WorldWideScience

Sample records for impact trigger act

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  4. Triggering of the Largest Deccan Eruptions by the Chicxulub Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M. A.; Alvarez, W.; Self, S.; Karlstrom, L.; Renne, P. R.; Manga, M.; Sprain, C. J.; Smit, J.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Gibson, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern constraints on the timing of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction and the Chicxulub impact, together with a particularly voluminous and apparently brief eruptive pulse toward the end of the "main-stage" eruptions of the Deccan continental flood basalt province, suggest that these three events may have occurred within less than about a hundred thousand years of each other. Partial melting induced by the Chicxulub event does not provide an energetically plausible explanation for this remarkable coincidence, and both geochronologic and magnetic-polarity data show that Deccan volcanism was underway well before Chicxulub/K-Pg time. However, historical data show that in some cases eruptions from existing volcanic systems are triggered by earthquakes. Seismic modeling of the ground motion due to the Chicxulub impact suggests that the resulting Mw~11 earthquake could have generated seismic energy densities of at least 0.1-1.0 J/m3 throughout the upper ~200 km of the Earth's mantle, sufficient to trigger volcanic eruptions worldwide based upon comparison with historical examples. Triggering may have been caused by a transient increase in the effective permeability of the existing deep magmatic system beneath the Deccan province, or mantle plume "head." We suggest that the Chicxulub impact triggered the enormous Poladpur, Ambenali, and Mahabaleshwar (Wai sub-group) lava flows that may account for >70% of the Deccan Traps main-stage eruptions. This hypothesis is consistent with independent stratigraphic, geochronologic, geochemical, and tectonic constraints, which combine to indicate that at approximately Chicxulub/K-Pg time a huge pulse of mantle plume-derived magma passed through the crust with little interaction, and erupted to form the most extensive and voluminous lava flows known on Earth. This impact-induced pulse of volcanism may have enhanced the K-Pg extinction event, and/or suppressed post-extinction biotic recovery. High-precision radioisotopic

  5. Trigger videos on the Web: Impact of audiovisual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verleur, R.; Heuvelman, A.; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is

  6. Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

  7. Triggering of the largest Deccan eruptions by the Chicxulub impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.A.; Alvarez, W.; Self, S.; Karlstrom, L.; Renne, P.R.; Manga, M.; Sprain, C.J.; Smit, J.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Gibson, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    New constraints on the timing of the Cretaceous- Paleogene mass extinction and the Chicxulub impact, together with a particularly voluminous and apparently brief eruptive pulse toward the end of the "main-stage" eruptions of the Deccan continental flood basalt province suggest that these three

  8. Dark matter as a trigger for periodic comet impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

    2014-04-25

    Although statistical evidence is not overwhelming, possible support for an approximately 35×106  yr periodicity in the crater record on Earth could indicate a nonrandom underlying enhancement of meteorite impacts at regular intervals. A proposed explanation in terms of tidal effects on Oort cloud comet perturbations as the Solar System passes through the galactic midplane is hampered by lack of an underlying cause for sufficiently enhanced gravitational effects over a sufficiently short time interval and by the time frame between such possible enhancements. We show that a smooth dark disk in the galactic midplane would address both these issues and create a periodic enhancement of the sort that has potentially been observed. Such a disk is motivated by a novel dark matter component with dissipative cooling that we considered in earlier work. We show how to evaluate the statistical evidence for periodicity by input of appropriate measured priors from the galactic model, justifying or ruling out periodic cratering with more confidence than by evaluating the data without an underlying model. We find that, marginalizing over astrophysical uncertainties, the likelihood ratio for such a model relative to one with a constant cratering rate is 3.0, which moderately favors the dark disk model. Our analysis furthermore yields a posterior distribution that, based on current crater data, singles out a dark matter disk surface density of approximately 10M⊙/pc2. The geological record thereby motivates a particular model of dark matter that will be probed in the near future.

  9. Nanodiamonds act as Trojan horse for intracellular delivery of metal ions to trigger cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Guosheng; Yang, Jinrong; Zhang, Jichao; Li, Wenxin; Li, Aiguo; Tai, Renzhong; Fang, Haiping; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Qing

    2015-02-05

    Nanomaterials hold great promise for applications in the delivery of various molecules with poor cell penetration, yet its potential for delivery of metal ions is rarely considered. Particularly, there is limited insight about the cytotoxicity triggered by nanoparticle-ion interactions. Oxidative stress is one of the major toxicological mechanisms for nanomaterials, and we propose that it may also contribute to nanoparticle-ion complexes induced cytotoxicity. To explore the potential of nanodiamonds (NDs) as vehicles for metal ion delivery, we used a broad range of experimental techniques that aimed at getting a comprehensive assessment of cell responses after exposure of NDs, metal ions, or ND-ion mixture: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Trypan blue exclusion text, optical microscope observation, synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. In addition, theoretical calculation and molecular dynamics (MD) computation were used to illustrate the adsorption properties of different metal ion on NDs as well as release profile of ion from ND-ion complexes at different pH values. The adsorption capacity of NDs for different metal ions was different, and the adsorption for Cu2+ was the most strong among divalent metal ions. These different ND-ion complexes then had different cytotoxicity by influencing the subsequent cellular responses. Detailed investigation of ND-Cu2+ interaction showed that the amount of released Cu2+ from ND-Cu2+ complexes at acidic lysosomal conditions was much higher than that at neutral conditions, leading to the elevation of intracellular ROS level, which triggered cytotoxicity. By theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the functional carbon surface and cluster structures of NDs made them

  10. Rate of Change in Lake Level and its Impact on Reservoir-triggered Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    With recent interest in increased seismicity related to fluid injection, it is useful to review cases of reservoir-triggered earthquakes to explore common characteristics and seek ways to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic impacts. Three reservoirs - Koyna, India; Nurek, Tajikistan; and Aswan, Egypt - are well-documented cases of triggered earthquakes with recorded time series of seismicity and water levels that extend for more than 30 years. The geological setting, regional tectonics and modes of reservoir utilization, along with the characteristics of the reservoir-seismicity interaction, are distinctly different in each of these three cases. Similarities and differences between these three cases point to regional and local geological and hydrological structures and the rate of changes in reservoir water level as important factors controlling the presence and timing of triggered seismicity. In a manner similar to the way in which the rate of fluid injection influences injection-related seismicity, the rate of change in reservoir water level is a significant factor in determining whether or not reservoir-triggered seismicity occurs. The high rate of annual water level rise may be important in sustaining the exceptionally long sequence of earthquakes at Koyna. In addition to the rate of filling being a determining factor in whether or not earthquakes are triggered, changes in the rate of filling may influence the time of occurrence of individual earthquakes.

  11. Small-scale impacts as potential trigger for landslides on small Solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Marc; Sierks, Holger; Blum, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a set of experiments to investigate whether millimetre-sized impactors impinging on a granular material at several m s-1 are able to trigger avalanches on small, atmosphereless planetary bodies. These experiments were carried out at the Zentrum für angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM) drop tower facility in Bremen, Germany to facilitate a reduced gravity environment. Additional data were gathered at Earth gravity levels in the laboratory. As sample materials we used a ground Howardites, Eucrites and Diogenites (HED) meteorite and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mars-1 Martian soil simulant. We found that this type of small-scale impact can trigger avalanches with a moderate probability, if the target material is tilted to an angle close to the angle of repose. We additionally simulated a small-scale impact using the discrete element method code esys-particle. These simulations show that energy transfer from impactor to the target material is most efficient at low- and moderate-impactor inclinations and the transferred energy is retained in particles close to the surface due to a rapid dissipation of energy in lower material layers driven by inelastic collisions. Through Monte Carlo simulations we estimate the time-scale on which small-scale impacts with the observed characteristics will trigger avalanches covering all steep slopes on the surface of a small planetary body to be of the order 105 yr.

  12. Possible Triggering of the Largest Deccan Eruptions by the Chicxulub Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark; Alvarez, Walter; Self, Stephen; Karlstrom, Leif; Renne, Paul; Manga, Michael; Sprain, Courtney

    2014-05-01

    New constraints on the timing of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction, the Chicxulub impact, and a particularly voluminous and apparently brief pulse within the "main-stage" eruptions of the Deccan Traps continental flood basalt province suggest that these three events may have occurred within less than several hundred thousand years of each other. Partial melting induced by the Chicxulub event does not provide an energetically-plausible explanation for this coincidence, and both geochronological and magnetic-polarity data show that Deccan volcanism was underway well before Chicxulub/K-Pg time. However, historical evidence for the triggering of distant volcanic and hydrologic events due to earthquakes suggests that surface waves excited by the Chicxulub impact might plausibly have caused a transient increase in the effective permeability of the deep magmatic system beneath the Deccan province ("plume head"), depending upon the efficiency of coupling between the impact energy and seismic waves. Recently published seismic modeling [Meschede et al., 2011] suggests that the Chicxulub impact may have generated seismic energy densities of order 0.1-1.0 J/m3 globally throughout the upper ~200 km of the Earth's mantle, just sufficient to trigger volcanic eruptions worldwide. It therefore seems reasonable to ask whether the Chicxulub impact might have triggered the enormous Poladpur, Ambenali, and Mahabaleshwar (Wai Subgroup) lava flows that account for >50% of the entire Deccan Traps volume. High-precision radioisotopic dating of the main-phase Deccan flood basalt formations should be able to either confirm or reject this hypothesis. In the former case, this singular outburst within the Deccan Traps (and possibly volcanic eruptions worldwide) may have contributed significantly to the K-Pg extinction. In the latter case, a major role for the Deccan Traps in the K-Pg extinction would seem unlikely.

  13. Pre-Acting Control for Shock and Impact Isolation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-acting control in shock/impact isolation systems is studied. With pre-acting control, the isolation system begins to respond to an impact before this impact has been applied to the base. The limiting performance of the isolator with pre-acting control is investigated for a single-degree-of-freedom system subject to an instantaneous impact. The isolation performance index is defined as the maximum of the absolute value of the displacement of the object to be isolated relative to the base, provided that the magnitude of the control force transmitted to the object does not exceed a prescribed value. It is shown that there is a substantial advantage in the use of pre-acting isolators over isolators without pre-action. Particular attention is given to a pre-acting isolator based on a passive elastic element (a spring separating the object to be protected from the base. An example illustrates the calculation of the design parameters of such an isolator.

  14. Possible Triggering of the Largest Deccan Traps Eruptions By the Chicxulub Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M. A.; Alvarez, W.; Self, S.; Karlstrom, L.; Renne, P. R.; Manga, M.; Sprain, C. J.; Smit, J.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Gibson, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    New constraints on the timing of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction and the Chicxulub impact, together with a particularly voluminous and apparently brief eruptive pulse toward the end of the "main-stage" eruptions of the Deccan continental flood basalt province, suggest that these three events may have occurred within less than about a hundred thousand years of each other. Partial melting induced by the Chicxulub event does not provide an energetically-plausible explanation for this coincidence, and both geochronologic and magnetic-polarity data show that Deccan volcanism was underway well before Chicxulub/K-Pg time. However, historical data document that eruptions from existing volcanic systems can be triggered by earthquakes. Seismic modeling of the ground motion due to the Chicxulub impact suggests that the impact could have generated seismic energy densities of order 0.1-1.0 J/m3 throughout the upper ~200 km of the Earth's mantle, sufficient to trigger volcanic eruptions worldwide based upon comparison with historical examples. Triggering may have been caused by a transient increase in the effective permeability of the existing deep magmatic system beneath the Deccan province, or mantle plume "head." It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that the Chicxulub impact might have triggered the enormous Poladpur, Ambenali, and Mahabaleshwar (Wai sub-group) lava flows that account for >70% of the Deccan Traps main-stage eruptions. This hypothesis is consistent with independent stratigraphic, geochronologic, geochemical, and tectonic constraints, which combine to indicate that at approximately Chicxulub/K-Pg time a huge pulse of mantle plume-derived magma passed through the crust with little interaction, and erupted to form the most extensive and voluminous lava flows known on Earth. High-precision radioisotopic dating of the main-phase Deccan flood basalt formations may be able either to confirm or reject this hypothesis, which in turn might help

  15. Impact of the Children's Television Act on Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael

    The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…

  16. Did the Chicxulub meteorite impact trigger eruptions at mid-ocean ridges globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Karlstrom, L.

    2017-12-01

    Are there causal links between the eruption of large igneous provinces, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions? Recent dating suggests that state shifts in Deccan Traps eruptions, including erupted volumes, feeder dike orientations, and magma chemistry, occurred shortly after the Chicxulub impact. A proposed explanation for this observation is an increase in upper mantle permeability following the Chicxulub impact that accelerated the pace of Deccan volcanism [Richards et al., 2015]. If such triggering occurred, at global distances not associated with the impact antipode, it is reasonable to hypothesize that other reservoirs of stored melt may have been perturbed as well. We present evidence that mid-ocean ridge activity increased globally following the impact. Anomalously concentrated free-air gravity and sea-floor topographic roughness suggest volumes of excess oceanic ridge magmatism in the range of 2 x 105 to 106 km3 within 1 Myrs of the Chicxulub impact. This signal is only clearly observed for half-spreading rates above 35 mm/yr, possibly because crust formed at slower spreading rates is too complex to preserve the signal. Because similar anomalies are observed separately in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and because the timing of the signal does not clearly align with changes in spreading rates, we do not favor plume activity as an explanation. Widespread mobilization of existing mantle melt by post-impact seismic radiation, and subsequent emplacement of melt as crustal intrusions and eruptions, can explain the volume and distribution of anomalous crust without invoking impact-induced melt production. Although the mechanism for increasing permeability is not clear at either Deccan or mid-ocean ridges, these results support the hypothesis that the causes and consequences of the Deccan Traps, Chicxulub impact, and K-Pg mass extinction should not be considered in isolation. We conclude by discussing several enigmatic observations from K-Pg time that heightened

  17. The hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia: social impacts and triggering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-04-01

    According to the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014), a Disaster event is a set of flood and landslide cases sharing the same trigger, which may have a widespread spatial extension and a certain magnitude. The Disaster event with the highest number of floods and landslides cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 was registered between 20 and 28 December 1909. This event also caused important socioeconomic impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin and in the northern section of the Tagus basin. Despite such widespread impact in western Iberia there is no scientific publication addressing the triggering conditions and the social consequences of this disastrous event. Therefore, this work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and rainfall data from Iberian meteorological stations. The historical data source used to analyse the event of December 1909 in Portugal is the Disaster Database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database contains detailed data on the spatial location and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of hydro-geomorphologic disasters (flood and landslide cases) occurred in Portugal (1865-2010) and referred in newspapers. In Spain the data collection process was supported by the systematic analysis of daily newspapers and using the same entry criteria of the Disaster database, to ensure data integrity and enable comparison with Portuguese records. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning between Lisbon, Santarém, Porto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, Palencia (in Spain). The social and economic impacts of the December 1909 disaster event were higher on the

  18. Environmental impact assessment modern dressed? To the amendment of the EIA act and other acts and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    On 22 December 2016, the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMUB) presented the ''Draft Act for the Modernization of the Act on the Environmental Impact Assessment'' within the framework of the association consultation, as well as the ''Draft first Ordinance Amending the Ordinance on the Approval Procedure - 9. BImSchV''. The EIA Modernization Act as well as the Atomic Act Procedure Regulation and the Federal Mining Act should be revised by terms of an omnibus act. The association consultation was held on 18 January 2017.

  19. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 1. Ice Cores and Glaciers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G. A.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D. R.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Mitra, S.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 165-184 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * comet * deposition * ice core * impact * mass extinction * paleoclimate * paleoenvironment * platinum * trigger mechanism * wildfire * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  20. Impact of the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act on nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, L; Mor, V; Berg, K; Intrator, O; Calore, K; Hiris, J

    1997-01-01

    The Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA) of 1988 altered eligibility and coverage for skilled nursing facility (SNF) care and changed Medicaid eligibility rules for nursing-home residents. Detailed data on the residents of a for-profit nursing-home chain and Medicare claims for a 1 percent sample of beneficiaries were used to examine the impact of the MCCA on nursing homes. The case mix of nursing-home admissions was scrutinized, specifically for length of stay, discharge disposition, rate of hospitalization, and changes in payer source. Findings revealed that, although the proportion of Medicare-financed nursing-home care increased, as did the case-mix severity of residents during the MCCA period, there was no corollary reduction in hospital use by nursing-home residents.

  1. Functionally redundant RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans act at different steps to suppress early flg22-triggered immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzi Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs, such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs, the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI, significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the

  2. The impact of the Consumer Protection Act on pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, K; van Eeden, E

    2014-11-01

    The Consumer Protection Act of 2008 has had far-reaching consequences for suppliers of goods and services in South Africa. The implementation of the Act has important implications for all suppliers who enter into 'consumer transactions.' This article aims to stimulate awareness of the legal consequences of the Act arising from day-to-day situations occurring in the pharmacy, and to highlight the compliance obligations that the Act creates for pharmacists.

  3. The EAL domain protein YciR acts as a trigger enzyme in a c-di-GMP signalling cascade in E. coli biofilm control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Sandra; Klauck, Gisela; Pesavento, Christina; Klauck, Eberhard; Hengge, Regine

    2013-01-01

    C-di-GMP—which is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs)—is a ubiquitous second messenger in bacterial biofilm formation. In Escherichia coli, several DGCs (YegE, YdaM) and PDEs (YhjH, YciR) and the MerR-like transcription factor MlrA regulate the transcription of csgD, which encodes a biofilm regulator essential for producing amyloid curli fibres of the biofilm matrix. Here, we demonstrate that this system operates as a signalling cascade, in which c-di-GMP controlled by the DGC/PDE pair YegE/YhjH (module I) regulates the activity of the YdaM/YciR pair (module II). Via multiple direct interactions, the two module II proteins form a signalling complex with MlrA. YciR acts as a connector between modules I and II and functions as a trigger enzyme: its direct inhibition of the DGC YdaM is relieved when it binds and degrades c-di-GMP generated by module I. As a consequence, YdaM then generates c-di-GMP and—by direct and specific interaction—activates MlrA to stimulate csgD transcription. Trigger enzymes may represent a general principle in local c-di-GMP signalling. PMID:23708798

  4. Evaluating impacts of Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirer, D.A.; Evans, R.J.; Harrison, C.D.; Kehoe, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that by the year 2000, US SO 2 emissions must be reduced by 10 million tons. This requirement will have significant impact on coal-fired electric utilities. As a result, most utilities are currently evaluating numerous compliance options, including buying allowances, coal cleaning/blending/switching, and flue gas scrubbing. Moreover, each utility must address its own unique circumstances with regard to competition, efficiency, capital expenditures, reliability, etc. and many utilities may choose a combination of compliance options to simultaneously satisfy their environmental, performance, and financial objectives. The Coal Quality Expert, which is being developed under a clean coal technology project funded by US DOE and EPRI, will predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using higher-quality coals and provides an assessment of the merits of various post-combustion control technologies for specific utility applications. This paper presents background on how utilities evaluate their compliance options, and it describes how the Coal Quality Expert could be used for such evaluations in the future to assure that each utility can select the best combination of coal specifications and emission control technologies to meet its compliance objectives

  5. Impact of identifying factors which trigger bothersome tinnitus on the treatment outcome in tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molini, Egisto; Faralli, Mario; Calzolaro, Lucia; Ricci, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain any differences in the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy in relation to the presence or absence of a known negative reinforcement responsible for the tinnitus-related pathology. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2008, we recruited 294 subjects suffering from incapacitating tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. The patients underwent tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) according to the methods described by Jastreboff and Hazell [Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Implementing the Neurophysiological Model. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp 121-133]. We clinically assessed the presence or absence of known phenomena of associative learning, regarding the presence of adverse events temporally correlated with tinnitus and the treatment outcome. The separate analysis of the 2 subgroups shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement rate between the group with a known triggering factor and the group without a triggering factor, with a preponderance of the former with a 91% improvement rate versus approximately 56% for the latter. In our study, the inability to identify factors triggering bothersome tinnitus negatively affected the treatment outcome in TRT. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Impact of heart rate and rhythm on radiation exposure in prospectively ECG triggered computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, Christian, E-mail: neep@gmx.de [University of Leipzig – Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Strümpellstrasse 39, D-04289, Leipzig (Germany); Andres, Claudia; Foldyna, Borek [University of Leipzig – Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Strümpellstrasse 39, D-04289, Leipzig (Germany); Nagel, Hans Dieter [Wissenschaft and Technik für die Radiologie, Buchhholz i.d.N (Germany); Hoffmann, Janine; Grothoff, Matthias; Nitzsche, Stefan; Gutberlet, Matthias; Lehmkuhl, Lukas [University of Leipzig – Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Strümpellstrasse 39, D-04289, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of different heart rates and arrhythmias on scanner performance, image acquisition and applied radiation exposure in prospectively ECG triggered computed tomography (pCT). Materials and methods: An ECG simulator (EKG Phantom 320, Müller and Sebastiani Elektronik GmbH, Munich, Germany) was used to generate different heart rhythms and arrhythmias: sinus rhythm (SR) at 45, 60, 75, 90 and 120/min, supraventricular arrhythmias (e.g. sinus arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation) and ventricular arrhythmias (e.g. ventricular extrasystoles), pacemaker-ECGs, ST-changes and technical artifacts. The analysis of the image acquisition process was performed on a 64-row multidetector CT (Brilliance, Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, USA). A prospectively triggered scan protocol as used for routine was applied (120 kV; 150 mA s; 0.4 s rotation and exposure time per scan; image acquisition predominantly in end-diastole at 75% R-R-interval, in arrythmias with a mean heart rate above 80/min in systole at 45% of the R-R-interval; FOV 25 cm). The mean dose length product (DLP) and its percentage increase from baseline (SR at 60/min) were determined. Result: Radiation exposure can increase significantly when the heart rhythm deviates from sinus rhythm. ECG-changes leading to a significant DLP increase (p < 0.05) were bifocal pacemaker (61%), pacemaker dysfunction (22%), SVES (20%), ventricular salvo (20%), and atrial fibrillation (14%). Significantly (p < 0.05) prolonged scan time (>8 s) could be observed in bifocal pacemaker (12.8 s), pacemaker dysfunction (10.7 s), atrial fibrillation (10.3 s) and sinus arrhythmia (9.3 s). Conclusion: In prospectively ECG triggered CT, heart rate and rhythm can provoke different types of scanner performance, which can significantly alter radiation exposure and scan time. These results might have an important implication for indication, informed consent and contrast agent injection protocols.

  7. Impact of heart rate and rhythm on radiation exposure in prospectively ECG triggered computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, Christian; Andres, Claudia; Foldyna, Borek; Nagel, Hans Dieter; Hoffmann, Janine; Grothoff, Matthias; Nitzsche, Stefan; Gutberlet, Matthias; Lehmkuhl, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of different heart rates and arrhythmias on scanner performance, image acquisition and applied radiation exposure in prospectively ECG triggered computed tomography (pCT). Materials and methods: An ECG simulator (EKG Phantom 320, Müller and Sebastiani Elektronik GmbH, Munich, Germany) was used to generate different heart rhythms and arrhythmias: sinus rhythm (SR) at 45, 60, 75, 90 and 120/min, supraventricular arrhythmias (e.g. sinus arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation) and ventricular arrhythmias (e.g. ventricular extrasystoles), pacemaker-ECGs, ST-changes and technical artifacts. The analysis of the image acquisition process was performed on a 64-row multidetector CT (Brilliance, Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, USA). A prospectively triggered scan protocol as used for routine was applied (120 kV; 150 mA s; 0.4 s rotation and exposure time per scan; image acquisition predominantly in end-diastole at 75% R-R-interval, in arrythmias with a mean heart rate above 80/min in systole at 45% of the R-R-interval; FOV 25 cm). The mean dose length product (DLP) and its percentage increase from baseline (SR at 60/min) were determined. Result: Radiation exposure can increase significantly when the heart rhythm deviates from sinus rhythm. ECG-changes leading to a significant DLP increase (p 8 s) could be observed in bifocal pacemaker (12.8 s), pacemaker dysfunction (10.7 s), atrial fibrillation (10.3 s) and sinus arrhythmia (9.3 s). Conclusion: In prospectively ECG triggered CT, heart rate and rhythm can provoke different types of scanner performance, which can significantly alter radiation exposure and scan time. These results might have an important implication for indication, informed consent and contrast agent injection protocols

  8. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 event was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro Basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work has a dual purpose: (i) to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic DISASTER event over Portugal and Spain; (ii) to analyse the meteorological conditions that triggered the event and the spatial distribution of the precipitation anomalies. Social impacts that occurred in Portugal were obtained from the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014) whereas the data collection for Spain was supported by the systematic analysis of Spanish daily newspapers. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20th Century Reanalysis data set from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto, and Guarda (in Portugal), to Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused 89 casualties (57 due to floods and 32 due to landslides) and a further total of 3876 affected people, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated, and homeless people. This event was associated with outstanding precipitation registered at Guarda (Portugal) on 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low-pressure system located over the NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper

  9. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of deposits from dilute pyroclastic density current: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, E.; Muller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    without occurrence of a sedimentation phase in the vicinity of explosion centers. Finally, ballistic impacts can trigger unconventional sags producing local displacement or liquefaction. Based on the deformation depth, these can yield precise insights into depositional unit boundaries. Such impact structures may also be at the origin of some of the steep truncation planes visible at the base of the so-called "chute and pool" structures. Dilute pyroclastic density currents occur contemporaneously with seismogenic volcanic explosions. They can experience extremely high sedimentation rates and may flow at the border between traction, granular and fluid-escape boundary zones. They are often deposited on steep slopes and can incorporate large amounts of water and gas in the sediment. These are just some of the many possible triggers acting in a single environment, and they reveal the potential for insights into the eruptive and flow mechanisms of dilute pyroclastic density currents.

  10. Analysis reveals potential rangeland impacts if Williamson Act eliminated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Wetzel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available California budget cuts have resulted in dramatic reductions in state funding for the Williamson Act, a land protection program that reduces property taxes for the owners of 15 million acres of California farms and rangeland. With state reimbursements to counties eliminated, the decision to continue Williamson Act contracts lies with individual counties. We investigated the consequences of eliminating the Williamson Act, using a geospatial analysis and a mail questionnaire asking ranchers for plans under a hypothetical elimination scenario. The geospatial analysis revealed that 72% of rangeland parcels enrolled in Williamson Act contracts contained habitat important for statewide conservation goals. Presented with the elimination scenario, survey respondents reported an intention to sell 20% of their total 496,889 acres. The tendency of survey participants to respond that they would sell land was highest among full-time ranchers with low household incomes and without off-ranch employment. A majority (76% of the ranchers who reported that they would sell land predicted that the buyers would develop it for nonagricultural uses, suggesting substantial changes to California's landscape in a future without the Williamson Act.

  11. Triggering of the Largest Deccan Eruptions and Other Possible Geophysical Effects of the Mw 11 Chicxulub Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M. A.; Renne, P. R.; Alvarez, W.; DePalma, R. A.; Smit, J.; Manga, M.; Karlstrom, L.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Fainstein, R.; Gibson, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact in Yucatán, México, and the onset of the most voluminous phase of Deccan Traps eruptions in the Western Ghats of India both occurred within water, soft-sediment liquefaction, and mass wasting, with some far-field events most likely responding to longer-period seismic waves. A particularly interesting case is a deposit in the Hell Creek Formation of southwestern North Dakota ("Tanis"), where a remarkable "death assemblage" of marine and terrestrial biota were buried at exactly KPB time in a local surge deposit, most likely due to a seiche on an arm or embayment of the Western Interior Seaway due to seismic waves from the Chicxulub impact. Another KPB unit (Hvar, Croatia) previously identified as a tsunami deposit might also be interpreted as having resulted from a seiche. This presentation will explore a range of possibly observable phenomena associated with the Chicxulub impact, including, of course, the possibility that both impact and triggered volcanism contributed to the mass extinction.

  12. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  13. [Impact Reimbursement Act on the pharmaceutical market in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giermaziak, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    According to 12 may 2011 Reimbursement Act, the new regulations were introduced related to changes in so far in force rules on refunds of official prices and margins for drugs, foodstuffs of special purpose and medical products. After year of functioning of this regulation, in evaluation of the government, law gave measurable financial effects for public payer, sometimes through drastic actions, connected the of reduction of existing profits of manufacturers sector and importers drugs, as well wholesale and retail, both in treatment open and closed. Parallel to research and analysis of effects introduction in life act refund, conducted by government, to target current regulation possible negative phenomena can to be after-effects to regulation, systematically there are conducted analogous study to reputable companies specialized in evaluation and updating market Polish pharmaceutical, such as IMS Health Polska, Pharma Expert, Kamsoft, WHO and European a law firm. In their opinion to reimbursement act is the most serious regulation control system to introduced into Polish order legal, and first time for many years on such a large scale. Thoroughly changed policy of drugs State have important influence for all participants Polish pharmaceutical market, both those directly related to the drug trade, as the functioning doctors and health condition and financial Polish patient. Change in the way prices of drugs is determined as flexible to price formation mechanism, combining drugs similar profile pharmacological in so group limits and dependence of the level of refunds from application drug accordingly characteristics medicinal product, adaptation solutions to new law refund to the existing law about health services, gave measurable financial effect for the public payer. Rationalization expenses to NFZ, as main premise introduction refund act, created to broader than so far possibility to use new molecules of drugs, and the latest medical technology, even if in the

  14. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A South African ... trade unions in terms of international labour standards and the Constitution. In part one the article examines the concept of majoritarianism, pluralism and ...

  15. The impact of the Orphan Drug Act on drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Marlene E; Maher, Paul D

    2006-11-01

    For nearly a quarter of a century the FDA Office of Orphan Products Development has administered the US Orphan Drug Act, which assists in bringing a wide variety of drug and biological (drug) products to treat rare diseases to market. Enthusiasm for rare disease product development has been sustained, seen throughout a wide spectrum of product types and disease conditions, and has resulted in clinically meaningful medical advances. Development of programmes for rare disease treatment worldwide, coupled with the development of drugs for diseases affecting developing countries, attests to the strength of this legislation. The marketing of almost 300 products in the US for rare diseases also testifies to the depth and intensity of scientific endeavour in this area.

  16. Quantity, distribution, and impacts of coastal driftwood triggered by a typhoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Chuang, Hui-Chieh; Shieh, Chjeng-Lun; Hu, Jian-Hwa

    2011-07-01

    Typhoon Morakot pounded Taiwan in 2009 with record-breaking rainfall, washing an unprecedented amount of driftwood into the sea that was partially deposited at the coastal areas. According to the satellite imagery analysis, more than three million trees fell and were washed away to occupy 83.2% of the Taiwanese coastline, including 52 fishing harbors. The amount cleaned-up was only 1/7 of the total coastal driftwood. It was found that the amount of coastal driftwood is not only related to the amount of precipitation but is also related to the distance from the location of the landslide to the river mouth and to the landslide area. The amount of accumulated coastal driftwood demonstrated log-profile declines with increasing distance to the river mouth. Nearshore current and wave motion are the critical factors for driftwood deposition. Much of the driftwood washed into the sea harmed the tourism and fishing industries, endangered navigation and oceanic activities, and impacted the marine environment and ecosystem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evaluating the impact of the United Nations funding act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Representatives of the principal donors supporting population assistance in India are concerned about the impact of the cuts in funds given by the US to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The suppression of US aid to the UNFPA will definitely affect the largest programs, including those in South Asia. India is the country receiving the most assistance from the UNFPA. The UNFPA contributed 63 million dollars for the current 5 year plan which began in April 1985. US spokesmen stated that UNFPA funding was cut off because of that organization's support for coercive family planning programs in China.

  18. Man -made greenhouse gases trigger unified force to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karishnan, K.J.; Kalam, A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming problems due to man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs), appear to be a serious concern and threat to the globe. CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3, NOx and HFC's are the main greenhouse gases and CO/sub 2/ is one of the main cause of global warming. CO/sub 2/ is emitted from burning fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants and burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes. Global greenhouse gases and its sources in regions are discussed in this paper. This paper initially discusses the CO/sub 2/ emissions and the recycle of CO/sub 2/ in biodiesel. This paper mainly focuses on 'Unified Force'. The increase of H/sub 2/O in the sea due to warming of the globe triggers the 'Unified Force' or 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is proportional to the H/sub 2/O level in the sea to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change. This paper also points out the climate change and the ten surprising results of global warming. Finally, this paper suggests switching from fossil fuel technology to green energy technologies like biodiesel which recycles CO/sub 2/ emissions and also Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies which eradicates global warming impacts. The benefits of switching from fossil fuel to biodiesel and Hydrogen Energy utilization includes reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, economic independence by having distributed production and burning of biodiesel does not add extra CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes global warming impacts. (author)

  19. Trigger Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  20. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  1. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  2. Identification of impact force acting on composite laminated plates using the radiated sound measured with microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Satoshi; Nonami, Shunsuke; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2017-09-01

    Foreign object impact events are serious threats to composite laminates because impact damage leads to significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the structure. Identification of the location and force history of the impact that was applied to the structure can provide useful information for assessing the structural integrity. This study proposes a method for identifying impact forces acting on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) laminated plates on the basis of the sound radiated from the impacted structure. Identification of the impact location and force history is performed using the sound pressure measured with microphones. To devise a method for identifying the impact location from the difference in the arrival times of the sound wave detected with the microphones, the propagation path of the sound wave from the impacted point to the sensor is examined. For the identification of the force history, an experimentally constructed transfer matrix is employed to relate the force history to the corresponding sound pressure. To verify the validity of the proposed method, impact tests are conducted by using a CFRP cross-ply laminate as the specimen, and an impulse hammer as the impactor. The experimental results confirm the validity of the present method for identifying the impact location from the arrival time of the sound wave detected with the microphones. Moreover, the results of force history identification show the feasibility of identifying the force history accurately from the measured sound pressure using the experimental transfer matrix.

  3. 75 FR 24967 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication. DATES: June 24, 2010... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  4. 77 FR 31039 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    .... 332-352, Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  5. Environmental impact analysis: the first five years of the National Environmental Policy Act in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorold, O

    1975-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 was the first comprehensive law to subject decisions to an assessment of total environmental consequence and instill environmental attitudes throughout government. All agencies must submit impact projections of proposed as well as alternative actions. Twenty-one states have passed similar legislation. A review of the Act's provisions for oversight, court action, timing, content, and commenting procedures is followed by a five-year evaluation. Because NEPA is generally felt to be a realistic approach to decision making and not a substitute for other kinds of environmental control, Mr. Thorold feels the American experience has been positive and is worth modifying for other countries. The Act lacked a ''grandfather clause,'' which caused a difficult transition period while agencies coped with both new and existing projects and developed standards for identifying and reviewing impacts. As agencies recognized that delays from lawsuits often resulted from inadequate impact statements, the quality improved to meet the strict guidelines of the Council on Environmental Quality. Joint efforts of agencies, universities, consulting firms, and private groups have cooperated to improve environmental forecasting and promote full communication. The costs of preparing statements and those of abandoned projects are felt to be conservative when compared to the costs of pursuing inappropriate projects. (21 references) (DCK)

  6. Recent shallow moonquake and impact-triggered boulder falls on the Moon: New insights from the Schrödinger basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, P.; Sruthi, U.; Krishna, N.; Lakshmi, K. J. P.; Menon, Rajeev; Amitabh; Gopala Krishna, B.; Kring, David A.; Head, James W.; Goswami, J. N.; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Shallow moonquakes are thought to be of tectonic origin. However, the geologic structures responsible for these moonquakes are unknown. Here we report sites where moonquakes possibly occurred along young lobate scarps in the Schrödinger basin. Our analysis of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Chandrayaan-1 images revealed four lobate scarps in different parts of the Schrödinger basin. The scarps crosscut small fresh impact craters (bounced on nearby slopes. A cluster of a large number of boulder falls near Scarp 1 indicates that the scarp was seismically active recently. A low runout efficiency of the boulders (~2.5) indicates low to moderate levels of ground shaking, which we interpret to be related to low-magnitude moonquakes in the scarp. Boulder falls are also observed in other parts of the basin, where we mapped >1500 boulders associated with trails and bouncing marks. Their origins are largely controlled by recent impact events. Ejecta rays and secondary crater chains from a 14 km diameter impact crater traversed Schrödinger and triggered significant boulder falls about 17 Ma. Therefore, a combination of recent shallow moonquakes and impact events triggered the boulder falls in the Schrödinger basin.

  7. Nuclear Waste Policy Act and socioeconomic impact mitigation provisions and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Although enormous effort was devoted to the drafting, negotiation, and passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the final product is not without deficiencies. Amont the observations presented in this paper a few are of sufficient import to justify reiteration here. First among those observations is the caveat that the availability of extensive impact mitigation mechanisms should not diminish any effort to prevent or minimize impacts in the first place. A second key point is that although the federal government is responsible for implementing the high-level waste management program, the generators and owners are obligated to pay all costs of implementing the program. And third, the structural flaw in the Act that merits the greatest attention is the probable time lag between occurrence of repository impacts and initiation of impact assistance grants. Though none of the concerns identified in this paper are likely to prove fatal to the high-level waste management effort, some of them could cause anxious moments and difficult situations. Early attention to and resolution of these problems should substantially enhance the overall quality of the high-level waste management program

  8. Firearm injuries to children in Cape Town, South Africa: impact of the 2004 Firearms Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N M; Colville, J G; van der Heyde, Y; van As, A B

    2013-07-31

    Before the introduction of the Firearms Control Act in 2004, the epidemiology of childhood firearm injuries from 1991 to 2001 in Cape Town, South Africa, was reported. This study analyses current data as a comparator to assess the impact of the Act. Firearm injuries seen at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, from 2001 to 2010 were respectively reviewed. Data recorded included the patients' folder numbers, gender, date of birth, age, date of presentation, date discharged and inpatient stay, firearm type, number of shots, circumstances, injury sites, injury type, treatment, resulting morbidities and survival. These data were compared with the 1991 - 2001 data. One hundred and sixty-three children presented with firearm injuries during this period. The results showed a decrease in incidence from 2001 to 2010. Older children and males had a higher incidence than younger children and females. Most injuries were to an extremity and were unintentional. Mortality had reduced significantly from the previous study (6% to 2.6%), as did the total number of inpatient days (1 063 to 617). Compared with the earlier study, this study showed a significant reduction in the number of children presenting with a firearm-related injury. Mortality and inpatient stay were also significantly reduced. The study shows the impact that the Firearms Control Act has had in terms of paediatric firearm-related injury and provides evidence that the medical profession can play an important role in reducing violence.

  9. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act

  10. Impact of sea-level rise on earthquake and landslide triggering offshore the Alentejo margin (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M. C.; Roque, C.; Luttrell, K. M.; Vázquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes and submarine landslides are recurrent and widespread manifestations of fault activity offshore SW Iberia. The present work tests the effects of sea-level rise on offshore fault systems using Coulomb stress change calculations across the Alentejo margin. Large-scale faults capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis in the region, especially NE-SW trending thrusts and WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip faults imaged at basement depths, are either blocked or unaffected by flexural effects related to sea-level changes. Large-magnitude earthquakes occurring along these structures may, therefore, be less frequent during periods of sea-level rise. In contrast, sea-level rise promotes shallow fault ruptures within the sedimentary sequence along the continental slope and upper rise within distances of failures may either increase (if triggered by shallow fault ruptures) or decrease (if triggered by deep fault ruptures) as a result of sea-level rise. Moreover, observations of slope failures affecting the area of the Sines contourite drift highlight the role of sediment properties as preconditioning factors in this region.

  11. The American Jobs Creation Act and its impact on deferred compensation: reassessment from a business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G

    2005-01-01

    The American Jobs Creation Act (AJCA), which was signed into law in October 2004, will have an impact on almost every deferred compensation program in the United States. This article argues that as companies continue to evaluate the transition alternatives under AJCA and contemplate the necessary changes to the plan program, companies also should consider simultaneously addressing broader issues surrounding nonqualified deferred compensation arrangements. These include ongoing business purpose, financial planning considerations, education of participants, corporate governance considerations and the potential implications to international assignees.

  12. The impact of the US Clean Air Act - seven years after enactment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloe, A.; Ailor, D.

    2000-07-01

    The United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have added operating expenses, renewed interest in coke battery repair techniques, played a role in new battery technology choices and spurred investigation into non-traditional coke making technologies. United States coke producers have demonstrated compliance with the new standards. The ultimate impact of the CAAA requirements will be known as aging coke batteries in the United States are shut down. At that point the demand for coke coupled with the CAAA requirements will determine if new batteries are built, and if so, what technology will be used. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Collection of in-Field Impact Loads Acting on a Rugby Wheelchair Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bettella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was included in a wider project oriented to the improvement of residual neuromuscular skills in disabled athletes playing wheelchair rugby: the wheelchair rugby Italian national team was involved and tests allowed to analyse the impact loads on a rugby wheelchair frame. The frame of a rugby wheelchair offensive model, made by OffCarr Company, was instrumented with four strain gauge bridges in four different points. Then, three test types were conducted in laboratory: two static calibrations with the application of known loads, the first with horizontal load and the second with vertical load, and a dynamic horizontal calibration, impacting against a fix load cell in order to validate the results of horizontal static calibration. Finally, a test session took place in the field with the collaboration of two team players. The test consisted in voluntary frontal impacts between the two players, starting from 6 meters distance each other. The opponent of the instrumented wheelchair was a defender. From this test, the value of the horizontal load received by the frame in the impact instant was quantified. Moreover, also the vertical load acting on the wheelchair during the rebound of the player after the hit was evaluated: these informations were useful to the wheelchair frame manufacturer for the proper static, impact and fatigue design.

  14. The National Environmental Policy Act and DOE's programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisenbaker, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 requires that all agencies of the federal government prepare a detailed statement on any action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Such a statement must include the environmental impact of the proposed action, any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided should the proposed action be implemented, and alternatives to the proposed action. In requiring environmental statements, NEPA encourages viewing related actions collectively and looking at cumulative impacts. A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) is a broad environmental analysis of a program or policy prepared when actions are connected and may have cumulative environmental impacts. The PEIS benefits include providing input into an agency's planning and decision making, assessing potential environmental consequences of a wide range of alternatives before options have been foreclosed, and allowing consideration of systemwide impacts of various alternatives early in the decision-making process. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will prepare its PEIS on Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. The PEIS will consider programmatic issues and integrated approaches to the program; address national, program-wide alternatives rather than site-specific actions; and provide for subsequent NEPA documents of narrower scope to be prepared to address site-specific or project-specific actions

  15. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Appendices A--L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of appendices A-L of the final environmental impact statement for the Bonneville Power Administration. The appendices provide information on the following: Ninth circuit Court opinion in Forelaws on Board v. Johnson; guide to Northwest Power act contracts; guide to hydro operations; glossary; affected environment supporting documentation; environmental impacts of generic resource types; information on models used; technical information on analysis; public involvement activities; bibliography; Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act; and biological assessment. (CBS)

  16. Global Distribution of Solid Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols and their Climate Impact Acting as Ice Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Penner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments show that liquid ammonium sulfate particles effloresce when RHw is below 34% to become solid and dissolve when RHw is above 79%. Solid ammonium sulfate aerosols can act as heterogeneous ice nuclei particles (INPs) to form ice particles in deposition mode when the relative humidity over ice is above 120%. In this study we used the coupled IMPACT/CAM5 model to track the efflorescence and deliquescence processes of ammonium sulfate. Results show that about 20% of the total simulated pure sulfate aerosol mass is in the solid state and is mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere (NH) from 50 hPa to 200 hPa. When these solid ammonium sulfate aerosols are allowed to act as ice nuclei particles, they act to increase the ice water path in the NH and reduce ice water path in the tropics. The addition of these particles leads to a positive net radiative effect at the TOA ranging from 0.5-0.9 W/m2 depending on the amounts of other ice nuclei particles (e.g., dust, soot) used in the ice nucleation process. The short-term climate feedback shows that the ITCZ shifts northwards and precipitation increases in the NH. There is also an average warming of 0.05-0.1 K near the surface (at 2 meter) in the NH which is most obvious in the Arctic region.

  17. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  18. 78 FR 41924 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Impact Evaluation of Math Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Impact Evaluation of Math... ``Impact Evaluation of Math Professional Development'' (18-13-35). The National Center for Education...-focused math professional development (PD) program on teacher knowledge, teacher practices, and student...

  19. 77 FR 28620 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade... to report biennially to the Congress by September 30 of each reporting year on the economic impact of...

  20. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors

  1. Economic and environmental impacts of proposed changes to Clean Water Act thermal discharge requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economic and environmental impact to the power industry of limiting thermal mixing zones to 1000 feet and eliminating the Clean Water Act section 316(a) variance. Power companies were asked what they would do if these two conditions were imposed. Most affected plants would retrofit cooling towers and some would retrofit diffusers. Assuming that all affected plants would proportionally follow the same options as the surveyed plants, the estimated capital cost of retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers at all affected plants exceeds $20 billion. Since both cooling towers and diffusers exert an energy penalty on a plant's output, the power companies must generate additional power. The estimated cost of the additional power exceeds $10 billion over 20 years. Generation of the extra power would emit over 8 million tons per year of additional carbon dioxide. Operation of the new cooling towers would cause more than 1.5 million gallons per minute of additional evaporation

  2. Preliminary assessment of future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    A preliminary assessment of the future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been performed with the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting Systems. The assessment suggests that gasoline reformulation costs in domestic coastal and near-coastal refining regions in the year 2000 could be 3.5 to 5.6 cents per gallon (in terms of 1989 currency). For heating value equivalent to one gallon of conventional gasoline, the regional total added costs (including reformulation costs) for reformulated gasoline could be 5.9 to 8.0 cents. In blending reformulated gasolines, the reduction of butane for lower Reid vapor pressure and the reduction of reformate for lower aromatics are generally compensated by increased percentages of alkylate and/or straight run naphthas. Relatively larger refinery process capacity additions are required for butane isomerization, alkylation, aromatics recovery, and distillate hydrotreating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs

  3. Impact of the safe drinking water act on energy development. Final issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymont, F.J.; Shore, R.; Goldberg, M.

    1977-11-01

    Energy development activities will be impacted by the Underground Injection Control Regulations that are formulated under Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The thrust of Part C of the Act is to protect groundwater that now is or in the future might be used for drinking water. A new draft of the regulations, on which this analysis is based, is currently being considered. These regulations will be either another set of proposed regulations or will be interim final which means they can be enforced immediately but EPA will still entertain comments on them and modify them if necessary. There are four possible situations in which the Underground Control Regulations would not apply. They are: If the aquifer in question can be left unprotected despite the fact that its solids level is less than 10,000 mg/1; if the aquifer is oil or mineral producing; if the aquifer is located at a depth that would made recovery of drinking water uneconomical; and if the aquifer is already contaminated. However, the individual states have to demonstrate this to the satisfaction of the EPA administrator. If none of the conditions holds, construction, monitoring operating and reporting requirements will be necessary to receive a permit. The economic impact of these requirements is uncertain but could involve significant economic and time expenditures. Permits do not have to be renewed and one permit can serve for a whole field of wells. However, the permit application requires a significant amount of information and will take a considerable amount of time and expense to fill out. Solution mining operations also will incur extra expenses establishing initial water quality profiles and maintaining monitoring wells

  4. The Impact of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): An Empirical Analysis of Sub-Saharan African Agricultural Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Zenebe, Addisalem; Peterson, Wesley; Wamisho, Kassu

    2014-01-01

    The African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA) which was signed into law in 2000 as part of U.S. trade legislation has the objectives of increasing trade and investment between the U.S. and eligible Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, by reducing or eliminating tariffs applied to African exports of different products. This Act represents a promising approach to economic growth and development in SSA through international trade. This research paper examines the impact of AGOA on African agri...

  5. The impact of the Affordable Care Act on self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bradley T; Yang, Lang Kate

    2017-12-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014 on the decision to be self-employed. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we employ two identification strategies. Utilizing prereform variation in state nongroup health insurance market regulations, we find that the ACA did not increase self-employment overall in states that lacked similar provisions in their nongroup markets prior to 2014. In specifications that utilize variation across individuals in characteristics that could make it harder for them to purchase insurance if they left their current employer, we also do not find that the ACA differentially increased self-employment. However, in states that lacked the ACA nongroup market provisions, we do find a statistically significant increase in the second year of implementation (when individuals had more time to adjust behavior and the exchanges functioned properly) among individuals eligible for insurance subsidies, suggesting that a combination of time to adjust, low uncertainty and low insurance costs may be necessary for nongroup health insurance reforms to impact self-employment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Differing Impacts Of Market Concentration On Affordable Care Act Marketplace Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Glied, Sherry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent increases in market concentration among health plans, hospitals, and medical groups raise questions about what impact such mergers are having on costs to consumers. We examined the impact of market concentration on the growth of health insurance premiums between 2014 and 2015 in two Affordable Care Act state-based Marketplaces: Covered California and NY State of Health. We measured health plan, hospital, and medical group market concentration using the well-known Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and used a multivariate regression model to relate these measures to premium growth. Both states exhibited a positive association between hospital concentration and premium growth and a positive (but not statistically significant) association between medical group concentration and premium growth. Our results for health plan concentration differed between the two states: It was positively associated with premium growth in New York but negatively associated with premium growth in California. The health plan concentration finding in Covered California may be the result of its selectively contracting with health plans. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the future refining impacts of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been performed with the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System. In 1992, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should finalize precise requirements for Phase I reformulated gasoline, to be produced in 1995-1999. EPA requirements for Phase II reformulated gasoline, to be produced after 1999, will not be established until 1993. The assessment of refining impacts assumes that reformulated gasoline with likely Phase I specifications will be produced for markets projected for the year 2000. The assessment suggests that gasoline reformulation costs in U.S. coastal and near-coastal refining regions could be 3.5 to 5.6 cents per gallon (1989 U.S. currency). The relative value of MTBE is the most important determinant of the reformulation cost. For mileage equivalent to one gallon of conventional gasoline, the regional total added costs (including reformulation costs) for reformulated gasoline could be 5.2 to 7.6 cents. In blending reformulated gasolines, the reduction of butane for lower Reid vapor pressure and the reduction of reformate for lower aromatics are generally compensated by increased percentages of alkylate and/or straight run naphthas. Relatively larger refinery process capacity additions are required for butane isomerization alkylation aromatics recovery, and distillate hydrotreating. (Author)

  8. Environmental impact assessment modern dressed? To the amendment of the EIA act and other acts and regulations; Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung im modernen Gewand? Zur Aenderung des UVP-Gesetzes und zahlreicher weiterer Gesetze und Verordnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-03-15

    On 22 December 2016, the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMUB) presented the ''Draft Act for the Modernization of the Act on the Environmental Impact Assessment'' within the framework of the association consultation, as well as the ''Draft first Ordinance Amending the Ordinance on the Approval Procedure - 9. BImSchV''. The EIA Modernization Act as well as the Atomic Act Procedure Regulation and the Federal Mining Act should be revised by terms of an omnibus act. The association consultation was held on 18 January 2017.

  9. Mineralogical Plasticity Acts as a Compensatory Mechanism to the Impacts of Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D

    2017-03-07

    Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio). Despite minor metabolic depression and no increase in feeding rate, shell growth was faster under OA conditions, probably due to increased precipitation of calcite and trade-offs against inner shell density. In addition, the resulting shell was functionally suitable for increasingly "corrosive" oceans, i.e., harder and less soluble shells. We conclude that mineralogical plasticity may act as a compensatory mechanism to maintain overall performance of calcifying organisms under OA conditions and could be a cornerstone of calcifying organisms to acclimate to and maintain their ecological functions in acidifying oceans.

  10. The LHCb trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the development of the LHCb trigger system since the letter of intent. The trigger philosophy has significantly changed, resulting in an increase of trigger efficiency for signal B events. It is proposed to implement a level-1 vertex topology trigger in specialised hardware. (orig.)

  11. Investigations into adverse effects on soil organisms at the concentration level of trigger values according to German Federal Soil Protection Act; Ermittlung der Wirkungen auf Bodenorganismen (Lebensraumfunktion) im Bereich der Pruefwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerdel, W.; Dreher, P.; Hund, K.; Ruedel, H.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of the research project was to achieve clarification on whether the trigger values according to the Federal Soil Protection Act, which originally had been established for the protection of human health, are also suitable to ensure the protection of ecological soil functions, e.g. habitat functions for soil organisms. For this purpose ecotoxicological tests were carried out with soils for which contaminations were adjusted to the trigger values (recreation areas or fields and kitchen garden). Investigations were conducted with arsenic, cadmium and benzo(a)pyren. The contamination of the soils with the contaminants was achieved by preparing samples containing mixtures of two uncontaminated soils of different characteristics with strongly contaminated soil samples. The contaminated soil samples were obtained from sites characterized by showing only one major contaminant. The test organisms selected for the ecotoxicological tests cover different trophic levels: microorganisms (original population), nitrification, basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration; nematodes (added organisms), reproduction rate; earthworms (added organisms), reproduction rate; plants, germ inhibition and biomass production. For cadmium and arsenic comparable test results for contaminated and control soils were obtained in the concentration range of the trigger values for recreation areas or fields and kitchen with repect to the experiments with plants, nematodes and microorganisms. In sandy soils the habitat function for earthworms may be affected. Due to the high portion of contaminated soil in the soil mixtures with benzo(a)pyren the interpretation of the test results is in some cases uncertain. A further check considering effects to the microflora and Eisenia fetida would be desirable. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens bestand darin, festzustellen, ob die im wesentlichen auf der Grundlage des Schutzes der menschlichen Gesundheit abgeleiteten Pruefwerte

  12. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 2. Lake, Marine, and Terrestrial Sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Parnell, A. C.; Cahill, N.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Dominguez-Vazquez, G.; Erlandson, J. M.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Mitra, S.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 185-205 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * climate feedback * climate variation * ice core * lacustrine deposit * marine sediment * paleoclimate * quantitative analysis * terrestrial deposit * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  13. Analysis of the impact of the Dutch Heat Act on projects and an inventory of stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budding, B.; Gerrits, W.; Grootscholten, C.

    2010-08-01

    The Dutch Heat Act was adopted by the Dutch Lower Chamber in February 2009. The main aim of the Act is reliable delivery of heat at reasonable prices and conditions to protect the consumer. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs commissioned a study on the effect of the Heat Act on investment decisions for new heat projects, encompassing a quantitative and a qualitative assessment. [nl

  14. The money laundering control act and proposed amendments: Its impact on the casino industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    1991-12-01

    In their efforts to track unreported income, Congress passed the Money Laundering Control Act in 1985. Because they are often involved in large cash transactions, casinos were required to report on cash transactions in amounts of $10,000 or more in much the same manner as banks and other financial institutions. However, because of the unique nature of cash and chip transactions within modern casinos, the Act, or state variants of it, have created significant compliance costs for casinos. This analysis examines the implications of the Act for the casino gaming industry, and evaluates some of the recent suggested Amendments to the Act.

  15. The DOe Silicon Track Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2003-01-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the DOe experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam

  16. Impacts of phylogenetic nomenclature on the efficacy of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Matthew S

    2015-02-01

    Cataloging biodiversity is critical to conservation efforts because accurate taxonomy is often a precondition for protection under laws designed for species conservation, such as the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Traditional nomenclatural codes governing the taxonomic process have recently come under scrutiny because taxon names are more closely linked to hierarchical ranks than to the taxa themselves. A new approach to naming biological groups, called phylogenetic nomenclature (PN), explicitly names taxa by defining their names in terms of ancestry and descent. PN has the potential to increase nomenclatural stability and decrease confusion induced by the rank-based codes. But proponents of PN have struggled with whether species and infraspecific taxa should be governed by the same rules as other taxa or should have special rules. Some proponents advocate the wholesale abandonment of rank labels (including species); this could have consequences for the implementation of taxon-based conservation legislation. I examined the principles of PN as embodied in the PhyloCode (an alternative to traditional rank-based nomenclature that names biological groups based on the results of phylogenetic analyses and does not associate taxa with ranks) and assessed how this novel approach to naming taxa might affect the implementation of species-based legislation by providing a case study of the ESA. The latest version of the PhyloCode relies on the traditional rank-based codes to name species and infraspecific taxa; thus, little will change regarding the main targets of the ESA because they will retain rank labels. For this reason, and because knowledge of evolutionary relationships is of greater importance than nomenclatural procedures for initial protection of endangered taxa under the ESA, I conclude that PN under the PhyloCode will have little impact on implementation of the ESA. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  18. Toward a rational understanding of migraine trigger factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, V T; Behbehani, M M

    2001-07-01

    The typical migraine patient is exposed to a myriad of migraine triggers on a daily basis. These triggers potentially can act at various sites within the cerebral vasculature and the central nervous system to promote the development of migraine headache. The challenge to the physician is in the identification and avoidance of migraine trigger factors within patients suffering from migraine headache. Only through a rational approach to migraine trigger factors can physicians develop an appropriate treatment strategy for migraine patients.

  19. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Lan, Vuong Thi Ngoc; Tuong, Ho Manh

    2013-01-01

    Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implanta......Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory...... implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients....

  20. The impact of modifying the Jones Act on US coastal shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The study assesses exempt coastal shipping defined as exempted from the US-built stipulation of the : Jones Act, operating with functional crews and exempted from Harbor Maintenance Tax (HMT). The : study focuses on two research questions: (a) the im...

  1. Acute Impact of Inhaled Short Acting B-Agonists on 5 Km Running Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dickinson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there appears to be no ergogenic effect from inhaled salbutamol no study has investigated the impact of the acute inhalation of 1600 µg, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA daily upper limit, on endurance running performance. To investigate the ergogenic effect of an acute inhalation of short acting β2-agonists at doses up to 1600 µg on 5 km time trial performance and resultant urine concentration. Seven male non-asthmatic runners (mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 4.3 years; height 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass 76.6 ± 8.6 kg provided written informed consent. Participants completed six 5 km time-trials on separate days (three at 18 °C and three at 30 °C. Fifteen minutes prior to the initiation of each 5 km time-trial participants inhaled: placebo (PLA, 800 µg salbutamol (SAL800 or 1600 µg salbutamol (SAL1600. During each 5 km time-trial HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, RPE and blood lactate were measured. Urine samples (90 ml were collected between 30-180 minutes post 5 km time-trial and analysed for salbutamol concentration. There was no significant difference in total 5 km time between treatments (PLA 1714.7 ± 186.2 s; SAL800 1683.3 ± 179.7 s; SAL1600 1683.6 ± 190.7 s. Post 5 km time-trial salbutamol urine concentration between SAL800 (122.96 ± 69.22 ug·ml-1 and SAL1600 (574.06 ± 448.17 ug·ml-1 were not significantly different. There was no improvement in 5 km time-trial performance following the inhalation of up to 1600 µg of salbutamol in non-asthmatic athletes. This would suggest that the current WADA guidelines, which allow athletes to inhale up to 1600 µg per day, is sufficient to avoid pharmaceutical induced performance enhancement.

  2. Hospital and Health Plan Partnerships: The Affordable Care Act's Impact on Promoting Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michelle; White, Annesha; Kelley, Virginia P.; Hopper, Jennifer Kuca; Liu, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reforms, centered on achieving the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Triple Aim goals of improving patient care quality and satisfaction, improving population health, and reducing costs, have led to increasing partnerships between hospitals and insurance companies and the implementation of employee wellness programs. Hospitals and insurance companies have opted to partner to distribute the risk and resources and increase coordination of care. Objective To examine the ACA's impact on the health and wellness programs that have resulted from the joint ventures of hospitals and health plans based on the published literature. Method We conducted a review of the literature to identify successful mergers and best practices of health and wellness programs. Articles published between January 2007 and January 2015 were compiled from various search engines, using the search terms “corporate,” “health and wellness program,” “health plan,” “insurance plan,” “hospital,” “joint venture,” and “vertical merger.” Publications that described consolidations or wellness programs not tied to health insurance plans were excluded. Noteworthy characteristics of these programs were summarized and tabulated. Results A total of 44 eligible articles were included in the analysis. The findings showed that despite rising healthcare costs, joint ventures prevent hospitals from trading-off quality and services for cost reductions. Administrators believed that partnering would allow the companies to meet ACA standards for improving clinical outcomes at reduced costs. Before the implementation of the ACA, some employers had wellness programs, but these were not standardized and did not need to produce measurable results. The ACA encouraged improvement of employee wellness programs by providing funding for expanded health services and by mandating quality care. Successful workplace health and wellness

  3. Regulatory restrictions and energy: The impact of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gius, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. Although the Jones Act pertains to the domestic shipment of all types of goods, the present study will only focus on gasoline. The present study will use data obtained from the Energy Information Administration in order to determine if the price of gasoline declined during Jones Act waiver periods. Looking at daily prices, the results regarding the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices are mixed. When using a t-test, the results indicated either that there was no significant difference or that prices were actually higher during the waiver periods. When using a first-order autoregressive model, it was found that prices were lower during the 2005 waiver period but higher during the 2012 waiver. Given these inconclusive results, it is not possible to conclude that the Jones Act restrictions contribute to higher gasoline prices. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. • I use daily price data over a seven year period. • I find that the results are mixed. • For the Hurricane Katrina waiver, prices fell, but for the Hurricane Sandy waiver, prices rose

  4. Terms and conditions for Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Smartway financing projects where an eligible nonprofit grantee is implementing a loan program and loan Recipients will use the loan funds for activities that trigger Davis Bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use this T&C for DERA Smartway financing projects where an eligible nonprofit grantee is implementing a loan program and loan Recipients will use the loan funds for activities that trigger Davis Bacon.

  5. Taxation in Nigeria: an evaluation of the impact of the Companies Income Tax Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Enya Nwocha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This Paper is written against the background of the need to strengthen Nigeria’s tax laws for optimum contribution to public revenue and economic development in an era of widespread tax evasion and economic recession. The Paper has found among other things that defects and loopholes that exist in the Companies Income Tax Act (CITA is the occasion for widespread tax evasion, the arbitrary and discriminatory application of the Act, and the political manipulation of the process. The result is that the Act is completely encumbered in achieving its objectives. To eliminate these encumbrances, the paper has recommended, among other things, the amendment of the law to place the wide discretionary powers of the president to impose on or exempt companies from taxation under the supervision and authority of the National Assembly and to place the powers of the Federal Board of Inland Revenue to distrain properties of defaulters under the jurisdiction of the courts.

  6. BAT Triggering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Palmer, D. M.; BAT Team

    2006-09-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected and located about 160 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first twenty months of operation. BAT employs two triggering systems to find GRBs: image triggering, which looks for a new point source in the field of view, and rate triggering, which looks for a significant increase in the observed counts. The image triggering system looks at 1 minute, 5 minute, and full pointing accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV, with about 50 evaluations per pointing (about 40 minutes). The rate triggering system looks through 13 different time scales (from 4ms to 32s), 4 overlapping energy bins (covering 15-350 keV), 9 regions of the detector plane (from the full plane to individual quarters), and two background sampling models to search for GRBs. It evaluates 27000 trigger criteria in a second, for close to 1000 criteria. The image triggering system looks at 1, 5, and 40 minute accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV. Both triggering systems are working very well with the settings from before launch and after we turned on BAT. However, we now have more than a year and a half of data to evaluate these triggering systems and tweak them for optimal performance, as well as lessons learned from these triggering systems.

  7. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... clothes. They should leave the coat outside or away from your child. Ask people who work at ...

  8. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973--its impact on employee selection practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J H

    1978-01-01

    The employee selection practices of private and public enterprises that contract with the federal government or receive federal financial assistance have been subjected to extensive regulation by the agencies administering sections 503 and 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act, which provide protection to qualified handicapped individuals. The author discusses the nature and significance of these restrictions and gives practical guidance on compliance. She cautions that the enforcement powers of the agencies administering the Act--the power to cut off federal funds, debar from future contracts, award back pay, and provide equitable relief--make it necessary for employers to show good faith and proper justification when a decision is made to reject a handicapped person for a job or a promotion.

  9. Impact of Tax Reform Act of 1986 on IRA's Investment Value

    OpenAIRE

    William Reichenstein; Mark L. Cross

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present an economic analysis of the tax advantages of deductible and nondeductible IRAs under the 1986 Tax Reform Act. These advantages are compared to those offered by other pension plans. The results show that the tax advantages of deductible IRAs allow for substantially higher values than the value of a similar investment held outside a pension account. The nondeductible IRA does not provide tax advantages over non-IRA investments if investors expect to with...

  10. Impacts of the Federal Energy Acts and Other Influences on Prices of Agricultural Commodities and Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Most of the increase in ethanol production in the 2008-2012 period can be attributed to the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and earlier federal energy legislation. The expansion in U.S. biofuel production, particularly ethanol, was the predominant cause of the elevated commodity prices. Other influences documented were a weak dollar, speculation and an increasingly inelastic commodity demand function. The supply function displayed more elasticity as crop farmers responded ...

  11. The impact of cost recovery on electric utilities' Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensinger, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    By 1995, over 200 electric power plant units in twenty one states must comply with Phase I of the acid rain requirements in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). By the year 2000, an additional 2200 units must comply with the Title IV. Compliance costs are expected to necessitate significant electricity rate increases. In order to recover their compliance costs, utilities must file rate increase requests with state public utility commissions (PUC's), and undergo a rate proceeding involving public heatings. Because of the magnitude of cost and the complexity of compliance options, including interaction with Titles I and III of the CAAA, extensive PUC reviews of compliance strategies are likely. These reviews could become as adversarial as the nuclear prudence reviews of the 1980's. A lack of understanding of air pollution and the CAA by much of the general public and the flexibility of compliance options creates an environment conducive to adverse public reaction to the cost of complying with the Clean Air Act. Public attitudes toward pollution control technologies will be greatly affected by these hearings, and the early plant hearings will shape the utility rate making process under the Clean Air Act. Inadequate cost recovery due to constrained compliance strategies or adverse hearings could significantly inhibit industry willingness to invest in certain control technologies or advanced combustion technologies. There are already signs that Clean Air Act compliance will be the prudence issue of the 1990's for utilities, even where state statutes mandate particular compliance approaches. Specific actions should be undertaken now by the utility industry to improve the probability of sound cost recovery decisions, preserve compliance options, including multimedia strategies, and avoid the social- and cost-acceptance problems of nuclear power

  12. Insulin biosimilars: the impact on rapid-acting analogue-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzè, S; Cilurzo, F; Minghetti, P

    2015-04-01

    The impending expiration of patent protection for recombinant insulins provides the opportunity to introduce cost-saving copies, named biosimilars, onto the market. Although there is broad experience in the production and characterisation of insulins, the development of copies is still a challenge. In this paper, the main features of insulins and the EU regulatory framework for their biosimilar products are reviewed. The main focus is on rapid-acting insulin analogues (Humalog(®); Novolog(®)/NovoRapid(®); Apidra(®)). Since they differ by one or two amino acids in chain B, production of one biosimilar for all three drug products is not feasible. However, from post-marketing-collected clinical data, rapid-acting insulin analogues seem to have similar therapeutic efficacy. It is reasonable to suppose that, for prescription to treatment-naïve patients, the cheaper biosimilar would be the preferred choice of physicians, either spontaneously or induced by health insurance. Therefore, its introduction will affect the market share of all the other rapid-acting insulin analogues.

  13. Requirements and impacts of the Federal Facility Compliance Act on the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.; Tripp, S.C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA, the Act) was signed into law on October 6, 1992, primarily as a means of waiving sovereign immunity for federal facilities with respect to requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE`s implementation of the FFCA will have significant effects on current and future DOE waste management operations. DOE will need to rethink its strategy in the area of future compliance agreements to ensure commitments and deliverables are made consistent throughout the different DOE facilities. Several types of agreements that address mixed waste land disposal restriction (LDR) compliance have already been signed by both DOE and the regulators. These agreements are in place at the Hanford Reservation, the Savannah River Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25, Y-12), and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The Rocky Flats Agreement is now being renegotiated. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia/Albuquerque National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory agreements are in progress. Major components of the FFCA include provisions on: sovereign immunity waiver; cost reimbursements; mixed waste requirements, including inventory reports on mixed waste and treatment capacity and technologies; and plans for the development of treatment capacities and technologies. Each of these components is discussed within this paper.

  14. Summary of Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Potential Impacts Related to Hanford Cleanup and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IWATATE, D.F.

    2000-07-14

    This white paper provides an initial assessment of the potential impacts of the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) regulations (and proposed revisions) on the Hanford site cleanup and addresses concerns that MTCA might impose inappropriate or unachievable clean-up levels and drive clean-up costs higher. The white paper and supporting documentation (Appendices A and B) provide DOE with a concise and up-to-date review of potential MTCA impacts to cost and schedule for the Hanford site activities. MTCA, Chapter 70.105D RCW, is the State of Washington's risk based law governing clean-up of contaminated sites and is implemented by The Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the MTCA Clean-up Regulations, Chapter 173-340 WAC. Hanford cleanup is subject to the MTCA requirements as Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for those areas of Hanford being managed under the authority of the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the state Dangerous Waste Regulations. MTCA provides Ecology with authority to implement site clean-up actions under both the federal RCRA and CERCLA regulations as well as the state regulations. Most of the Hanford clean-up actions are being implemented under the CERCLA program, however, there is a trend is toward increased use of MTCA procedures and standards. The application of MTCA to the Hanford clean-up has been an evolving process with some of the Hanford clean-up actions considering MTCA standards as an ARAR and using MTCA procedures for remedy selection. The increased use and application of MTCA standards and procedures could potentially impact both cost and schedule for the Hanford cleanup.

  15. Estimated Budget Impact of Adopting the Affordable Care Act's Required Smoking Cessation Coverage on United States Healthcare Payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Bruno, Marianna; Kowal, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Despite abundant information on the negative impacts of smoking, more than 40 million adult Americans continue to smoke. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires tobacco cessation as a preventive service with no patient cost share for all FDA-approved cessation medications. Health plans have a vital role in supporting smoking cessation by managing medication access, but uncertainty remains on the gaps between smoking cessation requirements and what is actually occurring in practice. This study presents current cessation patterns, real-world drug costs and plan benefit design data, and estimates the 1- to 5-year pharmacy budget impact of providing ACA-required coverage for smoking cessation products to understand the fiscal impact to a US healthcare plan. A closed cohort budget impact model was developed in Microsoft Excel ® to estimate current and projected costs for US payers (commercial, Medicare, Medicaid) covering smoking cessation medicines, with assumptions for coverage and smoking cessation product utilization based on current, real-world national and state-level trends for hypothetical commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid plans with 1 million covered lives. A Markov methodology with five health states captures quit attempt and relapse patterns. Results include the number of smokers attempting to quit, number of successful quitters, annual costs, and cost per-member per-month (PMPM). The projected PMPM cost of providing coverage for smoking cessation medications is $0.10 for commercial, $0.06 for Medicare, and $0.07 for Medicaid plans, reflecting a low incremental PMPM impact of covering two attempts ranging from $0.01 for Medicaid to $0.02 for commercial and Medicare payers. The projected PMPM impact of covering two quit attempts with access to all seven cessation medications at no patient cost share remains low. Results of this study reinforce that the impact of adopting the ACA requirements for smoking cessation coverage will have a limited near-term impact

  16. Air quality impacts of increased use of ethanol under the United States’ Energy Independence and Security Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rich; Phillips, Sharon; Houyoux, Marc; Dolwick, Pat; Mason, Rich; Yanca, Catherine; Zawacki, Margaret; Davidson, Ken; Michaels, Harvey; Harvey, Craig; Somers, Joseph; Luecken, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, "criteria" pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of increased ethanol use on ozone and air toxics under a potential implementation scenario resulting from mandates in the U. S. Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. The assessment of impacts was done for calendar year 2022, when 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be used. Impacts were assessed relative to a baseline which assumed ethanol volumes mandated by the first renewable fuels standard promulgated by U. S. EPA in early 2007. This assessment addresses both impacts of increased ethanol use on vehicle and other engine emissions, referred to as "downstream" emissions, and "upstream" impacts, i.e., those connected with fuel production and distribution. Air quality modeling was performed for the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), version 4.7. Pollutants included in the assessment were ozone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Results suggest that increased ethanol use due to EISA in 2022 will adversely increase ozone concentrations over much of the U.S., by as much as 1 ppb. However, EISA is projected to improve ozone air quality in a few highly-populated areas that currently have poor air quality. Most of the ozone improvements are due to our assumption of increases in nitrogen oxides (NO x) in volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited areas. While there are some localized impacts, the EISA renewable fuel standards have relatively little impact on national average ambient concentrations of most air toxics, although ethanol concentrations increase substantially. Significant uncertainties are associated with all results, due to limitations in available data. These uncertainties are

  17. Fetal protection and potential liability: judicial application of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act and the disparate impact theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelis, L S

    1985-01-01

    "Fetal vulnerability programs," which are employer attempts to protect employees' unborn fetuses from harm caused by the mothers' exposure to hazardous material in the workplace, have been challenged as a form of employment discrimination. This Note analyzes the recent judicial application of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) and the disparate impact theory to fetal vulnerability cases. The Note also examines the business necessity defense's accommodation of legitimate employer interests. The Note concludes that a more potent business necessity defense, a stricter standard for evaluating alternative protective measures, and a judicial interpretation of the PDA which is more consistent with congressional intent are necessary for fair and reasonable resolution of these cases.

  18. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  19. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  20. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  1. Assessing Alternative Modifications to the Affordable Care Act: Impact on Individual Market Premiums and Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibner, Christine; Saltzman, Evan

    2015-03-20

    The goals of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are to enable all legal U.S. residents to have access to affordable health insurance and to prevent sicker individuals (such as those with preexisting conditions) from being priced out of the market. The ACA also instituted several policies to stabilize premiums and to encourage enrollment among healthy individuals of all ages. The law's tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies offer a "carrot" that may encourage enrollment among some young and healthy individuals who would otherwise remain uninsured, while the individual mandate acts as a "stick" by imposing penalties on individuals who choose not to enroll. In this article, the authors use the COMPARE microsimulation model, an analytic tool that uses economic theory and data to predict the effects of health policy reforms, to estimate how eliminating the ACA's individual mandate, eliminating the law's tax credits, and combined scenarios that change these and other provisions of the act might affect 2015 individual market premiums and overall insurance coverage. Underlying these estimates is a COMPARE-based analysis of how premiums and insurance coverage outcomes depend on young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage. The authors find that eliminating the ACA's tax credits and eliminating the individual mandate both increase premiums and reduce enrollment on the individual market. They also find that these key features of the ACA help to protect against adverse selection and stabilize the market by encouraging healthy people to enroll and, in the case of the tax credit, shielding subsidized enrollees from premium increases. Further, they find that individual market premiums are only modestly sensitive to young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage, and ensuring market stability does not require that young adults make up a particular share of enrollees.

  2. Drug discovery and the impact of the safe harbor provision of the Hatch- Waxman Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Susanne H

    2010-01-01

    Many facets of drug discovery involve the use of patented materials and methods, subjecting the researcher to potential liability from infringement of the underlying patents. Enacted in 1984, the Hatch-Waxman Act established a “safe harbor” for activities that would otherwise constitute infringement of a patented invention, if those activities were “solely for uses reasonably related to the development and submission of information under a Federal law which regulates the manufacture, use, or sale of drugs or veterinary biological products”. This article examines the major court decisions interpreting the scope of the safe harbor and their application to various activities in drug development.

  3. Analysis of the impacts of the 1984 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act amendments on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Davis, K.D.; Johnson, R.D.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Wallace, M.T.

    1986-02-01

    The November 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have had, and will continue to have, a significant impact on the management of hazardous and radioactive mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These Amendments include new requirements specific to federal facilities such as the INEL. In this paper, areas of direct impact and associated INEL plans for complying with the 1984 RCRA Amendments will be described. The specific areas to be covered are the following: (1) changes in RCRA Part B permitting, including requirements for addressing past hazardous waste TSD sites; (2) the effects of increased restrictions on land disposal; (3) new requirements for undergrond tanks; (4) requirements for federal facilities; and (5) mandatory minimization of waste generation

  4. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...

  5. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  6. Trigger Menu in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the trigger menu deployed by the ATLAS experiment during 2017 data taking at proton-proton collision centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=5$ TeV at the LHC and describes the improvements with respect to the trigger system and menu used in 2016 data taking.

  7. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  8. The LHCb trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando Morata, Jose Angel

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on an efficient trigger to select a rate up to 2 kHz of events useful for physics analysis from an initial rate of 10 MHz of visible collisions. In this contribution, we describe the different LHCb trigger algorithms and present their expected performance.

  9. Implementation of South African national credit act and its impact on home loans market: The case of First National Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathmanathan Vasie Naicker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since it has been observed that credit granting is a serious problem across the entire credit market, South Africa introduced National Credit Act 34 of 2005 in order to regulate the credit industry and protect credit consumers from becoming over-indebted. The study highlights and examines the implementation of the Act in relation to the South African home loans market, focussing on First National Bank home loans portfolio. The study documents that the current state of consumer indebtedness shows that both credit institutions and consumers were responsible for over extending retail credit. The study noticed that credit industry has significantly managed to regulate the retail credit through the implementation of the Act. Furthermore, the study finds that a new stakeholder such as a debt counsellor has been introduced into the retail credit value chain for debt counselling for over-indebted clients. However, the study recommends that internal forums within banks as well as industry-wide forums should be used in order to ensure that the implementation of a regulation that impacts the entire credit industry is implemented with all stakeholders to limit any possible misinterpretation of key sections of a new regulation.

  10. The NA27 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Di Capua, E.; Falciano, S.; Iori, M.; Marel, G.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Haupt, L.; Hellman, S.; Holmgren, S.O.; Johansson, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    We have designed and implemented a minimum bias trigger together with a fiducial volume trigger for the experiment NA27, performed at the CERN SPS. A total of more than 3 million bubble chamber pictures have been taken with a triggered cross section smaller than 75% of the total inelastic cross section. Events containing charm particles were triggered with an efficiency of 98 +2 sub(-3)%. With the fiducial volume trigger, the probability for a picture to contain an interaction in the visible hydrogen increased from 47.3% to 59.5%, reducing film cost and processing effort with about 20%. The improvement in data taking rate is shown to be negligible. (author)

  11. Impact of the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act on the State of Mississippi. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrard, J.H.; Gibson, P.W.

    1991-10-01

    As a result of the U.S. Congress passing the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, the number of regulated contaminants that must be monitored in public water systems has increased from 24 to 85. The economic impact of the new legislation is greater on small systems than large systems because of economies of scale. In addition, more highly trained water treatment plant operators will be needed to deal with the complex legislation and to ensure the continuous supply of safe drinking water to their communities. Because of the complexity and increased scope of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, a detailed discussion of the requirements that must be met by each public water supply is presented as background information. The objectives of the research were to: (1) determine the economic impacts of the 1986 Amendments on water systems throughout the State of Mississippi, (2) determine the number of systems that will need new and/or upgraded treatments technology to comply with the regulations, and (3) provide an assessment of the needs of the State DWS

  12. End-of-Year 2010-11 Progress Report to the Legislature: Implementation and Impact of the Workforce Investment Act, Title II Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provides funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…

  13. Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Geue, Claudia; Lewsey, James; Mackay, Daniel; McCartney, Gerry; Curnock, Esther; Beeston, Clare

    2014-12-01

    A ban on multi-buy discounts of off-trade alcohol was introduced as part of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in October 2011. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this legislation on alcohol sales, which provide the best indicator of population consumption. Interrupted time-series regression was used to assess the impact of the Alcohol Act on alcohol sales among off-trade retailers in Scotland. Models accounted for underlying seasonal and secular trends and were adjusted for disposable income, alcohol prices and substitution effects. Data for off-trade retailers in England and Wales combined (EW) provided a control group. Weekly data on the volume of pure alcohol sold by off-trade retailers in Scotland and EW between January 2009 and September 2012. The introduction of the legislation was associated with a 2.6% (95% CI = -5.3 to 0.2%, P = 0.07) decrease in off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, but not in EW (-0.5%, 95% CI = -4.6 to 3.9%, P = 0.83). A statistically significant reduction was observed in Scotland when EW sales were adjusted for in the analysis (-1.7%, 95% CI = -3.1 to -0.3%, P = 0.02). The decline in Scotland was driven by reduced off-trade sales of wine (-4.0%, 95% CI = -5.4 to -2.6%, P types in Scotland, or in sales of any drink type in EW. The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  15. The Impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on Financial Stability and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Neil Baily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the benefits and costs of key provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that strengthened regulation following the financial crisis. The provisions are placed into five groupings: clear wins, clear losses, costly tradeoffs, unfinished business, and too soon to tell. Clear wins include higher prudential standards, including for capital; the single-point-of-entry resolution authority; creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau; and greater transparency and oversight of derivatives. Clear losses are restrictions on Federal Reserve emergency lending authority and forcing the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to obtain permission from Congress before providing temporary liquidity guarantees. Costly tradeoffs are the Volcker Rule and the Lincoln Amendment. Unfinished business includes regulatory consolidation and more independence for the Financial Stability Oversight Council and the Office of Financial Research. Too soon to tell are requirements and standards for leverage ratios, capital buffers, stress testing, and liquidity requirements.

  16. The Brussels Nuclear Ship Convention and its impact on the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Brussels Nuclear Ship Liability Convention of 1962, whose incorporation into German law was agreed upon by the German Federal Parliament (the Bundestag) in 1975, will have only minor international significance once it has entered into force, it will yet provide a new legal basis for the nuclear liability of the German vessel N.S. 'Otto Hahn' for the periods of her stay within the Federal Republic of Germany. However, there is no smooth concurrence of the Brussels Convention and the German Atomic Energy Act adapted to the Paris Liability Convention in 1975. This means that a number of questions still need to be resolved with respect to the protection of victims and the liability of shipowners. (orig.) [de

  17. Ca2+ influx and tyrosine kinases trigger Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT endocytosis. Cell physiology and expression of the CD11b/CD18 integrin major determinants of the entry route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa B Uribe

    Full Text Available Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3, its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca(2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface.

  18. Ca2+ Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of the CD11b/CD18 Integrin Major Determinants of the Entry Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Gómez-Bilbao, Geraxane; Ostolaza, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3), its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface. PMID:24058533

  19. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Ilten, Philip; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays. (paper)

  20. NOMAD Trigger Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvell, K.

    1995-01-01

    The author reports on the status of an offline study of the NOMAD triggers, which has several motivations. Of primary importance is to demonstrate, using offline information recorded by the individual subdetectors comprising NOMAD, that the online trigger system is functioning as expected. Such an investigation serves to complement the extensive monitoring which is already carried out online. More specific to the needs of the offline software and analysis, the reconstruction of tracks and vertices in the detector requires some knowledge of the time at which the trigger has occurred, in order to locate relevant hits in the drift chambers and muon chambers in particular. The fact that the different triggers allowed by the MIOTRINO board take varying times to form complicates this task. An offline trigger algorithm may serve as a tool to shed light on situations where the online trigger status bits have not been recorded correctly, as happens in a small number of cases, or as an aid to studies with the aim of further refinement of the online triggers themselves

  1. Impact Of Retirement Benefit Act (RBA) On Investment Returns To Pension Funds In Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Jepchoge Rono; Julius Kibet Bitok; Gordon N Asamoah

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the analysis of the impact of RBA guidelines on the return on investments of both pension funds under management and those for pension schemes. A random sample of 175 fund trustees and a census of 13 fund managers from registered fund management companies participated in the survey. The questionnaire was administered through the drop-and-pick method. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) and summarized in descriptive statistics, such as ...

  2. Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    policies and drawing on various math- ematical models that represent the workings of the econ - omy.5 On that basis, and as summarized in Table 2, CBO...reports were required. The actual impact could, in principle , have been significantly larger or smaller than the number of jobs reported. 6...legislation will have no long-term effects on employment because the U.S. econ - omy will have a high rate of use of its labor resources in the long run.16

  3. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors

  4. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  5. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  6. BTeV Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E.

    2006-01-01

    BTeV was designed to conduct precision studies of CP violation in BB-bar events using a forward-geometry detector in a hadron collider. The detector was optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and antiprotons. The trigger was designed to take advantage of the main difference between events with beauty and charm particles and more typical hadronic events-the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger was to receive data from a pixel vertex detector, reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject at least 98% of beam crossings in which neither beauty nor charm particles were produced, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its evolution to include commodity networking and computing components is presented

  7. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O; Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Alexandre, G; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bee, C; P, Behera; Bell, P; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bohm, C

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  8. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I.P.; Brelier, B.; Brooks, W.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cerri, A.; Charlton, D.G.; Childers, J.T.; Collins, N.J.; Conde Muino, P.; Coura Torres, R.; Cranmer, K.; Curtis, C.J.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Davis, A.O.; De Santo, A.; Degenhardt, J.

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  9. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igonkina, O [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M [Institut fr Physik, Universitt Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Alexandre, G [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Anduaga, X [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Aracena, I [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Baines, J; Barnett, B M [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); P, Behera [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Bell, P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Benslama, K [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Berry, T [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (United Kingdom); Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  10. A Bibliography of Selected Literature on Indirect Impacts Associated with Clean Water Act Section 404 Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Journal of Herpetology 40 (4):442-453. http://falcon.cc.ukans.edu/~gpisani/SSAR.html CCC:000237442500007 Blanco-Canqui, H., C. J. Gantzer, S. H...in an urbanizing watershed. Journal of Herpetology 41 (3):439-450. Sovell, L. A., B. Vondracek, J. A. Frost, and K. G. Mumford. 2000. Impacts of...amphibians in western Massachusetts. Journal of Herpetology 41 (2):243-250. Ward, R. L., J. T. Anderson, and J. T. Petty. 2008. Effects of road crossings on

  11. Impacts and Compliance Implementation Plans and Required Deviations for Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Regulation of Double Shell Tanks (DST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held meetings regarding the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) contain waste which will become subject to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor (TFC) to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. Two components of the PCB management plans are this assessment of the operational impacts of TSCA regulation and the identifications of deviations from TSCA that are required to accommodate tank farm unique limitations. This plan provides ORP and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) with an outline of TSCA PCB requirements and their applicability to tank farm activities, and recommends a compliance/implementation approach. Where strict compliance is not possible, the need for deviations from TSCA PCB requirements is identified. The purpose of assembling this information is to enhance the understanding of PCB management requirements, identify operational impacts and select impact mitigation strategies. This information should be useful in developing formal agreements with EPA where required

  12. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  13. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  14. Impact of hepatitis C virus genotype-4 eradication following direct acting antivirals on liver stiffness measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tag-Adeen M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Tag-Adeen,1,2 Ahlam Mohamed Sabra,1 Yuko Akazawa,2 Ken Ohnita,2 Kazuhiko Nakao2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Qena School of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nagasaki School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan Background: Liver fibrosis is the most important prognostic factor in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV patients, and Egypt shows the highest worldwide HCV prevalence with genotype-4 predominance. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of liver stiffness measurement (LSM improvement after successful HCV eradication.Patients and methods: The study included 84 chronic HCV Egyptian patients, and was conducted at Qena University Hospital from November 1, 2015 till October 31, 2016. LSM was obtained by FibroScan® before starting direct acting antiviral (DAA treatment and after achieving sustained virologic response-24 (SVR-24. Based on baseline LSM, patients were stratified into F0–F1, F2, F3 and F4 groups (METAVIR. LSM and laboratory data after achieving SVR-24 was compared with that before starting therapy in each fibrosis group (F0-F4, p-value <0.05 was statistically significant.Results: Following DAA treatment, 80 patients achieved SVR-24; of these, 50 were males (62.5%, mean age: 54.2±7.6 years, and mean body mass index: 28.6±2.2 kg/m2. Mean baseline LSM dropped from 15.6±10.8 to 12.1±8.7 kPa post-SVR; the maximum change of −5.8 occurred in F4 versus −2.79, −1.28 and +0.08 in F3, F2 and F0–F1 respectively (p<0.0001. At baseline, 41 patients were in the F4 group; only 16 (39% regressed to non-cirrhotic range (<12.5 kPa, while 25 (61% were still cirrhotic despite achieving SVR-24 (p<0.0001. Patients who achieved LSM improvement (n=64 have had significantly higher baseline aspartate transferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT. Also, those patients showed significant improvement in AST, AST/platelets ratio index

  15. Impact of cathepsin B-sensitive triggers and hydrophilic linkers on in vitro efficacy of novel site-specific antibody-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Francesca; Martin, Camille; Letast, Stéphanie; Lles, Eva; Viéitez-Villemin, Inmaculada; Rousseau, Anaïs; Colas, Cyril; Brachet-Botineau, Marie; Allard-Vannier, Emilie; Larbouret, Christel; Viaud-Massuard, Marie-Claude; Joubert, Nicolas

    2018-03-14

    Herein we describe the synthesis and evaluation of four novel HER2-targeting, cathepsin B-sensitive antibody-drug conjugates bearing a monomethylauristatin E (MMAE) cytotoxic payload, constructed via the conjugation of cleavable linkers to trastuzumab using a site-specific bioconjugation methodology. These linkers vary by both cleavable trigger motif and hydrophilicity, containing one of two cathepsin B sensitive dipeptides (Val-Cit and Val-Ala), and engendered with either hydrophilic or hydrophobic character via application of a PEG 12 spacer. Through evaluation of physical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and receptor affinity of the resulting antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), we have demonstrated that while both dipeptide triggers are effective, the increased hydrophobicity of the Val-Ala pair limits its utility within this type of linker. In addition, while PEGylation augments linker hydrophilicity, this change does not translate to more favourable ADC hydrophilicity or potency. While all described structures demonstrated excellent and similar in vitro cytotoxicity, the ADC with the ValCitPABMMAE linker shows the most promising combination of in vitro potency, structural homogeneity, and hydrophilicity, warranting further evaluation into its therapeutic potential.

  16. Health impact assessment of Ontario's green energy and green economy act. The roles of environmental informatics in sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattle, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy received a boost in Ontario, Canada with the Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA), ushering in a new Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program modelled on programs from Germany, Spain, Denmark and other jurisdictions. Information about lessons learned elsewhere has clearly benefited the Ontario experience. Part of the Ontario program included streamlining the impact assessment process to facilitate the swift development of provincial renewable energy capacities. In this context, the GEGEA has been remarkably successful, generating renewable energy sector capacities, resources, projects and their spin-off benefits in Ontario, along with more sustainable electricity system. Environmentalists along with industry continue to laud the benefits of renewable energy and the GEGEA, and with good reason. Renewable energy generation in Ontario has grown from to 2 per cent in 2012 and is expected to reach 10 per cent in 2013. (orig.)

  17. Fisetin Acts on Multiple Pathways to Reduce the Impact of Age and Disease on CNS Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems. Thus, while each disease has its own initiating mechanisms and pathologies, certain common pathways appear to be involved in most, if not all, neurological diseases described to date. Thus, it is unlikely that modulating only a single factor will be effective at either preventing disease development or slowing disease progression. A better approach is to identify small (fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglial cells and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their by-products. This wide range of actions suggests that fisetin has the ability to reduce the impact of age-related neurological diseases on brain function. PMID:25961687

  18. The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK : Helping or Hindering Employment Amongst the Disabled?

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David N.F.; Heitmüller, Axel

    2005-01-01

    The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. This paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the US, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are low ...

  19. Economic Impacts of the Generic Drug User Fee Act Fee Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Generic Drug User system, Generic Drug User Fee Amendment of 2012 (GDUFA), started October 1, 2012, and has been in place for over 3 years. There is controversy about the GDUFA fee structure but no analysis of GDUFA data that we could find. To look at the economic impact of the GDUFA fee structure. We compared the structure of GDUFA with that of other FDA Human Drug User fees. We then, using FDA-published information, analyzed where GDUFA facility and Drug Master File fees are coming from. We used the Orange Book to identify the sponsors of all approved Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) and the S&P Capital IQ database to find the ultimate parent companies of sponsors of approved ANDAs. The key differences between the previous structure for Human Drug User fees and the GDUFA are as follows: GDUFA has no approved product fee and no first-time or small business fee exemptions and GDUFA charges facility fees from the time of filing and charges a foreign facility levy. Most GDUFA fees are paid by or on behalf of foreign entities. The top 10 companies hold nearly 50% of all approved ANDAs but pay about 14% of GDUFA facility fees. We conclude that the regressive nature of the GDUFA fee structure penalizes small, new, and foreign firms while benefiting the large established firms. A progressive fee structure in line with other human drug user fees is needed to ensure a healthy generic drug industry. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  1. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  2. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN’s LHC has implemented a dedicated tau trigger system to select hadronically decaying tau leptons from the enormous background of QCD jets. This promises a significant increase in the discovery potential to the Higgs boson and in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The three level trigger system has been optimised for effciency and good background rejection. The first level uses information from the calorimeters only, while the two higher levels include also information from the tracking detectors. Shower shape variables and the track multiplicity are important variables to distinguish taus from QCD jets. At the initial lumonosity of 10^31 cm^−2 s^−1, single tau triggers with a transverse energy threshold of 50 GeV or higher can be run standalone. Below this level, the tau signatures will be combined with other event signature

  3. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  4. ATLAS: triggers for B-physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Simon

    2000-01-01

    The LHC will produce bb-bar events at an unprecedented rate. The number of events recorded by ATLAS will be limited by the rate at which they can be stored offline and subsequently analysed. Despite the huge number of events, the small branching ratios mean that analysis of many of the most interesting channels for CP violation and other measurements will be limited by statistics. The challenge for the Trigger and Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is therefore to maximise the fraction of interesting B decays in the B-physics data stream. The ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system is split into three levels. The initial B-physics selection is made in the first-level trigger by an inclusive low-p T muon trigger (∼6 GeV). The second-level trigger strategy is based on identifying classes of final states by their partial reconstruction. The muon trigger is confirmed before proceeding to a track search. Electron/hadron separation is given by the transition radiation tracking detector and the Electromagnetic calorimeter. Muon identification is possible using the muon detectors and the hadronic calorimeter. From silicon strips, pixels and straw tracking, precise track reconstruction is used to make selections based on invariant mass, momentum and impact parameter. The ATLAS trigger group is currently engaged in algorithm development and performance optimisation for the B-physics trigger. This is closely coupled to the R and D programme for the higher-level triggers. Together the two programmes of work will optimise the hardware, architecture and algorithms to meet the challenging requirements. This paper describes the current status and progress of this work

  5. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  6. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  7. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  8. The STAR trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Greiner, L.C.; Judd, E.G.; Klein, S.R.; Meissner, F.; Minor, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Mutchler, G.; Nelson, J.M.; Schambach, J.; VanderMolen, A.S.; Ward, H.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the trigger system that we designed and implemented for the STAR detector at RHIC. This is a 10 MHz pipelined system based on fast detector output that controls the event selection for the much slower tracking detectors. Results from the first run are presented and new detectors for the 2001 run are discussed

  9. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm people too. Try to use pest management methods that pose less of a risk. Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean and ... with pest challenges in your home and other environments. [EPA ... pests while reducing pesticide risks; roaches are often asthma triggers and shouldn’t ...

  10. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors at the ILC are planned to run without hardware trigger. The ... as not coming from the interaction point and not matching to the silicon detectors ... electrons so that additional dE/dx cuts can help, making also here a factor 10 or.

  11. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  12. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one trigger that you shouldn't avoid because exercise is important for your health. Your doctor will want you to be active, so talk with him or her about what to do before playing ... or 15 minutes before you exercise or play sports. And, of course, you'll ...

  13. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Trigger Finger Email to a friend * required fields ...

  14. S. 1626: This Act may be cited as the Mickey Leland Minority Economic Impact Revitalization Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, September 14, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    S. 1626 is a bill to establish within the Office of Minority Economic Impact of the Department of Energy (DOE) programs involving loans and grants to enhance the development and operation of minority business enterprises with respect to energy-related business, to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 to permit the investment of certain funds in the Minority Bank Deposit Program of the Department of the Treasury, and for other purposes

  15. H.R. 3184: The Act may be cited as the Department of Energy Minority Economic Impact Revitalization Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, August 4, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 3184 is a bill to establish within the Office of Minority Economics Impact of the Department of Energy (DOE) programs involving loans and grants to enhance the development and operation of minority business enterprises with respect to energy-related business, to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 to permit the investment of certain funds in the Minority Bank Deposit Program of the Department of the Treasury, and for other purposes

  16. The impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from an annular or circular nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xi, E-mail: cx-dem@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-11

    With the indirect thrust measurement of electric thrusters working at a low vacuum chamber pressure as the research background, this paper analyses the impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from a thruster with an annular or circular exit section for the free-molecule flow regime (at large Knudsen numbers). The constraint relation proposed by Cai and Boyd (2007 J. Spacecr. Rockets 44 619, 1326) about the velocity components of gas particles leaving a location on the nozzle exit section and arriving at a given spatial point outside the nozzle has been employed here to derive the analytical expressions for calculating the impact force. Sample calculation results show that if the flat plate is sufficiently large, the impact force acting on the flat plate calculated for the case without accounting for gas particle reflection at the plate surface agrees well with the axial momentum flux calculated at the thruster exit or the theoretical thrust force of the studied thruster, while accounting for the contribution of gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production may significantly increase the calculated impact force acting on the flat plate. For a Hall-effect thruster in which the thrust force is dominantly produced by the ions with high directional kinetic energy and the ions are not directly reflected from the plate surface, the contribution to the impact force production of atom species and of gas particles reflected from the plate surface is negligibly small and thus the measured axial impact force acting on a sufficiently large plate can well represent the thrust force of the thruster. On the other hand, if the contribution of the gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production cannot be neglected (e.g. for the electric thrusters with comparatively low thruster exit temperatures), appreciable error would appear in the indirect thrust measurement.

  17. Prevalence of asthma-triggering drug use in adults and its impact on asthma control: A cross-sectional study – Saudi (Jeddah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moufag Mohammed Saeed Tayeb

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The use of asthma-triggering drugs (ATDs is a major factor in poor asthma control (PAC, which can be either uncontrolled or partially controlled. ATDs include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, β-blockers, aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Aims To measure the prevalence of ATD use in adult asthmatics and their control levels. Methods This is a one-year cross-sectional study (starting March 2016. A sample of 173 adult asthmatics (mean age: 44±16 years was enrolled from five primary care centres in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia. Asthmatics were clinically diagnosed according to the British Thoracic Society’s asthma guidelines. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was excluded by reversibility (i.e., symptom improvement after using asthma drugs. The four questions about asthma control from the Global Initiative for Asthma’s 2016 guidelines were translated to Arabic, photos and names of ATDs available in local pharmacies were collected, and a questionnaire was drafted. The questionnaire was presented to adult asthmatics by medical students during a personal interview. Data were statistically analysed using SPSS. Results Fifty percent of the adult asthmatics who used ATDs had badly controlled asthma: 31 per cent uncontrolled and 19 per cent partially controlled. Of the patients who took ATDs, 97 per cent had used several ATDs for extended periods of time without any warnings from health professionals. In order of prevalence, aspirin, ACE inhibitors, other NSAIDs, and β-blockers were the most common ATDs used. Conclusion ATDs are a major cause of PAC. ATD use is extensive and often goes unnoticed. The present findings highlight the low awareness of health professionals about the undesirable effects of ATDs on asthma control. This problem needs to be resolved by regular and continuous asthma health educational courses. During clinic visits, health professionals should inquire about ATD use

  18. Psychiatric emergency "surge capacity" following acts of terrorism and mass violence with high media impact: what is required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Cindy; Kashner, T Michael; Kashner, Tetyana K; Xuan, Lei; Larkin, Gregory L

    2011-01-01

    Adequate preparedness for acts of terrorism and mass violence requires a thorough understanding of the postdisaster mental health needs of all exposed groups, including those watching such events from a distance. This study examined emergency psychiatric treatment-seeking patterns following media exposure to four national terrorist or mass casualty events. An event was selected for study if (a) it precipitated local front-page headlines for >5 consecutive days and (b) emergency service psychiatrists identified it as specifically precipitating help-seeking in the study hospital. Four events qualified: the Oklahoma City bombing (1995), the Columbine High School (1999) and Wedgewood Baptist Church (1999) shootings and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Time-series analyses were used to correct for autocorrelation in visit patterns during the postdisaster week, and equivalent time periods from years before and after each event were used as control years. Overall, disaster week census did not differ significantly from predisaster weeks, although 3-day nonsignificant decreases in visit rate were observed following each disaster. Treatment-seeking for anxiety-related issues showed a nonsignificant increase following each disaster, which became significant in the "all disaster" model (t=5.17; P=.006). Intensity of media coverage did not impact rate of help-seeking in any analysis. Although these sentinel US disasters varied in scope, method, geographic proximity to the study site, perpetrator characteristics, public response, sequelae and degree of media coverage, the extent to which they impacted emergency department treatment-seeking was minimal. Geographically distant mass violence and disaster events of the type and scope studied here may require only minimal mental health "surge capacity" in the days following the event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Obstetricians and gynecologists' opinions about the Affordable Care Act and their expectations about how it will impact their practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta L. Anderson, Ph.D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the primary healthcare providers for women, obstetrician-gynecologists' (OB/GYNs experiences with and opinions about the Affordable Care Act (ACA are important to understand. An online survey was sent to 1000 randomly selected OB/GYNs who were members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG in 2014. Of those, 523 opened the email and 163 responded (31% participation rate. Data were collected August 2014-October 2014 and analyzed in 2015–2016. Support for the ACA was widely distributed, with the largest subset of the sample (about 21% in the “very supportive” category. Opinions of the ACA were more supportive than they were in a previous study conducted in 2011. When given a list of possible positive and negative impacts of the ACA on their practice, roughly 1 in 5 reported that the ACA increased work-related stress (28%, decreased total profits (22%, and lowered career satisfaction (22%, whereas 8.6% reported that the ACA increased quality of care. Around half of the providers thought that their newly insured patients would have the same level of education (42% and numeric ability (55% as their current patients. Almost all respondents (87% indicated that it is at least slightly important for patients to understand their numeric likelihood of risk (such as numeric risk information from medications, treatments, and other procedures you might prescribe —31% think it is extremely important and 44% think it is moderately important.

  20. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of total US steam electric generating capacity operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report describes alternatives available to nuclear and coal-fired plants currently operating under variances. Data from 38 plants representing 14 companies are used to estimate the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Although there are other alternatives, most affected plants would be retrofitted with cooling towers. Assuming that all plants currently operating under variances would install cooling towers, the national capital cost estimate for these retrofits ranges from $22.7 billion to $24.4 billion (in 1992 dollars). The second report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. Little justification has been found for removing the Section 316(a) variance from the CWA

  1. The impact of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act on the recruitment of children for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharav, Vera Hassner

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that contrary to the claims made by research stakeholders in industry, academia and government, the shift in public policy since the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) of 1997 and its financial incentives to industry to test drugs on children, has had a deleterious impact on children's dignity, health and welfare. Those lucrative incentives offered an opportunity to accelerate the pace of FDA approval for pediatric drug marketing. FDAMA resulted in a radical shift in federal policy to accommodate an expansion of pediatric trials. Children who are precluded from exercising a human adult's right to informed consent to research are increasingly sought as test subjects even when the trials offer no potential benefit for them. Prior to FDAMA children were protected under federal regulations that prohibited their recruitment for experiments that were not in their best interest. This article discusses eight cases and controversies demonstrating that children have been subjected to experiments that exposed them to pain, discomfort, and serious risks of harm. Babies have died testing a lethal heartburn drug; children have been subjected to "forced dose titration" in antidepressant drug trials that resulted in several suicide attempts. Toddlers are currently being subjected to methylphenidate dose tolerance tests without evidence of any pathological condition. Healthy teenagers are being exposed to antipsychotic drugs known to induce severe pathological side effects in speculative "schizophrenia prevention" experiments.

  2. Areas of Potential Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on EMS: A Synthesis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Ostermayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This comprehensive review synthesizes the existing literature on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA as it relates to emergency medical services (EMS in order to provide guidance for navigating current and future healthcare changes. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review to identify all existing literature related to the ACA and EMS and all sections within the federal law pertaining to EMS. Results: Many changes enacted by the ACA directly affect emergency care with potential indirect effects on EMS systems. New Medicaid enrollees and changes to existing coverage plans may alter EMS transport volumes. Reimbursement changes such as adjustments to the ambulance inflation factor (AIF alter the yearly increases in EMS reimbursement by incorporating the multifactor productivity value into yearly reimbursement adjustments. New initiatives, funded by the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation are exploring novel and cost-effective prehospital care delivery opportunities while EMS agencies individually explore partnerships with healthcare systems. Conclusion: EMS systems should be aware of the direct and indirect impact of ACA on prehospital care due to the potential for changes in financial reimbursement, acuity and volume changes, and ongoing new care delivery initiatives.[West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(3446-453.

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  4. Impact of hepatitis C virus polymorphisms on direct-acting antiviral treatment efficacy: Regulatory analyses and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Patrick R; Komatsu, Takashi E; Deming, Damon J; Donaldson, Eric F; O'Rear, Julian J; Naeger, Lisa K

    2018-06-01

    Several highly effective, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based regimens are available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Despite impressive efficacy overall, a small proportion of patients in registrational trials experienced treatment failure, which in some cases was associated with the detection of HCV resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at baseline. In this article, we describe methods and key findings from independent regulatory analyses investigating the impact of baseline nonstructural (NS) 3 Q80K and NS5A RASs on the efficacy of current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved regimens for patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1 or GT3 infection. These analyses focused on clinical trials that included patients who were previously naïve to the DAA class(es) in their investigational regimen and characterized the impact of baseline RASs that were enriched in the viral population as natural or transmitted polymorphisms (i.e., not drug-selected RASs). We used a consistent approach to optimize comparability of results across different DAA regimens and patient populations, including the use of a 15% sensitivity cutoff for next-generation sequencing results and standardized lists of NS5A RASs. These analyses confirmed that detection of NS3 Q80K or NS5A baseline RASs was associated with reduced treatment efficacy for multiple DAA regimens, but their impact was often minimized with the use of an intensified treatment regimen, such as a longer treatment duration and/or addition of ribavirin. We discuss the drug resistance-related considerations that contributed to pretreatment resistance testing and treatment recommendations in drug labeling for FDA-approved DAA regimens. Independent regulatory analyses confirmed that baseline HCV RASs can reduce the efficacy of certain DAA-based regimens in selected patient groups. However, highly effective treatment options are available for patients with or without

  5. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  6. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  7. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  8. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, N.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Siegmund, T.; Bergter, J.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K.R.; Waldi, R.; Imhof, M.; Ressing, D.; Weiss, U.; Weseler, S.

    1995-09-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  10. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA

  11. Exploring lag and duration effect of sunshine in triggering suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Frangakis, Constantine E; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Petridou, Eleni; Stevens, Richard G; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-11-01

    Sunshine is considered to have a beneficial impact on mood. Interestingly, it has been consistently found that the incidence of suicide reaches a peak during early summer. In order to explore the pattern of sunshine and suicide risk in a time frame of up to nine days and investigate possible lag and duration parameters of sunshine in the triggering of suicide, Greek daily suicide and solar radiance data were analyzed for a 10-year period using logistic regression models. The solar radiance during the day before the suicide event was significantly associated with an increased suicide risk (OR=1.020 per MW/m2). The average solar radiance during the four previous days was also significantly associated with an increased suicide risk (OR=1.031 per MW/m2). Differences among genders include the longer sunshine exposure needed in males to trigger suicide, compared to females and a lag period of three to four days that was found to lapse in females till the suicide. The increase in suicide risk in June compared to December, attributable to the daily sunshine effect, varies from 52% to 88%, thus explaining the already known suicide monthly seasonality. No individual data on solar radiance exposure, mental disorders, alcohol consumption or suicide method were available. The effect of sunshine in the triggering of suicide may be mediated through a mechanism with a specific lag and duration effect, during the nine days preceding suicide. We hypothesize that sunshine acts as a natural antidepressant which first improves motivation, then only later improves mood, thereby creating a potential short-term increased risk of suicide initially upon its application.

  12. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenic patient care settings: impact of an atypical antipsychotic under long-acting injection formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, P M; Miadi-Fargier, H; Lançon, C; Jasso Mosqueda, G; Casadebaig, F; Philippe, A; Guillon, P; Mehnert, A; Omnès, L F; Chicoye, A; Durand-Zaleski, I

    2005-01-01

    pharmaceutical formulation of antipsychotics. Hospitalization and relapse risks are lower in compliant than in non-compliant patients. The main objective of this pharmacoeconomic analysis is to evaluate the impact in terms of medical benefits and costs of the following strategies: 1. Risperidone long-acting injection: first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic; 2. Haloperidol depot: long-acting injectable conventional neuroleptic; 3. Olanzapine: atypical antipsychotic available commercially in oral formulation. The target population defined for the study are young schizophrenic patients treated for at least 1 year and whose disorder has not been diagnosed for longer than 5 years. The time horizon is 2 years. A cost-effectiveness analysis is performed. The perspective adopted is the French Health System. The main hypothesis of the model is that an increase in compliance linked to the use of long-acting injectable formulation could lead to an increased efficacy and a modification of the cost-effectiveness ratio. A decision tree was built. Six periods of follow-up are identified with a duration of 4-months per period. The tree contains 3 principal arms, each one corresponding to a specific treatment: risperidone LA injection, haloperidol decanoate and olanzapine. For each arm, at the chance node, two health states are identified: either the patient responds favourably to the treatment or does not respond favourably and requires a switch to another drug treatment. After a period of response, the patient can either remain in the same state or experiences a clinical deterioration. If the patient presents a clinical deterioration, he can either go back to a positive response state after a period of intensive follow-up or remain in an insufficient response state; in this case, a change of antipsychotic treatment is necessary. In the model, a patient should receive four different treatments before a long-term hospitalization takes put in place. According to the market

  13. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  14. The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK: helping or hindering employment among the disabled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Heitmueller, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. Exploiting both pooled and longitudinal data, this paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the USA, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are higher uncertainty around litigation costs, low levels of general awareness about the Act among disabled people and employers, and a lack of financial support.

  15. Online software trigger at PANDA/FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donghee; Kliemt, Ralf; Nerling, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Denig, Achim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Goetzen, Klaus; Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will employ a novel trigger-less read-out system. Since a conventional hardware trigger concept is not suitable for PANDA, a high level online event filter will be applied to perform fast event selection based on physics properties of the reconstructed events. A trigger-less data stream implies an event selection with track reconstruction and pattern recognition to be performed online, and thus analysing data under real time conditions at event rates of up to 40 MHz.The projected data rate reduction of about three orders of magnitude requires an effective background rejection, while retaining interesting signal events. Real time event selection in the environment of hadronic reactions is rather challenging and relies on sophisticated algorithms for the software trigger. The implementation and the performance of physics trigger algorithms presently studied with realistic Monte Carlo simulations is discussed. The impact of parameters such as momentum or mass resolution, PID probability, vertex reconstruction and a multivariate analysis using the TMVA package for event filtering is presented.

  16. Accounting for the social triggers of sexual compulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Kelly, Brian C; Bimbi, David S; Muench, Frederick; Morgenstern, Jon

    2007-01-01

    To examine the social triggers of sexual compulsivity amongst a diverse sample of gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 180 gay and bisexual men in the United States who self-identified that their sex lives were spinning out of control. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to explore the range of social triggers that were driving sexual compulsions. An open-ended interview and a structured clinical interview were conducted with each participant. The interviews examined their experiences with sexual compulsivity over time and the impact of their problematic sexual behaviors on their lives. Two types of social triggers emerged from the data: event-centered triggers and contextual triggers. Event-centered triggers arise from sudden, unforeseen events. Two major event-centered triggers were identified: relationship turmoil and catastrophes. Contextual triggers, on the other hand, have a certain element of predictability, and included such things as location, people, the use of drugs, and pornography. This framework of triggers has clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of sexual compulsivity. Clinicians can utilize the framework of social triggers in the therapeutic process to provide insight into ways to effectively work through symptoms of sexual compulsivity. Awareness of the contextual aspects of sexual compulsivity may be critical to understanding the behaviors of sexually compulsive clients. Thus, therapeutic assessments should focus upon the social context in addition to the psychological components of the disorder.

  17. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  18. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  19. Surgery for trigger finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  20. Risk Factors for Visual Impairment in an Uninsured Population and the Impact of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weixia; Woodward, Maria A; Heisler, Michele; Blachley, Taylor; Corneail, Leah; Cederna, Jean; Kaplan, Ariane D; Newman Casey, Paula Anne

    2016-01-01

    To assess risk factors for visual impairment in a high-risk population of people: those without medical insurance. Secondarily, we assessed risk factors for remaining uninsured after implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and evaluated whether the ACA changed demand for local safety net ophthalmology clinic services one year after its implementation. In a retrospective cohort study of patients who attended a community-academic partnership free ophthalmology clinic in Southeastern, Michigan between September 2012 - March 2015, we assessed the prevalence of presenting with visual impairment, the most common causes of presenting with visual impairment and used logistic regression to assess socio-demographic risk factors for visual impairment. We assessed the initial impact of the ACA on clinic utilization. We also analyzed risk factors for remaining uninsured one year after implementation of the ACA private insurance marketplace and Medicaid expansion in the state of Michigan. Among 335 patients, one-fifth (22%) presented with visual impairment; refractive error was the leading cause for presenting with visual impairment. Unemployment was the single significant risk factor for presenting with visual impairment after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (OR = 3.05, 95% CI 1.19-7.87, p=0.01). There was no difference in proportion of visual impairment or type of vision-threatening disease between the insured and uninsured (p=0.26). Seventy six percent of patients remained uninsured one year after ACA implementation. Patients who were white, spoke English as a first language and were US Citizens were more likely to gain insurance coverage through the ACA in our population (p≤ 0.01). There was a non-significant decline in the mean number of patient treated per clinic (52 to 43) before and after ACA implementation (p=0.69). Refractive error was a leading cause for presenting with visual impairment in this vulnerable population, and being unemployed

  1. Improving AIDS Care After Trauma (ImpACT): Pilot Outcomes of a Coping intervention Among HIV-Infected Women with Sexual Trauma in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Kathleen J; Mulawa, Marta I; Robertson, Corne; Watt, Melissa H; Ciya, Nonceba; Stein, Dan J; Cherenack, Emily M; Choi, Karmel W; Kombora, Matapelo; Joska, John A

    2018-03-01

    Improving AIDS Care after Trauma (ImpACT), a coping intervention for HIV-infected women with sexual abuse histories, was evaluated for feasibility and potential efficacy in a public clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-four participants were enrolled prior to starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). After completing baseline assessments, participants were randomly assigned to standard of care (SoC: three adherence counseling sessions) or ImpACT (SoC plus four individual and three group sessions). Participants completed assessments at 3 months (after individual sessions) and 6 months post-baseline. In exploratory analysis of primary outcomes, ImpACT participants, compared to SoC, reported greater reductions in avoidance and arousal symptoms of PTSD and greater increases in ART adherence motivation at 3 months. Clinically significant decreases in overall PTSD symptoms were also demonstrated at 3 months. These effects continued as trends at the 6-month assessment, in addition to increases in social/spiritual coping. In analysis of secondary outcomes, high levels of non-adherence to ART and poor care engagement were evident at 6 months, with no differences between study arms. A trauma-focused, culturally-adapted individual intervention delivered by a non-specialist in the HIV care setting is feasible and acceptable. Preliminary findings suggest ImpACT has potential to reduce PTSD symptoms and increase ART adherence motivation, but a more intensive intervention may be needed to improve and maintain care engagement among this population. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02223390.

  2. Accelerating Research Impact in a Learning Health Care System: VA's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative in the Choice Act Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Elwy, A Rani; Sales, Anne E; Atkins, David

    2017-07-01

    Since 1998, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) has supported more rapid implementation of research into clinical practice. With the passage of the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act of 2014 (Choice Act), QUERI further evolved to support VHA's transformation into a Learning Health Care System by aligning science with clinical priority goals based on a strategic planning process and alignment of funding priorities with updated VHA priority goals in response to the Choice Act. QUERI updated its strategic goals in response to independent assessments mandated by the Choice Act that recommended VHA reduce variation in care by providing a clear path to implement best practices. Specifically, QUERI updated its application process to ensure its centers (Programs) focus on cross-cutting VHA priorities and specify roadmaps for implementation of research-informed practices across different settings. QUERI also increased funding for scientific evaluations of the Choice Act and other policies in response to Commission on Care recommendations. QUERI's national network of Programs deploys effective practices using implementation strategies across different settings. QUERI Choice Act evaluations informed the law's further implementation, setting the stage for additional rigorous national evaluations of other VHA programs and policies including community provider networks. Grounded in implementation science and evidence-based policy, QUERI serves as an example of how to operationalize core components of a Learning Health Care System, notably through rigorous evaluation and scientific testing of implementation strategies to ultimately reduce variation in quality and improve overall population health.

  3. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  4. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  5. Environmental impacts of water resources exploitation works: prevention acts; Impactos ambientais de obras de exploracao de recursos hidricos: acoes preventivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Suetonio [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    1989-11-01

    This paper discusses the environmental impacts that becomes from works of water resources exploitation, like dam construction, river rectification and irrigation projects, and its impacts on the biotic, physical and social environment, and shows the actions will be made to prevent or minimize this impacts 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naive inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau trig...

  7. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naïve inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau tri...

  8. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2012-01-01

    The extensive tau physics programs of the ATLAS experiment relies heavily on trigger to select hadronic decays of tau lepton. Such a trigger is implemented in ATLAS to efficiently collect signal events, while keeping the rate of multi-jet background within the allowed bandwidth. This contribution summarizes the performance of the ATLAS hadronic tau trigger system during 2011 data taking period and improvements implemented for the 2012 data collection.

  9. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  10. An Impact Triggered Runaway Greenhouse on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, T. L.; McKay, C. P.; Toon, O. B.

    2004-01-01

    When a planet is in radiative equilibrium, the incoming solar flux balances the outgoing longwave flux. If something were to perturb the system slightly, say the incoming solar flux increased, the planet would respond by radiating at a higher surface temperature. Since any radiation that comes in must go out, if the incoming is increased, the outgoing must also increase, and this increase manifests itself as a warmer equilibrium temperature. The increase in solar flux would correspond to an increase in temperature, which would increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere due to increased evaporation. Since water vapor is a greenhouse gas, it would absorb more radiation in the atmosphere leading to a yet warmer equilibrium temperature. The planet would reach radiative equilibrium at this new temperature. There exists a point, however, past which this positive feedback leads to a "runaway" situation. In this case, the planet does not simply evaporate a little more water and eventually come to a slightly higher equilibrium temperature. Instead, the planet keeps evaporating more and more water until all of the planet's available liquid and solid water is in the atmosphere. The reason for this is generally understood. If the planet's temperature increases, evaporation of water increases, and the absorption of radiation increases. This increases the temperature and the feedback continues until all water is in the atmosphere. The resulting equilibrium temperature is very high, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of a point with slightly lower solar flux. One can picture that as solar flux increases, planetary temperature also increases until the runaway point where temperature suddenly "jumps" to a higher value, in response to all the available water now residing in the atmosphere. This new equilibrium is called a "runaway greenhouse" and it has been theorized that this is what happened to the planet Venus, where the surface temperature is more than 700 K (427 C).

  11. Sarbanes-Oxley Act and Acquisition Trends: Information Technology Managers' Perceptions of the Impact on Information Technology Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Le, Linda Thanhthuy

    2010-01-01

    This research study provides a platform for extending the body of knowledge associated with the sourcing of Information Technology (IT) in the legal environment determined by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. This analysis of IT sourcing was conducted via consideration of legal and situational factors which may influence an IT manager's decision to…

  12. Progress and Impact. A Report of Programs Funded for 1995-96 by the Comprehensive Health Education Act of 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jerry L.; Connell, Karen

    During the 1995-96 school year, the Colorado Department of Education supported Comprehensive Health Education Programs as authorized by the Comprehensive Health Education Act of 1990. This report summarizes the projects funded under that grant along with additional observations and recommendations regarding the operation of such grants. Grant…

  13. The impacts of the Lacey Act Amendment of 2008 on U.S.hardwood lumber and hardwood plywood imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2015-01-01

    The Lacey Act of 1900 was amended on May 22, 2008, to prohibit the import of illegally sourced plant materials and products manufactured from them into the United States and its territories, and to similarly ban their interstate transport. Trade theory suggests that the effect of the new law would be to reduce the flow of illegally sourced fiber into the United States...

  14. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Confidential Business Information Records Access System for the Toxic Control Substances Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This system collects submission data from the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and contact information for EPA contractors and employees who are CBI cleared. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, and the purpose of data collection.

  15. 77 FR 62228 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Impact Evaluation of Race to the Top and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... individual is called a ``record,'' and the system, whether manual or computer based, is called a ``system of... regulations at 34 CFR 5b.5, including proof of identity. RECORD ACCESS PROCEDURE: If you wish to gain access... Act regulations at 34 CFR 5b.5, including proof of identity. CONTESTING RECORD PROCEDURE: If you wish...

  16. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  17. Performance of the ALICE PHOS trigger and improvements for RUN 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C; Røed, K; Skaali, T B; Liu, L; Rohrich, D; Kharlov, Y; Bratrud, L; Alme, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the performance of the PHOS level-0 trigger and planned improvements for RUN 2. Due to hardware constraints the Trigger Region Unit boards are limited to an operating frequency of 20 MHz. This has led to some ambiguity and biases of the trigger inputs. The trigger input generation scheme was therefore optimized to improve the performance. The PHOS level-0 trigger system has been working with an acceptable efficiency and purity. Proposed actions to further improve the performance and possibly eliminate the impact of the biased trigger inputs will also be presented

  18. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  19. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  20. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  1. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  2. The SPOT Project (Potentially Triggerable Offshore Seismicity and Tsunamis): a First Appraisal of the Possible Impact of Oil and Gas Platforms on the Seismic and Tsunami Risks along the Italian Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, R.; Di Bucci, D.; Antoncecchi, I.; Ciccone, F.; Teofilo, G.; Argnani, A.; Rovere, M.; Ligi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Lorito, S.; Borzi, B.; Germagnoli, F.; Di Ludovico, M.; Lignola, G. P.; Prota, A.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of oil and gas production in Europe takes place offshore and Italy is one of the European countries with the longest coastlines facing these operations. Given the generally growing energy demand, and the increasing concern toward human-driven hazards, scientists are called to provide background information for helping ensure a safe energy supply. We here present the activities of the project SPOT, which is aimed to help Italian authorities comply with the application of the Safety of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations European Directive (2013/30/EU) and the ensuing Italian codes. We carry out a reconstruction of offshore geological structures to assess the existence of potentially seismogenic faults in the surroundings of off-shore platforms. This study is a propaedeutic step for the assessment of potentially triggered seismicity connected with operations on such platforms. The descriptive parameters (3D geometry and behavior) of the identified faults will be used to estimate their natural earthquake rates. The impact of these natural earthquakes along the coasts will then be modeled in terms of expected ground shaking and tsunamis. The tsunamis potentially generated by submarine landslides induced by earthquake shaking will also be analyzed. In turn, these models will be used to estimate potential human and economic losses in a multi-hazard approach to risk assessment. Wherever the combined earthquake and tsunami modeling indicates a relevant impact along the coasts, a more detailed analysis will be carried out, also involving the operators of the related platforms, to perform specific models which also take into account production and/or storage data. Activities with a consolidated background, such as those concerning the impact scenarios of earthquakes, and more innovative activities, such as those dedicated to build up the first vulnerability/fragility curves related to tsunamis for the Italian building stock, will be integrated within the project

  3. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  4. Impact of the Pharma Economic Act on Diffusion of Innovation and Reduction of Costs in the Hungarian Prescription Drug Market (2007-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Rok

    In this study, we examined the impact of the Pharma Economic Act, which was introduced in Hungary in 2007. We used detailed data on the Hungarian prescription drug market, which had been made publicly available by the authorities. We evaluated the effect of the Pharma Economic Act on both dynamic and static efficiencies and also on equity, which has been historically a controversial issue in Hungary. We analyzed the overall prescription drug market and statin and atorvastatin markets; as a proxy for determining dynamic efficiency, we examined the oncology drug market for some specific products (e.g., bortezomib) and the long-acting atypical antipsychotic drugs market. There is no denying that the authorities managed to control the overall prescription drug costs; however, they were still paying excessive rents for off-patent drugs. Examples of oncology and long-acting atypical antipsychotic drugs showed that the diffusion of innovation was on per-capita basis at least comparable to G-5 countries. While the share of out-of-pocket co-payments markedly increased and the reimbursement was lowered, the concurrent price decreases often meant that the co-payment per milligram of a given dispensed drug was actually lower than that before the Act, thereby benefiting the patient. It appears that strong mechanisms to control volume rather than price on the supply side (marketing authorization holders) contained the drug expenditure, while offering enough room to strive for innovation. Making data on prescription drug expenditures and associated co-payments publicly available is an item that should be definitely followed by the surrounding jurisdictions. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts: The Uneven Impact of Partially Funded Federal Mandates on Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is having a major impact on the education of deaf and hard of hearing children, and in many ways has taken on an importance far in excess of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which has been evolving since 1975. Congress has appropriated less money for both laws than their…

  6. Deep repository and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Consultation and environmental impact assessment according to the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    As a part of its programme for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SKB has recently commenced site investigations at Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality and at Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality. At the same time, SKB has initiated the consultation process prior to application for permits/licences under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act. Early consultation has been carried out for both sites, and a consultation report has been submitted to the county administrative boards in Kalmar County and Uppsala County for decisions regarding significant environmental impact. After decisions by the county administrative boards, SKB will commence the work with environmental impact assessment and extended consultation. SKB's main alternative for the encapsulation plant is siting adjacent to CLAB. In the spring of 2003, SKB will convene early consultation on the encapsulation plant. This will be followed by extended consultation up to 2005. This process will be coordinated with the extended consultation for a deep repository in Oskarshamn. An alternative is to locate the encapsulation plant at a deep repository at Forsmark. This alternative is being dealt with completely within the extended consultation for the deep repository at Forsmark. Three different permits/licences are required for both the encapsulation plant and the deep repository: a permit under the Environmental Code, a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act, and a building permit under the Planning and Building Act. Licensing under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act takes place in parallel. The applications under both laws must include an environmental impact statement (EIS) prepared according to the rules in Chapter 6 of the Environmental Code. The same EIS is thus used in both applications. Separate EISs are prepared for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. According to the Environmental Code, the consultation shall relate to the location, scope

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... on their own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contraception and Protection How Does CF Affect the Female Reproductive System? How Does CF Affect the Male ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers Reports and Financials Contact Us Governance and Policies What is CF? ...

  12. A Cook, A Cardinal, His Priests, and the Press: Deviance as a Trigger for Intermedia Agenda Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses content analysis to examine the changes in trends in the aftermath of deviant acts by individual members of the clergy, given that such acts are "triggering events" for further negative stories. Finds strong media agenda-setting effects of the negative triggering events on subsequent coverage of the clergy in general. (SR)

  13. DUMAND data acquisition with triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; March, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition scheme for the standard DUMAND array that includes a simple triggering scheme as a fundamental part of the system is presented. Although there are a number of not yet fully understood parameters, it is assumed that thresholds can be set in such a manner as to give rise to a triggered signal that is not so dominated by randoms that it gives a substantial decrease in the data acquisition rate over that which would be required by a nontriggered system. It is also assumed that the triggering logic is relatively simple and does not need major computational capabilities for a trigger logic decision. With these assumptions, it is possible to generate the trigger at the array and restrict the data transfer to shore. However, with a not unreasonable delay of 200 microseconds, it is even possible to transmit the information for the trigger to shore and perform all that logic on the shore. The critical point is to send the minimum amount of information necessary to construct the trigger such that one need not send all the possible information in all detectors of the array continuously to shore. 1 figure

  14. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  15. The Impact of Introducing Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests on Fever Case Management: A Synthesis of Ten Studies from the ACT Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxvoort, Katia J; Leurent, Baptiste; Chandler, Clare I R; Ansah, Evelyn K; Baiden, Frank; Björkman, Anders; Burchett, Helen E D; Clarke, Siân E; Cundill, Bonnie; DiLiberto, Debora D; Elfving, Kristina; Goodman, Catherine; Hansen, Kristian S; Kachur, S Patrick; Lal, Sham; Lalloo, David G; Leslie, Toby; Magnussen, Pascal; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Mårtensson, Andreas; Mayan, Ismail; Mbonye, Anthony K; Msellem, Mwinyi I; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Rowland, Mark W; Shakely, Delér; Staedke, Sarah G; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Webster, Jayne; Whitty, Christopher J M; Wiseman, Virginia L; Yeung, Shunmay; Schellenberg, David; Hopkins, Heidi

    2017-10-01

    Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are central to implementing this policy, intended to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to patients with confirmed malaria and to improve management of patients with nonmalarial fevers. The ACT Consortium conducted ten linked studies, eight in sub-Saharan Africa and two in Afghanistan, to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type. This synthesis includes 562,368 outpatient encounters (study size range 2,400-432,513). mRDTs were associated with significantly lower ACT prescription (range 8-69% versus 20-100%). Prescribing did not always adhere to malaria test results; in several settings, ACTs were prescribed to more than 30% of test-negative patients or to fewer than 80% of test-positive patients. Either an antimalarial or an antibiotic was prescribed for more than 75% of patients across most settings; lower antimalarial prescription for malaria test-negative patients was partly offset by higher antibiotic prescription. Symptomatic management with antipyretics alone was prescribed for fewer than 25% of patients across all scenarios. In community health worker and private retailer settings, mRDTs increased referral of patients to other providers. This synthesis provides an overview of shifts in case management that may be expected with mRDT introduction and highlights areas of focus to improve design and implementation of future case management programs.

  16. The CDF level-3 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been operating at the Tevatron and collecting data on proton-antiproton interactions with collision rates above 250,000 Hz. Three levels of filtering select events for data logging at a rate of about 4 Hz. The Level 3 trigger provides most of the capabilities of the offline production programs for event reconstruction and physics analysis. The type of physics triggers, application of cuts, and combinations of logical requirements for event selection are controlled at run time by a trigger table using a syntax fully integrated with the Level 1 and Level 2 hardware triggers. The level 3 software operates in 48 RISC/UNIX processors (over 1000 mips) served by four 20-MByte/sec data buses for input, output and control. The system architecture, debugging, code validation, error reporting, analysis capabilities and performance will be described

  17. Impact of different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on dental health of asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christoff

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the effect of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on dental health in asthmatics. Thirty patients, from 20 to 55 years old, participate in the study. D-, M-, F- and DMFT indexes are determined in a 6 months period. All participants fill in a questionnaire. Asthmatics complain most frequently from oral dryness, take frequently sugar and soft drinks and visit irregularly dental practitioners. A significant increase in M-index is found out at the second visit. F-index increases considerably for patients treated with Beclometasone and Formoterol and D-index decreases significantly when treated with Budesonide and Formoterol. DMFT index increases considerably for all patients. Highest values of DMFT index are registered for patients treated with Fluticasone propionate and Salmeterol. Prolonged use of inhaled drugs with greater quantities of lactose leads to more impaired dental status in asthmatics and higher values of DMFT index.

  18. Section 112 hazardous air pollutants Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; potential impact of fossil/NUC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronmiller, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Control of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act (CAA) goes back several decades. Section 112 of the 1970 CAA as amended in 1977 served as the national statutory basis for controlling hazardous air pollutants until the most recent 1990 Amendments. Following severe criticism of the effectiveness of the Act to address hazardous air pollutant issues and a pile of seemingly never ending lawsuits challenging the regulatory process, the U.S. Congress has substantially rewritten Section 112 in the 1990 CAA Amendments. Many provisions heretofore requiring findings or regulatory decisions by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator are now automatic in the sense that the decisions have already been made by the US Congress legislatively. Thus, the new Section 112 has eliminated many of the existing regulatory obstacles, or safeguards; this will likely result in sweeping new regulatory programs mandating extensive controls on many industrial activities. A much needed study program to address fossil fuel fired steam electric generating units' hazardous air emissions and to identify control alternatives to regulate these emissions, if regulation is required, was incorporated into new Section 112. Because of this study, the regulatory fate of these units under the new Section 112 remains highly uncertain. An extensive regulatory program addressing hazardous air pollutants of these utility units under Section 112 would dwarf electric utility costs associated with the new acid rain control program. First, this paper identifies major provisions of the old law and the resulting regulatory status for both coal and nuclear power facilities before addressing the new Section 112 under the 1990 CAA Amendments and potential implications for electric utilities specifically

  19. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-07-09

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  20. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  1. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  2. The ATLAS high level trigger region of interest builder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Pope, B.; Aboline, M.; High Energy Physics; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design, testing and production of the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). This device acts as an interface between the Level 1 trigger and the high level trigger (HLT) farm for the ATLAS LHC detector. It distributes all of the Level 1 data for a subset of events to a small number of (16 or less) individual commodity processors. These processors in turn provide this information to the HLT. This allows the HLT to use the Level 1 information to narrow data requests to areas of the detector where Level 1 has identified interesting objects

  3. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3, Appendix M, Contract Copies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report, is part of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration, consists of an appendix of contract copies related to the following: Detailed Index to Generic Utility Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic Utility Contract, Detailed Index to Generic DSI Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic DSI Contract, Text of Residential Purchase and Sale Agreement (Residential Exchange), and Detailed Index to General Contract Provisions -- GCP Form PSC-2 (Incorporated into all three types of contracts as an Exhibit).

  4. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, Annette L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, LLoyd C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carathers, David C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christensen, Boyd D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dahl, James J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Steven [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Subaiya, Peter V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wachs, Daniel M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weiner, Ruth F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document contains the analysis details and summary of analyses conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts for the Resumption of Transient Fuel and Materials Testing Program. It provides an assessment of the impacts for the two action alternatives being evaluated in the environmental assessment. These alternatives are (1) resumption of transient testing using the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and (2) conducting transient testing using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL/NM). Analyses are provided for radiologic emissions, other air emissions, soil contamination, and groundwater contamination that could occur (1) during normal operations, (2) as a result of accidents in one of the facilities, and (3) during transport. It does not include an assessment of the biotic, cultural resources, waste generation, or other impacts that could result from the resumption of transient testing. Analyses were conducted by technical professionals at INL and SNL/NM as noted throughout this report. The analyses are based on bounding radionuclide inventories, with the same inventories used for test materials by both alternatives and different inventories for the TREAT Reactor and ACRR. An upper value on the number of tests was assumed, with a test frequency determined by the realistic turn-around times required between experiments. The estimates provided for impacts during normal operations are based on historical emission rates and projected usage rates; therefore, they are bounding. Estimated doses for members of the public, collocated workers, and facility workers that could be incurred as a result of an accident are very conservative. They do not credit safety systems or administrative procedures (such as evacuation plans or use of personal protective equipment) that could be used to limit worker doses. Doses estimated for transportation are conservative and are based on

  5. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grison, Benjamin; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 3 (2013), s. 1159-1169 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12026; GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/11/P848; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284520 - MAARBLE Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EMIC wave * triggered emission * plasmapause Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50178/abstract

  6. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  7. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Impulse Oscillometry; Therapeutic Impacts of Transdermal Long-Acting Beta-2 Agonist Patch in Elderly Asthma with Inhaled Corticosteroid Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest had been focused on the involvement of the small airways in asthma, and impulse oscillometry (IOS has been utilized as pulmonary functions for detecting large and small airways diseases separately. IOS can measure respiratory resistance and reactance at multiple frequencies, not available by spirometry or body plethysmography, is non-invasive techniques and convenient for elderly patients with a low dependency on cooperation during tidal breathing. IOS indices were well correlated with not only predicted FEV1 but also FEF25-75, residual volume/total lung capacity, delta N2 of a single nitrogen washout test which representing air trapping and inhomogeneous ventilation in the distal lung. These parameters and QOL scores were improved by additional transdermal long-acting beta-2 agonist patch even in well-controlled elderly asthma treating with inhaled corticosteoids alone. IOS may have a complementary role of spirometry in detecting subtle airways changes in general practice. However, systemic studies are required to investigate the clinical implication of each IOS index.

  9. Decision-Making Behaviour under the Mental Health Act 1983 and Its Impact on Mental Health Tribunals: An English Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Glover-Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In England and Wales, the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA 1983 provides the legal framework which governs decisions made concerning the care and treatment of those suffering from mental disorders, where they may pose a risk to themselves or others. The perspective of the patient and the care provider may conflict and can be a source of tension and challenge within mental health law. Through access to a mental health tribunal, patients are offered the apparatus to review and challenge their detention. With detention rates under the mental health legislation rising exponentially, this is having a knock-on effect upon tribunal application numbers. As there is a legal requirement to review all cases of individuals detained under the MHA 1983, understanding the key drivers for this increase in detention is essential in order to understand how to better manage both detention rates and the upsurge in tribunal caseloads. With the increase in overall activity, mental health tribunal workloads present significant practical challenges and has downstream cost implications.

  10. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on North Carolinian Breast Cancer Patients Seeking Financial Support for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng-Gyasi, Samilia; Tolnitch, Lisa; Greenup, Rachel A; Shelley Hwang, E

    2016-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was instated on 23 March 2010 to improve healthcare quality, reduce costs, and increase access. The Pretty in Pink Foundation (PIPF), a non-profit 501(C)(3) organization in North Carolina, provides financial assistance and in-kind support to individuals seeking help with breast cancer care. The objective of this study was to determine whether sociodemographic variables and treatment services varied among PIPF recipients since enactment of the ACA. North Carolinians who received financial assistance from the PIPF between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 were included in the study, and the cohort was divided into two groups based on receipt of assistance before or after the enactment of the ACA. Descriptive statistics were tabulated as frequencies. Comparative univariate analysis between both groups was conducted using the χ (2) and Mann-Whitney U tests. All tests were two-sided and a p value reduction in subjects receiving assistance from the PIPF; however, no change in their insurance status has been observed.

  11. Dynamic stresses, coulomb failure, and remote triggering: corrected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15–30 s periods and peak amplitudes Coulomb failure models based on a frictional strength threshold offer one explanation for instances of rapid‐onset triggered seismicity that develop during the surface‐wave peak dynamic stressing. Evaluation of the triggering potential of surface‐wave dynamic stresses acting on critically stressed faults using a Mohr’s circle representation together with the Coulomb failure criteria indicates that Love waves should have a higher triggering potential than Rayleigh waves for most fault orientations and wave incidence angles. That (1) the onset of triggered seismicity often appears to begin during the Rayleigh wave rather than the earlier arriving Love wave, and (2) Love‐wave amplitudes typically exceed those for Rayleigh waves suggests that the explanation for rapid‐onset dynamic triggering may not reside solely with a simple static‐threshold friction mode. The results also indicate that normal faults should be more susceptible to dynamic triggering by 20‐s Rayleigh‐wave stresses than thrust faults in the shallow seismogenic crust (<10  km) while the advantage tips in favor of reverse faults greater depths. This transition depth scales with wavelength and coincides roughly with the transition from retrograde‐to‐prograde particle motion. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems. The result is consistent with the apparent elevated susceptibility of extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes to remote triggering by Rayleigh‐wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes.

  12. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J J; Cussans, D G; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D M; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-04-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system.

  13. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  14. Endometrial gene expression in the early luteal phase is impacted by mode of triggering final oocyte maturation in recFSH stimulated and GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, P; Van Vaerenbergh, I; Bourgain, C

    2012-01-01

    pregnancy rates similar to those seen after hCG triggering. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE DURATION: A prospective randomized study was performed in four oocyte donors recruited from an oocyte donation program during the period 2010-2011. PARTICIPANTS, MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Four oocyte donors in a university IVF...

  15. [Actual medical care situation and therapeutic needs in multiple sclerosis: Impact of the Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act (AMNOG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, S; Meuth, S G

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with constantly rising costs for the healthcare system and pharmaceuticals constitute 60 % of the direct medical costs. The Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act (Arzneimittelmarkt-Neuordnungsgesetz, AMNOG) came into force on 1 January 2011 with the aim of limiting the costs of pharmaceuticals by obligating newly approved products to be subjected to an early evaluation of the additional benefits by the Federal Joint Committee (FJC, Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G‑BA). The majority of products evaluated up to October 2015 in neurology (5 out of 8) were approved for treatment of MS. Has the AMNOG been able to fulfill the original aims? Analysis of available information on MS therapies evaluated by the FJC between December 2010 and October 2015. For various reasons an additional benefit could be shown in only 2 out of 5 assessment procedures for MS drugs. It is obvious that some methodological shortcomings of the process have to be improved. Additionally requirements for pivotal clinical trials have to be harmonized with AMNOG requirements taking the best available evidence and real-life data into consideration (e.g. non-interventional studies) and a closer collaboration between the FJC, healthcare providers and the neurological societies is necessary. The AMNOG procedure currently only partially fulfills the original aims, which could be the reason why guidelines play a more important role for therapy decision-making than FJC decisions. As the early evaluation procedure is an adaptive process methodological shortcomings might be overcome in the future; however, this requires a much closer collaboration between the FJC and neurological societies.

  16. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate on Use of Dental Treatments and Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Dan M; Wehby, George L

    2017-09-01

    Oral health problems are the leading chronic conditions among children and younger adults. Lack of dental coverage is thought to be an important barrier to care but little empirical evidence exists on the causal effect of private dental coverage on use of dental services. We explore the relationship between dental coverage and dental services utilization with an analysis of a natural experiment of increasing private dental coverage stemming from the Affordable Care Act's (ACA)-dependent coverage mandate. To evaluate whether increased private dental insurance due to the spillover effect of the ACA-dependent coverage health insurance mandate affected utilization of dental services among a group of affected young adults. 2006-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. We used a difference-in-difference regression approach comparing changes in dental care utilization for 25-year olds affected by the policy to unaffected 27-year olds. We evaluate effects on dental treatments and preventive services RESULTS:: Compared to 27-year olds, 25-year olds were 8 percentage points more likely to have private dental coverage in the 3 years following the mandate. We do not find compelling evidence that young adults increased their use of preventive dental services in response to gaining insurance. We do find a nearly 5 percentage point increase in the likelihood of dental treatments among 25-year olds following the mandate, an effect that appears concentrated among women. Increases in private dental coverage due to the ACA's-dependent coverage mandate do not appear to be driving significant changes in overall preventive dental services utilization but there is evidence of an increase in restorative care.

  17. Human-gyrovirus-Apoptin triggers mitochondrial death pathway--Nur77 is required for apoptosis triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Wiem; Cieślar-Pobuda, Artur; El-Gazzah, Mohamed; Jain, Mayur V; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna; Rafat, Mehrdad; Stetefeld, Joerg; Ghavami, Saeid; Los, Marek J

    2014-09-01

    The human gyrovirus derived protein Apoptin (HGV-Apoptin) a homologue of the chicken anemia virus Apoptin (CAV-Apoptin), a protein with high cancer cells selective toxicity, triggers apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. In this paper, we show that HGV-Apoptin acts independently from the death receptor pathway as it induces apoptosis in similar rates in Jurkat cells deficient in either FADD (fas-associated death domain) function or caspase-8 (key players of the extrinsic pathway) and their parental clones. HGV-Apoptin induces apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. It induces both mitochondrial inner and outer membrane permebilization, characterized by the loss of the mitochondrial potential and the release into cytoplasm of the pro-apoptotic molecules including apoptosis inducing factor and cytochrome c. HGV-Apoptin acts via the apoptosome, as lack of expression of apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 in murine embryonic fibroblast strongly protected the cells from HGV-Apoptin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, QVD-oph a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor delayed HGV-Apoptin-induced death. On the other hand, overexpression of the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL confers resistance to HGV-Apoptin-induced cell death. In contrast, cells that lack the expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and BAK are protected from HGV-Apoptin induced apoptosis. Furthermore, HGV-Apoptin acts independently from p53 signal but triggers the cytoplasmic translocation of Nur77. Taking together these data indicate that HGV-Apoptin acts through the mitochondrial pathway, in a caspase-dependent manner but independently from the death receptor pathway. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Health impact assessment of Ontario's green energy and green economy act. The roles of environmental informatics in sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattle, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Renewable energy received a boost in Ontario, Canada with the Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA), ushering in a new Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program modelled on programs from Germany, Spain, Denmark and other jurisdictions. Information about lessons learned elsewhere has clearly benefited the Ontario experience. Part of the Ontario program included streamlining the impact assessment process to facilitate the swift development of provincial renewable energy capacities. In this context, the GEGEA has been remarkably successful, generating renewable energy sector capacities, resources, projects and their spin-off benefits in Ontario, along with more sustainable electricity system. Environmentalists along with industry continue to laud the benefits of renewable energy and the GEGEA, and with good reason. Renewable energy generation in Ontario has grown from to 2 per cent in 2012 and is expected to reach 10 per cent in 2013. (orig.)

  19. Using long-acting beta2-agonists safely: What will be the impact of the US Food and Drug Administration's panel recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Brian A

    2009-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has launched an investigation into the safety of long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABAs). While the impact of this investigation is yet to be seen, clinicians should be circumspect in the use of these agents and prescribe them according to the recommendations of current asthma guidelines, informing patients and their caretakers about potential risks. As clinical trials attempt to address the question of whether LABAs are safe for use in pediatric and adult populations, current data provide no clear answers. A special hearing of the FDA's Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee, Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee, and Pediatric Advisory Committee attempted to seek consensus on the matter as it reviewed the results of controlled clinical trials and conducted a benefit:risk assessment of LABAs to make recommendations on their safety.

  20. Tangible and intangible costs of "protecting human subjects": The impact of the National Research Act of 1974 onuniversity research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Jacobs

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article (1 examines the overall structure of regulatory research oversight in the United States; (2 details the origins and evolution of federal legislation pertaining to the protection of human subjects in biomedical and behavioral treatment and research; and (3 describes the expansion of oversight regulation from biomedical and behavioral treatment areas to the social sciences. In addition, the paper describes three areas identified by compliance administrators as susceptible to abuse: (1 informed consent, (2 assessment of risks and benefits, and (3 equitable selection of human subjects. There is a discussion of existing tensions in the implementation of oversight policies and procedures. Finally, the paper identifies four issues for future consideration: (1 scope of the mandate regarding protection of human subjects, (2 impact on the nature of research being undertaken, (3 financial burden of compliance and oversight activities, and (4 ethical standards, constraints, and potential.

  1. A Mirage or a Rural Life Line? Analysing the impact of Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act on Women Beneficiaries of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA, launched in February 2006 was renamed in October 02, 2009 as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (henceforth, MGNREGA. It is an anti-poverty flagship programme of the Government of India. The key purpose of MGNREGA is to enhance wage employment in the rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed employment to every household in a financial year.  The MGNREGA implementation status report for the financial year 2012-2013 unfolds that the programme has already provided employment to 44.9 million households across 28 districts and five union territories. Hence, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of MGNREGA on women beneficiaries. A plethora of research argues that MGNREGA, which promotes inclusive growth, is a vehicle of change, a lifeline for rural women. So far, however, there has been very little discussion about the impact of MGNREGA on women beneficiaries of Assam. This research is an attempt to examine the participation of women in MGNREGA, Assam. It critically looks at the issues, problems and challenges confronted by the women while working at MGNREGA. Written from a feminist perspective on gender, poverty and women’s empowerment, the research seeks to address the problems of the women beneficiaries through their lived experiences. For this, we conducted in-depth interviews with the women beneficiaries in the months of August and September, 2009 in four remote areas namely, Burka, Chandrapur, Barbhang and Muguriya, the first two situated in Kamrup, while the third and the fourth in Barpeta districts of Assam, where the programme of MGNREGA is on-going. The findings of the research suggest measures so that the programme can be made more effective in the long run.

  2. Impact of multiple-dose versus single-dose inhaler devices on COPD patients’ persistence with long-acting β2-agonists: a dispensing database analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Job FM; van Raaij, Joost J; van der Galiën, Ruben; Postma, Maarten J; van der Molen, Thys; Dekhuijzen, PN Richard; Vegter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background: With a growing availability of different devices and types of medication, additional evidence is required to assist clinicians in prescribing the optimal medication in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients’ persistence with long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Aims: To assess the impact of the type of inhaler device (multiple-dose versus single-dose inhalers) on 1-year persistence and switching patterns with LABAs. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study was performed comparing a cohort of patients initiating multiple-dose inhalers and a cohort initiating single-dose inhalers. The study population consisted of long-acting bronchodilator naive COPD patients, initiating inhalation therapy with mono-LABAs (formoterol, indacaterol or salmeterol). Analyses were performed using pharmacy dispensing data from 1994 to 2012, obtained from the IADB.nl database. Study outcomes were 1-year persistence and switching patterns. Results were adjusted for initial prescriber, initial medication, dosing regimen and relevant comorbidities. Results: In all, 575 patients initiating LABAs were included in the final study cohort. Among them, 475 (83%) initiated a multiple-dose inhaler and 100 (17%) a single-dose inhaler. Further, 269 (47%) initiated formoterol, 9 (2%) indacaterol and 297 (52%) salmeterol. There was no significant difference in persistence between users of multiple-dose or single-dose inhalers (hazard ratio: 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.76–1.26, P=0.99). Over 80% re-started or switched medication. Conclusions: There seems no impact of inhaler device (multiple-dose versus single-dose inhalers) on COPD patients’ persistence with LABAs. Over 80% of patients who initially seemed to discontinue LABAs, re-started their initial medication or switched inhalers or medication within 1 year. PMID:25274453

  3. Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie E; Ho, Louis; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E; Nodwell, Justin R; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-01-03

    It has long been thought that the life cycle of Streptomyces bacteria encompasses three developmental stages: vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae and spores. Here, we show interactions between Streptomyces and fungi trigger a previously unobserved mode of Streptomyces development. We term these Streptomyces cells 'explorers', for their ability to adopt a non-branching vegetative hyphal conformation and rapidly transverse solid surfaces. Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). These results reveal that interkingdom interactions can trigger novel developmental behaviours in bacteria, here, causing Streptomyces to deviate from its classically-defined life cycle. Furthermore, this work provides evidence that VOCs can act as long-range communication signals capable of propagating microbial morphological switches.

  4. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  5. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  6. RPC Trigger Robustness: Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small (50$\\times$50 cm$^2$) RPC chambers with final Front-end electronics and splitter boards are used in the test, while the coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation of the coincidence matrix.

  7. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  8. DT Local Trigger performance in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Local Trigger system of the CMS Drift Tube chambers (DT) was checked applying similar methods as in the LHC Run 1 (2012). The main variables shown in this note are the trigger efficiency, the trigger quality and the fraction of trigger ghosts. The performance was found to be comparable or better than in Run 1.

  9. Examination of the potential impacts of dust and pollution aerosol acting as cloud nucleating aerosol on water resources in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vandana

    In this study we examine the cumulative effect of dust acting as cloud nucleating aerosol (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), giant cloud condensation nuclei (GCCN), and ice nuclei (IN)) along with anthropogenic aerosol pollution acting primarily as CCN, over the entire Colorado Rocky Mountains from the months of October to April in the year 2004-2005; the snow year. This ˜6.5 months analysis provides a range of snowfall totals and variability in dust and anthropogenic aerosol pollution. The specific objectives of this research is to quantify the impacts of both dust and pollution aerosols on wintertime precipitation in the Colorado Mountains using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). In general, dust enhances precipitation primarily by acting as IN, while aerosol pollution reduces water resources in the CRB via the so-called "spill-over" effect, by enhancing cloud droplet concentrations and reducing riming rates. Dust is more episodic and aerosol pollution is more pervasive throughout the winter season. Combined response to dust and aerosol pollution is a net reduction of water resources in the CRB. The question is by how much are those water resources affected? Our best estimate is that total winter-season precipitation loss for for the CRB the 2004-2005 winter season due to the combined influence of aerosol pollution and dust is 5,380,00 acre-feet of water. Sensitivity studies for different cases have also been run for the specific cases in 2004-2005 winter season to analyze the impact of changing dust and aerosol ratios on precipitation in the Colorado River Basin. The dust is varied from 3 to 10 times in the experiments and the response is found to be non monotonic and depends on various environmental factors. The sensitivity studies show that adding dust in a wet system increases precipitation when IN affects are dominant. For a relatively dry system high concentrations of dust can result in over-seeding the clouds and reductions in precipitation

  10. Studies of scintillator-based muon triggers in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuch, Florian

    2017-03-16

    The CMS experiment at the LHC will face challenges due to upgrades and improvements of the LHC in future. Especially, the upgrade towards the high luminosity LHC in 2025 with a foreseen center of mass energy of 14 TeV, an instantaneous luminosity of O(10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and the concurrent aging of and radiation damage to the detectors will have an impact on the fast CMS trigger system and the CMS sub-detectors. Especially, the impact on the CMS muon system - and more particular on the drift tube (DT) system - is of vital interest. In order to respond to these challenges the performance of the DT system as part of the L1 muon trigger and the use of a scintillator-based muon trigger as supportive detector are analyzed in this thesis. First, the concept of such a scintillator-based muon trigger, the Muon Track fast Tag (MTT), as support for the DT trigger system, is presented. The conducted related R and D is described. Exploiting the similarity of the MTT concept and the existing hadron outer calorimeter (HO), studies are presented that evaluate the impact of the challenges on the L1 Trigger as well as the potential of the HO detector as a possible response to these challenges. It is shown that the HO detector can be of help in case of DT detector failures and it is able to improve the muon recognition of the DT detector in the L1 Trigger. The reduction of L1 muon ambiguities with the HO detector is found to be not feasible. The results, that were obtained using HO, are extrapolated towards the MTT concept. The MTT concept is rated as valuable backup solution that, however, will not increase the benefit above the HO detector in the presented application scenarios. After a summary of the performed analyses, the conclusion is drawn, that the HO detector should be included into the L1 Trigger decision. The initiated upgrade process of the HO integration into the L1 muon trigger, that was motivated by these studies, is presented. The preceding upgrade of HO

  11. The Trigger for Early Running

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system is based on three levels of event selection designed to capture the physics of interest with high efficiency from an initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. The selections in the three trigger levels must provide sufficient rejection to reduce the rate to 200 Hz, compatible with offline computing power and storage capacity. The LHC is expected to begin its operation with a peak luminosity of 10^31 with a relatively small number of bunches, but quickly ramp up to higher luminosities by increasing the number of bunches, and thus the overall interaction rate. Decisions must be taken every 25 ns during normal LHC operations at the design luminosity of 10^34, where the average bunch crossing will contain more than 20 interactions. Hence, trigger selections must be deployed that can adapt to the changing beam conditions while preserving the interesting physics and satisfying varying detector requirements. In this paper, we provide a menu of trigger selections that can be...

  12. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Motivations, design, performance and ongoing upgrade of the CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger are presented. The system provides CDF with a powerful tool for online tracking with offline quality in order to enhance the reach on B-physics and large P t -physics coupled to b quarks

  13. End-of-Year 2009-10 Progress Report to the California Legislature: Implementation and Impact of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provide funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…

  14. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  15. Energy, economic and environmental discourses and their policy impact: The case of Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Mark; Dolter, Brett

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the debates around the Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA) as an energy and economic development strategy through comparative public policy and discourse analysis approaches. The evidence regarding the economic impacts of the GEGEA is found to be almost entirely based on the results of economic modeling exercises. Critics and supporters of the legislation have arrived at very different conclusions through such exercises. These outcomes are similar to those seen in other jurisdictions pursuing renewable energy initiatives, such as Feed In Tariffs (FITs), renewables obligations and portfolio standards. A discourse analysis approach is employed to examine the reasons for the different conclusions being reached over the impacts of renewable energy initiatives. Differences in modeling approaches and assumptions are found to reflect differences in ideational perspectives on the part of the modelers with respect to the appropriate roles of markets and the state and the relationship between economic development and environmental sustainability in public policy. The paper concludes with suggestions regarding the gathering and availability of information regarding economic development in the renewable energy sector, and a discussion of potential ways to strengthen future efforts to understand the economic and environmental impact of renewable energy initiatives. - Highlights: • The discourse surrounding renewable energy initiatives is embedded within wider ideological debates. • The information that underpins the debates in Ontario is the result of economic modelling, not empirical data. • All of the existing modelling efforts suffer from significant shortcomings. • FITS are seen as politically feasible mechanisms for correcting biases in favour of conventional technologies. • The province's long-term commitment of renewable energy development is now uncertain

  16. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system in 2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Hladík, Ondřej; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Penc, Ondřej; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2017), s. 1-53, č. článku 317. ISSN 1434-6044 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CERN LHC Coll * programming * trigger: upgrade * data analysis method * 13000 GeV-cms Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016

  17. Understanding the impact of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act on hospitality establishments' outdoor environments: a survey of restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Mutti, Seema; Dubray, Jolene; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-04-01

    The Smoke-Free Ontario Act (SFOA) came into effect in May 2006 and included restrictions to outdoor hospitality areas by only permitting smoking on a patio if the area had no roof. (1) To assess the impact of the SFOA on the prevalence of smoke-free patios in Ontario and (2) to determine the proportion of venues where structural alterations were made rather than going smoke-free in order to achieve compliance with the SFOA. A telephone survey of 403 hospitality sector operators/owners in four clustered samples of Ontario, Canada. Based on completed surveys, the SFOA resulted in an increase in prevalence of smoke-free patios, from 5% (n=21) to 25% (n=99). Of the patios where smoking was permitted before the SFOA (n=382), 42% (n=161) had physical structures that would make smoking not permissible under the new act. Operators of half of these venues (n=80) made their patios smoke-free, with most indicating they had no choice given the costs or physical limitations to changing their outdoor environment. The other half (n=81) reported making physical changes, including removing roof structures to achieve compliance. The SFOA resulted in greater protection from outdoor secondhand smoke; however, most patios still permitted smoking. Half of the venues that complied with the SFOA by going smoke-free did so involuntarily because of structural and/or financial limitations. The majority of venue operators preferred to permit smoking on their patios, and only made their patios smoke-free when they were required to do so by law.

  18. Curatorial Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  19. Triggers in UA2 and UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorenbosch, J.

    1985-01-01

    The UA2 and UA1 trigger systems are described as they will be used after the upgrade of the CERN SPPS. The luminosity of the collider will increase to 3x10 30 . The bunch spacing is 4 microseconds, comparable to the time available for a second level trigger at the SSC. The first level triggers are very powerful and deliver trigger rates of about 100 Hz. The UA1 second level trigger operates on the final digitizings with a combination of special and general purpose processors. At the highest trigger levels a small farm of processors performs the final reduction. (orig.)

  20. Clinical outcomes with olanzapine long-acting injection: impact of the 3-hour observation period on patient satisfaction and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ernie Anand,1 Lovisa Berggren,2 John Landry,3 Ágoston Tóth,4 Holland C Detke5 1Neuroscience Medical Affairs, Eli Lilly & Company Ltd, Windlesham, UK; 2Global Statistical Sciences, Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 3Global Statistical Sciences, Eli Lilly Canada Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Neuroscience, Lilly Hungary, Budapest, Hungary; 5Psychiatry and Pain Disorders, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: The objective of the present analysis is to determine the impact of the 3-hour observation period for olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI on patient satisfaction and well-being by comparing data collected before and after its implementation. Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of patients treated with olanzapine LAI in 1 a 6-month fixed-dose randomized controlled trial and/or 2 a 6-year open-label safety study. This analysis was limited to patients with schizophrenia who were treated with olanzapine LAI consistent with the approved indication and dosing recommendations of the European Union Summary of Product Characteristics (N=966. Of the 966 patients, the analysis further focused only on those patients who received both 1 at least one injection before the implementation of the 3-hour observation period and 2 at least one injection after implementation of the 3-hour observation period (N=487. Patient satisfaction was assessed with the three-item Patient Satisfaction with Medication Questionnaire-Modified. Responses were averaged across all postbaseline visits occurring before (ie, without the implementation of the 3-hour observation period and across all postbaseline visits occurring after (ie, with the implementation of the 3-hour observation period. In addition, the rate of postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome events was calculated. Results: There was no meaningful change after implementation of the 3-hour observation period in satisfaction (before: mean [SD] =4.0 [1.02] and

  1. The ATLAS b-jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira de Lima, D E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, at the LHC, has a three-level trigger, which selects events relevant for the physics goals of the experiment. The identification of jets arising from bottom quark production is important in many analyses. The b-tagging at the ATLAS Trigger relies on the fragmentation of the b quark, which generates a B hadron, that retains most of the parent quark’s momentum (∼ 70%). Furthermore, the high b quark mass results in decay products with high momenta with respect to the jet axis. The lifetime tagger relies on the the relatively long lifetime of the B hadrons (∼ 1.6 ps in their rest frame), which allows them to have a long decay length. Due to the large mass of the B hadron, the tracks reconstructed from this decay often have large impact parameters, compared to prompt jets. The algorithms exploit this by identifying tracks from the B hadron decay which are displaced from the primary interaction vertex and thus, indicate that a long-lived particle was present. The latest performance results...

  2. ATLAS calorimetry: Trigger, simulation and jet calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The Pre-Processor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger performs complex processing of analog trigger tower signals from electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The main processing block of the Pre-Processor System is the Multi-Chip Module (MCM). The first part of this thesis describes MCM quality assurance tests that have been developed, their use in the MCM large scale production and the results that have been obtained. In the second part of the thesis a validation of a shower parametrisation model for the ATLAS fast simulation package ATLFAST based on QCD dijet events is performed. A detailed comparison of jet response and jet energy resolution between the fast and the full simulation is presented. The uniformity of the calorimeter response has a significant impact on the accuracy of the jet energy measurement. A study of the calorimeter intercalibration using QCD dijet events is presented in the last part of the thesis. The intercalibration study is performed in azimuth angle phi and in pseud...

  3. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ATLAS calorimetry. Trigger, simulation and jet calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P

    2007-02-06

    The Pre-Processor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger performs complex processing of analog trigger tower signals from electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The main processing block of the Pre-Processor System is the Multi-Chip Module (MCM). The first part of this thesis describes MCM quality assurance tests that have been developed, their use in the MCM large scale production and the results that have been obtained. In the second part of the thesis a validation of a shower parametrisation model for the ATLAS fast simulation package ATLFAST based on QCD dijet events is performed. A detailed comparison of jet response and jet energy resolution between the fast and the full simulation is presented. The uniformity of the calorimeter response has a significant impact on the accuracy of the jet energy measurement. A study of the calorimeter intercalibration using QCD dijet events is presented in the last part of the thesis. The intercalibration study is performed in azimuth angle {phi} and in pseudorapidity {eta}. The performance of the calibration methods including possible systematic and statistical effects is described. (orig.)

  5. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  6. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  7. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The UA1 trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayer, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiment UA1 is a large multi-purpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, scheduled for late 1981. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this we have built fast 8-bit charge to digital converters followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, combinations of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in veto to form the final trigger. Provision has been made for testing using simulated data in an off-line mode, and sampling real data when on-line. (orig.)

  9. ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has introduced and recently commissioned a completely new hardware sub-system of its first-level trigger: the topological processor (L1Topo). L1Topo consist of two AdvancedTCA blades mounting state-of-the-art FPGA processors, providing high input bandwidth (up to 4 Gb/s) and low latency data processing (200 ns). L1Topo is able to select collision events by applying kinematic and topological requirements on candidate objects (energy clusters, jets, and muons) measured by calorimeters and muon sub-detectors. Results from data recorded using the L1Topo trigger will be presented. These results demonstrate a significantly improved background event rejection, thus allowing for a rate reduction without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several physics processes leading to low-pT leptons, including H->tau tau and J/Psi->mu mu. In addition to describing the L1Topo trigger system, we will discuss the use of an accurate L1Topo simulation as a powerful tool to validate and optimize...

  10. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  11. Are women benefiting from the Affordable Care Act? A real-world evaluation of the impact of the Affordable Care Act on out-of-pocket costs for contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, A; Wen, L; Lin, J; Tangirala, M; Schwartz, J S; Zampaglione, E

    2016-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandated that, starting between August 1, 2012 and July 31, 2013, health plans cover most Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved contraceptive methods for women without cost sharing. This study examined the impact of the ACA on out-of-pocket expenses for contraceptives. Women (ages 15-44years) with claims for any contraceptives in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 were identified from the MarketScan Commercial database. The proportions of women using contraceptives [including permanent contraceptives (PCs) and non-PCs: oral contraceptives (OCs), injectables, patches, rings, implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs)] in study years were determined, as well as changes in out-of-pocket expenses for contraceptives during 2011-2013. Demographics, including age, U.S. geographic region of residence and health plan type, were also evaluated. The number of women identified with any contraceptive usage in 2011 was 2,447,316 (mean age: 27.6years), in 2012 was 2,515,296 (mean age: 27.4years) and in 2013 was 2,243,253 (mean age: 27.4years). In 2011, 2012 and 2013, the proportions of women with any contraceptive usage were 26.3%, 26.2% and 26.9%, respectively. Over the three study years, mean total out-of-pocket expenses for PCs and non-PCs decreased from $298 to $82 and from $94 to $30, respectively. For non-PCs, mean total out-of-pocket expenses for OCs and IUDs decreased from $86 to $26 and from $83 to $20. Implementation of the ACA has saved women a substantial amount in out-of-pocket expenses for contraceptives. Mean total out-of-pocket expenses for FDA-approved contraceptives decreased approximately 70% from 2011 to 2013. Implementation of the ACA has saved women a substantial amount in out-of-pocket expenses for contraceptives. Longer-term studies, including clinical outcomes, are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Headache triggers in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  13. Impact of a social franchise intervention program on the adoption of long and short acting family planning methods in hard to reach communities in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Thet, May Me; Sudhinaraset, May; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2018-03-12

    Myanmar has experienced slowly rising levels of contraceptive use in recent years. Between 2014 and 2016, Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar implemented a multi-pronged intervention to increase contraceptive use by leveraging its social marketing clinics and providers, and providing additional community outreach. The aim of this study is to explore trends over time in contraceptive uptake and assess whether exposure to the PSI program was associated with women adopting a method. Baseline and end line data were collected using a repeated cross-sectional survey of married women of reproductive age in 2014 and 2016. We find that use of the implant and intrauterine device (IUD) has increased among contraceptive users over time, although there was no significant association for short-term methods. There was also an increase in all types of method use between time periods compared to non-users of contraception. Women who reported seeing a PSI contraception pamphlet had increased odds of having adopted an IUD or implant in the study period. This suggests that interventions that address both supply and demand side barriers to contraception can have an impact on contraceptive uptake, especially more effective long acting methods.

  14. Impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-04-02

    To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.

  15. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624

  16. Comparing the Affordable Care Act's Financial Impact on Safety-Net Hospitals in States That Expanded Medicaid and Those That Did Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; Haught, Randy; Phap-Hoa, Luu

    2017-11-01

    Safety-net hospitals play a vital role in delivering health care to Medicaid enrollees, the uninsured, and other vulnerable patients. By reducing the number of uninsured Americans, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was also expected to lower these hospitals’ significant uncompensated care costs and shore up their financial stability. To examine how the ACA’s Medicaid expansion affected the financial status of safety-net hospitals in states that expanded Medicaid and in states that did not. Using Medicare hospital cost reports for federal fiscal years 2012 and 2015, the authors compared changes in Medicaid inpatient days as a percentage of total inpatient days, Medicaid revenues as a percentage of total net patient revenues, uncompensated care costs as a percentage of total operating costs, and hospital operating margins. Medicaid expansion had a significant, favorable financial impact on safety-net hospitals. From 2012 to 2015, safety-net hospitals in expansion states, compared to those in nonexpansion states, experienced larger increases in Medicaid inpatient days and Medicaid revenues as well as reduced uncompensated care costs. These changes improved operating margins for safety-net hospitals in expansion states. Margins for safety-net hospitals in nonexpansion states, meanwhile, declined.

  17. Utilization of and Adherence to Oral Contraceptive Pills and Associated Disparities in the United States: A Baseline Assessment for the Impact of the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Lee, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sociological factors that may influence women's utilization of and adherence to oral contraceptive pills. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2010-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Female adults aged 18-50 years were included. Logistic regression was performed to discern women's decisions to use oral contraceptive pills or not. Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were conducted to examine the number of oral contraceptive pills received, refill frequency, and annual out-of-pocket expenditure on oral contraceptive pills. Covariates were based on the Andersen model of health care utilization. Among the study sample (weighted n = 207,007,531), 14.8% were oral contraceptive pill users. Factors positively related to oral contraceptive pill use included non-Hispanic white ethnicity, younger age, not currently married, having private insurance, residing in the Midwest, higher education level, and higher annual family income. Being non-Hispanic white and having a higher education level were positively related to oral contraceptive pill adherence. Our findings therefore demonstrate disparities in oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence, especially according to women's race/ethnicity and educational level. This study serves as a baseline assessment for the impact of the Affordable Care Act on oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence for future studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix S: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Coordination Act Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document constitutes the report of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) relating to the proposed Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR). The SOR proposed alternative consists of a number of specific water management manipulations and new management targets for operating the network of existing Federal Columbia River Power System dams and facilities. This report, therefore, presents a broader, ecosystem planning and management approach for evaluating and resolving those operational and biological uncertainties. Potential mitigation, enhancement and restoration actions associated with the preferred alternative will require an adaptive implementation approach. At the present time and as further changes anticipated in SOR operations occur, the complete, ecosystemwide, synergistic effects of the operation of the current Federal Columbia River Power System cannot be adequately ascertained. However, the initial elements of ecosystem-based remedies are presented in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. These remedies are intended to stimulate action to help conserve distressed fish and wildlife populations, while furthering understanding of the impacts of the SOR preferred alternative on the ecosystem. This Coordination Act Report is the first attempt to integrate fish and wildlife mitigation, enhancement, recovery and restoration needs with the proposed action and the existing Federal Columbia River Power System

  19. Quantifying the Impact of Vehicle and Motor Fuel Provisions from the Energy Policy Act on the Sustainability and Resilience of U.S. Cities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Darlene; Sears, Ted

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, with later amendments, was enacted with the goal of reducing U.S. petroleum consumption by building a core market for alternative fuels and vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy manages three federal programs related to EPAct; the Sustainable Federal Fleets Program, the State and Alternative Fuel Provider Program, and Clean Cities. Federal agencies and State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets are required to submit annual reports that document their compliance with the legislation. Clean Cities is a voluntary program aimed at building partnerships and providing technical expertise to encourage cities to reduce petroleum use in transportation. This study reviews the evolution of these three programs in relation to alternative fuel and vehicle markets and private sector adoption of alternative fueled vehicles to assess the impact of the programs on reduction in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions both within the regulated fleets and through development of alternative fuel and vehicle markets. The increased availability of alternative fuels and use of alternative fuels in regulated fleets is expected to improve cities' ability to respond to and quickly recover from both local disasters and short- and long-term regional or national fuel supply interruptions. Our analysis examines the benefits as well as potential drawbacks of alternative fuel use for the resiliency of U.S. cities.

  20. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ed Jastrzembsi; David Abbott; Graham Heyes; R.W. MacLeod; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. We also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  1. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. They also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  2. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to clot, the higher the degree of clotting inhibition. During surgery, the ACT is kept above a ... What is ECLS? An Introduction to Extracorporeal Life Support. University of Michigan Health System [On-line information]. ...

  3. The role of curiosity‐triggering events in game‐based learning for mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.J.M.; van Oostendorp, H.; terVrugte, Judith; Vandercruysse, Sylke; de Jong, Ton; Elen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether cognitive conflicts induced by curiosity-triggering events have a positive impact on learning and motivation. In two experiments, we tested a game about proportional reasoning for secondary prevocational students. Experiment 1 used a curiosity-triggering vs.

  4. The Role of Curiosity-Triggering Events in Game-Based Learning for Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre; ter Vrugte, Judith; Vandercruysse, Sylke; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Elen, Jan; Torbeyns, Joke; Lehtinen, Erno; Elen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether cognitive conflicts induced by curiosity-triggering events have a positive impact on learning and motivation. In two experiments, we tested a game about proportional reasoning for secondary prevocational students. Experiment 1 used a curiosity-triggering vs.

  5. The Trigger System of the CMS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Felcini, Marta

    2008-01-01

    We give an overview of the main features of the CMS trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Then, we illustrate the strategies and trigger configurations (trigger tables) developed for the detector calibration and physics program of the CMS experiment, at start-up of LHC operations, as well as their possible evolution with increasing luminosity. Finally, we discuss the expected CPU time performance of the trigger algorithms and the CPU requirements for the event filter farm at start-up.

  6. Triggers for a high sensitivity charm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Any future charm experiment clearly should implement an E T trigger and a μ trigger. In order to reach the 10 8 reconstructed charm level for hadronic final states, a high quality vertex trigger will almost certainly also be necessary. The best hope for the development of an offline quality vertex trigger lies in further development of the ideas of data-driven processing pioneered by the Nevis/U. Mass. group

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... AWARENESS Tomorrow’s Leaders About Us News Blog Chapters Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data Requests Get Involved X close Advocate Our goal is to educate policy makers about the needs ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy ... Assistance Services Find Resources: CF Foundation Compass Insurance Get ...

  9. Permanently enhanced dynamic triggering probabilities as evidenced by two M ≥ 7.5 earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake radiated waves that likely dynamically triggered the 2013M7.5 Craig earthquake, setting two precedents. First, the triggered earthquake is the largest dynamically triggered shear failure event documented to date. Second, the events highlight a connection between geologic structure, sedimentary troughs that act as waveguides, and triggering probability. The Haida Gwaii earthquake excited extraordinarily large waves within and beyond the Queen Charlotte Trough, which propagated well into mainland Alaska and likely triggering the Craig earthquake along the way. Previously, focusing and associated dynamic triggering have been attributed to unpredictable source effects. This case suggests that elevated dynamic triggering probabilities may exist along the many structures where sedimentary troughs overlie major faults, such as subduction zones’ accretionary prisms and transform faults’ axial valleys. Although data are sparse, I find no evidence of accelerating seismic activity in the vicinity of the Craig rupture between it and the Haida Gwaii earthquake.

  10. First level trigger of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kulikov, A.V.; Gallas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The logic of the first level trigger of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is described. A parallel running of different trigger modes with tagging of events and optional independent prescaling is realized. A CAMAC-based trigger system is completely computer controlled

  11. The D OE software trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1992-10-01

    In the D OE experiment, the software filter operates in a processor farm with each node processing a single event. Processing is data-driven: the filter does local processing to verify the candidates from the hardware trigger. The filter code consists of independent pieces called ''tools''; processing for a given hardware bit is a ''script'' invoking one or more ''tools'' sequentially. An offline simulator drives the same code with the same configuration files, running on real or simulated data. Online tests use farm nodes parasiting on the data stream. We discuss the performance of the system and how we attempt to verify its correctness

  12. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  13. Cluster observations and simulations of He+ EMIC triggered emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Shoji, M.; Santolik, O.; Omura, Y.

    2012-12-01

    EMIC triggered emissions have been reported in the inner magnetosphere at the edge of the plasmapause nightside [Pickett et al., 2010]. The generation mechanism proposed by Omura et al. [2010] is very similar to the one of the whistler chorus emissions and simulation results agree with observations and theory [Shoji et Omura, 2011]. The main characteristics of these emissions generated in the magnetic equatorial plane region are a frequency with time dispersion and a high level of coherence. The start frequency of previously mentioned observations is above half of the proton gyrofrequency. It means that the emissions are generated on the proton branch. On the He+ branch, generation of triggered emissions, in the same region, requests more energetic protons and the triggering process starts below the He+ gyrofrequency. It makes their identification in Cluster data rather difficult. Recent simulation results confirm the possibility of EMIC triggered emission on the He+ branch. In the present contribution we propose to compare a Cluster event to simulation results in order to investigate the possibility to identify observations to a He+ triggered emission. The impact of the observed waves on particle precipitation is also investigated.

  14. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  15. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  16. Ice nucleation triggered by negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolli, Claudia

    2017-11-30

    Homogeneous ice nucleation needs supercooling of more than 35 K to become effective. When pressure is applied to water, the melting and the freezing points both decrease. Conversely, melting and freezing temperatures increase under negative pressure, i.e. when water is stretched. This study presents an extrapolation of homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures from positive to negative pressures as a basis for further exploration of ice nucleation under negative pressure. It predicts that increasing negative pressure at temperatures below about 262 K eventually results in homogeneous ice nucleation while at warmer temperature homogeneous cavitation, i. e. bubble nucleation, dominates. Negative pressure occurs locally and briefly when water is stretched due to mechanical shock, sonic waves, or fragmentation. The occurrence of such transient negative pressure should suffice to trigger homogeneous ice nucleation at large supercooling in the absence of ice-nucleating surfaces. In addition, negative pressure can act together with ice-inducing surfaces to enhance their intrinsic ice nucleation efficiency. Dynamic ice nucleation can be used to improve properties and uniformity of frozen products by applying ultrasonic fields and might also be relevant for the freezing of large drops in rainclouds.

  17. Hadronic Triggers and trigger-object level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program, and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors to more deeply probing for new physics, such as storage and computing requirements f...

  18. Hadronic triggers and trigger object-level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous event rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors, such as storage and computing requirements...

  19. The railway suicide death of a famous German football player: impact on the subsequent frequency of railway suicide acts in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Kunrath, Sabine; Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The railway suicide of Robert Enke, an internationally respected German football goal keeper, sent shockwaves throughout the world of football. We analyzed its impact on the frequency of subsequent railway suicide acts (RS). Two analytic approaches were performed applying German Railway Event database Safety (EDS) data: first, an inter-year approach comparing the incidence of RS during a predefined "index period" with identical time windows in 2006 to 2008; second, an intra-year approach comparing the number of RS 28 days before and after the incidence. To analyze a possible "compensatory deficit", the number of RS in the subsequent first quarter of 2010 was compared with the identical time windows in the preceding three years. Incidence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Poisson regression. Findings were controlled for temperature. Compared to the preceding three years, the incidence ratio (IR) of the number of RS in the index period increased by 1.81 (1.48-2.21; p<0.001), leading to an overall percentage change of 81% (48-121%; p<0.001). Comparing the number of suicides 28 days before and after the incidence revealed an even more pronounced increase of IR (2.2; 1.6-3.0). No modifications of these associations were observed by daytime, by location of the suicide and fatality. No compensatory deficit occurred in the post-acute period. The substantial increase of RS in the aftermath of the footballer's suicide death brought about copycat behavior in an unforeseen amount, even though the media reporting was largely sensitive and preventive measures were taken. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-$p_T$ dimuon triggers at LHCb in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dettori, Francesco; Prisciandaro, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb trigger efficiency for strange hadron decays to final states containing dimuon pairs was substantially improved for Run 2 of the LHC. This note describes the updated strategy, and its impact on the LHCb rare strange physics programme.

  1. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining

  2. Does Twitter trigger bursts in signature collections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The quantification of social media impacts on societal and political events is a difficult undertaking. The Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine started a signature-collecting campaign to oppose a medical policy of the Government Revitalization Unit to exclude a traditional Japanese medicine, "Kampo," from the public insurance system. The signature count showed a series of aberrant bursts from November 26 to 29, 2009. In the same interval, the number of messages on Twitter including the keywords "Signature" and "Kampo," increased abruptly. Moreover, the number of messages on an Internet forum that discussed the policy and called for signatures showed a train of spikes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to estimate the contributions of social media, we developed a statistical model with state-space modeling framework that distinguishes the contributions of multiple social media in time-series of collected public opinions. We applied the model to the time-series of signature counts of the campaign and quantified contributions of two social media, i.e., Twitter and an Internet forum, by the estimation. We found that a considerable portion (78% of the signatures was affected from either of the social media throughout the campaign and the Twitter effect (26% was smaller than the Forum effect (52% in total, although Twitter probably triggered the initial two bursts of signatures. Comparisons of the estimated profiles of the both effects suggested distinctions between the social media in terms of sustainable impact of messages or tweets. Twitter shows messages on various topics on a time-line; newer messages push out older ones. Twitter may diminish the impact of messages that are tweeted intermittently. CONCLUSIONS: The quantification of social media impacts is beneficial to better understand people's tendency and may promote developing strategies to engage public opinions effectively. Our proposed method is a promising tool to explore

  3. Does Twitter trigger bursts in signature collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Kami, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Miyano, Satoru; Yuji, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of social media impacts on societal and political events is a difficult undertaking. The Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine started a signature-collecting campaign to oppose a medical policy of the Government Revitalization Unit to exclude a traditional Japanese medicine, "Kampo," from the public insurance system. The signature count showed a series of aberrant bursts from November 26 to 29, 2009. In the same interval, the number of messages on Twitter including the keywords "Signature" and "Kampo," increased abruptly. Moreover, the number of messages on an Internet forum that discussed the policy and called for signatures showed a train of spikes. In order to estimate the contributions of social media, we developed a statistical model with state-space modeling framework that distinguishes the contributions of multiple social media in time-series of collected public opinions. We applied the model to the time-series of signature counts of the campaign and quantified contributions of two social media, i.e., Twitter and an Internet forum, by the estimation. We found that a considerable portion (78%) of the signatures was affected from either of the social media throughout the campaign and the Twitter effect (26%) was smaller than the Forum effect (52%) in total, although Twitter probably triggered the initial two bursts of signatures. Comparisons of the estimated profiles of the both effects suggested distinctions between the social media in terms of sustainable impact of messages or tweets. Twitter shows messages on various topics on a time-line; newer messages push out older ones. Twitter may diminish the impact of messages that are tweeted intermittently. The quantification of social media impacts is beneficial to better understand people's tendency and may promote developing strategies to engage public opinions effectively. Our proposed method is a promising tool to explore information hidden in social phenomena.

  4. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  5. 78 FR 67201 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting DATE AND TIME: The Legal Services Corporation's... disrupting the meeting, please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From time to time, the presiding Chair may solicit comments from the public. STATUS...

  6. 78 FR 38409 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice DATE AND TIME: The Legal Services... disrupting the meeting, please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From time to time, the presiding Chair may solicit comments from the public. STATUS...

  7. 78 FR 39781 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice Date and Time: The Legal Services... disrupting the meeting, please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From time to time, the Chair may solicit comments from the public. Status of Meeting...

  8. 78 FR 33114 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meetings ACTION: Notice. Date And Time: The Legal Services... meeting, please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From time to time, the Chair may solicit comments from the public. Status Of Meeting: Open...

  9. 78 FR 30339 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... trigger recorded music or other sound. From time to time, the presiding Chair may solicit comments from... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice DATE AND TIME: The Legal Services Corporation's Institutional Advancement Committee will meet telephonically on May 28, 2013. The meeting will...

  10. 78 FR 57178 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From time to time, the Chair may... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice DATE AND TIME: The Legal Services Corporation's Promotion and Provision for the Delivery of Legal Services Committee will meet telephonically on...

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns, triggers and anatomies of seismically detected rockfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dietze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rockfalls are a ubiquitous geomorphic process and a natural hazard in steep landscapes across the globe. Seismic monitoring can provide precise information on the timing, location and event anatomy of rockfalls, which are parameters that are otherwise hard to constrain. By pairing data from 49 seismically detected rockfalls in the Lauterbrunnen Valley in the Swiss Alps with auxiliary meteorologic and seismic data of potential triggers during autumn 2014 and spring 2015, we are able to (i analyse the evolution of single rockfalls and their common properties, (ii identify spatial changes in activity hotspots (iii and explore temporal activity patterns on different scales ranging from months to minutes to quantify relevant trigger mechanisms. Seismic data allow for the classification of rockfall activity into two distinct phenomenological types. The signals can be used to discern multiple rock mass releases from the same spot, identify rockfalls that trigger further rockfalls and resolve modes of subsequent talus slope activity. In contrast to findings based on discontinuous methods with integration times of several months, rockfall in the monitored limestone cliff is not spatially uniform but shows a systematic downward shift of a rock mass release zone following an exponential law, most likely driven by a continuously lowering water table. Freeze–thaw transitions, approximated at first order from air temperature time series, account for only 5 out of the 49 rockfalls, whereas 19 rockfalls were triggered by rainfall events with a peak lag time of 1 h. Another 17 rockfalls were triggered by diurnal temperature changes and occurred during the coldest hours of the day and during the highest temperature change rates. This study is thus the first to show direct links between proposed rockfall triggers and the spatiotemporal distribution of rockfalls under natural conditions; it extends existing models by providing seismic observations of the

  12. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  14. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  15. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  16. Triggers and Characteristics of the 2007 Kenyan Electoral Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Roxana Gutiérrez-Romero

    2010-01-01

    Following the 2007 disputed Kenyan Presidential election unprecedented levels of violence erupted across the country adding to the history of troubled elections in Africa. This paper offers quantitative and qualitative evidence on the incidence, impacts and issues that triggered electoral violence. Using two surveys conducted before and after the election we find that one out of three Kenyans were affected by the violence regardless of their ethnicity and wealth. The chances of being a victim...

  17. The STAR Level-3 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.; Berger, J.; Demello, M.; Dietel, T.; Flierl, D.; Landgraf, J.; Lange, J.S.; LeVine, M.J.; Ljubicic, A.; Nelson, J.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Struck, C.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Level-3 trigger issues a trigger decision upon a complete online reconstruction of Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies. Central interactions are processed up to a rate of 50 s -1 including a simple analysis of physics observables. The setup of the processor farm and the event reconstruction as well as experiences and the proposed trigger algorithms are described

  18. Upgrade trigger & reconstruction strategy: 2017 milestone

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Johannes; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Cattaneo, Marco; Marco, Clemencic; Couturier, Ben; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Hill, Donal; Jones, Christopher Rob; Lemaitre, Florian; Lupton, Olli; Matev, Rosen; Pearce, Alex; Polci, Francesco; Promberger, Laura; Ponce, Sebastien; Quagliani, Renato; Raven, Gerhard; Sciascia, Barbara; Schiller, Manuel Tobias; Stahl, Sascha; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently preparing an update of the experiment to take data in Run 3 of the LHC. The dominant feature of this upgrade is a trigger-less readout of the full detector followed by a full software trigger. To make optimal use of the collected data, the events are reconstructed at the inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz. This document presents the baseline trigger and reconstruction strategy as of the end of 2017.

  19. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-01-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility. (orig.)

  20. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P; Asman, B; Bohm, C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S; Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, τ leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 μs, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern

  1. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Asman, B; Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.eisenhandler@qmul.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, {tau} leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 {mu}s, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern.

  2. ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Lang, P. [EURATOM / UKAEA, Abingdon, UK; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Jernigan, Thomas C. [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to prevent large naturally occurring ELMs that can erode the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs). Deuterium pellet injection has been used to successfully demonstrate the on-demand triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) at much higher rates and with much smaller intensity than natural ELMs. The proposed hypothesis for the triggering mechanism of ELMs by pellets is the local pressure perturbation resulting from reheating of the pellet cloud that can exceed the local high-n ballooning mode threshold where the pellet is injected. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the pellet ELM triggering show destabilization of high-n ballooning modes by such a local pressure perturbation.A review of the recent pellet ELM triggering results from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, and JET reveals that a number of uncertainties about this ELM mitigation technique still remain. These include the heat flux impact pattern on the divertor and wall from pellet triggered and natural ELMs, the necessary pellet size and injection location to reliably trigger ELMs, and the level of fueling to be expected from ELM triggering pellets and synergy with larger fueling pellets. The implications of these issues for pellet ELM mitigation in ITER and its impact on the PFCs are presented along with the design features of the pellet injection system for ITER.

  3. Method of triggering the vacuum arc in source with a resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Le; Lan Zhaohui; Long Jidong; Peng Yufei; Li Jie; Yang Zhen; Dong Pan; Shi Jinshui

    2014-01-01

    Background: The metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source is a common source which provides strong metal ion flow. To trigger this ion source, a high-voltage trigger pulse generator and a high-voltage isolation pulse transformer are needed, which makes the power supply system complex. Purpose: To simplify the power supply system, a trigger method with a resistor was introduced, and some characteristics of this method were studied. Methods: The ion flow provided by different main arc current was measured, as well as the trigger current. The main arc current and the ion current were recorded with different trigger resistances. Results: Experimental results showed that, within a certain range of resistances, the larger the resistance value, the more difficult it was to success fully trigger the source. Meanwhile, the main arc rising edge became slower on the increasing in the trigger time. However, the resistance value increment had hardly impact on the intensity of ion flow extracted in the end, The ion flow became stronger with the increasing main arc current. Conclusion: The power supply system of ion source is simplified by using the trigger method with a resistor. Only a suitable resistor was needed to complete the conversion process from trigger to arc initiating. (authors)

  4. The ATLAS Trigger System Commissioning and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully to collect collision data during 2009 and 2010 LHC running at centre of mass energies of 900 GeV, 2.36 TeV, and 7 TeV. This paper presents the ongoing work to commission the ATLAS trigger with proton collisions, including an overview of the performance of the trigger based on extensive online running. We describe how the trigger has evolved with increasing LHC luminosity and give a brief overview of plans for forthcoming LHC running.

  5. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  6. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  7. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  8. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented. (paper)

  9. Geometrical Acceptance Analysis for RPC PAC Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Eunsung

    2010-01-01

    The CMS(Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the four experiments that will analyze the collision results of the protons accelerated by the Large Hardron Collider(LHC) at CERN(Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire). In case of the CMS experiment, the trigger system is divided into two stages : The Level-1 Trigger and High Level Trigger. The RPC(Resistive Plate Chamber) PAC(PAttern Comparator) Trigger system, which is a subject of this thesis, is a part of the Level-1 Muon Trigger System. Main task of the PAC Trigger is to identify muons, measures transverse momenta and select the best muon candidates for each proton bunch collision occurring every 25 ns. To calculate the value of PAC Trigger efficiency for triggerable muon, two terms of different efficiencies are needed ; acceptance efficiency and chamber efficiency. Main goal of the works described in this thesis is obtaining the acceptance efficiency of the PAC Trigger in each logical cone. Acceptance efficiency is a convolution of the chambers geometry an...

  10. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  11. The late Little Ice Age landslide calamity in North Bohemia: Triggers, impacts and post-landslide development reconstructed from documentary data (case study of the Kozi vrch Hill landslide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raška, P.; Zábranský, V.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Lamková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 255, feb (2016), s. 95-107 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : flysch carpathians * shallow landslides * rainfall intensity * duration control * climatic-change * central-europe * debris flows * czechia * state * Landslide reconstruction * Documentary data * Little Ice Age * North Bohemia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  12. The impact of triggering mechanism on flow dynamics and depositional geometry: results from an experimental study of non-conservative density currents; Influencia do mecanismo de iniciacao na dinamica dos fluxos e na geometria dos depositos gerados: observacoes obtidas a partir de estudo experimental de correntes de densidade nao-conservativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manica, Rafael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas. Nucleo de Estudos de Correntes de Densidade]. E-mail: rmanica@portoweb.com.br; Del Rey, Antonio Cosme; Maestri, Rogerio Dornelles; Borges, Ana Luiza de Oliveira; Viana, Adriano Roessler

    2005-05-01

    This study presents 28 physical simulations of non-conservative density currents used to evaluate their depositional patterns. Two different triggering mechanisms were used: lock gate and fluid injection. The impact of specific gravity, material type and grain size on the mixture were also checked. Dynamic and geometric features, such as head velocity and head/body height, were recorded. Results show flow velocity increase as concentration grows; deposition volumes present a general tendency to exponential decline with distance; the grain size range of the deposits decreases towards the distal portion of the channel. The results obtained have showed the efficiency of physical modeling in the study of turbidites in allowing correlations to be defined between currents and deposition patterns. (author)

  13. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  14. The trigger supervisor: Managing triggering conditions in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, B.; Lanza, R.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Videbaek, F.

    1987-01-01

    A trigger supervisor, implemented in VME-bus hardware, is described, which enables the host computer to dynamically control and monitor the trigger configuration for acquiring data from multiple detector partitions in a complex experiment

  15. The impact of the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care Personnel Enhancement Act of 2004 on VA physicians' salaries and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Tanner A; Wallace, Amy E

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care Personnel Enhancement Act (the Act), which was designed to achieve VA physician salary parity with American Academy of Medical Colleges (AAMC) Associate Professors and enacted in 2006, had achieved its goal. Using VA human resources datasets and data from the AAMC, we calculated mean VA physician salaries, with 95 percent confidence intervals, for 15 different medical specialties. For each specialty, we compared VA salaries to the median, 25th, and 75th percentile of AAMC Associate Professors' incomes. The Act's passage resulted in a $20,000 annual increase in VA physicians' salaries. VA primary care physicians, medical subspecialists, and psychiatrists had salaries that were comparable to their AAMC counterparts prior to and after enactment of the Act. However, VA surgical specialists', anesthesiologists', and radiologists' salaries lagged their AAMC counterparts both before and after the Act's enactment. Income increases were negatively correlated with full-time workforce changes. VA does not appear to provide comparable salaries for physicians necessary for surgical care. In certain cases, VA should consider outsourcing surgical services.

  16. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  17. Competition for trophies triggers male generosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Sophia Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters--including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards.

  18. Tools for Trigger Aware Analyses in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Stelzer, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to search for rare processes, all four LHC experiments have to use advanced triggering methods for selecting and recording the events of interest. At the expected nominal LHC operating conditions only about 0.0005% of the collision events can be kept for physics analysis in ATLAS. Therefore the understanding and evaluation of the trigger performance is one of the most crucial parts of any physics analysis. ATLAS’s first level trigger is composed of custom-built hardware, while the second and third levels are implemented using regular PCs running reconstruction and selection algorithms. Because of this split, accessing the results of the trigger execution for the two stages is different. The complexity of the software trigger presents further difficulties in accessing the trigger data. To make the job of the physicists easier when evaluating the trigger performance, multiple general-use tools are provided by the ATLAS Trigger Analysis Tools group. The TrigDecisionTool, a general tool, is provided to...

  19. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  20. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222798; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  1. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, G.H.; Butler, H.S.; Cooper, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor changing decays of muon. A beam of up to 10 6 muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor described in this paper. Further reduction to < 1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic loci. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex the data acquisition channels and apply additional event filtering

  2. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  3. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  4. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  5. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean J.

    2017-08-01

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ˜ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such `soft bomb' events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a `belt of fire': a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy or lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for `Higgs bombs' triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.

  6. The LVL2 trigger goes online

    CERN Multimedia

    David Berge

    On Friday, the 9th of February, the ATLAS TDAQ community reached an important milestone. In a successful integration test, cosmic-ray muons were recorded with parts of the muon spectrometer, the central-trigger system and a second-level trigger algorithm. This was actually the first time that a full trigger slice all the way from the first-level trigger muon chambers up to event building after event selection by the second-level trigger ran online with cosmic rays. The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system has a three-tier structure that is designed to cope with the enormous demands of proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, with a typical event size of 1-2 MB. The online event selection has to reduce the incoming rate by a factor of roughly 200,000 to 200 Hz, a rate digestible by the archival-storage and offline-processing facilities. ATLAS has a mixed system: the first-level trigger (LVL1) is in hardware, while the other two consecutive levels, the second-level trigger (LVL2)...

  7. Level-1 jets and energy sums trigger performance with part of the 2017 dataset

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the first long shutdown, the LHC has restarted at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to achieve an instantaneous luminosity larger than $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ and an average peak number of pile-up interactions of at least 40. The CMS Level-1 trigger architecture has undergone a full upgrade in order to maintain and improve the trigger performance under these new conditions. It will allow CMS to keep the trigger rate under control and to avoid a significant increase in trigger thresholds that would have a negative impact on the CMS physics programme. This note includes studies of the performance of the jets and energy sums as defined in the calorimeter trigger upgrade.

  8. Reliability model analysis and primary experimental evaluation of laser triggered pulse trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Debiao; Yang Xinglin; Li Yuan; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    High performance pulse trigger can enhance performance and stability of the PPS. It is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the LTGS pulse trigger, so we establish the reliability analysis model of this pulse trigger based on CARMES software, the reliability evaluation is accord with the statistical results. (authors)

  9. A general-purpose trigger processor system and its application to fast vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazumi, M.; Banas, E.; Natkaniec, Z.; Ostrowicz, W.

    1997-12-01

    A general-purpose hardware trigger system has been developed. The system comprises programmable trigger processors and pattern generator/samplers. The hardware design of the system is described. An application as a prototype of the very fast vertex trigger in an asymmetric B-factory at KEK is also explained. (author)

  10. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Kedenge

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred.Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups.This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  11. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedenge, Sarah V; Kangwana, Beth P; Waweru, Evelyn W; Nyandigisi, Andrew J; Pandit, Jayesh; Brooker, Simon J; Snow, Robert W; Goodman, Catherine A

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred. Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups. This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  12. The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Timing Setup

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. In order to reduce the data rate, a three-level trigger system selects potentially interesting physics. The first trigger level is implemented in electronics and firmware. It aims at reducing the output rate to less than 100 kHz. The Central Trigger Processor combines information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1-Accept decision. It is a central element in the timing setup of the experiment. Three aspects are considered in this article: the timing setup with respect to the Level-1 trigger, with respect to the expriment, and with respect to the world.

  13. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  14. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  15. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)

  16. Concept of the CMS Trigger Supervisor

    CERN Document Server

    Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Varela, Joao

    2006-01-01

    The Trigger Supervisor is an online software system designed for the CMS experiment at CERN. Its purpose is to provide a framework to set up, test, operate and monitor the trigger components on one hand and to manage their interplay and the information exchange with the run control part of the data acquisition system on the other. The Trigger Supervisor is conceived to provide a simple and homogeneous client interface to the online software infrastructure of the trigger subsystems. This document specifies the functional and non-functional requirements, design and operational details, and the components that will be delivered in order to facilitate a smooth integration of the trigger software in the context of CMS.

  17. Spatial attention triggered by unimodal, crossmodal, and bimodal exogenous cues: a comparison of reflexive orienting mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, Valerio; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert

    The aim of this study was to establish whether spatial attention triggered by bimodal exogenous cues acts differently as compared to unimodal and crossmodal exogenous cues due to crossmodal integration. In order to investigate this issue, we examined cuing effects in discrimination tasks and

  18. Robust event-triggered MPC with guaranteed asymptotic bound and average sampling rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, F.D.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Allgower, F.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a robust event-triggered model predictive control (MPC) scheme for linear time-invariant discrete-time systems subject to bounded additive stochastic disturbances and hard constraints on the input and state. For given probability distributions of the disturbances acting on the system, we

  19. Frequency-Dependent Tidal Triggering of Low Frequency Earthquakes Near Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of small periodic stress perturbations on earthquake generation is not clear, however, the rate of low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) near Parkfield, California has been found to be strongly correlated with solid earth tides. Laboratory experiments and theoretical analyses show that the period of imposed forcing and source properties affect the sensitivity to triggering and the phase relation of the peak seismicity rate and the periodic stress, but frequency-dependent triggering has not been quantitatively explored in the field. Tidal forcing acts over a wide range of frequencies, therefore the sensitivity to tidal triggering of LFEs provides a good probe to the physical mechanisms affecting earthquake generation. In this study, we consider the tidal triggering of LFEs near Parkfield, California since 2001. We find the LFEs rate is correlated with tidal shear stress, normal stress rate and shear stress rate. The occurrence of LFEs can also be independently modulated by groups of tidal constituents at semi-diurnal, diurnal and fortnightly frequencies. The strength of the response of LFEs to the different tidal constituents varies between LFE families. Each LFE family has an optimal triggering frequency, which does not appear to be depth dependent or systematically related to other known properties. This suggests the period of the applied forcing plays an important role in the triggering process, and the interaction of periods of loading history and source region properties, such as friction, effective normal stress and pore fluid pressure, produces the observed frequency-dependent tidal triggering of LFEs.

  20. Energy parasites trigger oncogene mutation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Jandová, Anna; Kobilková, J.; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J. jr.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 10 (2016), s. 577-582 ISSN 0955-3002 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-12757S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : cancer initiation * cell-mediated immunity * coherent electromagnetic states * genome somatic mutation * LDH virus * parasitic energy consumption Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.992, year: 2016

  1. Influence of Tidal Forces on the Triggering of Seismic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Péter; Grafarend, Erik

    2018-05-01

    Tidal stresses are generated in any three-dimensional body influenced by an external inhomogeneous gravity field of rotating planets or moons. In this paper, as a special case, stresses caused within the solid Earth by the body tides are discussed from viewpoint of their influence on seismic activity. The earthquake triggering effects of the Moon and Sun are usually investigated by statistical comparison of tidal variations and temporal distribution of earthquake activity, or with the use of mathematical or experimental modelling of physical processes in earthquake prone structures. In this study, the magnitude of the lunisolar stress tensor in terms of its components along the latitude of the spherical surface of the Earth as well as inside the Earth (up to the core-mantle boundary) were calculated for the PREM (Dziewonski and Anderson in Phys Earth Planet Inter 25(4):297-356, 1981). Results of calculations prove that stress increases as a function of depth reaching a value around some kPa at the depth of 900-1500 km, well below the zone of deep earthquakes. At the depth of the overwhelming part of seismic energy accumulation (around 50 km) the stresses of lunisolar origin are only (0.0-1.0)·103 Pa. Despite the fact that these values are much smaller than the earthquake stress drops (1-30 MPa) (Kanamori in Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 22:207-237, 1994) this does not exclude the possibility of an impact of tidal forces on outbreak of seismic events. Since the tidal potential and its derivatives are coordinate dependent and the zonal, tesseral and sectorial tides have different distributions from the surface down to the CMB, the lunisolar stress cannot influence the break-out of every seismological event in the same degree. The influencing lunisolar effect of the solid earth tides on earthquake occurrences is connected first of all with stress components acting parallel to the surface of the Earth. The influence of load tides is limited to the loaded area and its

  2. Autonomous stimulus triggered self-healing in smart structural composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C J; White, J A P; McCombe, G; Chatterjee, P; Bond, I P; Trask, R S

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the ability of biological systems to sense and autonomously heal damage, this research has successfully demonstrated the first autonomous, stimulus triggered, self-healing system in a structural composite material. Both the sensing and healing mechanisms are reliant on microvascular channels incorporated within a laminated composite material. For the triggering mechanism, a single air filled vessel was pressurized, sealed and monitored. Upon drop weight impact (10 J), delamination and microcrack connectivity between the pressurized vessel and those open to ambient led to a pressure loss which, with the use of a suitable sensor, triggered a pump to deliver a healing agent to the damage zone. Using this autonomous healing approach, near full recovery of post-impact compression strength was achieved (94% on average). A simplified alternative system with healing agent continuously flowing through the vessels, akin to blood flow, was found to offer 100% recovery of the material’s virgin strength. Optical microscopy and ultrasonic C-scanning provided further evidence of large-scale infusion of matrix damage with the healing agent. The successful implementation of this bioinspired technology could substantially enhance the integrity and reliability of aerospace structures, whilst offering benefits through improved performance/weight ratios and extended lifetimes. (paper)

  3. Designing signal-enriched triggers for boosted jets.

    CERN Document Server

    Toumazou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Triggers designed to favour the selection of hadronically decaying massive particles have been studied. Both triggers using solely ET and mass cuts (similar to new 2017 triggers) and triggers exploiting polarization information have been studied. The mass cut triggers show substantial gains in rate reduction, while the benefits of polarization triggers are less obvious. The final conclusion is that it is more useful to identify and trigger on generic boosted decays, irrespective of the polarization of the decaying particle

  4. National environmental policy act disclosure of air quality impacts for prescribed fire projects in national forests in the Pacific Southwest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj Ahuja; Laurie Perrot

    2008-01-01

    A key purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to “promote effortswhich will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate thehealth and welfare of man” (NEPA, Sec 2). The Council on Environmental Quality states “theNEPA process is intended to help public officials make decisions that...

  5. Pesticides used in forest nursery management in the United States and the impact of the Food Quality Protection Act and other regulatory actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus A. Cota

    2002-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 has placed new standards on the registration and regulation of pesticides intended to protect children. The most significant changed mandated by FQPA relate to the registration process termed the "Risk Cup." This approach to risk analysis has resulted in greater restrictions on the application of pesticides used...

  6. A silicon track trigger for the DOe experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, Meenakshi

    2000-01-01

    The design of a processor to trigger on long-lived particles (e.g. b-quarks) for the DOe experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is presented. This device reconstructs the trajectory of the charged particles in the DOe tracking system, which consists of a central fiber tracker and a silicon microstrip tracker. The r-phi impact parameter resolution of the fitted tracks is about 40 μm. This enables the identification of the long-lived b-quarks produced in the decays of various particles, e.g. the top quarks, Higgs Boson, techni-particles and other exotic particles produced in pp-bar collisions at the Tevatron. In this report we describe the design of the architecture and algorithms for the Silicon Track Trigger

  7. A silicon track trigger for the DOe experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, M

    2000-01-01

    The design of a processor to trigger on long-lived particles (e.g. b-quarks) for the DOe experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is presented. This device reconstructs the trajectory of the charged particles in the DOe tracking system, which consists of a central fiber tracker and a silicon microstrip tracker. The r-phi impact parameter resolution of the fitted tracks is about 40 mu m. This enables the identification of the long-lived b-quarks produced in the decays of various particles, e.g. the top quarks, Higgs Boson, techni-particles and other exotic particles produced in pp-bar collisions at the Tevatron. In this report we describe the design of the architecture and algorithms for the Silicon Track Trigger.

  8. Development of high velocity gas gun with a new trigger system-numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, Z.; Homma, H.

    2018-02-01

    In development of high performance armor vests, we need to carry out well controlled experiments using bullet speed of more than 900 m/sec. After reviewing trigger systems used for high velocity gas guns, this research intends to develop a new trigger system, which can realize precise and reproducible impact tests at impact velocity of more than 900 m/sec. A new trigger system developed here is called a projectile trap. A projectile trap is placed between a reservoir and a barrel. A projectile trap has two functions of a sealing disk and triggering. Polyamidimide is selected for the trap material and dimensions of the projectile trap are determined by numerical analysis for several levels of launching pressure to change the projectile velocity. Numerical analysis results show that projectile trap designed here can operate reasonably and stresses caused during launching operation are less than material strength. It means a projectile trap can be reused for the next shooting.

  9. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  10. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  11. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  12. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lingemann, Joschka; Sakulin, Hannes; Jeitler, Manfred; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider pose new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run 1, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new microTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (GMT) which combines information from the muon trigger sub-systems and assigns the isolation variable. The upgraded GMT will be implemented using a Master Processor 7 card, built by Imperial College, that features a large Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. Up to 72 optical links at...

  13. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Kinnel, T.; Lackey, J.; Robl, P.; Silverstein, S.; Dawson, J.W.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L.; Schlereth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The design of the ZEUS Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) is presented. The CFLT utilizes a pipelined architecture to provide trigger data for a global first leel trigger decision 5 μsec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The charges from 13K phototubes are summed into 1792 trigger tower pulseheights which are digitized by flash ADC's. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests. Summary data is forwarded to the Global First Level Trigger for each crossing 2 μsec after the crossing occurred. The CFLT determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposited in various regions of the calorimeter. The CFLT has kept the experimental trigger rate below ∼200 Hz at the highest luminosity experienced at HERA. Performance studies suggest that the CFLT will keep the trigger rate below 1 kHZ against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions on the order of the 100 kHz expected at design luminosity. (orig.)

  14. The D0 run II trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Michigan State U.

    2004-01-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II

  15. Triggering, front-end electronics, and data acquisition for high-rate beauty experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.; Lankford, A.J.

    1988-04-01

    The working group explored the feasibility of building a trigger and an electronics data acquisition system for both collider and fixed target experiments. There appears to be no fundamental technical limitation arising from either the rate or the amount of data for a collider experiment. The fixed target experiments will likely require a much higher rate because of the smaller cross section. Rates up to one event per RF bucket (50 MHz) appear to be feasible. Higher rates depend on the details of the particular experiment and trigger. Several ideas were presented on multiplicity jump and impact parameter triggers for fixed target experiments. 14 refs., 3 figs

  16. Trigger tracking for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Dungs, K

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. We show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic pp-collision rate. A track finding efficiency of 98.8% relative to offline can be achieved for good trigger tracks. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is less than 60% of the available budget.

  17. The CMS Barrel Muon trigger upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triossi, A.; Sphicas, P.; Bellato, M.; Montecassiano, F.; Ventura, S.; Ruiz, J.M. Cela; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Tobar, A. Navarro; Fernandez, I. Redondo; Ferrero, D. Redondo; Sastre, J.; Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Mallios, S.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase1 will impose tighter constraints for rate reduction in order to maintain high efficiency in the CMS Level1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors: Drift Tubes, Resistive Plate Chambers and Outer Hadron Calorimeter. It arranges the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent in multiple copies to the track finders. Results from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown.

  18. Event-triggered attitude control of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin

    2018-02-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.

  19. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs

  20. The LHCb trigger in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb trigger system has been upgraded to allow alignment, calibration and physics analysis to be performed in real time. An increased CPU capacity and improvements in the software have allowed lifetime unbiased selections of beauty and charm decays in the high level trigger. Thanks to offline quality event reconstruction already available online, physics analyses can be performed directly on this information and for the majority of charm physics selections a reduced event format can be written out. Beauty hadron decays are more efficiently triggered by re-optimised inclusive selections, and the HLT2 output event rate is increased by a factor of three.

  1. Fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Drees, A.

    1997-01-01

    The simple and fast detector of charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision studies is performed. The multiplicity detector has been designed for the first level trigger of the CERES/NA45 experiment to study Pb-Au collisions at CERN SPS energies. The detector has allowed a realization of the 40 ns trigger for selection of events with definite impact parameter. The construction, operation characteristics, method of calibration, and testing results are described in detail

  2. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to L-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2014-10-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (trigger), D-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to L-amino acids. Using L-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an L-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Impacts on natural gas markets. Summary of the annual GRI Energy Seminar (12th) for the GRI Board of Directors and Advisory Council. Held in Asheville, North Carolina on August 12-14, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Each year, Gas Research Institute (GRI) conducts an energy seminar for its Board of Directors and Advisory Council on an issue of timely importance to the gas industry. The topic selected for the Twelfth Annual GRI Energy Seminar was 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Impacts on Natural Gas Markets.' The two sessions of the seminar focused upon the sectors of the energy market most significantly affected by the legislation. Session I: Fuel Choices for Stationary Applications explored the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments upon stationary, fuel-burning applications, particularly power plants. The current outlook for bringing existing coal-fired power plants into conformance with the law and the significance of the provisions for the choice of fuels for major future fuel-burning facilities were discussed, along with the impact of the provisions upon GRI's strategies and the technical and economic targets for ongoing R and D. Session II: The Emerging Alternative-Fuel Vehicle Market addressed the significance of the new requirements to the outlook for compressed natural gas vehicles and the suitability of GRI's methane vehicle R and D strategy to the revised outlook. The report summarizes the presentations and discussions at the seminar

  4. A Study of Directive Speech Acts Used by Iranian Nursery School Children: The Impact of Context on Children’s Linguistic Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at finding out the forms and functions of directive speech acts uttered by Persian-speaking children. The writer’s goal is to discover the distinct strategies applied by speakers of nursery school age children regarding three parameters: the choice of form, the negotiation of communicative goals within conversation, and the protection of face. The data collected for this purpose are based on actual school conversational situations that were audio recorded in four nursery schools during classroom work and playtime activities. Children, who are the subjects of this study, are of both sexes and various social backgrounds. The results revealed that (1 the investigation of children’s directive speech acts confirm the fact that they are aware of social parameters of talk (Andersen- Slosberg,1990; Ervin, Tripp et al., 1990; (2 they use linguistic forms that are different from what is used by adults as politeness marker, such as, polite 2nd plural subject-agreement on the verb, “please” and “thank you” words; (3 They use declaratives with illocutionary force in order to mark distance (Georgalidou, 2001. Keywords: Iranian children’s speech; Directive speech act; Politeness, Conversational analysis; Persian

  5. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  6. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Peng, Zhigang; Hill, David P.; Aiken, Chastity

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. The second level trigger system of FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez,G; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Casella, V; De Laere, D; Deiters, K; Dick, P; Kirkby, J; Malgeri, L; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Pohl, M; Petitjean, C; Sánchez, E; Willmott, C

    2009-01-01

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity π+ beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the μ+ lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, Gf, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the π/μ decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  8. The second level trigger system of FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: gustavo.martinez@ciemat.es; Barcyzk, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Casella, C.; De Laere, S. [Universite de Geneve, 30 quai Ernest-Anserment, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Deiters, K.; Dick, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirkby, J.; Malgeri, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mana, C.; Marin, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pohl, M. [Universite de Geneve, 30 quai Ernest-Anserment, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sanchez, E.; Willmott, C. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-11

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity {pi}{sup +} beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the {mu}{sup +} lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, G{sub f}, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the {pi}/{mu} decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  9. SSC physics signatures and trigger requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Strategies are considered for triggering on new physics processes on the environment of the SSC, where interaction rates will be very high and most new physics processes quite rare. The quantities available for use in the trigger at various levels are related to the signatures of possible new physics. Two examples were investigated in some detail using the ISAJET Monte Carlo program: Higgs decays to W pairs and a missing energy trigger applied to gluino pair production. In both of the examples studied in detail, it was found that workable strategies for reducing the trigger rate were obtainable which also produced acceptable efficiency for the processes of interest. In future work, it will be necessary to carry out such a program for the full spectrum of suggested new physics

  10. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.

    2016-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  11. Pulling the trigger on LHC electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The conditions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider pose severe challenges for the designers and builders of front-end, trigger and data acquisition electronics. A recent workshop reviewed the encouraging progress so far and discussed what remains to be done. The LHC experiments have addressed level one trigger systems with a variety of high-speed hardware. The CMS Calorimeter Level One Regional Trigger uses 160 MHz logic boards plugged into the front and back of a custom backplane, which provides point-to-point links between the cards. Much of the processing in this system is performed by five types of 160 MHz digital applications-specific integrated circuits designed using Vitesse submicron high-integration gallium arsenide gate array technology. The LHC experiments make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These offer programmable reconfigurable logic, which has the flexibility that trigger designers need to be able to alter algorithms so that they can follow the physics and detector perform...

  12. Boredom and Passion: Triggers of Habitual Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    . The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...

  13. D0 triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbard, B.

    1992-10-01

    The trigger for D0 is a multi-tier system. Within the 3.5 μsec bunch crossing interval, custom electronics select interesting event candidates based on electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposits in the calorimeter and on indications of tracks in the muon system. Subsequent hardware decisions use refined calculations of electron and muon characteristics. The highest level trigger occurs in one element of a farm of microprocessors, where fully developed algorithms for electrons, muons, jets, or missing E t are executed. This highest level trigger also provides the assembly of the event into its final data structure. Performance of this trigger and data acquisition system in collider operation is described

  14. Triggering and data acquisition general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Joel N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general introduction to trigger and data acquisition systems in High Energy Physics. We emphasize the new possibilities and new approaches that have been made possible by developments in computer technology and networking

  15. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented

  16. Trigger factors in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, A W; Kirchmann, M; Olesen, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trigger factors in migraine with aura (MA). A total of 629 MA patients representative of the Danish population were sent a questionnaire listing 16 trigger factors thought to be relevant as well as space for free text. Distinction was made between...... attacks with or without aura within each patient. The questionnaire was returned by 522 patients of whom 347 had current MA attacks. In total 80% with current attacks (278/347) indicated that at least one factor triggered their migraine, and 67% (187/278) in this group indicated that they were aware...... of at least one factor often or always giving rise to an attack of MA. Forty-one per cent (113/278) had co-occurring attacks of migraine without aura (MO). Stress (following stress), bright light, intense emotional influences, stress (during stress) and sleeping too much or too little were the trigger factors...

  17. The Aurora accelerator's triggered oil switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenheimer, D.M.; Pereira, N.R.; Judy, D.C.; Stricklett, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Achieving a radiation pulse with 15 ns risetime using all four of the Aurora accelerator's Blumlein pulse-forming lines demands synchronization of the Blumleins to within 10 ns (in addition to a 15 ns risetime for a single line). Timing of each Blumlein is controlled by a triggered 12 MV oil switch. A smaller-than-customary trigger electrode makes the switching time more reproducible. Time-resolved photography of the oil arcs suggests that triggering occurs simultaneously around the sharp edge of the trigger electrode, perhaps with small deviations that grow into the most prominent arcs characteristically seen in open-shutter photographs. However, many smaller arcs that are usually overlooked in open-shutter pictures may contribute to current conduction in a closed switch

  18. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  19. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system

  20. New Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2017-02-11

    The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors and the introduction of the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the new trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will be built. FIT will be the main forward trigger, luminometer, and interaction-time detector. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane of heavy-ion collisions. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov quartz radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a plastic scintillator ring. By increasing the overall acceptance of FIT, the scintillator will improve centrality and event plane resolution. It will also add sensitivity for the detection of beam-gas events and provide some degree of redundancy. FIT is currently undergoing an intense R&D and prototyping period. It is scheduled for installation in ALICE during 2020.

  1. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhandler, E.

    1988-01-01

    The new UA1 first-level calorimeter trigger processor is described, with emphasis on the fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding that is its most novel feature. This processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. (author)

  2. The upgrade of the LHCb trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00259834; Fitzpatrick, C.; Gligorov, V.; Raven, G.

    2014-10-20

    The LHCb experiment will operate at a luminosity of $2\\times10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ during LHC Run 3. At this rate the present readout and hardware Level-0 trigger become a limitation, especially for fully hadronic final states. In order to maintain a high signal efficiency the upgraded LHCb detector will deploy two novel concepts: a triggerless readout and a full software trigger.

  3. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; SantolíK, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered chorus emissions have recently been a subject of several experimental, theoretical and simulation case studies, noting their similarities with whistler-mode chorus. We perform a survey of 8 years of Cluster data in order to increase the database of EMIC triggered emissions. The results of this is that EMIC triggered emissions have been unambiguously observed for only three different days. These three events are studied in detail. All cases have been observed at the plasmapause between 22 and 24 magnetic local time (MLT) and between - 15° and 15° magnetic latitude (λm). Triggered emissions are also observed for the first time below the local He+ gyrofrequency (fHe+). The number of events is too low to produce statistical results, nevertheless we point out a variety of common properties of those waves. The rising tones have a high level of coherence and the waves propagate away from the equatorial region. The propagation angle and degree of polarization are related to the distance from the equator, whereas the slope and the frequency extent vary from one event to the other. From the various spacecraft separations, we determine that the triggering process is a localized phenomenon in space and time. However, we are unable to determine the occurrence rates of these waves. Small frequency extent rising tones are more common than large ones. The newly reported EMIC triggered events are generally observed during periods of large AE index values and in time periods close to solar maximum.

  4. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  5. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  6. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Hans; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Joachim; Wang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-01-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer ...

  7. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  8. The LHCb trigger and data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Dufey, J P; Harris, F; Harvey, J; Jost, B; Mato, P; Müller, E

    2000-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is the most recently approved of the 4 experiments under construction at CERNs LHC accelerator. It is a special purpose experiment designed to precisely measure the CP violation parameters in the B-B system. Triggering poses special problems since the interesting events containing B-mesons are immersed in a large background of inelastic p-p reactions. We therefore decided to implement a 4 level triggering scheme. The LHCb Data Acquisition (DAQ) system will have to cope with an average trigger rate of ~40 kHz, after two levels of hardware triggers, and an average event size of ~100 kB. Thus an event-building network which can sustain an average bandwidth of 4 GB/s is required. A powerful software trigger farm will have to be installed to reduce the rate from the 40 kHz to ~100 Hz of events written to permanent storage. In this paper we outline the general architecture of the Trigger and DAQ system and the readout protocols we plan to implement. First results of simulations of the behavior o...

  9. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ 12 , θ 23 , θ 13 ) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ 13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ 13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board

  10. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  11. Remotely Triggered Nano-Theranostics For Cancer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Alexandra; VanDyke, Derek; Paliwal, Shailee; Rai, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology has enabled the development of smart theranostic platforms that can concurrently diagnose disease, start primary treatment, monitor response, and, if required, initiate secondary treatments. Recent in vivo experiments demonstrate the promise of using theranostics in the clinic. In this paper, we review the use of remotely triggered theranostic nanoparticles for cancer applications, focusing heavily on advances in the past five years. Remote triggering mechanisms covered include photodynamic, photothermal, phototriggered chemotherapeutic release, ultrasound, electro-thermal, magneto-thermal, X-ray, and radiofrequency therapies. Each section includes a brief overview of the triggering mechanism and summarizes the variety of nanoparticles employed in each method. Emphasis in each category is placed on nano-theranostics with in vivo success. Some of the nanotheranostic platforms highlighted include photoactivatable multi-inhibitor nanoliposomes, plasmonic nanobubbles, reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles, photoswitching nanoparticles, multispectral optoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green, low temperature sensitive liposomes, and receptor-targeted iron oxide nanoparticles loaded with gemcitabine. The studies reviewed here provide strong evidence that the field of nanotheranostics is rapidly evolving. Such nanoplatforms may soon enable unique advances in the clinical management of cancer. However, reproducibility in the synthesis procedures of such “smart” platforms that lend themselves to easy scale-up in their manufacturing, as well as the development of new and improved models of cancer that are more predictive of human responses, need to happen soon for this field to make a rapid clinical impact. PMID:28191450

  12. Cluster observations of reflected EMIC-triggered emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grison, Benjamin; Darrouzet, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 9 (2016), s. 4164-4171 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EMIC * triggered emission * wave reflection * plasmapause Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069096/full

  13. [Track and trigger systems in Denmark - small country, great variations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønnee, Mads; Bukan, Ramin Brandt; Waldau, Tina; Møller, Ann Merete; Bukan, Katrine Brandt

    2018-05-07

    A track and trigger (TAT) system and mobile emergency team (MET) can aid observation and care for admitted patients in the hospital ward. We have examined the literature and find evidence, though not strong, that the introduction of TAT and MET systems reduce hospital mortality. However, in Denmark, many different TAT systems are used, and several hospitals do not have MET. We believe, that a standardised national TAT system could encourage interregional research and the investigation of system compliance, cost-benefit and impact on intensive care unit admissions.

  14. Retrospective respiratory triggering renal perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Michaely, Henrik J.; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)), e-mail: ulrike.attenberger@medma.uni-heidelberg.de; Sourbron, Steven P. (Div. of Medical Physics, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)); Reiser, Maximilian F. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospitals Munich, Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany))

    2010-12-15

    Background: Artifacts of respiratory motion are one of the well-known limitations of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of the kidney. Purpose: To propose and evaluate a retrospective triggering approach to minimize the effect of respiratory motion in DCE-MRI of the kidney. Material and Methods: Nine consecutive patients underwent renal perfusion measurements. Data were acquired with a 2D saturation-recovery TurboFLASH sequence. In order to test the dependence of the results on size and location of the manually drawn triggering regions of interest (ROIs), three widely differing triggering regions were defined by one observer. Mean value, standard deviation, and variability of the renal function parameters plasma flow (FP), plasma volume (VP), plasma transit time (TP), tubular flow (FT), tubular volume (VT), and tubular transit time (TT) were calculated on a per-patient basis. Results: The results show that triggered data have adequate temporal resolution to measure blood flow. The overall average values of the function parameters were: 152.77 (FP), 15.18 (VP), 6,73 (TP), 18.50 (FT), 35.36 (VT), and 117.67 (TT). The variability (calculated in % SD from the mean value) for three different respiratory triggering regions defined on a per-patient basis was between 0.81% and 9.87% for FP, 1.45% and 8.19% for VP, 0% and 9.63% for TP, 2.15% and 12.23% for TF, 0.8% and 17.28% for VT, and 1.97% and 12.87% for TT. Conclusion: Triggering reduces the oscillations in the signal curves and produces sharper parametric maps. In contrast to numerically challenging approaches like registration and segmentation it can be applied in clinical routine, but a (semi)-automatic approach to select the triggering ROI is desirable to reduce user dependence.

  15. Aftershocks and triggering processes in rock fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of our understanding of seismicity in nature is the importance of triggering processes, which makes the forecasting of seismic activity feasible. These triggering processes by which one earthquake induces (dynamic or static) stress changes leading to potentially multiple other earthquakes are at the core relaxation processes. A specic example of triggering are aftershocks following a large earthquake, which have been observed to follow certain empirical relationships such as the Omori-Utsu relation. Such an empirical relation should arise from the underlying microscopic dynamics of the involved physical processes but the exact connection remains to be established. Simple explanations have been proposed but their general applicability is unclear. Many explanations involve the picture of an earthquake as a purely frictional sliding event. Here, we present experimental evidence that these empirical relationships are not limited to frictional processes but also arise in fracture zone formation and are mostly related to compaction-type events. Our analysis is based on tri-axial compression experiments under constant displacement rate on sandstone and granite samples using spatially located acoustic emission events and their focal mechanisms. More importantly, we show that event-event triggering plays an important role in the presence of large-scale or macrocopic imperfections while such triggering is basically absent if no signicant imperfections are present. We also show that spatial localization and an increase in activity rates close to failure do not necessarily imply triggering behavior associated with aftershocks. Only if a macroscopic crack is formed and its propagation remains subcritical do we observe significant triggering.

  16. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  17. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Junjie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The planned Phase-I and Phase-II upgrades of the LHC accelerator drastically impacts the ATLAS trigger and trigger rates. A replacement of the ATLAS innermost endcap muon station with a new small wheel (NSW) detector is planned for the second long shutdown period of 2019 - 2020. This upgrade will allow us to maintain a low pT threshold for single muon and excellent tracking capability even after the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The NSW detector will feature two new detector technologies, Resistive Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. The total number of trigger and readout channels is about 2.4 millions, and the overall power consumption is expected to be about 75 kW. The electronics design will be implemented in some 8000 front-end boards including the design of four custom front-end ASICs capable to drive trigger and tracking primitives with high speed sterilizers to drive trigger candidates to the backend trigger processor sy...

  18. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  19. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  20. Upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221618; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In coming years the LHC is expected to undergo upgrades to increase both the energy of proton-proton collisions and the instantaneous luminosity. In order to cope with these more challenging LHC conditions, upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system will be required. This talk will focus on some of the key aspects of these upgrades. Firstly, the upgrade period between 2019-2021 will see an increase in instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. Upgrades to the Level 1 trigger system during this time will include improvements for both the muon and calorimeter triggers. These include the upgrade of the first-level Endcap Muon trigger, the calorimeter trigger electronics and the addition of new calorimeter feature extractor hardware, such as the Global Feature Extractor (gFEX). An overview will be given on the design and development status the aforementioned systems, along with the latest testing and validation results. \\\\ By 2026, the High Luminosity LHC will be able to deliver 14 TeV collisions ...

  1. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.

    2017-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  2. CMS Triggers for the LHC Startup

    CERN Document Server

    Nhan Nguyen, Chi

    2009-01-01

    The LHC will collide proton beams at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. At the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ each crossing results in an average of about 20 inelastic pp events. The CMS trigger system is designed to reduce the input rate to about 100 Hz. This task is carried out in two steps, namely the Level-1 (L1) and the High-Level trigger (HLT). The L1 trigger is built of customized fast electronics and is designed to reduce the rate to 100 kHz. The HLT is implemented in a filter farm running on hundreds of CPUs and is designed to reduce the rate by another factor of ~1000. It combines the traditional L2 and L3 trigger components in a novel way and allows the coherent tuning of the HLT algorithms to accommodate multiple physics channels. We will discuss the strategies for optimizing triggers covering the experiment`s early physics program.

  3. The Fast Interaction Trigger Upgrade for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the second LHC long shutdown (2019–20). The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the upgraded trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) has been designed. FIT will be the primary forward trigger, luminosity, and collision time measurement detector. The FIT will be capable of triggering at an interaction rate of 50 kHz, with a time resolution better than 30 ps, with 99% efficiency. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a single, large-size scintillator ring. The arrays will be placed on both sides of the interaction point (IP). Because of the presence of the h...

  4. Tools for Trigger Rate Monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Geoffrey; Wightman, Andrew Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, we expect the LHC to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of roughly $2.0 \\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, with about 60 simultaneous proton-proton collisions (pileup) per event. In these challenging conditions, it is important to be able to intelligently monitor the rate at which data are being collected (the trigger rate). It is not enough to simply look at the trigger rate; it is equally important to compare the trigger rate with expectations. We present a set of software tools that have been developed to accomplish this. The tools include a real-time component - a script that monitors the rates of individual triggers during data-taking, and activates an alarm if rates deviate significantly from expectation. Fits are made to previously collected data and extrapolated to higher pileup. The behavior of triggers as a function of pileup is then monitored as data are collected - plots are automatically produced on an hourly basis and uploaded to a web area...

  5. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  6. The D-Zero Run II Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazey, G. C.

    1997-01-01

    The general purpose D0 collider detector, located at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, requires significantly enhanced data acquisition and triggering to operate in the high luminosity (L = 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 ), high rate environment (7 MHz or 132 ns beam crossings) of the upgraded TeVatron proton anti-proton accelerator. This article describes the three major levels and frameworks of the new trigger. Information from the first trigger stage (L1) which includes scintillating, tracking and calorimeter detectors will provide a deadtimeless, 4.2 (micro)s trigger decision with an accept rate of 10 kHz. The second stage (L2), comprised of hardware engines associated with specific detectors and a single global processor will test for correlations between L1 triggers. L2 will have an accept rate of 1 kHz at a maximum deadtime of 5% and require a 100 (micro)s decision time. The third and final stage (L3) will reconstruct events in a farm of processors for a final instantaneous accept rate of 50 Hz

  7. DZERO Level 3 DAQ/Trigger Closeout

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Tevatron Collider, located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, delivered its last 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions on September 30th, 2011. The DZERO experiment continues to take cosmic data for final alignment for several more months . Since Run 2 started, in March 2001, all DZERO data has been collected by the DZERO Level 3 Trigger/DAQ System. The system is a modern, networked, commodity hardware trigger and data acquisition system based around a large central switch with about 60 front ends and 200 trigger computers. DZERO front end crates are VME based. Single Board Computer interfaces between detector data on VME and the network transport for the DAQ system. Event flow is controlled by the Routing Master which can steer events to clusters of farm nodes based on the low level trigger bits that fired. The farm nodes are multi-core commodity computer boxes, without special hardware, that run isolated software to make the final Level 3 trigger decision. Passed events are transferred to th...

  8. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Di Lorenzo, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Università di Ferrara, Via Ludovico Ariosto 35, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Frezza, O. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Lamanna, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Piandani, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Pontisso, L., E-mail: luca.pontisso@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossetti, D. [NVIDIA Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Simula, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Sozzi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  9. Validation of ATLAS L1 Topological Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Praderio, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The Topological trigger (L1Topo) is a new component of the ATLAS L1 (Level-1) trigger. Its purpose is that of reducing the otherwise too high rate of data collection from the LHC by rejecting those events considered “uninteresting” (meaning that they have already been studied). This event rate reduction is achieved by applying topological requirements to the physical objects present in each event. It is very important to make sure that this trigger does not reject any “interesting” event. Therefore we need to verify its correct functioning. The goal of this summer student project is to study the response of two L1Topo algorithms (concerning ∆R and invariant mass). To do so I will compare the trigger decisions produced by the L1Topo hardware with the ones produced by the “official” L1Topo simulation. This way I will be able to identify events that could be incorrectly rejected. Simultaneously I will produce an emulation of these triggers that will help me understand the cause of disagreements bet...

  10. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  11. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Foudas, C.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.; Reeder, D.; Robl, P.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-02-01

    An overview of the ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger is presented. The CFLT uses a pipelined architecture to accept and analyze calorimeter data for every 96 ns beam crossing interval. PMT signals are combined by analog electronics into electromagnetic and hadronic sums for 896 trigger towers. The analog sums are then digitized and analyzed. The CFLT determines the total, transverse, and missing transverse energy, identifies isolated electrons and muons, and sums energies in programmable subregions. Calculations are performed in 96 ns steps, and new data are accepted for every beam crossing. Trigger data are forwarded to the global first level trigger (GFLT) after 2 μs, allowing a GFLT accept to be issued 5 μs after the beam crossing which produced the event. Important features of the CFLT include a 12-bit effective dynamic range, extensive use of memory lookup tables for trigger calculations, fast pattern searches for isolated leptons, and low electronics noise. During the 1993 HERA run, the CFLT reduced a 50 kHz background rate to around 100 Hz.

  12. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  13. Environmental triggers of thyroiditis: hepatitis C and interferon-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, F; Hasham, A; Tomer, Y

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are postulated to develop as a result of a complex interplay between several genetic and environmental influences. The pathogenesis of AITD is still not clearly defined. However, among the implicated triggers (e.g. iodine, infections, medications), more recent data confirmed strong associations of AITD with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon-α (IFNα) therapy. Moreover, it is likely that HCV and IFN act in synergism to trigger AITD in patients. Indeed, approximately 40% of HCV patients develop either clinical or subclinical disease while receiving IFNα. Interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) can manifest as non-autoimmune thyroiditis (presenting as destructive thyroiditis, or non-autoimmune hypothyroidism), or autoimmune thyroiditis [presenting with clinical features of Graves' disease (GD) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)]. Although not yet clearly understood, it is thought that IFNα can induce thyroiditis via both immune stimulatory and direct toxic effects on the thyroid. In view of the high frequency of IIT, routine screening and surveillance of HCV patients receiving IFNα is recommended to avoid the complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias, associated with thyrotoxicosis. In summary, IIT is a common clinical problem that can be readily diagnosed with routine thyroid function screening of HCV patients receiving IFN. The treatment of IIT consists of the standard therapy for differing clinical manifestations of IIT such as GD, HT, or destructive thyroiditis. However, anti-thyroid medications are not recommended in this setting since they can potentially be hepatotoxic.

  14. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  15. A smart microelectromechanical sensor and switch triggered by gas

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-07-05

    There is an increasing interest to realize smarter sensors and actuators that can deliver a multitude of sophisticated functionalities while being compact in size and of low cost. We report here combining both sensing and actuation on the same device based on a single microstructure. Specifically, we demonstrate a smart resonant gas (mass) sensor, which in addition to being capable of quantifying the amount of absorbed gas, can be autonomously triggered as an electrical switch upon exceeding a preset threshold of absorbed gas. Toward this, an electrostatically actuated polymer microbeam is fabricated and is then functionalized with a metal-organic framework, namely, HKUST-1. The microbeam is demonstrated to absorb vapors up to a certain threshold, after which is shown to collapse through the dynamic pull-in instability. Upon pull-in, the microstructure can be made to act as an electrical switch to achieve desirable actions, such as alarming.

  16. Carbon-Based Materials for Photo-Triggered Theranostic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunya Albert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based nanomaterials serve as a type of smart material for photo-triggered disease theranostics. The inherent physicochemical properties of these nanomaterials facilitate their use for less invasive treatments. This review summarizes the properties and applications of materials including fullerene, nanotubes, nanohorns, nanodots and nanographenes for photodynamic nanomedicine in cancer and antimicrobial therapies. Carbon nanomaterials themselves do not usually act as photodynamic therapy (PDT agents owing to the high hydrophobicity, however, when the surface is passivated or functionalized, these materials become great vehicles for PDT. Moreover, conjugation of carbonaceous nanomaterials with the photosensitizer (PS and relevant targeting ligands enhances properties such as selectivity, stability, and high quantum yield, making them readily available for versatile biomedical applications.

  17. A smart microelectromechanical sensor and switch triggered by gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing interest to realize smarter sensors and actuators that can deliver a multitude of sophisticated functionalities while being compact in size and of low cost. We report here combining both sensing and actuation on the same device based on a single microstructure. Specifically, we demonstrate a smart resonant gas (mass) sensor, which in addition to being capable of quantifying the amount of absorbed gas, can be autonomously triggered as an electrical switch upon exceeding a preset threshold of absorbed gas. Toward this, an electrostatically actuated polymer microbeam is fabricated and is then functionalized with a metal-organic framework, namely, HKUST-1. The microbeam is demonstrated to absorb vapors up to a certain threshold, after which is shown to collapse through the dynamic pull-in instability. Upon pull-in, the microstructure can be made to act as an electrical switch to achieve desirable actions, such as alarming.

  18. Microfluidic mixing triggered by an external LED illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio-Marques, Anna; Barbaud, Fanny; Baigl, Damien

    2013-02-27

    The mixing of confined liquids is a central yet challenging operation in miniaturized devices. Microfluidic mixing is usually achieved with passive mixers that are robust but poorly flexible, or active mixers that offer dynamic control but mainly rely on electrical or mechanical transducers, which increase the fragility, cost, and complexity of the device. Here, we describe the first remote and reversible control of microfluidic mixing triggered by a light illumination simply provided by an external LED illumination device. The approach is based on the light-induced generation of water microdroplets acting as reversible stirrers of two continuous oil phase flows containing samples to be mixed. We demonstrate many cycles of reversible photoinduced transitions between a nonmixing behavior and full homogenization of the two oil phases. The method is cheap, portable, and adaptable to many device configurations, thus constituting an essential brick for the generation of future all-optofluidic chip.

  19. Towards RTOS support for mixed time-triggered and event-triggered task sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Isovic, D.; Sankar Ramachandran, G.

    2012-01-01

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a

  20. Limited preemptive scheduling of mixed time-triggered and event-triggered tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Zhang, X.; Abdullah, S.M.J.; Isovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a table-driven dispatcher for

  1. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger and Phase-1 Upgrade of Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mizukami, Atsushi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment utilises a trigger system to efficiently record interesting events. It consists of first-level and high-level triggers. The first-level trigger is implemented with custom-built hardware to reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to100 kHz. Then the software-based high-level triggers refine the trigger decisions reducing the output rate down to 1 kHz. Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the LHC. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. Trigger efficiencies are, for example, obtained from the muon decay of Z boson, with a Tag&Probe method, using proton-proton collision data collected in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to increase its instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ after the phase-1 upgrade between 2018-2020. The upgrade of the ATLAS trigger system is mandatory to cope with this high-luminosity. In the phase-1 upgrade, new det...

  2. The BTeV trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    BTeV is a dedicated beauty and charm experiment proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron. The broad physics program envisaged for BTeV requires a trigger that is efficient for a wide variety of heavy-quark decays, including those to all-hadronic final states. To achieve this, we plan to trigger on evidence of detached vertices at the very first trigger level, taking advantage of fast-readout pixel detectors to facilitate fast pattern recognition. Simulations show that 100-to-1 rejection of light-quark background events can be achieved at Level 1 using specialized trackfinding hardware, and that an additional factor of 10-100 in data reduction can be achieved using general purpose processor farms at Levels 2 and 3. This is adequate to allow data taking at luminosities in excess of 2x10 32 cm -2 s -1

  3. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  4. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential to record signals for a wide variety of physics: from Standard Model processes to searches for new phenomena. To cope with ever-increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections need to be optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. The ATLAS electron and photon trigger performance in Run 2 will be presented, including both the role of the ATLAS calorimeter in electron and photon identification and details of new techniques developed to maintain high performance even in high pile-up conditions.

  5. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer; Haller, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik; Haller, Johannes [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik

    2009-01-15

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  7. A new fast and programmable trigger logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucci, A.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Foa, L.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.; Givoletti, M.; Lucardesi, P.; Menzione, A.; Passuello, D.; Quaglia, M.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Salvadori, P.; Scribano, A.; Stanga, R.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The NA1 (FRAMM) experiment, under construction for the CERN-SPS North Area, deals with more than 1000 counter signals which have to be combined together in order to build sophisticated and highly selective triggers. These requirements have led to the development of a low cost, combinatorial, fast electronics which can replace, in an advantageous way the standard NIM electronics at the trigger level. The essential performances of the basic circuit are: 1) programmability of any desired logical expression; 2) trigger time independent of the chosen expression; 3) reduced cost and compactness due to the use of commercial RAMs, PROMs, and PLAs; 4) short delay, less than 20 ns, between input and output pulses. (Auth.)

  8. FTK: a Fast Track Trigger for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J; Auerbach, B; Blair, R; Andreani, A; Andreazza, A; Citterio, M; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Castegnaro, A; Atkinson, M; Cavaliere, V; Chang, P; Bevacqua, V; Crescioli, F; Blazey, G; Bogdan, M; Boveia, A; Canelli, F; Cheng, Y; Cervigni, F

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and expected performance of a the Fast Tracker Trigger (FTK) system for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The FTK is a highly parallel hardware system designed to operate at the Level 1 trigger output rate. It is designed to provide global tracks reconstructed in the inner detector with resolution comparable to the full offline reconstruction as input of the Level 2 trigger processing. The hardware system is based on associative memories for pattern recognition and fast FPGAs for track reconstruction. The FTK is expected to dramatically improve the performance of track based isolation and b-tagging with little to no dependencies of pile-up interactions.

  9. A self triggered intensified Ccd (Stic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Bendali, M.

    1990-01-01

    We are developing a new device based on the results reported previously of the successfull coincidence detection of β- particles with a high spatial resolution [1]. The novelty of the device consists in triggering an intensified CCD, i.e. a CCD coupled to an image intensifier (II), by an electrical signal collected from the II itself. This is a suitable procedure for detecting with high efficiency and high resolution low light rare events. The trigger pulse is obtained from the secondary electrons produced by multiplication in a double microchannel plate (MCP) and collected on the aluminized layer protecting the phosphor screen in the II. Triggering efficiencies up to 80% has been already achieved

  10. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.; Charleton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Biddulph, P.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.F.; Landon, M.; Robinson, D.; Oliver, J.; Sumorok, K.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (orig.)

  11. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Baird, S.A.; Biddulph, P.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

  12. The double Chooz hardware trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi; Beissel, Franz; Reinhold, Bernd; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The double Chooz neutrino experiment aims to improve the present knowledge on {theta}{sub 13} mixing angle using two similar detectors placed at {proportional_to}280 m and respectively 1 km from the Chooz power plant reactor cores. The detectors measure the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. The hardware trigger has to be very efficient for antineutrinos as well as for various types of background events. The triggering condition is based on discriminated PMT sum signals and the multiplicity of groups of PMTs. The talk gives an outlook to the double Chooz experiment and explains the requirements of the trigger system. The resulting concept and its performance is shown as well as first results from a prototype system.

  13. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing [Albany, NY; Tekletsadik, Kasegn [Rexford, NY

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  14. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  15. The American Inventors Protection Act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Arvid O.I.; Kleimeier, Stefanie; Mimiroglu, Nagihan; Pennings, Joost M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the impact of innovation disclosure through patenting on firms' cost of debt, focusing on the American Inventors Protection Act (AIPA) as an exogenous shock in innovation disclosure regulation. Post-AIPA, firms have an incentive to apply for patents only if commercial success is likely.

  16. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  17. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  18. The ATLAS trigger: high-level trigger commissioning and operation during early data taking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalo, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose experiments due to start operation soon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide protons at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The ATLAS three-level trigger will reduce this input rate to match the foreseen offline storage capability of 100-200 Hz. This paper gives an overview of the ATLAS High Level Trigger focusing on the system design and its innovative features. We then present the ATLAS trigger strategy for the initial phase of LHC exploitation. Finally, we report on the valuable experience acquired through in-situ commissioning of the system where simulated events were used to exercise the trigger chain. In particular we show critical quantities such as event processing times, measured in a large-scale HLT farm using a complex trigger menu

  19. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-01

    The groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed RH-LLW disposal facility. A four-step analysis approach was documented and applied. This assessment compared the predicted groundwater ingestion dose to the more restrictive of either the 25 mrem/yr all pathway dose performance objective, or the maximum contaminant limit performance objective. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives. The analysis was prepared to support the NEPA-EA for the top two ranking of the proposed RH-LLW sites. As such, site-specific conditions were incorporated for each set of results generated. These site-specific conditions were included to account for the transport of radionuclides through the vadose zone and through the aquifer at each site. Site-specific parameters included the thickness of vadose zone sediments and basalts, moisture characteristics of the sediments, and aquifer velocity. Sorption parameters (Kd) were assumed to be very conservative values used in Track II analysis of CERCLA sites at INL. Infiltration was also conservatively assumed to represent higher rates corresponding to disturbed soil conditions. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives.

  20. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    The groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed RH-LLW disposal facility. A four-step analysis approach was documented and applied. This assessment compared the predicted groundwater ingestion dose to the more restrictive of either the 25 mrem/yr all pathway dose performance objective, or the maximum contaminant limit performance objective. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives. The analysis was prepared to support the NEPA-EA for the top two ranking of the proposed RH-LLW sites. As such, site-specific conditions were incorporated for each set of results generated. These site-specific conditions were included to account for the transport of radionuclides through the vadose zone and through the aquifer at each site. Site-specific parameters included the thickness of vadose zone sediments and basalts, moisture characteristics of the sediments, and aquifer velocity. Sorption parameters (Kd) were assumed to be very conservative values used in Track II analysis of CERCLA sites at INL. Infiltration was also conservatively assumed to represent higher rates corresponding to disturbed soil conditions. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives.

  1. Self triggered single pulse beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    A self triggered beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for the NSLS injection system to provide single pulse orbit measurements in the booster synchrotron, linac, and transport lines. The BPM integrates the negative going portion of 3 nS wide bipolar pickup electrode signals. The gated, self triggering feature confines critical timing components to the front end, relaxing external timing specifications. The system features a low noise high speed FET sampler, a fiber optic gate for bunch and turn selection, and an inexpensive interface to a standard PC data acquisition system

  2. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  3. Advances in tracking and trigger concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing beam intensities and input data rates require to rethink the traditional approaches in trigger concepts. At the same time the advanced many-core computer architectures providing new dimensions in programming require to rework the standard methods or to develop new methods of track reconstruction in order to efficiently use parallelism of the computer hardware. As a results a new tendency appears to replace the standard (usually implemented in FPGA) hardware triggers by clusters of computers running software reconstruction and selection algorithms. In addition that makes possible unification of the offline and on-line data processing and analysis in one software package running on a heterogeneous computer farm

  4. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  5. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  6. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  7. Popular sweetner sucralose as a migraine trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajendrakumar M; Sarma, Rakesh; Grimsley, Edwin

    2006-09-01

    Sucralose (trichlorogalactosucrose, or better known as Splenda) is an artificial sweetener from native sucrose that was approved by the FDA on April 1, 1998 (April Fool's Day). This observation of a potential causal relationship between sucralose and migraines may be important for physicians to remember this can be a possible trigger during dietary history taking. Identifying further triggers for migraine headaches, in this case sucralose, may help alleviate some of the cost burden (through expensive medical therapy or missed work opportunity) as well as provide relief to migraineurs.

  8. CMS Calorimeter Trigger Phase I upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabbers, P; Gorski, T; Bachtis, M; Dasu, S; Fobes, R; Grothe, M; Ross, I; Smith, W H; Compton, K; Farmahini-Farahani, A; Gregerson, A; Seemuth, D; Schulte, M

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for the Phase-1 upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) calorimeter trigger system composed of FPGAs and Multi-GBit/sec links that adhere to the μTCA crate Telecom standard. The upgrade calorimeter trigger will implement algorithms that create collections of isolated and non-isolated electromagnetic objects, isolated and non-isolated tau objects and jet objects. The algorithms are organized in several steps with progressive data reduction. These include a particle cluster finder that reconstructs overlapping clusters of 2x2 calorimeter towers and applies electron identification, a cluster overlap filter, particle isolation determination, jet reconstruction, particle separation and sorting.

  9. Hardware trigger processor for the MDT system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)757787; The ATLAS collaboration; Hazen, Eric; Butler, John; Black, Kevin; Gastler, Daniel Edward; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Taffard, Anyes; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Ishino, Masaya; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a low-latency hardware trigger processor for the Monitored Drift Tube system in the Muon spectrometer. The processor will fit candidate Muon tracks in the drift tubes in real time, improving significantly the momentum resolution provided by the dedicated trigger chambers. We present a novel pure-FPGA implementation of a Legendre transform segment finder, an associative-memory alternative implementation, an ARM (Zynq) processor-based track fitter, and compact ATCA carrier board architecture. The ATCA architecture is designed to allow a modular, staged approach to deployment of the system and exploration of alternative technologies.

  10. Subduction zone earthquake probably triggered submarine hydrocarbon seepage offshore Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; José M., Mogollón; Michael, Strasser; Thomas, Pape; Gerhard, Bohrmann; Noemi, Fekete; Volkhard, Spiess; Sabine, Kasten

    2014-05-01

    Seepage of methane-dominated hydrocarbons is heterogeneous in space and time, and trigger mechanisms of episodic seep events are not well constrained. It is generally found that free hydrocarbon gas entering the local gas hydrate stability field in marine sediments is sequestered in gas hydrates. In this manner, gas hydrates can act as a buffer for carbon transport from the sediment into the ocean. However, the efficiency of gas hydrate-bearing sediments for retaining hydrocarbons may be corrupted: Hypothesized mechanisms include critical gas/fluid pressures beneath gas hydrate-bearing sediments, implying that these are susceptible to mechanical failure and subsequent gas release. Although gas hydrates often occur in seismically active regions, e.g., subduction zones, the role of earthquakes as potential triggers of hydrocarbon transport through gas hydrate-bearing sediments has hardly been explored. Based on a recent publication (Fischer et al., 2013), we present geochemical and transport/reaction-modelling data suggesting a substantial increase in upward gas flux and hydrocarbon emission into the water column following a major earthquake that occurred near the study sites in 1945. Calculating the formation time of authigenic barite enrichments identified in two sediment cores obtained from an anticlinal structure called "Nascent Ridge", we find they formed 38-91 years before sampling, which corresponds well to the time elapsed since the earthquake (62 years). Furthermore, applying a numerical model, we show that the local sulfate/methane transition zone shifted upward by several meters due to the increased methane flux and simulated sulfate profiles very closely match measured ones in a comparable time frame of 50-70 years. We thus propose a causal relation between the earthquake and the amplified gas flux and present reflection seismic data supporting our hypothesis that co-seismic ground shaking induced mechanical fracturing of gas hydrate-bearing sediments

  11. A statistical analysis of the energy policy act of 2005, its changes to the daylight saving program, and impact on residential energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick L.

    Government programs designed to decrease resource consumption, improve productivity and capitalize on extended daylight hours in the summer have been developed and implemented throughout the world for nearly three hundred years. In 2005, The United States government adopted an extended daylight savings program that increases the number of weeks where the country observes Daylight Saving Time (DST) from 31 to 35 weeks. The program took effect in March 2007. Arguments in support of DST programs highlight the portion of electricity consumption attributed to residential lighting in the evening hours. Adjusting clocks forward by one hour in summer months is believed to reduce electricity consumption due to lighting and therefore significantly reduce residential energy consumption during the period of DST. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the changes to DST resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The study focuses on changes to household electricity consumption during the extended four weeks of DST. Arizona, one of two states that continue to opt out of DST serves as the study's control for a comparison with neighboring states, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah. Results from the regression analysis of a Difference in Difference model indicate that contrary to evaluations by Congress and the Department of Energy, the four week period of Extended Daylight Saving Time does not produce a significant decrease in per capita electricity consumption in Southwestern states.

  12. A trigger simulation framework for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinori, F; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Gheata, M

    2011-01-01

    A realistic simulation of the trigger system in a complex HEP experiment is essential for performing detailed trigger efficiency studies. The ALICE trigger simulation is evolving towards a framework capable of replaying the full trigger chain starting from the input to the individual trigger processors and ending with the decision mechanisms of the ALICE central trigger processor. This paper describes the new ALICE trigger simulation framework that is being tested and deployed. The framework handles details like trigger levels, signal delays and busy signals, implementing the trigger logic via customizable trigger device objects managed by a robust scheduling mechanism. A big advantage is the high flexibility of the framework, which is able to mix together components described with very different levels of detail. The framework is being gradually integrated within the ALICE simulation and reconstruction frameworks.

  13. TRIGGERING SUBLIMATION-DRIVEN ACTIVITY OF MAIN BELT COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96825 (United States); Maindl, T. I.; Dvorak, R. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schäfer, C. [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Speith, R., E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu [Physikalisches Institut, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-10-10

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of main belt comets (MBCs) is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by meter-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between meter-sized and kilometer-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle, as well as different target material and water-mass fractions. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m, suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters, as well as on the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. While our results demonstrate that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, they also indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation, providing more ice for sublimation. We present the details of our simulations and discuss their results and implications.

  14. Towards a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Santo, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, ATLAS is planning a trigger upgrade that will enable the experiment to use tracking information already at the first trigger level. This will provide enhanced background rejection power at trigger level while preserving much needed flexibility for the trigger system. The status and current plans for the new ATLAS Level-1 tracking trigger are presented.

  15. UA1 upgrade first-level calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Charlton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.; Landon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new first-level trigger processor has been built for the UA1 experiment on the Cern SppS Collider. The processor exploits the fine granularity of the new UA1 uranium-TMP calorimeter to improve the selectivity of the trigger. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electromagnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented. (orig.)

  16. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  17. Entity models for trigger-reaction documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; Makkes, M.X.

    2008-01-01

    We define the notion of an entity model for a special kind of document popular on the web: an article followed by a list of reactions on that article, usually by many authors, usually inverse chronologically ordered. We call these documents trigger-reactions pairs. The entity model describes which

  18. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  19. 2017 B-Physics trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The performance of the trigger used to select B-Physics decay channels in CMS is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $9.8\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$.

  20. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood