS: Twenty patients representing the spectrum of disease participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed by content analysis using an inductive approach with line-by-line open coding. Themes were generated from these codes. RESULTS: Two main themes were identified: the severity of the impairments and fatigability (i.e., triggering or worsening of an impairment with activity. The impairments were further classified within body regions (ocular, bulbar and axial/limbs. Fatigability was described as a phenomenon affecting the whole body but also affecting specific impairments, and was associated with fluctuation of the symptoms. Patients were concerned that clinical examination at a single point in time might not reflect their true clinical state due to fatigability and fluctuations in severity. CONCLUSIONS: This conceptual framework reflects the relevance of both severity and fatigability in understanding impairment-based disease severity in myasthenia. This framework could inform the development of impairment measures in myasthenia gravis.

  14. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselve...

  15. Development or Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with…

  16. Development or Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with…

  17. What explains health in persons with visual impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissner, Juliane; Coenen, Michaela; Froehlich, Stephan; Loyola, Danny; Cieza, Alarcos

    2014-05-03

    Visual impairment is associated with important limitations in functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) adopted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) relies on a globally accepted framework for classifying problems in functioning and the influence of contextual factors. Its comprehensive perspective, including biological, individual and social aspects of health, enables the ICF to describe the whole health experience of persons with visual impairment. The objectives of this study are (1) to analyze whether the ICF can be used to comprehensively describe the problems in functioning of persons with visual impairment and the environmental factors that influence their lives and (2) to select the ICF categories that best capture self-perceived health of persons with visual impairment. Data from 105 persons with visual impairment were collected, including socio-demographic data, vision-related data, the Extended ICF Checklist and the visual analogue scale of the EuroQoL-5D, to assess self-perceived health. Descriptive statistics and a Group Lasso regression were performed. The main outcome measures were functioning defined as impairments in Body functions and Body structures, limitations in Activities and restrictions in Participation, influencing Environmental factors and self-perceived health. In total, 120 ICF categories covering a broad range of Body functions, Body structures, aspects of Activities and Participation and Environmental factors were identified. Thirteen ICF categories that best capture self-perceived health were selected based on the Group Lasso regression. While Activities-and-Participation categories were selected most frequently, the greatest impact on self-perceived health was found in Body-functions categories. The ICF can be used as a framework to comprehensively describe the problems of persons with visual impairment and the Environmental factors which influence their lives. There are plenty of

  18. Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichgans, Martin; Leys, Didier

    2017-02-03

    Cerebrovascular disease typically manifests with stroke, cognitive impairment, or both. Vascular cognitive impairment refers to all forms of cognitive disorder associated with cerebrovascular disease, regardless of the specific mechanisms involved. It encompasses the full range of cognitive deficits from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In principle, any of the multiple causes of clinical stroke can cause vascular cognitive impairment. Recent work further highlights a role of microinfarcts, microhemorrhages, strategic white matter tracts, loss of microstructural tissue integrity, and secondary neurodegeneration. Vascular brain injury results in loss of structural and functional connectivity and, hence, compromise of functional networks within the brain. Vascular cognitive impairment is common both after stroke and in stroke-free individuals presenting to dementia clinics, and vascular pathology frequently coexists with neurodegenerative pathology, resulting in mixed forms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Vascular dementia is now recognized as the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and there is increasing awareness that targeting vascular risk may help to prevent dementia, even of the Alzheimer type. Recent advances in neuroimaging, neuropathology, epidemiology, and genetics have led to a deeper understanding of how vascular disease affects cognition. These new findings provide an opportunity for the present reappraisal of vascular cognitive impairment. We further briefly address current therapeutic concepts.

  19. Body art and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Body art has gained tremendously in popularity over the past 20 years, and a substantial number of pregnant women may have tattoos or piercings. In most cases, pregnancy will be uneventful. However, on rare occasions, body art may become an issue or cause complications. Navel and abdominal surface piercing and microdermal implants may cause unsightly stretch marks from gravid distension. Nipple piercing could impair breastfeeding. In emergency situations, oral piercing may interfere with airway management and nasal jewelry can be inhaled or swallowed during orotracheal intubation. Tattoos may become distorted if placed on a distended area or they may cover surgical incision lines. The risk of introducing tattoo pigments during epidural analgesia, with the potential for tumor growth, is currently under debate, although the arguments are highly speculative and without solid basis.

  20. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...

  1. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  2. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  3. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  4. Somebody's Jumping on the Floor: Incorporating Music into Orientation and Mobility for Preschoolers with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Young children with visual impairments face many challenges as they learn to orient to and move through their environment, the beginnings of orientation and mobility (O&M). Children who are visually impaired must learn many concepts (such as body parts and positional words) and skills (like body movement and interpreting sensory information) to…

  5. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  6. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  7. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least one other developmental disability, such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, or epilepsy. Vision impairment is more common in older people than in children. Guide dogs are the guiding ...

  8. Speech impairment (adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003204.htm Speech impairment (adult) To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  9. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy.

  10. [Associations between body dysmorphic symptoms, body image and self-consciousness in a representative population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daig, Isolde; Burkert, Silke; Albani, Cornelia; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body image and body dysmorphic symptoms in the population by taking different kinds of self-consciousness into account. Body dysmorphic symptoms are characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. A representative sample of 1621 persons in Germany was examined with screening instruments for body image, body dysmorphic symptoms and self-consciousness. Women reported more body dysmorphic symptoms and higher self-consciousness than men. People with body dysmorphic symptoms reported a more negative body image and higher self-consciousness. Different aspects of self-consciousness moderated the association between body dysmorphic symptoms and negative body image. Results were discussed towards hypotheses of affect modulation and depression tendency of patients with body dysmorphic symptoms.

  11. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common body piercing. Other common places to pierce include the eyebrow, nose, tongue, lip, belly button, nipples, and genitals. Some people also pierce their ear cartilage (the hard part of the ...

  12. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    seasonal variation that could be used in management decisions. ... To assess muscle and fat content, the leg was completely separated into meat, bone, ..... The seasonal variation in body condition of mountain reedbuck can be explained by ...

  13. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  14. 78 FR 73696 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH62 Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System... date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations... Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations. In this...

  15. Social communication impairments: pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.

  16. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  17. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes...... of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  18. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  19. Body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  20. Muscle Strength and Flexibility without and with Visual Impairments Judoka's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine muscle strength and flexibility of judoka with and without visual impairments. A total of 32 male national judoka volunteered to participate in this study. There were 20 male judoka without visual impairments (mean ± SD; age: 19.20 ± 5.76 years, body weight: 66.45 ± 11.09 kg, height: 169.60 ± 7.98 cm, sport…

  1. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examin...... in bilateral mOFC and anterior insula. Our data provide a neurological underpinning for the reduced taste perception in congenitally olfactory impaired individuals....

  2. Self-motion direction discrimination in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ivan; Grabherr, Luzia; Hartmann, Matthias; Mast, Fred W

    2015-11-01

    Despite the close interrelation between vestibular and visual processing (e.g., vestibulo-ocular reflex), surprisingly little is known about vestibular function in visually impaired people. In this study, we investigated thresholds of passive whole-body motion discrimination (leftward vs. rightward) in nine visually impaired participants and nine age-matched sighted controls. Participants were rotated in yaw, tilted in roll, and translated along the interaural axis at two different frequencies (0.33 and 2 Hz) by means of a motion platform. Superior performance of visually impaired participants was found in the 0.33 Hz roll tilt condition. No differences were observed in the other motion conditions. Roll tilts stimulate the semicircular canals and otoliths simultaneously. The results could thus reflect a specific improvement in canal-otolith integration in the visually impaired and are consistent with the compensatory hypothesis, which implies that the visually impaired are able to compensate the absence of visual input.

  3. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer; Karstensen, Helena G; Siebner, Hartwig; Tommerup, Niels; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examined taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The fMRI results demonstrated that olfactory impaired individuals had reduced activation in medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) relative to normosmic subjects while tasting. In addition, olfactory performance as measured with the Sniffin' Sticks correlated positively with taste-induced blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal increases in bilateral mOFC and anterior insula. Our data provide a neurological underpinning for the reduced taste perception in congenitally olfactory impaired individuals.

  4. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  5. Visual Impairment Training Reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maychell, Karen; Smart, David

    1989-01-01

    A British study of training provided for social services workers with the visually impaired found that emphasis was on workers' learning the skills their clients would need, rather than on how to teach those skills; most training is geared toward the totally blind, a small proportion of the population; and workers felt the need to acquire…

  6. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  7. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may ...

  8. 老年人轻度认知损害与年龄、性别、体质指数等的关系分析#%Relationship Analysis between Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly People with Age, Sex, Body Mass Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海红; 杨继中; 赵晖

    2016-01-01

    [ABSTRACT]Objective: To investigate the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and gender, age, body mass index, educational level and other factors in the elderly.Methods: The typical sampling method was used to evaluate the adult intelligence scale and the mini mental state examination in 258 cases of>60 years old, and the cognitive function of all subjects were investigated and analyzed.Results: Elderly cognitive function was evaluated by the results of the survey found that, 113 cases of normal cognitive, memory type of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) 73 cases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 72 cases, aMCI and ad the elderly age, blood pressure level and cognitive normal elderly significantly higher (P0.05).Conclusion:The prevalence of aMCI is related to age, hypertension, education degree and other factors, and it is not related to the gender of patients.%目的:调查老年人轻度认知功能损害(MCI)与性别、年龄、体质指数、教育程度等因素间的关系。方法:采用典型抽样法对258例>60岁老年人进行成人智力量表测评与简易精神状态检查,对所有受检对象的认知功能进行调查分析。结果:老人认知功能评估调查结果发现,认知正常113例,发生记忆型轻度认知损害(aMCI)73例,发生阿尔茨海默病(AD)72例,aMCI老人、AD老人的年龄、血压水平与认知正常老人比较显著更高(P<0.05),受教育程度显著低于认知正常老人(P<0.05);aMCI和AD老年人在性别上差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:aMCI患病率与年龄、高血压、受教育程度等因素具有相关性,与患者性别无关。

  9. Vestibular Impairment in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Aisha; Oh, Esther S; Bigelow, Robin T; Studenski, Stephanie; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest an association between vestibular and cognitive function. The goal of the study was to investigate whether vestibular function was impaired in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with cognitively normal individuals. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient memory clinic and longitudinal observational study unit. Older individuals ≥55 years with MCI or AD. Age, sex, and education-matched normal controls were drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Saccular and utricular function was assessed with cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (c- and oVEMPs) respectively, and horizontal semicircular canal function was assessed with video head impulse testing. Presence or absence of VEMP responses, VEMP amplitude, and vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) gain were measured. Forty-seven individuals with cognitive impairment (MCI N = 15 and AD N = 32) underwent testing and were matched with 94 controls. In adjusted analyses, bilaterally absent cVEMPs were associated with an over three-fold odds of AD (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.33-8.91, p = 0.011). One microvolt increases in both cVEMP and oVEMP amplitudes were associated with decreased odds of AD (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.93, p = 0.038 and OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-0.99, p = 0.036, respectively). There was no significant difference in VOR gain between the groups. These findings confirm and extend emerging evidence of an association between vestibular dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Further investigation is needed to determine the causal direction for the link between peripheral vestibular loss and cognitive impairment.

  10. Speech and neurology-chemical impairment correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayre, Harb S.

    2002-05-01

    Speech correlates of alcohol/drug impairment and its neurological basis is presented with suggestion for further research in impairment from poly drug/medicine/inhalent/chew use/abuse, and prediagnosis of many neuro- and endocrin-related disorders. Nerve cells all over the body detect chemical entry by smoking, injection, drinking, chewing, or skin absorption, and transmit neurosignals to their corresponding cerebral subsystems, which in turn affect speech centers-Broca's and Wernick's area, and motor cortex. For instance, gustatory cells in the mouth, cranial and spinal nerve cells in the skin, and cilia/olfactory neurons in the nose are the intake sensing nerve cells. Alcohol depression, and brain cell damage were detected from telephone speech using IMPAIRLYZER-TM, and the results of these studies were presented at 1996 ASA meeting in Indianapolis, and 2001 German Acoustical Society-DEGA conference in Hamburg, Germany respectively. Speech based chemical Impairment measure results were presented at the 2001 meeting of ASA in Chicago. New data on neurotolerance based chemical impairment for alcohol, drugs, and medicine shall be presented, and shown not to fully support NIDA-SAMSHA drug and alcohol threshold used in drug testing domain.

  11. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In post-revolution Iran, the sacred notion of martyrdom has been transformed into a routine act of government – a moral sign of order and state sovereignty. Moving beyond the debates of the secularisation of the sacred and the making sacred of the secular, this article argues that the moment...... of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  12. Lacking power impairs executive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.K.; Jostmann, N.B.; Galinsky, A.D.; Dijk, W.W. van

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments explored whether lacking power impairs executive functioning, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive presses of powerlessness increase vulnerability to performance decrements during complex executive tasks. In the first three experiments, low power impaired performance on executi

  13. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the associations between sensory impairments and 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, Wisconsin community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up examinations have been conducted every 5 years. General community. EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998-2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age 66.7) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) of >25 dB hearing level in either ear, visual impairment was a Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of visual, and olfactory impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk (hearing: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-3.26; vision: HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.24-3.38; olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% CI = 2.45-6.26)). Nevertheless, 85% of participants with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system, suggesting that sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Cryotherapy impairs proprioception function?

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Nuno; Henriques, Sara

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryotherapy application over a joint causes a nerve conduction velocity decrease and proprioceptive changes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if cryotherapy impairs proprioception acuity. METHODS: Proprioception was assessed by joint position sense (JPS), measured with an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3, in twenty one females on experimental group, before 15 minutes cryotherapy (T0) and immediately after (T1). A control group (n=20) performed also the JPS...

  15. No association between body mass index and sperm DNA integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandel, I; Bungum, M; Richtoff, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is overweight associated with impaired sperm DNA integrity? SUMMARY ANSWER: High body mass index (BMI) is not associated with impaired sperm DNA integrity as assessed by the DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies, based on fewer subjects and including...

  16. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.

  17. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia...

  18. Endoscopic Removal of 15 Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bircan Savran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion occurs commonly in children, elderly, mentally impaired or alcoholic, and psychiatric patients. We present a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation and uncontrolled psychiatric disorder admitted to the hospital with abdominal and chest pain. He was diagnosed with foreign body ingestion and 15 foreign objects, including a sharp knife, were successfully removed endoscopically by using an over-tube.

  19. Current therapy for cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vasilyevna Vakhnina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments (CIs are a highly common type of neurological disorders particularly in elderly patients. Choice of a therapeutic strategy for CI is determined by the etiology of abnormalities and their degree. Measures to prevent CI progression and dementia: adequate treatment of existing cardiovascular diseases, prevention of stroke, balanced nutrition, moderate physical and intellectual exercises, and combatting overweight and low activity are of basic value in treating mild and moderate CIs. According to the data of a number of investigations, the above measures reduce the risk of dementia, including in the genetically predisposed. Pharmacotherapy for mild and moderate CIs generally comprises vasoactive, neurometabolic, and noradrenergic agents. The indication for the use of memantine and/or acetylcholinergic agents, i.e. basic therapy for the most common forms of dementia (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, vascular, and mixed dementia, hepatic colics is severe CIs. The long-term use of memantine and/or acetylcholinergic agents alleviates the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of dementia, enhances self-dependence in patients, and prolongs their active lifetime.

  20. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...... of, for example, how rheumatoid arthritis sufferers view their treatment, how decisions are made in simulated emergencies, and how therapists and homeopaths use distributed language and cognition with their clients....

  1. Impaired muscle function in women with fibromyalgia is not due to pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsbakk, Camilla Swan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is associated with widespread pain over the entire body. Moreover, an impaired muscle function is frequently reported in FM patients. Several causes are supposed to cause these impairments, and causes can be multiply. However, the results are inconclusive.Objective: To investigate why women with FM have an impaired muscle function.Material and methods: Fifty women in the age 35-65 participated in an intervention study existing of 12 weeks indoor cycling....

  2. Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.

  3. Pathophysiology of impaired hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, A.M.; Bleyenheuft, Y.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spastic cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the developing central nervous system, is characterized by motor impairments mainly lateralized to one side of the body, with hand impairments greatly contributing to functional limitations. The integrity of the motor areas and the corticospinal

  4. Pathophysiology of impaired hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, A.M.; Bleyenheuft, Y.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spastic cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the developing central nervous system, is characterized by motor impairments mainly lateralized to one side of the body, with hand impairments greatly contributing to functional limitations. The integrity of the motor areas and the corticospinal

  5. Pathophysiology of impaired hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, A.M.; Bleyenheuft, Y.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spastic cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the developing central nervous system, is characterized by motor impairments mainly lateralized to one side of the body, with hand impairments greatly contributing to functional limitations. The integrity of the motor areas and the corticospinal

  6. Pathophysiology of impaired hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, A.M.; Bleyenheuft, Y.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spastic cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the developing central nervous system, is characterized by motor impairments mainly lateralized to one side of the body, with hand impairments greatly contributing to functional limitations. The integrity of the motor areas and the corticospinal

  7. Obesity's Effects on the Onset of Functional Impairment among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study has two purposes. First, it determines if there is a relationship between body weight and the onset of functional impairment across time among this sample of older adults. More specifically, it examines if obese older adults are more likely to experience the onset of functional impairment. Second, it explores how health…

  8. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  9. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Impairment and Tramadol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Youssef, Usama M; Hassan, Mervat S; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Abdelghani, Mohamed; Abdalla, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Dalia H

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the consequences of substance abuse. Tramadol abuse is a public health problem in Egypt. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment among tramadol-abuse patients and control subjects. This study included 100 patients with tramadol abuse and 100 control subjects (matched for age, sex, and education) who were recruited from Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients who used tramadol only (tramadol-alone group) and patients who used tramadol and other substances (polysubstance group). The participants were interviewed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment test and had urine screening for drugs. Twenty-four percent of the cases used tramadol alone, whereas the remaining used tramadol and other substances, mainly cannabis (66%) and benzodiazepines (27%). Tramadol-abuse patients were about 3 times more likely to have cognitive impairment than control subjects (81% vs 28%). Tramadol-alone patients were more than 2 times more likely to have cognitive impairment than control subjects (67% vs 28%). Cognitive impairment was significantly associated with polysubstance abuse. There was no association between cognitive impairment and sociodemographic or clinical factors. Cognitive impairment occurs commonly among tramadol-abuse patients. Memory impairment is the most common cognitive domain to be affected. There is a significant association between cognitive impairment and polysubstance abuse.

  11. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  12. [Impaired theory of mind in anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Zita; Egyed, Katalin; Pászthy, Bea; Németh, Dezsö

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness, which is characterized by a continuously growing occurrence in the population and by the shift of the onset for earlier ages. The understanding of factors playing role in AN and the importance of effective prevention is an essential issue in science as well as in the society. AN also affects the social domain of life, patients with AN may exhibit impaired social interaction, social isolation, difficulties in emotion recognition and egocentric thinking in cognitive processing. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the theory of mind (ToM) deficits is anorexia nervosa. Although previous studies have reported ToM deficits in autism and in schizophrenia, the number of studies investigating ToM functioning in eating disorders are particularly low. Even though ToM difficulties, such as the affective ToM impairments were found in AN, however, the evidence of cognitive ToM deficits in anorexia patients is still lacking. Twenty anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy control adolescent girls participated in the experiment. EDI, BAT, Fallon-Rozin Test and Anamoprhic Micro Body Image Assesment Programme questionnaires and body-image tests were applied to discriminate anorexia nervosa group from healthy control group. The Hungarian version of Faux Pas Recognition Test was applied to evaluate ToM functioning. Compared to healthy control group, impairment in ToM functioning was found in AN group, especially in affective mental state attribution. Our results can raise new aspects for research, therapy and prevention of anorexia nervosa.

  13. Living musical instruments and inanimate body parts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E; Laiacona, M

    2001-01-01

    In the literature about category effects in semantic memory, body parts and musical instruments are often considered atypical, because in cases with a disproportionate impairment of living categories body parts are relatively spared, while musical instruments are often severely defective. In this study the performance of 57 subjects affected by diseases generally associated with lexical-semantic impairment, for the most part Alzheimer's disease and other forms of cortical degeneration, but also herpetic encephalitis and traumatic brain damage are analyzed. The subjects were given a picture naming task tapping eight categories: three living categories (animals, fruits and vegetables) and three non-living categories (tools, furniture and vehicles), plus body parts and musical instruments. On a preliminary analysis at the group level, body parts were the least impaired category and musical instruments the most severely impaired, the six living and non-living categories being intermediate. However, these differences disappeared after covariance for lexical frequency, name agreement and age of acquisition. The relationship between living categories, non-living categories, musical instruments and body parts was investigated by means of a Lisrel model of Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Two latent variables related to living and non-living categories respectively were defined, and it was found that both body parts and musical instruments were significantly related only with non-living categories. The results showed that the definition of the latent variable expressing the substrate of non-living categories was less satisfactory than that expressing the living categories. On this basis, the conclusions of this study appear statistically definite but their psychological interpretation is less straightforward.

  14. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  15. Dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, Ian G; Burn, David J; Ballard, Clive G; Collerton, Daniel; Jaros, Evelyn; Morris, Chris M; McLaren, Andrew; Perry, Elaine K; Perry, Robert; Piggott, Margaret A; O'Brien, John T

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to summarize recent findings about the clinical features, diagnosis and investigation of dementia with Lewy (DLB) bodies, together with its neuropathology, neurochemistry and genetics. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a primary, neurodegenerative dementia sharing clinical and pathological characteristics with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antiubiquitin immunocytochemical staining, developed in the early 1990s, allowed the frequency and distribution of cortical LBs to be defined. More recently, alpha-synuclein antibodies have revealed extensive neuritic pathology in DLB demonstrating a neurobiological link with other "synucleinopathies" including PD and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The most significant correlates of cognitive failure in DLB appear to be with cortical LB and Lewy neurites (LNs) rather than Alzheimer type pathology. Clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB, published in 1996, have been subjected to several validation studies against autopsy findings. These conclude that although diagnostic specificity is high (range 79- 100%, mean 92%), sensitivity is lower (range 0- 83 %, mean, 49%). Improved methods of case detection are therefore required. Fluctuating impairments in attention, visual recognition and construction are more indicative of DLB than AD. Relative preservation of medial temporal lobe volume on structural MRI and the use of SPECT tracers for regional blood flow and the dopamine transporter are the most reliable current biomarkers for DLB. There are no genetic or CSF tests recommended for the diagnosis of DLB at present. Between 15 and 20% of all elderly demented cases reaching autopsy have DLB, making it the most common cause of degenerative dementia after AD. Exquisite, not infrequently fatal, sensitivity to neuroleptic drugs and encouraging reports of the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors on cognitive, psychiatric and neurological features, mean that an accurate diagnosis of DLB is more

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  17. The Impaired Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docu Any Axelerad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ”persistent vegetative state” (PVS has the main attention for us in identifying the examples of consciousness that suffer structural injury. PVS is a state that the patient has the ability to open eyes spontaneously, but without responses to threat, verbalization or other pain defend. Several factors that lead to such state, among which the use of drugs is mostly researched, prolong impaired consciousness as a clinical and personal judgment of this condition. The patients with comatose from a destructive structural injury never regain the conscious state due to widespread structural damage. Any clinical review on this is based on bodily changes observation with impact on the clinical diagnosis of prolonged comatose states as largely descriptive. Eye movements need the most attention because its response to approaching objects distinguishes between a PVS (inconsistent or absent, akinetic mutism (no stacking but spontaneous focusing on moving targets, and MCS (always present. Distinguish between this three conditions needs an interdisciplinary intervention (neurologist or rehabilitation physicians.

  18. Impaired Voluntary Movement Control and Its Rehabilitation in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is caused by early damage to the developing brain, as the most common pediatric neurological disorder. Hemiplegia (unilateral spastic cerebral palsy) is the most common subtype, and the resulting impairments, lateralized to one body side, especially affect the upper extremity, limiting daily function. This chapter first describes the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying impaired upper extremity control of cerebral palsy. It will be shown that the severity of impaired hand function closely relates to the integrity of the corticospinal tract innervating the affected hand. It will also shown that the developing corticospinal tract can reorganize its connectivity depending on the timing and location of CNS injury, which also has implications for the severity of hand impairments and rehabilitation. The mechanisms underlying impaired motor function will be highlighted, including deficits in movement execution and planning and sensorimotor integration. It will be shown that despite having unimanual hand impairments, bimanual movement control deficits and mirror movements also impact function. Evidence for motor learning-based therapies including Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy and Bimanual Training, and the possible pathophysiological predictors of treatment outcome and plasticity will be described. Finally, future directions for rehabilitations will be presented.

  19. Paying the price for body evolution: The role of evolution in disorders of body representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Francesca G; Sedda, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Since its beginning, research about cognitive representation of our bodies has debated over multiple representations models. Furthermore, recent years have seen a rise in the study of body representation disorders and related impairments. However, why human beings manifest so many deficits is still a mystery. Considering human evolution, frontal brain regions are well known for their changes in dimensions and connections. Less known is that parietal and temporal lobes encountered similar changes. These areas, especially in the right hemisphere, are crucial for body representation. Our hypothesis is that evolution of these areas determined a more varied and widespread cross wiring between the temporal and parietal lobes, increasing their communication pathways and their reciprocal influence. As such, these connections could lead to an increased probability of interconnected body and emotional disorders in humans. The prediction of this hypothesis is that all body representation disorders have an associated emotional component and vice versa. Evidence supporting the interconnection between emotional and body representation disorders derives from psychiatric diseases such as eating disorders. This hypothesis opens up new directions to understand body representation and points towards innovative solutions for the clinical treatments of body representation/emotional impairments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications.

  1. Gait and balance impairments in Alzheimer disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoteras Muñoz, Virginia; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Cantet, Christelle; Cortes, Frederic; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Rolland, Yves; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    To describe the characteristics and associated factors of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients with balance and gait impairments. Balance and gait impairments were assessed in 380 AD patients using the Tinetti test. A total of 120 (31.5%) patients had an abnormal Tinetti test, 96 (25.2%) had balance impairments, and 72 (18.9%) patients presented gait impairments. Global Tinetti score was associated with age [odds ratio (OR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.14], Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99), activities of daily living (ADL) score (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.83), and being man (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25-0.78). Balance impairment was associated with age (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17), ADL score (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43-0.84), and being female (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08-0.49). Gait impairment was associated with age (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.15), MMSE score (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98), ADL score (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.87), body mass index (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), presence of comorbidities (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.14-3.96), and the Cornell score (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.12-7.89). AD patients are frequently concerned with balance and gait impairments. These impairments were associated to factors related to the severity of the disease (low MMSE and low ADL); nonmodifiable factors such as age or sex; and modifiable factors such as depression, obesity, and presence of comorbidities.

  2. Moving and Doing: How To Help Visually Impaired Children Know Their World. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muste, Jean; Fellows, Rae R.

    Intended for parents, the manual contains suggestions for play and games with visually impaired children. Parents are advised to tell the children what they are doing and using while engaged in activities, to increase their knowledge of the world and of themselves. Ideas span eight areas: body awareness (touching body parts while naming them);…

  3. 2-BODY AND 3-BODY PARQUET THEORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANDE, A; SMITH, RA

    1992-01-01

    One of the fundamental approaches to microscopic many-body theory is through the use of perturbation theory. This paper presents a clear derivation of the equations that sum the two-body and three body reducible diagrams that are generated from some input set of irreducible diagrams (typically the b

  4. Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

  5. Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder: Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, Maria; Bonnin, Caterina del Mar; Torres, Imma; Varo, Cristina; Grande, Iria; Valls, Elia; Salagre, Estela; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade, there has been a growing appreciation of the importance of identifying and treating cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, since it persists in remission periods. Evidence indicates that neurocognitive dysfunction may significantly influence patients’ psychosocial outcomes. An ever-increasing body of research seeks to achieve a better understanding of potential moderators contributing to cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder in order to develop prevention strategies and effective treatments. This review provides an overview of the available data from studies examining treatments for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder as well as potential novel treatments, from both pharmacological and psychological perspectives. All these data encourage the development of further studies to find effective strategies to prevent and treat cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder. These efforts may ultimately lead to an improvement of psychosocial functioning in these patients. PMID:28498954

  6. Atherosclerotic risk factors, vascular cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Jason C; Fuster, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    The involvement of vascular factors in Alzheimer dementia was first appreciated over 100 years ago. Recently, significant advances in our understanding of these brain-vascular relationships have taken place. Vascular cognitive impairment is now recognized as a distinct group of interrelated vascular-based neurological insults that can accumulate and lead to dementia. Importantly, the pathology of vascular cognitive impairment extends far beyond brain destruction wrought by major stroke. Other subtle changes may also arise that contribute to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, including subclinical stroke, white-matter changes such as hyperintensities and lipohyalinosis, small lacunar infarcts, cerebral hypoperfusion, and compromise of the blood-brain barrier. In this review we critically examine the emerging body of evidence that relates atherosclerotic risk factors, brain functioning, and Alzheimer disease. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  7. Intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Reijmer, Yael D; Charidimou, Andreas; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are composed of cognitive deficits resulted from a range of vascular lesions and pathologies, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic. However the contribution of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presumed due to small vessel diseases on cognitive impairment is underestimated, in contrast to the numerous studies about the role of ischemic vascular disorders on cognition. In this review we summarize recent findings from clinical studies and appropriate basic science research to better elucidate the role and possible mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in cognitive impairment and dementia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  8. EEG in Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The value of routine wake electroencephalography in children with specific language impairment was reviewed retrospectively in 111 children examined over a 10-year interval at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, Çanada.

  9. Hearing impairment: technological advances and insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, A; O'Leary, S

    2008-01-01

    ... treatment or rehabilitation, resulting in functional impairment and social isolation. OBJECTIVE: This article outlines the available options and recent advances in the treatment of hearing impairment...

  10. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Judy L.

    1997-06-01

    Methods used to try to provide a valuable experience for visually impaired students in a general education or an introductory chemistry class are discussed. Modifications that can be made cheaply and with little time commitment which will allow visually impaired students to participate productively in the laboratory are examined. A conductivity tester that cost less than $4.00 to construct, is easy to assemble, very rugged, and provides a great deal of entertainment for sighted and non-sighted students is described.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE AND MOBILITY IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cahill

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of mobility is a growth area in the social sciences.  The car system (automobility has had as one of its consequences reduced opportunities for mobility impaired people to walk in their local environment. Immobility has resulted for many people with disabilities. Despite the promotion of physical activity by public health guidance local environments are often hazardous for mobility impaired people.  In particular, there is a problem with cars parking on pavements and pavement cycling.

  12. Emotional impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Hai-bo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotional impairment is the common complication of Parkinson's disease (PD. Depression, anxiety and apathy affect the quality of life and the prognosis of PD patients. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional impairment in PD patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways, but the specific mechanism needs further study. In this review we discuss the clinical manifestation, possible pathological mechanism, diagnosis and treatment in PD patients.

  13. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the ... or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure performed? There are a number of ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... soft tissues. About 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through ... account for about 80 percent of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed ...

  18. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss ... enough to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, ...

  19. Gait Impairment in a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saara Parkkinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of proper tests for gait evaluation following cerebral ischemia in rats has been limited. The automated, quantitative CatWalk system, which was initially designed to measure gait in models of spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain, and peripheral nerve injury, is said to be a useful tool for the study of motor impairment in stroke animals. Here we report our experiences of using CatWalk XT with rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, during their six-week followup. Large corticostriatal infarct was confirmed by MRI in all MCAO rats, which was associated with severe sensorimotor impairment. In contrast, the gait impairment was at most mild, which is consistent with seemingly normal locomotion of MCAO rats. Many of the gait parameters were affected by body weight, walking speed, and motivation despite the use of a goal box. In addition, MCAO rats showed bilateral compensation, which was developed to stabilize proper locomotion. All of these interferences may confound the data interpretation. Taken together, the translational applicability of CatWalk XT in evaluating motor impairment and treatment efficacy remains to be limited at least in rats with severe corticostriatal infarct and loss of body weight.

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia ...

  1. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  2. A Study of Impairing Injuries in Real World Crashes Using the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS) and the Predicted Functional Capacity Index (PFCI-AIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Morris, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict impairment outcomes in large databases using a simplified technique allows researchers to focus attention on preventing costly impairing injuries. The dilemma that exists for researchers is to determine which method is the most reliable and valid. This study examines available methods to predict impairment and explores the differences between the IIS and pFCI applied to real world crash injury data. Occupant injury data from the UK Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database have been coded using AIS 1990 and AIS 2005. The data have subsequently been recoded using the associated impairment scales namely the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS) and the predicted Functional Capacity Index (pFCI) to determine the predicted impairment levels of injuries at one year post crash. Comparisons between the levels of impairment were made and any differences further explored. Injury data for the period February 2006 to September 2008 from the CCIS database were used in the analysis which involved a dataset of 2,437 occcupants who sustained over 8000 injuries. This study found some differences between the impairment scales for injuries coded to the AIS 1990 and AIS 2005 coding dictionaries. The pFCI predicts 31.5% of injuries to be impairing in AIS 2005, less than the IIS (38.5%) using AIS 1990. Using CCIS data the pFCI predicted that only 6% of the occupants with a coded injury would have an impairing injury compared to 24% of occupants using the IIS. The main body regions identified as having the major differences between the two impairment scales for car occupants were the head and spine. Follow up data were then used for a small number of cases (n=31, lower extremity and whiplash injuries) to examine any differences in predicted impairment versus perceived impairment. These data were selected from a previous study conducted between 2003 and 2006 and identified the discrepancy between predicted impairment and actual perceived impairment as defined by the

  3. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'.

  4. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L; Hink, Mark A; Bates, Gillian P; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-03

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that the proteasomes may become clogged by the aggregated protein fragments, leading to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we show by fluorescence pulse-chase experiments in living cells that proteasomes are dynamically and reversibly recruited into inclusion bodies. As these recruited proteasomes remain catalytically active and accessible to substrates, our results challenge the concept of proteasome sequestration and impairment in Huntington's disease, and support the reported absence of proteasome impairment in mouse models of Huntington's disease. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  5. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  6. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  7. PROPYLTHIOURACIL (PTU)-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM REDUCES FIELD POTENTIAL AMPLITUDE BUT DOES NOT IMPAIR DENTATE GYRUS LTP IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to hypothyroid-inducing agents leads to reductions in body weight, alterations in hippocampal structure, and impaired performance on a variety of behavioral learning tasks. Electrophysiological properties of the hippocampus in hypothyroid animals, however...

  8. A Behavioural Approach to Helping an Older Adult with a Learning Disability and Mild Cognitive Impairment Overcome Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that behavioural activation for depression is an equally effective but less complex treatment than cognitive behavioural therapy. It may therefore be more suitable for those who are cognitively impaired (i.e. early-stage dementia or mild cognitive impairment) or have a learning…

  9. A Behavioural Approach to Helping an Older Adult with a Learning Disability and Mild Cognitive Impairment Overcome Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that behavioural activation for depression is an equally effective but less complex treatment than cognitive behavioural therapy. It may therefore be more suitable for those who are cognitively impaired (i.e. early-stage dementia or mild cognitive impairment) or have a learning…

  10. Determination of Star Bodies from -Centroid Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lujun Guo; Gangsong Leng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ characterized by having larger volume than any other member, for all real ≥ 1 that are not even natural numbers, where $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ denotes the -centroid equivalence class of the star body .

  11. [Multifaceted body. 3. The contextualised body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This third and last article focuses on the psychosomatic and socio-anthropological facets of the body and their contribution to its understanding.

  12. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  13. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  14. Zooplankton body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinousforms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals becomeincreasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body compo...

  15. Touch and relate: body experience among staff in habilitation services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görel Råsmark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In habilitation centres staff meet children with different impairments, children who need extensive support and training while growing up. A prevailing biomedical view of the body in habilitation services is gradually becoming supplemented by a perspective on the body as constantly involved in experiencing and communicating, the latter involving also the bodies of the therapists. Investigating body experience in habilitation staff in their encounters with the children may provide concepts that make it easier to reflect on what is going on in the interaction. When shared among larger number of peers and supported by further research in the field, reflected body experience may become a substantial aspect of professional self-knowledge. Our aim with this study was to contribute to the understanding of what it means to be a body for other bodies in the specific relational context of child habilitation, and more specifically to investigate what role the therapists’ body experience may play for professional awareness and practice. In the study, five physiotherapists and three special-education teachers spoke of physical and emotional closeness (the body as affection but also of a provoking closeness (the body as provoked with the children and of how their own body experience made them more attentive to the children's experience (the body as reference. Situations that included bodily limitations (the body as restriction were described, as were situations where the body came into focus through the gazes of others or one's own (the body as observed. The body was described as a flexible tool (the body as tool, and hands were given an exclusive position as a body part that was constantly communicating. Three shifts of intentionality that form a comprehensive structure for this body experience were discerned. When professional reflection is evoked it may further body awareness, deepen reflection in practice and strengthen intercorporeality.

  16. Language Impairment and Generative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with different types of language impairment from the perspective of generative grammar. The paper focuses on syntactic deficiencies observed in aphasic and SLI (specific language impairment patients. We show that the observed ungrammatical structures do not appear in a random fashion but can be predicted by that theory of universal sentence structure which posits a strict hierarchy of its constituent parts. The article shows that while the hierarchically lower elements remain unaffected, the higher positions in the hierarchy show various degrees of syntactic impairment. The paper supports the implementation of recent developments in the field of generative grammar with the intention of encouraging further theoretical, experimental and therapeutic research in the field.

  17. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  18. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  19. Diagnostic delay is associated with psychosocial impairment in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Sonja; Streetz-van der Werf, Christine; Schott, Jennifer S; Nolte, Kay; Karges, Wolfram; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically assess health care utilisation, diagnostic delay and psychosocial impairment in patients with acromegaly in rural versus urban health care environments. 41 patients with acromegaly were questioned to time lapse of symptom onset, first seeking medical advice and time of acromegaly diagnosis. Quality of life (QoL), and psychosocial impairment (depression, daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbances, disturbances of body image) were measured by self-assessment questionnaires. Patients were grouped into living in rural health care environments (RHCE, n = 22 patients) or urban health care environments (UHCE, n = 19 patients) using data on population density from the German Federal Statistical Office. RHCE patients waited significantly longer (2.5 vs. 0.89 years; p = .025) after symptom onset before seeking medical advice, but diagnosis of acromegaly was established at least as quickly as in UHCE (1.45 vs. 2.74 years; n.s.). There was a consistent trend toward more psychosocial impairment in UHCE which reached significance for sleep disturbances (p = .004). For all patients significant correlations between time delay of diagnostic process (defined as first visit to the doctor because of acromegaly-related symptoms and establishment of acromegaly diagnosis) and psychological QoL, depression, daytime sleepiness, sleep disorders and body image emerged. Patients with acromegaly in UHCE experienced more psychosocial impairment than patients in RHCE. The correlation of significantly increased psychosocial impairment and delay of diagnosis by the physician may reflect long-lasting embitterment in patients with acromegaly and should be considered during psychosocial counselling.

  20. The hypertriglyceridemia is associated with isolated impaired glucose tolerance in subjects without insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hypertriglyceridemia is associated with isolated impaired glucose tolerance in subjects without insulin resistance. A total of 365 apparently healthy individuals aged 20-65 years were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. Subjects were allocated into the groups with and without hypertriglyceridemia. Age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference were matched criteria. Individuals with impaired fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose+impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index ≥ 2.5, and/or chronic illnesses such as renal disease or malignancy were excluded. Hypertriglyceridemia was defined by triglycerides levels ≥ 150 mg/dL. Impaired glucose tolerance was defined by plasma glucose concentration 2-h post-load glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL hypertriglyceridemia (independent variable) and impaired glucose tolerance (dependent variable). A total of 132 and 233 subjects were allocated into the groups with and without hypertriglyceridemia, respectively. The frequency of impaired glucose tolerance was 13.6% and 5.6% in the individuals with and without hypertriglyceridemia, p = 0.01. The logistic regression analysis adjusted by gender, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed that hypertriglyceridemia is significantly associated with impaired glucose tolerance (OR 2.34; 95% CI: 1.02-5.32, p = 0.04). Results of this study indicate that hypertriglyceridemia is independently associated with isolated impaired glucose tolerance in subjects without insulin resistance.

  1. [Functional impairment associated with cognitive impairment in hospitalised elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Chaparro, José Mauricio; Mosquera-Jiménez, José Ignacio; Davis, Annabelle S; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2017-06-24

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of cognitive impairment on functional decline in hospitalised patients aged ≥60 years. Measurements at admission included demographic data, Charlson's comorbidity index, and cognitive impairment (according to education level). Data were also collected on hospital length of stay, depression, and delirium developed during hospitalisation. The outcome, Barthel Index (BI), was measured at admission, discharge, and 1-month post-discharge. Patients with BI≤75 at admission (n=54) or with a missing BI value were excluded (n=1). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore predictive factors with functional decline (BI≤75) from admission to discharge, and 1-month later. Of the 133 patients included, 24.8% and 19.6% had a BI≤75 at discharge and at 1-month, respectively. Compared with men, women had more than double risk for functional decline at discharge and 1-month (P<.05). Compared with those without delirium and without cognitive impairment, those with delirium and cognitive impairment had an increased risk for functional decline (BI≤75) at discharge (OR 5.15, 95% CI; 1.94-13.67), and at 1-month (OR 6.26, 95% CI; 2.30-17.03). Similarly, those with comorbidity (≥2) had increased functional decline at discharge (OR 2.36, 95% CI; 1.14-4.87), and at 1-month after discharge (OR 2.71, 95% CI; 1.25-5.89). Delirium during hospitalisation, together with cognitive impairment on admission, was a strong predictor of functional decline. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Emulating human leg impairments and disabilities in walking with humanoid robots

    OpenAIRE

    Lengagne, Sébastien; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Druon, Sébastien; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a method for emulating human walking motions with leg impairments or disabilities using humanoid robots. Our optimal dynamic multi-contact motion software generates the emulated motions. We take into account the full-body dynamic model of the robot and consider possible leg impairments as additional physical constraints in the optimization problem. The proposed approach is verified using HRP-2 humanoid robot. Simulations and experiments reveal...

  3. Experiences of visually impaired students in higher education: Bodily perspectives on inclusive education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Heidi; Swartz, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Although previous literature sheds light on the experiences of visually impaired students on tertiary grounds, these studies failed to provide an embodied understanding of their lives. In-depth interviews with 15 visually impaired students at one university demonstrated the ways in which they experienced their disability and the built environment in their bodies. At the same time, lost, fearful, shameful and aching bodies revealed prevailing gaps in provision for disabled students. Through this research it becomes clear how the environment is acutely felt within fleshly worlds, while bodies do not fail to tell of disabling societal structures. Based on the bodily stories, we thus make recommendations to improve the lives of visually impaired students on tertiary campuses. PMID:27917028

  4. Experiences of visually impaired students in higher education: Bodily perspectives on inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Heidi; Swartz, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Although previous literature sheds light on the experiences of visually impaired students on tertiary grounds, these studies failed to provide an embodied understanding of their lives. In-depth interviews with 15 visually impaired students at one university demonstrated the ways in which they experienced their disability and the built environment in their bodies. At the same time, lost, fearful, shameful and aching bodies revealed prevailing gaps in provision for disabled students. Through this research it becomes clear how the environment is acutely felt within fleshly worlds, while bodies do not fail to tell of disabling societal structures. Based on the bodily stories, we thus make recommendations to improve the lives of visually impaired students on tertiary campuses.

  5. Written on the Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    may choose to alter how we are perceived and to at least some extent control the discontent we may project onto our own body. Through body modification, we can alter the impression of our personality and express a cultural solidarity, as Chris Rojek points out. Tattoos, piercings and other body...... modifications become ways to express a difference from or identification with, a particular cultural segment. Body modification marks a personal subjectivity, just as it marks a border around those who participate. A distinctive bodily border is formed through the use of body modifications, and it can be viewed......Our bodies define a border between ourselves and the world around us. However we might feel about our body, it is what we present to the world. Victoria L. Blum in her book Flesh Wounds discusses how bodies are a form of inkblots, where discontent is projected onto. As bodies can be modified, we...

  6. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Etesam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T

  7. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  8. Parkinson's Disease and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Tang, Bei-Sha; Guo, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by the hallmarks of motor symptoms, such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. However, through clinical investigations in patients and experimental findings in animal models of Parkinson's disease for years, it is now well recognized that Parkinson's disease is more than just a motor-deficit disorder. The majority of Parkinson's disease patients suffer from nonmotor disabilities, for instance, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, sensory dysfunction, and sleep disorder. So far, anti-PD prescriptions and surgical treatments have been mainly focusing on motor dysfunctions, leaving cognitive impairment a marginal clinical field. Within the nonmotor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and significant aspects of Parkinson's disease, and cognitive deficits such as dysexecutive syndrome and visuospatial disturbances could seriously affect the quality of life, reduce life expectancy, prolong the duration of hospitalization, and therefore increase burdens of caregiver and medical costs. In this review, we have done a retrospective study of the recent related researches on epidemiology, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, genetics, and potential treatment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease, aiming to provide a summary of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and make it easy for clinicians to tackle this challenging issue in their future practice.

  9. Assessment of the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Joan B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessment of visually impaired students is traced historically, and current practices in visual functioning, movement and spatial awareness, cognition, tactile performance, and emotional/social development are noted. Federal requirements for assessment are discussed and recommended assessment practices for six major assessment domains are listed.…

  10. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  11. Specificity of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ

    1996-01-01

    In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a

  12. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  13. Parkinson's Disease and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bei-sha

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by the hallmarks of motor symptoms, such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. However, through clinical investigations in patients and experimental findings in animal models of Parkinson's disease for years, it is now well recognized that Parkinson's disease is more than just a motor-deficit disorder. The majority of Parkinson's disease patients suffer from nonmotor disabilities, for instance, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, sensory dysfunction, and sleep disorder. So far, anti-PD prescriptions and surgical treatments have been mainly focusing on motor dysfunctions, leaving cognitive impairment a marginal clinical field. Within the nonmotor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and significant aspects of Parkinson's disease, and cognitive deficits such as dysexecutive syndrome and visuospatial disturbances could seriously affect the quality of life, reduce life expectancy, prolong the duration of hospitalization, and therefore increase burdens of caregiver and medical costs. In this review, we have done a retrospective study of the recent related researches on epidemiology, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, genetics, and potential treatment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease, aiming to provide a summary of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and make it easy for clinicians to tackle this challenging issue in their future practice. PMID:28058128

  14. Electrophysiology in visually impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, Maria Michielde van

    2006-01-01

    Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates i

  15. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  16. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  17. A adiposidade corporal e a idade prejudicam a capacidade funcional para realizar as atividades da vida diária de mulheres acima de 47 anos Body adiposity and age impair the capacity to perform daily living activities of women older than 47 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Raso

    2002-12-01

    chronological age, body weight, body height, body mass index, and body adiposity on the functional capacity to perform daily living activities of women with > 47 years of age. The sample comprised 129 women from 47 to 77 years of age. The total body adiposity (TBA was represented by the sum total of biceps (BI, triceps (TRI, subscapular (SB, middle axillary (MA, suprailiac (SI, abdominal (ABD, anterior thigh (AT, and middle calf (MC skinfolds. Central body adiposity (CBA was taken as the sum total of SB, MA, SI, and ABD, whereas peripheral body adiposity (PBA was represented by the sum total of BI, TRI, AT and MC. The performance of daily living activities was estimated by: velocity to move from sitting to standing position (VSSP1, velocity to move from supine to standing position (VSSP2, velocity to climb stairs (VCS, and velocity to put on snickers and tie the laces (VWS. The quartile (Q was calculated for all independent variables (chronological age, body weight, body height, body mass index, and body adiposity [total, central and peripheral]. The statistical analysis used was ANOVA "One Way" with post-hoc Bonferroni, and the coefficient of linear correlation (Pearson and Spearman Rank-Order. Statistical differences occurred specially between quartiles of extremities (Q1 x Q4 for VSSP1 and VSSP2 (except for body weight and BMI, while for VCS it was between Q2 x Q4 (chronological age. The independent variables exerted no effect on VWS. The percent range was from 14.1% (chronological age [VSSP2: Q3 x Q4] to 36.1% (TBA [VSSP1: Q2 x Q4]. Variables that exerted negative repercussion on functional capacity to perform daily living activities were central body adiposity, chronological age, total body adiposity, peripheral body adiposity, BMI and body weight, in that order.

  18. Body composition and functional limitation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Patricia P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low body mass index has been associated with increased mortality in severe COPD. The impact of body composition earlier in the disease remains unclear. We studied the impact of body composition on the risk of functional limitation in COPD. Methods We used bioelectrical impedance to estimate body composition in a cohort of 355 younger adults with COPD who had a broad spectrum of severity. Results Among women, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a lower risk of self-reported functional limitation after controlling for age, height, pulmonary function impairment, race, education, and smoking history (OR 0.45 per 0.50 increment in lean-to-fat ratio; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.74. Among men, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a greater distance walked in 6 minutes (mean difference 40 meters per 0.50 ratio increment; 95% CI 9 to 71 meters. In women, the lean-to-fat ratio was associated with an even greater distance walked (mean difference 162 meters per 0.50 increment; 95% CI 97 to 228 meters. In women, higher lean-to-fat ratio was also associated with better Short Physical Performance Battery Scores. In further analysis, the accumulation of greater fat mass, and not the loss of lean mass, was most strongly associated with functional limitation among both sexes. Conclusion Body composition is an important non-pulmonary impairment that modulates the risk of functional limitation in COPD, even after taking pulmonary function into account. Body composition abnormalities may represent an important area for screening and preventive intervention in COPD.

  19. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  20. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the ... may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or CT scan to locate and remove the object. Tell your ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but the foreign body remains trapped in the lung. This typically occurs in children and requires removal ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complication, and endoscopic ... be dislodged rather than removed so that they pass safely through the digestive system. top of page ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ...

  8. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Programs for Girls www.womensmediacenter.com/pages/media-programs-for-girls Glossary Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which distorted body image leads a person to diet excessively. Body Mass Index (BMI): A number calculated from height and ...

  9. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...

  10. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...... and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...... and that is connected to the facing inside the internal volume of the body at the same side of the profile chord as the connection of the distance member to the facing and to the distance member at a distance from the facing....

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is located near vital structures like nerves and blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave it ... other areas of the body, or enter your blood vessels. Removal of larger foreign bodies will ensure that ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surrounding tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is ... air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for identifying and removing foreign bodies from ...

  14. Neuropsychological impairments in panic disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Kate; Newman, Emily F

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature investigating the neuropsychological profile of panic disorder (PD), some of which suggests potential cognitive dysfunction. This paper systematically reviews the existing literature on neuropsychological performance in PD. PsycINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycARTICLES databases were searched to identify articles reporting on neuropsychological function in PD published in English during the time period 1980 to March 2012. 14 studies were identified. There was limited support for impairment in short term memory among individuals with PD, although this was not found across all studies. Overall, the reviewed studies did not support the presence of impairment in other areas of cognitive functioning, including executive function, long term memory, visuospatial or perceptual abilities and working memory. Studies with samples of fewer than 15 participants per group were excluded from this review. A limited amount of research has been published on this topic and small sample sizes (under 25 per group) have been used by many studies. Therefore, the current review is based on a small number of studies with limited power. There is limited evidence of specific neuropsychological impairments in participants with PD. Impairments in short term memory warrant further investigation to establish their relevance to clinical practice. Larger sample sizes and appropriate statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons in future studies is highly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impaired associative learning with food rewards in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Manson, Kirk F; Schiller, Daniela; Levy, Ifat

    2014-08-04

    Obesity is a major epidemic in many parts of the world. One of the main factors contributing to obesity is overconsumption of high-fat and high-calorie food, which is driven by the rewarding properties of these types of food. Previous studies have suggested that dysfunction in reward circuits may be associated with overeating and obesity. The nature of this dysfunction, however, is still unknown. Here, we demonstrate impairment in reward-based associative learning specific to food in obese women. Normal-weight and obese participants performed an appetitive reversal learning task in which they had to learn and modify cue-reward associations. To test whether any learning deficits were specific to food reward or were more general, we used a between-subject design in which half of the participants received food reward and the other half received money reward. Our results reveal a marked difference in associative learning between normal-weight and obese women when food was used as reward. Importantly, no learning deficits were observed with money reward. Multiple regression analyses also established a robust negative association between body mass index and learning performance in the food domain in female participants. Interestingly, such impairment was not observed in obese men. These findings suggest that obesity may be linked to impaired reward-based associative learning and that this impairment may be specific to the food domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Soybean β-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Tanigawa

    Full Text Available Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG, one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV, which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress.

  17. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a ...

  19. Literacies in the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, the author invites readers to consider the body and its central place in literacy pedagogy, practice and research. She emphasizes two interrelated paths for teachers and researchers interested in literacies to tend to the body: (1) the ways literacies are engaged and cultivated for making sense of bodies, and (2) the literacies…

  20. Specialised structural descriptions for human body parts: Evidence from autotopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxbaum, L J; Coslett, H B

    2001-06-01

    Previous accounts of autotopagnosia (e.g., Ogden, 1985; Pick, 1908; Semenza, 1988) propose that the disorder is attributable to deficits in "mental images," visual body schema, or semantic representations. A recent account (Sirigu, Grafman, Bressler, & Sunderland, 1991b) posits deficits in visual structural descriptions of the human body and its parts, in the context of spared semantic and proprioceptivespatio-motor body representations, but provides no evidence bearing on the nature or format of the putatively damaged representation. We report data from a man with autotopagnosia consequent to lefthemisphere brain damage which bear directly on the nature of the representation impaired in the disorder. The subject, GL, is unable to localise body parts on himself or others, whether cued by verbal or visual input. In contrast, he uses body parts precisely in reaching and grasping tasks, correctly matches items of clothing to body parts, and localises the parts of animals and man-made objects without error. We also demonstrate that GL is unable to match pictured or real human body parts across shifts in orientation or changes in visual appearance, but can perform analogous matching tasks with animal body parts and man-made object parts. The data extend the account of Sirigu et al. (1991b) in suggesting that human body part localisation depends upon structural descriptions of human (but not animal) bodies that enable viewpoint-independent body part recognition and participate in the calculation of equivalence between the body parts of self and others across transformations in orientation.

  1. Perioperative care of the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, F

    1991-07-01

    Eighty-three per cent of sensory input is received optically. Sight impaired patients thus experience substantial sensory deficit, so nursing any visually impaired patient through surgery requires special considerations.

  2. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  3. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  4. Relevance theory and pragmatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, E; Kerbel, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes aspects of relevance theory that are useful for exploring impairment of pragmatic comprehension in children. It explores data from three children with pragmatic language difficulties within this framework. Relevance theory is seen to provide a means of explaining why, in a given context, a particular utterance is problematic. It thus enables one to move on from mere description of problematic behaviours towards their explanation. The theory provides a clearer delineation between the explicit and the implicit, and hence between semantics and pragmatics. This enables one to place certain difficulties more firmly within semantics and others within pragmatics. Relevance, and its maximization in communication, are squarely placed within human cognition, which suggests a close connection between pragmatic and cognitive (dis)functioning. Relevance theory thus emerges as a powerful tool in the exploration and understanding of pragmatic language difficulties in children and offers therapeutically valuable insight into the nature of interactions involving individuals with such impairments.

  5. Visual Impairment Due to Lissencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués-Fernández, V. E.; Sánchez-Tocino, H.; Escudero-Caro, M.T.; Cancho-Candela, R.; García-Zamora, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lissencephaly is a rare disorder due to abnormal neural migration, causing neurological impairment and clinically characterised by mental retardation and epilepsy. Any disturbance of the visual pathway can cause loss of vision. The authors describe a case of a 6-year-old boy referred to the ophthalmologist presenting poor bilateral vision. This child had no other known medical conditions, and neurological examination was completely normal. Only when a magnetic resonance imaging was made that ...

  6. Diagnosis advances in vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhou; Zhong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) encompasses the entire range of cognitive deficits associated with cerebrovascular disease(CVD), from mild deficits with little or no functional impairment, such as vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia(VCIND), to full-blown vascular dementia(VaD). Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment is important but may be difficult. In this review we report advances in VCI in the following areas: etiology, subtypes, neuropsychology, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and diagnostic criteria.

  7. Acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility in men, not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Trainor, Brian C; Lam, Jovian C W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial stress influences cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory retrieval. However, less is known about the effects of stress on cognitive flexibility, which is mediated by different neurobiological circuits and could thus be regulated by different neuroendocrine pathways. In this study, we randomly assigned healthy adults to an acute stress induction or control condition and subsequently assessed participants' cognitive flexibility using an open-source version of the Wisconsin Card Sort task. Drawing on work in rodents, we hypothesized that stress would have stronger impairing effects on cognitive flexibility in men than women. As predicted, we found that stress impaired cognitive flexibility in men but did not significantly affect women. Our results thus indicate that stress exerts sex-specific effects on cognitive flexibility in humans and add to the growing body of research highlighting the need to consider sex differences in effects of stress.

  8. Mandatory notification of impaired doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, R G

    2014-12-01

    Mandatory reporting of impaired doctors is compulsory in Australasia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency guidelines for notification claim high benchmark though the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians suggest they still obstruct doctors seeking help. Western Australia excludes mandatory reporting of practitioner-patients. This study examines reporting, consequences and international experiences with notification. Depressed doctors avoid diagnosis and treatment, fearing consequences, yet are more prone to marital problems, substance dependence and needing psychotherapy. South African research confirms isolation of impaired doctors and delayed seeking help with definable characteristics of those at risk. New Zealand data acknowledge: errors occur; questionable contribution from mandatory reporting; issues concerning competence assessment; favouring reporting to senior colleagues or self-intervention to compliance with mandatory reporting. UK found an anaesthetist guilty of professional misconduct for not reporting and sanctioned doctors regarding Harold Shipman. Australians are reluctant to report, fearing legalistic intrusion into care. Australian research confirmed definable characteristics for doctors with psychiatric illness or alcohol abuse. Exposure to legal medicine evokes personal disenchantment for doctors involved. Medicine poses barriers for impaired doctors. Spanish and UK doctors do not use general practitioners and may have suboptimal care. US and European doctors self-medicate using samples. US drug-dependent doctors also prescribe for spouses. Junior doctors are losing empathy with the profession. UK doctors favour private care, avoiding public scrutiny. NZ and Brazil created specific services for doctors, which appear effective. Mandatory reporting may be counterproductive requiring reappraisal.

  9. Cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Diveky, Tomas; Velartova, Hana

    2011-03-01

    Provide an overview of how bipolar disorder affects cognitive function in patients. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles indexed by the combinations of MESH term or key word "bipolar disorder" with the following terms: "cognition", "memory", "neuropsychology", "neuropsychological tests", "lithium", "anticonvulsants", "antipsychotics", and "schizophrenia". Constraints limiting time period of publications or their language were not applied. Reference lists of publications identified by these procedures were hand-searched for additional relevant citations. There is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of bipolar disorder, including the remission phase, particularly in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions. But research on the cognitive functions has yielded inconsistent results over recent years. There is a growing need for clarification regarding the magnitude, clinical relevance and confounding variables of cognitive impairment in bipolar patients. The impact of bipolar illness on cognition can be influenced by age of onset, pharmacological treatments, individual response, familial risk factors, and clinical features. In addition to the mood state, cognitive performance in bipolar patients is influenced by seasonality. Previous optimistic assumptions about the prognosis of bipolar disorder were based on the success of the control of mood symptoms by pharmacotherapy. However, it is now clear that the "remitted" euthymic bipolar patients have distinct impairments of executive function, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, and sustained attention. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning.

  10. [Disorders of body schema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruya, Natsuko; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka

    2014-04-01

    A variety of disorders have been associated with the concept of body schema. However, this concept has been interpreted in many ways, and there is no consensus on the nature and cognitive mechanisms of body schema. Historically, two major issues have been discussed. One was the body-specificity of the body schema, and the other was the relationship between input and output modality. Autotopagnosia, an inability to localize and orient different parts of the body, has been a focus of attention because it is thought to provide insight into the function of body schema. Although there have not been many cases of pure autotopagnosia, a double dissociation indicating the independence of body-specific system. There are a few working hypotheses for cognitive models of body schema, which can explain the different types of autotopagnosia. One model includes multiple representation subsystems for body processing, while another assumes the use of intrinsic and extrinsic egocentric coordinates to maintain on-line processing for body state. The consistency of these accounts should be examined in light of extensive neuroimaging and psychological data, to construct a plausible model for body schema.

  11. Inferential Functioning in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca; Millan, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the inferential abilities of visually impaired children in a task presented in two formats, manipulative and verbal. The results showed that in the group of visually impaired children, just as with children with normal sight, there was a wide range of inference types. It was found that the visually impaired children…

  12. The triad of impairment in autism revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, Andrew; Sci, Dip App; Barker, Philip

    2009-11-01

    The triad of impairment referred to at present in the autism-related literature is a behavioral triad. This paper extends this thinking of the triad of impairment to the triad that underlies the behavioral manifestation. The real triad of impairment. This paper considers the thinking and information processing style of autism and takes the next transitional step in understanding the triad of impairment. Contemporary literature on autism and information processing. Exceptional pioneering work in the late 1970s gave rise to the concept of the triad of impairments as the central plank of the construct of autism: impaired communication; impaired social skills; and a restricted and repetitive way of being-in-the-world. This clear articulation of the structures of the phenomena allowed a new way for professionals and families to see and understand autism, and to relate to those with autism. Like the evolution of many concepts, this was a transitional idea. The original triad of impairments described the behavioral manifestation; the actual triad of impairments is at the level of cognitive processing. The actual triad of impairment is static and ubiquitous unlike the variable and fluctuating behavioral manifestation. The actual triad of impairment in autism is visual as opposed to linguistic processing, impaired abstraction, and lack of theory of mind. The actual triad is central to all diagnosis that together makes up the autism spectrum.

  13. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family…

  14. Communication Skills and Learning in Impaired Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliöz, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…

  15. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Izabela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys. The division for partially sighted people (61 and the blind (66 was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05, as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001. The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20% or well-below (60% the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account.

  16. Sport Injuries in Elite Paralympic Swimmers With Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marilia Magno e; Bilzon, James; Duarte, Edison; Gorla, Jose; Vital, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visually impaired athletes sustain overuse injuries in the lower limbs, but the pattern of injuries may vary according to the sport. The characteristics of sports injuries in visually impaired swimmers are unknown. Objective: To determine the characteristics and epidemiologic measures (prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate) of sports injuries in visually impaired elite national swimmers and to assess differences among visual classes and between sexes. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: International Paralympic competitions held between 2004 and 2008. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight elite, visually impaired swimmers (19 males, 9 females) from the Brazilian Paralympic Team participated in this study. Twelve were visual class S11 (blind swimmers), 12 were S12 (low-vision swimmers), and 4 were S13 (low-vision swimmers). Intervention(s): A standardized report form was used to collect data during 5 competitions. This was endorsed by 2 Brazilian sports governing bodies. Main Outcome Measures: The characteristics, prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate of injuries were calculated. Results: Eighteen athletes reported 41 sports injuries, with a prevalence of 64%, clinical incidence of 1.5 injuries per athlete, and an incidence rate of 0.3 injuries per athlete per competition. Overuse injuries (80%) were more frequent than traumatic injuries (20%). The clinical incidence and prevalence varied according to sex and visual class, but no statistical differences were observed (P > .05). The highest proportion of injuries was in the trunk (46.34%), followed by the upper limbs (34.15%). The shoulders (29.27%) were most affected, followed by the thoracic (21.95%) and lumbar spine (17.07%). Spasm (36.59%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by tendinopathy (26.83%). Conclusions: Visually impaired swimmers had a relatively high proportion of overuse injuries, predominantly associated with muscle spasm in the spine and

  17. Impaired processing of self-face recognition in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi

    2016-03-01

    Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p < 0.001) or BSQ (p < 0.001). Among factors involved, nutritional status and intensity of eating disorders could play a part in impaired self-face recognition.

  18. The Body Collected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skeletons, organs, tissue and blood samples from newborn babies. There are arge amounts of human material collected in hospitals, research institutes and museums. Both from the patients of the past, and from our own bodies. The exhibition The Body Collected at Medical Museion charts how doctors...... and researchers have collected, preserved and stored this material to map and understand the human body and its diseases. And how the body has been used to generate medical knowledge. Layer by layer, the body has been laid bare and investigated: cut up during dissection, magnified under microscopes, and analysed...... the collection of human tissue continues to play a crucial role. Here samples of human tissue and blood provide the raw materials for understanding the body and developing new diagnostic methods and treatments. The vast majority of us have provided a tissue or blood sample that is now stored in a biobank...

  19. Effectiveness of exercise on cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Sandor; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Frederico, Santos de Santana; Prestes, Jonato; Balsamo, Denise Coscrato; Dahan, da Cunha Nascimento; Dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo; Nobrega, Otávio T

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity has a protective effect on brain function in older people. Here, we briefly reviewed the studies and results related to the effects of exercise on cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The main findings from the current body of literature indicate positive evidence for structured physical activity (cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise) as a promising non-pharmacological intervention for preventing cognitive decline. More studies are needed to determine the mechanisms involved in this preventative effect, including on strength, cardiorespiratory, and other types of exercise. Thus, the prevention of Alzheimer's disease may depend on healthy lifestyle habits, such as a structured physical fitness program.

  20. Filling the Silent Void: Genetic Therapies for Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Sng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear cytoarchitecture forms one of the most intricate and delicate organs in the human body and is vulnerable to the effects of genetic disorders, aging, and environmental damage. Owing to the inability of the mammalian cochlea to regenerate sensory hair cells, the loss of hair cells is a leading cause of deafness in humans. Millions of individuals worldwide are affected by the emotionally and financially devastating effects of hearing impairment (HI. This paper provides a brief introduction into the key role of genes regulating inner ear development and function. Potential future therapies that leverage on an improved understanding of these molecular pathways are also described in detail.

  1. Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Timothy D.; Jei-Fu Shaw; Liang Zheng; Chun-Lan Huang; YiLung Chang; ChuanWei Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils, reports a new discovery of well preserved three dimensional macro body fossils of the Ediacaran Period in central YunNan province in the People's Republic of China. These body fossils will enable more detailed and in-depth exploration of the evolution of multi-cellular macro organisms on this planet, whereas in the past, researches could only rely on cast or imprint fossils.

  2. Body, biometrics and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Massari, Sonia

    2008-11-01

    According to a popular aphorism, biometrics are turning the human body into a passport or a password. As usual, aphorisms say more than they intend. Taking the dictum seriously, we would be two: ourself and our body. Who are we, if we are not our body? And what is our body without us? The endless history of identification systems teaches that identification is not a trivial fact but always involves a web of economic interests, political relations, symbolic networks, narratives and meanings. Certainly there are reasons for the ethical and political concerns surrounding biometrics but these reasons are probably quite different from those usually alleged.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham; Saedi[1; Mohammad; Reza; Gheini[2; Firoozeh; Faiz[3; Mohammad; Ali; Arami[4

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications.In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings.

  4. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Elham; Gheini, Mohammad Reza; Faiz, Firoozeh; Arami, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications. In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings. PMID:27660698

  5. Individual difficulties faced by persons with mobility impairments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard everyday use – home computer user Advanced Advanced Advanced Disability Mobility impairment (quadriplegic – Frederik’s Ataxia), speech impairment) Mobility impairment (quadriplegic - Physical cerebral palsy, speech impairment) Mobility...

  6. Impaired Mood in Headache Clinic Patients : Associations With the Perceived Hindrance and Attainability of Personal Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Visser, Annemieke; Lebbink, John; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundHeadache disorders are often accompanied by impaired mood, especially in the headache clinic population. There is a large body of literature demonstrating that an illness or disability may affect the way in which patients perceive their personal goals and that the perception that the attai

  7. Impaired Mood in Headache Clinic Patients : Associations With the Perceived Hindrance and Attainability of Personal Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Visser, Annemieke; Lebbink, John; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Headache disorders are often accompanied by impaired mood, especially in the headache clinic population. There is a large body of literature demonstrating that an illness or disability may affect the way in which patients perceive their personal goals and that the perception that the att

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); M.L. Bots (Michiel); R. Abel (Rajaratnam); H.A. Valkenburg (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India was assessed and its associations with body mass index and a family history of diabetes mellitus. Data were obtained from inhabitants of two

  9. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jekel, K.; Damian, M.; Wattmo, C.; Hausner, L.; Bullock, R.; Connelly, P.J.; Dubois, B.; Eriksdotter, M.; Ewers, M.; Graessel, E.; Kramberger, M.G.; Law, E.; Mecocci, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Nygard, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Pasquier, F.; Peres, K.; Salmon, E.; Sikkes, S.A.; Sobow, T.; Spiegel, R.; Tsolaki, M.; Winblad, B.; Frolich, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic r

  10. Building a Learning Readiness Program for the Mainstreamed Visually Impaired Child in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Aryeh; Eshet, Shari

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the beginnings of a total developmental language learning system for mainstreamed visually impaired children in Israel. The readiness program is divided into five sections: auditory perception and discrimination, tactile perception and discrimination and fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination, body image awareness,…

  11. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  12. Biomechanical Movements in Experienced Cane Users with and without Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Robert S.; Ashmead, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Travelers with visual impairments and orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors were assessed in their performance of the two-point touch cane technique. Both groups deviated similarly from classical stipulations of the technique, having wider arc widths and hand positions off of midline. Measures of body coverage and rhythm were less than ideal.…

  13. Building a Learning Readiness Program for the Mainstreamed Visually Impaired Child in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Aryeh; Eshet, Shari

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the beginnings of a total developmental language learning system for mainstreamed visually impaired children in Israel. The readiness program is divided into five sections: auditory perception and discrimination, tactile perception and discrimination and fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination, body image awareness,…

  14. Visual impairment corrected via cataract surgery and 5-year survival in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Calvin Sze-Un; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; de Loryn, Tania; Tan, Ava Grace; Wang, Jie Jin

    2014-01-01

    To compare mortality risk between cataract surgical patients with corrected and persistent visual impairment. Cohort study. A total of 1864 consecutive patients, aged ≥64 years, undergoing phacoemulsification surgery at Westmead Hospital were followed annually for 5 years postoperatively. Visual impairment status in the surgical eye was categorized as none (presenting visual acuity [VA], ≥20/40), mild (VA Death Index. Of 901 patients with moderate-severe visual impairment before surgery, 60.4% (n = 544), 15.5% (n = 140), and 24.1% (n = 217) had no, mild, or moderate-severe visual impairment in the surgical eye, respectively, 1 month postoperatively. Age-standardized 5-year mortality rates were nonsignificantly lower in patients with either mild (24.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.5%-32.9%) or no visual impairment (24.1%, 95% CI 19.9%-28.4%) post surgery compared to that in patients whose moderate-severe visual impairment persisted (30.6%, 95% CI 23.3%-37.9%). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and individual comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and kidney disease, patients with no visual impairment 1 month postoperatively had a lower mortality risk (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.52-1.01) compared to those with persistent moderate-severe visual impairment after surgery. This finding was significant (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99) after additional adjustment for number of medications taken (continuous variable) and number (≥3 vs <3) of comorbid conditions. Correcting moderate-severe visual impairment in older patients with phacoemulsification surgery was associated with a lower mortality risk, compared to surgical patients whose visual impairment persisted postoperatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  16. 78 FR 72571 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH49 Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System... expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our... ensure that we continue to have the criteria we need to evaluate mental disorders at step three of...

  17. Testosterone and growth hormone improve body composition and muscle performance in older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Impairments in the pituitary-gonadal axis with aging are associated with loss of muscle mass and function and accumulation of upper body fat. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that physiological supplementation with testosterone and GH together improves body composition and muscle perfor...

  18. 77 FR 35264 - Extension of Expiration Dates for Several Body System Listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH49 Extension of Expiration Dates for Several Body System Listings... dates of the following body systems in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations: Growth... evaluation processes for initial claims and continuing disability reviews. DATES: This final rule...

  19. Body-Worn Antennas for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Ôzden, Sinasi ̈

    2014-01-01

    Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented.......Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented....

  20. Dialogue enabling speech-to-text user assistive agent system for hearing-impaired person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongjae; Kang, Sunmee; Han, David K; Ko, Hanseok

    2016-06-01

    A novel approach for assisting bidirectional communication between people of normal hearing and hearing-impaired is presented. While the existing hearing-impaired assistive devices such as hearing aids and cochlear implants are vulnerable in extreme noise conditions or post-surgery side effects, the proposed concept is an alternative approach wherein spoken dialogue is achieved by means of employing a robust speech recognition technique which takes into consideration of noisy environmental factors without any attachment into human body. The proposed system is a portable device with an acoustic beamformer for directional noise reduction and capable of performing speech-to-text transcription function, which adopts a keyword spotting method. It is also equipped with an optimized user interface for hearing-impaired people, rendering intuitive and natural device usage with diverse domain contexts. The relevant experimental results confirm that the proposed interface design is feasible for realizing an effective and efficient intelligent agent for hearing-impaired.

  1. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guy's Guide to Body Image KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to Body ... image can be a problem. Why Is Body Image Important? Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, ...

  2. Obesity Impairs the Action of the Neuroendocrine Ghrelin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, Jeffrey M; Bouret, Sebastien G; Andrews, Zane B

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a metabolic hormone that promotes energy conservation by regulating appetite and energy expenditure. Although some studies suggest that antagonizing ghrelin function attenuates body weight gain and glucose intolerance on a high calorie diet, there is little information about the metabolic actions of ghrelin in the obese state. In this review, we discuss the novel concept of obesity-induced central ghrelin resistance in neural circuits regulating behavior, and impaired ghrelin secretion from the stomach. Interestingly, weight loss restores ghrelin secretion and function, and we hypothesize that ghrelin resistance is a mechanism designed to protect a higher body weight set-point established during times of food availability, to maximize energy reserves during a time of food scarcity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caring for visually impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Kathleen B

    2013-01-01

    To raise pharmacist awareness about the needs and concerns of our patients with visual impairment and to review useful strategies to foster medication adherence. As patient-centered pharmacists, we need to understand the challenges faced by our patients with low vision and tailor pharmaceutical care to best fit their needs. Evidence-based best practices in labeling and written communication have been developed by the American Foundation for the Blind in partnership with the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. These recommendations include the use of specific font styles, minimum font size, and other standards known to enhance usability for those with limited vision. Recent advances in assistive technologies such as audio output and object recognition software can be used to ease the medication-taking process and effectively communicate important drug and safety information in a manner that can be understood by those with low vision. In July 2012, the Prescription Accessible Drug Labeling Promotion Act of 2012 (HR 4087) was signed into law. This new legislation is an addition to the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, which required the development and ultimate implementation by pharmacies of national best practices intended to improve the accessibility of prescription drug labeling for the visually impaired. As a patient-centered profession, we need to advocate for our patients with special needs by partnering with government and patient groups to support and enact legislation intended to enhance people's ability to adhere to drug therapy.

  4. Simvastatin impairs murine melanoma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Francisco E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, reduction of angiogenic factors, inhibition of the endothelial growth factor, impairing tissue adhesion and attenuation of the resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was evaluate the anti-tumoral activity of simvastatin in a B16F10 melanoma-mouse model. Methods Melanoma cells were treated with different concentrations of simvastatin and assessed by viability methods. Melanoma cells (5 × 104 were implanted in two month old C57Bl6/J mice. Around 7 days after cells injection, the oral treatments were started with simvastatin (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.. Tumor size, hematological and biochemical analyses were evaluated. Results Simvastatin at a concentration of 0.8 μM, 1.2 μM and 1.6 μM had toxic effect. Concentration of 1.6 μM induced a massive death in the first 24 h of incubation. Simvastatin at 0.8 μM induces early cell cycle arrest in G0/G1, followed by increase of hypodiploidy. Tumor size were evaluated and the difference of treated group and control, after ten days, demonstrates that simvastatin inhibited the tumor expansion in 68%. Conclusion Simvastatin at 1.6 μM, presented cytototoxicity after 72 h of treatment, with an intense death. In vivo, simvastatin being potentially useful as an antiproliferative drug, with an impairment of growth after ten days.

  5. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  6. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation.

  7. Cognitive Impairment in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimios Dardiotis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment (CI is increasingly recognized as a common adverse consequence of heart failure (HF. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, microembolism, chronic or intermittent cerebral hypoperfusion, and/or impaired cerebral vessel reactivity that lead to cerebral hypoxia and ischemic brain damage seem to underlie the development of CI in HF. Cognitive decline in HF is characterized by deficits in one or more cognition domains, including attention, memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. These deficits may affect patients’ decision-making capacity and interfere with their ability to comply with treatment requirements, recognize and self-manage disease worsening symptoms. CI may have fluctuations in severity over time, improve with effective HF treatment or progress to dementia. CI is independently associated with disability, mortality, and decreased quality of life of HF patients. It is essential therefore for health professionals in their routine evaluations of HF patients to become familiar with assessment of cognitive performance using standardized screening instruments. Future studies should focus on elucidating the mechanisms that underlie CI in HF and establishing preventive strategies and treatment approaches.

  8. Negative body experience in women with early childhood trauma: associations with trauma severity and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    Background: A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its far-reaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate disturbances in three domains of body experience: body attitude, body satisfaction, and body awareness. Furthermore, associations between domains of body experience and severity of trauma symptoms as well as frequency of dissociation were evaluated. Method: Body attitude was measured with the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire, body satisfaction with the Body Cathexis Scale, and body awareness with the Somatic Awareness Questionnaire in 50 female patients with complex trauma and compared with scores in a non-clinical female sample (n = 216). Patients in the clinical sample also filled out the Davidson Trauma Scale and the Dissociation Experience Scale. Results: In all measured domains, body experience was severely affected in patients with early childhood trauma. Compared with scores in the non-clinical group, effect sizes in Cohen's d were 2.7 for body attitude, 1.7 for body satisfaction, and 0.8 for body awareness. Associations between domains of body experience and severity of trauma symptoms were low, as were the associations with frequency of dissociative symptoms. Conclusions: Early childhood trauma in women is associated with impairments in self-reported body experience that warrant careful assessment in the treatment of women with psychiatric disorders.

  9. The impaired and/or disabled anesthesiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan D

    2017-04-01

    Impairment and/or disability resulting from any of a number of etiologies will afflict a significant number of anesthesiologists at some point during their career. The impaired anesthesiologist can be difficult to identify and challenging to manage. Questions will arise as to if, how, and when colleagues, family members, or friends should intercede if significant impairment is suspected.This review will examine the common sources of impairment among anesthesiologists and the professional implications of these conditions. We will discuss the obligations of an anesthesiologist and his/her colleagues when there is sufficient suspicion that he/she might be impaired. Substance use disorder remains one of the commonest sources of impairment among both resident and attending anesthesiologists. Other common etiologies of impairment include various physical ailments, major psychiatric disorders, especially depression and burnout, and age related dementia. Many regulatory organizations, healthcare systems, and state licensing agencies have developed programmes and protocols with which to identify and direct into treatment those suspected of significant impairment. Some degree of impairment will occur to one-third of anesthesiologists during the course of their career. It is important to understand how such impairments might impact the safe practice of anesthesiology.

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by probing the wound. Additional tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page How ... Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety ...

  11. Disorders of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Camilo R

    2014-01-01

    The human body generates heat capable of raising body temperature by approximately 1°C per hour. Normally, this heat is dissipated by means of a thermoregulatory system. Disorders resulting from abnormally high or low body temperature result in neurologic dysfunction and pose a threat to life. In response to thermal stress, maintenance of normal body temperature is primarily maintained by convection and evaporation. Hyperthermia results from abnormal temperature regulation, leading to extremely elevated body temperature while fever results from a normal thermoregulatory mechanism operating at a higher set point. The former leads to specific clinical syndromes with inability of the thermoregulatory mechanism to maintain a constant body temperature. Heat related illness encompasses heat rash, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke, in order of severity. In addition, drugs can induce hyperthermia and produce one of several specific clinical syndromes. Hypothermia is the reduction of body temperature to levels below 35°C from environmental exposure, metabolic disorders, or therapeutic intervention. Management of disorders of body temperature should be carried out decisively and expeditiously, in order to avoid secondary neurologic injury. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many ... and then place the transducer firmly against your body, moving it back ... until the desired images are captured. There is usually no discomfort from ...

  13. Body and Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Johanne Stubbe

    In this book, Johanne Stubbe Teglbjærg Kristensen analyses the relationship between body and hope. She critically investigates the eschatologies of Paul Tillich, Jürgen Moltmann and Wolfhart Pannenberg from the perspective of the phenomenology of the body represented by Maurice Merleau-Ponty...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by probing the wound. Additional tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page ... Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety ...

  15. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sport for You Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  16. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  17. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Presenting for Cosmetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Altintas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is an obsessive-compulsive related psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation about an imagined or slight defect in appearance. Preoccupation of the appearance with the skin, hair and nose are most common. Impairment of the quality of life, comorbidity of the psychiatric and personality disorder are related with body dysmorphic disorder. Nowadays, cosmetic procedure has become increasingly popular especially among women. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among patients seeking cosmetic treatment in surgery or dermatology clinics is higher than general population. As postoperatively some patients dissatisfied with the surgery, dermatologists and surgeons should be informed about body dysmorphic disorder. This aim of this review was to assess prevalance, clinical features, motivational factors of patients with body dysmorphic disorder presenting for cosmetic medical treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 324-338

  18. The Significance of Epidermal Lipid Metabolism in Whole-Body Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Vibeke; Neess, Ditte; Færgeman, Nils J

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest sensory organ of the human body. The skin not only prevents loss of water and other components of the body, but also is involved in regulation of body temperature and serves as an essential barrier, protecting mammals from both routine and extreme environments. Given...... the importance of the skin in temperature regulation, it is surprising that adaptive alterations in skin functions and morphology only vaguely have been associated with systemic physiological responses. Despite that impaired lipid metabolism in the skin often impairs the epidermal permeability barrier...... and insulation properties of the skin, its role in regulating systemic physiology and metabolism is yet to be recognized....

  19. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...

  20. The Mallory body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    Drawing on data from a previously published literature survey on the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body, we discuss current theories on its development in a pro et contra manner. Conclusions have been largely left open to the interpretations of the reader because many...... are still speculative. The main results of this study characterize Mallory bodies as stereotypical histological byproducts to diverse hepatic injuries (mostly alcohol associated) of questionable pathogenic importance. The temporal characteristics of Mallory bodies cast doubt on their role in hepatic...... of defective protein systems in Mallory body pathogenesis. Disproportionate hepatic copper accumulation seems both epidemiologically and topographically associated with Mallory bodies, but these connections are largely unsupported by exposure studies. Many arguments still downplay the importance...

  1. Pseudotumor of Ciliary Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.

  2. The Mallory body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    ): Indian childhood cirrhosis (73%), alcoholic hepatitis (65%), alcoholic cirrhosis (51%), Wilson's disease (25%), primary biliary cirrhosis (24%), nonalcoholic cirrhosis (24%), hepatocellular carcinoma (23%), morbid obesity (8%) and intestinal bypass surgery (6%). Studies in alcoholic hepatitis strongly...... suggest a hit-and-run effect of alcohol, whereas other chronic liver diseases show evidence of gradual increase in prevalence of Mallory bodies with severity of hepatic pathology. Mallory bodies in cirrhosis do not imply alcoholic pathogenesis. Obesity, however, is associated with alcoholism and diabetes......, and Mallory bodies are only present in diabetic patients if alcoholism or obesity complicates the condition. In addition, case studies on diseases in which Mallory bodies have been identified, along with pharmacological side effects and experimental induction of Mallory bodies by various antimitotic...

  3. A window of vulnerability: impaired fear extinction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D; Den, Miriam L; Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2014-09-01

    There have been significant advances made towards understanding the processes mediating extinction of learned fear. However, despite being of clear theoretical and clinical significance, very few studies have examined fear extinction in adolescence, which is often described as a developmental window of vulnerability to psychological disorders. This paper reviews the relatively small body of research examining fear extinction in adolescence. A prominent finding of this work is that adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction relative to both younger (e.g., juvenile) and older (e.g., adult) groups. We then review some potential mechanisms that could produce the striking extinction deficit observed in adolescence. For example, one neurobiological candidate mechanism for impaired extinction in adolescence involves changes in the functional connectivity within the fear extinction circuit, particularly between prefrontal cortical regions and the amygdala. In addition, we review research on emotion regulation and attention processes that suggests that developmental changes in attention bias to threatening cues may be a cognitive mechanism that mediates age-related differences in extinction learning. We also examine how a differential reaction to chronic stress in adolescence impacts upon extinction retention during adolescence as well as in later life. Finally, we consider the findings of several studies illustrating promising approaches that overcome the typically-observed extinction impairments in adolescent rodents and that could be translated to human adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Musical tasks targeting preserved and impaired functions in two dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrea R; Golden, Hannah L; Magdalinou, Nadia; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Warren, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Studies of musical abilities in dementia have for the most part been rather general assessments of abilities, for instance, assessing retention of music learned premorbidly. Here, we studied patients with dementias with contrasting cognitive profiles to explore specific aspects of music cognition under challenge. Patients suffered from Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which a primary impairment is in forming new declarative memories, or Lewy body disease (PD/LBD), a type of parkinsonism in which executive impairments are prominent. In the AD patients, we examined musical imagery. Behavioral and neural evidence confirms involvement of perceptual networks in imagery, and these are relatively spared in early stages of the illness. Thus, we expected patients to have relatively intact imagery in a mental pitch comparison task. For the LBD patients, we tested whether executive dysfunction would extend to music. We probed inhibitory skills by asking for a speeded pitch or timbre judgment when the irrelevant dimension was held constant or also changed. Preliminary results show that AD patients score similarly to controls in the imagery tasks, but PD/LBD patients are impaired relative to controls in suppressing some irrelevant musical dimensions, particularly when the required judgment varies from trial to trial. © 2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  6. Volleyball training of people with hearing impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Poluhová, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Title: Volleyball training of people with hearing impairments. This thesis describes and characterizes volleyball training of people with hearing impairments. Options for active sports life of people with hearing impairments in the Czech Republic are under the umbrella of Association of the Deaf athletes. Sensory disability does not limit players in physicalperformance,howeverrenders a number of specific needs that must be respected during a training unit. The aim of this thesis is to describ...

  7. Impaired mitochondrial trafficking in Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Jiang; Orr, Adam L.; Li, Shihua

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Impaired mitochondrial function has been well documented in Huntington?s disease. Mutant huntingtin is found to affect mitochondria via various mechanisms including the dysregulation of gene transcription and impairment of mitochondrial function or trafficking. The lengthy and highly branched neuronal processes constitute complex neural networks in which there is a large demand for mitochondria-generated energy. Thus, the impaired mitochondria trafficking in neuronal cells...

  8. The body as art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D J; Barker, M J

    2002-07-01

    For millennia people have altered the appearance of their bodies with cosmetics, jewellery, tattoos, piercings, and other surgical procedures. It would appear that they wish to conform to a perceived 'ideal body', although the actual appearance of such a body is subject to temporal, cultural and geographical change. In contemporary society the media are largely responsible for providing the yardsticks against which individual body shape is measured. Today the desired form is generally young, slim, tanned and blemish-free. Sadly, dissatisfaction with body image can be the source of great unhappiness and may even lead to suicide. Interested scholars have debated the meaning of beauty for centuries but it seems that every human society has its own standards. At the simplest it would appear that youth and symmetry are the most highly prized ingredients. There is no doubt that those who fit the conventional standards of attractiveness are treated better by society. Individuals have an inalienable right to their own body appearance, and to alter it as they see fit, however such modifications may not always be in their own best interests. Practitioners of cosmetic procedures must be alert to clients with histories of weight fluctuation, unrealistic body image, or low self-esteem. Psychological disorders may present with dysmorphophobic symptoms. Doctors providing cosmetic services need to be adept at diagnosing psychological illness.

  9. Minding the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.

  10. Living Alone With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Allison K; Richardson, Virginia E

    2017-02-01

    Although most individuals experiencing cognitive impairment (CI) reside with a caregiver, an estimated 800,000 live alone. Such individuals may have an increased risk for injury to self or others through self-neglect as a result of the CI symptoms. While persons living alone with CI have been identified as an important area for needed research, few studies have been able to examine this population due to the challenges of identifying and recruiting study participants. By using the National Health & Aging Trends Study data set, the researchers explored the characteristics to describe this population. The results of this study indicated that the majority of persons living with CI were older, widowed females who were not diagnosed with Alzheimer's or dementia but tested positive on cognitive screening measures. Further, the majority of persons living alone with CI relied on adult children and paid professionals as the primary care providers.

  11. Cognitive impairment in Wilson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Anizio Ferreira Frota

    Full Text Available Abstract Wilson's disease (WD or hepatolenticular degeneration is a rare, genetic and systemic disease, caused by a deficit in the metabolism of copper, leading to its accumulation in different organs, mainly the liver, followed by the central nervous system, especially the basal ganglia. When symptoms begin between the second and third decades of life, approximately 50% of the patients show neurological symptoms. Although dystonia and dysarthria are the most common neurological signs, cognitive changes have been reported since the first cases were described in 1912. Memory change is one of the most common impairments, but other cognitive changes have been reported, including dementia in untreated cases. In this article we review the cognitive changes in WD patients and the occurrence of dementia.

  12. Language impairment in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azambuja, Mariana Jardim; Radanovic, Marcia; Haddad, Mônica Santoro; Adda, Carla Cristina; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2012-06-01

    Language alterations in Huntington's disease (HD) are reported, but their nature and correlation with other cognitive impairments are still under investigation. This study aimed to characterize the language disturbances in HD and to correlate them to motor and cognitive aspects of the disease. We studied 23 HD patients and 23 controls, matched for age and schooling, using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, the Token Test, Animal fluency, Action fluency, FAS-COWA, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Test and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT). HD patients performed poorer in verbal fluency (poral comprehension (preading comprehension (p=0.034) and narrative writing (p<0.0001). There was a moderate correlation between the Expressive Component and Language Competency Indexes and the HVOT (r=0.519, p=0.011 and r=0.450, p=0.031, respectively). Language alterations in HD seem to reflect a derangement in both frontostriatal and frontotemporal regions.

  13. Cognitive impairment and mortality among nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Nybo, Hanne; Gaist, David;

    2002-01-01

    the impact of cognitive impairment on mortality over a 2-year period. No cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 24-30 points on the Mini Mental State Examination, mild cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 18-23 points, and severe impairment was defined as a score of 0-17 points. Cox...... regression analysis was applied to adjust for a number of known and suspected factors known or suspected of being associated with cognition and mortality (e.g. sociodemographic factors, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and physical abilities), and yielded hazard ratios (95% confidence...

  14. Management of impaired fracture healing: Historical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Establishing continuity of long bones in cases of impaired bone healing and pseudo-arthrosis is one of the most complex problems in orthopedics. Impaired bone healing The problem of impaired fracture healing is not new. As in other areas of human life, the roots of modern treatment of impaired bone healing lie in ancient medicine. A relatively high percentage of impaired bone healing, as well as unsatisfactory results of standard therapies of impaired bone healing and pseudoarthrosis demonstrate the actuality of this problem. This paper represents an attempt to pay respect to some of those who have dedicated their work to this problem in orthopedic surgery, and it is a historical review on impaired bone fracture healing. At the same time it should be an additional stimulus and challenge for orthopedic surgeons to further study impaired bone fracture healing, improve the existing and find new methods for their adequate treatment. Conclusion The authors are certain that the number of researchers throughout the world who have contributed to treatment modalities of impaired bone healing, is much higher, but not all are mentioned in this paper. However, it does not lessen their contributions to orthopedics.

  15. The Differences Between Revaluation and Assets Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBIȚAN Nicolae

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Impairment and revaluation are terms closely related to one another, with subtle differences. Revaluation and impairment both require the company to evaluate the assets for their fair value, and then take appropriate action in updating the accounting books. The major difference between the two is that a revaluation can be made upwards (to increase the value of the asset to market value or downwards (to ecrease the value. An impairment, on the other hand, only refers to one of the two, a fall in the market value which is then written down. The purpose of the paper is to establish what are the differences between revaluation and impairment of assets.

  16. Impaired mitochondrial functions in organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Anwar; Kiran, Ravi; Sandhir, Rajat

    2009-12-01

    Acute exposure to organophosphates induces a delayed neurodegenerative condition known as organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). The mechanism of OPIDN has not been fully understood as it does not involve cholinergic crisis. The present study has been designed to evaluate the role of mitochondrial dysfunctions in the development of OPIDN. OPIDN was induced in rats by administering acute dose of monocrotophos (MCP, 20 mg/kg body weight, orally) or dichlorvos (DDVP, 200 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously), 15-20 min after treatment with antidotes [atropine (20 mg/kg body weight) and 2-PAM (100 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally]. MDA levels were observed to be higher and thiol content was lower in mitochondria from brain regions of OP exposed animals. This was accompanied by decreased activities of the mitochondrial enzymes; NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome oxidase. In addition, mitochondrial functions assessed by MTT reduction also confirmed mitochondrial dysfunctions following development of OPIDN. The spatial long-term memory evaluated using elevated plus-maze test was observed to be deficit in OPIDN. The results suggest impaired mitochondrial functions as a mechanism involved in the development of organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy.

  17. Cortical Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. G. Gibb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In cortical Lewy body dementia the distribution of Lewy bodies in the nervous system follows that of Parkinson's disease, except for their greater profusion in the cerebral cortex. The cortical tangles and plaques of Alzheimer pathology are often present, the likely explanation being that Alzheimer pathology provokes dementia in many patients. Pure cortical Lewy body dementia without Alzheimer pathology is uncommon. The age of onset reflects that of Parkinson's disease, and clinical features, though not diagnostic, include aphasias, apraxias, agnosias, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations. Parkinsonism may present before or after the dementia, and survival duration is approximately half that seen in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

  18. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...... management. In this article, diagnostic criteria combined with imaging and other biomarkers as well as current treatment recommendations are summarized, and some of the challenges for the future are outlined. Refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis are required in search for disease...

  19. Materiality, Practice and Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between human and technology, the relationship must be emphasized as a triangulation between materiality, body and practice. By introducing play situations from a just finished empirical study in three bigger cities in Denmark, this paper will address...... the interplay from the human‟s point of view, as a body doing a certain practice, which is constantly produced by taking approaches which comes from phenomenology and practice theory. We introduce aspects of play understood as a dynamic between materiality, body and practice with the goal of inspiring not only...

  20. Few-body physics

    OpenAIRE

    Briceño, Raúl A.

    2014-01-01

    Few-body hadronic observables play an essential role in a wide number of processes relevant for both particle and nuclear physics. In order for Lattice QCD to offer insight into the interpretation of few-body states, a theoretical infrastructure must be developed to map Euclidean-time correlation functions to the desired Minkowski-time few-body observables. In this talk, I review the formal challenges associated with the studies of such systems via Lattice QCD, as first introduced by Maiani a...

  1. Body, time and transfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Cabañas Osorio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Following exposure has as premise; make an x-ray of the time within the human body. An analysis of ways of time and pace inhabit and structured the body as subject and creative act processes that we as a synthesis of organic, cosmic and synthetic elements. Thus the trial proposed highlight corporeity as a time in relation to the imaginary and their creative powers that interaction and change, appear in be like Transfiguration of natural to the figurative principle structure. Here the title of exposure: time, body and transfiguration

  2. DatSCAN In Differential Diagnostics of Lewy Body Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzny, Jan; Ivanova, Katerina

    2016-06-01

    Differential diagnosis between Lewy body disease and Alzheimer´s disease might be difficult because of similarities of clinical symptoms in both neurodegenerative diseases. DatSCAN is a modern functional neuroimmaging method which differentiates between this similar diseases and helps in correct treatment strategy. We report our positive experience with DatSCAN in differentiating Lewy body disease from Alzheimer´s disease. This is a case report of a woman with Lewy body disease, initially diagnosed as Alzheimer´s disease. DatSCAN neuroimmaging method was used in differential diagnosis of dementia. Memory impairment, impaired activities of daily living, sleep and behavioral disturbances were present in our case. Donepezil was well tolerated, but haloperidol administration was followed by development of severe dystonia. DatSCAN showed deficient dopaminergic presynaptic transport in substantia nigra and striatum. This finding is typical for Lewy body disease not for Alzheimer´s disease. DatSCAN neuroimmaging is a suitable method for differentiating Lewy body disease from Alzheimer´s disease. Deficient dopaminergic presynaptic transport in substantia nigra and striatum is typical for Lewy body disease.

  3. Social skills assessment of children and adolescents with visual impairment: identifying relevant skills to improve quality of social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballo, Cristina; Verdugo, Miguel Angel

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to study the influence of visual impairment on the quality of participation in social relationships with peers. Analysis indicated that the presence of visual impairment is a significant predictor of the quality of participation in one-to-one and larger group interactions. Nevertheless, there are specific social skills like verbal skills, body language, play skills, cooperation skills, and expression and recognition of emotions skills which contribute more to the quality of social interactions among children.

  4. Impaired endothelial function in lone atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Impaired endothelial function has been previously documented in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF and underlying comorbidities or older patients with idiopathic AF. The aim of this study was to evaluate systemic endothelial function in younger AF patients (less than 7 days lone AF. The second group comprised of 28 healthy controls in sinus rhythm (the mean age 43 ± 13, 53% male, matched by age, gender and atherosclerotic risk factors. All the participants underwent physical examination, laboratory analysis [including determination of C-reactive protein (CRP], standard echocardiography and exercise-stress testing. Brachial artery FMD and endothelium independent dilation (NMD were assessed with a high-resolution ultrasound probe and arterial diameters taken from 5 consecutive cardiac cycles were averaged for each measurement to accommodate to beat-to-beat flow variations in AF. Results. There were no differences between the 2 groups regarding age, gender and most clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic characteristics (all p > 0.05, apart from the increased heart rate (p = 0.018, body mass index (p = 0.027, CRP levels (p = 0.007 and left atrial anteroposterior dimension (p 0.05. In the multivariate analysis, the independent FMD determinants in our study population were the presence of AF, smoking and total cholesterol levels (all p < 0.001. In patients with AF, the strongest independent FMD determinant was arrhythmia duration (p < 0.001, followed by smoking (p = 0.013 and total cholesterol levels (p = 0.045. Conclusions. Our findings confirm that sustained AF is associated with systemic endothelial dysfunction even in relatively young patients with no cardiovascular disorders or risk factors. AF is an independent contributor to lower FMD and a prolonged arrhythmia duration may confer the risk for more profound endothelial damage.

  5. Impaired atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated lipolysis in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, M; Bäckdahl, J; Petrus, P; Thorell, A; Gao, H; Coue, M; Langin, D; Moro, C; Arner, P

    2016-04-01

    Catecholamines and natriuretic peptides (NPs) are the only hormones with pronounced lipolytic effects in human white adipose tissue. Although catecholamine-induced lipolysis is well known to be impaired in obesity and insulin resistance, it is not known whether the effect of NPs is also altered. Catecholamine- and atrial NP (ANP)-induced lipolysis was investigated in abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes in vitro and in situ by microdialysis. In a cohort of 122 women, both catecholamine- and ANP-induced lipolysis in vitro was markedly attenuated in obesity (n=87), but normalized after substantial body weight loss (n=52). The impairment of lipolysis differed between the two hormones when expressing lipolysis per lipid weight, the ratio of stimulated over basal (spontaneous) lipolysis rate or per number of adipocytes. Thus, while the response to catecholamines was lower when expressed as the former two measures, it was higher when expressed per cell number, a consequence of the significantly larger fat cell size in obesity. In contrast, although ANP-induced lipolysis was also attenuated when expressed per lipid weight or the ratio stimulated/basal, it was similar between non-obese and obese subjects when expressed per cell number suggesting that the lipolytic effect of ANP may be even more sensitive to the effects of obesity than catecholamines. Obesity was characterized by a decrease in the protein expression of the signaling NP A receptor (NPRA) and a trend toward increased levels of the clearance receptor NPRC. The impairment in ANP-induced lipolysis observed in vitro was corroborated by microdialysis experiments in situ in a smaller cohort of lean and overweight men. ANP- and catecholamine-induced lipolysis is reversibly attenuated in obesity. The pro-lipolytic effects of ANP are relatively more impaired compared with that of catecholamines, which may in part be due to specific changes in NP receptor expression.

  6. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  7. Clean Water Act 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters and their Causes of Impairment from All Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Waters identified as impaired as well as their associated causes of impairment from all approved Clean Water Act 303(d) lists submitted by the states. Includes all...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... for the procedure. You may or may not remain awake, depending on how deeply you are sedated. ...

  10. Foreign Body Extraction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are common. Mostly they are swallowed accidentally by children but also by adults. When round and slippery, foreign bodies cause a technical problem for removal. After several days in the stomach they are covered with mucus and extraction becomes even harder. There are various devices designed for use through the flexible endoscope for grasping foreign bodies but due to the great variety of objects, one may face a real problem while trying to remove them. We faced a challenge in a woman who underwent vertical band gastroplasty and was obstructed by a round and slippery hazelnut. We managed to remove the nut using a simple homemade device. This device is easy to make, cheap, and simple to use and maybe useful for various foreign bodies.

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to numb your throat. This eliminates the gag reflex and enables the physician to perform the examination ... chances of suffering an infection or an allergic reaction. Prompt removal of the foreign body will ensure ...

  12. Body Mole Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6 AAD Examine body front and back in mirror, especially legs. Bend elbows, look carefully at forearms, ... back of neck and scalp with a hand mirror. Part hair and lift. Finally, check back and ...

  13. Multiple foreign body granulomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panvelkar V

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of multiple foreign body granulomas occurring after mine-blast injury in a soldier is reported. Systemic steroids with antibiotics given essentially for eczematoid dermatitis produced good clinical improvement with marked resolution of granulomas.

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... relative or friend accompany you and drive you home afterward. Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in ...

  15. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stronger as the body’s need for water increases, motivating a person to drink the needed fluids. When ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge The body has two adrenal glands, one near ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common ... introduced with gentle pressure as the patient swallows. Air is blown into the esophagus for improved visualization, ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the ... skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body structure ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x-rays will not pass through them, ... of cases. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? You will feel ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into ... patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body ...

  2. [Dementia and Lewy bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, D

    Consensus diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) proposed in 1996 have provided a useful foundation for research in the field. As a clinicopathologically defined entity, DLB has overlapping features of both Alzheimer s disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Consensus criteria for DLB distinguish it from PD dementia by the earlier appearance of motor signs in the latter. Studies evaluating the standardized clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB have generally found them to be highly predictive of Lewy body pathology. However, many cases with Lewy body pathology and concomitant pathological features of AD elude clinical detection. Emerging data suggests that AD pathological features mask the clinical expression of concomitant Lewy body pathology, and that DLB and PD dementia may be more similar than distinct.

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become lodged in the esophagus and cause pain, even though they are able to swallow. Larger ... the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and damage to surrounding tissues. top of page What are ... will reduce chances of an infection that could damage tissue, nerves and blood vessels, block blood flow ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination consists of a radiographic table, one or two x-ray tubes and a television-like monitor ... to orient foreign bodies with the use of two snares. The catheter is guided into place just ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including ... Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x-rays will not pass ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  15. Unusual orbital foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained intraorbital organic foreign bodies, particularly wooden, are commonly encountered in ophthalmologic practice. We treated two children who had sustained such injury while playing. They presented to us with non-healing sinus with purulent discharge. In one of the patients, X-rays and CT scan helped to clinch the diagnosis, whereas in the other patient diagnosis was possible by correlating history with clinical findings. Surgical exploration in both patients helped us to remove the foreign bodies. Surprisingly, both the foreign bodies were 7 cm long wooden pieces. We, however, caution that management of such cases should be conservative and that surgical exploration be done only in case of complication. From our experience, we recommend proper localisation by all possible means, blunt dissection, careful haemostasis coupled with excellent lighting and exposure in the atraumatic removal of intraorbital foreign bodies.

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the soft tissues. Commonly swallowed objects include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys ... of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries ...

  17. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities include running, swimming, jumping rope, or soccer. Exercise is good for your mind and your body. Staying active relieves stress, helps you sleep better, and can help ease depression and anxiety. Should I go on a diet? Many teenage ...

  18. [Towards the bionic body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, Bernard

    2011-06-01

    Global technological progress is enabling people to see their mutilated bodies assisted by sophisticated prostheses. Multi-disciplinary and associative care help patients relearn daily living activities and accomplish various exploits.

  19. Body temperature norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison SF. Regulation of body temperature. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 59. Sajadi MM, Mackowiak PA. Temperature regulation and the pathogenesis of fever. In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... objects from the esophagus. Open surgery You may need surgical intervention in cases of perforation or abscess ...

  1. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promoting scientific advances. Featured LBD Stories & Tributes Dad's Dementia Journey It's been years since my father passed ... I received an email from the Lewy Body Dementia Association about a benefit... Read Story The Lewy ...

  2. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  3. Body image in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Böserová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The Master's Thesis deals with the marketing research of the body image meaning in female and male life style magazines chosen. The main aim is to analyze the advertisement using the quantitative content analysis and to identify the most common elements presented, furthermore to analyse these elements based on the data obtained and to find out the difference of human body presented when female and male are the target groups. The secondary aim is defined as to prepare this analysis for the fro...

  4. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  5. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  6. Environmental Interpretation for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper concerns itself with the art of environmental interpretation and addresses its application specifically to the visually impaired, considering the adaptations and alterations available which will make the environmental interpretation a beneficial and meaningful experience for the visually impaired. (Author)

  7. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot o

  8. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Torres-Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  9. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  10. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to

  11. Recess for Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    During recess, the participation of a student with visual impairments in terms of movement can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and general education teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with visual impairments and present basic solutions to improve the participation of these students in the…

  12. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  13. Caregivers of older adults with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Erin L; McGuire, Lisa C; Andresen, Elena M; Brumback, Babette A; Anderson, Lynda A

    2009-04-01

    Because of the growing number of caregivers and the awareness of related health and quality-of-life issues, caregiving has emerged as an important public health issue. We examined the characteristics and caregiving experiences of caregivers of people with and without cognitive impairment. Participants (n = 668) were adults who responded to the 2005 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Caregivers were people who provided regular care to a family member or friend aged 60 years or older either with or without cognitive impairment (ie, memory loss, confusion, or Alzheimer's disease). Demographic characteristics of caregivers of people with cognitive impairment were similar to those of caregivers of people without cognitive impairment. However, compared with caregivers of people without cognitive impairment, caregivers of people with cognitive impairment reported higher levels of disability, were more likely to be paid, and provided care for a longer duration. Care recipients with cognitive impairment were more likely than care recipients without cognitive impairment to be older, have dementia or confusion, and need assistance with memory and learning. State-level caregiving surveillance is vital in assessing and responding to the needs of the growing number of caregivers.

  14. Affective Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)

  15. Psychosocial development among adolescents with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurre, T M; Aro, H M

    1998-06-01

    The psychosocial development of adolescents with visual impairment was studied in a group of 54 adolescents (40 boys, 14 girls) attending Finnish regular schools. Mean age was 14.0 (SD 0.87). The control group consisted of normally sighted adolescents of the same age level (N=385, 172 boys, 213 girls). Data were collected with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the adolescent group with visual impairment did not differ from the control group in the frequency of depression, distress symptoms or in their relations with parents and siblings. Adolescents with visual impairment less often had many friends and dates with other young people than those without visual impairment. They also reported more often feelings of loneliness and difficulties in making friends. Self-esteem, school achievement and social skills were lower in girls with visual impairment than in the control girls. In summary, our results showed that the psychosocial developmental outcomes of many adolescents with visual impairment were similar to their peers without visual impairment. However, some adolescents with visual impairment, especially girls, need more support in their psychosocial development.

  16. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functional impairment. 4... RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.10 Functional impairment. The basis of disability... addition to the etiological, anatomical, pathological, laboratory and prognostic data required for...

  17. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  18. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.; Kryukova, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged ...

  19. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  20. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  1. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  2. Conceptual skills in persons with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual skills enable the development of abilities necessary for controlling certain aspects of life. They include communication skills, functional literacy, and self-direction skills. The aim of this paper was to determine the acquisition of conceptual skills in persons with visual impairment. The research was conducted on a sample of 127 persons with visual impairment, 19-60 years of age. Conceptual Skills Domain of Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II (ABAS-II was used to obtain data on the acquisition of conceptual skills. It was determined that age (p=0.001 and the category of visual impairment (blindness and low vision (p=0.000 were significant factors for the acquisition of conceptual skills in persons with visual impairment. On the other hand, time when vision loss occurred was not a significant factor for acquiring conceptual skills in persons with visual impairment (p=0.195.

  3. Visual impairment and falls: a register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källstrand-Ericson, Jeanette; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this register study was to investigate falls and fall injuries of inpatients 65 years and over to determine whether a causal factor of visual impairment was documented. All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have an increasing older population with falls and fall injuries becoming a major problem. A visual impairment can be an independent risk factor for falls but can also occur in combination with other intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. A retrospective non-randomised register study. In 2004, all documented falls of inpatients aged 65 years and over were examined. Medical records and eye clinic records were scrutinised to identify whether any visual impairment have been documented. The majority of falls occurred between the hours of 24:00-06:00 and the inpatients most often affected were those with a visual impairment. The falls occurred in connection with movement when the inpatient was unaccompanied. Documentation in records at the medical clinic was defective and subjectively perceived visual impairment was not documented at all. Both subjective and objective visual impairment occurred in all eye clinic records. Visual impairment along with the ageing process are features affecting falls and the hospital environment needs to be adapted by improving the use of strong, contrasting colours and providing good lighting for older inpatients with visual impairment during the night time period. Hospital safety for older people with visual impairment is a concern if falls are to be reduced. Healthcare professionals need to undertake individual risk assessments to establish the degree of visual impairment of the older person so that appropriate interventions can be implemented to reduce the incidence of falls and fall injuries.

  4. Surdez infantil Childhood hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A Surdez Infantil é considerada actualmente um verdadeiro problema de Saúde Pública devido não só à sua elevada prevalência, mas sobretudo às múltiplas conseqüências que acarreta sob os mais variados prismas. Trata-se de um tema em constante evolução, sendo necessárias freqüentes actualizações por forma a acompanhar os avanços da técnica e do conhecimento. Este trabalho visa abordar de uma forma global mas sucinta o problema Surdez Infantil, dando particular ênfase aos Modelos de Rastreio e aos Métodos utilizados com esse fim.Childhood Hearing Impairment is nowadays considered as a Health Care matter due to its high prevalence and to its multiple consequences. As a developing subject, frequent updates are justified to keep up with the evolution of techniques and knowledge. This paper aims to discuss the matter from a global point of view, paying particular attention to the Screening Models and Instruments available.

  5. Language impairment in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Language alterations in Huntington's disease (HD are reported, but their nature and correlation with other cognitive impairments are still under investigation. This study aimed to characterize the language disturbances in HD and to correlate them to motor and cognitive aspects of the disease. We studied 23 HD patients and 23 controls, matched for age and schooling, using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, the Token Test, Animal fluency, Action fluency, FAS-COWA, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Test and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT. HD patients performed poorer in verbal fluency (p<0.0001, oral comprehension (p<0.0001, repetition (p<0.0001, oral agility (p<0.0001, reading comprehension (p=0.034 and narrative writing (p<0.0001. There was a moderate correlation between the Expressive Component and Language Competency Indexes and the HVOT (r=0.519, p=0.011 and r=0.450, p=0.031, respectively. Language alterations in HD seem to reflect a derangement in both frontostriatal and frontotemporal regions.

  6. Defective PDI release from platelets and endothelial cells impairs thrombus formation in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Anish; Kim, Sarah H; Jasuja, Reema; Gopal, Srila; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Furie, Barbara C; Furie, Bruce

    2015-03-05

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), secreted from platelets and endothelial cells after injury, is required for thrombus formation. The effect of platelet and endothelial cell granule contents on PDI-mediated thrombus formation was studied by intravital microscopy using a mouse model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome in which platelet dense granules are absent. Platelet deposition and fibrin generation were nearly absent, and extracellular PDI was significantly reduced in HPS6(-/-) mice after vascular injury. HPS6(-/-) platelets displayed impaired PDI secretion and impaired exocytosis of α granules, lysosomes, and T granules due to decreased sensitivity to thrombin, but these defects could be corrected by addition of subthreshold amounts of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP). Human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome platelets demonstrated similar characteristics. Infusion of wild-type platelets rescued thrombus formation in HPS6(-/-) mice. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in which the HPS6 gene was silenced displayed impaired PDI secretion and exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies. Defective thrombus formation in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, associated with impaired exocytosis of residual granules in endothelial cells and platelets, the latter due to deficiency of ADP, is characterized by a defect in T granule secretion, a deficiency in extracellular PDI secretion, and impaired fibrin generation and platelet aggregation. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is an example of a hereditary disease whereby impaired PDI secretion contributes to a bleeding phenotype.

  7. Body Building on Diamonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P. Sommer; Dan Zhu; Tim Scharnweber; Hans-Joerg Fecht

    2009-01-01

    Whereas conservative therapies aim to stall the advance of disease, regenerative medicine strives to reverse it. The capacity of most tissues to regenerate derives from stem cells, but there are a number of barriers which have to be circumvented before it will be possible to use stem-cell-based therapies. Such therapies, however, are expected to improve human health enormously,and knowledge gained from studying stem cells in culture and in model organisms is now laying the groundwork for a new era of regenerative medicine. One of the most prominent methods to study stem cell differentiation is to let them to form embryoid bodies. Under favourable conditions any stem cell line will form embryoid bodies. However, the mechanism of the formation of embryoid bodies is not very well understood, and to produce them in the laboratory is in no way trivial - an important technical barrier in stem cell research. Recently, the embryoid body cultivation step has been successfully circumvented for the derivation of osteogenic cultures of embryonic stem cells. Here we report on a simple and reusable system to cultivate embryoid bodies in extremely short times. The method is inspired by the principles that lead to the establishment of the biomimetic triangle.

  8. AN UNUSUAL FOREIGN BODY IN THE NOSE: DIFFICULTY IN DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the nose are usually found in children between 2 - 5years of age, the intellectually impaired and psychiatric patients . (1 When mineral salts are deposited on a long retained foreign body, the object is called a rhinolith. Common objects p ushed in to the nose are paper, beads, beans, seeds, nuts and button batteries. Nasal foreign bodies can sometimes be removed in the OPD with a nasal speculum and Hartmann nasal forceps, usually general anesthesia is necessary if the foreign body placed mo re deeply in the nasal cavity or if a rhinolith has formed. Here we are presenting a case of open safety pin in the (R nasal cavity with difficulty in diagnosis, removed by endoscopic approach.

  9. Internal model of gravity influences configural body processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Julien; Senot, Patrice; Auclair, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Human bodies are processed by a configural processing mechanism. Evidence supporting this claim is the body inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of bodies more than other objects. Biomechanical configuration, as well as both visual and embodied expertise, has been demonstrated to play an important role in this effect. Nevertheless, the important factor of body inversion effect may also be linked to gravity orientation since gravity is one of the most fundamental constraints of our biology, behavior, and perception on Earth. The visual presentation of an inverted body in a typical body inversion paradigm turns the observed body upside down but also inverts the implicit direction of visual gravity in the scene. The orientation of visual gravity is then in conflict with the direction of actual gravity and may influence configural processing. To test this hypothesis, we dissociated the orientations of the body and of visual gravity by manipulating body posture. In a pretest we showed that it was possible to turn an avatar upside down (inversion relative to retinal coordinates) without inverting the orientation of visual gravity when the avatar stands on his/her hands. We compared the inversion effect in typical conditions (with gravity conflict when the avatar is upside down) to the inversion effect in conditions with no conflict between visual and physical gravity. The results of our experiment revealed that the inversion effect, as measured by both error rate and reaction time, was strongly reduced when there was no gravity conflict. Our results suggest that when an observed body is upside down (inversion relative to participants' retinal coordinates) but the orientation of visual gravity is not, configural processing of bodies might still be possible. In this paper, we discuss the implications of an internal model of gravity in the configural processing of observed bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Medicine's Life Inside the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page A Medicine's Life Inside the Body By Alison Davis Posted ... field that studies how the body reacts to medicines and how medicines affect the body. Scientists funded ...

  11. COPD and cognitive impairment: the role of hypoxemia and oxygen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Thakur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neeta Thakur1, Paul D Blanc2, Laura J Julian1, Edward H Yelin3, Patricia P Katz3, Stephen Sidney4, Carlos Iribarren4, Mark D Eisner1,21Department of Medicine, 2Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 3Institute for Health Policy Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA, 4Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA, USABackground: Several studies have shown an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cognitive impairment. These studies have been limited by methodological issues such as diagnostic uncertainty, cross-sectional design, small sample size, or lack of appropriate referent group. This study aimed to elucidate the association between COPD and the risk of cognitive impairment compared to referent subjects without COPD. In patients with established COPD, we evaluated the impact of disease severity and impairment of respiratory physiology on cognitive impairment and the potential mitigating role of oxygen therapy.Methods: We used the Function, Living, Outcomes and Work (FLOW cohort study of adults with COPD (n = 1202 and referent subjects matched by age, sex, and race (n = 302 to study the potential risk factors for cognitive impairment among subjects with COPD. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Exam score of <24 points. Disease severity was using Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1; the validated COPD Severity Score; and the BMI (Body Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise Capacity (BODE Index. Multivariable analysis was used to control for confounding by age, sex, race, educational attainment, and cigarette smoking.Results: COPD was associated with a substantive risk of cognitive impairment compared to referent subjects (odds ratio [OR] 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.043–6.64. Among COPD patients, none of the COPD severity measures were associated with the

  12. Impaired mental rotation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and acute vestibular neuritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eCandidi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular processing is fundamental to our sense of orientation in space which is a core aspect of the representation of the self. Vestibular information is processed in a large subcortical-cortical neural network. Tasks requiring mental rotations of human bodies in space are known to activate neural regions within this network suggesting that vestibular processing is involved in the control of mental rotation. We studied whether mental rotation is impaired in patients suffering from two different forms of unilateral vestibular disorders (Vestibular Neuritis – VN- and Benign Paroxysmal positional Vertigo – BPPV with respect to healthy matched controls (C. We used two mental rotation tasks in which participants were required to: i mentally rotate their own body in space (egocentric rotation thus using vestibular processing to a large extent and ii mentally rotate human figures (allocentric rotation thus using own body representations to a smaller degree. Reaction times and accuracy of responses showed that VN and BPPV patients were impaired in both tasks with respect to C. Significantly, the pattern of results was similar in the three groups suggesting that patients were actually performing the mental rotation without using a different strategy from the control individuals. These results show that dysfunctional vestibular inflow impairs mental rotation of both own body and human figures suggesting that unilateral acute disorders of the peripheral vestibular input massively affect the cerebral processes underlying mental rotations.

  13. The resonant body transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Dana; Bhave, Sunil A

    2010-04-14

    This paper introduces the resonant body transistor (RBT), a silicon-based dielectrically transduced nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator embedding a sense transistor directly into the resonator body. Combining the benefits of FET sensing with the frequency scaling capabilities and high quality factors (Q) of internal dielectrically transduced bar resonators, the resonant body transistor achieves >10 GHz frequencies and can be integrated into a standard CMOS process for on-chip clock generation, high-Q microwave circuits, fundamental quantum-state preparation and observation, and high-sensitivity measurements. An 11.7 GHz bulk-mode RBT is demonstrated with a quality factor Q of 1830, marking the highest frequency acoustic resonance measured to date on a silicon wafer.

  14. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  15. Body searching for freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bortolás

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze how the previous council of class of the third bimester/ 2000 is accomplished, as well as to observe students’s resistance to the rules of Escola Estadual de 1º Grau Tancredo Neves – Santa Maria – RS. Although the school follows a pegagogical liberating proposal based on Paulo Freire’s view, the council of class still call their students well behaved and badly behaved during their disciplinary practices. In that scenary the body is viewed and treated through a ‘docility’ situation, through disciplinary techniques which are expressed by the performance and control of the body. This study points out to the need of reflexivity on body and the production of subjectivity behind school walls. It also promotes a closer relationship between both education and physical education within academic and school fields.

  16. Listening to the body?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Based on a single case study of a Danish elite golfer, this article focuses on describing the different ways in which the golfer experiences the physicality of her body during training. The aim of the article is to explore how phenomenological insights concerning self-consciousness can be used...... suggest that the golfer’s experience of the physicality of her body can be considered in relation to three possible dimensions of self-consciousness: a pre-reflective subject-related dimension, a reflective object-directed dimension and a pre-reflective performative dimension. The pre......’ of the moving body. From a methodological perspective, the analysis of the single case study also exemplifies how phenomenological insights might concretely influence the analysis of an actual practice and how the achieved understanding can be important to the further development of elite athletes’ expert...

  17. Body Temperature and Mood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬

    2007-01-01

    Body temperature can affect how happy or unhappy we are when we wake up in the morning.During a day,our body temperature rises and falls at regular times.Although we don’t notice the change,it does affect our sleeping patterns.We grow tired and,in the end,we sleep.As a result,anyone who has a fast-rising temperature cycle is a"morning person"and can get out of bed quickly.And an"evening person", on the other hand,has a body temperature that rises slowly.It doesn’t reach its high point until mid-afternoon,when this person feels best.

  18. Few-body physics

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A

    2014-01-01

    Few-body hadronic observables play an essential role in a wide number of processes relevant for both particle and nuclear physics. In order for Lattice QCD to offer insight into the interpretation of few-body states, a theoretical infrastructure must be developed to map Euclidean-time correlation functions to the desired Minkowski-time few-body observables. In this talk, I review the formal challenges associated with the studies of such systems via Lattice QCD, as first introduced by Maiani and Testa, and I also review the methodology to circumvent said limitations. The first main example of the latter is the formalism by Luscher to analyze elastic scattering and a second is the method by Lellouch and Luscher to analyze weak decays. I discus recent theoretical generalizations of these frameworks that allow for the determination of scattering amplitudes, resonances, nonlocal contribution to matrix elements, and form factors below and above inelastic thresholds. Finally, I outline outstanding problems, includin...

  19. [Polar body diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, M; van der Ven, K; van der Ven, H

    2009-01-01

    Polar body diagnosis (PBD) is a diagnostic method for the indirect genetic analysis of oocytes. Polar bodies are by-products of the meiotic cell cycle which have no influence on further embryo development. The biopsy of polar bodies can be accomplished either by zona drilling or laser drilling within a very short time period. The paternal contribution to the genetic constitution of the developing embryo cannot be diagnosed by PBD. The major application of PBD is the detection of maternally derived chromosomal aneuploidies and translocations in oocytes. For these indications, PBD may offer a viable alternative to blastomere biopsy as the embryo's integrity remains unaffected in contrast to preimplantation genetic diagnosis by blastomere biopsy. The fast development in the field of molecular diagnostics will also influence PBD and probably allow a more general diagnosis in the future.

  20. Evidence for a disturbance of the body schema in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslett, H B

    1998-08-01

    Subjects with left neglect often fail to use and, in some instances, recognize the left side of the body. We performed a series of investigations to determine if this deficit is, at least in part, attributable to an impairment in the "body schema," an internal three-dimensional, dynamic representation of the spatial and biomechanical properties of one's body. First, subjects were shown a series of pictures of a single hand and asked to determine if the stimulus was a right or left hand. Subjects with neglect but not other subjects with brain lesions identified pictures of left (contra-lesional) hands significantly less reliably than pictures of right hands. On the basis of evidence demonstrating that the identification of pictured hands involves the matching of the stimuli to an on-line mental representation of one's body, these data suggest that neglect may be associated with a disruption of, or failure to attend to, the body schema. Data from subsequent investigations contrasting patients with left neglect and Gerstmann's syndrome argue for a distinction between a body schema and a "body image," or conceptual representation of the body which articulates with language.

  1. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  2. Interest of active posturography to detect age-related and early Parkinson's disease-related impairments in mediolateral postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-11-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  3. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  4. The intersectional body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elg, Camilla; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2012-01-01

    from Merleau-Ponty’s thinking about human experience as always already being part of the physical world, and from the concept of mimesis which denotes that we are always as human beings spontaneously engaged with sociality, implying both the accumulation of practical sense and radical conditionality......-additive analyses might be managed as the body is by definition non-additive. 2, Considerations about fluidity and changeability might be refocused, as a central characteristic of the body is its intertia. 3, Thinking about power relations might be recast as attention is drawn to how power relations are embodied...

  5. EAS Telecommunications Certification Bodies (TCB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). A Telecommunication Certification Body (TCB) is an accredited product certification body with the authority to issue Grants of...

  6. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  7. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutashov V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify the degree of cognitive impairment (CN and to optimize the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Material and methods. A total of 695 patients (278 men and 417 women were ranged from 18 to 63 years. The mean age was 30.2±0.7 years: women (417 28.5±0.5 years, while for men (278 31.8±0.7 years. Relaps-ing-remitting type (RT of MS was established in 520 patients (74.8%, secondary progressive type (VPT MS in 132 patients (18.9% and primary progressive type (PPT MS in 10 patients (1.5%. Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS was detected in 33 patients (4.8%. The diagnosis of MS 662 patients according to the criteria McDonald etal. (2005. Score of neurologic deficit was carried out on an extended scale of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale — EDSS. CN were evaluated by conventional tests. To estimate the orientation in time, assessment of short-term and long-term memory, attention and concentration, as well as executive functions, memory, language, evaluation of optical-spatial activities, conceptual thinking, the account used by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA. For the screening of dementia with a primary lesion of the frontal lobes and subcortical cerebral structures used battery frontal test to assess frontal dysfunction. Results. The ratio of male (265 and female (397 was 1:1.5. The severity of the condition patients EDSS scale ranged from 1.5 to 8.0 points, and the average score was 3.5±1.2. In the group of patients with RT RS average score EDSS was more than a half (2.5±1.1, than in the group of patients with MS VAC (5.5±1.2 and POS PC (6.5±1.2. In the study of history, it was found that the development of the RS (662 patients was preceded by the following conditions: a viral infection in 277 patients (41.84%; fatigue in 147 patients (22.21%; transferred psycho-emotional load from 218 (32.93%; after pregnancy and childbirth in 20 patients (3.02%. Conclusion. Among the patients with MS

  8. Body mass change and ultraendurance performance: a decrease in body mass is associated with an increased running speed in male 100-km ultramarathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p Running speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p running speed (r = 0.33, p = 0.0182) and the change in body mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.0014) and significantly and negatively to both postrace serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.42, p = 0.0022) and the change in serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.38, p = 0.0072). This field study showed that recreational, male, 100-km ultramarathoners dehydrated as evidenced by the decrease in >2 % body mass and the increase in urine-specific gravity. Race performance, however, was not impaired because of the loss in body mass. In contrast, faster athletes lost more body mass compared with slower athletes while also drinking more. The concept that a loss of >2% in body mass leads to dehydration and consequently impairs endurance performance must be questioned for ultraendurance athletes competing in the field. For practical applications, a loss in body mass during a 100-km ultramarathon was associated with a faster running speed.

  9. Effect of chronic disease-related symptoms and impairments on universal health outcomes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Mary E; McAvay, Gail; Chang, Sandy S; Ning, Yuming; Newman, Anne B; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Fried, Terri R; Harris, Tamara B; Nevitt, Michael C; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine; Peduzzi, Peter

    2011-09-01

    To determine the extent to which disease-related symptoms and impairments, which constitute measures of disease severity or targets of therapy, account for the associations between chronic diseases and universal health outcomes. Cross-sectional. The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (Health ABC). Five thousand six hundred fifty-four CHS members and 2,706 Health ABC members. Diseases included heart failure (HF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), osteoarthritis, and cognitive impairment. The universal health outcomes included self-rated health, basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs), and death. Disease-related symptoms and impairments included HF symptoms and ejection fraction (EF) for HF, Dyspnea Scale and forced expiratory volume in 1 second for COPD, joint pain for osteoarthritis, and executive function for cognitive impairment. The diseases were associated with the universal health outcomes (P<.001) except osteoarthritis with death (both cohorts) and cognitive impairment with self-rated health (Health ABC). Symptoms and impairments accounted for 30% or more of each disease's effect on the universal health outcomes. In CHS, for example, HF was associated with one fewer (0.918) ADL and IADL performed without difficulty than no HF; HF symptoms accounted for 27% of this effect and EF for only 5%. The hazard ratio for death with HF was 6.5 (95% confidence interval=4.7-8.9) with EF accounting for 40% and HF symptoms for only 14%. Disease-related symptoms and impairments accounted for much of the significant associations between the four chronic diseases and the universal health outcomes. Results support considering universal health outcomes as common metrics across diseases in clinical decision-making, perhaps by targeting the disease-related symptoms and impairments that contribute most strongly to the effect of the disease on the universal health outcomes. © 2011, Copyright the

  10. ANALYSIS OF EFFECT AND COMPLICATION ON SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CAROTID BODY TUMORS IN 46 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑月宏; 刘暴; 李拥军; 刘昌伟; 管珩

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To describe the effects of surgical treatment and complications in 46 patients with carotid body tumor (CBT). Method. Retrospective study on surgical treatment and complications was carried out in 46 cases of CBT which were surgically treated with different kind of procedures. Result. All procedures performed successfully except that the CBT was not excised in 4 cases. No operative mortality was observed. There were 2 postoperative hemiplegia, 4 hypoglossal nerve impairment,2 glossopharyngeal nerve impairment, 1 vagus nerve impairment, and 1 accessory nerve impairment. One patient presented postoperative cranial nerve impairment in glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerves. Two patients developed local recurrence during the long-term follow-up. Conclusion. Complete surgical excision was possible in each patient if the diagnosis had been correctly made through selective preoperative angiography, vessel ultrasound Doppler and other examinations.Reasonable surgical procedure and Matas training were necessary to the successful surgical treatment and thus decrease the complicative incidence rate of carotid chemodectomas.

  11. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Xiao-guang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD and a major influencing factor on patients' daily living ability. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a cognitive state between normal aging and dementia, and the living capability of MCI patients relatively remains. MCI often occurs in PD, with its clinical features presenting as the impairment in working memory and (or attention, executive function, language ability, memory and visuospatial function. Here we try to depict the general picture of PD-MCI from the view of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, imaging and diagnostic criteria.

  12. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  13. Body Motion and Graphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed two children's use of a computer-based motion detector to make sense of symbolic expressions (Cartesian graphs). Found three themes: (1) tool perspectives, efforts to understand graphical responses to body motion; (2) fusion, emergent ways of talking and behaving that merge symbols and referents; and (3) graphical spaces, when changing…

  14. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.

    2001-01-01

    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the particles.

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ... the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves into the body. As the sound ...

  16. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk¬group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body-image disord......Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk¬group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho......¬logical cognitions, emotions and behaviour concerning the body in males in general and, more speci?cally, in high-risk male groups, such as childcare residents....

  17. Adolescent Development: Body Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Alayne; Brodkin, Adele M.

    1994-01-01

    When early adolescents equate body image with self-image, they risk eating and exercise disorders, with dangerous results. Interviews with two experts present information to help middle school teachers understand the problem and intervene with students whose preoccupation with appearance or prowess can, taken to the extreme, be fatal. (SM)

  18. Marijuana and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight.

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  20. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a new treatment for hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease. Symptoms Differ in Alzheimer's when Lewy Bodies are Present June, 2015 - Lewy ... distinguish the underlying cause or causes of dementia symptoms. The diagnostic ... Alzheimer’s disease pathology alone versus those who have both ...

  1. Bodies at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    . are but a few examples of the many artifacts and devices museums work through in order to involve and engage the bodies of visitors. Yet this dense embodied choreography, this profound corporeality (Massumi 2014: 56) of the museum/heritage encounter, have been strangely absent from current museology...

  2. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies dif

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  4. Motion of isolated bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne [Academie des Sciences, 23 Quai de Conti, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Friedrich, Helmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2006-10-21

    It is shown that sufficiently smooth initial data for the Einstein-dust or the Einstein-Maxwell-dust equations with non-negative density of compact support develop into solutions representing isolated bodies in the sense that the matter field has spatially compact support and is embedded in an exterior vacuum solution.

  5. Motion of Isolated bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; Friedrich, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that sufficiently smooth initial data for the Einstein-dust or the Einstein-Maxwell-dust equations with non-negative density of compact support develop into solutions representing isolated bodies in the sense that the matter field has spatially compact support and is embedded in an exterior vacuum solution.

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  7. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may also be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras ... and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a patient's body after a CT ... side effects. Risks There is no conclusive evidence that radiation at ...

  8. Body and Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Johanne Stubbe

    -Ponty. By focusing on the eschatological challenge of the body through a thematization of the issue of continuity, the author constructively interprets the classic eschatological themes of death, resurrection, judgement and the Second Coming. She shows how the classic eschatological issues of the relationship...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foreign bodies. You might require stitches or other treatments to close the wound, and your caregiver may give you antibiotics if the wound has a high risk of infection. You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foreign bodies. You might require stitches or other treatments to close the wound, and your caregiver may give you antibiotics if the wound has a high risk of infection. You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depend on the type of foreign body and nature of the symptoms. You should inform your physician of any medications being taken and if there are any allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials . Also inform your doctor about recent illnesses or ...

  12. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body ... to locate and remove the object. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves into the body. As the sound waves bounce off internal organs, fluids and tissues, the sensitive receiver in the transducer records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature ...

  15. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  16. Dynamics of Deformable Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    and stability for fluid flows, (with S.-J. Chern), Geop. and Astro. Fluid Dyn. 51, 1-4. %The energy-momentum method, (with Simo), La " Mecanique ... Analytique " de Lagrange et son H ritage, Atti della Accademia delle Scienze di Torino 124, 245-268. %Stability of coupled rigid bodies and geometrically

  17. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2012-01-01

    in which body work features in medical, therapeutic, and care fields as well as in different sectors of work outside health and social care. The aim of such bodywork can be medical, therapeutic, pleasurable, aesthetic, erotic, hygienic, or symbolic. It encompasses a range of practitioners: surgeons...

  18. Biopower in the bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tejeda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the studies of biopolitics and biopower have risen significantly. It is an old issue, which is present in Greek philosophy and in its reality. It is the old argument of the relationship and the intrusion of politics in the life and the overcoming of the state of nature. The reality of biopolitics is reflected in the dimension that technology acquires and in the siege of the global powers against democracy. The human body as an external and visible entity resists all kinds of interventions and fastenings aimed at the individualization and establishment of a totalitarian reality. Tanatopolitics and Biopolitics are interlaced to manage life and death in a chilling reality where technique introduces the artifice beyond the natural. The human body as a borderline area between the natural and the artificial expresses the scopes of post-humanism. A more balanced physical culture could help to curb the widespread dehumanization, which reduces and degrades the body at the same time, while the powers submit, discriminate, and intervene in the more and more docile bodies.

  19. With body and soul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Nikolaj Ilsted

    2002-01-01

    Aktuel Naturvidenskab(4):34-36. 2002 Short description: ?Man, has by evolution, been equipped with different systems of learning. Children and adults alike have a head as well as a body and both parts can be stimulated,? writes Nikolaj Ilsted Bech and Theresa Schilhab in this article from...

  20. Body of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Susan W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores how a dance scholar's experience in dance is represented in her educational research. Discussion covers perceptions of art, body-mind dualities in schools and educational practice, the process and products of research and choreography, and crafting the choreography of research. (JB)

  1. Understanding Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielski, Lester M.

    1979-01-01

    The article details the significance of nonverbal communication or body language for the counselor in interview situations. It gives background material of the research done in the area of nonverbal communication, and quotes extensively from the leaders in the field. (Author)

  2. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  3. With body and soul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Nikolaj Ilsted

    2002-01-01

    Aktuel Naturvidenskab(4):34-36. 2002 Short description: ?Man, has by evolution, been equipped with different systems of learning. Children and adults alike have a head as well as a body and both parts can be stimulated,? writes Nikolaj Ilsted Bech and Theresa Schilhab in this article from the Neu...... the Neuroscience, Cognition and Learning research consortium....

  4. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  6. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to guide the foreign body removal procedure. After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin and then place the transducer firmly against your ...

  8. Self-report of cognitive impairment and Mini-Mental State Exam performance in PRKN, LRRK2, and GBA carriers with early onset Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Ross, Barbara; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K.; Tanner, Caroline; Mickel, Susan; Andrews, Howard; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph; Pfeiffer, Ronald; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Bradley; Siderowf, Andrew; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine; Marder, Karen; Caccappolo, Elise

    2010-01-01

    While little is known about risk factors for cognitive impairment in early onset Parkinson disease (EOPD), postmortem studies have shown an association between dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation. We compared Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) performance and self-reported cognitive impairment in 699 EOPD participants genotyped for mutations in parkin (PRKN), leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2), and GBA. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between reported cognitive impairment and MMSE score, as well as between GBA group membership and self-reported impairment and MMSE. GBA carriers reported more impairment, but MMSE performance did not differ among genetic groups. Detailed neuropsychological testing is required to explore the association between cognitive impairment and GBA mutations. PMID:20182943

  9. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: Different profiles of syntactic impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eSzterman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9-12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. An analysis of the reading and paraphrasing of each participant exposed two different patterns of syntactic impairment. Some hearing-impaired children paraphrased the object relatives incorrectly but could still read the homograph, indicating impaired assignment of thematic roles alongside good syntactic structure building; other hearing-impaired children could neither read the homograph nor paraphrase the sentence, indicating a structural deficit in the syntactic tree. Further testing of these children confirmed the different impairments: some are impaired only in Wh-movement, whereas others have CP impairment. The syntactic impairment correlated with whether or not a hearing device was fitted by the age of one year, but not with the type of hearing device or the depth of hearing loss: children who had a hearing device fitted during the first year of life had better syntactic abilities than children whose hearing devices were fitted later.

  10. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  11. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas eHeider; Adriaan eSpruyt; Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  12. Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter during Development Impairs Memory in Adult Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Drago

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn—a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation—causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect. The behavioral impairment was associated with structural defects in MBn, including a decrease in synaptic vesicles and an increased length in the axons of the αβ MBn. Our results reveal an in vivo developmental role for the mitochondrial uniporter complex in establishing the necessary structural and functional neuronal substrates for normal memory formation in the adult organism.

  13. Assessment of a simple obstacle detection device for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Chih-Yung; Sung, Peng-Cheng; Lu, Shih-Yi

    2014-07-01

    A simple obstacle detection device, based upon an automobile parking sensor, was assessed as a mobility aid for the visually impaired. A questionnaire survey for mobility needs was performed at the start of this study. After the detector was developed, five blindfolded sighted and 15 visually impaired participants were invited to conduct travel experiments under three test conditions: (1) using a white cane only, (2) using the obstacle detector only and (3) using both devices. A post-experiment interview regarding the usefulness of the obstacle detector for the visually impaired participants was performed. The results showed that the obstacle detector could augment mobility performance with the white cane. The obstacle detection device should be used in conjunction with the white cane to achieve the best mobility speed and body protection.

  14. Stigma, community, ethnography: Joan Ablon's contribution to the anthropology of impairment-disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Russell P; Kasnitz, Devva

    2004-06-01

    Joan Ablon has helped establish the anthropology of impairment-disability and significantly contributed to the role of anthropology in disability studies. In this article, we review the development of and situate Ablon's ethnographic research in the anthropology of impairment-disability. We then address various methodological issues in her work including her ethnographic approach, her grounding in action anthropology and her support for the development of the academic study of disability in anthropology and the careers of disabled anthropologists. The next section of the article examines Ablon's use of the notion of stigma, her understanding of community, and her engagement with disability rights. As examples of themes important to disability studies, we present her discussion of the implications of the ideal of the body beautiful, and gender differences in negotiating intimacy for people with physical differences. We close with a discussion of the future of an anthropology of impairment-disability.

  15. The Psychological Challenge of Late-Life Vision Impairment: Concepts, Findings, and Practical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Werner Wahl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention is to summarize the body of evidence speaking to the psychological challenges faced by visually impaired older adults, as well as their coping efforts. This evidence is substantiated by a rich set of concepts, theories, and empirical findings that have accumulated under the umbrella of age-related psychoophthalmology (APO. I introduce the field of APO and continue with a discussion of important concepts and theories for a better understanding of adaptational processes in visually impaired older adults. I then summarize the most relevant and most recent data from four areas: (1 everyday competence, (2 cognitive functioning, (3 social functioning, and (4 subjective well-being-related outcomes, depression, and adaptational processes. Thereafter, major insights related to the current state-of-the art psychosocial interventions with visuallyimpaired older adults are reviewed. I close with the need that the public health community should become more aware of and address the psychosocial needs of visually impaired older adults.

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: NICO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: THIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: APPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: TONT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SAPU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CURE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  2. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: AMME

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  3. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: RABR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  4. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: ELRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  5. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: JODR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  6. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: THST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  7. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: SARA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  8. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: KAHO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  9. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FRLA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PEFO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: GOIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  12. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: YUHO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  13. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: NEBE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  14. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: HOVE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  15. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CHRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  16. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: RICH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  17. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: PIMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  18. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: FOTH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  19. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: TUPE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: OKCI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...