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Sample records for impact polystyrene hips

  1. Microbial assisted High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arya J; Sekhar, Vini C; Bhaskar, Thallada; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-08-01

    The efficacy of newly isolated Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains to degrade brominated High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) was investigated. Viability of these cultures while using e-plastic as sole carbon source was validated through Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride (TTC). Four days incubation of HIPS emulsion with Bacillus spp. showed 94% reduction in turbidity and was 97% with Pseudomonas spp. Confirmation of degradation was concluded by HPLC, NMR, FTIR, TGA and weight loss analysis. NMR spectra of the degraded film revealed the formation of aliphatic carbon chain with bromine and its release. FTIR analysis of the samples showed a reduction in CH, CO and CN groups. Surface changes in the brominated HIPS film was visualized through SEM analysis. Degradation with Bacillus spp showed a weight loss of 23% (w/w) of HIPS film in 30days.

  2. Craze development in high-impact polystyrene (HIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokdag, Emrah

    Craze damage development in high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) has been studied experimentally, theoretically and numerically. In the experimental program, six different grades of compression-molded HIPS were investigated. The results were analyzed and compared to understand the significance of morphological features of the blends, such as the particle volume fraction, size and its distribution in achieving the desired effects. Toughening glassy polystyrene (PS) into the HIPS depends on characteristics of crazing. The statistical nature of craze formation has been studied in terms of craze density, craze orientation and craze size. Craze density in the HIPS was determined first and corresponding density and cumulative functions of craze orientation and craze size were obtained at different strain levels. The results reveal that cumulative and density distributions of craze length follow the form of a three-parameter Weihull's function. Cumulative and density distributions of craze orientation can be described with a normal distribution function. Additional experiments were conducted to examine the characteristics of craze damage and its evolution. Craze damage development, thermodynamic driving force, and damage evolution under uniaxial loading were addressed. Results show that craze damage increases initially with strain but eventually approaches to a saturation state. Further loading does not cause an appreciable amount of damage increase. An orthotropic craze damage theory has been developed, based on a continuum damage mechanics approach. A damage tensor is introduced, and constitutive equations for the damaged polymer are derived. Theoretical predictions of damage mechanics variables are compared with experimental results. Micromechanics modeling based on a finite element method has been conducted to obtain occluded particle volume fraction and size effects on craze formation in a HIPS polymer. Numerical results show that stress concentrations at the equator of a

  3. Method for the separation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Arman, Bayram; Karvelas, Dimitrios E.; Pomykala, Jr., Joseph A.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    An improved method is provided for separating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) plastics from each other. The ABS and HIPS plastics are shredded to provide a selected particle size. The shredded particles of the ABS and HIPS plastics are applied to a solution having a solution density in a predefined range between 1.055 gm/cm.sup.3 and 1.07 gm/cm.sup.3, a predefined surface tension in a range between 22 dynes/cm to 40 dynes/cm and a pH in the range of 1.77 and 2.05. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the novel method is provided for separating ABS and HIPS, two solid thermoplastics which have similar densities by selectively modifying the effective density of the HIPS using a binary solution with the appropriate properties, such as pH, density and surface tension, such as a solution of acetic acid and water or a quaternary solution having the appropriate density, surface tension, and pH.

  4. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhar, Vini C. [Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala (India); Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan, E-mail: madhavan85@hotmail.com [Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala (India); Mohan, Arya J.; Nair, Nimisha R. [Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala (India); Bhaskar, Thallada [Bio-Fuels Division (BFD), CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP), Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248005 (India); Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biodegradation of a high impact polystyrene e − plastic. • 12.4% (w/w) e plastic film lost using an isolate, Enterobacter sp. • Noted changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of degraded e-plastic film. • Polystyrene intermediates were detected in the degradation medium. • e-plastic degrading microbes displayed extracellular depolymerase activity. - Abstract: Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30 days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  5. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Mohan, Arya J; Nair, Nimisha R; Bhaskar, Thallada; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-11-15

    Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  6. The effect of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siregar, J P; Sapuan, S M [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, M Z A [Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zaman, H M D K, E-mail: januarjasmine@yahoo.com [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites were studied. Two types of crosslinking agent that has been used in this study were trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and tripropylene gylcol diacrylate (TPGDA). A 50 wt.% of PALF was blended with HIPS and crosslinking agent using Brabender melt mixer at 165 deg. C. The composites were then irradiated using a 3 MeV electron beam accelerator with dosage of 0-100 kGy. The tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, notched and unnotched impat and hardness of composites were measured and the effects of crosslinking agent were also compared.

  7. The effect of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, J. P.; Sapuan, S. M.; Rahman, M. Z. A.; Zaman, H. M. D. K.

    2010-05-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites were studied. Two types of crosslinking agent that has been used in this study were trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and tripropylene gylcol diacrylate (TPGDA). A 50 wt.% of PALF was blended with HIPS and crosslinking agent using Brabender melt mixer at 165 °C. The composites were then irradiated using a 3 MeV electron beam accelerator with dosage of 0-100 kGy. The tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, notched and unnotched impat and hardness of composites were measured and the effects of crosslinking agent were also compared.

  8. Radiation modified high impact polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelčić, Želimir; Ranogajec, Franjo

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of applying high energy (ionising) radiation with absorbed doses up to 1 MGy was to achieve controllable changes in mechanical properties of high impact polystyrene (PS-HI) and, at the same time, to investigate the possibility of using reprocessed irradiated polymeric material. Dielectric relaxation of a radiation modified high impact polystyrene (PS-HI) has been investigated by the time dependence of charging and discharging current. The transient currents for the irradiated PS-HI were well approximated by the power function of the logarithm of time and related to the fractal dimension. It was also shown that yield strength and tensile strength increase while elongation at break decreases with increasing absorbed dose. The specimen prepared by a post-irradiation moulding gave higher melt flow rate than those of specimen formed before irradiation. These results indicate that after radiation the system of PS-HI is reprocessable. It is concluded that an oxygen environment at the beginning of irradiation leads to enhanced chain scission at the expense of crosslinks via peroxide formation and causes oxidative degradation of the main polymer chain of irradiated PS-HI at a low absorbed dose. However, at higher absorbed doses the quasi-inert environment has been established and crosslinking, due to recombination of macroradicals, is dominant.

  9. Pulse laser machining and particulate separation from high impact polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Saira; Kautek, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.kautek@univie.ac.at

    2014-01-01

    Opaque high impact polystyrene (HIPS) contaminated with graphite particles and poly(styrene-co-divinyl benzene) spheres can only be removed efficiently with nanosecond-pulsed laser radiation of 532 nm while the substrate is preserved. The destruction thresholds are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than that of other common technical polymers. The inhomogeneously distributed polybutadiene composite component led to enhanced light scattering in the polystyrene matrix so that increased light absorption and energy density causes a comparatively low ablation threshold. Due to this fact there is advantageous potential for pulse laser machining at comparatively low fluences.

  10. HIPS/PP反应共混物的热性能研究%STUDY ON THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THE REACTIVE BLENDS OF HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE AND POLYPROPYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万军; 杨军; 刘景江

    1999-01-01

    研究了高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)/聚丙烯(PP)在过氧化二异丙苯(DCP)存在下熔融反应共混物的热学性能.HIPS在DCP存在下以PS的降解为主,PS的Tg明显下降,PP在DCP存在下也以降解为主,PP的结晶完善性受到破坏,HIPS/PP共混物在DCP存在下以PP同HIPS的反应接枝为主,分子运动的特征及热性能较前两者发生明显变化,PS的Tg略有下降,PP分子链的规整性降低,结晶熔点降低,完善性变差.

  11. Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    USAARL Report No. 2015-08 Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression By Mark S. Adams Frederick Brozoski Katie...13 iv This page is intentionally left blank. 1 Introduction Expanded bead polystyrene (EPS) is widely...EPS energy attenuating liners typically have complex geometric shapes. However, the use of flat sheets of polystyrene facilitated the sample

  12. Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of High Impact Polystyrene/ Organo Fe-montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏; 孔庆红; 程宇和; 曹功源

    2012-01-01

    In this article, high impact polystyrene/organo Fe-montmorillonite (HIPS/Fe-OMT) nanocomposites were prepared by melting intercalation. The thermal stability of HIPS/Fe-OMT nanocomposites increased significantly compared to that of HIPS examined in thermal degradation conditions. Kinetic evaluations were performed by Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Friedman methods and multivariate nonlinear regression. Apparent kinetic parameters for the overall degradation were determined. The resuRs showed that the activation energy of HIPS/Fe-OMT nanocomposites was higher than that of HIPS. A very good agreement between experimental and simulated curves was observed in dynamic conditions. Their decomposition reaction model was a single-step process of an nth-order reaction

  13. Radiation preparation of nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and its toughening effect for polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daishuang; Xia, Haibing; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wei, Genshuan; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    Nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (NPSBR) was synthesized based on the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex via gamma radiation crosslinking followed by spray drying. Two functional monomers, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as crosslinking agents. It was found that both 2-EHA and TMPTA can improve the radiation crosslinking of SBR latex. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the NPSBR has a particle size similar to that of SBR latex with a diameter of 100 nm due to the high degree of crosslinking of SBR. Mechanical testing results showed that NPSBR could toughen polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) effectively. In addition, NPSBR is more suitable to toughen HIPS than PS at low rubber content.

  14. Radiation preparation of nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and its toughening effect for polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Daishuang; Xia Haibing [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng Jing [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: jpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhai Maolin; Wei Genshuan; Li Jiuqiang [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qiao Jinliang [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); SINOPEC, Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Beijing 100013 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (NPSBR) was synthesized based on the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex via gamma radiation crosslinking followed by spray drying. Two functional monomers, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as crosslinking agents. It was found that both 2-EHA and TMPTA can improve the radiation crosslinking of SBR latex. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the NPSBR has a particle size similar to that of SBR latex with a diameter of 100 nm due to the high degree of crosslinking of SBR. Mechanical testing results showed that NPSBR could toughen polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) effectively. In addition, NPSBR is more suitable to toughen HIPS than PS at low rubber content.

  15. The co-pyrolysis of flame retarded high impact polystyrene and polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, William J.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mitan, Nona Merry M.; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima Naka, 700-8530 Okayama (Japan); Bhaskar, Thallada [Catalytic Conversion Process Division, Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    2007-10-15

    The co-pyrolysis of brominated high impact polystyrene (Br-HIPS) with polyolefins using a fixed bed reactor has been investigated, in particular, the effect that different types of brominated aryl compounds and antimony trioxide have on the pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis products were analysed using FT-IR, GC-FID, GC-MS, and GC-ECD. Liquid chromatography was used to separate the oils/waxes so that a more detailed analysis of the aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions could be carried out. It was found that interaction occurs between Br-HIPS and polyolefins during co-pyrolysis and that the presence of antimony trioxide influences the pyrolysis mass balance. Analysis of the Br-HIPS + polyolefin co-pyrolysis products showed that the presence of polyolefins led to an increase in the concentration of alkyl and vinyl mono-substituted benzene rings in the pyrolysis oil/wax resulting from Br-HIPS pyrolysis. The presence of Br-HIPS also had an impact on the oil/wax products of polyolefin pyrolysis, particularly on the polyethylene oil/wax composition which converted from being a mixture of 1-alkenes and n-alkanes to mostly n-alkanes. Antimony trioxide had very little impact on the polyolefin wax/oil composition but it did suppress the formation of styrene and alpha-methyl styrene and increase the formation of ethylbenzene and cumene during the pyrolysis of the Br-HIPS. (author)

  16. Influence of polystyrene and polyethylene packaging materials on food quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) used for packaging of food were studied on their effect on product quality. Different types of PS were tested: General purpose polystyrene (GPPS), high impact polystyrene (HIPS, which contains a dispersed rubber phase) and several blends of these types. PS

  17. Thermal and Thermo-oxidative Degradation of Flame Retardant High Impact Polystyrene with Triphenyl Phosphate and Novolac Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition and decomposition kinetics of flame retardant high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and novolac type epoxy resin (NE) were characterized using thermo-gravimetric experiment. And the flammability was determined by limited oxygen indices (LOI). The LOI results show that TPP and NE had a good synthetic effect on the flame retardancy of HIPS. Compared with pure HIPS, the LOI values of HIPS/NE and HIPS/TPP only increased by about 5%, and the LOI value of HIPS/TPP/NE reached 42.3%, nearly 23% above that of HIPS. All materials showed one main decomposition.step, as radical H1PS scission predominated during anaerobic decomposition. TPP increased the activity energy effectively while NE affected the thermal-oxidative degradation more with the help of the char formation. With both TPP and NE, the materials could have a comparable good result of both thermal and thermal-oxidative degradation, which could contribute to their effect on the flame retardancy.

  18. Study on the combustion behavior of high impact polystyrene nanocomposites produced by different extrusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The combustion behavior of a blend made of high impact polystyrene (HIPS with sodium montmorillonite (MMT-Na+ and triphenyl phosphite (TPP, as a halogen-free flame retardant, is analyzed in detail in this work. The blend is processed through various extrusion methods aimed to improve clay dispersion. The UL94 method in vertical position, oxygen index and cone calorimetric measurements assess HIPS blend behavior in combustion. TGA, FTIR, SEM and X-ray measurements, together with mechanical and rheological tests evaluate the thermal degradation, morphology, intercalation and degree of dispersion of particles. The use of a static-mixing die placed at the extreme of a single screw extruder improves clay platelets distribution and reduces the peak heat release rate better than employing a twin screw extrusion process. In addition, mechanical and rheological properties are affected substantially by changing the extrusion process. A correlation between clay dispersion and HIPS fire retardant properties is found, as the peak heat release rate decreases with good clay dispersion in cone calorimetric tests.

  19. The relation between hip impact velocity and hip impact force differs between sideways fall techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Duysens, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fall techniques that reduce fall severity may decrease the risk of hip fractures. A fundamental variable for fall severity is impact force, but impact velocity is also used. The purpose of the study was to determine whether impact velocity is valid to determine differences in fall severity between

  20. The relation between hip impact velocity and hip impact force differs between sideways fall techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Duysens, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fall techniques that reduce fall severity may decrease the risk of hip fractures. A fundamental variable for fall severity is impact force, but impact velocity is also used. The purpose of the study was to determine whether impact velocity is valid to determine differences in fall severity between d

  1. FRACTAL CHARACTER OF PHASE MORPHOLOGY OF HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE/POLY(cis-BUTADIENE) RUBBER BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-yan Li; Yun-ping Han; Jing Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Evolution and fractal character of the phase morphology of high impact polystyrene/poly(cis-butadiene) rubber (HIPS/PcBR) blends during melting and mixing were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic length L was defined as the size of particles of the dispersed phase in blends. Different fractal dimensions, Df and Dm, were introduced to study the distribution width of phase dimensions in the dimensionless region and the uniformity of the spatial distribution of particles, respectively. The results showed that the average characteristic length Lm and Df increase as the volume fraction of the dispersed phase increases, when the volume fraction of the dispersed phase is lower than 50%. In other words, the size of particles increases and their distribution in the dimensionless region becomes more uniform. Meanwhile, the uniformity of the spatial distribution becomes more perfect as the volume fraction increases. At a certain composition, Lm decreases in the initial stage of the mixing and levels off in the late stage. In the initial stage, Df becomes large rapidly with the process of blending, which means that the distribution of L in the dimensionless region becomes more uniform. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution tends to be ideal rapidly in the early stage and fluctuates in a definite range in the late stage of the mixing.

  2. TG-MS investigation of brominated products from the degradation of brominated flame retardants in high-impact polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grause, Guido; Karakita, Daiki; Ishibashi, Jun; Kameda, Tomohito; Bhaskar, Thallada; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2011-10-01

    The thermal degradation of flame retardant containing high-impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br), one of the most commonly employed plastics in electric and electronic appliances, was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) in order to understand the threat that is posed by the release of hazardous brominated compounds. The HIPS samples contained decabromodiphenylether (DPE) and decabromodibenzyl (DDB) as the flame retardants as well as Sb2O3 as the synergist. The largest number of brominated compounds was obtained in the presence of DPE and Sb2O3 and DDB without Sb2O3. From the degradation of DPE, brominated benzenes, phenols, diphenylethers, and dibenzofurans were identified, and from the degradation of DDB, brominated benzenes, dibenzyls, and phenanthrenes were formed. The interaction between the flame retardant and the polymer matrix resulted in α-bromoethylbenzene. The formation of brominated dibenzodioxins was not observed, probably, due to the low phenol concentration in the polymer melt. No other report has, to our knowledge, ever reported on the formation of brominated phenanthrenes from flame retardants. Because they share similar steric features, it may well be that brominated phenanthrenes are similar in their carcinogen and mutagen potential to dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the observed compounds is presented, and the role of the synergist is considered.

  3. Process Window for Direct Recycling of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and High-Impact Polystyrene from Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves. Results are discussed in terms of final blend structure, focusing in the interaction, within blends, of copolymers phases and fillers presents in WEEE. The comparative analysis of mechanical performance and morphology of HIPS/ABS blends indicates that the addition of 50wt% HIPS to ABS even improves 50% the elongation at break maintaining the strength. On the opposite, HIPS maintains its properties with 20wt% of ABS added. This study allows enlarging composition process window of recycling plastic WEEE for similar applications. This could be a sustainable way to improve benefit of e-scrap with low costs and easy processability. In consequence, social interest in the recycling of this kind of plastic scrap could be encourage from either ecological or economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Hip Impact Protection Project: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bruce A; Birge, Stanley J; Magaziner, Jay; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Ball, Linda; Brown, Kathleen M; Kiel, Douglas P

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 340,000 hip fractures occur each year in the U.S. With current demographic trends, the number of hip fractures is expected to double at least in the next 40 years. The Hip Impact Protection Project (HIP PRO) was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of hip protectors in an elderly nursing home population. This paper describes the innovative clustered matched-pair research design used in HIP PRO to overcome the inherent limitations of clustered randomization. Three clinical centers recruited 37 nursing homes to participate in HIP PRO. They were randomized so that the participating residents in that home received hip protectors for either the right or left hip. Informed consent was obtained from either the resident or the resident's responsible party. The target sample size was 580 residents with replacement if they dropped out, had a hip fracture, or died. One of the advantages of the HIP PRO study design was that each resident was his/her own case and control, eliminating imbalances, and there was no confusion over which residents wore pads (or on which hip). Generalizability of the findings may be limited. Adherence was higher in this study than in other studies because of: (1) the use of a run-in period, (2) staff incentives, and (3) the frequency of adherence assessments. The use of a single pad is not analogous to pad use in the real world and may have caused unanticipated changes in behavior. Fall assessment was not feasible, limiting the ability to analyze fractures as a function of falls. Finally, hip protector designs continue to evolve so that the results generated using this pad may not be applicable to other pad designs. However, information about factors related to adherence will be useful for future studies. The clustered matched-pair study design avoided the major problem with previous cluster-randomized investigations of this question - unbalanced risk factors between the experimental group and the control group. Because each

  5. Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Falls to the side and those with impact on the hip are risky for hip fractures in the elderly. A previous study has indicated that martial arts (MA) fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the high impact forces at the hand used to break the

  6. Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Falls to the side and those with impact on the hip are risky for hip fractures in the elderly. A previous study has indicated that martial arts (MA) fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the high impact forces at the hand used to break the

  7. Characterisation of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Denise; Saron, Clodoaldo

    2015-06-01

    Polymeric materials constitute a considerable fraction of waste computer equipment and polymers acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are the main thermoplastic polymeric components found in waste computer equipment. Identification, separation and characterisation of additives present in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are fundamental procedures to mechanical recycling of these polymers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for identification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil, as well as their potential for mechanical recycling. The imprecise utilisation of symbols for identification of the polymers and the presence of additives containing toxic elements in determinate computer devices are some of the difficulties found for recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment. However, the considerable performance of mechanical properties of the recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene when compared with the virgin materials confirms the potential for mechanical recycling of these polymers.

  8. 阻燃高抗冲聚苯乙烯热降解研究%Thermal Decomposition of Flame-retarded High Impact Polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴中伟; 焦清介; 臧充光; 兰慧

    2008-01-01

      利用热失重差热分析-红外联用仪(TGA-IR),分析了高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)热降解过程,并结合热裂解气相色谱-质谱联用仪(Py-GC/MS),分析了高抗冲聚苯乙烯热裂解产物,利用化学方程式阐述了HIPS热降解自由基降解反应。对十溴二苯乙烷、三氧化二锑复配体系阻燃剂的热降解过程进行了研究,讨论了阻燃HIPS凝聚相阻燃、气相阻燃机理。实验表明, HIPS燃烧时主要发生β-断裂,大量烟雾主要由苯乙烯、甲苯、α-甲基苯乙烯、苯乙烷、丁二烯等组成,其中凝聚相主要是1,3,5-三苯基苯乙烯及其他部分低聚物。在不同的温度下,阻燃HIPS的热裂解产物不同,在较高的温度下,小分子化合物明显增多。%  The thermal decomposition process and decomposed products of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) were analyzed by using TGA-IR and Py-GC/MS, respectively. Moreover, the radical reaction mechanism of the degradation of HIPS was discussed. The degradation process of flame-retarded system of decabrmodiphenyl ether (DBDPE) and antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) and the flame-retarded mechanism of condensed phase and gas phase for flame-retarded HIPS were investigated. The results showed that theβ-scission of HIPS happened in combustion mainly; a mass of smog was composed of styrene, methylbenzene α-methyl-styrene, ethylbenzene, butadiene and so on. The condensed phase was composed of the products of 1,3,5-triphenyl-benzene and other oligomers. At different temperature, the pyrolyzed products of flame-retarded HIPS were different, and the small compounds evidently increased at high temperature.

  9. Martial arts fall techniques reduce hip impact forces in naive subjects after a brief period of training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Groen, B.E.; Swigchem, R. van; Duysens, J.

    2008-01-01

    Hip fractures are among the most serious consequences of falls in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques may reduce hip fracture risk, as they are known to reduce hip impact forces by approximately 30% in experienced fallers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hip impact fo

  10. Martial arts fall techniques reduce hip impact forces in naive subjects after a brief period of training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Groen, B.E.; Swigchem, R. van; Duysens, J.

    2008-01-01

    Hip fractures are among the most serious consequences of falls in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques may reduce hip fracture risk, as they are known to reduce hip impact forces by approximately 30% in experienced fallers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hip impact

  11. Secreted protein eco-corona mediates uptake and impacts of polystyrene nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Fatima; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are defined as having at least one external dimension between 1 and 100 nm. Due to their small size, NPs have a large surface area to volume ratio giving them unique characteristics that differ from bulk material of the same chemical composition. As a result these novel materials have found numerous applications in medical and industrial fields with the result that environmental exposure to NPs is increasingly likely. Similarly, increased reliance on plastic, which degrades extremely slowly in the environment, is resulting in increased accumulation of micro-/nano-plastics in fresh and marine waters, whose ecotoxicological impacts are as yet poorly understood. Although NPs are well known to adsorb macromolecules from their environment, forming a biomolecule corona which changes the NP identity and how it interacts with organisms, significantly less research has been performed on the ecological corona (eco-corona). Secretion of biomolecules is a well established predator-prey response in aquatic food chains, raising the question of whether NPs interact with secreted proteins, and the impact of such interaction on NP uptake and ecotoxicity. We report here initial studies, including optimisation of protocols using carboxylic-acid and amino modified spherical polystyrene NPs, to assess interaction of NPs with biomolecules secreted by Daphnia magna and the impact of these interactions on NP uptake, retention and toxicity towards Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna are an important environmental indicator species who may be especially sensitive to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of being filter-feeders. This paper demonstrates for the first time that proteins released by Daphnia magna create an eco-corona around polystyrene NPs which causes heightened uptake of the NPs and consequently increases toxicity. The secreted protein eco-corona also causes the NPs to be less efficiently removed from the gut of D. magna and NPs remaining in the gut of D. magna

  12. Mixed matrix membranes prepared from high impact polystyrene with dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for gas separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Safaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents synthesis and characterization of high impact polystyrene - TiO2 nanoparticles mixed matrix membranes for separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen. The solution-casting method was used for preparation of membranes. The nano mixed matrix membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to ensure the suitable dispersion of nano particles in high impact polystyrene matrix. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles loading on membrane performance was investigated. The separation performance of synthesized membranes was investigated in separation of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture. Effect of feed pressure and TiO2 content on separation of CO2 was studied. The results revealed that increase of feed pressure decreases flux of gases through the mixed matrix membrane. The results also confirmed that the best separation performance can be obtained at TiO2 nanoparticles loading of 7 wt.%.

  13. Cemented total hip arthroplasty with impacted morcellized bone-grafts to restore acetabular bone defects in congenital hip dysplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.B.T.; Melenhorst, J.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Veth, R.P.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the results of 27 acetabular reconstructions in 21 patients with secondary osteoarthritis resulting from congenital dysplasia of the hip in which the acetabular bone defects were restored with impacted morcellized bone-grafts in combination with a cemented cup. At an average follow-up

  14. Impact of non-ionic surfactant chemical structure on morphology and stability of polystyrene nanocomposite latex

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greesh, N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene (PS) colloid particles in presence of non-ionic surfactant-modified clay particles were prepared by the free-radical polymerization of styrene monomers in emulsion. Three different types of non-ionic surfactants, sorbitan monopalmitate...

  15. The impact of fluorescent dyes on the performances of polystyrene-based plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Deng, Cheng; Jiang, Huimin; Zheng, Zhanlong; Gong, Rui; Bi, Yutie; Zhang, Lin; Lin, Runxiong

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of both the first luminescent additive and the wavelength-shifter on the performance of plastic scintillator, a series of polystyrene-based scintillator had been prepared by thermal polymerization. Three first luminescent additives (PPO, p-TP and b-PBD) and four wavelength-shifters (POPOP, Bis-MSB, Me-MSB and DPA) were added to the scintillators respectively. The comparison results showed that PPO and POPOP were the most adequate fluorescent dyes for the polystyrene-based plastic scintillator. Moreover, with the increase of the concentration of PPO and POPOP, the fluorescence intensity and light yield were increased firstly and then decreased. The plastic scintillator containing 2% PPO and 0.02% POPOP had the highest fluorescence intensity and light yield.

  16. Caracterização morfológica do poliestireno de alto impacto (HIPS Morphological characterization of high impact psolystyrene (HIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rovere

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Poliestireno de alto impacto (HIPS é uma blenda polimérica clássica de reator produzida por polimerização in-situ de estireno em solução com borracha butadiênica. Na literatura, está bem estabelecida a importância do tamanho de partícula e da densidade da ligação cruzada da borracha na capacidade de cavitação e no controle dos mecanismos de tenacificação na matriz estirênica. No presente trabalho as técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET e espalhamento de luz laser de baixo ângulo (LALLS foram empregadas para observar a distribuição do tamanho de partícula, e a análise digital de imagem foi aplicada para quantificar os parâmetros morfológicos nas micrografias. Medidas do tamanho de partícula e da fração aparente volumétrica de partícula foram feitas para diferentes espessuras na MET e comparadas com o parâmetro estatístico D[4,3] obtido na LALLS.High impact polystyrene (HIPS is a classical reactor polymer blend produced by in-situ polymerization of styrene in solution with polybutadiene rubber. It is well established in the literature the importance of particle size and rubber crosslink density on the particle cavitation capability and on the controlling of toughening mechanisms in the styrene matrix. In the present work transmission electron microscopy (TEM and low-angle laser light scattering (LALLS were employed for investigating particle size distribution, with digital imaging being applied in the quantitative analysis of the micrographs. Measurements of apparent volume fraction and average particle size were carried out for different slice thicknesses in TEM and compared with the statistical parameter D[4,3] obtained by LALLS.

  17. Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, B E; Weerdesteyn, V; Duysens, J

    2007-01-01

    Falls to the side and those with impact on the hip are risky for hip fractures in the elderly. A previous study has indicated that martial arts (MA) fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the high impact forces at the hand used to break the fall have raised concerns because of the risk for wrist fractures. The purpose of the study was to get insight into the role of hand impact, impact velocity, and trunk orientation in the reduction of hip impact force in MA techniques. Six experienced judokas performed sideways falls from kneeling height using three fall techniques: block with arm technique (control), MA technique with use of the arm to break the fall (MA-a), and MA technique without use of the arm (MA-na). The results showed that the MA-a and MA-na technique reduced the impact force by 27.5% and 30%, respectively. Impact velocity was significantly reduced in the MA falls. Trunk orientation was significantly less vertical in the MA-a falls. No significant differences were found between the MA techniques. It was concluded that the reduction in hip impact force was associated with a lower impact velocity and less vertical trunk orientation. Rolling after impact, which is characteristic for MA falls, is likely to contribute to the reduction of impact forces, as well. Using the arm to break the fall was not essential for the MA technique to reduce hip impact force. These findings provided support for the incorporation of MA fall techniques in fall prevention programs for elderly.

  18. RVE Modeling of Multiple Crazing in High Impact Polystyrene%高抗冲聚苯乙烯多处银纹化RVE模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃; 张斌

    2011-01-01

    A micromechanical model based on continuum damage mechanics was established to study the crazing of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) under unidirectional tension by use of representive volume element (RVE) with embedded cohesive surfaces. Quads failure criteria were adopted to identify the failure of cohesive elements. An elastic mechanical properties degradation method using the nonlinear finite element was introduced to simulate the initiation, growth and breakage of crazing. Furthermore, the crazing mechanisms were analyzed in detail. The calculated numerical results by using our model show a good agreement with the experimental phenomena, which verifies the effectiveness of the model.%通过在代表性体积胞元(RVE)中嵌入内聚力面,建立了基于连续损伤力学的高抗冲聚苯乙烯多处银纹化细观机理模型.采用Quads准则作为内聚力面失效判据,引入材料刚度退化模型,利用非线性有限元方法研究了在单向拉伸载荷下高抗冲聚苯乙烯中银纹的萌生、生长和断裂过程及其规律.数值分析结果与实验中观察到的现象吻合较好,表明了本模型描述的内聚力面模拟银纹化过程的合理性.

  19. Polystyrene Prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, William

    1969-01-01

    Discussed are the exciting advantages and possibilities of using polystyrene trays found in meat packaging for printmaking. Among them are ease of use, low cost and quick availability of materials, beautiful textural effects. Procedures are explained for various age levels. (BF)

  20. Estudo do efeito do tipo de polipropileno na fotodegradação da blenda polipropileno/poliestireno de alto impacto Influence of the type of polypropylene on the photodegradation of blends of polypropylene/high impact polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio L. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa avaliar a influência do tipo de polipropileno no comportamento da blenda polipropileno/poliestireno de alto impacto (PP/HIPS quando exposta à radiação UV. Foram usados uma resina virgem de PP (PPv e outra reprocessada (PPrep. Inicialmente, avaliou-se o comportamento individual dos componentes da blenda, HIPS, PPv e PPrep, quando submetidos à radiação UV por até 15 semanas de exposição. As técnicas de caracterização utilizadas para monitorar o desempenho tanto das resinas individualmente quanto das blendas submetidas à radiação UV foram: propriedades mecânicas (tração e impacto, medidas de índice de fluidez (MFI, análise térmica (DSC, espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. A partir dos resultados com essas técnicas verificou-se que o PPv foi a resina mais afetada pela radiação e consequentemente as blendas preparadas com esse PP também foram mais sensíveis à fotodegradação do que as demais. Em termos de fotoestabilização este resultado mostra-se interessante, já que as blendas PP/HIPS preparadas com uma resina previamente degradada necessitariam de menores teores de aditivos do que esse mesmo tipo de blenda preparada com resina virgem.The influence from the type of polypropylene on the photodegradation resistance of blends of polypropylene/high impact polystyrene (PP/HIPS was studied. A virgin polypropylene (PPv and another sample that suffered prior thermo-mechanical degradation (PPrep were used. All materials, components of the blends and blends were exposed to UV radiation for up to 15 weeks. They were characterized as a function of time of UV exposure using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The mechanical (tensile and impact properties and melt flow indexes of the materials were also evaluated. The experimental results revealed that PPv resin and its blends were more sensitive

  1. 3D Finite Element Analysis of a Man Hip Joint Femur under Impact Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xue-zhong; GUO Yi-mu; LI Jun; ZHANG Yun-qiu; HE Rong-xin

    2007-01-01

    The biomechanical characters of the bone fracture of the man femoral hip joint under impact loads are explored. Methods: A biosystem model of the man femoral hip joint by using the GE ( General Electric) lightspeed multi-lay spiral CT is conducted. A 3D finite element model is established by employing the finite element software ANSYS. The FE analysis mainly concentrates on the effects of the impact directions arising from intense movements and the parenchyma on the femoral hip joint on the stress distributions of the proximal femur. Results:The parenchyma on the hip joint has relatively large relaxation effect on the impact loads. Conclusion:Effects of the angle δ of the impact load to the anterior direction and the angle γ of the impact load to the femur shaft on the bone fracture are given;δ has larger effect on the stress and strain distributions than the angle γ, which mainly represents the fracture of the upper femur including the femoral neck fracture when the posterolateral femur is impacted, consistent with the clinical results.

  2. Potential population impact of antidepressant use on hip fractures rate in Denmark (DK), Norway (NO) and the Netherlands (NL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg, Jennifer S.B.; Petri, Hans; Khong, Phuong T.; Klungel, Olaf H.; De Vries, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of antidepressants has been associated with an increased hip fracture risk in observational studies. However, the potential impact of antidepressant consumption on the population rate of hip fractures has not been estimated. Objectives: To evaluate the population impact of antide

  3. HIPS/CG-ATH纳米复合材料的性能%Properties of HIPS/CG-ATH Nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文广; 高岩磊; 周二鹏; 梁惠霞; 牟微

    2011-01-01

    采用熔融共混法制备出了高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)/高性能纳米氢氧化铝(纳米CG-ATH)复合材料,研究了高性能纳米氢氧化铝的加入量对高抗冲聚苯乙烯阻燃性能、力学性能和热稳定性的影响.结果表明,高性能纳米氢氧化铝的加入有助于提高高抗冲聚苯乙烯的极限氧指数、拉伸强度、弯曲模量和热稳定性,但对高抗冲聚苯乙烯的冲击强度会产生不利影响.加入量过多时,高性能纳米氢氧化铝在高抗冲聚苯乙烯基体中的分散性变差.%High impact polystyrene (HIPS) /high performance nano-aluminium trihydroxide(ATH) (nano-CG-ATH) nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending high impact polystyrene with high performance nano-ATH. The effect of high performance nano-ATH amount on flame retardant, mechanical, and thermal properties of high impact polystyrene was studied. The results show that the addition of high performance nano-ATH is beneficial to improve limited oxygen index, tensile strength, flexural modulus, and thermal property of high impact polystyrene, but the addition of high performance nano-ATH reduces impact strength of high impact polystyrene. The dispersion of high performance nano-ATH in high impact polystyrene matrix becomes bad when its amount is too much.

  4. Taking Advantage of Citation Measures of Scholarly Impact: Hip Hip h Index!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, John

    2016-11-01

    Professional decisions about hiring, tenure, promotion, funding, and honors are informed by assessments of scholarly impact. As a measure of influence, citations are produced by experts but accessible to nonexperts. The h index is the largest number h such that an individual has published at least h works cited at least h times apiece. This is easy to understand and calculate, as or more reliable and valid than alternative citation measures, and highly robust to missing or messy data. Striving for a large h index requires both productivity and influence, which provides healthy incentives for researchers striving for eminence through scientific impact. A number of factors that can influence h are discussed to promote the mindful use of what might otherwise be an ambiguous or misleading measure. The h index adds a transparent, objective component to assessments of scholarly impact, and even academic eminence, that merits at least two cheers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Potential Impact of Benzodiazepine Use on the Rate of Hip Fractures in Five Large European Countries and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepine use increases the risk of falls and has been associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. Our aim was to estimate the possible population impact of the use of benzodiazepines on the rate of hip fracture in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We conducted a literature review to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) for hip fractures and use of benzodiazepines. Prevalence rates of benzodiazepine use in 2009 were calculated for each co...

  6. Comparison of impact force attenuation by various combinations of hip protector and flooring material using a simplified fall-impact simulation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Tsushima, Eiki; Tsushima, Hitoshi

    2013-04-01

    Use of hip protectors and compliant flooring has been recommended for preventing hip fracture due to falls. We aimed to identify the factors attenuating forces in falls by comparing and analyzing the impact forces occurring with various combinations of hip protectors and flooring materials. We designed a simplified pendulum device to simulate the impact force at the hip during falling. The impact force was measured on pressure-sensitive recording film under combined conditions of two kinds of hip protector (hard or soft shell) and three kinds of floor material (concrete, wooden, or tatami matting). We then calculated the percentage force attenuation under each test condition compared with the use of a concrete floor and no hip protector. All the tests using tatami matting reduced the impact to below the average fracture threshold of elderly people (3472N). A combination of tatami and soft hip protector provided the best attenuation (72.5%). Multiple regression analyses showed that use of tatami matting and a soft hip protector had the biggest force-attenuation effect. The soft hip protector gave better percentage force attenuation than did the hard one. Use of tatami matting as a flooring material could be an effective strategy for helping prevent hip fractures.

  7. Improving time to surgery for hip fracture patients. Impact of the introduction of an emergency theatre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    French-O’Carroll, F

    2017-01-01

    Hip fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality1. Surgery performed on the day of or after admission is associated with improved outcome2,3. An audit cycle was performed examining time to surgery for hip fracture patients. Our initial audit identified lack of theatre space as one factor delaying surgery. A dedicated daytime emergency theatre was subsequently opened and a re-audit was performed to assess its impact on time to surgery. Following the opening of the theatre, the proportion of patients with a delay to hip fracture surgery greater than 36 hours was reduced from 49% to 26% with lack of theatre space accounting for 23% (3 of 13) of delayed cases versus 28.6% (9 of 32) previously. 44% of hip fracture surgeries were performed in the emergency theatre during daytime hours, whilst in-hospital mortality rose from 4.6% to 6%. We conclude that access to an emergency theatre during daytime hours reduced inappropriate delays to hip fracture surgery.

  8. Potential impact of benzodiazepine use on the rate of hip fractures in Denmark (DK), the Netherlands (NL) and Norway (NO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khong, Phuong T.; De Vries, Frank; Goldenberg, Jennifer S.B.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Petri, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background: Benzodiazepines can increase the risk of falls and have therefore often been associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. However, estimations of the potential impact of benzodiazepine use on the population rate of hip fractures are missing. Objectives: To estimate the possible po

  9. Preparation and analysis of styrene oligomers containing migrates from various polystyrenes used in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klärner, P; Klenz, R; Eder, R; Volz, W E; Schnell, H W; Leyendecker, D; Güntner, A; Niessner, N; Morris, C R; Christian, M S

    1998-01-01

    An oligostyrene-like product (F2L5250) was reported to have estrogen-like activity (statistically significant increases in means for absolute uterine weight and the ratios of the uterine weight to terminal body weight) in juvenile female rats provided a dietary concentration of 100 ppm F2L5250 for four consecutive days. The highest no-effect-level (NOEL) for estrogenic activity was 80 ppm in the diet, corresponding to a daily intake of 13.3 mg F2L5250/kg. Although it is unlikely that such estrogenic tetramers would occur in commercial polystyrene, the Styrene Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) sponsored the current extensive project to address any concern that human consumption of styrene oligomers migrating from polystyrene containers into food, e.g., from packaged yoghurt, or from the use of EPS coffee cups and related products, might affect human health. To ensure confidentiality and compliance with the highest scientific and regulatory standards, the entire project was conducted without knowledge of the oligomer migrates tested, and all activities were managed and audited under a contract between the SSC and a third party, Argus International. This paper describes the preparation and analyses of the 23 representative polystyrenes [9 general purpose polystyrenes (GPPS), 8 high impact polystyrenes (HIPS) and 6 expandable polystyrenes (EPS)] evaluated for estrogenicity in an in vivo uterotrophic assay in immature female rats. The polystyrene samples were chosen to represent food packaging applications. They were obtained from participating European Polystyrene Manufacturers, coded at the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands (TNO) and sent to BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany for preparation of test bars (GPPS and HIPS) or test foam parts (EPS). The prepared polystyrene test bars or test foam parts were submitted to elution with 50% aqueous (v/v) ethanol for 10 days at 40 degrees C, a procedure which

  10. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  11. The threshold force required for femoral impaction grafting in revision hip surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannery, Olivia M

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Femoral impaction grafting requires vigorous impaction to obtain adequate stability without risk of fracture, but the force of impaction has not been determined. We determined this threshold force in a preliminary study using animal femurs. METHODS: Adult sow femurs were used because of their morphological similarity to human femurs in revision hip arthroplasty. 35 sow femurs were impacted with morselized bone chips and an increasing force was applied until the femur fractured. This allowed a threshold force to be established. 5 other femurs were impacted to this force and an Exeter stem was cemented into the neomedullary canal. A 28-mm Exeter head was attached and loaded by direct contact with a hydraulic testing machine. Axial cyclic loading was performed and the position sensor of the hydraulic testing machine measured the prosthetic head subsidence. RESULTS: 29 tests were completed successfully. The threshold force was found to be 4 kN. There was no statistically significant correlation between the load at fracture and the cortex-to-canal ratio or the bone mineral density. Following impaction with a maximum force of 4 kN, the average axial subsidence was 0.28 mm. INTERPRETATION: We achieved a stable construct without fracture. Further studies using human cadaveric femurs should be done to determine the threshold force required for femoral impaction grafting in revision hip surgery.

  12. Impact of cationic polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NH2) on early embryo development of Mytilus galloprovincialis: Effects on shell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Teresa; Camisassi, Giulia; Montagna, Michele; Fabbri, Rita; Franzellitti, Silvia; Carbone, Cristina; Dawson, Kenneth; Canesi, Laura

    2017-11-01

    The potential release of nanoparticles (NPs) into aquatic environments represents a growing concern for their possible impact on aquatic organisms. In this light, exposure studies during early life stages, which can be highly sensitive to environmental perturbations, would greatly help identifying potential adverse effects of NPs. Although in the marine bivalve Mytilus spp. the effects of different types of NPs have been widely investigated, little is known on the effects of NPs on the developing embryo. In M. galloprovincialis, emerging contaminants were shown to affect gene expression profiles during early embryo development (from trocophorae-24 hpf to D-veligers-48 hpf). In this work, the effects of amino-modified polystyrene NPs (PS-NH2) on mussel embryos were investigated. PS-NH2 affected the development of normal D-shaped larvae at 48 hpf (EC50 = 0.142 mg/L). Higher concentrations (5-20 mg/L) resulted in high embryotoxicity/developmental arrest. At concentrations ≅ EC50, PS-NH2 affected shell formation, as shown by optical and polarized light microscopy. In these conditions, transcription of 12 genes involved in different biological processes were evaluated. PS-NH2 induced dysregulation of transcription of genes involved in early shell formation (Chitin synthase, Carbonic anhydrase, Extrapallial Protein) at both 24 and 48 hpf. Decreased mRNA levels for ABC transporter p-glycoprotein-ABCB and Lysozyme were also observed at 48 hpf. SEM observations confirmed developmental toxicity at higher concentrations (5 mg/L). These data underline the sensitivity of Mytilus early embryos to PS-NH2 and support the hypothesis that calcifying larvae of marine species are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stressors, including exposure to selected types of NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of self-efficacy on physical activity maintenance in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Nanna Maria; Bieler, Theresa; Beyer, Nina Ann-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Understanding motivational factors related to physical activity (PA) maintenance is essential in promoting long-term exercise benefits. This study explored the impact of self-efficacy (SE) on post-intervention PA maintenance in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Method: An SE-theory based...... mixed-methods sub-study of a trial investigating the effects of 4 months supervised exercise in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Questionnaire data (n = 52; baseline and 12 months) on PA and SE (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, ASES, score-range 10–100) were analysed (Mann–Whitney test) for differences...... from incorporating the self-efficacy theory in the planning and execution of exercise interventions to promote post-intervention physical activity maintenance and long term health benefits. •Post-intervention physical activity maintenance may be increased by focussing on the patients’ exercise self...

  14. Impact of surgical complications on length of stay after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Palm, Henrik; Krasheninnikoff, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation after hip fracture may be lengthy, with bed-day consumption accounting for up to 85% of the total cost of admission to hospital. Data suggest that surgical complications requiring reoperation may lead to an excessively long in-patient stays. However, the overall impact...... of surgical complications has not been examined in detail. METHODS: All 600 consecutive patients included were admitted with primary hip fracture and received primary surgical intervention with multimodal rehabilitation. Surgical complications were audited and classified as being due to a patient fall......, infection or suboptimal surgery, stratified into either requiring reoperation or not allowing mobilisation because of instability. RESULTS: Of the 600, 116 (19.3, 95% CI 16-22%) patients underwent reoperation or immobilisation; 27.1% of bed-day consumption resulted from surgical complications. The audit...

  15. Impact of surgical complications on length of stay after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Palm, Henrik; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation after hip fracture may be lengthy, with bed-day consumption accounting for up to 85% of the total cost of admission to hospital. Data suggest that surgical complications requiring reoperation may lead to an excessively long in-patient stays. However, the overall impact...... showed that 64 complications (55%) were due to suboptimal surgery, 18 (16%) to infection, 6 (5%) to falls and 28 (24%) to no obvious cause. CONCLUSION: Surgical complications secondary to primary hip fracture surgery account for 27.1% of total hospital bed consumption within 6 months. Approximately, 50......, infection or suboptimal surgery, stratified into either requiring reoperation or not allowing mobilisation because of instability. RESULTS: Of the 600, 116 (19.3, 95% CI 16-22%) patients underwent reoperation or immobilisation; 27.1% of bed-day consumption resulted from surgical complications. The audit...

  16. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of HIPS Composites Containing PS-grafted-hydroxyapatite Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The surfaces of the micron-sized HA particles were modified by in situ copolymerization of vinyl triethoxyl silane (VTES) and styrene (St). Then, the modified HA particles were compounded with HIPS. The results showed that the polystyrene (PS) macromolecules were grafted on the surfaces of HA particles during in situ copolymerization of VTES and St. Thereby, PS chains grafted on the HA surface enhance the compatibility between HA and HIPS, improve the dispersion of HA particles in HIPS matrix, and enhance the interfacial adhesion between HA and matrix. The stiffness, tensile strength and notch impact strength of HIPS/HA composites are improved at the same time. And there is a critical coating thickness of PS to the HA surf ace for the optimum mechanical properties of HIPS/HA composites.

  17. Development and psychometric properties of the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) to assess the psychosocial burden of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, T Christopher; Zhu, Xingshu; Demuro-Mercon, Carla; Cummings, Holly W; Sings, Heather L; Ferris, Daron G

    2009-11-01

    A comprehensive questionnaire designed to assess the full spectrum of potential human papillomavirus (HPV)-related psychosocial effects in women does not exist. The HPV Impact Profile (HIP) was developed to determine the psychosocial impact of HPV infection and related interventions. Draft instrument items and domains were developed using a literature review and cognitive debriefing interviews with women who had experienced HPV-related conditions. An importance rating questionnaire guided item ranking and reduction. A draft questionnaire was pilot-tested for comprehension and ease of completion. Psychometric evaluation of the final HIP was conducted in a survey of 583 women. Data quality, item acceptability, scale acceptability, reliability, and discriminate construct validity were assessed. The final HIP contained 29 items rated on a 0-10 point discretized visual analog scales grouped into seven hypothesized domains. Total HIP scores ranged from 0 (no impact) to 100 (worst impact). Data quality was high, with missing data for items ranging from 0 to 0.7% and over 99% of the scores were computable. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.90 and was > or =0.7 for 5/7 domains. Discriminant construct validity was demonstrated. Appropriate modifications could potentially be made to improve some aspects of the HIP, including modification to include other HPV diseases such as head and neck, anal, and vulvovaginal cancers and HPV disease in men. The disease-specific HIP has favorable reliability and construct validity and a good ability to discriminate among disease severity.

  18. Martial arts fall techniques reduce hip impact forces in naive subjects after a brief period of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerdesteyn, V; Groen, B E; van Swigchem, R; Duysens, J

    2008-04-01

    Hip fractures are among the most serious consequences of falls in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques may reduce hip fracture risk, as they are known to reduce hip impact forces by approximately 30% in experienced fallers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hip impact forces and velocities in MA falls would be smaller than in a 'natural' fall arrest strategy (Block) in young adults (without any prior experience) after a 30-min training session in sideways MA fall techniques. Ten subjects fell sideways from kneeling height. In order to identify experience-related differences, additional EMG data of both fall types were collected in inexperienced (n=10) and experienced fallers (n=5). Compared to Block falls, MA falls had significantly smaller hip impact forces (-17%) and velocities (-7%). EMG results revealed experience-related differences in the execution of the MA fall, indicative of less pronounced trunk rotation in the inexperienced fallers. This may explain their smaller reduction of impact forces compared to experienced fallers. In conclusion, the finding that a substantial reduction in impact forces can be achieved after a short training in MA techniques is very promising with respect to their use in interventions to prevent fall injuries.

  19. An injury risk curve for the hip for use in frontal impact crash testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Jonathan D; Flannagan, Carol A C; Kuppa, Shashi M

    2010-02-10

    To facilitate the assessment of hip injury risk in frontal motor-vehicle crashes, an injury risk curve that relates peak force transmitted to the hip to the probability of hip fracture was developed by using survival analysis to fit a lognormal distribution to a recently published dataset of hip fracture forces. This distribution was parameterized to account for the effect of subject stature, which was the only subject characteristic found to significantly affect hip fracture force (X(2)(1)=6.03, p=0.014). The distribution was further parameterized to account for the effects of hip flexion and abduction from a standard driving posture on hip fracture force using relationships between mean hip fracture force and hip flexion/abduction reported in the literature. The resulting parametric distribution was used to define relationships between force applied to the hip and the risk of hip fracture for the statures associated with the small female, midsize male, and large male crash-test dummies, thus allowing these dummies to assess hip fracture/dislocation risk in frontal crashes, provided that such dummies are sufficiently biofidelic. For the midsize male crash test dummy, a 50% risk of hip fracture was associated with a force of 6.00kN. For the small female and large male dummies, a 50% risk of hip fracture was associated with forces of 4.46 and 6.73kN, respectively. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Femoral impaction bone grafting in revision hip arthroplasty: 705 cases from the originating centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M J; Hook, S; Whitehouse, S L; Timperley, A J; Gie, G A

    2016-12-01

    Femoral impaction bone grafting was first developed in 1987 using morselised cancellous bone graft impacted into the femoral canal in combination with a cemented, tapered, polished stem. We describe the evolution of this technique and instrumentation since that time. Between 1987 and 2005, 705 revision total hip arthroplasties (56 bilateral) were performed with femoral impaction grafting using a cemented femoral stem. All surviving patients were prospectively followed for a mean of 14.7 years (9.8 to 28.3) with no loss to follow-up. By the time of the final review, 404 patients had died. There were 76 further revisions (10.8%) involving the stem; seven for aseptic loosening, 23 for periprosthetic fracture, 24 for infection, one for malposition, one for fracture of the stem and 19 cement-in-cement exchanges of the stem during acetabular revision. The 20-year survival rate for the entire series was 98.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 97.8 to 99.8) with aseptic loosening as the endpoint, and 87.7% (95% CI 82.8 to 92.6) for revision for any reason. Survival improved with the evolution of the technique, although this was not statistically significant due to the overall low rate of further revision. This is the largest series of revision total hip arthroplasties with femoral impaction grafting, and the results support the continued use of this technique. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1611-19. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Recuperación de Hips mediante sebs: Caracterización reológica y mecánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Peydró Rasero

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reprocessing two mixtures: recycled high impact polystyrene (HIPS with polybutadiene (PB; and HIPS with styrene-ethylene-butylenestyrene (SEBS have been studied in this article. Our results show that tensile strength increases, while the lengthening and viscosity decrease, as the number of reprocessing cycles increases. If we mix PB or SEBS with degraded HIPS, the mechanical properties of the virgin material are recovered and the rheological behavior maintains the viscosity values for the mixture with PB but these diminish notably for the mixture with SEBS.

  2. Long-term clinical outcomes following the use of synthetic hydroxyapatite and bone graft in impaction in revision hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, Tajeshwar S; Jayasekera, Narlaka; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Richardson, James B

    2009-03-01

    Impaction grafting using morsellised allograft bone restores bone stock, but carries the potential for transmission of infection. Synthetic bone graft substitutes can eliminate this risk but may, however, influence outcome. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a 50/50 mix of hydroxyapatite and allograft does not affect long-term function, survival or radiological outcome. Sixty-five patients had revision hip arthroplasty using impaction grafting with either pure allograft (42 patients) or a 50/50 mixture of allograft and solid particulate hydroxyapatite. Harris hip scores were assessed pre-operatively and annual intervals thereafter. Function was analyzed using multilevel modeling, the Kaplan-Meier method used for survival analysis and graft incorporation was assessed radiologically. The hip score improved in both groups but showed a small annual decline (average 1.2/year, plong-term prosthesis survival and function following revision arthroplasty with a 50/50 mixture of allograft and hydroxyapatite are comparable to allograft alone.

  3. The Economic Impact of Managing Late Presentation of Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar RIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delayed presentation of Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH comes with challenges in treatment as well as high surgical cost. Therefore the objective of this study is to quantify the economic impact of management of late presentation of DDH during a last 3-year period. We conducted a retrospective study with analysis of DDH cases managed between years 2012 to 2014. Early and late presentations of DDH were identified and cost management for both was estimated. Out of twenty-four DDH cases, thirteen cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All were female with majority of them presenting with unilateral DDH predominantly of the left hip. Most patients presented after age of six months and the principal complaint was abnormal or limping gait. The grand total cost for managing DDH during the three years period was USD 12,385.51, with 86% of the amount having been used to manage late presentation of DDH that was mostly contributed by the cost of surgery. We concluded that delayed presentation of DDH contributes heavily to high national expenditure. Early detection of DDH cases with systematic neonatal screening may help to minimize the incidence of the late presenting DDH and subsequently reduce the economic burden to the government.

  4. Clinical observation of particulate cancellous bone impaction grafting in combination with total hip arthroplasty for acetabular reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian-zhe; YANG Shu-hua; XU Wei-hua; LIU Guo-hui; YANG Cao; LI Jin; YE Zhe-wei; LIU Yong; ZHANG Yu-kun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of particulate cancellous bone impaction grafting in combination with total hip arthroplasty (THA) for acetabular reconstruction in patients with posttraumatic arthritis and bone loss afteracetabular fractures.Methods: Totally 15 consecutive cases with unilateral acetabular fracture were treated with bone impaction grafting in combination with THA in our department.There were 10 males and 5 females with mean age of 48.2 years (ranging from 36 to 73 years).Eight cases had the fracture at left hips,7 at right hips.The average age at injury was 28 years (ranging from 18 to 68 years).The mean follow-up period was 4.3 years (ranging from 2 to 7 years).Results: Compared with mean 42 points (ranging from 10 to 62) of the preoperative Harris score,the survival cases at the final follow-up had mean 84 points (ranging from 58 to 98).One patient had mild pain in the hip.No revision of the acetabular or femoral component was undertaken during the follow-up.Normal rotational centre of most hips was recovered except 2 cases in which it was 0.8 mm higher than that in opposite side.All of them had a stable radiographic appearance.Progressive radiolucent fines were observed in I,III zones in 2 cases.One patient had a nonprogressive radiolucent fine in zone III.The cup prosthesis was obviously displaced (6 mm) in one patient,but had not been revised.Conclusion: Particulate cancellous bone impaction grafting in combination with THA as a biological solution is an attractive procedure for acetabular reconstruction in patients with posttraumatic arthritis and bone loss after acetabular fracture,which can not only restore acetabular bone stock but also repair normal hip anatomy and its function.

  5. Impact of polystyrene beads as a mosquito control measure to supplement lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Socotra Island, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kubati, A S; Al Qubati, Y; Ismail, W; Laney, S J; El-Setouhy, M; Gad, A M; Ramzy, R M R

    2011-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for worldwide elimination. In Yemen, all mainland implementation units met the WHO criteria for stopping mass drug administration (MDA) after 5 rounds. However, in Socotra Island these criteria were not met. Our study evaluated the efficacy of applying expanded polystyrene beads (EPBs) on the Culex population and the effect on LF transmission. Human and mosquito surveys were conducted in 40 randomly selected households in Hadibo (capital of Socotra) before and after application of EPBs. The EPBs intervention resulted in a reduction in mosquito density of 80% and a 64.3% reduction in microfilaria prevalence. The majority of interviewed households (98%) thought EPBs considerably reduced the mosquito population. After the intervention all collected pools tested negative. Application of EPBs is an effective supplement to MDA for achieving the goal of LF elimination.

  6. The universal zulu nation in colombia, social impact of hip hop culture in the Valley of Aburrá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Arias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effervescence of organizational movements around the cultural practices of Hip Hop in the Valley of Aburrá, alternatives are thought of together and to propose structural changes to their environments, from social interventions with communities’ ways. That is why we consider it necessary to make a tour of the historical and social factors that have shaped what we now know as Hip Hop Culture, to generate with this a picture of their impact on the cultural scene at local and national level.

  7. Potential impact of benzodiazepine use on the rate of hip fractures in five large European countries and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T P; de Vries, F; Goldenberg, J S B; Klungel, O H; Robinson, N J; Ibáñez, Luisa; Petri, H

    2012-07-01

    Benzodiazepine use increases the risk of falls and has been associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. Our aim was to estimate the possible population impact of the use of benzodiazepines on the rate of hip fracture in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We conducted a literature review to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) for hip fractures and use of benzodiazepines. Prevalence rates of benzodiazepine use in 2009 were calculated for each country using the IMS MIDAS database and three public databases in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. Both the RR and prevalence rates were used for calculation of population attributable risks (PARs) of hip fractures associated with benzodiazepine use. The literature review showed an increased risk of hip fractures in benzodiazepine users (RR = 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2-1.6). Rate of benzodiazepine use showed considerable differences between countries, ranging from 4.7 % to 22.3 % of population ever in a 1-year period. These are reflected in results for the PARs; estimated attributions of benzodiazepines to the rate of hip fractures were 1.8 %, 95 % CI 1.1-2.6 (Germany); 2.0 %, 95 % CI 1.2-2.8 (United Kingdom); 5.2 %, 95 % CI 3.2-7.3 (Italy); 7.4 %, 95 % CI 4.5-10.0 (France); 8.0 %, 95 % CI 4.9-11.0 (United States); and 8.2 %, 95 % CI 5.1-12.0 (Spain). PAR estimates suggest that the potential attribution of benzodiazepine use on the population rate of hip fractures in the five specified European countries and the United States varies between 1.8 % and 8.2 %. During the next phase of the IMI-PROTECT study, a comparison with individual patient data will show whether this approach is valid.

  8. Impact of implant size on cement filling in hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Roel; Buls, Nico; Scheerlinck, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Larger proportions of cement within femoral resurfacing implants might result in thermal bone necrosis. We postulate that smaller components are filled with proportionally more cement, causing an elevated failure rate. A total of 19 femoral heads were fitted with polymeric replicas of ReCap (Biomet) resurfacing components fixed with low-viscosity cement. Two specimens were used for each even size between 40 and 56 mm and one for size 58 mm. All specimens were imaged with computed tomography, and the cement thickness and bone density were analyzed. The average cement mantle thickness was 2.63 mm and was not correlated with the implant size. However, specimen with low bone density had thicker cement mantles regardless of size. The average filling index was 36.65% and was correlated to both implant size and bone density. Smaller implants and specimens with lower bone density contained proportionally more cement than larger implants. According to a linear regression model, bone density but not implant size influenced cement thickness. However, both implant size and bone density had a significant impact on the filling index. Large proportions of cement within the resurfacing head have the potential to generate thermal bone necrosis and implant failure. When considering hip resurfacing in patients with a small femoral head and/or osteoporotic bone, extra care should be taken to avoid thermal bone necrosis, and alternative cementing techniques or even cementless implants should be considered. This study should help delimiting the indications for hip resurfacing and to choose an optimal cementing technique taking implant size into account.

  9. A Polystyrene Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most common disposable materials in our society is polystyrene, of which grocery store meat trays, egg cartons, and several kinds of protective packing materials are made. Describes the characteristics of five different polystyrenes and some suggested uses for art classes. (RM)

  10. [Favourable long-term results from cemented total hip arthroplasty combined with acetabular bone impaction grafting in patients under the age of 50

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, V.J.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Veth, R.P.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Determination of long-term results of hip replacements in patients who, at the time of operation, were under the age of 50. Procedures whereby an existing acetabulum defect was filled with bone chips that were impacted into a strong layer, after which a cemented total hip prosthesis was i

  11. Epidemiology of hip fractures and its social and economic impact. An update for 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almeida Laires

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures (HF following low-impact trauma are the most visible and dramatic consequences of osteoporosis (OP. It is estimated that within one year after HF, 20 to 30% of the patients die, 50-60% become disabled and only 30-40% fully recover their previous functional levels. Therefore, its medical, societal and economic impact is huge and it is not fully delivered by the event itself, but rather by its consequences. This paper aims to update data published by Branco et al. 2009 about epidemiology and burden of HF, specifically to revise the national data. In Portugal there have been 77,083 HF reported between 2000 and 2008 with increasing numbers with ageing along with due associated refracture and mortality rates. Recent results suggest a slight change at clinical level concerning the pharmacological approach for the treatment of HF, however it is still important to stay alert to the patients’ needs and to their bone mineral density losses in order to avoid repeating the occurrence of these events, aiming to generate significant benefits in terms of health outcomes and due public expenditure.

  12. Hip Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Hip Ultrasound Hip ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures ... of Ultrasound Imaging of the Hip? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Hip? Ultrasound images of the ...

  13. Impact of Rehabilitation on Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divjak Ana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hip osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative, progressive musculoskeletal system disease in adult individuals. Both genders demonstrate a similar prevalence at 11.5% for men and 11.6% for women. During the initial stage of hip OA, conservative treatments may significantly decrease pain, provide functional improvement and enhance health related quality of life (HRQoL.

  14. Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J

    2016-11-15

    Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards. Sixty-four participants were scanned in the standard scan posture of a [TC](2) body scanner, and also in a natural posture similar to that of traditional manual measurement collection. Results indicate that scan posture affects hip girth circumferences, and that some current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. Recommendations are made concerning how the hip is defined in measurement practice and within body scanning for clothing product development. Practitioner Summary: The hip girth is an important measurement in garment design, yet its measurement protocol is not currently defined. We demonstrate that body posture during body scanning affects hip circumferences, and that current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. This paper also provides future measurement practice recommendations.

  15. New sulfonated polystyrene and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymers for applications in electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Franciélli; Ferreira, Carlos A; Franco, Lourdes; Puiggalí, Jordi; Alemán, Carlos; Armelin, Elaine

    2012-09-27

    In this study we prepared blends of polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) with poly(styrene-ethylene-butylene) (SEBS) triblock copolymer. After sulfonation, blends were used to fabricate ion-exchange membranes by solvent-casting and subsequent thermal treatment to obtain homogeneous packing densities. The morphology and structure of the blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the thermal transitions and stability of all the blends were characterized using calorimetric techniques and compared with those of the individual polymers. Analyses of the physical properties (i.e., ionic conductivity, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, dimensional stability, mechanical properties, etc.) showed that the performance of the PS-containing membranes is, in general, higher than that of the HIPS containing one. Furthermore, the highest sulfonation degree was also found for the PS/SEBS membranes. The capabilities of the membranes were tested by investigating the extraction of Na(+) by electrodyalisis. Comparison of the percentage of extracted ions indicates that the incorporation of SEBS results in a significant improvement with respect to membranes made of individual polymers.

  16. RESEARCHES OF WORKING LIFE OF FOAM POLYSTYRENE OF BUILDING APPOINTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyumdzhjan Perch Pogosovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental researches of physicomechanical properties of foam polystyrene thermal insulation materials are presented in article. The operational resource was defined on materials subject to ageing, action of liquid excited environments and atmospheric impacts. The destructive processes leading to destruction of foam polystyrene are revealed.

  17. Dynamic mechanical property of expanded polystyrene concrete under impact loading%冲击荷载作用下EPS混凝土动态性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白二雷; 许金余; 高志刚

    2012-01-01

    The (expanded polystyrene, EPS) concrete with 10% ,20% ,30% ,40% ,50% EPS volume fraction were prepared. Taking critical strain and dynamical compressive strength as indexes, the dynamic properties of EPS concrete with different EPS volume fraction under impact loading were studied using a 100-mm-diameter split Hopkinson pressure bar( SHPB) apparatus. The dynamical mechanism of the concrete was discussed. The results demonstrate that the critical strain and dynamical compressive strength of EPS concrete increase with the increase of average strain rate, showing an obvious correlation between the strain rate and the dynamic property. Due to the EPS microscopic structure effect, the deformation property of EPS concrete increases with the increase of EPS volume fraction within the range of 0 ~ 40%. Its deformation property reduces somewhat when the EPS volume fraction reaches 50%. The optimum volume fraction of EPS is 40%.%配置聚苯乙烯(Expanded Polystyrene,EPS)颗粒体积掺量分别为10%,20%,30%,40%,50%的EPS混凝土,采用Φ100mm分离式霍普金森压杆(SHPB)试验装置,以动态抗压强度和临界应变为指标,研究EPS混凝土在冲击荷载作用下的动态性能,探索EPS颗粒对混凝土动态性能的改善机理.结果表明:由于应变率效应,相同体积掺量的EPS混凝土动态抗压强度与临界应变随应变率的增加而提高,具有显著的应变率相关性;以临界应变为变形性能指标,由于EPS颗粒的微结构效应,在EPS颗粒体积掺量0~40%范围内,其变形性能随EPS体积掺量的增加而提高,当EPS颗粒体积掺最达到50%时,其变形能力有所降低.EPS颗粒体积掺量为40%时对混凝土变形性能的改善效果最佳.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of the incorporation of rubber tire waste particles on the properties of PP, HIPS and PP/HIPS matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Stieven Montagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the consumption of plastics has been increasing and as consequence, the waste generated has also increased. Rubber tire (RT waste is another residue which causes significant problems to society. In view of the considerable amounts of RT waste generated, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of RT particles into post-consumer thermoplastic matrices such as polypropylene (PP, high impact polystyrene (HIPS and PP/HIPS blends and the modification of the physical, morphological, rheological and mechanical properties. The particle sizes of the RT used were <500 and 500-1000 μm. The RT content was 10% w/w and the weight ratio for the PP/HIPS blend was 4/1, with processing by injection molding. The results showed that the smaller (500 μm particle size led to a decrease in the melt flow rate (MFR of the PP/RT composites (increased viscosity and an increase for the HIPS/RT composites. On the other hand, the larger particles (1000 μm led to a decrease in the mechanical performance of the PP/RT and HIPS/RT blends when compared with the neat polymers (PP and HIPS post-consumer. The observed decrease in the mechanical properties of these composites was due to weak filler/matrix interactions, which can be visualized in images by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the fracture surface after tensile testing.

  19. Influence of impurities on the performances of HIPS recycled from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Didier; Mantaux, Olivier; Ienny, Patrick; Léger, Romain; Dumon, Michel; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In order to produce a high quality recycled material from real deposits of electric and electronic equipment, the rate of impurities in different blended grades of reclaimed materials has to be reduced. Setting up industrial recycling procedures requires to deal with the main types of polymers presents in WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), particularly High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) as well as other styrenic polymers such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) but also polyolefin which are present into WEEE deposit as Polypropylene (PP). The production of a substantial quantity of recycled materials implies to improve and master the compatibility of different HIPS grades. The influence of polymeric impurities has to be studied since automatic sorting techniques are not able to remove completely these fractions. Investigation of the influence of minor ABS, PS and PP polymer fractions as impurities has been done on microstructure and mechanical properties of HIPS using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in order to determine the maximum tolerated rate for each of them into HIPS after sorting and recycling operations.

  20. Hip Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be used in infants to check for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ... be used to check the hips for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), which in infants can range from a ...

  1. Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Hip fracture By Mayo Clinic Staff A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age. Older people are at a ...

  2. Dual rubber particle system toughened polystyrene%双峰橡胶粒子体系改性聚苯乙烯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海东; 杨洪雨; 高光辉

    2011-01-01

    Toughened polystyrene with dual rubber particle is made to get the high deformation polystyrene. The core-shell polybutadiene-grafted-polystyrene (PB-g-PS) is prepared with emulsion polymerization by grafting styrene onto polybutadiene latex. Then the core-shell impact modifiers were blended with polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene to prepare PB-g-PS/PS/HIPS blends. The experimental results show that the strength of the toughened polystyrene is improved significantly. The transmission electron microscopy images of fracture surfaces indicate that the deformation mechanism is multi-crazing to prevent the cracks, so the flexibility of the materials is improved.%制备了具有双峰粒径分散的橡胶粒子协同增韧聚苯乙烯树脂,得到了具有超高韧性的高抗冲聚苯乙烯。首先通过乳液接枝聚合的方法合成抗冲击改性剂聚丁二烯接枝聚苯乙烯核壳结构粒子,通过共混改性的方法将通用级聚苯乙烯、商业级高抗冲聚苯乙烯和核壳抗冲击改性剂共混得到超高韧性聚苯乙烯树脂。通过断裂表面透射电子显微镜照片发现,材料中Salami结构橡胶粒子能够引发银纹,银纹通过小粒径橡胶粒子阻止了裂纹的产生,吸收了大量的能量,使材料本身的韧性得到提高。

  3. Periprosthetic Infection following Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: The Impact of Limiting the Postoperative Surveillance Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Virginia R; Mitchell, Robyn; Vachon, Julie; Alexandre, Stéphanie; Amaratunga, Kanchana; Smith, Stephanie; Vearncombe, Mary; Davis, Ian; Mertz, Dominik; Henderson, Elizabeth; John, Michael; Johnston, Lynn; Lemieux, Camille; Pelude, Linda; Gravel, Denise

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND Hip and knee arthroplasty infections are associated with considerable healthcare costs. The merits of reducing the postoperative surveillance period from 1 year to 90 days have been debated. OBJECTIVES To report the first pan-Canadian hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates and to describe the implications of a shorter (90-day) postoperative surveillance period. METHODS Prospective surveillance for infection following hip and knee arthroplasty was conducted by hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) using standard surveillance definitions. RESULTS Overall hip and knee PJI rates were 1.64 and 1.52 per 100 procedures, respectively. Deep incisional and organ-space hip and knee PJI rates were 0.96 and 0.71, respectively. In total, 93% of hip PJIs and 92% of knee PJIs were identified within 90 days, with a median time to detection of 21 days. However, 11%-16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections were not detected within 90 days. This rate was reduced to 3%-4% at 180 days post procedure. Anaerobic and polymicrobial infections had the shortest median time from procedure to detection (17 and 18 days, respectively) compared with infections due to other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS PJI rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, although differences in national surveillance systems limit direct comparisons. Our results suggest that a postoperative surveillance period of 90 days will detect the majority of PJIs; however, up to 16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections may be missed. Extending the surveillance period to 180 days could allow for a better estimate of disease burden. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:147-153.

  4. 透明高抗冲聚苯乙烯树脂研究进展%Research progress in transparent high impact polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志省; 李杨

    2011-01-01

    物理共混法、自由基共聚合法和阴离子聚合法是制备透明高抗冲聚苯乙烯(THIPS)树脂的主要方法.而自由基共聚合法又可分为乳液法、溶液法、本体-悬浮法和连续本体法等.综述了国内外在THIPS树脂领域中的研究进展及国内在THIPS中试及工业化进程中取得的成果,并讨论了增韧剂种类、聚合方法、相对分子质量和残留单体量等因素对THIPS树脂的透光率、形态结构以及力学性能的影响.%Physical blending method, free radical copolymerization method and anionic polymerization method are the main approaches for preparing transparent high impact polystyrene(THIPS) resin. Free radical copolymerization method can be further divided into emulsion, solution, bulk-suspension and continuous bulk polymerization method and so on. The research progress in THIPS resin at home and abroad was summarized with the emphasis on domestic achievements in the pilot plant and industrialization process of THIPS. The influence of toughener type, polymerization method, relative molecular mass and residual monomer amount, etc. on the transparency, morphological structure and mechanical properties of THIPS were discussed.

  5. Hip Fracture in the Elderly: Impact, Recovery, and Early Geriatric Nursing Home Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Balen (Romke)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the study, described in this thesis, was to determine the effect of early discharge from the acute hospital of elderly hip fracture patients on functional status, mortality, quality of life, complications and costs. Secondary aims were to provide a detailed description of the

  6. The Effect of Impact Location on Force Transmission to the Modular Junctions of Dual-Taper Modular Hip Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Nicholas B; Lynch, Jonathan R; Banglmaier, Richard F; Silverton, Craig D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that off-axis impaction has on stability of dual-taper modular implants as measured by forces delivered to and transmitted through the head-neck and neck-stem tapers, respectively. One hundred forty-four impact tests were performed using 6 different directions: one on-axis and five 10° off-axes. Four different simulations were performed measuring the head-neck only and 3 different neck angulations: 0°, 8°, and 15°. A drop tower impactor delivered both on- and off-axis impaction from a constant height. Load cells positioned in the drop mass and at the head-neck (HN) or neck-stem (NS) junction measured the impact and joint forces, respectively. Impact force of the hammer on the head ranged from 3800-4500 N. Greatest impact force delivered to the head was typically with axial impact. However, greatest force transmission to the neck-stem junction was not necessarily with axial impacts. There was limited variability in the force measured at the NS junction for all impaction directions seen in the 8° neck, whereas the 15° neck had greater forces transmitted to the NS junction with off-axes impactions directed in the proximal and posterior-proximal directions. The location of the impact significantly influences the force transmitted to the head-neck and neck-stem junctions in dual-taper modular hip implants. Although axial impacts proved superior to off-axis impacts for the straight 0° neck, greater force transmission with off-axis impacts for the angled necks suggests that off-axis impacts may potentially compromise the stability of dual-taper components. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Combining ZnO/microwave treatment for changing wettability of WEEE styrene plastics (ABS and HIPS) and their selective separation by froth flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a simple froth flotation method to separate plastic wastes of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) after initial hydrophilization by coating the plastics with ZnO and microwave treatment. ABS and HIPS are typical styrene-based WEEE plastics having similar density and hydrophobicity, which hinders their separation for recycling. After coating with ZnO, 2-min microwave treatment rearranged the ABS surface and thus changed its molecular mobility and increased its hydrophilicity. The combined ZnO coating/microwave treatment facilitated the selective separation of ABS and HIPS with 100% and 95.2% recovery and 95.4% and 100% purity in froth flotation, respectively. The combination of ZnO coating-microwave treatment and froth flotation can be utilized as a selective ABS/HIPS separation technique for improved recycling of WEEE plastics.

  8. Does Admission to Medicine or Orthopaedics Impact a Geriatric Hip Patient's Hospital Length of Stay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sarah E; VanHouten, Jacob P; Lakomkin, Nikita; Ehrenfeld, Jesse; Jahangir, Amir Alex; Boyce, Robert H; Obremksey, William T; Sethi, Manish K

    2016-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the association between admitting service, medicine or orthopaedics, and length of stay (LOS) for a geriatric hip fracture patient. Retrospective. Urban level 1 trauma center. Six hundred fourteen geriatric hip fracture patients from 2000 to 2009. Orthopaedic surgery for geriatric hip fracture. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, hospitalization length, and admitting service. Negative binomial regression used to determine association between LOS and admitting service. Six hundred fourteen geriatric hip fracture patients were included in the analysis, of whom 49.2% of patients (n = 302) were admitted to the orthopaedic service and 50.8% (3 = 312) to the medicine service. The median LOS for patients admitted to orthopaedics was 4.5 days compared with 7 days for patients admitted to medicine (P orthopaedics (n = 70, 23.1%). After controlling for important patient factors, it was determined that medicine patients are expected to stay about 1.5 times (incidence rate ratio: 1.48, P orthopaedic patients. This is the largest study to demonstrate that admission to the medicine service compared with the orthopaedic service increases a geriatric hip fractures patient's expected LOS. Since LOS is a major driver of cost as well as a measure of quality care, it is important to understand the factors that lead to a longer hospital stay to better allocate hospital resources. Based on the results from our institution, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware that admission to medicine might increase a patient's expected LOS. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Supply Deficit of Polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Chunyu

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Stable demand growth worldwide The operating rate of polystyrene units has stayed around 80% globally since 2000. Production capacity reached 19.36 million t/a, output was 15.7 million tons, consumption was 15.53 million tons and the operating rate was 81.1% in 2005.

  10. Risk of pneumonia and urinary tract infection within the first week after total hip arthroplasty and the impact on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glassou EN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eva N Glassou,1,2 Torben B Hansen,1,3 Alma B Pedersen2 1University Clinic of Hand, Hip and Knee Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Aarhus University, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 3The Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Fast-track Hip and Knee Replacement, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Pneumonia and urinary tract infections (UTIs increase morbidity and mortality. There is little epidemiological evidence from large population-based studies on risk factors for these infections and subsequent mortality in total hip arthroplasty (THA patients.Aim: To examine the risk factors of postoperative pneumonia and UTI after THA and their impact on survival.Patients and methods: We used the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register to identify THAs due to osteoarthritis registered from 2000 to 2013. We collected data about comorbidities, mortality and infections in relation to primary hospitalization and potential predictive variables from administrative databases. Regression models were used to estimate associations between potential risk factors and infection, and subsequently, between infection and mortality.Results: In total 84,812 THAs were included. The cumulative incidence of pneumonia and UTI within 7 days of the primary procedure were 0.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18–0.25 and 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26–0.33, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for infection were being 80 years or older, gender and a comorbidity burden at time of surgery. The hazard ratio (HR of dying within 90 days of the primary THA was 10.67 (95% CI: 5.79–19.57 compared to patients without pneumonia. For patients with UTIs, the HR was 1.64 (95% CI: 0.41–6.59 compared to those without a UTI.Conclusion: Pneumonia was associated with an increased short-term risk of dying, despite adjustment for coexisting comorbidity and other potential confounders. Age, gender and comorbidity were the most

  11. The stability of dual-taper modular hip implants: a biomechanical analysis examining the effect of impact location on component stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B. Frisch, MD

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Direction of impaction influences stability of the modular interface. The greatest stability was achieved with impaction directed in line with the longitudinal axis of the taper junction. Off-axis impaction of the 8° and 15° neck led to significantly reduced stability at the NS. Improving stability of dual-taper modular hip prostheses with appropriately directed impaction may help to minimize micromotion, component settling, fretting corrosion, and subsequent failure.

  12. Impact of UHMWPE texture on friction and wear resistance of hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene (UHMWPE is a polymer widely used in hip implants (prostheses as a bearing surface against metal, because of its good mechanical properties and biocompatibility [1]. Nevertheless, the durability of such implants is limited because of failure resulting from osteolysis and aseptic loosening. These two phenomenons are due to the immune response of human body consecutive to the apparition of wear particles of UHMWPE with time.

  13. The direct environmental impact of hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: a surgical waste audit of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Darren; Stephens, Kellee; Kuang, Michelle; Simunovic, Nicole; Karlsson, Jon; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-07-01

    Health care facilities produce significant waste (2200 kg/bed/year) creating 2% of greenhouse gas emissions and 1% total solid waste nationwide, with 20-70% of waste coming from operating rooms. We performed a waste audit of hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) to understand its environmental impact and identify areas for greening practices. A waste audit of five hip arthroscopy procedures for FAI was performed. All waste was collected and separated into six waste streams in real time: (i) normal/landfill waste; (ii) recyclable cardboards and plastics; (iii) biohazard waste; (iv) sharp items; (v) linens and (vi) sterile wrapping. The surgical waste (except laundered linens) from five FAI surgeries totaled 47.4 kg, including 21.7 kg (45.7%) of biohazard waste, 11.7 kg (24.6%) of sterile wrap, 6.4 kg (13.5%) of normal/landfill waste, 6.4 kg (13.5%) of recyclable plastics and 1.2 kg (2.6%) of sharp items. An average of 9.4 kg (excluding laundered linens) of waste was produced per procedure. Given the considerable biohazard waste produced by FAI procedures, additional recycling programs, continued adherence to proper waste segregation and an emphasis on 'green outcomes' is encouraged to demonstrate environmental responsibility and effectively manage and allocate finite resources.

  14. Economic impact of tranexamic acid in healthy patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Blake P; Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Duncan, Christopher M; Smith, Hugh M; Trousdale, Robert T; Pagnano, Mark W; Sierra, Rafael J

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TA) has been shown to reduce perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion. While concern remains about the cost of antifibrinolytic medication, we hypothesized that routine use of tranexamic acid would result in lower direct hospital total cost by decreasing costs associated with blood transfusion, laboratory testing, and room & board. Patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II or less undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty at a single institution during 2007-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The estimated mean direct hospital total cost, operating room, blood/lab, room & board, and pharmacy costs were compared between patients who did and did not receive TA. The study population included 1018 patients, and 580 patients received TA. The mean direct total cost of hospitalization with and without TA was $15,099 and $15,978 (P<.0002) respectively, a difference of $879. The only increased cost associated with TA was the pharmacy cost which was $921 versus $781 (P<.0001). The routine use of tranexamic acid TA was associated with lower mean direct hospital total costs after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty as the increase in pharmacy costs was more than offset by cost savings in other categories.

  15. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, E V; Kalogiannis, K G; Stephanidis, S D; Triantafyllidis, K S; Lappas, A A; Achilias, D S

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  16. Elongational dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Nielsen, Jens Kromann

    2009-01-01

    The startup of uni-axial elongational flow followed by stress relaxation and reversed bi-axial flow has been measured for a branched polystyrene melt with narrow molar mass distribution using the filament stretching rheometer. The branched polystyrene melt was a multiarm A(q)-C-C-A(q) pom-pom pol...

  17. Packing Products: Polystyrene vs. Cornstarch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Packing materials such as polystyrene take thousands of years to decompose, whereas packing peanuts made from cornstarch, which some companies are now using, can serve the same purpose, but dissolve in water. The author illustrates this point to her class one rainy day using the sculptures students made from polystyrene and with the cornstarch…

  18. Impact of Parkinson's disease on the acute care treatment and medium-term functional outcome in geriatric hip fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliemel, Christopher; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Eschbach, Daphne-Asimenia; Lechler, Philipp; Balzer-Geldsetzer, Monika; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Buecking, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a heightened risk of sustaining hip fractures due to disturbed balance and gait insecurity. This study aims to determine the impact of PD on the perioperative course and medium-term functional outcome of patients with hip fractures. A total of 402 hip fracture patients, aged ≥60 years, were prospectively enrolled. On admission, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Barthel Index (BI), among other scales, were documented. The Hoehn and Yahr scale was used to assess the severity of PD. The functional outcome was assessed by performance on the BI, Tinetti test (TT), and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) at discharge and at the 6-month follow-up. Additionally, the length of hospitalization, perioperative complications, and discharge management were documented. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to control for influencing factors. A total of 19 patients (4.7%) had a concomitant diagnosis of PD. The functional outcome (BI, TT, and TUG) was comparable between groups (all p > 0.05). Grade II (52.6 vs. 26.1%; OR = 4.304, p = 0.008) and IV complications (15.8 vs. 4.4%; OR = 7.785, p = 0.012) occurred significantly more often among PD patients. While the diagnosis of PD was associated with a significantly longer mean length of hospital stay (β = 0.119, p = 0.024), the transfer from acute hospital care showed no significant difference (p = 0.246). Patients with an additional diagnosis of PD had inferior results in BI at the 6-month follow-up (p = 0.038). PD on hospital admission is not an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality or an inferior functional outcome at hospital discharge. However, patients with PD are at risk for specific complications and longer hospitalization at the time of transfer from acute care so as for reduced abilities in activities of daily living in the medium term.

  19. Efeitos do tipo de poliestireno de alto impacto nas propriedades de compósitos termoplásticos com farinha de resíduo de madeira The effects of the high impact polystyrene morphology on the properties of wood-plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir L. Vianna

    2004-12-01

    molhabilidade do reforço pela resina e as interações reforço-matriz.The technology of wood-plastics composites includes concepts of compatibility and processability, with important challenges to optimize grade formulations, processing and stabilization of the composite system. Owing to the low thermal stability in wood flour processing, commodities such as polyolefins, styrene and polyvinylchloride represent the large majority of the thermoplastics employed in cellulosic composites. High impact polystyrene (HIPS is a versatile thermoplastic as a result of variations in composition and morphology of the rubber dispersed phase in the styrenic matrix. In addition to its relatively low processing temperature, such characteristics make HIPS a suitable polymer for wood-plastic composite applications as an optimum stiffness-toughness balance can be achieved by fine control of HIPS morphological parameters and the composite formulation. In the present study, commercial grades of HIPS with different flow index and particle size distribution were used in the preparation of wood-plastic composites. The mechanical properties and the heat distortion temperatures of the composites are discussed in terms of the HIPS characteristics and the filler content in the composite. By simply applying the rule of mixtures, it was shown that owing to their relatively low specific gravity, the wood waste flour might be cost-effective in replacing mineral fillers or glass fibers in plastic composites with a better performance in terms of specific strength and rigidity. Electron microscopy analysis of fractured surfaces was used to illustrate wood flour dispersion, wettability and matrix-filler interactions.

  20. Risk of pneumonia and urinary tract infection within the first week after total hip arthroplasty and the impact on survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassou, Eva N; Hansen, Torben B; Pedersen, Alma B

    2017-01-01

    Background Pneumonia and urinary tract infections (UTIs) increase morbidity and mortality. There is little epidemiological evidence from large population-based studies on risk factors for these infections and subsequent mortality in total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients. Aim To examine the risk factors of postoperative pneumonia and UTI after THA and their impact on survival. Patients and methods We used the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register to identify THAs due to osteoarthritis registered from 2000 to 2013. We collected data about comorbidities, mortality and infections in relation to primary hospitalization and potential predictive variables from administrative databases. Regression models were used to estimate associations between potential risk factors and infection, and subsequently, between infection and mortality. Results In total 84,812 THAs were included. The cumulative incidence of pneumonia and UTI within 7 days of the primary procedure were 0.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18–0.25) and 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26–0.33), respectively. Patient-related risk factors for infection were being 80 years or older, gender and a comorbidity burden at time of surgery. The hazard ratio (HR) of dying within 90 days of the primary THA was 10.67 (95% CI: 5.79–19.57) compared to patients without pneumonia. For patients with UTIs, the HR was 1.64 (95% CI: 0.41–6.59) compared to those without a UTI. Conclusion Pneumonia was associated with an increased short-term risk of dying, despite adjustment for coexisting comorbidity and other potential confounders. Age, gender and comorbidity were the most important risk factors for pneumonia and UTIs. Individual initiatives to reduce the risk of pneumonia in select patient groups may be essential to the effort to optimize outcomes after a THA. PMID:28176979

  1. Impact of diabetes on the prognosis of hip fracture: a cohort study in the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; L(U) Yan-wei; LAN Ling; ZHANG Quan; CHEN Hai-ling; ZHANG Guo-ying; DENG Li-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes has been associated with increased risk of fracture and impaired fracture healing.The aim of this study was to examine the influence of diabetes on perioperative complications,length of stay and ambulatory ability recovery in individuals with hip fracture,and to determine whether changes could be made to improve treatment outcome.Methods The study included 707 hip fracture patients treated at Beijing Jishuitan Hospital between July 2009 and December 2010.The medical history and perioperative complications were compared between non-diabetic and diabetic groups.Length of stay,days awaiting surgery,and days of hospitalization after surgery were also analyzed.Ambulatory ability was compared at 1-year follow-up using the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test.An independent Student's t-test was used to compare normally distributed continuous data.Results Patients with diabetes were more likely than non-diabetic patients to develop cardiac perioperative complications (8.9% vs.3.0%,P=-0.021),urinary tract infections (12.0% vs.2.8%,P <0.001),and gastrointestinal symptoms (15.0% vs.6.8%,P=0.003).No difference in perioperative complications was observed between the groups.Days awaiting surgery and length of hospital stay were both longer in the diabetic group ((8.0±5.1) vs.(6.2±3.7) days and (16.5±3.8) vs.(13.3±3.8) days,P <0.001,respectively).Before the occurrence of fracture,patients with diabetes were less likely to be ambulatory outdoors (71.9% vs.85.9%,P <0.001) and had more restricted walking ability.After at least 1-year follow-up,similar proportions of patients in the non-diabetic and diabetic groups (16.1% and 15.9%,respectively),who were able to ambulate outdoors before the fracture,became housebound till the final follow-up.Conclusions Diabetics are at increased risk of specific complications and have a longer time to surgery and longer in-hospital stay,but generally have similar recovery to non

  2. HIP osteoarthritis and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E Clare; Coggon, David

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence points strongly to a hazard of hip osteoarthritis from heavy manual work. Harmful exposures may be reduced by the elimination or redesign of processes and the use of mechanical aids. Reducing obesity might help to protect workers whose need to perform heavy lifting cannot be eliminated. Particularly high relative risks have been reported in farmers, and hip osteoarthritis is a prescribed occupational disease in the UK for long-term employees in agriculture. Even where it is not attributable to employment, hip osteoarthritis impacts importantly on the capacity to work. Factors that may influence work participation include the severity of disease, the physical demands of the job, age and the size of the employer. Published research does not provide a strong guide to the timing of return to work following hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, and it is unclear whether patients should avoid heavy manual tasks in their future employment.

  3. Uterotrophic assay of two concentrations of migrates from each of 23 polystyrenes administered orally (by gavage) to immature female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S; Hellwig, J; Jäckh, R; Christian, M S

    1998-01-01

    The Styrene Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) sponsored this work to address any concern that styrene dimers and trimers that might migrate from polystyrene containers into food could possess some estrogenic activity and thus possibly affect human health. All phases of the study were conducted in conformance with GLP regulations and without knowledge of the oligomer migrates tested. All activities were managed and audited under a third-party contract between the SSC and Argus International. Low and high doses of the styrene oligomer migrates of 23 polystyrene samples [i.e. 9 general purpose polystyrenes (GPPS), 8 high impact polystyrenes (HIPS) and 6 expandable polystyrenes (EPS)] were tested for estrogenicity in an in vivo uterotrophic assay (immature female rat model). This model is considered to be the "gold standard" for use in screening for estrogenic effects because it evaluates both direct and indirect potential effects. The two concentrations of migrates of each of the 23 polystyrenes tested were selected to simulate daily human consumption of a low and high amount of food. Representative dimer and trimer concentrations were obtained in conformance with EEC Council Directives and calculated to be at levels simulating human consumption of 0.5 or 5 kg of food for the GPPS and the HIPS samples and of 0.5 or 3.15 kg of food for the EPS samples, respectively. The study was conducted in a series of three blocks. Each block included concurrent untreated control (negative control), vehicle control (25% ethanol, 20 ml/kg/day) and positive control (diethylstilbestrol-dipropionate, DES-DP, 5 micrograms/kg/day) groups, and low and high doses of each of 7 (1 block) or 8 (2 blocks) polystyrene oligomer migrates. Each group in each block consisted of 10 immature Wistar (Chbb: THOM-SPF) female rats. Beginning when the rats were 22 +/- 1 days of age, each rat was appropriately handled (untreated control group) or administered twice

  4. Photoassisted Fenton degradation of polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Min; Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Lei, Ngai-Yu; Yu, Lei; Kong, Karen Hoi-Kuan; Yu, Han-Qing; Lau, Tai-Chu; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-01-15

    Fenton and photoassisted Fenton degradation of ordinary hydrophobic cross-linked polystyrene microspheres and sulfonated polystyrene beads (DOWEX 50WX8) have been attempted. While the Fenton process was not able to degrade these polystyrene materials, photoassisted Fenton reaction (mediated by broad-band UV irradiation from a 250 W Hg(Xe) light source) was found to be efficient in mineralizing cross-linked sulfonated polystyrene materials. The optimal loadings of the Fe(III) catalyst and the H(2)O(2) oxidant for such a photoassisted Fenton degradation were found to be 42 μmol-Fe(III) and 14.1 mmol-H(2)O(2) per gram of the sulfonated polystyrene material. The initial pH for the degradation was set at pH 2.0. This photoassisted Fenton degradation process was also able to mineralize commonly encountered polystyrene wastes. After a simple sulfonation pretreatment, a mineralization efficiency of >99% (by net polymer weight) was achieved within 250 min. The mechanism of this advanced oxidative degradation process was investigated. Sulfonate groups introduced to the surface of the treated polystyrene polymer chains were capable of rapidly binding the cationic Fe(III) catalyst, probably via a cation-exchange mechanism. Such a sorption of the photoassisted Fenton catalyst was crucial to the heterogeneous degradation process.

  5. Radiation effects on the immiscible polymer blend of nylon1010 and high-impact strength polystyrene (II): mechanical properties and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Guangxin; Zhang, Wanxi

    2001-03-01

    The paper studies the morphology and mechanical properties of immiscible binary blends of the nylon 1010 and HIPS through the radiation crosslinking method. In this blend, the HIPS particles were the dispersed phases in the nylon1010 matrix. With increasing of dose, the elastic modulus increased. However, the tensile strength, elongation at break and the energy of fracture increased to a maximum at a dose of 0.34 MGy, then reduced with the increasing of dose. SEM photographs show that the hole sizes are not changed obviously at low dose and at high dose, remnants that cannot be dissolved in formic acid and THF can be observed in the holes and on the surface. TEM photographs showed that radiation destroys the rubber phases in the polymer blend.

  6. Radiation effects on the immiscible polymer blend of Nylon1010 and high-impact strength polystyrene (II): mechanical properties and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Guangxin; Zhang, Wanxi

    2001-03-01

    The paper studies the morphology and mechanical properties of immiscible binary blends of the nylon 1010 and HIPS through the radiation crosslinking method. In this blend, the HIPS particles were the dispersed phases in the Nylon1010 matrix. With increasing of dose, the elastic modulus increased. However, the tensile strength, elongation at break and the energy of fracture increased to a maximum at a dose of 0.34 MGy, then reduced with the increasing of dose. SEM photographs show that the hole sizes are not changed obviously at low dose and at high dose, remnants that cannot be dissolved in formic acid and THF can be observed in the holes and on the surface. TEM photographs showed that radiation destroys the rubber phases in the polymer blend. (author)

  7. Ultrasound screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip and its socioeconomic impact: Experience of tertiary care health level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Aly Matrawy

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Screening ultrasound is a useful tool for detection of hip dislocation and dysplasia especially among the population of infants at increased risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Limitation of screening ultrasound programs for those at risk only reduces the financial burden with better outcome in choosing candidates for further workup especially surgical intervention.

  8. Mosquito control in Dar es Salaam. II. Impact of expanded polystyrene beads and pyriproxyfen treatment of breeding sites on Culex quinquefasciatus densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasse, D C; Lines, J D; Ichimori, K; Majala, A R; Minjas, J N; Marijani, J

    1995-04-01

    In two contrasting areas of Dar es Salaam (Ilala and Mikocheni) all enclosed breeding sites of Culex quinquefasciatus, such as latrines and septic tanks, were treated with a floating layer of expanded polystyrene beads. 7 months later checks in both study areas revealed only one site (from which the polystyrene had been removed during emptying) containing immature stages of Cx quinquefasciatus. Open breeding sites such as areas of flooded land and blocked drains were treated with pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator) at a concentration of 0.1 ppm. Emergence of Cx quinquefasciatus adults from these sites was inhibited for 4 weeks during the rainy season and for up to 11 weeks during the dry season. The problem of mosquito breeding sites caused by bathroom sullage water was addressed through a combination of health education and indirect pressure from the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP) via local community leaders. Households responsible for these sites were encouraged to eliminate them by diverting the water into an enclosed drainage structure, usually a pit latrine. After two weekly visits 64.7% of households had complied and 93.4% had complied after five visits. 5 months later, only 15.7% had reverted to allowing sullage water to collect into puddles. Densities of Cx quinquefasciatus adults dropped by 76.7% in Mikocheni and by 46.2% in Ilala following intervention, but increased by 84.9% and 25.6% in two untreated comparison areas. The reasons for differential success of the combined interventions in the two treated areas are discussed.

  9. Crystallization phenomena of isotactic polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Peter Jan

    1975-01-01

    In this thesis the crystallization behavior of isotactic polystyrene has been described. The kinetics of the crystallization process and the crystalline structure were studied both for crystallization in the bulk and from dilute solutions. ... Zie Summary

  10. Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

    1993-01-01

    New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

  11. Lignocellulose Nanofiber-Reinforced Polystyrene Produced from Composite Microspheres Obtained in Suspension Polymerization Shows Superior Mechanical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballner, Daniel; Herzele, Sabine; Keckes, Jozef; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Saake, Bodo; Liebner, Falk; Potthast, Antje; Paulik, Christian; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    A facile approach to obtaining cellulose nanofiber-reinforced polystyrene with greatly improved mechanical performance compared to unreinforced polystyrene is presented. Cellulose nanofibers were obtained by mechanical fibrillation of partially delignified wood (MFLC) and compared to nanofibers obtained from bleached pulp. Residual hemicellulose and lignin imparted amphiphilic surface chemical character to MFLC, which enabled the stabilization of emulsions of styrene in water. Upon suspension polymerization of styrene from the emulsion, polystyrene microspheres coated in MFLC were obtained. When processed into polymer sheets by hot-pressing, improved bending strength and superior impact toughness was observed for the polystyrene-MFLC composite compared to the un-reinforced polystyrene.

  12. Reporting surgical site infections following total hip and knee arthroplasty: impact of limiting surveillance to the operative hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoe, Deborah S; Avery, Taliser R; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2013-11-01

    Public reporting of surgical site infections (SSIs) by hospitals is largely limited to infections detected during surgical hospitalizations or readmissions to the same facility. SSI rates may be underestimated if patients with SSIs are readmitted to other hospitals. We assessed the impact of readmissions to other facilities on hospitals' SSI rates following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent primary THA or TKA at California hospitals between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009. SSIs were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes predictive of SSI assigned at any California hospital within 365 days of surgery using a statewide repository of hospital data that allowed tracking of patients between facilities. We used statewide data to estimate the fraction of each hospital's THA and TKA SSIs identified at the operative hospital versus other hospitals. A total of 91 121 THA and 121 640 TKA procedures were identified. Based on diagnosis codes, SSIs developed following 2214 (2.3%) THAs and 2465 (2.0%) TKAs. Seventeen percent of SSIs would have been missed by operative hospital surveillance alone. The proportion of hospitals' SSIs detected at nonoperative hospitals ranged from 0% to 100%. Including SSIs detected at nonoperative hospitals resulted in better relative ranking for 61% of THA hospitals and 61% of TKA hospitals. Limiting SSI surveillance to the operative hospital caused varying degrees of SSI underestimation and substantially impacted hospitals' relative rankings, suggesting that alternative methods for comprehensive postdischarge surveillance are needed for accurate benchmarking.

  13. Estimation of the use of pesticides and their potential environmental impacts in Hipólito Yrigoyen, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo Mayoral, Eliana; Nuñez, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    The process of agriculturalisation in the Pampean Region of Argentina revealed not only a significant advance of agriculture on medium to low-end land, but also the adoption of certain cultural practices, including the use of pesticides. In this sense, this research aims to know the estimated use of herbicides in the Hipólito Yrigoyen District (PHY) during the agricultural campaign 2015/16 and the potential environmental impacts resulting from the society / nature relationships identified from ecological zoning of the same. The Ecological Zoning (ZE) of the PHY (166.300 ha) at a scale of 1:500.000 allowed to identify 3 Morphological Units (UM) and 6 Morpho-phytopedic Units (UMFE), which were evaluated according to their ecological rural suitability. This evaluation indicates that 34,46% of the PHY shows aptitude from regular to good for annual crop yield, while 65,54% of the remaining area has regular or good aptitude for livestock use of cultivated forage (46,21%) and native plants (19,33%). However, despite PHY's livestock-agricultural aptitude, the evolution of current land use indicates that since 1988 and especially in 2002, only agricultural activities have led land use, focusing on the production of a few crops. In fact, in the 2015/16 crop year, 92.900 ha were sown mainly with soybean (59,2%) and maize (19,38%), and to a lesser extent with oats, barley, wheat, sunflower and sorghum (21,42%). The estimation of the use of agrochemicals according to the productive approach identified in the Inland Pampa, allows to affirm that within the group of herbicides, the most used in the 2015/16 campaign in PHY was glyphosate (364.500 l), followed by atrazine (72.800 l), 2,4-D (48.550 l) and Metsulfuron-methyl (532.000 g). According to the above, in relation to the production modality and the estimation of the use of herbicides in the last agricultural season, the analysis of the society-nature relations in the PHY reveals the potential environmental impacts derived

  14. Hip arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antônio Berwanger de Amorim Cabrita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hip arthroscopy is a safe method for treating a variety of pathological conditions that were unknown until a decade ago. Femoroacetabular impingement is the commonest of these pathological conditions and the one with the best results when treated early on. The instruments and surgical technique for hip arthroscopy continue to evolve. New indications for hip arthroscopy has been studied as the ligamentum teres injuries, capsular repair in instabilities, dissection of the sciatic nerve and repair of gluteal muscles tears (injuries to the hip rotator cuff, although still with debatable reproducibility. The complication rate is low, and ever-better results with fewer complications should be expected with the progression of the learning curve.

  15. Rose Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dropsy or edema), gout, back and leg pain (sciatica), diabetes, high cholesterol, weight loss, high blood pressure, ... Painful menstruation. Some evidence suggests that applying an aromatherapy formula containing lavender, clary sage, and rose hip ...

  16. Hip ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.martinoli@libero.it [Radiologia, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Garello, Isabella; Marchetti, Alessandra; Palmieri, Federigo; Altafini, Luisa [Radiologia, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Valle, Maura [Radiologia, Gaslini Children Hospital, Genova (Italy); Tagliafico, Alberto [Radiologia, National Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    In newborns, US has an established role in the detection and management of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Later in childhood, when the limping child is a major diagnostic dilemma, US is extremely helpful in the identification of the varied disease processes underlying this condition, as transient synovitis, septic arthritis, Perthes disease and slipped femoral capital epiphysis. In adolescent practicing sporting activities, US is an excellent means to identify apophyseal injures about the pelvic ring, especially when avulsions are undisplaced and difficult-to-see radiographically. Later on, in the adulthood, US is an effective modality to diagnose tendon and muscle injuries about the hip and pelvis, identify effusion or synovitis within the hip joint or its adjacent bursae and guide the treatment of these findings. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the most common pathologic conditions about the hip, in which the contribution of US is relevant for the diagnostic work-up.

  17. The impact of cognitive impairment at admission on short-term functional outcome of elderly hip fracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin-Raspopović Emilija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The number of patents with dementia increases among hip fracture patients. Cognitive dysfunction is defined as a premorbid state which is potentionally negatively related to short-term functional outcome. Objective To assess the relationship between cognitive status on admission and functional gain during an early rehabilitation period in elderly hip fracture patients. Methods Forty-five elderly patients with surgically treated hip fracture were examined. Cognitive status was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE at admission; functional status was assessed by the motor subscale of Functional Independence Measure (FIM at admission and before discharge, while absolute functional gain was determined by the motor FIM gain (FIM discharge - FIM admission. Absolute functional gain was analyzed in respect to cognitive status. Results Both cognitively impaired and cognitively intact hip fracture patients exhibited overall FIM motor improvements, as well as functional gains in specific FIM motor areas (p<0.01. Absolute functional gain, however, was higher in 1 cognitively intact compared to cognitively impaired patients (p<0.01, and 2 cognitively moderately impaired patients compared to severely cognitively impaired patients (p<0.01. No difference in functional gain was detected between the patients with moderately cognitively impaired compared to the cognitive intact patients (p>0.05. Conclusion The systematic use of MMSE identifies cognitively impaired hip fracture patients, and effectively predicts their short-term functional outcome. A higher admission cognitive status is related to a more favorable short term rehabilitation outcome. In spite of cognitive impairment, elderly patients with hip fracture can benefit from participation in rehabilitation programmes. The systematic identification of cognitively impaired hip fracture patients at admission facilitates optimal treatment and rehabilitation, and thus enables the best

  18. What Is the Impact of Center Variability in a Multicenter International Prospective Observational Study on Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulpuri, Kishore; Schaeffer, Emily K; Kelley, Simon P; Castañeda, Pablo; Clarke, Nicholas M P; Herrera-Soto, Jose A; Upasani, Vidyadhar; Narayanan, Unni G; Price, Charles T

    2016-05-01

    Little information exists concerning the variability of presentation and differences in treatment methods for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in children Hip Dysplasia Institute to establish the need to consider the center as a key variable in multicenter studies. (1) How do patient demographics differ across participating centers at presentation? (2) How do patient diagnoses (severity and laterality) differ across centers? (3) How do initial treatment approaches differ across participating centers? A multicenter prospective hip dysplasia study database was analyzed from 2010 to April 2015. Patients younger than 6 months of age at diagnosis were included if at least one hip was completely dislocated, whereas patients between 6 and 18 months of age at diagnosis were included with any form of DDH. Participating centers (academic, urban, tertiary care hospitals) span five countries across three continents. Baseline data (patient demographics, diagnosis, swaddling history, baseline International Hip Dysplasia Institute classification, and initial treatment) were compared among all nine centers. A total of 496 patients were enrolled with site enrolment ranging from 10 to 117. The proportion of eligible patients who were enrolled and followed at the nine participating centers was 98%. Patient enrollment rates were similar across all sites, and data collection/completeness for relevant variables at initial presentation was comparable. In total, 83% of all patients were female (410 of 496), and the median age at presentation was 2.2 months (range, 0-18 months). Breech presentation occurred more often in younger (Hip Dysplasia Institute classification), which included 58% (51 of 88) of all classified dislocated hips. Splintage was the primary initial treatment of choice at 80% (395 of 496), but was far more likely in younger compared with older patients (94% [309 of 328] versus 18% [17 of 93]; p < 0.001). With the lack of strong prognostic indicators for DDH

  19. A multicenter approach evaluating the impact of vitamin e-blended polyethylene in cementless total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Marcus; van Wasen, Andrea; Warwas, Sebastian; Landgraeber, Stefan; Haversath, Marcel; Group, Vitas

    2014-04-22

    Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency) and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale) will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development of the implant

  20. A multicenter approach evaluating the impact of vitamin E-blended polyethylene in cementless total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jäger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development

  1. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossana Sussarellu; Marc Suquet; Yoann Thomas; Christophe Lambert; Caroline Fabioux; Marie Eve Julie Pernet; Nelly Le Goïc; Virgile Quillien; Christian Mingant; Yanouk Epelboin; Charlotte Corporeau; Julien Guyomarch; Johan Robbens; Ika Paul-Pont; Philippe Soudant; Arnaud Huvet

    2016-01-01

    .... To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1...

  2. Oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles effects iron absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in food and pharmaceuticals is expected to increase, but the impact of chronic oral exposure to nanoparticles on human health remains unknown. Here, we show that chronic and acute oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles can influence iron uptake and iron trans...

  3. Hip Microfracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Kevin C.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Microfracture is a marrow-stimulating technique used in the hip to treat cartilage defects associated with femoro-acetabular impingement, instability, or traumatic hip injury. These defects have a low probability of healing spontaneously and therefore often require surgical intervention. Originally adapted from the knee, microfracture is part of a spectrum of cartilage repair options that include palliative procedures such as debridement and lavage, reparative procedures such as marrow-stimulating techniques (abrasion arthroplasty and microfracture), and restorative procedures such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral allograft/autografts. The basic indications for microfracture of the hip include focal and contained lesions typically less than 4 cm in diameter, full-thickness (Outerbridge grade IV) defects in weightbearing areas, unstable lesions with intact subchondral bone, and focal lesions without evidence of surrounding chondromalacia. Although not extensively studied in the hip, there are some small clinical series with promising early outcomes. Although the widespread use of microfracture in the hip is hindered by difficulties in identifying lesions on preoperative imaging and instrumentation to circumvent the femoral head, this technique continues to gain acceptance as an initial treatment for small, focal cartilage defects. PMID:26069544

  4. 21 CFR 177.1640 - Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances... polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene used in food-packaging adhesives complying with § 175.105 of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene....

  5. Effects of stride frequency and foot position at landing on braking force, hip torque, impact peak force and the metabolic cost of running in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Warrener, Anna G; Wang, Justin; Castillo, Eric R

    2015-11-01

    Endurance runners are often advised to use 90 strides min(-1), but how optimal is this stride frequency and why? Endurance runners are also often advised to maintain short strides and avoid landing with the feet too far in front of their hips or knees (colloquially termed 'overstriding'), but how do different kinematic strategies for varying stride length at the same stride frequency affect economy and impact peaks? Linear mixed models were used to analyze repeated measures of stride frequency, the anteroposterior position of the foot at landing, V̇O2 , lower extremity kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces in 14 runners who varied substantially in height and body mass and who were asked to run at 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95 strides min(-1) at 3.0 m s(-1). For every increase of 5 strides min(-1), maximum hip flexor moments in the sagittal plane increased by 5.8% (Pstride frequency was 84.8±3.6 strides min(-1), with 50.4% of the variance explained by the trade-off between minimizing braking forces versus maximum hip flexor moments during swing. The results suggest that runners may benefit from a stride frequency of approximately 85 strides min(-1) and by landing at the end of swing phase with a relatively vertical tibia.

  6. Cortical hypertrophy with a short, curved uncemented hip stem does not have any clinical impact during early follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michael W; Streit, Marcus R; Innmann, Moritz M; Krüger, Marlis; Nadorf, Jan; Kretzer, J Philippe; Ewerbeck, Volker; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Short stems have become more and more popular for cementless total hip arthroplasty in the past few years. While conventional, uncemented straight stems for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) have shown high survival rates in the long term, it is not known whether uncemented short stems represent a reasonable alternative. As cortical hypertrophy has been reported for short stems, the aim of this study was to determine the radiographic prevalence of cortical hypertrophy and to assess the clinical outcome of a frequently used short, curved hip stem. We retrospectively studied the clinical and radiographic results of our first 100 consecutive THAs (97 patients) using the Fitmore® hip stem. Mean age at the time of index arthroplasty was 59 years (range, 19 - 79 years). Clinical outcome and radiographic results were assessed with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, and Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was used to estimate survival for different endpoints. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 2.0 - 4.4 years), two patients (two hips) had died, and three patients (four hips) were lost to follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated a survival rate of 100 % at 3.8 years, with revision for any reason as the endpoint. No femoral component showed radiographic signs of loosening. No osteolysis was detected. Cortical hypertrophy was found in 50 hips (63 %), predominantly in Gruen zone 3 and 5. In the cortical hypertrophy group, two patients (two hips; 4 %) reported some thigh pain in combination with pain over the greater trochanter region during physical exercise (UCLA Score 6 and 7). There was no significant difference concerning the clinical outcome between the cortical hypertrophy and no cortical hypertrophy group. The survival rate and both clinical and the radiographic outcome confirm the encouraging results for short, curved uncemented stems. Postoperative radiographs frequently displayed cortical hypertrophy but it had no significant effect on the

  7. STUDIES ON POLYSILOXANE-POLYSTYRENE COMPOSITE LATEXES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ying; LIU Xianglian; YU Yunzhao

    1994-01-01

    Polysiloxane-polystyrene composite latexes were prepared by two-stage emulsion polymerization. Polymerization of styrene in swollen polysiloxane latex particles were studied.Formation of simple polystyrene particle in the 2nd-stage polymerization depends on the particle size of the 1st-stage latex and the polymerization temperature. Polystyrene domains in the vulcanizates reinforce the silicone rubbers effectively.

  8. Combustion behavior of HIPS/PPO alloys%HIPS/PPO合金的燃烧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井蒙蒙; 刘继纯; 陈权; 陆昶; 张玉清

    2011-01-01

    利用HAAKE流变仪将高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)与聚苯醚(PPO)熔融复合,采用水平燃烧、氧指数测试、高温热分解、热重分析等研究了复合材料的燃烧性能.与纯HIPS相比,HIPS/PPO合金的阻燃性能明显改善.随着PPO用量增加,聚合物合金在燃烧时的熔融滴落和发烟逐渐减少,水平燃烧级别逐渐提高,氧指数增大,热分解温度和热分解后的残留率都逐渐增加.在HIPS树脂基体中加入20 phr PPO可使聚合物合金在空气中燃烧时自熄,水平燃烧级别从FH-3级升为FH-2级.加入PPO后,聚合物合金在高温下成炭能力显著增强,形成的炭层覆盖在聚合物材料表面形成保护层,同时聚合物合金在熔融后的黏度显著增大,两者对热量传递、氧气和分解产物迁移的屏蔽、阻隔作用是造成材料阻燃性能增加的主要原因.%A series of high impact polystyrene(HIPS)/polyphenylene oxide(PPO) polymer alloys with different compositions were obtained by melt-compounding HIPS and PPO with a HAAKE rheometer. The combustion behavior of the polymer alloys were studied by means of horizontal burning, oxygen index, hightemperature pyrolysis and thermogravimetry tests. The fire retardancy of the HIPS/PPO alloys improved noticeably in comparison with that of pure HIPS.The melt dripping and smoke release of the polymer alloys decreased gradually, while the horizontal burning rating, oxygen index, decomposition temperature and pyrolytic residue percentage increased with the augmentation of PPO dosage. Adding 20 phr PPO in HIPS matrix could make the polymer alloys self-extinguish in air,thereby raising its horizontal burning rating from FH-3 to FH-2.The introduction of PPO enhanced the charring ability of the polymer alloys at high temperatures greatly and the char residue formed a protection layer on the surface of the polymer material.Meanwhile, the melt viscosity of the polymer alloys increased dramatically.The shielding and obstructing

  9. Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The most common cause of damage is osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your joints. It can interfere with your daily activities. If other treatments such as physical therapy, pain medicines, and exercise haven't helped, hip ...

  10. Low molecular weight block copolymers as plasticizers for polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Karsten; Nielsen, Charlotte Juel; Hvilsted, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Polystyrene-b-alkyl, polystyrene-b-polybutadiene-b-polystyrene, and polystyrene-b-poly(propylene glycol)monotridecyl ether were synthesized using macro initiators and atom transfer radical polymerization or by esterifications of homopolymers. The aim was a maximum molecular weight of 4 kg...... for polystyrene-b-polyisoprene-b-polystyrene (SIS) block copolymers. The end use properties of SIS plasticized with polystyrene-b-alkyl, measured as tensile strength, is higher than for SIS plasticized with dioctyl adipate. The polystyrene-b-polybutadiene-b-polystyrene and polystyrene-bpoly(propylene glycol...

  11. Survivorship Analysis of Eighty Revised Hip Arthroplasties With the Impaction Grafting Technique Using Whole Femoral Head Allografts With the Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadulelmola, Ahmed; Drampalos, Efstathios; Hodgkinson, John; Hemmady, Mukesh

    2017-06-01

    Acetabular impaction bone grafting aims to restore anatomy in hip revision surgery. This is an effective but expensive and time-consuming technique. Usually, the articular cartilage is removed from the femoral head allograft. We aimed to reproduce the same results retaining the cartilage of the allograft. Eighty acetabular revisions using impacted morselized bone graft retaining the articular cartilage and a cemented cup were studied retrospectively. Six were lost during follow-up. The mean follow-up was 6.5 years (range 1-13). Clinical and radiological assessment was made using the Oxford Hip Score, Hodgkinson's criteria for socket loosening, and the Gie classification for evaluation of allograft incorporation. Sixty-three sockets (85.1%) were considered radiologically stable (type 0, 1, and 2 demarcations), 8 (10.8%) were radiologically loose (type 3), and 3 (4.1%) presented with migration. Fifty-one (68.9%) cases showed good trabecular remodeling (grade 3), 20 (27%) showed trabecular incorporation (grade 2), and 3 (4.1%) showed poor allograft incorporation. Mean preoperative hip score was 43 and postoperative score was 28. Six (8.1%) cases presented heterotopic ossification around the revised implants, 2 patients (2.7%) had periprosthetic fractures, and 4 (5.4%) had dislocations. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship at a mean of 6.5 years with revision of the cup for any reason was 95.9% (95% confidence interval 5.6-7.5). The mid-term results of our technique are promising. Particularly when the supply of fresh-frozen allografts and surgical time is limited, using whole femoral head with articular cartilage is both safe and effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tracer Diffusion of Polystyrene in Lightly Sulfonated Polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhou, Nancy; Burghardt, Wesley; Winey, Karen; Composto, Russell

    2005-03-01

    The tracer diffusion coefficient D^* of deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) (Mw = 65,900 g/mol) in lightly sulfonated polystyrene (P(S-SSx)) (Mw = 65,000 g/mol) as a function of sulfonation mole fraction (x) was measured by forward recoil spectrometry (FRES). For x sulfonation, according to D^* = Do exp(-0.14 Ns), where Ns is the number of sulfuric acid groups per chain. This slowing-down is attributed to an increase in the monomeric friction coefficient which increases with sulfonation. The diffusion mechanism includes both reptation and constraint release. The monomeric friction coefficient for d-PS in P(S-SSx) is compared with the coefficient for P(S-SSx) measured by rheology.

  13. Combustion behavior of HIPS/PPO alloys%HIPS/PPO合金的燃烧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井蒙蒙; 刘继纯; 陈权; 陆昶; 张玉清

    2012-01-01

    A series of high impact polystyrene(IIIPS)/polyphenylene oxide(PPO) polymer alloys with different compositions were obtained by melt-compounding HIPS and PPO with a HAAKE rheometer. The combustion behavior of the polymer alloys were studied by means of horizontal burning, oxygen index, high?temperature pyrolysis and thermogravimetry tests. The fire retardancy of the HIPS/PPO alloys improved noticeably in comparison with that of pure HIPS. The melt dripping and smoke release of the polymer alloys decreased gradually, while the horizontal burning rating, oxygen index, decomposition temperature and pyrolytic residue percentage increased with the augmentation of PPO dosage. Adding 20 phr PPO in HIPS matrix could make the polymer alloys self-extinguish in air, thereby raising its horizontal burning rating from FH -3 to FH -2. The introduction of PPO enhanced the charring ability of the polymer alloys at high temperatures greatly and the char residue formed a protection layer on the surface of the polymer material. Meanwhile, the melt viscosity of the polymer alloys increased dramatically. The shielding and obstructing effects of the carbon layer and the increased melt viscosity on the transfer of heat and the movement of oxygen and degradation products were the major reasons for the enhancement of fire retardancy of the alloy materials.%利用HAAKE流变仪将高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)与聚苯醚(PPO)熔融复合,采用水平燃烧、氧指数测试、高温热分解、热重分析等研究了复合材料的燃烧性能.与纯HIPS相比,HIPS/PPO合金的阻燃性能明显改善.随着PPO用量增加,聚合物合金在燃烧时的熔融滴落和发烟逐渐减少,水平燃烧级别逐渐提高,氧指数增大,热分解温度和热分解后的残留率都逐渐增加.在HIPS树脂基体中加入20 phr PPO可使聚合物合金在空气中燃烧时自熄,水平燃烧级别从FH-3级升为FH-2级.加入PPO后,聚合物合金在高温下成炭能力显著增强,形成的

  14. [IMPACT OF SALTER INNOMINATE OSTEOTOMY ON ACETABULAR MORPHOLOGY AND DIRECTION IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISLOCATION OF THE HIP BY THREE-DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Ren, Shuang; Liu, Min

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the impact of the Salter innominate osteotomy on the acetabular morphology and direction and the relationship between them in children with developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH) by three-dimensional CT. Between January 2013 and January 2015, 51 patients with unilateral DDH were treated. All patients were females with an average age of 2 years and 5 months (range, one year and 6 months to 5 years). All the patients underwent open reduction of the hip, Salter innominate osteotomy, proximal femoral osteotomy, and hip cast immobilization for treatment. The data of three-dimensional CT before surgery and at 1 week after surgery were measured and collected as follows: the anterior acetabular index (AAI), posterior acetabular index (PAI), axial acetabular index (AxAI), acetabular anteversion angle (AAA) of the acetabulum, and the distances of the forward, outward, and lateral rotation of the distal osteotomy fragments. The differences of AAI, PAI, AxAI, AAA between before and after surgeries were compared and the difference values of the data with significant difference results were calculated. The relationship between the difference values and the distances of three different rotation directions before and after surgeries were tested by Spearman correlation analysis. There were significant differences in the AAI, PAI, and AAA between before and after surgery (P 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the forward rotation and AAA difference (r = 0.841). Salter innominate osteotomy can increase the curvature of the anterior wall of the acetabulum in DDH, but reduce the curvature of the rear wall. At the same time, it can also change the direction of the acetabulum, significantly decrease the acetabular anteversion, but it can not change the depth of the acetabulum. The main factors of the curvature change after Salter innominate osteotomy of DDH is attributable to outward rotation, followed by forward rotation, and the main factor of the

  15. The stability of dual-taper modular hip implants: a biomechanical analysis examining the effect of impact location on component stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Nicholas B; Lynch, Jonathan R; Banglmaier, Richard F; Silverton, Craig D

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of dual-taper modular implants following impaction forces delivered at varying locations as measured by the distraction forces required to disassemble the components. Distraction of the head-neck and neck-stem (NS) tapers of dual-taper modular implants with 0°, 8°, and 15° neck angles were measured utilizing a custom-made distraction fixture attached to a servohydraulic materials test machine. Distraction was measured after hand pressing the components as well as following a simulated firm hammer blow impaction. Impacts to the 0°, 8°, 15° necks were directed axially in line with the neck, 10° anterior, and 10° proximal to the axis of the neck, respectively. Impaction increased the range of NS component distraction forces when compared to hand pressed components (1125-1743 N vs 248-302 N, respectively). Off-axis impacts resulted in significantly reduced mean (±95% confidence interval) distraction forces (8° neck, 1125 ± 117 N; 15° neck, 1212 ± 73 N), which were up to 35% lower than the mean distraction force for axial impacts to the 0° neck (1743 ± 138 N). Direction of impaction influences stability of the modular interface. The greatest stability was achieved with impaction directed in line with the longitudinal axis of the taper junction. Off-axis impaction of the 8° and 15° neck led to significantly reduced stability at the NS. Improving stability of dual-taper modular hip prostheses with appropriately directed impaction may help to minimize micromotion, component settling, fretting corrosion, and subsequent failure.

  16. Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2017-02-01

    The separation of plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFR) like (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue (ASR/ESR) are a major concern for thermal recycling. In laboratory scale tests using a hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonation treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing ABS wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR/ESR by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR and about 21.2°, 20.7°, and 20.0° in ESR respectively. SEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XPS analyses demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as CO, CO, and (CO)O, on the PVC or ABS surface. Under froth flotation conditions at 50rpm, about 99.1% of combined fraction of ABS/HIPS in ASR samples and 99.6% of ABS/HIPS in ESR samples were separated as settled fraction. After separation, the purity of the recovered combined ABS/HIPS fraction was 96.5% and 97.6% in ASR and ESR samples respectively. Furthermore, at 150rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% and 99% purity in ASR and ESR plastics, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. Further, this process improved the quality of recycled ASR/ESR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities.

  17. The clinical impact of hip joint centre regression equation error on kinematics and kinetics during paediatric gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2015-01-01

    Regression equations based on pelvic anatomy are routinely used to estimate the hip joint centre during gait analysis. While the associated errors have been well documented, the clinical significance of these errors has not been reported. This study investigated the clinical agreement of three commonly used regression equation sets (Bell et al., Davis et al. and Orthotrak software) against the equations of Harrington et al. Full 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 18 healthy paediatric subjects. Kinematic and kinetic data were calculated using each set of regression equations and compared to Harrington et al. In addition, the Gait Profile Score and GDI-Kinetic were used to assess clinical significance. Bell et al. was the best performing set with differences in Gait Profile Score (0.13°) and GDI-Kinetic (0.84 points) falling below the clinical significance threshold. Small deviations were present for the Orthotrak set for hip abduction moment (0.1 Nm/kg), however differences in Gait Profile Score (0.27°) and GDI-Kinetic (2.26 points) remained below the clinical threshold. Davis et al. showed least agreement with a clinically significant difference in GDI-Kinetic score (4.36 points). It is proposed that Harrington et al. or Bell et al. regression equation sets are used during gait analysis especially where inverse dynamic data are calculated. Orthotrak is a clinically acceptable alternative however clinicians must be aware of the effects of error on hip abduction moment. The Davis et al. set should be used with caution for inverse dynamic analysis as error could be considered clinically meaningful.

  18. THE IMPACT OF ERGOMETER DESIGN ON HIP AND TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN ELITE ROWERS: AN ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Horne

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used surface electromyography (sEMG to examine whether there were differences in hip and trunk muscle activation during the rowing cycle on two of the most widely used air braked ergometers: the Concept 2C and the Rowperfect. sEMG methods were used to record the muscle activity patterns from the right: m. Erector spinae (ES, m. Rectus Abdominus (RA, m. Rectus Femoris (RF and m. Biceps Femoris (BF for their contributions as agonist-antagonist pairs underlying hip and trunk extension/flexion. The sEMG activity patterns of these muscles were examined in six young male elite rowers completing a 2 minute set at a moderate training intensity (23 stroke·min-1 and 1:47.500 m-1 split time, 300W. The rowers closely maintained the required target pace through visual inspection of the standard LCD display of each ergometer. The measurements of duration of each rowing cycle and onset of each stroke during the test were recorded simultaneously with the sEMG activity through the additional instrumentation of a foot-pressure switch and handle accelerometry. There were no significant differences between the two ergometer designs in group means for: work rate (i.e., rowing speed and stroke rate, metabolic load as measured by mean heart rate, rowing cycle duration, or timing of the stroke in the cycle. 2-D motion analysis of hip and knee motion for the rowing cycle from the video footage taken during the test also revealed no significant differences in the joint range of motion between the ergometers. Ensemble average sEMG activity profiles based on 30+ strokes were obtained for each participant and normalised per 10% intervals of the cycle duration as well as for peak mean sEMG amplitude for each muscle. A repeated measures ANOVA on the sEMG activity per 10% interval for the four muscles contributing to hip and trunk motion during the rowing cycle revealed no significant differences between the Concept 2C and Rowperfect (F = 0.070, df = 1,5, p = 0

  19. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W.; Gido, Samuel P.; Huang, Tianzi; Hong, Kunlun

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  20. Impact of general versus epidural anesthesia on early post-operative cognitive dysfunction following hip and knee surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Sripurna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is the subtle cerebral complication temporally seen following surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of either general anesthesia (GA or epidural anesthesia (EA on the early post-operative neurocognitive outcome in elderly (>59 years subjects undergoing hip and knee surgery. Methods : A total of 60 patients were recruited in a prospective, randomized, parallel-group study, comparable by age and sex. They were enrolled and randomized to receive either EA (n = 30 or GA (n = 30. All of them were screened using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, with components of the Kolkata Cognitive Screening Battery. The operated patients were re-evaluated 1 week after surgery using the same scale. The data collected were analyzed to assess statistical significance. Results : We observed no statistical difference in cognitive behavior in either group pre-operatively, which were comparable with respect to age, sex and type of surgery. Grossly, a significant difference was seen between the two groups with respect to the perioperative changes in verbal fluency for categories and MMSE scores. However, these differences were not significant after the application of the Bonferroni correction for multiple analyses, except the significant differences observed only in the MMSE scores. Conclusions : We observed a difference in cognitive outcome with GA compared with EA. Certain aspects of the cognition were affected to a greater extent in this group of patients undergoing hip and knee surgery.

  1. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain - aftercare

  2. Miscibility of Polystyrene and Lighted Sulfonated Polystyrene Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N. C.; Burghardt, W. R.; Composto, R. J.

    2005-03-01

    The blend miscibility of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and lighted sulfonated poly(styrene-ran-sulfonated polystyrene) (P (S-SS)) has been examined by forward recoil spectrometry (FRES). Equilibrium coexistence compositions were determined for dPS:P(S-SSx) blends where x is the mole percent of sulfonation.At x = 0.2%, the blends are fully miscible at 150°C to 190°C, while at x = 2.6% the system fully immiscible at the same temperatures. Intermediate levels of sulfonation (0.7, 1.0 and 1.2%) are partially miscible and exhibit an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). This behavior is attributed to the dilution of repulsive intra-molecular interaction between the ionic and non-ionic groups in the copolymer due to favorable interactions with the non-ionic group of the homopolymer PS. Estimates using the Flory-Huggins and the copolymer effect theories found a large ( 20) positive monomer-monomer interaction parameter between styrene and styrene sulfonate. This large interaction parameter might drive phase separation within a compositionally disperse random copolymers sample.

  3. PHOTOPHYSICAL STUDY OF SULFONATED POLYSTYRENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jixiang; LI Hexian; WANG Guochang; WANG Yuexi; HE Binglin

    2004-01-01

    The photophysical properties of a series of sulfonated micromolecule (paratoluenesulfonic acid, HPTS) and macromolecules (linear and crosslinked polystyrene) have been studied by steady-state fluorescence spectra. The results indicate that the ground sulfonated ring associations can form in both the micromolecules and the macromolecules. The fluorescence spectra of the sulfonated crosslinked copolymers appear a red-shift when the copolymers change from hydrogen-type to sodium-type, and some new emission bands appear in the long-wavelength region. These results are explained in terms of synergetic effect of hydrogen bond, π-π interaction and crosslinking effect.

  4. Polystyrene Based Silver Selective Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Agarwal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver(I selective sensors have been fabricated from polystyrene matrix membranes containing macrocycle, Me6(14 diene.2HClO4 as ionophore. Best performance was exhibited by the membrane having a composition macrocycle : Polystyrene in the ratio 15:1. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6–1.0×10-1M of Ag+ with a near-Nernstian slope of 53.0 ± 1.0 mV per decade of Ag+ activity. The response time of the sensor is <15 s and the membrane can be used over a period of four months with good reproducibility. The proposed electrode works well in a wide pH range 2.5-9.0 and demonstrates good discriminating power over a number of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The sensor has also been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of silver(II ions against NaCl solution. The sensor can also be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of Ag+ in solution having up to 25% (v/v nonaqueous fraction.

  5. Coarse graining of polystyrene sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perahia, Dvora; Agrawal, Anupriya; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-03-01

    Capturing large length scales in soft matter while retaining atomistic properties is imperative to computational studies. Here we develop a new coarse-grained model for polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) that often serves as a model system because of its narrow molecular weight distribution and defined degree of sulfonation. Four beads are used to represent polymer where the backbone, the phenyl group, and the sulfonated group are each represented by a different bead and the fourth one represents counterion, which is sodium in our case. Initial atomistic simulations of PSS melt with sulfonation levels of 2-10%, with a dielectric constant ɛ = 1 revealed a ``locked'' phase where motion of the polymer is limited. Dielectric constant of ɛ = 5 was used to accelerate the dynamics. Bonded interactions were obtained using Boltzmann inversion on the bonded distributions extracted from atomistic simulation. Non-bonded interaction of polystyrene monomer was taken from our previous work and potential of mean force was used as the initial guess for interaction of the ionic beads. This set of potential was subsequently iterated to get a good match with radial distribution functions. This potential and its transferability across dielectric constants and temperatures will be presented. Grant DE-SC007908.

  6. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  7. Mechanical Evaluation of Polymer Composite Hip Protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Diniz Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures often result in serious health implications, particularly in the geriatric population, and have been related to long-term morbidity and death. In most cases, these fractures are caused by impact loads in the area of the greater trochanter, which are produced in a fall. This work is aimed at developing hip protectors using composite materials and evaluating their effectiveness in preventing hip fractures under high impact energy (120 J. The hip protectors were developed with an inner layer of energy absorbing soft material and an outer rigid shell of fiberglass-reinforced polymer composite. According to the experimental results, all tested configurations proved to be effective at reducing the impact load to below the average fracture threshold of proximal femur. Furthermore, an addition of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA to the impacted area of the composite shell proved to be beneficial to increase impact strength of the hip protectors. Thus, composite hip protectors proved to be a viable alternative for a mechanically efficient and cost-effective solution to prevent hip fractures.

  8. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound when they suspect a problem called developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) . DDH is a hip deformity that can ... THIS TOPIC X-Ray Exam: Leg Length Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip X-Ray Exam: Hip Contact Us Print Resources ...

  9. Excess mortality following hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; van Staa, T; Ariely, R;

    2009-01-01

    Summary This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter, highlig...

  10. Hip Resurfacing. Case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gonzalo González González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hip resurfacing in youngest patients is an excellent surgical technique for Avascular Necrosis compare with a traditional Total Hip Replacement. Report about a 21 years old female patient involved in a car accident in February 2004 with Fracture of the neck of femur treated with compression hip screw Richard’s type. Two years later the patient was diagnose with avascular necrosis of the contra lateral hip. Hip resurfacing Metal-Metal was carry out in the above mentioned patient.

  11. The Impact of Hypotensive Epidural Anesthesia on Distal and Proximal Tissue Perfusion in Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danninger, Thomas; Stundner, Ottokar; Ma, Yan; Bae, James J; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2014-01-01

    Little data exists to detail the effect of hypotensive epidural anesthesia on differential tissue oxygenation changes above and below the level of neuraxial blockade. This study was designed to investigate tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting, using non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy. Methods Patients aged 18 to 85 years scheduled to undergo primary total hip arthroplasty were enrolled. Muscle oxygenation saturation was measured above and below the level of neuraxial blockade (deltoid and vastus lateralis muscles). Other continuously recorded parameters included cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, invasive mean arterial blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation. Recordings of muscle oxygenation were compared over time separately for upper and lower extremity. Results 10 patients were enrolled. We found an intermittent and significant unadjusted decline of mean muscle oxygenation saturation in the vastus lateralis muscle during first part of the surgery (nadir 2nd quintile: 71.0% vs. 63.3%, p<0.0001). This decline was followed by a return to baseline towards the end of the surgery (71.0% vs. 69.1%, p=0.3429). Mean muscle oxygenation saturation did not change for the same period of time in the deltoid muscle. When adjusting for covariates, the changes in muscle tissue oxygenation remained significant. Conclusion These results indicate that muscle oxygenation saturation, a surrogate parameter for tissue perfusion, is decreased by hypotensive epidural anesthesia, but only within the functional limits of the neuraxial blockade. The etiology of these findings remains to be elucidated. PMID:24563810

  12. Complications after Hip Arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M.; Clohisy, John C.; Beaule, Paul; Kelly, Bryan T.; Giveans, Russell; Stone, Rebecca M.; Samuelson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There is very little published literature looking at comprehensive complication rates after hip arthroscopy with current techniques and indications. Methods: Between 01/2011 and 11/2012, 1,026 consecutive hips (507 males, 519 females) with a mean age of 31.2 years (range 12 - 73) underwent hip arthroscopy at three institutions. The diagnosis, demographic information, and procedures were recorded, and a validated complications grading classification for hip joint surgery (Clavian classification) was utilized for all patients prospectively. Results: There were 951 primary hip arthroscopies and 75 revision hip arthroscopies. Arthroscopy was performed for FAI in 936 hips (91.2%), and 760 hips (74.1%) had a labral repair and 229 hips (22.3%) had a labral debridement. The most common event (18.7% of hips) noted was post-operative sensory disturbance adjacent to the portals or involving the distal anterolateral thigh consistent with LFC nerve disturbance. This was typically not noticed by patients and found on physical examination and only persisted beyond 6 months in 7 hips (0.7%). Iatrogenic chondral injury was noted for 20 hips (1.9%), iatrogenic labral puncture in 11 hips (1.1%), superficial portal infection in 6 hips (0.6%), sensory deficit about the foot in 9 hips (0.9%), deep venous thrombosis in 3 hips (0.3%), pulminary embolism in 1 hip (0.1%), pulmonary edema in 1 hip (0.1%), wound hematoma in 2 hips (0.2%), perineal numbness (pudendal nerve) in 9 hips (0.9%), heterotopic ossification in 4 hips (0.4%), reflex sympathetic dystrophy in 1 hip (0.1%) and wound/skin (traction) dehiscence in 1 hips (0.1%). There were no femoral neck fractures, iatrogenic instability, AVN, or extra-abdominal fluid extravasation in this cohort. The overall complication rate not including temporary periportal and thigh numbness (sequalae) was 6.9% (71 hips). Overall 88.7% had a grade 1, 5.6% Grade 2, 4.2% grade 3, and 1.4% grade 4 complication. There was no difference in the

  13. Low molecular weight block copolymers as plasticizers for polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Karsten; Nielsen, Charlotte Juel; Hvilsted, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Polystyrene-b-alkyl, polystyrene-b-polybutadiene-b-polystyrene, and polystyrene-b-poly(propylene glycol)monotridecyl ether were synthesized using macro initiators and atom transfer radical polymerization or by esterifications of homopolymers. The aim was a maximum molecular weight of 4 kg...

  14. Impact of the Nordic hamstring and hip extension exercises on hamstring architecture and morphology: implications for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Duhig, Steven J; Timmins, Ryan G; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A; Al Najjar, Aiman; Kerr, Graham K; Shield, Anthony J

    2017-03-01

    The architectural and morphological adaptations of the hamstrings in response to training with different exercises have not been explored. To evaluate changes in biceps femoris long head (BFLH) fascicle length and hamstring muscle size following 10-weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) or hip extension (HE) training. 30 recreationally active male athletes (age, 22.0±3.6 years; height, 180.4±7 cm; weight, 80.8±11.1 kg) were allocated to 1 of 3 groups: (1) HE training (n=10), NHE training (n=10), or no training (control, CON) (n=10). BFLH fascicle length was assessed before, during (Week 5) and after the intervention with a two-dimensional ultrasound. Hamstring muscle size was determined before and after training via MRI. Compared with baseline, BFLH fascicles were lengthened in the NHE and HE groups at mid-training (d=1.12-1.39, p<0.001) and post-training (d=1.77-2.17, p<0.001) and these changes did not differ significantly between exercises (d=0.49-0.80, p=0.279-0.976). BFLH volume increased more for the HE than the NHE (d=1.03, p=0.037) and CON (d=2.24, p<0.001) groups. Compared with the CON group, both exercises induced significant increases in semitendinosus volume (d=2.16-2.50, ≤0.002) and these increases were not significantly different (d=0.69, p=0.239). NHE and HE training both stimulate significant increases in BFLH fascicle length; however, HE training may be more effective for promoting hypertrophy in the BFLH. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. A systematic review of the impact of including both waist and hip circumference in risk models for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A J; Magliano, D J; Söderberg, S

    2013-01-01

    Both a larger waist and narrow hips are associated with heightened risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and premature mortality. We review the risk of these outcomes for levels of waist and hip circumferences when terms for both anthropometric measures were included in regression models. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched (last updated July 2012) for studies reporting the association with the outcomes mentioned earlier for both waist and hip circumferences (unadjusted and with both terms included in the model). Ten studies reported the association between hip circumference and death and/or disease outcomes both unadjusted and adjusted for waist circumference. Five studies reported the risk associated with waist circumference both unadjusted and adjusted for hip circumference. With the exception of one study of venous thromboembolism, the full strength of the association between either waist circumference or hip circumference with morbidity and/or mortality was only apparent when terms for both anthropometric measures were included in regression models. Without accounting for the protective effect of hip circumference, the effect of obesity on risk of death and disease may be seriously underestimated. Considered together (but not as a ratio measure), waist and hip circumference may improve risk prediction models for cardiovascular disease and other outcomes.

  16. Biofilm formation and partial biodegradation of polystyrene by the actinomycete Rhodococcus ruber: biodegradation of polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Roi; Sivan, Alex

    2008-11-01

    Polystyrene, which is one of the most utilized thermoplastics, is highly durable and is considered to be non-biodegradable. Hence, polystyrene waste accumulates in the environment posing an increasing ecological threat. In a previous study we have isolated a biofilm-producing strain (C208) of the actinomycete Rhodococcus ruber that degraded polyethylene films. Formation of biofilm, by C208, improved the biodegradation of polyethylene. Consequently, the present study aimed at monitoring the kinetics of biofilm formation by C208 on polystyrene, determining the physiological activity of the biofilm and analyzing its capacity to degrade polystyrene. Quantification of the biofilm biomass was performed using a modified crystal violet (CV) staining or by monitoring the protein content in the biofilm. When cultured on polystyrene flakes, most of the bacterial cells adhered to the polystyrene surface within few hours, forming a biofilm. The growth of the on polystyrene showed a pattern similar to that of a planktonic culture. Furthermore, the respiration rate, of the biofilm, exhibited a pattern similar to that of the biofilm growth. In contrast, the respiration activity of the planktonic population showed a constant decline with time. Addition of mineral oil (0.005% w/v), but not non-ionic surfactants, increased the biofilm biomass. Extended incubation of the biofilm for up to 8 weeks resulted in a small reduction in the polystyrene weight (0.8% of gravimetric weight loss). This study demonstrates the high affinity of C208 to polystyrene which lead to biofilm formation and, presumably, induced partial biodegradation.

  17. Activity of Antimicrobial Silver Polystyrene Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palomba, M; Carotenuto, G; Cristino, L; Di Grazia, M. A; Nicolais, F; De Nicola, S

    2012-01-01

    .... In particular, an antiseptic material has been prepared by dissolving silver 1,5-cyclooctadiene-hexafluoroacetylacetonate in amorphous polystyrene, and the obtained solid solution has been heated for ca...

  18. A flame-resistant modified polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, D. W.; Kratze, R. H.; Pacioren, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    Several modified polystyrenes have been developed that are self-extinguishing in air. Information is included in report that also describes molding and fabrication properties, toxicology, and thermal behavior of the polymers.

  19. Propriedades mecânicas e morfologia de uma blenda polimérica de PP/HIPS compatibilizada com SEBS Mechanical properties and morphology of a PP/HIPS polymer blend compatibilized with SEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás J. A. de Mélo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho o efeito da adição de 2 a 7% em peso de um copolímero tribloco estireno-b-etileno-co-butileno-b-estireno (SEBS em uma blenda polipropileno/poliestireno de alto impacto (PP/HIPS 70:30 foi determinado. As propriedades em tração e impacto, temperatura de amolecimento Vicat e morfologia da blenda PP/HIPS (70:30 em função da concentração de SEBS foram determinadas. As blendas foram processadas em extrusora dupla-rosca contra-rotativa interpenetrante e as amostras moldadas por compressão. Os resultados mostraram que, embora a adição do SEBS tenha promovido um aumento muito leve na resistência tênsil e no módulo elástico, observou-se um expressivo aumento no alongamento na ruptura e na resistência ao impacto das blendas; a temperatura Vicat das blendas foi superior à do HIPS e que a adição do SEBS promoveu uma redução significativa do tamanho de partícula, indicando que o SEBS exerceu um efeito emulsificante e estabilizador na morfologia das blendas investigadas. Resultados otimizados foram obtidos para a composição contendo 5% de SEBS, o que foi atribuido à uma maior compatibilidade entre as fases.In this work the effect of a 2-7% w/w styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene triblock copolymer (SEBS addition on the properties of a 70:30 polypropylene/high impact polystyrene (PP/HIPS polymer blend was investigated. Tensile and impact properties, the Vicat temperature and blend morphology were determined as a function of SEBS content. Processing was carried out in a twin-screw intermeshing counter-rotating extruder and the samples were compression moulded. Our results indicate that the SEBS addition, albeit promoting very slight increases on tensile strenght and modulus, led to increases on the elongation at break and impact strenght of the blends, and the Vicat temperature of the blends was higher than that of HIPS. The SEM analysis showed that SEBS addition promotes a significant reduction on particle size

  20. Groin and hip quandaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specialist opinions and four different surgical procedures. One needs sound ... of pain. The two joints in the pelvis should be emphasised – the hip joint and the pubic .... intervention aimed at improving hip kinematics would be effective in.

  1. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000168.htm Hip fracture - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip fracture surgery is done to repair a break in ...

  2. Hip fracture surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis - hip ... You may receive general anesthesia for this surgery. This means you ... spinal anesthesia . With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  3. The Hip Restoration Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Allston Julius; Atilla, Halis Atil

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Despite the rapid advancement of imaging and arthroscopic techniques about the hip joint, missed diagnoses are still common. As a deep joint and compared to the shoulder and knee joints, localization of hip symptoms is difficult. Hip pathology is not easily isolated and is often related to intra and extra-articular abnormalities. In light of these diagnostic challenges, we recommend an algorithmic approach to effectively diagnoses and treat hip pain. Methods In this review, hip pain is evaluated from diagnosis to treatment in a clear decision model. First we discuss emergency hip situations followed by the differentiation of intra and extra-articular causes of the hip pain. We differentiate the intra-articular hip as arthritic and non-arthritic and extra-articular pain as surrounding or remote tissue generated. Further, extra-articular hip pain is evaluated according to pain location. Finally we summarize the surgical treatment approach with an algorithmic diagram. Conclusion Diagnosis of hip pathology is difficult because the etiologies of pain may be various. An algorithmic approach to hip restoration from diagnosis to rehabilitation is crucial to successfully identify and manage hip pathologies. Level of evidence: V. PMID:28066734

  4. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited motion. Osteoporosis of the hip causes weak bones that break easily. Both of these are common in older people. Treatment for hip disorders may include rest, medicines, physical therapy, or surgery, including hip replacement.

  5. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  6. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip problems later in life? ResourcesScreening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ... 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...

  7. Estudo da recuperação das propriedades de poliestireno de alto impacto (HIPS através da incorporação de borracha termoplástica tipo estireno-butadieno-estireno (SBS Recovering properties of recycled HIPS through incorporation of SBS triblock copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda F. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A tenacificação de termoplásticos vítreos através da adição de partículas de borracha na matriz polimérica é um processo amplamente estudado. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a recuperação das propriedades de poliestireno de alto impacto (HIPS reciclado através da incorporação de copolímeros estireno-butadieno-estireno (SBS de estrutura linear e radial. As blendas foram processadas em uma extrusora dupla rosca. Os copolímeros foram adicionados em teores de 5, 10 e 15% em massa. As propriedades avaliadas foram o índice de fluidez, a morfologia e o comportamento frente a ensaios de tração, flexão e resistência ao impacto das blendas formuladas. Em todos os casos, o SBS radial foi mais eficiente na recuperação das propriedades do poliestireno de alto impacto que o SBS linear quando comparadas às propriedades do HIPS reciclado.Toughening glassy thermoplastics by blending a rubbery material to the polymeric matrix has been extensively studied. In this work, we evaluated the resulting properties of recycled high impact polystyrene (HIPS, after the incorporation of either radial or linear SBS triblock copolymers. The blends were melt mixed using a twin-screw extruder. The copolymers were added at 5, 10 and 15% weight percent. The investigated properties included the determination of the melt flow index, the morphology and the mechanical behavior according to standard tension, flexion and impact methods of all formulated blends. In all cases, the radial SBS was more efficient in recovering the HIPS properties than the linear SBS, when comparing the properties of the blends with the properties of recycled HIPS.

  8. Synthesis and properties of polystyrene/polydimethylsiloxane graft copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ningjing; Huang Likan; Zheng Anna

    2006-01-01

    Polystyrene-graft-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-g-PDMS) copolymers with different PDMS content were synthesized by the radical bulk copolymerization of PDMS macromonomer and styrene.The copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR),1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the mechanical properties of the copolymers were also carried out.It was indicated that the notched impact strength and elongation at break of the polymers increased with the increase of PDMS content.The thermal stability of PS-g-PDMS is better than that of PS.

  9. HIP-HOP教室

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    从现在开始我们要为了Hip-hop而奋斗,使身边的人改变对Hip-hop文化的看法,让他们知道什么是真正的Hip-hop,更要让大家学会怎样用肢体去表达,Yo,在这里,永远不会出现半吊子的Hip-hop,因为我们都是来真的,Yo,来真的,因为我要将Hip-hop发扬到底,Yeah!

  10. Total hip arthroplasty in the elderly: impact on functional performance Artroplastia total de quadril em idosos: impacto na funcionalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Guedes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare gait and functional performance parameters in elderly subjects who had or had not total hip arthroplasty (THA. METHODS: Our sample comprised 23 elderly subjects (72±6.5 years of age with a mean of 2.6±1.3 years following THA, named the arthroplasty group (AG and 23 asymptomatic elderly subjects (70.1±5.9 years of age, named the control group (CG. Case and control subjects were paired by gender, age, body mass index and level of physical activity. The GAITRite® system was used to analyze various gait parameters in four situations: usual speed (US, fast speed (FS, slow speed (SS and dual task (DT; the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI and Timed Up and Go test (TUG methods were used to evaluate functional capacity. The statistical analyses were carried out using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Student's-t-tests for independent samples, chi-square tests, ANOVA for repeated measurements and paired Student's-t-tests. RESULTS: The AG had the worst results for gait speed (AG=1.18±0.13 and CG=1.39±0.09; p=0.012, symmetry index (SI of step length (AG=3.60±1.01 and CG=1.12±0.59; p=0.000, SI of step time (AG=-2.65±0.92 and CG=0.99±0.74; p=0.000, SI of stance phase (AG=-2.55 and CG=-1.04±0.50; p=0.005, SI of single support phase (AG=-2.17±0.78 and CG=1.21±0.51; p=0.003, DGI (AG=20.04±1.91 and CG=21.69±1.45; p=0.001 and TUG (AG=14.67±1.94 and CG=10.08±1.49; p=0.001. CONCLUSION: Elderly subjects with a history of THA had changes in gait parameters and lower performance in TUG test even 2.6±1,3 years after surgery, which suggests functional impairment.OBJETIVOS: Comparar os parâmetros da marcha e o desempenho funcional de idosos com e sem artroplastia total de quadril (ATQ. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 23 idosos (72±6,5 anos após média de 2,6±1,3 anos de ATQ e 23 idosos assintomáticos (70,1±5,9 anos, pareados por gênero, idade, índice de massa corpórea (IMC e nível de atividade física. Utilizou-se o sistema GAITRite® em quatro

  11. Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, M; Kowalczuk, M.; Simunovic, N.; Ayeni, O. R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia is controversial in the orthopaedic community, as the outcome literature has been variable and inconclusive. We hypothesise that outcomes of hip arthroscopy may be diminished in the setting of hip dysplasia, but outcomes may be acceptable in milder or borderline cases of hip dysplasia. Methods A systematic search was performed in duplicate for studies investigating the outcome of hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia up to Ju...

  12. Impaction grafting in the femur in cementless modular revision total hip arthroplasty: a descriptive outcome analysis of 243 cases with the MRP-TITAN revision implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Matthias D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a descriptive and retrospective analysis of revision total hip arthroplasties (THA using the MRP-TITAN stem (Peter Brehm, Weisendorf, GER with distal diaphyseal fixation and metaphyseal defect augmentation. Our hypothesis was that the metaphyseal defect augmentation (Impaction Bone Grafting improves the stem survival. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the aggregated and anonymized data of 243 femoral stem revisions. 68 patients with 70 implants (28.8% received an allograft augmentation for metaphyseal defects; 165 patients with 173 implants (71.2% did not, and served as controls. The mean follow-up was 4.4 ± 1.8 years (range, 2.1–9.6 years. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the study and control group regarding age, body mass index (BMI, femoral defects (types I-III as described by Paprosky, and preoperative Harris Hip Score (HHS. Postoperative clinical function was evaluated using the HHS. Postoperative radiologic examination evaluated implant stability, axial implant migration, signs of implant loosening, periprosthetic radiolucencies, as well as bone regeneration and resorption. Results There were comparable rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications in the study and control groups (p > 0.05. Clinical function, expressed as the increase in the postoperative HHS over the preoperative score, showed significantly greater improvement in the group with Impaction Bone Grafting (35.6 ± 14.3 vs. 30.8 ± 15.8; p ≤ 0.05. The study group showed better outcome especially for larger defects (types II C and III as described by Paprosky and stem diameters ≥ 17 mm. The two groups did not show significant differences in the rate of aseptic loosening (1.4% vs. 2.9% and the rate of revisions (8.6% vs. 11%. The Kaplan-Meier survival for the MRP-TITAN stem in both groups together was 93.8% after 8.8 years. [Study group 95.7% after 8.54 years ; control group 93

  13. The Effect of Antioxidant GM on Thermo-oxidative Stabilities of HIPS%抗氧剂GM对HIPS热氧稳定性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 张安强; 王炼石; 郭建华; 曾幸荣; 王庆; 杨育农

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant GM is a novel bisphenol monoacrylate thermal stabilizer which has showed a good resistance to thermal degradation. The oxidation inducement parameters, mechanical properties and the color difference of different high impact polystyrene (HIPS) specimens with different amount of antioxidant GM and 1010 were tested here. The results show that owing to its unique bifunctional stabilizing mechanism, the antioxidant GM significantly improves the oxidation inducement time of HIPS compared with antioxidant 1010. Just like antioxidant 1010, antioxidant GM is also a very effective stabilizer for HIPS to resist the long-term thermo-oxidative degradation and discoloration.%抗氧剂GM是一种新型双酚单丙烯酸酯类抗氧剂,在聚合物加工过程中有着优良的热稳定性能.本文测定了添加不同含量的抗氧剂1010和抗氧剂GM的高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)树脂的氧化诱导参数及其经热氧老化后的力学性能以及色差值ΔE,分析了抗氧剂1010和抗氧剂GM在抗热氧老化方面的性能差异.结果表明,相较于常见的多元受阻酚类抗氧剂1010,GM由于独特的双官能稳定机理,能够有效提高HIPS的氧化诱导时间,并能在HIPS长期热氧老化的过程中体现出同抗氧剂1010一样优异的热氧稳定性能和抗氧化着色性能.

  14. Polystyrene Chain Growth from Di-End-Functional Polyolefins for Polystyrene-Polyolefin-Polystyrene Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Sol Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Triblock copolymers of polystyrene (PS and a polyolefin (PO, e.g., PS-block-poly(ethylene-co-1-butene-block-PS (SEBS, are attractive materials for use as thermoplastic elastomers and are produced commercially by a two-step process that involves the costly hydrogenation of PS-block-polybutadiene-block-PS. We herein report a one-pot strategy for attaching PS chains to both ends of PO chains to construct PS-block-PO-block-PS directly from olefin and styrene monomers. Dialkylzinc compound containing styrene moieties ((CH2=CHC6H4CH2CH22Zn was prepared, from which poly(ethylene-co-propylene chains were grown via “coordinative chain transfer polymerization” using the pyridylaminohafnium catalyst to afford di-end functional PO chains functionalized with styrene and Zn moieties. Subsequently, PS chains were attached at both ends of the PO chains by introduction of styrene monomers in addition to the anionic initiator Me3SiCH2Li·(pmdeta (pmdeta = pentamethyldiethylenetriamine. We found that the fraction of the extracted PS homopolymer was low (~20% and that molecular weights were evidently increased after the styrene polymerization (ΔMn = 27–54 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical and wormlike PS domains measuring several tens of nm segregated within the PO matrix. Optimal tensile properties were observed for the sample containing a propylene mole fraction of 0.25 and a styrene content of 33%. Finally, in the cyclic tensile test, the prepared copolymers exhibited thermoplastic elastomeric properties with no breakage up over 10 cycles, which is comparable to the behavior of commercial-grade SEBS.

  15. The Study of the Microbes Degraded Polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Long Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the observation that Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio could eat polystyrene (PS, we setup the platform to screen the gut microbes of these two worms. To take advantage of that Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio can eat and digest polystyrene as its diet, we analyzed these special microbes with PS plate and PS turbidity system with time courses. There were two strains TM1 and ZM1 which isolated from Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio, and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that TM1 and ZM1 were cocci-like and short rod shape Gram-negative bacteria under microscope. The PS plate and turbidity assay showed that TM1 and ZM1 could utilize polystyrene as their carbon sources. The further study of PS degraded enzyme and cloning warrants our attention that this platform will be an excellent tools to explore and solve this problem.

  16. Self-assembly of Carboxyl Functionalized Polystyrene Nanospheres into Close-packed Monolayers via Chemical Adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Zhi-Wei(李志伟); ZHOU,Jing-Fang(周静芳); ZHANG,Zhi-Jun(张治军); DANG,Hong-Xin(党鸿辛)

    2004-01-01

    The polyacrylic acid functionalized polystyrene nanospheres were synthesized and self-assembled into irregular,densely packed monolayers in non-aqueous media. The polymer nanoparticles were chemically adhered to substrates. The morphologies of the resulting films were investigated. The impact of the volume fraction of alcohol in the mixed solvents on the particle adsorption and fabrication of nanosphere assembled films was examined.

  17. A pilot study examining the impact of exercise training on skeletal muscle genes related to the TLR signaling pathway in older adults following hip fracture recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Alec I; Briggs, Robert A; Barrows, Katherine M; Nelson, Daniel S; Kwon, Oh Sung; Hopkins, Paul N; Higgins, Thomas F; Marcus, Robin L; Drummond, Micah J

    2017-01-01

    Older adults after hip fracture surgery experience progressive muscle atrophy and weakness, limiting full recovery. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms in muscle with adaptation to exercise training in this vulnerable population is necessary. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate the skeletal muscle inflammatory and ceramide biosynthesis gene expression levels associated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway before (Pre) and following a 3-mo multicomponent exercise training program in older adults (3M, 4F; 78.4 ± 13.3 yr; 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) ~4 mo after repair from hip fracture (HipFx). Vastus lateralis biopsies from the surgical limb were obtained before (Pre) and after training. Molecular end points and muscle function data were also compared with matched nonexercise healthy controls (CON). As a follow-up analysis, we evaluated specific sphingolipid pools in HipFx and CON muscle. Following training, quadriceps cross-sectional area, strength, and 6-min walk (6MW) increased in the surgical limb (P exercise training alters skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide metabolism associated with TLR signaling in older adults recovering from hip fracture surgery and may be related to improvements in muscle function recovery.

  18. Simulative calculation of bromo-polystyrene mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Chao; Tang Yong Jian

    2002-01-01

    The non-crystal model of polystyrene and bromo-polystyrene was established with the help of simulative software in the computer. DREIDING was chosen as force field and its parameters is modified according to the published data. Based on the calculation results and other published data the mechanism properties of polystyrene and bromo-polystyrene, such as bulk module, Yong's module and Poisson's ratios, were discussed

  19. Hip Osteoarthritis : symptomatic presentation and non-operative treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dorleijn, Desirée

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractHip osteoarthritis is a common, chronic disease characterized by pain and disability. It can have a considerable impact on a person’s activities of daily living. Because there is no treatment available that can cure osteoarthritis, the treatment consists of symptom management. This thesis describes a systematic review on the usefulness of anesthetic hip joint injection in diagnosing hip osteoarthritis. Also it reports on associations between biochemical cartilage markers and c...

  20. Imaging of hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Theodore T., E-mail: millertt@hss.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E. 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The imaging evaluation of the prosthetic hip begins with radiography, but arthrography, aspiration, scintigraphy, sonography, CT and MR imaging all have roles in the evaluation of the painful prosthesis. This article will review the appearance of normal hip arthroplasty including hemiarthroplasty, total arthroplasty, and hip resurfacing, as well as the appearances of potential complications such as aseptic loosening and osteolysis, dislocation, infection, periprosthetic fracture, hardware failure, and soft tissue abnormalities.

  1. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is claimed to allow higher activity levels and to give better quality of life than total hip arthroplasty. In this literature review, we assessed the therapeutic value of hip resurfacing arthroplasty as measured by functional outcome. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Results 9 patient series, 1 case-control study, and 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) were included. Clin...

  2. Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2006-01-01

    Two branched narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts have been synthesized: A multiarm A_nAA_n Pom-Pom polystyrene and AA_n asymmetric star polystyrene where n indicates the number of arms. The Pom-Pom and asymmetric star have molar masses 260 kg/mol and 255 kg/mol, respectively. The Pom...

  3. Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer;

    2006-01-01

    Two branched narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts have been synthesized: A multiarm A_nAA_n Pom-Pom polystyrene and AA_n asymmetric star polystyrene where n indicates the number of arms. The Pom-Pom and asymmetric star have molar masses 260 kg/mol and 255 kg/mol, respectively. The Pom...

  4. 髋关节表面置换术后股骨近端的冲击特性数值模拟研究%Numerical modeling of impact character in proximal femur after hip resurfacing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦葛堇; 杨华; 林荔军; 林舟丹; 李奇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the stress distribution at the femoral neck during human gait cycle under impact force following the hip resurfacing arthroplasty.Methods A three-dimensional finite element model of hip resurfacing arthroplasty (DuromTM hip prosthesis) was reconstructed using software Mimics and Abaqus on the basis of the dataset of patients undergoing hip resurfacing arthroplasty.The distal femur was fixed to simulate the impact of a static force of 500 N on the hip prosthesis at a standing position and an impulsive force of 500 N was also simulated on the hip prosthesis.Different effects of impact forces on the femur were compared and the mechanics of the femur under impact force was characterized.Results The peak stress under a 500 N static force was greater than that under a same impulsive force (5.21 MPa versus 1.89 MPa).The stress range under the impulsive force was similar to that under a static force,distributing around the femoral neck.The stress at the junction of the femoral head and neck decreased by 21% to 76% compared with other regions,indicating obvious stress shields at this region.The peak stress was present in the lower femoral neck.Conclusion After hip resurfacing arthroplasty a high stress may distribute in the lower femoral neck under an impulsive force,with obvious stress shielding at the femoral head-neck junction.%目的 探讨髋关节表面置换术后股骨近端在人体步态运动过程中受冲击载荷作用时的应力分布.方法 选择4名行金属对金属髋关节表面置换(均应用DuromTM髋关节表面置换系统假体)术后志愿者,利用64排螺旋CT对志愿者髋臼、股骨近端及假体进行扫描,采用Mimics、Abaqus软件重建金属对金属髋关节表面置换术后有限元模型,模拟股骨在膝关节完全固定(人体站立相)下的静力影响,同时采用冲击载荷对髋关节进行试验,比较冲击载荷对股骨的不同作用效果,以及股骨在冲击载荷

  5. Impact of Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty on Health-Related Quality of Life Measures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutras, Christos; Antoniou, Stavros A; Talias, Michael A; Heep, Hansjoerg

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty (RA) on general health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and disease/hip-specific measures. Original studies published after 2000, enrolling at least ten skeletally mature patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were considered. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was obtained with a random effects model. The cumulative patient population encompassed 1898 patients (2123 RA). Mean follow-up duration was 4 years. The physical component score (PHip Score (PHip Score (P<0.001) and UCLA (P<0.00001) were markedly improved and patient satisfaction was favorable.

  6. Activity of Antimicrobial Silver Polystyrene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palomba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique based on doping polymers with in situ generated silver nanoparticles (Ag/PS films has been developed. In particular, an antiseptic material has been prepared by dissolving silver 1,5-cyclooctadiene-hexafluoroacetylacetonate in amorphous polystyrene, and the obtained solid solution has been heated for ca. 10 s at a convenient temperature (180°C. Under such conditions the metal precursor decomposes producing silver atoms that diffuse into the polymer and clusterize. The antimicrobial characteristics of the resulting polystyrene-based material have been accurately evaluated toward Escherichia coli (E. coli comparing the cytotoxicity effect of 10 wt.% and 30 wt.% (drastic and mild annealing silver-doped polystyrene to the corresponding pure micrometric silver powder. Two different bacterial viability assays were performed in order to demonstrate the cytotoxic effect of Ag/PS films on cultured E. coli: (1 turbidimetric determination of optical density; (2 BacLight fluorescence-based test. Both methods have shown that silver-doped polystyrene (30 wt.% provides higher antibacterial activity than pure Ag powder, under similar concentration and incubation conditions.

  7. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...

  8. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational viscos...

  9. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Densely pegylated particles that can serve as a model system for artificial cells were prepared by covalently grafting amino polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 3400 or 5000) onto carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) using carbodiimide chemistry. PEG-modified particles (PS-PEG) were chara

  10. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osteolysis. Symptoms The most common symptoms of periprosthetic hip fracture include: • Pain around the hip or thigh • Swelling ... o en very painful, someone with a periprosthetic hip fracture will most likely go directly to the emergency ...

  11. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online training for health care providers. Learn More Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... get older. What You Can Do to Prevent Hip Fractures You can prevent hip fractures by taking steps ...

  12. CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT OF HIP DYSPLASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Михаил Михайлович Камоско; Махмуд Станиславович Познович

    2014-01-01

    Hip dysplasia in children is the subject of careful study by specialists both in our country and abroad. There are three basic variants of hip dysplasia: congenital acetabular dysplasia, congenital subluxation of the hip and congenital dislocation of the hip. However, treatment of congenital dislocation of the hip, which is the most severe form of hip dysplasia in children, currently remains one of the topical problems of children’s orthopedics, despite the significant achievements of modern ...

  13. Nonlinear branch-point dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Denberg, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Two branched polystyrene melts with narrow molar mass distribution have been synthesized: a multiarm An-C-C-An pom-pom polystyrene and an An-C asymmetric star polystyrene where n is the number of arms. The pom-pom and the asymmetric star have molar masses of Mw ) 300 kg/mol and Mw ) 275 kg...... polystyrene, the measured transient elongational viscosity is not consistent with a rheological constitutive equation that is separable in time and strain. Contrary to this situation, however, for pom-pom polystyrene, the transient elongational viscosity may be described by a time-strain separable...

  14. Hip osteoarthrosis: clinical presentation, diagnosis, approaches to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Stanislavovna Svetlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper characterizes the specific features of the anatomy and physiology of the hip joint, the clinical presentation of coxarthrosis and presents current methods for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. It gives the results of a trial evaluating the impact of long-term (one-year theraflex therapy on the symptoms of hip osteoarthrosis.

  15. Fear of falling in older patients after hip fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, Johannes Hermanus Maria (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    FoF is possibly one of the most important factors in patients after hip fracture, with a substantial impact on the final results of the rehabilitation process. Moreover, patients with hip fracture who rehabilitate in a SNF with high rates of comorbidity and complications, may have even worse

  16. Hip joint pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tijssen, M; van Cingel, R E H; de Visser, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18-6...

  17. Hip Arthropathy in Haemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Carulli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hip arthropathy in haemophilic patients is disabling for hip and other common target joints. Even if bleedings in the hip are not frequent, femoroacetabular alterations may affect the functional ability of patients at a very young age. A haematologic prophylaxis combined with an adequate lifestyle and regular and low-traumatic physical activity are the keys to preventing such arthropathy. In the early stages of arthropathy, anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy may be sufficient to limit its progression. In cases of recurrent symptoms, viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid, and chemical synoviorthesis are useful options. In more advanced stages, hip arthroscopy may be treated by synovectomy or loose body removal. For late stages, total hip arthroplasty (THA is mandatory. Until a few decades ago, the clinical outcomes after hip arthroplasty were variable, due to the different management of patients and the use of old generation implants and couplings. In the last decade, the introduction of the multidisciplinary management and the use of modern cementless implants with high performing materials and less invasive surgical techniques have dramatically improved the functional results. Nowadays, as is the case for other target joints, the purpose of the management in haemophilia centers is the early detection of any hip alterations—by clinical and ultrasound (US evaluations of patients in childhood—to reveal any early articular damage and to provide adequate treatment in case of symptoms. The present paper represents an updated review of the several approaches to hip arthropathy in haemophilia.

  18. TREATMENT OF HIP DYSPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ICLEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, our purpose is to show that using physiotherapy on patients with hip dysplasia from the very beginning, in the first months of life, helps treating them faster. Common literature proposes to use physiotherapy on patients with hip dysplasia either after their recovery or in the terminal phase of recovery, claiming that any earlier intervention will prolong the hip recovery. The effects of hip dysplasia reflect over the whole musculoskeletal system, while it hinders the knees (genu valgum, the ankles (ankle valgus, calcaneal valgus and the spine (scoliosis especially at the lumbar level. The most spectacular are at the hip level, that is why we made an analytical evaluation only for this joint. To show the importance of physiotherapy for children with hip dysplasia we started from the hypothesis: untimely treatment for children with hip dysplasia has improved results in functional recovery and in obtaining a better stability, without the necessity of orthopedics or surgical interventions. The research methods used in this study are: the observation method, the bibliographic study method, the experimental method, the graphics method and the statistical mathematical method to process the data and to represent the results graphically. In the end, the results obtained are significantly different from the initial evaluations and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient improves stability and biomechanical parameters for the hip.

  19. Hip Resurfacing Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadossi, Matteo; Tedesco, Giuseppe; Sambri, Andrea; Mazzotti, Antonio; Giannini, Sandro

    2015-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the advantages of hip resurfacing. 2. Describe the disadvantages of hip resurfacing. 3. Identify the population in which hip resurfacing is most often indicated. 4. Demonstrate how to properly postoperatively manage patients with metal-on-metal prostheses. Hip resurfacing offers a suitable solution for young patients affected by hip disease who have high function demands and good bone quality. Bone stock preservation, restoration of the normal proximal femur anatomy, the lack of stress shielding, and the possibility of resuming sporting activity are proven advantages of hip resurfacing. However, there are some disadvantages, such as fracture of the femoral neck, onset of neck narrowing, and possible complications due to the metal-on-metal bearings, including pseudotumors, peri-implant osteolysis, and chronic elevation of metal ions in serum levels. Recent data suggest that the ideal candidate for hip resurfacing is an active male, younger than 65 years, with primary or posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and with a femoral head diameter larger than 50 to 54 mm. Based on these selection criteria, the literature reports implant survival to be similar to that of total hip arthroplasty. The current authors' experience confirms a low failure rate and excellent functional outcomes, with metal ion serum levels becoming stable over time in well-functioning implants. Proper surgical technique, correct patient selection, and the right choice of a well-established prosthetic model are essential elements for the long-term success of these implants.

  20. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  1. ENERGY-ABSORPTION PROPERTY OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE CONCRETE UNDER IMPACT%冲击荷载作用下聚苯乙烯混凝土的吸能特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡泽斌; 许金余; 彭高丰; 曹珊

    2010-01-01

    采用φ100 mm分离式Hopkinson压杆(split Hopkinson pressure bar,SHPB)试验装置研究了聚苯乙烯(expanded polystyrene,EPS)混凝土在不同应变率下的能量吸收特性.以比能量法作为评价指标,分析了应变率效应以及EPS体积掺量对EPS混凝土吸能特性的影响.探讨了能量吸收特性与试件破坏形态之闻的关系.结果表明:EPS混凝土材料的高应变率吸能性能呈现出显著的应变率相关性.随着EPS体积掺量的增加,EPS混凝土的吸能能力先升后降,在EPS体积掺量为20%~30%时出现峰值.

  2. Experimental Study on Impact Compression and Energy-Absorbing Property of Expanded Polystyrene Foam%EPS泡沫冲击压缩和吸能特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志亮; 诸斌

    2013-01-01

    采用小直径霍普金森压杆(SHPB),对3种密度的聚苯乙烯(expanded polystyrene,EPS)泡沫进行冲击测试,得到了5种应变率下的应力-应变全曲线.为了比较EPS泡沫在冲击荷载和准静态加载下的不同响应,对EPS泡沫试样进行3种应变率下的准静态单轴压缩试验.探讨了泡沫密度、加载应变率对EPS泡沫应力-应变行为、能量吸收性能和破坏特征的影响,应用能量吸收能力、吸能效率曲线和能量吸收图评价了其在冲击荷载下的能量吸收性能.结果表明:泡沫初始密度和加载应变率对EPS泡沫的吸能与冲压特性具有较大影响.

  3. The other hip in unilateral hip dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Rømer, Lone; Søballe, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed transverse pelvic computed tomography scans of 197 consecutively referred adult patients with hip pain thought to be secondary to developmental dysplasia. A center-edge angle of 20 degrees or less was considered the upper normal value. Four groups were identified: 69 patients with app...

  4. Synthesis of monodisperse crosslinked polystyrene microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Kai; Chen Sheng-Li; Dong Peng; Liu Renxiao

    2008-01-01

    Monodisperse crosslinked polystyrene (CPS) particles were prepared through the normal emulsion polymerization method by adding crosslinker-divinylbenzene (DVB) into the reaction system after polystyrene (PS) particles grew to ~80% of the final size. When the amount of crosslinker DVB added was less than 6.17 wt% based on styrene, the prepared CPS particles were spherical and uniform and the size of the CPS particles could be predicted through the normal emulsion method. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the prepared CPS particles was higher than that of un-crosslinked PS particles and, the more crosslinker that was added, the higher the Tg of CPS Particles. The prepared CPS particles had strong resistance to organic solvents.

  5. Total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty is most common reconstructive hip procedure in adults. In this surgery we replace some parts of the upper femur and acetabulum with biocompatible materials. The main goal of this surgery is to eliminate pain and regain full extent of joint motion, maintaining hip stability. Surgical technique, biomaterials, design of the prosthesis and fixation techniques have evolved with time adjusting to each other. After total hip arthroplasty patients’ quality of life should be improved. There are many various postoperative complications. Some of them are fatal, and some are minor, which may become manifested years after surgery. Each next surgical procedure following previous hip surgery is associated with considerably lower chances to be successful. Therefore, in primary total hip arthroplasty, preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are essential. Every orthopaedic surgeon needs to improve already adopted surgical skills applying them with precision and without compromise, with the main goal to achieve long-term durability of the selected implant. The number of total hip arthroplasties will also increase in future, and newer and higher quality materials will be used.

  6. Prevention of hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, P J

    1993-11-30

    For a 50-year old Caucasian woman today, the risk of a hip fracture over her remaining life-time is about 17%. Tomorrow the situation will clearly be worse because the continuous increase in life expectancy will cause a three-fold increase in worldwide fracture incidence over the next 60 years. Through diagnostic bone mass measurements at the hip and assessment of biochemical parameters, a great deal has been learned in recent years about reduction of hip fracture risk. Preventive strategies are based on prevention of falls, use of hip protectors, and prevention of bone fragility. The latter includes the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood, postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and also late prevention consisting in reversing senile secondary hyperparathyroidism, which plays an important role in the decrease of skeletal strength. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, which results from both vitamin D insufficiency and low calcium intake, is preventable with vitamin D3 and calcium supplements. They have recently been shown capable of providing effective prevention of hip fractures in elderly women living in nursing homes, with a reduction of about 25% in the number of hip fractures noted in a 3-year controlled study in 3,270 women (intention-to-treat analysis). In conclusion, it is never too early to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and never too late to prevent hip fractures.

  7. Spectrometric characteristics of polystyrene scintillation films

    CERN Document Server

    Astvatsaturov, A R; Gavalyan, V B; Gavalyan, V G

    1999-01-01

    The spectrometric characteristics of five types of polystyrene scintillation films with thicknesses of 10, 30, 50 and 80 mu m and of analogous 250 mu m thick plates irradiated with sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 Pu and sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra sources of alpha-particles have been studied. The prospects of utilization of scintillation films as radiators for detection of heavy charged particles and measurement of their energy was experimentally shown.

  8. EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE FOAM IN FLAT ROOFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In our article we prove the necessity of applying thermal insulation with low water absorption and resistance and preserving mechanical and thermophysical properties in corrosive environment in flat roofs, where there is always a danger of penetrating condensed moisture into the structure. As such material we offered extruded polystyrene foam - heat-insulating polymer material with uniformly distributed closed cells. The products are used in the form of slab insulation and special items - for forming slopes and venting.

  9. Interaction of apo cytochrome c with sulfonated polystyrene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Yao, Ping; Gong, Jie; Jiang, Ming

    2004-04-13

    Stable nanoparticle dispersion in aqueous solutions was obtained with partially sulfonated polystyrene. The hydrophobic association of the backbone chains and phenyl groups is balanced by the electrostatic repulsion of the sulfonate groups on the particle surface. The size distribution of the sulfonated polystyrene particles in relation to concentration, degree of sulfonation and chain length, and pH was characterized by dynamic laser light-scattering. The structure and morphology of the particles were characterized with fluorescence and atom force microscopy. Highly sulfonated polystyrene particles can form large complex particles with positively charged protein, apo cytochrome c. Dynamic laser light-scattering and atom force microscopy studies show that the size and distribution of the complex particles depend on the relative amount of apo cytochrome c and sulfonated polystyrene. When sulfonated polystyrene is in excess, apo cytochrome c interacts with sulfonated polystyrene particles forming stable complexes and excessive sulfonated polystyrene particles bind to the periphery of the complexes preventing them from further aggregation. When apo cytochrome c is in excess, apo cytochrome c links the complexes forming much larger particles. Fluorescence study demonstrates that the hydrophobicity/hydrophility of the complex particles is relative to the ratio of apo cytochrome c and sulfonated polystyrene, degree of sulfonation, and pH. Apo cytochrome c not only can neutralize the negative charges on the surface of sulfonated polystyrene particles, but may also insert into the cores disrupting the original structure of sulfonated polystyrene particles.

  10. Designing Zirconium Coated Polystyrene Colloids and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique has been developed to prepare core colloids that are modified using zirconium oxychloride, based on heating a solution of core colloid composites, consisting of poly (ethylenimine (PEI and zirconium oxychloride. The interaction of zirconium oxychloride with the polystyrene (PS core colloids has been investigated using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM data. FT-IR studies confirm the occurrence of amine groups present in PEI which are oxidized to carboxyl groups after the reaction. The EDX data and the SEM images confirm the presence of zirconium particles immobilized on the polystyrene surfaces. Demeton, a highly toxic nerve agent, was used due to its ability to easily bind through its organophosphate group illustrating a practical application of the PS-PEI-Zr particles. Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR Spectroscopy was used to assess the interactions between the toxic nerve agent demeton-S and the PS-PEI-Zr particles. The results show that the presented technique for coating polystyrene core colloids with zirconium was successfully accomplished, and the newly formed particles easily bond with demeton agents through the P=O functional group.

  11. Total hip prosthesis CT with single-energy projection-based metallic artifact reduction: impact on the visualization of specific periprosthetic soft tissue structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto [CHU-Nancy, Service D' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); UMR, S 947, Universite de Lorraine, IADI, Nancy (France); Meyer, Jean-Baptiste; Raymond, Ariane; Blum, Alain [CHU-Nancy, Service D' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Baumann, Cedric [CHU-Nancy, Service d' Epidemiologie et Evaluation Cliniques, Nancy (France); Sirveaux, Francois [Service de Chirurgie Traumatologique et Orthopedique, Nancy (France); Coudane, Henry [CHU-Nancy, Service de Chirurgie Traumatologique et Arthroscopique de l' Appareil Locomoteur (ATOL), Nancy (France)

    2014-09-15

    To compare the image quality of CT with iterative reconstruction alone and in association with projection-based single-energy metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) for the visualization of specific periarticular soft tissue structures in patients with hip prostheses. CT studies from 48 consecutive patients with a hip prosthesis (24 unilateral and 24 bilateral) were retrospectively reconstructed using two different methods: iterative reconstruction (IR) alone and IR associated with SEMAR. The influence of metallic artifacts on the identification of various periarticular structures was evaluated subjectively by two readers. The image quality was compared in patients with unilateral and bilateral prostheses. Visualization of periprosthetic soft tissue was significantly improved by the SEMAR algorithm (p < 0.0001). When SEMAR was associated with IR, the gluteus minimus and medius tendons, obturator internus muscle, prostate/uterus and bladder could be seen with medium or high confidence. There were no significant differences in image quality between patients with unilateral or bilateral prosthesis when SEMAR was used (p > 0.2). This algorithm increased the detection of periarticular masses by 30 %. SEMAR significantly improves the image quality of periarticular soft-tissue structures in patients with hip prostheses. (orig.)

  12. Dynamics of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Alicia; Wang, Wenqin; Winey, Karen; Runt, James

    2010-03-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used to investigate the dynamics of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers, in both the acid and neutralized form. This study seeks to elucidate the role of counter ion type (Zn, Na, and Cs), degree of sulfonation (9 and 6%), and ion cluster morphology on the relaxation phenomena of SPS. Degree of neutralization and ion type have been found to significantly impact the breadth and time scale of the segmental relaxation process. High temperature relaxation processes, tentatively proposed to arise from Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and a hydrogen bonding relaxation, have also been identified. Bands in the sulfonate stretching region of FTIR spectra reveal information about ion coordination in the local aggregate environment. A combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and X-ray scattering confirmed the presence of homogeneously distributed, nearly monodisperse spherical ionic aggregates in the polymer matrix.

  13. Influence of Hip Pop on American Teens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕苹

    2006-01-01

    Hip pop has become the mainstream music in American right now, not only because of its multi-musical style but also because of the lyrics has a historic background. Its popularity has great impact on American teens ,especially on the fashion and the lifestyle.

  14. Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, M.; Kowalczuk, M.; Simunovic, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia is controversial in the orthopaedic community, as the outcome literature has been variable and inconclusive. We hypothesise that outcomes of hip arthroscopy may be diminished in the setting of hip dysplasia, but outcomes may be acceptable in milder or borderline cases of hip dysplasia. Methods A systematic search was performed in duplicate for studies investigating the outcome of hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia up to July 2015. Study parameters including sample size, definition of dysplasia, outcomes measures, and re-operation rates were obtained. Furthermore, the levels of evidence of studies were collected and quality assessment was performed. Results The systematic review identified 18 studies investigating hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia, with 889 included patients. Criteria used by the studies to diagnose hip dysplasia and borderline hip dysplasia included centre edge angle in 72% of studies but the range of angles were quite variable. Although 89% of studies reported improved post-operative outcome scores in the setting of hip dysplasia, revision rates were considerable (14.1%), with 9.6% requiring conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Conclusion The available orthopaedic literature suggests that although improved outcomes are seen in hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia, there is a high rate of re-operation and conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Furthermore, the criteria used to define hip dysplasia vary considerably among published studies. Cite this article: M. Yeung, M. Kowalczuk, N. Simunovic, O. R. Ayeni. Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:225–231. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.2000533. PMID:27313136

  15. Functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles as a platform for studying bio–nano interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Cornelia; Syrovets, Tatiana; Musyanovych, Anna; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nanoparticles of various shapes, sizes, and materials carrying different surface modifications have numerous technological and biomedical applications. Yet, the mechanisms by which nanoparticles interact with biological structures as well as their biological impact and hazards remain poorly investigated. Due to their large surface to volume ratio, nanoparticles usually exhibit properties that differ from those of bulk materials. Particularly, the surface chemistry of the nanoparticles is crucial for their durability and solubility in biological media as well as for their biocompatibility and biodistribution. Polystyrene does not degrade in the cellular environment and exhibits no short-term cytotoxicity. Because polystyrene nanoparticles can be easily synthesized in a wide range of sizes with distinct surface functionalizations, they are perfectly suited as model particles to study the effects of the particle surface characteristics on various biological parameters. Therefore, we have exploited polystyrene nanoparticles as a convenient platform to study bio–nano interactions. This review summarizes studies on positively and negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles and compares them with clinically used superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25671136

  16. Determination of the Tracer Diffusion Coefficient of Soft Polystyrene Nanoparticles using Neutron Reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Adam; Miller, Brad; Holley, Wade; Baskaran, Durairaj; Mays, Jimmy; Dadmun, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The diffusion properties of nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites are largely unknown and depend intimately on the dispersion of the nanoparticles. We examine the diffusion of soft, organic nanoparticles, which disperse in a polymer matrix due to the interpenetration of polymer chains and particles and the reduction in the depletion of entropy in the system. The impact of the presence of soft nanoparticles on the diffusion coefficient of polystyrene chains has recently been determined with neutron reflectivity. This was completed by monitoring the interdiffusion of deuterated and protonated polystyrene nanocomposite bilayers with and without the soft nanoparticles dispersed throughout both layers and extracting the diffusion coefficient from the one-dimensional solution to Fick's second law of diffusion. In this work, we extend this method to bilayer systems with only the soft nanoparticles as one of the layers and a linear deuterated polystyrene as an adjacent layer. The development of this method allows us to determine the tracer diffusion coefficient of the soft polystyrene nanoparticles for the first time by analyzing the mutual diffusion coefficient from Fick's second law and the fast and slow modes theories for diffusion.

  17. Hip Implant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made of metal or ceramic, and the socket (acetabulum) is removed and replaced with a prosthetic cup. ... its socket in the hip bone (pelvis) Bone fracture Joint infection Local nerve damage with numbness/weakness ...

  18. Incorporation of pyrene in polypyrrole/polystyrene magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowala, Paulina; Budniak, Adam; Krug, Pamela; Wysocka, Barbara; Berbeć, Sylwia; Dec, Robert; Dołęga, Izabela; Kacprzak, Kamil; Wojciechowski, Jarosław; Kawałko, Jakub; Kępka, Paweł; Kępińska, Daria; Kijewska, Krystyna; Mazur, Maciej

    2014-10-15

    Pyrene, a fluorescent dye, was incorporated into polystyrene particles coated with polypyrrole. The incorporation was achieved by treating the polypyrrole/polystyrene (PPy/PS) beads in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of the pyrene fluorophore followed by rinsing with methanol. The polystyrene cores of the beads swell in THF, allowing penetration of pyrene molecules into the polystyrene structure. The addition of methanol causes contraction of the swollen polystyrene, which encapsulates the dye molecules inside the beads. It is shown that the polypyrrole coating is permeable with respect to both the dye and the solvent, allowing the transport of molecules between the polystyrene cores and the contacting solution. The polypyrrole adlayer can be used as a matrix for the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles. Embedded particles provide magnetic functionality to the PPy/PS beads. It is demonstrated that the pyrene-loaded beads can be manipulated with an external magnetic field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optomechanical characterization of freestanding stretchable nanosheet based on polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hayato; Sato, Nobutaka; Takeoka, Shinji; Sawada, Kazuaki; Fujie, Toshinori; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a stretchable freestanding ultrathin sheet based on a polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (SBS) copolymer with entropy-driven elasticity and evaluated its optomechanical properties. The freestanding SBS sheet had a thickness of 675 nm and a size of 10.4 × 10.4 mm2 on a through hole of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sheet. The measurement of the reflection spectra of the optical interference peaks of the stretched sheets revealed that the SBS nanosheet had a Poisson’s ratio of 0.5-0.68 for a 38% elastic strain, which is one order of magnitude greater than that of parylene.

  20. Hip-Hop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬伟

    2008-01-01

    Hip-Hop是一种美国街头黑人文化,可分成五个要素:音乐、舞蹈、涂鸦、刺青和衣著。源自80年代美国纽约的黑人社区BRONX,他们将生活上的娱乐发展成为现今多样的HIP-HOP文化,发挥黑

  1. Abnormal Modulation of Dielectric Band Transmittance of Polystyrene Opal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-Yong; GONG Qi-Huang; CHENG Bing-Ying; ZHANG Dao-Zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ The abnormal transmittance in the dielectric band edge of a polystyrene opal is observed and analysed. The transmittance is periodically modulated and the period of modulation varies with the wavelength, which destroys the perfect structure of the photonic band gap. The transmittance modulation originates from the propagation of the low order whispering-gallery mode excited in polystyrene spheres. These results indicate that the whisperinggallery mode has a great influence on practical applications of polystyrene opal.

  2. Synthesis of raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhizhong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers (Ministry of Education), Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xia Ao [Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers (Ministry of Education), Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang Changchun [Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers (Ministry of Education), Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: ccwang@fudan.edu.cn; Yang Wuli [Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers (Ministry of Education), Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fu Shoukuang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers (Ministry of Education), Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-06-15

    Raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres were prepared via soap-free emulsion polymerization using 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V50) as initiator. The effect of polymerization parameters, such as initiator type, initiator content and the feeding sequence on the particle size and morphology of magnetic polystyrene microspheres, were examined. The final magnetic polystyrene microspheres were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental results showed that V50 was a suitable initiator for preparation of raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres.

  3. [Clinical pathway for hip fracture patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez López, Pilar; Sánchez Hernández, Natalia; Paniagua Tejo, Sonsoles; Valverde García, José Antonio; Montero Díaz, Margarita; Alonso García, Noelia; Freites Esteve, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Hip fracture in the elderly often occurs in patients with high co-morbidity. Effective management requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. To evaluate the effect of a quality improvement intervention in the detection and treatment of complications in elderly patients admitted for hip fracture. A comparative study was conducted between two groups of patients admitted for hip fracture prior to 2010, and after a quality improvement intervention in 2013. The intervention consisted of implementing improved multidisciplinary measures in accordance with recent scientific evidence. The degree of compliance of the implemented measures was quantified. Patients admitted due to hip fracture in 2010 (216 patients) and 2013 (196 patients) were similar in age, sex, Barthel Index, and a reduced Charlson Index, although there were more comorbidities in 2013. After implementation of the protocols, the detection of delirium, malnutrition, anemia, and electrolyte disturbances increased. A larger number of patients in 2013 were precribed intravenous iron (24% more) and osteoporosis treatment (61.3% more). The average stay was reduced by 45.3% and surgical delay by 29.4%, achieving better functional efficiency. The implementation of a clinical pathway in geriatric patients with hip fracture is useful to detect and treat complications at an early stage, and to reduce pre-operative and overall stay, all without a negative clinical or functional impact. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Photovoltaic solar power in building engineering. Experience feedback in France of the European Hip Hip project. Advances and realizations; L'electricite solaire photovoltaique dans le batiment. Retour d'experience en France du Projet Europeen Hip Hip. Avancees et realisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The European demonstration project Hip Hip (house integrated photovoltaic high-tech in public) led the French photovoltaic market to reach a level comparable to those of the other European countries in terms of relevance of implemented solutions and costs. This document presents the best realizations and the experience gained through the Hip Hip project. Its aim is to convince the designers and managers of building projects of the advantages of photovoltaic installations integrated to the structure and connected to the power distribution grid: 1 - presentation of the technology; 2 - status of the Hip Hip demonstration project (goals, results: main innovations and impact on the French market); 3 - different possibilities of integration to the building structure; 4 - examples of projects realized in France in the framework of the Hip Hip project: integration in glass roof, frontage, added elements, fitting on roofs. (J.S.)

  5. Fabrication of nanochannels on polystyrene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongqing

    2015-01-01

    Solvent-induced nanocrack formation on polystyrene surface is investigated experimentally. Solubility parameter and diffusion coefficient of alcohols are employed to elucidate the swelling and cracking processes as well as the crack size. Experimental results show that the crack size increases with the heating temperature, heating time, and the concentration and volume of the alcohols. A guideline on fabricating single smaller nanocracks on polymers by solvent-induced method is provided. Nanocracks of approximately 64 nm in width and 17.4 nm in depth were created and replicated onto PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) slabs to form nanochannels. PMID:25945143

  6. Integrated lenses in polystyrene microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a new method for integrating microlenses into microfluidic devices for improved observation. Two demonstration microfluidic devices were provided which were fabricated using this new technique. The integrated microlenses were fabricated using a free-surface thermo-compression molding method on a polystyrene (PS) sheet which was then bonded on top of microfluidic channels as a cover plate, with the convex microlenses providing a magnified image of the channel for the easier observation of the flow in the microchannels. This approach for fabricating the integrated microlens in microfluidic devices is rapid, low cost and without the requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. The impact of different rehabilitation strategies after major events in the elderly: the case of stroke and hip fracture in the Tuscany region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Iorio Tania

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On a regional level, our aims were to describe rehabilitation patterns for elderly patients with stroke and hip fracture and to investigate mortality risk during the 6-month post acute period. Methods Data sources included administrative data relative to patients aged 65+ resident in Tuscany admitted in hospital for stroke or hip fracture between 2001 and 2003, traced up to 3 years before and 6 months following index admission. The study design involves computerized linkage of administrative data, and an exploratory analysis of the association between rehabilitation patterns and 6-month mortality, adjusting for clinical, demographic, and acute-related care characteristics using multivariate Cox regression. Results Rehabilitation patterns vary greatly across Tuscany with considerable cost implications. Six month mortality risk for stroke patients is significantly lower among residents of Local Health Authorities where patients are more frequently rehabilitated, specifically in extra-hospital settings. Conclusion Our study, targeting two crucial conditions for elderly patients, found a high variability of rehabilitation patterns across a region, albeit coherent between the two pathologies, associated with remarkable differences in average expenditure. Differences in hazard rates for 6-month mortality after stroke at population level were also found. These results need to be confirmed and further investigated through a more robust information framework.

  8. Solid polystyrene and deuterated polystyrene light output response to fast neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R.; Danly, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hurlbut, C.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C.

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Imaging System has proven to be an important diagnostic in studying DT implosion characteristics at the National Ignition Facility. The current system depends on a polystyrene scintillating fiber array, which detects fusion neutrons born in the DT hotspot as well as neutrons that have scattered to lower energies in the surrounding cold fuel. Increasing neutron yields at NIF, as well as a desire to resolve three-dimensional information about the fuel assembly, have provided the impetus to build and install two additional next-generation neutron imaging systems. We are currently investigating a novel neutron imaging system that will utilize a deuterated polystyrene (CD) fiber array instead of standard hydrogen-based polystyrene (CH). Studies of deuterated xylene or deuterated benzene liquid scintillator show an improvement in imaging resolution by a factor of two [L. Disdier et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2134 (2004)], but also a reduction in light output [V. Bildstein et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 729, 188 (2013); M. I. Ojaruega, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2009; M. T. Febbraro, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2014] as compared to standard plastic. Tests of the relative light output of deuterated polystyrene and standard polystyrene were completed using 14 MeV fusion neutrons generated through implosions of deuterium-tritium filled capsules at the OMEGA laser facility. In addition, we collected data of the relative response of these two scintillators to a wide energy range of neutrons (1-800 MeV) at the Weapons Neutrons Research Facility. Results of these measurements are presented.

  9. Colloidal crystals by electrospraying polystyrene nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces the electrospray technique as a suitable option to fabricate large-scale colloidal nanostructures, including colloidal crystals, in just a few minutes. It is shown that by changing the deposition conditions, different metamaterials can be fabricated: from scattered monolayers of polystyrene nanospheres to self-assembled three-dimensional ordered nanolayers having colloidal crystal properties. The electrospray technique overcomes the main problems encountered by top-down fabrication approaches, largely simplifying the experimental setup. Polystyrene nanospheres, with 360-nm diameter, were typically electrosprayed using off-the-shelf nanofluids. Several parameters of the setup and deposition conditions were explored, namely the distance between electrodes, nanofluid conductivity, applied voltage, and deposition rate. Layers thicker than 20 μm and area of 1 cm2 were typically produced, showing several domains of tens of microns wide with dislocations in between, but no cracks. The applied voltage was in the range of 10 kV, and the conductivity of the colloidal solution was in the range of 3 to 4 mS. Besides the morphology of the layers, the quality was also assessed by means of optical reflectance measurements showing an 80% reflectivity peak in the vicinity of 950-nm wavelength. PMID:23311494

  10. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  11. Sonography for hip joint effusion in adults with hip pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Prins (Ad); J.S. Lameris; A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of ultrasonic hip joint effusion and its relation with clinical, radiological and laboratory (ESR) findings in adults with hip pain. METHODS: Patients (n = 224) aged 50 years or older with hip pain, referred by the general

  12. sign hip construct: achieving hip fracture fixation without using an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess outcomes of using the SIGN Hip Construct (SHC) to achieve ... The majority (76%) of patients were ambulatory within. 3 days after the surgery. ... Conclusion: Using the SIGN Hip Construct, hip fracture fixation can be ... elderly has made stable reduction and internal fixation.

  13. Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which a...

  14. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongation...

  15. Pegylated polystyrene particles as a model system for artificial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H.M.; Gessner, Andrea; Müller, Reiner H.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Pegylated polystyrene particles (PS-PEG) were prepared as a model system for artificial cells, by modification of carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) with homo- and hetero-bifunctional polyethylene glycols (PEG, MW 1500, 3400, and 5000) containing an amino end group for immobilization and an am

  16. Dual-Purpose Millikan Experiment with Polystyrene Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. N.; Christensen, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    This procedure, using polystyrene spheres of specified diameter, renders the Millikan oil drop experiment more accurate than the conventional procedure of the polystyrene spheres, eliminates size estimation error, and removes the guesswork involved in assigning proper index integers to the observed charges. (MLH)

  17. HIP-HOP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QunyKing; 人在羽中; 钱李明

    2005-01-01

    自从一群摇滚青年开始跟风 Elvis 的《Blue SuedeShoes》风格,hip-hop 似乎就成为了全球最具影响力的音乐风格。它最初起源于美国的黑人和拉丁美洲人,之后迅速在全世界流行,成为80年代、90年代和新千年的主流音乐。无论是在广告界还是在电影业,从各类排行榜到各种酒吧,hip-hop 的影响逐年增加。在1997年,英国的 hip-hop 还只是一种地下音

  18. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the motion of the hip and obvious shortening of the affected leg in older kids, an ... socket. During the procedure, doctors loosen the tight muscles and tissues around the hip joint and then ...

  19. Interaction between polystyrene spheres by atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Looi, L

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between a single polystyrene particle and a polystyrene substrate has been previously reported by a number of investigators. However, the effects of relative humidity, applied load and contact time on the adhesion of polystyrene surfaces have not been investigated and these effects are poorly understood. It is the primary aim of the current work to characterise the effect of the aforementioned parameters on the adhesion of polystyrene surfaces using atomic force microscopy. The polystyrene used in this study contained 1% of di-vinyl benzene as a cross-linking agent. From the work conducted using the custom-built instrument, the dependency of adhesion forces on the relative humidity is greatest at relative humidities above 60% where capillary forces cause a sharp increase in adhesion with increasing relative humidity. Hysteresis was observed in the solid-solid contact gradient of the accompanying force curves, suggesting non-elastic behaviour at the contact area of the surfaces

  20. Numerical test on polystyrene tunnel seismic-isolation material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress-strain mechanical properties of polystyrene foam plastic material were tested under different loading conditions. An empirical constitutive model for describing metal materials was proposed for the polystyrene plastic foam. The static and dynamic tests results show that the ductility and watertightness of the polystyrene plastic foam are significantly improved. At the same time, in order to check its seismic-isolation property, the high-performance foam concrete as filling materials of Galongla tunnel in Tibet was simulated by FEM. The simulated results show that the polystyrene plastic foam can remarkably decrease the stress and the plastic zone in final lining, so it can effectively reduce the seismic damage of the tunnel. Considering the seismic-isolation property and low price of polystyrene plastic foam, it is a good reference for the anti-seismic design of tunnels in high intensity zones.

  1. Hip resurfacing: a technology reborn

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the concept of hip resurfacing. Much of this interest has stemmed from the work of McMinn in the West Midlands. Hip resurfacing is now emerging as a viable alternative to conventional hip replacement. In this article, we discuss the conceptual advantages offered by hip resurfacing and review the early clinical results and the ongoing clinical concerns regarding this technology.

  2. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  3. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution.

  4. Thermal recycling of polystyrene and polystyrene-butadiene dissolved in a light cycle oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arandes, Jose M.; Erena, Javier; Olazar, Martin; Bilbao, Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Azkoiti, Miren J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Plaza de la Casilla 3, 48012 Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    A study has been made of the cracking on a mesoporous silica of polystyrene (PS) and polystyrene-butadiene (PS-BD) dissolved in a light cycle oil (LCO) from a product stream of a commercial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. This study has been carried out in a reactor of short contact time (3 s) in the 723-823 K range. This strategy for simultaneous valorization of plastics and solvent avoids the technological problems inherent to the treatment of solid postconsumer-plastics and the limitation to heat transfer in the process of pyrolysis. The cracking of plastics has a synergistic effect on the conversion of LCO, as it contributes to increasing the yield of gasoline (C{sub 5}-C{sub 12}). The cracking of the PS/LCO blend produces high yields of styrene, whereas the cracking of the PS-BD/LCO blend produces a stream of products with petrochemical interest.

  5. Treatment of hip instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, G M; Masri, B A; Garbuz, D S; Greidanus, N; Duncan, C P

    2001-10-01

    Instability after total hip arthroplasty is a major source of patient morbidity, second only to aseptic loosening. Certain patient groups have been identified as having a greater risk of instability, including patients undergoing revision arthroplasty as early or late treatment for proximal femoral fractures.

  6. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  7. Hip Arthroscopy: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Abdurrahman; Safran, Marc R

    2016-07-01

    Hip arthroscopy is a fast-growing and evolving field. Like knee and shoulder arthroscopy, hip arthroscopy began as a diagnostic procedure and then progressed to biopsy and resection of abnormalities. Subsequently, it has evolved to repair of various tissues and treatment of underlying causes. As the understanding of the hip joint and its associated pathophysiology grows, indications will continue to expand for this diagnostic and therapeutic modality. This article outlines the historic developments of hip arthroscopy, including advancements in instrumentation and techniques from the days of the first hip arthroscopies to the present day.

  8. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF CRAZES IN POLYSTYRENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jianfu; XUE Gi; CHENG Rongshi

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to study the mechanical properties and microstructure of crazes in polystyrene produced in air or in methanol at different temperatures. A new loss peak was found at about 82℃ ,which is assigned to glass transition peak of craze fibrils. The decrease of glass transition temperature of polymer in craze fibrils is due to the high values of surface to volume ratio. The glass transition temperature ratio of craze fibrils to bulk material(Tg'/Tg) has been expressed as a function of the fibrils diameter(d). From Tg'of craze fibrils ,the value of fibril diameter can be calculated. Annealing the crazed specimen at room temperature makes the fibrils plastically deform and cause the fibrils to thin slightly, whereas annealing the crazed specimen at the temperature near Tg of the craze fibrils makes the fibrils bundle together.

  9. Tribology of Graphite-Filled Polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Gilardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-lubricating polymer compounds are currently used for a wide range of applications such as bearings, gears, and water meters. Under severe conditions such as high pressure, high velocity, and/or high temperatures, the material fails (PV limit. In this study, we investigated the effect of graphite on the tribological properties of polystyrene (PS with “ball-on-three-plates” tests. Graphite-filled PS plates were produced via an internal mixer and compression molding. Unhardened steel (1.4401 and nylon (PA66 balls were used for the tribological tests. Our results indicate that graphite loading, graphite type, and particle size have a big influence on the friction coefficient, the wear resistance, and the PV limit of PS both against steel and PA66. In particular, primary synthetic graphite performs better than secondary synthetic graphite due to the higher degree of crystallinity.

  10. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H M; Feijen, Jan

    2004-07-01

    Densely pegylated particles that can serve as a model system for artificial cells were prepared by covalently grafting amino polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 3400 or 5000) onto carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) using carbodiimide chemistry. PEG-modified particles (PS-PEG) were characterized by determination of the PEG surface concentration, zeta-potential, size, and morphology. Under optimized grafting conditions, a dense "brush-like" PEG layer was formed. A PEG surface concentration of approximately 60 pmol/cm2, corresponding with an average distance between grafted PEG chains of approximately 17 A can be realized. It was shown that grafting of PEG onto PS-COOH reduced the adsorption of proteins from human plasma (85 vol %) in phosphate-buffered saline up to 90%.

  11. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Chiara [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Jacobs, Karin [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Seemann, Ralf [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Blossey, Ralf [Centre for Bioinformatics, Saarland University, PO Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Becker, Juergen [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 6, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Gruen, Guenther [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 6, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2003-01-15

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  12. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  13. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  14. ANALYSIS DEGRADATION OF POLYSTYRENE WITH MONTMORILLONITE NANOFILLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mihalikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the experimental investigation of the montmorillonite nanofillers effect on deformation properties of polystyrene KRASTEN 171. In some cases, combination of a low amount of clay with dispersed polymeric phase may cause synergistic effects leading to very fair balance of mechanical behaviour. This seems to be a consequence of complex influencing the multiphase system by clay such as modification of components (reinforcement and parameters of the interface accompanied by influencing the dynamic phase behaviour, i.e., the compactibilizing effect. The paper analyses the effect of nanocomposites and type of the material on the individual measured parameters, relations between them, strength and deformation behaviour. Deformation was evaluated by non-contact videoextensometry method

  15. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  16. Effects of depression and antidepressant medications on hip fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bi-Hua; Chen, Pau-Chung; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Huang, Ko-En; Chen, Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    depression revealed that antidepressants had no negative impact on the incidence of hip fracture. In conclusion, major depression was found to be a risk factor for hip fracture and that use of antidepressants had no adverse effect on hip fracture in the Taiwanese population. PMID:27603358

  17. HALOMETHYLATION OF POLYSTYRENE AND SUBSEQUENT PYRIDINATION VIA A HOMOLYTIC PATHWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sa(a)d Moulay; Nadia Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Chloromethylation of polystyrene (PS) with two different chloromethylating systems methylal/thionyl chloride and paraformaldehyde/trimethylchlorosilane was studied. Soluble chloromethylated polystyrene with a degree of substitution of 89% was obtained. The Conant-Finkelstein reaction on the chloromethylated PS afforded soluble iodomethylated polystyrene with a degree of substitution as high as 96%. The reaction conditions of Minisci were employed to radically pyridinate PS via its iodomethylated derivative. Polyelectrolytes were formed which could be converted to normal polymers by treatment with a 20% aqueous solution of NaOH.

  18. Characterization of Pectin Nanocoatings at Polystyrene and Titanium Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Dirscherl, Kai; Yihua, Yu;

    2013-01-01

    study was to physically characterize and compare polystyrene and titanium surfaces nanocoated with different Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-I) and to visualize RG-I nanocoatings. RG-Is from potato and apple were coated on aminated surfaces of polystyrene, titianium discs and titanium implants...... wettability, without any major effect on surface roughness (Sa, Sdr). Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to visualize the pectin RG-Is molecules and even the nanocoatings on titanium surfaces, which have not been presented before. The comparison between polystyrene and titanium surface showed...

  19. Conus hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Wagner, M

    2001-01-01

    50 years ago, prosthetic replacement of the hip joint ushered in a new epoch in orthopaedics. Total hip replacement made it possible to remove a severely diseased, painful hip and restore normal function and a normal quality of life to the afflicted patient. The early results of total hip replacement are almost all spectacular and hip replacement has become the most successful type of orthopaedic surgery. These good results using an approach that was technically relatively simple resulted in a temptation to implant prosthetic hip joints with ever increasing frequency in ever younger patients. This led to the emergence of new problems, which were not so clearly recognised at the outset: it emerged that the stability of prosthetic hip joints was of limited duration. This had the following consequence: If a total hip prosthesis is implanted in an elderly person whose remaining life-expectancy is shorter than the longevity of the prosthesis, hip replacement is a life-long solution. We can therefore say that, for a patient who has only 10 to 15 years left to live, their hip problem is solved by total hip replacement. For young people, who still have a long life expectancy in front of them, it is different. They will experience failure of the artificial joint and require further surgery. The commonest and most important type of failure in total hip prostheses is aseptic loosening, which is associated with resorption of bone at the site of the prosthesis. The cause of this phenomenon has only gradually been recognised in the course of the years. Initially, the unanimous opinion was that the methacrylate cement, used to fix the components of the prosthesis in the bone, was the definitive cause of aseptic loosening because fissures and fractures of the cement were almost always found during surgical revision of loosened joints. There was talk of "cement disease" and great efforts were made to improve the quality of the cement and the cementing technique. Moreover, even

  20. The impact of religiosity on dietary habits and physical activity in minority women participating in the Health is Power (HIP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Serene; Soltero, Erica G; Lorenzo, Elizabeth; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-03-01

    African American (AA) and Hispanic/Latina (HL) women report lower rates of physical activity (PA) and poorer dietary habits compared to their white counterparts. Religiosity can act as a protective factor for health; however, the relationship between religiosity, PA, and diet is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of religiosity on PA and fruit and vegetable (FV) and fat consumption in minority women. Health is Power (HIP) was a 6-month intervention where participants (AA: 63%; HL: 37%) were randomized to a PA or FV group. Questionnaires assessed religiosity at baseline and PA, FV and fat consumption at baseline and post-intervention. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to investigate religiosity as a predictor of change in PA, FV and fat, while controlling for demographics. AA women had significantly higher religiosity scores (M = 44.15, SD = 10.66) compared to H/L women (M = 35.11, SD = 12.82; t(251) = 5.86, p Religiosity was not a significant predictor of PA or diet (p religiosity and change in PA and diet. More longitudinal studies are needed to explore the role of religiosity in the health of minority women.

  1. The impact of religiosity on dietary habits and physical activity in minority women participating in the Health is Power (HIP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serene Ansari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available African American (AA and Hispanic/Latina (HL women report lower rates of physical activity (PA and poorer dietary habits compared to their white counterparts. Religiosity can act as a protective factor for health; however, the relationship between religiosity, PA, and diet is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of religiosity on PA and fruit and vegetable (FV and fat consumption in minority women. Health is Power (HIP was a 6-month intervention where participants (AA: 63%; HL: 37% were randomized to a PA or FV group. Questionnaires assessed religiosity at baseline and PA, FV and fat consumption at baseline and post-intervention. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to investigate religiosity as a predictor of change in PA, FV and fat, while controlling for demographics. AA women had significantly higher religiosity scores (M = 44.15, SD = 10.66 compared to H/L women (M = 35.11, SD = 12.82; t(251 = 5.86, p < 0.001. Across both groups, PA increased by 15%, FV intake increased by 27%, and consumption of calories by fat decreased by 5%. Religiosity was not a significant predictor of PA or diet (p < 0.05. The results of this study found no association between religiosity and change in PA and diet. More longitudinal studies are needed to explore the role of religiosity in the health of minority women.

  2. Sulfonated polystyrene as a new gradient-index medium for light-focusing elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S D; Hwang, W Y; Song, S H; Lee, el-H; Lee, J I; Shim, H K

    1995-06-01

    We have discovered that the sulfonation of polystyrene can form a gradient-index medium useful for lightfocusing purposes. We found that the refractive index of sulfonated polystyrene varies with the degree of sulfonation and that the refractive index of the fully sulfonated polystyrene decreased by approximately 0.06 at 0.633 microm from that of pure polystyrene.

  3. Revision of hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Glenn D; Gillespie, Robert J; Petty, Carter; Petersilge, William J; Kraay, Matthew J; Goldberg, Victor M

    2010-08-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing has become an increasingly popular treatment for young, active patients with degenerative disease of the hip, as bearing surfaces with better wear properties are now available. One proposed advantage of resurfacing is its ability to be successfully revised to total hip arthroplasty (THA). In addition, radiographic parameters that may predict failure in hip resurfacing have yet to be clearly defined. Seven MOM resurfacing arthroplasties were converted to conventional THAs because of aseptic failure. Using Harris Hip Scores (HHS) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire scores, we compared the clinical outcomes of these patients with those of patients who underwent uncomplicated MOM hip resurfacing. In addition, all revisions were radiographically evaluated. Mean follow-up periods were 51 months (revision group) and 43 months (control group). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups' HHS or SF-12 scores. There was no dislocation or aseptic loosening after conversion of any resurfacing arthroplasty. Valgus neck-shaft angle (P hip resurfacing. Conversion of aseptic failure of hip resurfacing to conventional THA leads to clinical outcomes similar to those of patients who undergo uncomplicated hip resurfacing. The orientation of the femur and the components placed play a large role in implant survival in hip resurfacing. More work needs to be done to further elucidate these radiographic parameters.

  4. Chemical Recycling of Expanded Polystyrene Waste: Synthesis of Novel Functional Polystyrene-Hydrazone Surface for Phenol Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Siyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanded polystyrene (EPS waste was chemically recycled to a novel functional polystyrene-hydrazone (PSH surface by acetylation of polystyrene (PS and then condensation with phenyl hydrazine. The synthesized surface was characterized by the FT-IR and elemental analysis. Synthesized novel functional PSH surface was successfully applied for the treatment of phenol-contaminated industrial wastewater by solid-phase extraction. Multivariant sorption optimization was achieved by factorial design approach. 99.93% of phenol was removed from aqueous solution. FT-IR study showed the involvement of nitrogen of hydrazone moiety of synthesized surface for the uptake of phenol through the hydrogen bonding.

  5. [Juvenile hip pain. 2. Femur head epiphysiolysis, hip dysplasia, tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbruch, W; von Gumppenberg, S; Karpf, P M

    1978-11-09

    The early symptom in hip joint diseases in children is pain. Pain is localized in the groin and thight, but mostly in the knee. Other important signs are limping and reduced internal rotation. If a hip disease is suspected it is necessary to take X-rays in two planes. If diagnosis is early and special therapy started immediately, the results are usually excellent without deformation of the hip. Otherwise early osteoarthritis can develop. This is important because osteoarthritis in the hip joint is in 75% of the cases due to hip joint diseases in childhood. The problems of diagnosis and treatment of the most common hip joint diseases in children (transient synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteomyelitis, Legg-Perthes disease, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, dysplasia, tumors) are discussed.

  6. Nonarthritic hip joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enseki, Keelan; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; White, Douglas M; Cibulka, Michael T; Woehrle, Judith; Fagerson, Timothy L; Clohisy, John C

    2014-06-01

    The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these clinical practice guidelines is to describe the peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to nonarthritic hip joint pain.

  7. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. C. MOTTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase in the sulfonated polystyrene content decreased the elasticity modulus of the mortar and, despite higher porosity, there was a reduction of water absorption by capillarity. In relation to mortar without admixture, the modified mortar showed an increase in water retention and consistency index, and a large increase in flexural strength and bond tensile strength. The significant increase of bond tensile strength (214% with admixture 1% highlights the potential of the produced material as an adhesive mortar.

  8. Preparation and Structural Characterization of Polystyrene-Rectorite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Peng-fei; Liu Li-ming; Zhang Ming; Zhang Shao-ping; Wang Bo; Wang Shao-jie

    2003-01-01

    The polystyrene/rectorite nanocomposites were prepared by free radical polymerization of styrene containing dispersed organophilic rectorite. The structures and thermal properties of these hybrids have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. It was found that exfoliation of rectorite in polystyrene (PS) matrix was achieved. The average free-volume radius in the PS/clay nanocomposites is generally same as that in PS. Along with increment of rectorite contents, the interface between rectorite and polystyrene matrix increases, and the free-volume concentration decreases obviously. And the polystyrene nanocomposites have higher thermal decomposition temperature than pure PS.

  9. Synthesis of 3D ordered porous polystyrene using silica template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A rigid colloidal silica template was formed by self-assembly ofthe monodispersed silica spheres prepared according to St-ber method. The silica template is highly ordered, which was verified by bright color effect due to Bragg diffraction and the results of SEM. The free radical polymerization of styrene was allowed within the interstices of the rigid template to result in the formation of the three- dimensional periodic silica/polystyrene nano-composites. The titled porous polystyrene was prepared by chemical decom- position of the template with concentrated aqueous hydro- fluoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy characterization showed that the macroporous polystyrene has ordered arrays of the uniform pores replicated from the template. Moreover, it was found that the morphology of the as-synthesized macroporous polystyrene was greatly affected by the connectivity of the silica spheres treated under different conditions.

  10. Preparation and Structural Characterization of Polystyrene-Rectorite Nanocornposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangPeng-fei; LiuLi-ming; ZhangMlng; ZhangShao-ping; WangBo; WangShao-jie

    2003-01-01

    The polystyrene/reetorite nanocomposites were prepared by free radical polymerization of styrene containing dispersed organophilic rectorite. The structures and thermal properties of these hybrids have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and thermal gmvimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. It was found that exfoliation of reetorite in polystyrene (PS) matrix was achieved. The average free-volume radius in the PS/clay nanocomposites is generally same as that in PS. Along with increment of reetorite contents, the interface between reetorite and polystyrene matrix increases, and the free-volume concentration decreases obviously. And the polystyrene nanocomposites have higher thermal deeomrosition temoemture than oure PS.

  11. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring.

  12. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L−1) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (−38%), diameter (−5%), and sperm velocity (−23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  13. 高抗冲聚苯乙烯银纹化渐进损伤三维模拟%3D Progressive Damage Simulation of Crazing in High Impact Polystyrenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃; 张超; 张斌

    2011-01-01

    针对高抗冲聚苯乙烯,本文建立了细观单胞结构三维模型,引入周期性边界条件,采用非线性有限元法,研究了在单向拉伸载荷下银纹化损伤过程。采用最大主应力准则作为银纹化损伤判据,通过受损单元积分点刚度矩阵的折减实现材料力学性能的退化,运用材料的应力-应变曲线预测了其力学性能。数值结果与相关文献模拟结果吻合,表明本文损伤预测三维模型的合理有效性。%By using a nonlinear finite element method,3D representative volume element(RVE) models under periodical boundary conditions were constructed to simulate the crazing process within uniaxially tensed high impact polystyrenes(HIPS).Maximum principal stress criterion was introduced for the prediction of initial damage in material matrix,and the degradation of mechanical properties was approached by reducing the stiffness of damaged elements.The mechanical properties of the materials were then obtained from the calculated stress-strain curves.Our results show good agreements with the related literatures,which verify the effectiveness of our models.

  14. The charge memory effect in polystyrene-based composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Kotova, M. S.; Dronov, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that the addition of light-sensitive particles to a polystyrene matrix enables control over processes of resistive voltage switching in the composite material, which involve photoinduced transitions between states with different conductivities. This specific feature of polymeric composite materials based on polystyrene and heterocyclic rings can be accounted for in terms of the model of charge accumulation and that of conducting channels.

  15. Searching for new green wavelength shifters in polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.W.; Zhang, G.

    1993-12-01

    A series of commercially available fluorescent compounds was tested as wavelength shifters in polystyrene for the tile/fiber SDC calorimeter. The objective was to find a green-fluorescing compound with short decay time (3--7 ns). Transmittance, fluorescence, and decay time measurements were performed in order to characterize each compound in polystyrene. These samples were also studies for radiation-induced damage.

  16. Studies on irradiation stability of polystyrene by NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin; SUN Wan-Fu; XIE Cheng-Xi

    2004-01-01

    The irradiation stability of polystyrene (PS) was studied by 13C and 1H NMR spectra, Nuclear Overhauser Relaxation (NOE) and 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1). The results indicate that 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts, NOE and T1 were almost invariant with the increase of irradiation dose. This shows that polystyrene is particularly stable within 2.5 kGy doses and the mechanism of its stability is discussed.

  17. [Delirium prevention and treatment in elderly hip fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, María José; Formiga, Francesc; Vidán, M Teresa

    2014-04-22

    The fracture of the proximal femur or hip fracture in the elderly usually happens after a fall and carries a high morbidity and mortality. One of the most common complications during hospitalization for hip fracture is the onset of delirium or acute confusional state that in elderly patients has a negative impact on the hospital stay, and prognosis, worsening functional ability, cognitive status and mortality. Also the development of delirium during hospitalization increases health care costs. Strategies to prevent and treat delirium during hospitalization for hip fracture have been less studied. In this context, this paper aims to conduct a review of the literature on strategies that exist in the prevention and treatment of delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture.

  18. Formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles using sulfonated polystyrene as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Mousumi; Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Jana, Tushar

    2010-11-15

    We report formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles from a new blend system consisting of an amorphous polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) and an ionomer sodium salt of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS-Na). The ionomer used for the blending is spherical in shape with sulfonate groups on the surface of the particles. An in depth investigation of the blends at various sulfonation degrees and compositions using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy provides direct evidence of specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the N-H groups of PBI and the sulfonate groups of SPS-Na. The disruption of PBI chains self association owing to the interaction between the functional groups of these polymer pairs is the driving force for the blending. Thermodynamical studies carried out by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) establish partially miscible phase separated blending of these polymers in a wider composition range. The two distinguishable glass transition temperatures (T(g)) which are different from the neat components and unaltered with the blends composition attribute that the domain size of heterogeneity (d(d)) of the blends is >20 nm since one of the blend component (SPS-Na particle) diameter is ∼70 nm. The diminish of PBI chains self association upon blending with SPS-Na particles and the presence of invariant T(g)'s of the blends suggest the wrapping of PBI chains over the SPS-Na spherical particle surface and hence resulting a core-shell morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study provides direct evidence of core-shell nanoparticle formation; where core is the polystyrene and shell is the PBI. The sulfonation degree affects the blends phase separations. The higher degree of sulfonation favors the disruption of PBI self association and thus forms partially miscible two phases blends with core-shell morphology.

  19. CURBSIDE CONSULTATION IN HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    OpenAIRE

    Sporer, Scott M.; Bernard R. Bach, Jr

    2009-01-01

    DESCRIPTION A user friendly reference for decision making in hip arthroplasty designed in a question formed clinical problem scenarios and answers format .The articles composed of the answers, containing current concepts and preferences of experts in primary and revision hip surgery are enhanced by several images, diagrams and references and written in the form of a curbside consultation by Scott M. Sporer, MD. and his collaborators. PURPOSE By this practical reference of hip arthroplasty, Sc...

  20. Simplified prototyping of perfusable polystyrene microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Reginald; Ahn, Byungwook; R. Myers, David; Qiu, Yongzhi; Sakurai, Yumiko; Moot, Robert; Mihevc, Emma; Trent Spencer, H.; Doering, Christopher; A. Lam, Wilbur

    2014-01-01

    Cell culture in microfluidic systems has primarily been conducted in devices comprised of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or other elastomers. As polystyrene (PS) is the most characterized and commonly used substrate material for cell culture, microfluidic cell culture would ideally be conducted in PS-based microsystems that also enable tight control of perfusion and hydrodynamic conditions, which are especially important for culture of vascular cell types. Here, we report a simple method to prototype perfusable PS microfluidics for endothelial cell culture under flow that can be fabricated using standard lithography and wet laboratory equipment to enable stable perfusion at shear stresses up to 300 dyn/cm2 and pumping pressures up to 26 kPa for at least 100 h. This technique can also be extended to fabricate perfusable hybrid PS-PDMS microfluidics of which one application is for increased efficiency of viral transduction in non-adherent suspension cells by leveraging the high surface area to volume ratio of microfluidics and adhesion molecules that are optimized for PS substrates. These biologically compatible microfluidic devices can be made more accessible to biological-based laboratories through the outsourcing of lithography to various available microfluidic foundries. PMID:25379106

  1. Fluorescent Polystyrene Sulfonate for Polyelectrolyte Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Wayne; Tong, Xiaowei; Balamurugan, Sreelatha; Zhang, Donghui; Russo, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The slow-mode decay found by dynamic light scattering for polyelectrolytes in low-salt conditions has perplexed investigators since its first observation. Many characterization methods have suggested temporary or transient aggregation, although there is still no consensus on the cause. Many different polyelectrolytes demonstrate the slow-mode decay, but the sodium salt of polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) is the most popular choice for study. Commercially available NaPSS may have hydrophobic patches due to incomplete sulfonation leading to associations apart from any putative ionic mechanisms. Therefore, essentially full sulfonation, or ``patchless'', NaPSS should be synthesized. To facilitate fluorescence measurements, which can provide new insights to the slow-mode phenomenon, the material must be rendered fluorescent (F-NaPSS). Several approaches to F-NaPSS have appeared; some labeled a previously synthesized NaPSS without concern for its hydrophobic patches. Other strategies include a free radical copolymerization of styrene sulfonate and a vinyl amine to provide side chains viable for labeling. This method is successful, but yields only small amounts of nearly monodisperse polymer after fractionation. In this presentation, a high-yield synthesis of fully sulfonated, low-polydispersity, fluorescently tagged polymer will be discussed.

  2. Evidence to suggest that women's sexual behavior is influenced by hip width rather than waist-to-hip ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Victoria J; Brewer, Gayle; Hendrie, Colin A

    2014-10-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is an important ornament display that signals women's health and fertility. Its significance derives from human development as a bipedal species. This required fundamental changes to hip morphology/musculature to accommodate the demands of both reproduction and locomotion. The result has been an obstetric dilemma whereby women's hips are only just wide enough to allow the passage of an infant. Childbirth therefore poses a significant hip width related threat to maternal mortality/risk of gynecological injury. It was predicted that this would have a significant influence on women's sexual behavior. To investigate this, hip width and WHR were measured in 148 women (M age = 20.93 + 0.17 years) and sexual histories were recorded via questionnaire. Data revealed that hip width per se was correlated with total number of sexual partners, total number of one night stands, percentage of sexual partners that were one night stands, number of sexual partners within the context of a relationship per year sexually active, and number of one night stands per year sexually active. By contrast, WHR was not correlated with any of these measures. Further analysis indicated that women who predominantly engaged in one night stand behavior had wider hips than those who did not. WHR was again without effect in this context. Women's hip morphology has a direct impact on their risk of potentially fatal childbirth related injury. It is concluded that when they have control over this, women's sexual behavior reflects this risk and is therefore at least in part influenced by hip width.

  3. 高抗冲聚苯乙烯/丁苯橡胶热塑性硫化胶的Payne效应及模型拟合%Payne effect of high impact polystyrene/styrene-butadiene rubber thermoplastic vulcanizates and its model fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅; 王兆波

    2014-01-01

    采用动态硫化法制备了高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)/丁苯橡胶(SBR)热塑性硫化胶(TPV)及苯乙烯-丁二烯-苯乙烯嵌段共聚物(SBS)增容HIPS/SBR TPV,通过橡胶加工分析仪研究了TPV的Payne效应,并利用Kraus模型进行了拟合.结果表明,在相同应变下,随着HIPS/SBR TPV中HIPS含量的增加,TPV的储能模量(G')和损耗模量(G”)均增大;在不同测试温度条件下,随着应变的增加,纯SBR硫化胶的G'及G”变化不大,未出现Payne效应,HIPS/SBR TPV及SBS增容HIPS/SBR TPV均呈现明显的Payne效应;在应变测试范围内,利用Kraus模型对HIPS/SBR TPV及SBS增容HIPS/SBR TPV的G'拟合较好,但不能对G”有效拟合;提高测试温度,HIPS/SBR TPV及SBS增容HIPS/SBR TPV的小应变下G'初始值与大应变下Payne效应终止时G'值降低,G”达到最大值时的应变振幅特征值增大.

  4. The Effect of Counterions on the Blend Miscibility of Polystyrene with Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nancy C.; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Composto, Russell J.; Winey, Karen I.

    2006-03-01

    Our previous study probed the miscibility of polystyrene (PS) and sulfonated polystyrene (P(S-SSx)) of differing sulfonation levels (x) and found a narrow window of miscibility. Specifically, the PS:P(S-SSx) blend system becomes completely immiscible at unexpectedly low sulfonation level, x = 2.7 mol% . Here we extend the study of blend miscibility of PS with P(S-SS0.007) to include materials neutralized with sodium, barium and zinc cations. These ionomer blends exhibit an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behavior with an increase in critical temperature as compared to the blend with unneutralized P(S-SS0.007). Forward recoil spectrometry (FRES) results indicate that Zn^++ and Ba^++ neutralized ionomers are less miscible than Na^+ when fully neutralized, while the blend miscibility for Na^+ and Zn^++ neutralized ionomers behave similarly when partially neutralized. Rheological studies are underway to compliment the blend miscibility studies. These miscibility information gained from PS/P(S-SSx) ionomers blends will serve as a foundation for future ionomer morphology studies.

  5. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of syndiotactic polystyrene polystyrene functionalized SWNTs nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics were characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis on neat semicrystalline syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS and its nanocomposites with polystyrene (PS functionalized full-length single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-PS, which was prepared by copper (I catalyzed click coupling of alkyne-decorated SWNTs with well-defined, azide-terminated PS. The crystallization behavior of neat sPS polymer was compared to its SWNT based nanocomposites. The results suggested that the non-isothermal crystallization behavior of sPS/SWNT-PS nanocomposites depended significantly on the SWNT-PS content and cooling rate. The incorporation of SWNT-PS caused a change in the mechanism of nucleation and the crystal growth of sPS crystallites, this effect being more significant at lower SWNT-PS content. Combined Avrami and Ozawa analysis was found to be effective in describing the non-isothermal crystallization of the neat sPS and its nanocomposites. The activation energy of sPS determined from non-isothermal data decreased with the presence of small quantity of SWNT-PS in the nanocomposites and then increased with increasing SWNT-PS content.

  6. Hip Hip Hurrah! Hip size inversely related to heart disease and total mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Lissner, L

    2011-01-01

    obesity and/or waist circumference. These studies have been remarkable in terms of their consistency, and in the unexpected finding of an adverse effect of small hip size, after statistically correcting for differences in general and abdominal size. The hazard related to a small hip size may be stronger......During the past decade a series of published reports have examined the value of studying the relation between hip circumferences and cardiovascular end points. Specifically, in a series of recent studies the independent effects of hip circumference have been studied after adjustment for general...

  7. Trochanteric osteotomy in total hip replacement for congenital hip disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartofilakidis, G; Babis, G C; Georgiades, G; Kourlaba, G

    2011-05-01

    We studied the effect of trochanteric osteotomy in 192 total hip replacements in 140 patients with congenital hip disease. There was bony union in 158 hips (82%), fibrous union in 29 (15%) and nonunion in five (3%). The rate of union had a statistically significant relationship with the position of reattachment of the trochanter, which depended greatly on the pre-operative diagnosis. The pre-operative Trendelenburg gait substantially improved in all three disease types (dysplasia, low and high dislocation) and all four categories of reattachment position. A persistent Trendelenburg gait post-operatively was noticed mostly in patients with defective union (fibrous or nonunion). Acetabular and femoral loosening had a statistically significant relationship with defective union and the position of reattachment of the trochanter. These results suggest that the complications of trochanteric osteotomy in total hip replacement for patients with congenital hip disease are less important than the benefits of this surgical approach.

  8. Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Maagaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    and Pincer resection in 93.5% of the cases. Labral refixation or repair was done in 70.3% of the cases. The most common type of acetabular chondral damage was grade II lesions (36.6%). Grade III and IV changes were seen in 36.1% of the cases. The preoperative iHOT12 was 45 (mean) based on all 12 items. EQ-5D....... The problems with development and maintaining a large clinical registry are described and further studies are needed to validate data completeness. We consider the development of a national clinical registry for hip arthroscopy as a successful way of developing and maintaining a valuable clinical...

  9. STUDY ON LIGHTLY SULFONATED SYNDIOTACTIC POLYSTYRENE IONOMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wang; Fang-ming Zhu; Jin-cheng Lui; Hua-ming Li; Shang-an Lin

    2001-01-01

    ulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene ionomers (SsPS) with 1.8 mol% degree of sulfonation have been studied.SWAXD shows that the crystallinity of SsPS ionomers was decreased with increasing diameter size of the counter ions and sPS > SsPS-H > SsPS-K > SsPS-Zn. Moreover, SsPS ionomers only have α crystal form, while original sPS has two crystal forms: α and β crystal form. TGA shows that the thermal stability of SsPS ionomers is higher than that of the original sPS and SsPS-Zn > SsPS-K > SsPS-H. DSC shows that all the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of SsPS ionomers are higher than that of the neat sPS and SsPS-Zn > SsPS-Na > SsPS-K > SsPS-H. However, the melting temperature (Tm) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp) of SsPS ionomers are lower and SsPS-H > SsPS-Zn > SsPS-K > SsPS-Na, while the crystallinity (Xc) of SsPS-Zn is the lowest. Nonisothermal crystallization kinetics shows that the Avrami index of sPS and SsPS-H are both about 4, suggesting the nucleation growth of SsPS-H with lower degree of sulfonation still keeps its threedimension form. FTIR spectra of SsPS ionomers show a splitting absorption band for asymmetric stretching vibration of sulfonation group. The CH in-plane bending vibration of benzene ring shifted to higher wavenumber and the symmetric stretching vibration of sulfonation group changed slightly with different counter ion neutralized SsPS ionomers.

  10. Benchtop micromolding of polystyrene by soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Balowski, Joseph; Phillips, Colleen; Phillips, Ryan; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2011-09-21

    Polystyrene (PS), a standard material for cell culture consumable labware, was molded into microstructures with high fidelity of replication by an elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. The process was a simple, benchtop method based on soft lithography using readily available materials. The key to successful replica molding by this simple procedure relies on the use of a solvent, for example, gamma-butyrolactone, which dissolves PS without swelling the PDMS mold. PS solution was added to the PDMS mold, and evaporation of the solvent was accomplished by baking the mold on a hotplate. Microstructures with feature sizes as small as 3 μm and aspect ratios as large as 7 were readily molded. Prototypes of microfluidic chips made from PS were prepared by thermal bonding of a microchannel molded in PS with a flat PS substrate. The PS microfluidic chip displayed much lower adsorption and absorption of hydrophobic molecules (e.g. rhodamine B) compared to a comparable chip created from PDMS. The molded PS surface exhibited stable surface properties after plasma oxidation as assessed by contact angle measurement. The molded, oxidized PS surface remained an excellent surface for cell culture based on cell adhesion and proliferation. To demonstrate the application of this process for cell biology research, PS was micromolded into two different microarray formats, microwells and microposts, for segregation and tracking of non-adherent and adherent cells, respectively. The micromolded PS possessed properties that were ideal for biological and bioanalytical needs, thus making it an alternative material to PDMS and suitable for building lab-on-a-chip devices by soft lithography methods. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  11. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Formiggini, Fabio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Marco, Nadia De [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Carotenuto, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.carotenuto@unina.it [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  12. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele; Formiggini, Fabio; Marco, Nadia De; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Carotenuto, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay- Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the "corona" effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  13. Martial arts fall training to prevent hip fractures in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.E.; Smulders, E.; Kam, D. de; Duysens, J.E.J.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hip fractures are a common and serious consequence of falls. Training of proper fall techniques may be useful to prevent hip fractures in the elderly. The results suggested that martial arts fall techniques may be trainable in older individuals. Better performance resulted in a reduced impact force.

  14. Martial arts fall training to prevent hip fractures in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.E.; Smulders, E.; Kam, D. de; Duysens, J.E.J.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hip fractures are a common and serious consequence of falls. Training of proper fall techniques may be useful to prevent hip fractures in the elderly. The results suggested that martial arts fall techniques may be trainable in older individuals. Better performance resulted in a reduced impact force.

  15. Empowerment in Context: Lessons from Hip-Hop Culture for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Raphael, Jr.; Deepak, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Hip-hop culture can be used as a conduit to enhanced cultural competence and practice skills through the individual and community empowerment framework. This framework is introduced as a tool for direct practice that allows social workers to understand the competing messages within hip-hop culture and how they may impact youths by promoting or…

  16. Social inequality and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, N. C.; Hansen, L.; Judge, A.

    2015-01-01

    Social inequality appears to be increasing in many countries. We explored whether risk of hip fracture was associated with markers of inequality and whether these relationships changed with time, using data from Danish Health Registries. Methods: All patients 60 years or older with a primary hip...

  17. Incorporation of Nanohybrid Films of Silica into Recycled Polystyrene Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Hernández-Padrón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative for the reutilization of polystyrene waste containers consisting in creating a hybrid material made of SiO2 nanoparticles embedded in a matrix of recycled polystyrene (PSR has been developed. Recycled polystyrene functionalized (PSRF was used to influence the morphological and antifog properties by the sol-gel synthesis of nanohybrid silica. To this end, silica nanoparticles were produced from alkoxide precursors in the presence of recycled polystyrene. The functionalization of this polymeric matrix was with the purpose of uniting in situ carboxyl and silanol groups during the sol-gel process. In this way, opaque or transparent solid substrates can be obtained, with each of these endowed with optical conditions that depend on the amount of reactants employed to prepare each nanohybrid specimen. The nanohybrids were labelled as SiO2/PSR (HPSR and SiO2/PSRF (HPSRF and their properties were then compared to those of commercial polystyrene (PS. All the prepared samples were used for coating glass substrates. The hydrophobicity of the resultant coatings was determined through contact angle measurement. The nanohybrid materials were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR techniques. Additionally, TGA and SEM were employed to determine their thermal and textural properties.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Fused/Ankylosed Hip with Severe Flexion Deformity after Conversion to Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Suwal

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: THA is an effective treatment for ankylosed hip with severe flexion deformity although complications are noted more than routine hip arthroplasties. Keywords: ankylosed hip; fused hip; severe flexion deformity; total hip arthroplasty. | PubMed

  19. Total hip arthroplasty following failed fixation of proximal hip fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastav Shekhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most proximal femoral fractures are successfully treated with internal fixation but a failed surgery can be very distressing for the patient due to pain and disability. For the treating surgeon it can be a challenge to perform salvage operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term functional outcome and complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA following failed fixation of proximal hip fracture. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 21 hips in 20 patients (13 females and seven males with complications of operated hip fractures as indicated by either established nonunion or fracture collapse with hardware failure were analysed. Mean age of the patients was 62 years (range 38 years to 85 years. Nine patients were treated for femoral neck fracture, 10 for intertrochanteric (I/T fracture and two for subtrochanteric (S/T fracture of the hip. Uncemented THA was done in 11 cases, cemented THA in eight hip joints and hybrid THA in two patients. Results: The average duration of follow-up was four years (2-13 years. The mean duration of surgery was 125 min and blood loss was 1300 ml. There were three dislocations postoperatively. Two were managed conservatively and one was operated. There was one superficial infection and one deep infection. Only one patient required a walker while four required walking stick for ambulation. The mean Harris Hip score increased from 32 preoperatively to 79 postoperatively at one year interval. Conclusion: Total hip arthroplasty is an effective salvage procedure after failed osteosynthesis of hip fractures. Most patients have good pain relief and functional improvements inspite of technical difficulties and high complication rates than primary arthroplasty.

  20. Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP Beads for Control of Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soltani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the im­ma­ture stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface.  They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need fre­quent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS and (SWAP for control of mosquito larvae under labo­ra­tory conditions.Methods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 lar­vae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. ste­phensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments.Results: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both spe­cies was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of lar­vae. The fig­ures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%Conclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefas­ciatus under the laboratory conditions.

  1. Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP Beads for Control of Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soltani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the im­ma­ture stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface.  They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need fre­quent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS and (SWAP for control of mosquito larvae under labo­ra­tory conditions."nMethods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 lar­vae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. ste­phensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments."nResults: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both spe­cies was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of lar­vae. The fig­ures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%"nConclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefas­ciatus under the laboratory conditions.

  2. Liquid polystyrene: a room-temperature photocurable soft lithography compatible pour-and-cure-type polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargang, Tobias M; Brockmann, Lara; Nikolov, Pavel Mitkov; Schild, Dieter; Helmer, Dorothea; Keller, Nico; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Wilhelm, Elisabeth; Pires, Leonardo; Dirschka, Marian; Kolew, Alexander; Schneider, Marc; Worgull, Matthias; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Neumann, Christiane; Rapp, Bastian E

    2014-08-07

    Materials matter in microfluidics. Since the introduction of soft lithography as a prototyping technique and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as material of choice the microfluidics community has settled with using this material almost exclusively. However, for many applications PDMS is not an ideal material given its limited solvent resistance and hydrophobicity which makes it especially disadvantageous for certain cell-based assays. For these applications polystyrene (PS) would be a better choice. PS has been used in biology research and analytics for decades and numerous protocols have been developed and optimized for it. However, PS has not found widespread use in microfluidics mainly because, being a thermoplastic material, it is typically structured using industrial polymer replication techniques. This makes PS unsuitable for prototyping. In this paper, we introduce a new structuring method for PS which is compatible with soft lithography prototyping. We develop a liquid PS prepolymer which we term as "Liquid Polystyrene" (liqPS). liqPS is a viscous free-flowing liquid which can be cured by visible light exposure using soft replication templates, e.g., made from PDMS. Using liqPS prototyping microfluidic systems in PS is as easy as prototyping microfluidic systems in PDMS. We demonstrate that cured liqPS is (chemically and physically) identical to commercial PS. Comparative studies on mouse fibroblasts L929 showed that liqPS cannot be distinguished from commercial PS in such experiments. Researchers can develop and optimize microfluidic structures using liqPS and soft lithography. Once the device is to be commercialized it can be manufactured using scalable industrial polymer replication techniques in PS--the material is the same in both cases. Therefore, liqPS effectively closes the gap between "microfluidic prototyping" and "industrial microfluidics" by providing a common material.

  3. Isothermal Gas assisted displacement of a polystyrene melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase in the s......Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase...

  4. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  5. Trace cancer biomarker quantification using polystyrene-functionalized gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Wei; Hajisalem, Ghazal; Lukach, Ariella; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Hof, Fraser; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of polystyrene-functionalized gold nanorods (AuNRs) as a platform for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) quantification of the exogenous cancer biomarker Acetyl Amantadine (AcAm). We utilize the hydrophobicity of the polystyrene attached to the AuNR surface to capture the hydrophobic AcAm from solution, followed by drying and detection using SERS. We achieve a detection limit of 16 ng/mL using this platform. This result shows clinical potential for low-cost early cancer detection. PMID:25574423

  6. Polystyrene/MoS{sub 2}@oleylamine nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altavilla, Claudia; Ciambelli, Paolo [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 134 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centre NANO MATES, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB), National Research Council (CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The effects of adding different concentrations of MoS{sub 2}@oleylamine nano particles on the thermal and mechanical properties of polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites have been investigated. X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the resulting nanocomposites. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. It has been found that the MoS{sub 2}@oleylamine nanoparticles have a good compatibility with the PS matrix forming homogeneous dispersion even at high concentrations. The PS/MoS{sub 2}@oleylamine nanocomposites showed enhanced thermal stability in comparison with neat polystyrene.

  7. Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH) Page ( 1 ) The hip is a “ball-and-socket” joint. In a normal hip, the ball at the ... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. .org Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip cont. • Family history of DDH (parents or siblings) • ...

  8. The relationship between cellular adhesion and surface roughness in polystyrene modified by microwave plasma radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Heidari, Majid; Asefnejad, Azadeh; Asefnezhad, Azadeh; Montazeri, Naser

    2011-01-01

    .... The conventional method for surface modification of polystyrene is treatment with plasma. In this study, conventional polystyrene was exposed to microwave plasma treatment with oxygen and argon gases for 30, 60, and 180 seconds...

  9. New routes to the synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid block copolymers amylose-block-polystyrene were synthesized by covalent attachment of maltoheptaose derivatives to end-functionalized polystyrene and subsequent enzymatic grafting from polymerization. The maltoheptaose derivatives were attached by reductive amination or hydrosilation to amino

  10. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J Ryan; Gambino, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging is the principal method used to screen for and diagnose hip dysplasia in the canine patient. Multiple techniques are available, each having advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. Hip-extended radiography is the most used method and is best used as a screening tool and for assessment for osteoarthritis. Distraction radiographic methods such as the PennHip method allow for improved detection of laxity and improved ability to predict future osteoarthritis development. More advanced techniques such as MRI, although expensive and not widely available, may improve patient screening and allow for improved assessment of cartilage health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  12. In situ metallization of polystyrene: A PES study of the interface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schühler, N.; Schelz, S.; Oelhafen, P.

    1994-05-01

    The interface properties of niobium on polystyrene have been studied by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy. Niobium layers have been evaporated on spin coated polystyrene films onto silicon substrates. The interface region is found to consist mainly of a niobium carbide phase with a low oxygen content. The first monolayer of niobium is bound to the polystyrene molecules via carbidic bonding. The good adhesion properties of a niobium film on polystyrene are ascribed to the formation of such carbidic bonds.

  13. Preparation and Characteristics of Polystyrene/Attapulgite Composites Via In-siu Suspension Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Kunyan

    2016-01-01

    A series of polystyrene/attapulgite composites were synthesized through suspension polymerization. The composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. FTIR results show that there was no significant change in the peak positions and the peak intensity for polystyrene/attapulgite composites compared to the pure polystyrene. There is a rise in thermal stability of composites compared to pure polystyrene. Attapulgite a...

  14. Magnetic graphene oxide-polystyrene and magnetic activated carbon-polystyrene nanocomposites as sorbents for bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekos, Kyriazis; Kampouraki, Zoi Christina; Samanidou, Victoria; Deliyanni, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic graphene oxide-polystyrene and magnetic activated carbon-polystyrene nanocomposites as sorbents for bisphenol A. Kyriazis Rekos1, Zoi Christina Kampouraki1, Victoria Samanidou2, Eleni Deliyanni1 1 Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize novel composites of magnetic activated carbon or magnetic graphene oxide with polystyrene (GO/PSm), through one step simple and effective route. Μagnetite nanoparticles, prepared in the laboratory, were dispersed in the presence of activated carbon (C) or graphene oxide (GO) in a polystyrene (PS) solution in dimethylformamide, at elevated temperature, for the fabrication of the magnetite-Carbon-PS (C-PSm) and magnetite- Graphene Oxide-PS (GO-PSm) hybrid-nanoparticles. For comparison, C-PS and GO-PS composites were also prepared in the same route. The nanocomposites were tested for their sorption ability for an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A. The effect of solution pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were examined. The magnetic graphite oxide-polystyrene presented higher adsorption capacity (100 mg/g) than the non magnetic composites (70 mg/g), as well as than initial graphite oxide (20 mg/g). FTIR, XRD, BET, TGA, VSM and SEM were performed in order to investigate the role of the PS on the better adsorption performance of the mGO-PS nanocomposites. The characterization with these techniques revealed the possible interactions of the surface functional groups of activated carbon and/or graphite oxide with polystyrene that resulted in the better performance of the magnetic nanocomposites for bisphenol A adsorption.

  15. Hip Osteoarthritis : symptomatic presentation and non-operative treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.J. Dorleijn (Desirée)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractHip osteoarthritis is a common, chronic disease characterized by pain and disability. It can have a considerable impact on a person’s activities of daily living. Because there is no treatment available that can cure osteoarthritis, the treatment consists of symptom management. This

  16. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources... and Resins § 63.1316 PET and polystyrene affected sources—emissions control provisions. (a) The owner... paragraph (b) of this section. The owner or operator of an affected source producing polystyrene using...

  17. 24 CFR 200.947 - Building product standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board. 200.947 Section 200.947 Housing and Urban... program for polystyrene foam insulation board. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All polystyrene foam... Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard C-578-92, Standard Specification for Rigid, Cellular...

  18. Monoarticular Hip Involvement in Pseudogout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Kocyigit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudogout is the acutest form of arthritis in the elderly. Although clinical manifestations vary widely, polyarticular involvement is typical mimicking osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoarticular involvement is relatively rare and is generally provoked by another medical condition. There are reported cases of hip involvement by pseudogout in monoarticular form. However, all of the cases were presented as septic arthritis. In this report, we present a case of monoarticular hip involvement mimicking soft tissue abscess. We confirmed the pseudogout diagnosis after ultrasonographic evaluation of the involved hip joint and pathological and biochemical analysis of synovial fluid analysis. Diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical treatment in cases of the bizarre involvement of hip in pseudogout.

  19. Abstract: Lightweight Authentication for HIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Tobias

    In recent years numerous solutions for overcoming the architectural constraints of the Internet have emerged. One of the most promising among them is the Host Identity Protocol (HIP) [2], which was recently approved as an experimental standard by the IETF. HIP adds an additional protocol layer between TCP and IP to implement the Identifier/Locator split. Apart from mobility and multihoming, HIP supports host authentication, payload encryption, and a cryptographic namespace without requiring changes to the network infrastructure or network applications. However, especially mobile devices with tightly limited CPU resources are slowed down by HIP. Its poor performance on these mobile devices is a result of the extensive use of public-key (PK) cryptography for securing the main protocol functions.

  20. Hip fracture epidemiological trends, outcomes, and risk factors, 1970–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Marks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ray MarksCity University of New York and Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Hip fractures – which commonly lead to premature death, high rates of morbidity, or reduced life quality – have been the target of a voluminous amount of research for many years. But has the lifetime risk of incurring a hip fracture decreased sufficiently over the last decade or are high numbers of incident cases continuing to prevail, despite a large body of knowledge and a variety of contemporary preventive and refined surgical approaches? This review examines the extensive hip fracture literature published in the English language between 1980 and 2009 concerning hip fracture prevalence trends, and injury mechanisms. It also highlights the contemporary data concerning the personal and economic impact of the injury, plus potentially remediable risk factors underpinning the injury and ensuing disability. The goal was to examine if there is a continuing need to elucidate upon intervention points that might minimize the risk of incurring a hip fracture and its attendant consequences. Based on this information, it appears hip fractures remain a serious global health issue, despite some declines in the incidence rate of hip fractures among some women. Research also shows widespread regional, ethnic and diagnostic variations in hip fracture incidence trends. Key determinants of hip fractures include age, osteoporosis, and falls, but some determinants such as socioeconomic status, have not been well explored. It is concluded that while more research is needed, well-designed primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive efforts applied in both affluent as well as developing countries are desirable to reduce the present and future burden associated with hip fracture injuries. In this context, and in recognition of the considerable variation in manifestation and distribution, as well as risk factors underpinning hip fractures, well-crafted comprehensive, rather

  1. Current possibilities for hip arthroplasty,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cavalli Polesello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hip arthroscopy has been popularized over the last decade and, with technical advances regarding imaging diagnostics, understanding of the physiopathology or surgical techniques, several applications have been described. Both arthroscopy for intra-articular conditions and endoscopy for extra-articular procedures can be used in diagnosing or treating different conditions. This updated article has the objective of presenting the various current possibilities for hip arthroscopy.

  2. Hip: Anatomy and US technique

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has always had a relatively limited role in the evaluation of the hip due to the deep location of this joint. However, many hip diseases are well detectable at US, but before approaching such a study it is necessary to be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy and related US images. The study technique is particularly important as optimization of various parameters is required, such as probe frequency, focalization, positioning of the probe, etc. Also the patient’s positi...

  3. Conversion of hip arthrodesis to total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, K P; Robbins, G M; Masri, B A; Duncan, C P

    2001-01-01

    With the predictably good outcome now found with THA, hip arthrodesis has limited indications today. The procedure still has a role in the case of the young, heavy demand male with an isolated arthritic hip condition, and developments such as the Cobra head plate have considerably improved success rates. However, a long-term hip arthrodesis can have profound effects on a patient's daily function and activities of daily living. In addition, gait pattern is considerably affected as well as other joints such as the lower back, ipsilateral knee, and contralateral hip. Many patients with a hip arthrodesis will eventually require a takedown of the fused hip and conversion to a THA. The primary indications include fusion in malposition, pseudarthrosis, or severe pain in other joints. The surgeon undertaking such a task must be familiar with the arthrodesis techniques that have been used in the past as well as the equipment that may be required to extract the fixation hardware. Clinical assessment with particular attention to leg-length discrepancy, position of the arthrodesis, and function of the abductors is of paramount importance. The surgeon must carefully review preoperative radiographs to plan the procedure. The surgeon must also be aware of the presence of pathology in other joints. After takedown of a hip arthrodesis and conversion to a THA, patients cannot expect the result to equal the success rates of primary THA. Patients generally can expect an improvement in function and mobility. Back pain and ipsilateral knee pain are usually improved postoperatively, but the effect on contralateral hip pain is less predictable. Many patients will continue to show a positive Trendelenburg sign, but further improvement in strength of the hip abductors can be expected with time. Leg-length discrepancy is generally improved substantially after THA. However, a substantial number of patients will require a walking aid postoperatively. Overall, the risk of complications and the

  4. Conscious Hip-Hop, Change, and the Obama Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Forman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies a particular aspect of hip-hop’s range of cultural production—conscious rap—in order to isolate one of the more politicized discursive options available to youth in America and a site where critical perspectives on post-Civil Rights America have emerged most forcefully. It further suggests that Obama’s political rise corresponds with a new phase in hip-hop and has impacted the ways in which its creative artists frame and articulate issues of race, class, and identity.

  5. Isothermal Gas assisted displacement of a polystyrene melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase in the s...

  6. Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Jerry; Venart, James

    2008-10-30

    Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the nominal deck on a conventional carrier, which is protected only by a steel weather cover from exposure to heat from a tank-engulfing fire, is being underestimated. Secondly, aluminum foil-covered polystyrene foam insulation applied to the exterior of the LNG tank is protected above the deck only by the steel weather cover under which the insulation could begin to melt in as little as 1-3 min, and could completely liquefy in as few as 10 min. U.S. and International Regulations require that the insulations on the above-deck portion of tanks have approved fire proofing and stability under fire exposure. Polystyrene foam, as currently installed on LNG carriers, does not appear to meet these criteria. As a result of these findings, but giving no consideration to the significant potential for further damage if the polystyrene should burn, the boil-off rate is predicted to be an order-of-magnitude higher than provided for by current PRV sizing requirements.

  7. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...

  8. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    polystyrene melt with a molecular weight of 390 kg/mole (PS390K). The measurements have all been preformed on a Filament Streching Rheometer (FSR) equipped with an oven: A cylindrical test sample is placed between two parallel, circular plates and stretched. A load cell measures the transmitted force...

  9. Static field dependence of the Raman polarizability, demonstrated in polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussenegg, Franz R.; Lippitsch, Max E.; Möller, Reinhard

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinearity of the Raman polarizability of polystyrene is revealed by applying a static electric field of ≈ 1 MV/cm to the sample while measuring the Raman intensity. A special experimental technique allows registration of relative intensity variations of 10 -3. The results can be understood using a simple theoretical model.

  10. Woodpecker Excavation and Use of Cavities in Polystyrene Snags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    1996-01-01

    We examined woodpecker excavation and use of artificial polystyrene snags in four forest types in eastern Texas for five years. Twenty-three of 47 artificial snags were used by Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) for cavity excavation and subsequent nocturnal roosting; they did not use the artificial snags for nesting. Although six ather species of woodpeckers...

  11. Electro-Responsive Polystyrene Shape Memory Polymer Nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, B.; Zhang, L.; Pei, Y.T.; Luo, J.K.; Tao, S.W.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Fu, Y.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Microstructure, thermo-mechanical, electrical properties and shape recovery efficiency of carbon nano-particles (CNPs) enhanced polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites were characterized. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed an increase in glass transition temperature (T-g) and enhancement of the stor

  12. PREPARATION AND STABILITY OF POLYSTYRENE LATEXES USING POLYSOAPS AS EMULSIFIERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YANG, YJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    Microemulsions of styrene can be polymerized at 70-degrees in the presence of polysoaps as emulsifiers to produce stable polystyrene latexes. The effects of polymerization conditions on the molecular weights, molecular weight distribution, particle size and particle size distribution of the latexes

  13. Characterization of Pectin Nanocoatings at Polystyrene and Titanium Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Dirscherl, Kai; Yihua, Yu

    2013-01-01

    wettability, without any major effect on surface roughness (Sa, Sdr). Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to visualize the pectin RG-Is molecules and even the nanocoatings on titanium surfaces, which have not been presented before. The comparison between polystyrene and titanium surface showed...

  14. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    polystyrene melt with a molecular weight of 390 kg/mole (PS390K). The measurements have all been preformed on a Filament Streching Rheometer (FSR) equipped with an oven: A cylindrical test sample is placed between two parallel, circular plates and stretched. A load cell measures the transmitted force...

  15. Antimicrobial N-brominated hydantoin and uracil grafted polystyrene beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Shady; Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-10-28

    Hydantoin-N-halamine derivatives conjugated on polystyrene beads are promising disinfectants with broad antimicrobial activity affected by the gradual release of oxidizing halogen in water. The objective of this work was to identify and test of hydantoin-like molecules possessing urea moiety, which may provide N-haloamines releasing oxidizing halogens when exposed to water at different rates and release profiles for tailored antimicrobial agents. In this work, several hydantoin (five member ring) and for the first time reported, uracil (six member ring) derivatives have been conjugated to polystyrene beads and tested for their lasting antimicrobial activity. Four molecules of each series were conjugated onto polystyrene beads from the reaction of the N-potassium hydantoin or uracil derivatives onto chloromethylated polystyrene beads. A distinct difference in bromine loading capacity and release profiles was found for the different conjugated derivatives. All tested materials exhibit strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriophages MS2 of 7 and ~4 log reduction, respectively. These results highlight the antimicrobial potential of halogenated cyclic molecules containing urea groups as water disinfection agents.

  16. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyi; O'Reilly, Jonathan Y.; Tien, Chi-Wei; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective approach to prepare conductive polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) nanocomposite films via a solution dispersion method is presented. Inexpensive CNF, which has a structure similar to multi-walled carbon nanotubes, is chosen as a nanofiller in this experiment to achieve conductivity in PS films. A good dispersion is…

  17. Synthesis and a Simple Molecular Weight Determination of Polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Daniel W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information procedures used, results obtained, and instructional strategies are provided for an experiment using thin layer chromatography in conjunction with the synthesis of polystyrene. The experiment has been used and evaluated in a sophomore-level organic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  18. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  19. Polystyrene/octadecyltrichlorosilane superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Demirel, A. Levent; Latthe, Sanjay S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, one pot dip-coating process for the fabrication of super-hydrophobic coatings using polystyrene (PS) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) is introduced. The hierarchical coating morphology and the resulting surface wettability were controlled by OTS concentration and by the number of dipping cycles. The coatings showed good durability for applications.

  20. MRI of the hip joint; MRT des Hueftgelenks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, C.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.M.; Imhof, H. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Univ. Wien (Austria)

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed to diagnose many pathologic conditions affecting the hip joint. Either conventional MRI (without contrast enhancement of the joint cavity) or MR arthrography is used to detect and most accurately differentiate hip joint pathologies. Conventional MRI is performed in cases of bone marrow edema, necrosis, arthrosis and especially the so-called ''activated arthrosis'', as well as in inflammatory and tumorous entities. MR arthography, which has only recently become available for use, is excellently suited for diagnosing lesions of the acetabular labrum, cartilage lesions, and free articular bodies. This article provides an overview about MRI characteristics and their accuracy of hip joint diseases and the impact on the therapeutic procedure. (orig.)

  1. Anaemia impedes functional mobility after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N.B.; Kristensen, M.T.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: the impact of anaemia on the outcome after a hip fracture surgery is controversial, but anaemia can potentially decrease the physical performance and thereby impede post-operative rehabilitation. We therefore conducted a prospective study to establish whether anaemia affected functional...... mobility in the early post-operative phase after a hip fracture surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: four hundred and eighty seven consecutive hip fracture patients, treated according to a well-defined multimodal rehabilitation programme with a uniform, liberal transfusion threshold, were studied. Hb...... integrating the type of surgery, medical complications and prefracture function showed that anaemia at the time of the physiotherapy session was an independent risk factor for not being able to walk on the third post-operative day [OR 0.41 (0.14-0.73) P = 0.002]. CONCLUSION: anaemia impedes functional...

  2. Results of hip resurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favetti, Fabio; Casella, Filippo; Papalia, Matteo; Panegrossi, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Background The renewed popularity of resurfacing hip arthroplasty in the last 10 years has generated a remarkable quantity of scientific contributions based on mid- and short-term follow-up. More than one paper has reported a consistent early revision rate as a consequence of biological or biomechanical failure. Two major complications are commonly described with resurfacing implants: avascular necrosis and femoral-neck fracture. A close relationship between these two events has been suggested, but not firmly demonstrated, whereas cementing technique seems to be better understood as potential cause of failure. Methods We performed an in vitro study in which four different resurfacing implants were evaluated with a simulated femoral head, two types of cement, (low and high viscosity) and two cementing techniques: direct (cement apposition directly on the femoral head) and indirect (cement poured into the femoral component). Results High-viscosity cement showed homogeneous distribution over the entire femoral head. Low-viscosity cement showed a massive polar concentration with insufficient, if not absent, distribution in the equatorial zone. Conclusion Polar cement concentration could be a risk factor for early implant failure due to two effects on the femoral head: biological (excessive local exothermic reaction could cause osteocyte necrosis) and biomechanical (which could lead to uneven load distribution on the femoral head). PMID:21234563

  3. CURBSIDE CONSULTATION IN HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Sporer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION A user friendly reference for decision making in hip arthroplasty designed in a question formed clinical problem scenarios and answers format .The articles composed of the answers, containing current concepts and preferences of experts in primary and revision hip surgery are enhanced by several images, diagrams and references and written in the form of a curbside consultation by Scott M. Sporer, MD. and his collaborators. PURPOSE By this practical reference of hip arthroplasty, Scott M. Sporer, MD. and the contributors have aimed providing the reader practical and clinically relevant information, evidence-based advices, their preferences and opinions containing current concepts for difficult and controversial clinical situations in total hip replacement surgery which are often not addressed clearly in traditional references. FEATURES The book is composed of 9 sections and 49 articles each written by a different expert designed in a question and answers format including several images and diagrams and also essential references at the end of each article. In the first section preoperative questions is subjected. Second section is about preoperative acetabulum questions. Third section is about preoperative femur questions. Fourth section is about intraoperative questions. Intraoperative acetabulum question is subjected in the fifth section and the intraoperative femur questions in the sixth section. The seventh section is about postoperative questions. Eighth and ninth sections are about general questions about failure and failure of acetabulum in turn. AUDIENCE Mainly practicing orthopedic surgeons, fellows and residents who are interested in hip arthroplasty have been targeted but several carefully designed scenarios of controversial and difficult situations surrounding total hip replacement surgery and the current information will also be welcomed by experienced clinicians practicing in hip arthroplasty. ASSESSMENT Scott M. Sporer

  4. DISPERSION STABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF SUSPENSIONSOF POLYSTYRENE COATED FUMED SILICA PARTICLES IN POLYSTYRENE SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-ze Yin; Ye-qiang Tan; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Polystyrene coated silica (SiO2@PS) core-shell composite particles with averaged diameter of about 290 nm were prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization of styrene on the surface of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane grafted SiO2 nanoparticles of 20-50 nm in diameter.Rheological behavior and dispersion stability of SiO2@PS suspension in 10 wt% PS solution were compared with suspensions of untreated SiO2 and silane modified SiO2 nanoparticles.Suspensions of the untreated and the silane modified SiO2 exhibited obvious shear thinning.The SiO2@PS suspension exhibits shear viscosity considerably smaller than suspensions of untreated and silane modified SiO2 at low shear rates.Transmission electron microscopy showed that the composite particles can uniformly and stably dispersc in PS solution compared to other suspensions,implying that the PS shell can effectively enhance the particle compatibility with PS macromolecules in solution.

  5. Polystyrene-Al2O3 composite solid polymer electrolyte for lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yu-Jeong; An, Yu-Ha; Jo, Nam-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In a common salt-in-polymer electrolyte, a polymer which has polar groups in the molecular chain is necessary because the polar groups dissolve lithium salt and coordinate cations. Based on the above point of view, polystyrene [PS] that has nonpolar groups is not suitable for the polymer matrix. However, in this PS-based composite polymer-in-salt system, the transport of cations is not by segmental motion but by ion-hopping through a lithium percolation path made of high content lithium salt. Moreover, Al2O3 can dissolve salt, instead of polar groups of polymer matrix, by the Lewis acid-base interactions between the surface group of Al2O3 and salt. Notably, the maximum enhancement of ionic conductivity is found in acidic Al2O3 compared with neutral and basic Al2O3 arising from the increase of free ion fraction by dissociation of salt. It was revealed that PS-Al2O3 composite solid polymer electrolyte containing 70 wt.% salt and 10 wt.% acidic Al2O3 showed the highest ionic conductivity of 9.78 × 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature.

  6. Preparation and Characteristics of Polystyrene/Attapulgite Composites Via In-siu Suspension Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kunyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of polystyrene/attapulgite composites were synthesized through suspension polymerization. The composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. FTIR results show that there was no significant change in the peak positions and the peak intensity for polystyrene/attapulgite composites compared to the pure polystyrene. There is a rise in thermal stability of composites compared to pure polystyrene. Attapulgite acts as an effective thermal barrier and thereby hinders the degradtion of polystyrene.

  7. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  8. Hip salvage surgery in cerebral palsy cases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Carboni; Mansano, Marcelo Valentim; Bovo, Miguel; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patricia Maria de Moraes Barros; Svartman, Celso; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César

    2015-01-01

    Imbalance and muscle spasticity, in association with coxa valga and persistent femoral anteversion, compromises hip development in cases of cerebral palsy and may result in chronic pain and even dislocation. Some of these hips undergo salvage surgery because of the severe impact of their abnormalities in these patients' quality of life. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to compare the results from the main hip salvage techniques applied to these individuals. The literature search focused on studies that evaluated results from hip salvage surgery in cases of cerebral palsy, published from 1970 to 2011, which are present in the Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases. Although the results were not statistically comparable, this systematic review demonstrates that hip salvage surgery should be indicated after individual evaluation on each patient, due to the wide spectrum of presentations of cerebral palsy. Therefore, it seems that no surgical technique is superior to any other. Rather, there are different indications.

  9. Hip salvage surgery in cerebral palsy cases: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Carboni de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Imbalance and muscle spasticity, in association with coxa valga and persistent femoral anteversion, compromises hip development in cases of cerebral palsy and may result in chronic pain and even dislocation. Some of these hips undergo salvage surgery because of the severe impact of their abnormalities in these patients' quality of life. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to compare the results from the main hip salvage techniques applied to these individuals. The literature search focused on studies that evaluated results from hip salvage surgery in cases of cerebral palsy, published from 1970 to 2011, which are present in the Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases. Although the results were not statistically comparable, this systematic review demonstrates that hip salvage surgery should be indicated after individual evaluation on each patient, due to the wide spectrum of presentations of cerebral palsy. Therefore, it seems that no surgical technique is superior to any other. Rather, there are different indications.

  10. Utility of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads in the control of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnaname, N; Amalraj, D Dominic; Mariappan, T

    2005-10-01

    The use of chemicals or bio-larvicides for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi breeding in pit latrines and overhead tanks (OHT) respectively is discouraged owing to many undesirable impacts in the environment. Due to faecal contamination and poor survival, use of predatory fish in OHTs is not feasible. The use of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads is a potential alternative in these habitats. EPS beads not only prevent oviposition but also kill the immature by forming a thick blanket on the water surface. A thick layer of 2 cm with beads of 2 mm is sufficient to suppress and prevent mosquito breeding. These are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need frequent application since they remain on the surface for quiet a long time. Successful trials against C. quinquefasciatus breeding in pit latrines, soakage pits, septic tanks, etc., have been carried out in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. Certain trials with EPS indicated reduction in microfilaria (mf) rate besides decline in biting density. In India, EPS beads have also been used on small scale for the control of A. stephensi and A. culicifacies breeding in OHTs and unused wells respectively. The polystyrene beads have also been reported to be effective in the control of mosquito breeding in biogas plants and other industrial situations. The practical utility of EPS beads in the control of vector-borne diseases has been discussed in the present review.

  11. Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, B. [Hoeglands Hospital, Eksjoe (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Jonsson, K. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology; Redlund-Johnell, I. [Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2003-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans (OD) of the hip and the outcome of this condition after treatment. Material and Methods: Twelve male and 3 female patients with OD were retrospectively studied. Six patients had a history of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) and among them 2 also had had a trauma to the hip. A further 5 had had trauma and 1 a developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH). The remaining 3 patients had no history of previous hip disease or trauma. All patients were examined with plain radiography, 7 with MR, 3 with CT and 2 with hip arthrography. Results: All OD lesions were detected at plain radiography, and most of them were located near the fovea. At MR the lesions had low signal intensity at T1-weighted sequences, and 6/7 had edema or fluid collection in or adjacent to the lesion on T2-weighted sequences. The early treatment in 7 patients was surgery, 2 had had conservative treatment and 6 no treatment. At follow-up 12 years after radiological diagnosis, 5 patients had hip arthrosis, 4 of whom were treated with arthroplasty. All but 3 had reduced hip rotation and all but 2 (with arthroplasty) had load pain. Three of the patients with earlier surgery had not developed arthrosis. Conclusions: OD lesions are usually well seen with plain radiography. There is a great risk of developing early arthrosis and it seems that early surgery is connected with arthrosis development. Thus only symptomatic treatment is recommended.

  12. X-ray excited luminescence of polystyrene composites loaded with SrF2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, T. M.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Vistovskyy, V. V.; Hevyk, V. B.; Yakibchuk, P. M.; Gektin, A. V.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    The polystyrene film nanocomposites of 0.3 mm thickness with embedded SrF2 nanoparticles up to 40 wt% have been synthesized. The luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites with embedded SrF2 nanoparticles upon the pulse X-ray excitation have been investigated. The luminescence intensity of the pure polystyrene scintillator film significantly increases when it is loaded with the inorganic SrF2 nanoparticles. The film nanocomposites show fast (∼2.8 ns) and slow (∼700 ns) luminescence decay components typical for a luminescence of polystyrene activators (p-Terphenyl and POPOP) and SrF2 nanoparticles, respectively. It is revealed that the fast decay luminescence component of the polystyrene composites is caused by the excitation of polystyrene by the photoelectrons escaped from the nanoparticles due to photoeffect, and the slow component is caused by reabsorption of the self-trapped exciton luminescence of SrF2 nanoparticles by polystyrene.

  13. Emerging topics on the hip: Ligamentum teres and hip microinstability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezal, Luis, E-mail: lcerezal@gmail.com [Diagnóstico Médico Cantabria, C/Castilla 6, 39002 Santander (Spain); Arnaiz, Javier; Canga, Ana; Piedra, Tatiana [Valdecilla University Hospital, 39011 Santander (Spain); Altónaga, José R. [Leon University, 24071 Leon (Spain); Munafo, Ricardo [CETEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pérez-Carro, Luis [Valdecilla University Hospital, 39011 Santander (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Microinstability and ligament teres lesions are emergent topics on the hip pathology. These entities are an increasingly recognized cause of persistent hip pain and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the patient with hip pain. Conventional (non-arthrographic) CT and MR have a very limited role in the evaluation of these entities. CTa and MRa have emerged as the modalities of choice for pre-operative imaging of ligamentum teres injuries and microinstability. To date, pre-operative imaging detection of these pathologies is not widespread but with appropriate imaging and a high index of suspicion, preoperative detection should improve. This article discusses current concepts regarding anatomy, biomechanics, clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment of ligament teres lesions and microinstability.

  14. Developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Noordin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH is a spectrum of anatomical abnormalities of the hip joint in which the femoral head has an abnormal relationship with the acetabulum. Most studies report an incidence of 1 to 34 cases per 1,000 live births and differences could be due to different diagnostic methods and timing of evaluation. Risk factors include first born status, female sex, positive family history, breech presentation and oligohydramnios. Clinical presentations of DDH depend on the age of the child. Newborns present with hip instability, infants have limited hip abduction on examination, and older children and adolescents present with limping, joint pain, and/or osteoarthritis. Repeated, careful examination of all infants from birth and throughout the first year of life until the child begins walking is important to prevent late cases. Provocative testing includes the Barlow and Ortolani maneuvers. Other signs, such as shorting of the femur with hips and knees flexed (Galeazzi sign, asymmetry of the thigh or gluteal folds, and discrepancy of leg lengths are potential clues. Treatment depends on age at presentation and outcomes are much better when the child is treated early, particularly during the first six months of life.

  15. Hip fracture epidemiological trends, outcomes, and risk factors, 1970–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Hip fractures – which commonly lead to premature death, high rates of morbidity, or reduced life quality – have been the target of a voluminous amount of research for many years. But has the lifetime risk of incurring a hip fracture decreased sufficiently over the last decade or are high numbers of incident cases continuing to prevail, despite a large body of knowledge and a variety of contemporary preventive and refined surgical approaches? This review examines the extensive hip fracture literature published in the English language between 1980 and 2009 concerning hip fracture prevalence trends, and injury mechanisms. It also highlights the contemporary data concerning the personal and economic impact of the injury, plus potentially remediable risk factors underpinning the injury and ensuing disability. The goal was to examine if there is a continuing need to elucidate upon intervention points that might minimize the risk of incurring a hip fracture and its attendant consequences. Based on this information, it appears hip fractures remain a serious global health issue, despite some declines in the incidence rate of hip fractures among some women. Research also shows widespread regional, ethnic and diagnostic variations in hip fracture incidence trends. Key determinants of hip fractures include age, osteoporosis, and falls, but some determinants such as socioeconomic status, have not been well explored. It is concluded that while more research is needed, well-designed primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive efforts applied in both affluent as well as developing countries are desirable to reduce the present and future burden associated with hip fracture injuries. In this context, and in recognition of the considerable variation in manifestation and distribution, as well as risk factors underpinning hip fractures, well-crafted comprehensive, rather than single solutions, are strongly indicated in early rather than late adulthood. PMID:20463818

  16. PS—EG插层复合物制备及其改性聚苯乙烯的研究%Preparation of Polystyrene-expanded Graphite Intercalated Complex and Its Modification on Polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯桂香; 姚少巍; 桑晓明; 唐鹏; 蒋丽

    2012-01-01

    通过化学氧化、高温处理将天然鳞片石墨制成膨胀石墨(EG),采用原位聚合法制备了聚苯乙烯-膨胀石墨(PS-EG)插层复合物,并将PS-EG复合物与PS进行熔融共混,研究了PS-EG复合物含量对Ps结构及性能的影响。结果表明,PS-EG的加入,使得PS的冲击强度和热性能提高,而拉伸强度下降;当PS-EG含量为9%(质量分数,下同)时,PS的冲击强度提高了63.4%;EG在复合材料中呈蠕虫状分布;PS-EG复合物的存在增加了复合材料的界面效应,冲击断面呈现孔洞式结构。%Expandable graphite was prepared from natural flake graphite via chemical oxidation and high temperature processing. Via in-situ polymerization of styrene in presence of expanded graphite polystyrene-expanded graphite (PS-EG) composites were obtained. Melt blending PS-EG with neat polystyrene leaded to polystyrene/polystyrene-expanded (PS/PS-EG) composites. The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and the microstructure of the composites were studied. The impact strength, and thermal stability were improved with the adding of PS-EG. Compared with the neat polystyrene, the impact strength of PS/PS-EG composites was improved 63. 4 %, when the content of PS-EG was 9 %, however the tensile strength showed a large decreasing. Micro-analysis showed that expanded graphite dispersed homogeneously in the form of vermiculate in the composites, and the existence of PS-EG increased the interface effect of PS/PS-EG composite, the cross section of the composites displayed a pinhole structure.

  17. Direct costs of osteoporosis and hip fracture: an analysis for the Mexican healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P; Carlos, F; Barrera, C; Guzman, J; Maetzel, A; Lavielle, P; Ramirez, E; Robinson, V; Rodriguez-Cabrera, R; Tamayo, J; Tugwell, P

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the direct costs related to osteoporosis and hip fractures paid for governmental and private institutions in the Mexican health system and estimates the impact of these entities on Mexico. We conclude that the economic burden due to the direct costs of hip fracture justifies wide-scale prevention programs for osteoporosis (OP). To estimate the total direct costs of OP and hip fractures in the Mexican Health care system, a sample of governmental and private institutions were studied. Information was gathered through direct questionnaires in 275 OP patients and 218 hip fracture cases. Additionally, a chart review was conducted and experts' opinions obtained to get accurate protocol scenarios for diagnoses and treatment of OP with no fracture. Microcosting and activity-based costing techniques were used to yield unit costs. The total direct costs for OP and hip fracture were estimated for 2006 based on the projected annual incidence of hip fractures in Mexico. A total of 22,233 hip fracture cases were estimated for 2006 with a total cost to the healthcare system of US$ 97,058,159 for the acute treatment alone ($4,365.50 per case). We found considerable differences in costs and the way the patients were treated across the different health sectors within the country. Costs of the acute treatment of hip fractures in Mexico are high and are expected to increase with the predicted increment of life expectancy and the number of elderly in our population.

  18. Relationship between hip and core strength and frontal plane alignment during a single leg squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Laurie; Finley, Margaret; Gulgin, Heather

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between frontal plane kinematics of the single leg squat and strength of the trunk and hip in females. Forty healthy females participated in this study. An isometric "make" test using a dynamometer was used to assess peak force normalized to body weight for hip abduction, hip extension, hip external rotation, and a sidelying plank test. Two-dimensional software was used to analyze the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and pelvic angle during a single leg squat to 60°. All 4 strength factors were significantly correlated with the FPPA, ranging from r = 0.396 to r = 0.466. During multiple regression analysis, hip abduction strength was the greatest predictor of the variation in FPPA at r(2) = 0.22, p = 0.002. Thus, hip abduction strength accounted for 22% of the variation in the FPPA during the single leg squat. The only strength factor demonstrating a significant correlation with the pelvic angle was hip extension strength (r = 0.550, p core musculature on the impact on the FPPA during a single squat, with focus on the hip abductors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Uncemented arthroplasty of the hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schulze Pellengahr, C; Fottner, A; Utzschneider, S; Schmitt-Sody, M; Teske, W; Lichtinger, T; Esenwein, S A

    2009-05-01

    Prognosis of cemented total hip replacement seems to be excellent for elderly patients. In younger age the outcome is less favourable and early revision is more common. Thus, different concepts with better prognosis and preservation of bone stock for possible revisions were needed. After more than 30 years of application with excellent short-term and long-term results, uncemented total hip arthroplasty is nowadays generally regarded as the standard procedure for younger patients. New bone-preserving implants, such as surface replacement or short-stemmed femoral shaft prostheses, have been introduced especially for younger patients. Some of these new procedures are still under development, and the long-term results of new implant concepts have to be evaluated over the next decades. Regarding recently published scientific studies an overview about non-cemented total hip arthroplasty is given and current concepts and developments are presented.

  20. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  1. Radiology of the resurfaced hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Luthfur [The London Hip Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hall-Craggs, Margaret [University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Muirhead-Allwood, Sarah K. [The London Hip Unit, London (United Kingdom); The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an increasingly common procedure for osteoarthritis. Conventional radiographs are used routinely for follow-up assessment, however they only provide limited information on the radiological outcome. Various complications have been reported in the scientific literature although not all are fully understood. In an effort to investigate problematic or failing hip resurfacings, various radiological methods have been utilized. These methods can be used to help make a diagnosis and guide management. This paper aims to review and illustrate the radiographic findings in the form of radiography, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound of both normal and abnormal findings in hip resurfacing arthroplasty. However, imaging around a metal prosthesis with CT and MRI is particularly challenging and therefore the potential techniques used to overcome this are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  3. Hip dysplasia in the skeletally mature patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Rachel Y; Kaye, Ian David; Slover, James; Feldman, David

    2014-01-01

    .... These characteristic changes result in intraarticular pathology leading to hip arthritis. A variety of treatment options exist based on the degree of dysplasia and the amount of concomitant hip arthritis...

  4. Preparation of photocrosslinkable polystyrene methylene cinnamate nanofibers via electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chuan; Nirmala, R; Navamathavan, R; Li, Xiang-Dan; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2011-10-01

    Nanoscaled photocrosslinkable polystyrene methylene cinnamate (PSMC) nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning. The PSMC was prepared by the modification of polystyrene as a starting material via a two-step reaction process, chloromethylation and esterification. The chemical structure of PSMC was confirmed by 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photosensitivity of the PSMC was investigated using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic methods. Electrospun PSMC nanofiber mat showed excellent solubility in many organic solvents. UV irradiation of the electrospun mats led to photodimerization to resist dissolving in organic solvents. The morphology of the nanofiber was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the result indicated that the average diameter of nanofibers is 350 nm and the crosslinked nanofibers were not collapsed after dipping into organic solvent showing good solvent-stability. This photocrosslinked nanofibers has the potential application in filtration, catalyst carrier and protective coating.

  5. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  6. Stability of Propofol in Polystyrene-Based Tissue Culture Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Jeffrey W.; Leong, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Propofol has been reported to have high stability in glass and relatively high stability up to 24 hours in polyvinyl chloride-based medical plastics. Recent publications have observed the effects of propofol on cells and tissues grown in culture. Many cell culture plastics are formulated from polystyrene but we could find little information on the stability of propofol exposed to these products. We observed very little change in the concentration of propofol diluted in cell culture medium over 24 hours when exposed to glass, but substantial loss of the drug when exposed to 96-well polystyrene cell culture plates. This decrease was most rapid in the first hour but continued until 24 hours. The type of plastic used in cell and tissue culture experiments with propofol may influence the results by increasing the apparent dose required to see an effect. PMID:23632056

  7. Dielectric response of polystyrene - BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Tatyana N.; Sysoev, Oleg I.; Belov, Pavel A.; Emelianov, Nikita A.; Velyaev, Yury O.; Mandalawi, Wissam M. Al; Korotkov, Leonid N.

    2016-07-01

    The series of composite materials based on polystyrene and non-ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles ((1-x)PS-xBT, where the volume concentration x = 0-1.0) was prepared. Their dielectric properties were studied within the temperature range 20-160 °C at the frequency of 100 kHz. It is found that an increase in the barium titanate concentration leads to increase of the both dielectric permittivity (ɛ) and dielectric losses (tgδ). The concentration dependence of ɛ can be described by the modified Kerner model. It was found that the glass transition in polystyrene matrix is diffused and its temperature is increased with concentration x.

  8. Post-facelift flap necrosis treatment using charged polystyrene microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Oren; Farber, Nimrod; Remer, Eric; Tessone, Ariel; Trivizki, Omer; Bank, Jonathan; Winkler, Eyal; Zilinsky, Isaac; Haik, Josef

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy constitutes a vexing and grievous complication to the patient and the surgeon. Treatment modalities that can expedite wound healing and re-epithelialization rates are highly desired. OBJECTIVES: To assess wound healing and re-epithelialization rates of open wounds following postrhytidectomy flap necrosis treated with commercially available charged polystyrene microspheres (Polyheal-1, Polyheal Ltd, Israel). METHODS: Flap necrosis following rhytidectomy with open wounds in three female patients were treated using dressings soaked with Polyheal-1. Wound closure rates were documented. RESULTS: The wounds demonstrated both accelerated granulation tissue formation and rapid re-epithelialization rates. No complications or side effects were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Charged polystyrene microspheres may offer a new and efficacious way to treat open wounds due to flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy. Further research with larger patient numbers is still needed to verify these findings. PMID:24431937

  9. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  10. Grafting modification on the surface of titanium dioxide by polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wu; Shouci Lu; Jianfeng Chen; Lei Shao; CheeKing Tan

    2003-01-01

    Based on the technology of titanium dioxide grafting modification with polystyrene (PS), the modification mechanisms are studied and the polystyrene-grafting states on the surface of titanium dioxide have been set up. Under the synergistic actions of mechanical force, chemistry and heat, macromolecular free radicals of PS are created, at the same time, the O-O bonds of titanium dioxide are broken and the oxide free radicals produced, and the numbers of oxygen atom are increased and crystal lattice defects rich electrons are formed on the surface of titanium dioxide. The radical polymerization is the main reaction between PS and titanium dioxide and C-O bonds form in the process of modification. Multi-sites chemical adsorption also exists besides grafting between PS and titanium dioxide.

  11. OBSERVATION OF ENERGY DISSIPATION PEAK IN POLYSTYRENE MELT ABOVE Tg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two different kinds of dynamic mechanical techniques (inversed torsion pendulum and energy dissipation apparatus) were used to study the dynamic behavior of atactic monodisperse polystyrene above glass transition.The plots of energy dissipation versus temperature were presented for two atactic polystyrene samples. An apparent energy dissipation peak occurred above Tg in each plot measured by the inversed torsion pendulum, and simultaneously the sample was found to flow assuredly at the moment. To exclude the influence of the flow and demonstrate there was a peak indeed above Tg, the energy dissipation apparatus was used, in which the samples were put into a cup. An obvious peak appeared,and it was in agreement with the peak observed by the inversed torsion pendulum. On basis of the results measured by the two kinds of apparatus, a conclusion is drawn that a peak occurrs above Tg, which gives a manifestation for the existence of the liquid-liquid transition.

  12. Valence-band states of ion-bombarded polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrasi, A. (Istituto di Metodologie e Tecnologie per la Microelettronica, CNR, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania, Italy (IT)); Foti, G. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania, (Italy)); Hwu, Y. (Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589-3097 (USA)); Margaritondo, G. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Department de Physique, PHB-Ecublens, CH 1015 Lausanne, (Switzerland))

    1991-08-01

    Ion-bombarded polystyrene with a 0.5-keV Ar{sup +} beam has been investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy performed with synchrotron radiation. After a dose of 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} the evolution of the valence band of the bombarded sample towards an amorphous carbonlike configuration is reported. From the analysis of valence-band spectra we estimated the out-diffusion of hydrogen and showed that its electronic states remain well identified and stable until the hydrogen presence is about 35% with respect to the pristine sample. Finally, comparison with mass spectroscopy measurements on deuterated polystyrene has been performed to determine hydrogen evolution during the ion irradiation.

  13. Preparation of polystyrene microspheres for laser velocimetry in wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Cecil E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Laser Velocimetry (L/V) had made great strides in replacing intrusive devices for wind tunnel flow measurements. The weakness of the L/V has not been the L/V itself, but proper size seeding particles having known drag characteristics. For many Langley Wind Tunnel applications commercial polystyrene latex microspheres suspended in ethanol, injected through a fluid nozzle provides excellent seeding but was not used due to the high cost. This paper provides the instructions, procedures, and formulations for producing polystyrene latex monodisperse microspheres of 0.6, 1.0, 1.7, 2.0, and 2.7 micron diameters. These are presently being used at Langley Research Center as L/V seeding particles.

  14. Fabricating polystyrene fiber-dehydrogenase assemble as a functional biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongjie; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization of the enzymes on nano-structured materials is a promising approach to enhance enzyme stabilization, activation and reusability. This study aimed to develop polystyrene fiber-enzyme assembles to catalyze model formaldehyde to methanol dehydrogenation reaction, which is an essential step for bioconversion of CO2 to a renewable bioenergy. We fabricated and modified electrospun polystyrene fibers, which showed high capability to immobilize dehydrogenase for the fiber-enzyme assembles. Results from evaluation of biochemical activities of the fiber-enzyme assemble showed that nitriation with the nitric/sulfuric acid ratio (v/v, 10:1) and silanization treatment delivered desirable enzyme activity and long-term storage stability, showing great promising toward future large-scale applications.

  15. Argon plasma immersion ion implantation of polystyrene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondyurin, A. [Applied and Plasma Physics, School of Physics (A28), University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: kond@mailcity.com; Gan, B.K.; Bilek, M.M.M.; McKenzie, D.R.; Mizuno, K. [Applied and Plasma Physics, School of Physics (A28), University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Wuhrer, R. [Microstructural Analysis Unit, University of Technology Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), using bias voltages of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kV in an argon plasma and fluences in the range of 2 x 10{sup 14}-2 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, was applied to 100 nm polystyrene films coated on silicon wafer substrates. The etching kinetics and structural changes induced in the polystyrene films were investigated with ellipsometry, Raman and FTIR spectroscopies, optical and scanning electron microscopies, atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Effects such as carbonisation, oxidation and cross-linking were observed and their dependence on the applied bias voltage is reported. Variations in the etching rate during the PIII process and its relationship to carbonisation of the modified surface layer are explored.

  16. Exercise therapy may postpone total hip replacement surgery in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svege, Ida; Nordsletten, Lars; Fernandes, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Exercise treatment is recommended for all patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA), but its effect on the long-term need for total hip replacement (THR) is unknown.......Exercise treatment is recommended for all patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA), but its effect on the long-term need for total hip replacement (THR) is unknown....

  17. 21 CFR 888.3400 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prosthesis. 888.3400 Section 888.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace a portion of the hip...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3370 - Hip joint (hemi-hip) acetabular metal cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prosthesis. 888.3370 Section 888.3370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... (hemi-hip) acetabular metal cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint (hemi-hip) acetabular metal cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace a portion of the hip...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3360 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic cemented or uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3360 Section 888.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic cemented or uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic cemented or uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  20. Infection in periprosthetic hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Fracture around the acetabulum and femur in total hip arthroplasty is a possible complication, sometimes with difficult surgical solution, namely when a sepsis is present. Periprosthetic hip fractures were classified according to a modified Vancouver classification. We treated 112 patients (67 men and 45 women) with periprosthetic hip fractures: 105 femoral fractures (94%) and seven acetabular fractures (6%). Mean follow-up was 10.6 years. For Type A (seven cases - 7%), B1 (10 cases - 10%) or C (13 cases - 12%) fractures around well fixed femoral stems we only fixed the fractures. For Type B2 (17 cases - 16%), B3 (46 cases - 44%) and D (12 cases - 11%, with associated fractures, not contemplated in the Vancouver classification) we used an uncemented long femoral stem, fixation with metallic cables and cancellous bone allografts to fill the femoral bone loss. We observed a deep infection in three patients (2.7%), three early hip dislocations treated by closed reductions, two cases with asymptomatic trochanteric non-union and one femoral refracture. In the three infection cases we performed two-stage revision with cementless hip prosthesis, using an antibiotic-loaded cement hip spacer (three to eight months), a six weeks period of parenteral antibiotics and we performed articular aspiration before revision surgery. Until now, we did not observe any re-infection. It is very important to make an early diagnosis, isolate micro-organisms and ensure their antibiotic susceptibility. The surgery solution depends on the well fixed implants and periprosthetic osteolysis and articular instability.

  1. Insulation materials. Cellulose fiber and expanded polystyrene insulations

    OpenAIRE

    Viladot Bel, Cèlia

    2017-01-01

    The main role of thermal insulation materials in a building envelope are to prevent heat loss and provide thermal comfort for a building's interior. The factor that characterizes an insulation material's effectiveness is its thermal conductivity λ (measured in W/mK). The lower a material's thermal conductivity, the more effective it is as an insulator. Traditional insulation materials include glass fibre, stone wool, expanded polystyrene, and polyurethane foam. While these materials are effic...

  2. Characterisation of nanoplastics during the degradation of polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Scott; Wagner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The release of plastics into the environment has been identified as an important issue for some time. Recent publications have suggested that the degradation of plastic materials will result in the release of nano-sized plastic particles to the environment. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was applied to characterise the formation of nanoplastics during the degradation of a polystyrene (PS) disposable coffee cup lid. The results clearly show an increase in the formation of nanoplastics over tim...

  3. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza; Teresa López-Lara; Jaime Horta-Rangel; Carlos López-Cajún; Eduardo Rojas-González; García-Rodríguez, F. J.; Jorge Adue

    2013-01-01

    Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses), it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, whic...

  4. Transport properties of conducting polythiophene-polystyrene composites

    OpenAIRE

    Samir, F.; Morsli, M.; Bonnet, A.; Conan, A.; Lefrant, S.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results on electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power for (FeCl3 - doped polythiophene) - polystyrene composites have been performed in the temperature range 77 - 300 K and with polythiophene content in the vicinity and exceeding the percolation threshold. The thermoelectric power observed experimentally exhibits a surprisingly nearly linear behaviour versus T related to the slightly thermally activated electrical conductivity variations. All these results are analyzed in t...

  5. Multiple Melting Endotherms of Syndiotactic Polystyrene in β Crystalline Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS) samples in β crystalline form were prepared by cooling from the melt at various cooling rates. The effects of cooling rate from the melt, and DSC heating rate on the multiple melting behaviors of β crystals were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), from which the nature of the multiple melting behavior was ascribed to the occurring of a recrystallization process.

  6. Polystyrene Based SPR Biosensor Chip for Use in Immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Biosensors are widely used in immunoassay.The biosensor chip carries a receptor which is used in immunoassay and the chip properties have an important influence on the detecting sensitivity of the biosensor.This paper describes a polystyrene-based biosensor chip developed and used as part of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor.The SPR biosensor has a much higher detecting sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunoserbent assay (ELISA).

  7. THE SYNTHESIS OF MACROPOROUS CROSSLINKED POLYSTYRENE AMIDOPHOSPHONIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Binlin; WANG Linfu; CHEN Weizhu

    1984-01-01

    A series of macromolecular copolymers of styrene and divinyl-benzene were prepared in the presence of iso-octanol or 2-ethyl butyl alcohol. The factors which affected the physical structures of the copolymer were discussed. The macroporous amido-phosphonic acid resin was obtained after the acetylation, phosphonylation and amination of the crosslinked polystyrene. The factors which affected each reaction were studied and the change of physical structures of the copolymer were discussed.

  8. Thermal degradation of polystyrene by Lewis acids in solution

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of polystyrene in various Lewis acids [aluminum chloride, ferric chloride, borontriflouride etherate, and tin(IV) chloride] at different temperatures (75-125 degreesC) has been studied in this work. The evolution of the molecular weight distribution (MWD) has been modeled using continuous distribution kinetics with a stoichiometric kernel for random chain scission. The degradation rate was the highest in the presence of aluminum chloride. The reactions were also carried out at...

  9. Hydrophilic nanoporous polystyrenes and 1,2-polybutadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Vigild, Martin Etchells;

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous polymers from ordered block copolymers having hydrophilic cavity surfaces were successfully prepared by two methodologies: ' 1. Nanoporous polystyrenes fromPtBA-b-PS diblock or PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS triblock copolymer precursors by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), or combination...... different pathways for the conversion of the double bonds of 1,2-PB to bromoisobutyrate by using one to three steps chemical modification. Grafting polyacrylate layers of PPEGMA, PHEMA etc. onto themon...

  10. Transient osteoporosis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Rabeea; Ishaq, Saliha; Amjad, Hira

    2012-02-01

    Transient Osteoporosis of Hip (TOH) is an uncommon disorder of idiopathic nature, particularly in the Asian population. It has been described to mostly occur in middle aged men and women in their third trimester of pregnancy. A distinctive hallmark of this condition is that it is self limiting and resolves in a few months. The patient presents to the physician with pain on movement and impaired mobility of the affected joint, developing without any history of trauma. MRI is the main diagnostic tool. We report herein a case of a forty five year old male, who developed transient osteoporosis of the hip, and was managed conservatively.

  11. [Tendinitis of the hip region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, M; Lequesne, M

    1991-06-21

    Tendinitis and bursitis are less common around the hip than around the shoulder. Nevertheless, they must be recognized to avoid unnecessary and costly diagnostic errors. Their various clinical forms are studied in detail. Tendino-bursitis of the gluteus medius muscle is the most frequent in its subacute form, but it is rare in its acute, pseudo-gouty form. Calcification of the reflected tendon of the rectus femoris muscle often closely resembles arthritis of the hip. Synovial cysts of the psoas bursa and rupture of the gluteus medius tendon are rare but must be known. Local injections of corticosteroids play an important part in the treatment of these diseases.

  12. Hip-Hop发烧友

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文泉; 张鹏

    2005-01-01

    我出生在布朗克斯。我只有三十岁。我一直是争论的焦点。我一年可以赚数十亿美元,而且非常非常红。你知道我是谁吗?我是Hip-Hop。三十年前“hip hop”这个词儿还不存在,如今它已经成为一种几乎难以定义的包罗万象的生活方式。

  13. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  14. Ultrasonography of the hip and lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Dentico, Richard; Halperin, Jonathan S

    2010-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic evaluation of the proximal lower limb includes the evaluation of the soft tissue structures, including tendons, ligaments, or muscles, and the bony structures of this region, include the hip, pubic symphysis, and sacroiliac joints. The evaluation of the hip or proximal lower limb region can be performed in an efficient and systematic manner. Ultrasonography of the lateral hip, intra-articular hip, medial thigh, and posterior thigh are discussed in the article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Study on Developing Fire Retardant HIPS Nano-composites%发展阻燃型HIPS纳米复合材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤飞; 石王莹; 胡源

    2005-01-01

    本文运用一步熔融共混法制备了含有十溴联苯醚(DBDPO)或十溴二苯乙烷(DBDPE)和C16改性蒙脱土(MMT)的高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)复合材料,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)、透射电镜(TEM)、UL 94垂直燃烧和锥型量热等试验手段对其燃烧性能和相态进行了表征.结果标明,DBDPO/E存在时仍可获得具有插层结构的HIPS纳米复合材料.由于十溴和蒙脱土两种体系间的良好协同效应,这些材料的阻燃性提高、燃烧后的热释放速率下降.文中对其潜在机理进行了探讨.这种协同效应可用于指导发展环保性和阻燃性兼顾的HIPS纳米复合材料.%High impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites containing both Decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO) or 1,2- bis (pentabromophenyl) ethane (DBDPE)-antimony (Sb2 O3 ) and Montmorillonite (MMT)- Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (C16BrN) flame retarding packages were prepared by one-step melt blending in one-pot. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Underwriters Laboratory Vertical Burning Test (UL 94 V) and cone calorimeter tests have been conducted to characterize the morphology and combustion properties of the flame retardant composites. Results show that HIPS-based nanocomposites with intercalation structure in the presence of conventional DBDPO or DBDPE can be obtained, and much improved fire retardancy displayed by the notable reduction in heat release rates is achieved due to the good synergistic effect between MMT-C16BrN and DBDPO or DBDPE-antimony. Possible explanations regarding the synergism were proposed. This effect provides evidence for the reduction use of halogen-contained flame-retardants in one composite system for the purpose of lowering the production cost and lessening unwanted environment effects and is very meaningful for the development of green ecological polymer-based flame retardant composites.

  16. Perioperative complications in revision hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, E; Guingand, O; Terracher, R; Mazel, C

    2001-01-01

    Revision hip surgery now constitutes 10-30% of all joint procedures. The morbidity and associated with this demanding operation are not well established. The goal of this paper is to determine these rates and to identify some predictive factors. The complication rate ranges from 31,5 to more than 77% in the literature. Life threatening complications represent 1,8 to 8% of these, leading to death in about 1,6%. ASA score and age above 75 appear to be correlated with medical complications. The injection rate varies from 1 to 5,8%, and may be as high as 14% in cases with a past history of infection. Heterotopic ossification occurred in 13 to 65%, reaching severity in 3,3 to 8,3%. Surgical complications include dislocation and femoral injuries. Dislocations occur in almost 10%, leading to revision in1-4,2%. Age and the number of previous surgical operations appear to be significant risk factors. Femoral injuries (perforations or femoral fractures) occur in 6-37%, especially in impaction grafting technique and when uncemented implants are used. Age over 75 years and femoral defects appear to be significant risk factors for femoral fractures. The rate of complications in revision hip surgery continues to be high, but successful clinical outcome can be attained even in elderly patients. Attentive preoperative exams, good prevention of technical pitfalls, the experience of the surgeon and the use of specific tools may decrease these complications and make this demanding procedure safer.

  17. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijing; Fokkink, Remco; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has become an emerging contaminant of global concern. Bulk plastic can degrade to form smaller particles down to the nanoscale (nanoplastics. Because of their high surface area, nanoplastic may bind hydrophobic chemicals very effectively, increasing their hazard when such nanoplastics are taken up by biota. The present study reports distribution coefficients for sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to 70 nm polystyrene in freshwater, and PAH adsorption isotherms spanning environmentally realistic aqueous concentrations of 10(-5)  μg/L to 1 μg/L. Nanopolystyrene aggregate state was assessed using dynamic light scattering. The adsorption isotherms were nonlinear, and the distribution coefficients at the lower ends of the isotherms were very high, with values up to 10(9) L/kg. The high and nonlinear sorption was explained from π-π interactions between the planar PAHs and the surface of the aromatic polymer polystyrene and was higher than for micrometer-sized polystyrene. Reduction of nanopolystyrene aggregate sizes had no significant effect on sorption, which suggests that the PAHs could reach the sorption sites on the pristine nanoparticles regardless of the aggregation state. Pre-extraction of the nanopolystyrene with C18 polydimethylsiloxane decreased sorption of PAHs, which could be explained by removal of the most hydrophobic fraction of the nanopolystyrene. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1650-1655. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis Affects Younger People, Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Kemp, Joanne L; Crossley, Kay M; Culvenor, Adam G; Hinman, Rana S

    2017-02-01

    Synopsis Although osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally been considered a disease of older age, hip and knee OA can and does affect younger adults, with a profound impact on psychosocial well-being and work capacity. Obesity and a history of traumatic knee injury (eg, anterior cruciate ligament rupture and/or meniscal tear) are key risk factors for the accelerated development of knee OA, while structural hip deformities (including those contributing to femoroacetabular impingement syndrome) are strong predictors of early-onset hip OA. In view of these associations, rising rates of obesity and sports injuries are concerning, and may signal a future surge in OA incidence among younger people. Assessment of hip and knee OA in younger people should focus on a patient-centered history, comprehensive physical examination, performance-based measures, and patient-reported outcome measures to enable monitoring of symptoms and function over time. Referral for imaging should be reserved for people presenting with atypical signs or symptoms that may indicate diagnoses other than OA. Nonpharmacological approaches are core strategies for the management of hip and knee OA in younger people, and these include appropriate disease-related education, activity modification (including for work-related tasks), physical therapist- prescribed exercise programs to address identified physical impairments, and weight control or weight loss. High-quality evidence has shown no benefit of arthroscopy for knee OA, and there are no published clinical trials to support the use of hip arthroscopy for OA. Referral for joint-conserving or joint replacement surgery should be considered when nonpharmacological and pharmacological management strategies are no longer effective. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(2):67-79. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7286.

  19. On HIP-HOP%HIP-HOP运动论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 兰健

    2009-01-01

    运用文献资料等方法,从文化社会学的角度对传入我国的HIP-HOP运动的文化背景及其文化表现进行分析.认为:HIP-HOP运动主要包括:街舞、街头篮球、滑板等运动.HIP-HOP运动以其流行的社会文化要素和独特魅力吸引亿万青少年,使其狂热地投入到这股新兴的运动时尚潮流中,影响和改变着青少年的现代生活.HIP-HOP运动创造了一种非冲突性的、娱乐休闲的,以及有理想化价值的身体娱乐体系,有着独有的体育文化功能.

  20. Subject-specific hip geometry and hip joint centre location affects calculated contact forces at the hip during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, G; Bartels, W; Gelaude, F; Mulier, M; Spaepen, A; Van der Perre, G; Jonkers, I

    2009-06-19

    Hip loading affects the development of hip osteoarthritis, bone remodelling and osseointegration of implants. In this study, we analyzed the effect of subject-specific modelling of hip geometry and hip joint centre (HJC) location on the quantification of hip joint moments, muscle moments and hip contact forces during gait, using musculoskeletal modelling, inverse dynamic analysis and static optimization. For 10 subjects, hip joint moments, muscle moments and hip loading in terms of magnitude and orientation were quantified using three different model types, each including a different amount of subject-specific detail: (1) a generic scaled musculoskeletal model, (2) a generic scaled musculoskeletal model with subject-specific hip geometry (femoral anteversion, neck-length and neck-shaft angle) and (3) a generic scaled musculoskeletal model with subject-specific hip geometry including HJC location. Subject-specific geometry and HJC location were derived from CT. Significant differences were found between the three model types in HJC location, hip flexion-extension moment and inclination angle of the total contact force in the frontal plane. No model agreement was found between the three model types for the calculation of contact forces in terms of magnitude and orientations, and muscle moments. Therefore, we suggest that personalized models with individualized hip joint geometry and HJC location should be used for the quantification of hip loading. For biomechanical analyses aiming to understand modified hip joint loading, and planning hip surgery in patients with osteoarthritis, the amount of subject-specific detail, related to bone geometry and joint centre location in the musculoskeletal models used, needs to be considered.

  1. Association of hip pain with radiographic evidence of hip osteoarthritis: diagnostic test study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chan; Nevitt, Michael C.; Niu, Jingbo; Clancy, Mary M; Nancy E Lane; Link, Thomas M.; Vlad, Steven; Tolstykh, Irina; Jungmann, Pia M.; Felson, David T.; Guermazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is there concordance between hip pain and radiographic hip osteoarthritis? Methods In this diagnostic test study, pelvic radiographs were assessed for hip osteoarthritis in two cohorts: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study (community of Framingham, Massachusetts) and the Osteoarthritis Initiative (a multicenter longitudinal cohort study of osteoarthritis in the United States). Using visual representation of the hip joint, participants reported whether they had hip pain on most d...

  2. Total Hip Arthroplasty in Failed Hip Fractures: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Noor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is epidemic in Asian countries. It is a major cause of fractures that orthopaedic surgeons deal in Pakistan, though proper epidemiological data is not available. Habiba U et al found that 75.3% of post menopausal women of Pakistan were predisposed to Osteoporosis; whereas Baig L has described an average T - score of -1.833±0.65 on bone mineral density calculation of post menopausal females of Pakistan. Osteoporotic hip fractures constitute a major cause of elderly mortality worldwide and recent figures supporting the idea that these patients have survival rates comparable to breast and thyroid cancer patients. Pakistan is a developing country with large burden of hip fractures. Patients living in remote areas are the ones which suffer more because of inadequate awareness, fear of surgical treatment and lack of availability of standard treatment. These patients are dealt by surgeons of various expertise and levels of experience. Lack of facilities in hospitals is well known and usage of sub-standard implant is a major cause of failure. Therefore these patients either because of their bone fragility or mal-treatment suffer frequently from failure of hip fracture surgeries. Being in a tertiary care centre we come across these types of cases very frequently. Six to eight such cases present to outpatient department of Liaquat National Hospital every month being referred from every part of the country. These patients may have been operated once, twice or even multiple times. Special attention is required to acquire an informative history from these cases and perform a comprehensive examination. Moreover previous records and radiographs provide invaluable information regarding cause of failure and deciding course of further treatment. We herein discuss few of the cases of failure of hip fractures which were treated by hip arthroplasty.

  3. Physical and Morphological Properties for Foams of Polystyrene/SBR Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Yong Bong; Noh, Si Tae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea); Hwang, Seok Ho; Lee, Youngchul [Chemical and Bio Technology Team, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Chonan (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    In this study, blends of polystyrene(PS) and Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber(SBR) were prepared by mixing in the kneader, and then the foams of blends were prepared by extruding with a foaming agent in a single screw exturder. We investigated the physical properties and morphological behaviors of blended foams by UTM, SEM and Densitmeter. The number of cells in the foamed PS/SBR blends matrix increased as the processing temperature decreased. Also, the structure of cell changed from closed cell structure to open cell structure as SBR fraction increased. In PS/SBR blends, the impact strength was improved by adding SBR, however, the flexural strength was decreased except for the 5 wt% SBR. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs.

  4. Influences of Substrate Adhesion and Particle Size on the Shape Memory Effect of Polystyrene Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lewis M; Killgore, Jason P; Li, Zhengwei; Long, Rong; Sanders, Aric W; Xiao, Jianliang; Ding, Yifu

    2016-04-19

    Formulations and applications of micro- and nanoscale polymer particles have proliferated rapidly in recent years, yet knowledge of their mechanical behavior has not grown accordingly. In this study, we examine the ways that compressive strain, substrate surface energy, and particle size influence the shape memory cycle of polystyrene particles. Using nanoimprint lithography, differently sized particles are programmed into highly deformed, temporary shapes in contact with substrates of differing surface energies. Atomic force microscopy is used to obtain in situ measurements of particle shape recovery kinetics, and scanning electron microscopy is employed to assess differences in the profiles of particles at the conclusion of the shape memory cycle. Finally, finite element models are used to investigate the growing impact of surface energies at smaller length scales. Results reveal that the influence of substrate adhesion on particle recovery is size-dependent and can become dominating at submicron length scales.

  5. Application of percolation model on the brittle to ductile transition for polystyrene and polyolefin elastomer blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The percolation model was applied in the study of brittle to ductile transition (BDT of polystyrene (PS and polyolefin elastomer (POE blends. Based on the interparticle distance and percolation model, stress volume (Vs can be expressed by volume fraction (Vr and ratio of the diameter of stress volume and the diameter of the domain (S/d. The percolation threshold (Vsc varied from π/6 to 0.65. From the results of the Charpy impact strength of the blends, the percolation threshold for the brittle to ductile transition of PS/POE blend is 14 wt% POE, corresponding to Vsc~0.5, which is consistent with the calculated value of π/6. Morphology observations show that the percolation point is correlated with the phase inversion of the blend.

  6. A METHOD TO QUANTIFY CRAZING DEFORMATION BY TENSILE TESTS FOR POLYSTYRENE/POLYOLEFIN ELASTOMER IMMISCIBLE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A method to quantify crazing deformations by tensile tests for polystyrene (PS) and polyolefin elastomer (POE) blends was investigated. The toughness of PS/POE blends, reflected by the Charpy impact strength, increased with the content of POE. SEM micrographs showed the poor compatibility between PS and POE. In simple tensile tests, it is very easy to achieve the ratio of crazing deformation, I.e. K by measuring the size changes of samples. The K values decreased with increasing the content of POE, and the deformations of PS/POE blends were dominated by crazing. The plots of the change of volume (△V) against longitudinal variation (△l) showed a linear relationship, and the slope of lines decreased with the content of POE. Measuring samples at the tensile velocities of 5 mm/min, 50 mm/min, and 500 mm/min respectively, the K values kept unchanged for each PS/POE blends.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-poly(arylene ether sulfone)-polystyrene triblock copolymer for proton exchange membrane applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jung-Eun; Hong, Young Talk; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2006-11-01

    The polystyrene-poly(arylene ether sulfone)-polystyrene (PS-PAES-PS) coil-semirod-coil triblock copolymer was synthesized by the condensation reaction of PS-COCI and H2N-PAES-NH2 telechelic polymers. The reaction was facile characterized by high yields with a perfect control over the block lengths. Following a known reaction protocol it was possible to selectively sulfonate the PS block of the triblock copolymer that led to the sulfonated copolymer sPS-PAES-sPS. Studies on its proton conductivity and methanol permeability were carried out to evaluate its use as the proton exchange membrane in direct methanol fuel cells. Proton conductivity of the membranes was increased depending on the sulfonic acid group content in the sulfonated polymer. The membranes exhibited good dimensional and thermal stability, and low methanol permeability compared to Nafion 117.

  8. Synthesis of antibacterial amphiphilic elastomer based on polystyrene-block-polyisoprene-block-polystyrene via thiol-ene addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Elif; Hazer, Baki; Cömert, Füsun B

    2013-04-01

    A new type of amphiphilic antibacterial elastomer has been described. Thermoplastic elastomer, polystyrene-block-polyisoprene-block-polystyrene (PS-b-PI-b-PS) triblock copolymer was functionalized in toluene solution by free radical mercaptan addition in order to obtain an amphiphilic antibacterial elastomer. Thiol terminated PEG was grafted through the double bonds of PS-b-PI-b-PS via free radical thiol-ene coupling reaction. The antibacterial properties of the amphiphilic graft copolymers were observed. The original and the modified polymers were used to create microfibers in an electro-spinning process. Topology of the electrospun micro/nanofibers were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical structures of the amphiphilic comb type graft copolymers were elucidated by the combination of elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, GPC and FTIR.

  9. Comparison and analysis of reoperations in two different treatment protocols for trochanteric hip fractures - postoperative technical complications with dynamic hip screw, intramedullary nail and Medoff sliding plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Johnny; Stig, Josefine Corin; Olsson, Ola

    2017-08-24

    In treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures dynamic hip screw and Medoff sliding plate devices are designed to allow secondary fracture impaction, whereas intramedullary nails aim to maintain fracture alignment. Different treatment protocols are used by two similar Swedish regional emergency care hospitals. Dynamic hip screw is used for fractures considered as stable within the respective treatment protocol, whereas one treatment protocol (Medoff sliding plate/dynamic hip screw) uses biaxial Medoff sliding plate for unstable pertrochanteric fractures and uniaxial Medoff sliding plate for subtrochanteric fractures, the second (intramedullary nail/dynamic hip screw) uses intramedullary nail for subtrochanteric fractures and for pertrochanteric fractures with intertrochanteric comminution or subtrochanteric extension. All orthopedic surgeries are registered in a regional database. All consecutive trochanteric fracture operations during 2011-2012 (n = 856) and subsequent technical reoperations (n = 40) were derived from the database. Reoperations were analysed and classified into the categories adjustment (percutaneous removal of the locking screw of the Medoff sliding plate or the intramedullary nail, followed by fracture healing) or minor, intermediate (reosteosynthesis) or major (hip joint replacement, Girdlestone or persistent nonunion) technical complications. The relative risk of intermediate or major technical complications was 4.2 (1.2-14) times higher in unstable pertrochanteric fractures and 4.6 (1.1-19) times higher in subtrochanteric fractures with treatment protocol: intramedullary nail/dynamic hip screw, compared to treatment protocol: Medoff sliding plate/dynamic hip screw. Overall rates of intermediate and major technical complications in unstable pertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures were with biaxial Medoff sliding plate 0.68%, with uniaxial Medoff sliding plate 1.4%, with dynamic hip screw 3.4% and with intramedullary nail 7.2%. The

  10. Improving hip surgery patients’ outcomes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Taylor Kelly, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    This presentation focuses upon the improvement of hip surgery patients’ outcomes with respect to health promotion and rehabilitation. The overall aims of the EU financed orthopedic nursing project will be introduced. Speakers highlight the project’s contribution to: -the development of nurse...

  11. Hip-Hop Pop Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Clarence, Sr.

    2011-01-01

    Art has a way of helping students better understand and appreciate the world around them, particularly the things that are most important to them. Hip hop is one of those generational genres that capture the attention of young students like few other things do. Drawing on this genre to get students to create art is an excellent way to demonstrate…

  12. Hip-Hop Pop Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Clarence, Sr.

    2011-01-01

    Art has a way of helping students better understand and appreciate the world around them, particularly the things that are most important to them. Hip hop is one of those generational genres that capture the attention of young students like few other things do. Drawing on this genre to get students to create art is an excellent way to demonstrate…

  13. Hominin Hip Biomechanics: Changing Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrener, Anna G

    2017-05-01

    The shape of the human pelvis reflects the unique demands placed on the hip abductor muscles (gluteus medius and gluteus minimus), which stabilize the body in the frontal plane during bipedal locomotion. This morphological shift occurred early in hominin evolution, yet important shape differences between hominin species have led to significant disagreement about abductor function and locomotor capability in these extinct taxa. A static biomechanical model that relies on a close association between skeletal measurements of the pelvis and femur has traditionally been used to reconstruct hip biomechanics in these species. However, experimental biomechanical approaches have highlighted the dynamic nature of mediolateral balance in walking and running, challenging the assumptions of the static hip model. This article reviews traditional approaches for understanding hip abductor function, shows how they have been applied to the fossil hominin record, and discusses new techniques that integrate the dynamic nature of mediolateral balance during human locomotion. Anat Rec, 300:932-945, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 发育性髋关节脱位与雌激素相关研究进展%Impact of Estrogen on the Developmental Dislocation of the Hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐秀玉(综述); 李志奇(审校)

    2016-01-01

    发育性髋关节脱位的确切病因尚不明确,其与内分泌性因素关系密切。髋关节脱位的发病率存在显著性别差异;雌激素对原代软骨细胞的作用亦有性别差异。动物实验研究和临床研究观察到雌激素与髋关节脱位相关。髋关节脱位的患儿的雌激素受体的存在酶切位点多态性。雌激素通过作用于髋关节的软骨,韧带和胶原等结构导致发育性髋关节脱位。%Although the exact etiology remains unknown , developmental dysplasia of the hip has been related to hormonal factors.There is gender-related difference in the response of primary chondrocytes to estrogen.Results in clinical and basic research revealed that congenital dislocation of the hip was closely related to abnormal estrogen and estrogen receptor polymorphisms.It has been reported that estrogen could influence the development of the hip joint and associated structures such as cartilage,ligament and collagen.

  15. Microwire formation based on dielectrophoresis of electroless gold plated polystyrene microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hong-Yuan; Ren Yu-Kun; Tao Ye

    2011-01-01

    Microspheres coated with a perfectly conductive surface have many advantages in the applications of biosensors and micro-electromechanical systems. Polystyrene microspheres with the diameter of 10 μm were coated with a 50 nmthick gold layer using an electroless gold plating approach. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) for bare microspheres and shelled microspheres was theoretically analysed and the real part of the Clausius-Mossotti factor was calculated for the two kinds of microspheres. The experiments on the dielectrophoretic characterisation of the uncoated polystyrene microspheres and gold coated polystyrene microspheres (GCPMs) were carried out. Experimental results showed that the gold coated polystyrene microspheres were only acted by a positive dielectrophoretic force when the frequency was below 40M Hz,while the uncoated polystyrene microspheres were governed by a negative dielectrophoretic force in this frequency range.The gold coated polystyrene microspheres were exploited to form the microwire automatically according to their stable dielectrophoretic and electric characterisations.

  16. Enhanced electrical conductivity in polystyrene nanocomposites at ultra-low graphene content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian-Yong; Yan, Dong; Jiang, Zhiguo; Cao, Ya-Kun; Yu, Zhong-Zhen; Yavari, Fazel; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-08-01

    We compared the electrical conductivity of multiwalled-carbon-nanotube/polystyrene and graphene/polystyrene composites. The conductivity of polystyrene increases from ∼6.7 × 10(-14) to ∼3.49 S/m, with an increase in graphene content from ∼0.11 to ∼1.1 vol %. This is ∼2-4 orders of magnitude higher than for multiwalled-carbon-nanotube/polystyrene composites. Furthermore, we show that the conductivity of the graphene/polystyrene system can be significantly enhanced by incorporation of polylactic acid. The volume-exclusion principle forces graphene into the polystyrene-rich regions (selective localization) and generates ∼4.5-fold decrease in its percolation threshold from ∼0.33 to ∼0.075 vol %.

  17. US FDA's revised consumption factor for polystyrene used in food-contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, K; Elyashiv-Barad, S

    2007-09-01

    US FDA's continual effort to evaluate the safety of food-contact materials includes periodically re-examining our established packaging factors, such as consumption and food-type distribution factors. The use of polystyrene in food-contact and disposable food-packaging applications has expanded and is expected to continue to increase in the future. Therefore, it is important to revise the polystyrene consumption factor to account for increases in consumer exposure to substances migrating from styrenic food packaging. The currently used consumption factor for polystyrene is 0.1, which is based on market data collected around 1980. US FDA has revised the polystyrene consumption factor utilizing three different sources of market data. Using consumption and population data, US FDA calculated a new consumption factor of 0.14 for polystyrene. This consumption factor has been further subdivided to allow for the refinement of exposure estimates for uses limited to specific subcategories of polystyrene packaging.

  18. Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Model for Predicting Design vs. Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Harvil, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. In order to verifying that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must eventually be built and tested with human subjects. Using computer models early in the design phase of new hardware development can be advantageous, allowing virtual prototyping to take place. Having easily modifiable models of the suit hard sections may reduce the time it takes to make changes to the hardware designs and then to understand their impact on suit and human performance. A virtual design environment gives designers the ability to think outside the box and exhaust design possibilities before building and testing physical prototypes with human subjects. Reductions in prototyping and testing may eventually reduce development costs. This study is an attempt to develop computer models of the hard components of the suit with known physical characteristics, supplemented with human subject performance data. Objectives: The primary objective was to develop an articulating solid model of the Mark III hip bearings to be used for evaluating suit design performance of the hip joint. Methods: Solid models of a planetary prototype (Mark III) suit s hip bearings and brief section were reverse-engineered from the prototype. The performance of the models was then compared by evaluating the mobility performance differences between the nominal hardware configuration and hardware modifications. This was accomplished by gathering data from specific suited tasks. Subjects performed maximum flexion and abduction tasks while in a nominal suit bearing configuration and in three off-nominal configurations. Performance data for the hip were recorded using state-of-the-art motion capture technology. Results: The results demonstrate that solid models of planetary suit hard segments for use as a performance design tool is feasible. From a general trend perspective

  19. [Atraumatic hip pain in young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Murillo, M; Turcu, V; De Nicolás Navas, M B; Yeguas Bermejo, A

    2016-01-01

    Hip pain in the young adult is a disabling pathophysiological process may be related to multiple etiologies. The process must be determined in order to make a diagnosis and follow-up treatment. The case is presented of a 29 year old woman with anemia, atraumatic hip pain on the right side, and a limp of one month onset. The differential diagnosis includes infectious, rheumatological, tumor, avascular necrosis of hip, hip impingement, hip dysplasia, osteoarthritis and other syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Congenital hip dysplasia, screening and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, A; Windhager, R; Chiari, C

    2015-11-01

    Congenital hip dysplasia and hip dislocation are relatively common pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system in infants. An early and certain diagnosis can now be achieved by sonographic hip screening within the framework of screening examination programs. This early diagnostic procedure in infants is essential particularly for a conservative treatment strategy. Therefore, apart from possessing in-depth knowledge, training of the examiner in specialist courses is of central importance. This article presents an overview of the entity of congenital hip dysplasia and hip dislocation, the diagnostics and treatment with special emphasis on recent developments.

  1. Computer modeling of the pathomechanics of spastic hip dislocation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F; Slomczykowski, M; Cope, R; Lipton, G E

    1999-01-01

    the hip force, the extremity should be positioned in the normal physiologic position. The impact of decreasing the femoral anteversion or femoral neck-shaft angle or both had little additional effect on the direction or magnitude of hip forces.

  2. Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, M; Kowalczuk, M; Simunovic, N; Ayeni, O R

    2016-06-01

    Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia is controversial in the orthopaedic community, as the outcome literature has been variable and inconclusive. We hypothesise that outcomes of hip arthroscopy may be diminished in the setting of hip dysplasia, but outcomes may be acceptable in milder or borderline cases of hip dysplasia. A systematic search was performed in duplicate for studies investigating the outcome of hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia up to July 2015. Study parameters including sample size, definition of dysplasia, outcomes measures, and re-operation rates were obtained. Furthermore, the levels of evidence of studies were collected and quality assessment was performed. The systematic review identified 18 studies investigating hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia, with 889 included patients. Criteria used by the studies to diagnose hip dysplasia and borderline hip dysplasia included centre edge angle in 72% of studies but the range of angles were quite variable. Although 89% of studies reported improved post-operative outcome scores in the setting of hip dysplasia, revision rates were considerable (14.1%), with 9.6% requiring conversion to total hip arthroplasty. The available orthopaedic literature suggests that although improved outcomes are seen in hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia, there is a high rate of re-operation and conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Furthermore, the criteria used to define hip dysplasia vary considerably among published studies.Cite this article: M. Yeung, M. Kowalczuk, N. Simunovic, O. R. Ayeni. Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:225-231. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.2000533. © 2016 Ayeni et al.

  3. Does reduced movement restrictions and use of assistive devices affect rehabilitation outcome after total hip replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    . DESIGN: Non-randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Inpatient. POPULATION: 365 consecutively included THR patients. METHODS: Patients included the 3 initial month of the study underwent rehabilitation with restrictions in hip movement and a standard package of assistive devices (restricted group...... IMPACT: It is possible to reduce movement restrictions and use of assistive devices considerably. More research on safety issues is needed to elucidate the effect of unrestricted rehabilitation on hip dislocation....

  4. Silica Microspheres Are Superior to Polystyrene for Microvesicle Analysis by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Regular Article Silica microspheres are superior to polystyrene for microvesicle analysis by flow cytometry☆ Bijaya Kumar Parida ⁎, Hiram Garrastazu...February 2015 Available online 16 February 2015 Keywords: Microvesicles Cell-derived microparticles Silica microspheres Polystyrene microspheres ...is used to characterize MVs. Polystyrene microspheres are often used in flow cytometry to distinguish MV from cells by setting a 1-μm MV gate in a

  5. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristiane R.; Ruggeri,Giacommo; Paoli,Marco-A. De

    2003-01-01

    The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units). The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Th...

  6. Miscibility of Methylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic Acid Polymer with Magnesium, Zinc, and Manganese Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    OpenAIRE

    ALKAN, Cemil; YURTSEVEN, Nebahat; ARAS, Leyla

    2005-01-01

    The miscibility of methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid polymer (MMA-MAA) with metal neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers was investigated by viscometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared radiation spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Polystyrene (PS) was sulfonated by acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid and the sulfonation degree was found to be 2.6 mole percent, and 2.6 mole percent sulfonated polystyrene was neutralized by Mg, Zn, and Mn sa...

  7. Self-Organization of CdS Nanoparticles in Polystyrene Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海春; 向红; 容敏智; 章明秋; 曾汉民; 王树峰; 龚旗煌

    2002-01-01

    Self-organization of nano-CdS particles in polystyrene can be observed by encapsulating the particles with ndodecyl mercaptan owing to a strong electron transfer interaction between the modified CdS nanoparticles and aliphatic carbons in polystyrene. Consequently, ultraviolet/visible absorption edge of the treated nanoCdS/polystyrene composites is further blueshifted in addition to the shift caused by the quantum size effect, and the fluorescence emission peak of the composite becomes redshifted and narrow.

  8. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-10-10

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  9. Techniques and results for open hip preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLevy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While hip arthroscopy grows in popularity, there are still many circumstances under which open hip preservation is most appropriately indicated. This article specifically reviews open hip preservation procedures for a variety of hip conditions. Femoral acetabular impingement may be corrected using an open surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular dysplasia may be corrected using a periacetabular osteotomy. Acetabular protrusio may require surgical hip dislocation with rim trimming and a possible valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy. Legg-Calve ́-Perthes disease produces complex deformities that may be better served with osteotomies of the proximal femur and/ or acetabulum. Chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE may also benefit from a surgical hip dislocation and/or proximal femoral osteotomy.

  10. Hip Imaging in Athletes: Sports Imaging Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Christoph A; Sutter, Reto; Buck, Florian M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2016-08-01

    Hip or groin pain in athletes is common and clinical presentation is often nonspecific. Imaging is a very important diagnostic step in the work-up of athletes with hip pain. This review article provides an overview on hip biomechanics and discusses strategies for hip imaging modalities such as radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR arthrography and traction MR arthrography). The authors explain current concepts of femoroacetabular impingement and the problem of high prevalence of cam- and pincer-type morphology in asymptomatic persons. With the main focus on MR imaging, the authors present abnormalities of the hip joint and the surrounding soft tissues that can occur in athletes: intraarticular and extraarticular hip impingement syndromes, labral and cartilage disease, microinstability of the hip, myotendinous injuries, and athletic pubalgia. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  11. Impaction bone graft and cementless total hip arthroplasty for treating ankylosing spondylitis in 17 patients%嵌压植骨结合非骨水泥型全髋关节置换治疗强直性脊柱炎17例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常增林; 李锋

    2009-01-01

    1996-03/2003-03纳入强直性脊杜炎合并股骨侧严重骨质疏松的髋关节病变患者17例(24髋),采用自体骨嵌压植骨结合非骨水泥型全髋关节置换治疗.手术时年龄20~52岁,平均35岁;采用Harris评分方法及X射线片观察进行临床疗效评定.17例患者24髋均获得完整随访,随访时间36~120个月,平均87个月.Harris评分从置换前平均34分提高到置换后平均86.4分,优良率87.5%.X射线片见股骨假体与股骨近段紧密压配;无假体感染及脱位.1髋出现5 mm的假体下沉,发生于置换后1年内,经过5年以上随访观察,假体未进一步下沉,并与骨质接触良好,目前无松动表现.提示骨质皱对非骨水泥假体置换的疗效影响较大,采用自体骨嵌压植骨技术进行骨质重建,可为强直性脊梓炎合并严重骨质疏松患者全髋关节置换提供了一种良好的解决方法,临床效果满意.%A total of 17 hip joint lesion patients (24 hips) combined with ankylosing spondylitis and severe osteoporosis from March 1996 to March 2003.They.received autologous impaction bone graft and cementless total hip replacement.They were 20-52 years old,averagely 35 years.Harris score and X-ray method were used to evaluate clinical outcomes.A total of 17 patients (24 hips) were followed up for 36-120 months,averagely 87 months.Harris score increased from averagely 34 points (preoperation) to averagely 86.4 points (postoperation),resulting in an excellent and good rate of 87.5%.Radiograph showed that femoral prosthesis was closely fixed to proximal segment of the femur,without prosthetic infection or dislocation.One hip suffered from 5-mm prosthetic subsidence within 1 year following replacement,and no further subsidence following over 5-year follow up.The prosthesis showed good contact to sclerotin,without loose.It is suggested that bone mass has great effects on cementtess prosthetic replacement.Autologous impaction bone graft for bone remodeling provides

  12. Luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites based on BaF2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, T. M.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Vistovskyy, V. V.; Gektin, A. V.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Luminescence-kinetic properties of polystyrene composites based on BaF2 nanoparticles were studied. The electron emission from the nanoparticles due to the photoelectric effect is the main luminescence excitation mechanism in the case of polystyrene composites loaded with small BaF2 nanoparticles (~20 nm). Scintillation pulse of polystyrene composites possesses only fast decay component with the time constant τ~2 ns, and its emission intensity considerably exceeds the one for pure polystyrene scintillator upon the X-ray excitations.

  13. Syntheses, magnetic and spectral studies on polystyrene supported coordination compounds of bidentate and tetradentate Schiff bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Kumar; P K Gupta; A Syamal

    2005-05-01

    The reaction of aminomethylated polystyrene (PSCH2-NH2) and 2-hydroxyacetanilide in DMF results in the formation of polystyrene-anchored monobasic bidentate Schiff base, PSCH2-LH (I). On the other hand, the reaction of chloromethylated polystyrene (PSCH2-Cl), 3-formylsalicylic acid, ethylenediamine and acetylacetone in DMF in presence of ethyl acetate (EA) and triethylamine (TEA) produces another polystyrene-anchored dibasic tetradentate Schiff base, PSCH2-L'H2 (II). Both I and II react with a number of di-, tri- and hexavalent metal ions like Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd to form polystyreneanchored coordination compounds, and these have been characterized and discussed.

  14. Luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites based on BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkiv, T.M.; Halyatkin, O.O.; Vistovskyy, V.V. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Gektin, A.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, NAS of Ukraine, 60 Lenina Avenue, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Voloshinovskii, A.S. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2016-02-21

    Luminescence-kinetic properties of polystyrene composites based on BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles were studied. The electron emission from the nanoparticles due to the photoelectric effect is the main luminescence excitation mechanism in the case of polystyrene composites loaded with small BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles (~20 nm). Scintillation pulse of polystyrene composites possesses only fast decay component with the time constant τ~2 ns, and its emission intensity considerably exceeds the one for pure polystyrene scintillator upon the X-ray excitations.

  15. Asymmetric traumatic bilateral dislocation of hip. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gonzalo González González

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A male (26 years suffered an asymmetric bilateral dislocation of hip as a result of a car accident. The patient was treated with closed reduction and bone traction for six weeks. We present this report since the reviewed literature only include six cases with this kind of lesion and because this is a medical emergency resulting from high impact trauma, being the aseptic osteonecrosis the most significant and serious complication.

  16. Subject-specific hip geometry affects predicted hip joint contact forces during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, G; De Groote, F; Demeulenaere, B; Mulier, M; Van der Perre, G; Spaepen, A; Jonkers, I

    2008-01-01

    Hip loading affects bone remodeling and implant fixation. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of subject-specific modeling of hip geometry on muscle activation patterns and hip contact forces during gait, using musculoskeletal modeling, inverse dynamic analysis and static optimization. We first used sensitivity analysis to analyze the effect of isolated changes in femoral neck-length (NL) and neck-shaft angle (NSA) on calculated muscle activations and hip contact force during the stance phase of gait. A deformable generic musculoskeletal model was adjusted incrementally to adopt a physiological range of NL and NSA. In a second similar analysis, we adjusted hip geometry to the measurements from digitized radiographs of 20 subjects with primary hip osteoarthrosis. Finally, we studied the effect of hip abductor weakness on muscle activation patterns and hip contact force. This analysis showed that differences in NL (41-74 mm) and NSA (113-140 degrees ) affect the muscle activation of the hip abductors during stance phase and hence hip contact force by up to three times body weight. In conclusion, the results from both the sensitivity and subject-specific analysis showed that at the moment of peak contact force, altered NSA has only a minor effect on the loading configuration of the hip. Increased NL, however, results in an increase of the three hip contact-force components and a reduced vertical loading. The results of these analyses are essential to understand modified hip joint loading, and for planning hip surgery for patients with osteoarthrosis.

  17. Retrieval analysis of 240 metal-on-metal hip components, comparing modular total hip replacement with hip resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, A; Underwood, R; Cann, P; Ilo, K; Nawaz, Z; Skinner, J; Hart, A J

    2011-03-01

    This study compared component wear rates and pre-revision blood metal ions levels in two groups of failed metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties: hip resurfacing and modular total hip replacement (THR). There was no significant difference in the median rate of linear wear between the groups for both acetabular (p = 0.4633) and femoral (p = 0.0872) components. There was also no significant difference in the median linear wear rates when failed hip resurfacing and modular THR hips of the same type (ASR and Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR)) were compared. Unlike other studies of well-functioning hips, there was no significant difference in pre-revision blood metal ion levels between hip resurfacing and modular THR. Edge loading was common in both groups, but more common in the resurfacing group (67%) than in the modular group (57%). However, this was not significant (p = 0.3479). We attribute this difference to retention of the neck in resurfacing of the hip, leading to impingement-type edge loading. This was supported by visual evidence of impingement on the femur. These findings show that failed metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and modular THRs have similar component wear rates and are both associated with raised pre-revision blood levels of metal ions.

  18. The Use and Analysis of Parvule- impacted Bone Graft in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty with Bone Defect of Acetabulum%颗粒骨打压植骨治疗全髋关节翻修中髋臼侧骨缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠洲; 孟凡丁; 王韶进

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate the use and analysis of parvule - impacted bone graft in revision total hip arthroplasty with bone defect of acetabulum. Strike off or grind bone in acetabular fossa until bone surface with cribriform blood. Bone defection of inclusive type was covered directly with morselized bone by impaction bone grafting. For Bone defection of not inclusive type, first we used titanium mesh to cover it ,then covered it with morselized bone by impaction bone grafting in order to reconstruct the hip normal anatomical configuration and restore bone mass,then install biotype or cement type acetabulum prothesis. Parvule- impacted bone graft in revision total hip arthroplasty with bone defect of acetabulum is effective in short-term follow-up, but the final therapeutic effect couldn't be determined, because of the lack long term and large amount of follow up study.%探讨颗粒骨打压植骨治疗骨缺损在全髋关节翻修中的应用及疗效分析.包容型缺损直接颗粒骨覆盖,使用打压植骨技术;对于非包容型缺损采用钛网覆盖骨缺损,再用松质骨颗粒覆盖,使用打压植骨技术,重建髋关节的正常解剖形态,恢复骨量,安装生物型或水泥性髋臼假体.结果颗粒骨打压植骨在伴有髋臼侧骨缺损的全髋关节翻修术中可有效重建髋臼侧骨缺损,恢复骨量,并能提供良好的早期稳定性,术后短期随访效果良好,但是其远期结果有待于更长时间、更大规模的随访研究.

  19. Hip dysplasia: a significant risk factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    joint space width (JSW) /=60 yr of age. Of factors entered into logistic regression analyses, only age (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P LT 0.001 for left hips) and hip dysplasia (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P = 0.004 for left hips) were significantly associated with hip OA prevalence in women. In men......, only hip dysplasia was associated with hip OA prevalence, P LT 0.001 in right hips and P = 0.001 in left hips. CONCLUSIONS: Of the individual risk factors investigated in this study, only age and hip dysplasia were associated with the development of hip osteoarthritis.......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional survey of 2232 women and 1336 men (age range 20-91 yr) was to investigate individual risk factors for hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Standardized, weight-bearing pelvic radiographs were evaluated. Radiological hip joint OA was defined as minimum...

  20. Vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria calculations for polystyrene plus methyleyclohexane and polystyrene plus cyclohexane solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilczura-Wachnik, H.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria predictions for polystyrene in two theta solvents: cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. VLE calculations were performed with the Elbro free volume method and a modified version of the PC-SAFT method, as well...... as with three UNIFAC type group contribution models: Entropic Free Volume + UNIFAC VLE 1 coeff., Entropic Free Volume + UNIFAC VLE 2coeff., and Oishi-Prausnitz + UNIFAC VLE 2coeff. Solvent activities were calculated for the polystyrene + cyclohexane and polystyrene + methylcyclohcxane solutions, and compared...

  1. A simple optical tweezers for trapping polystyrene particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiddiq, Minarni; Nasir, Zulfa; Yogasari, Dwiyana

    2013-09-01

    Optical tweezers is an optical trap. For decades, it has become an optical tool that can trap and manipulate any particle from the very small size like DNA to the big one like bacteria. The trapping force comes from the radiation pressure of laser light which is focused to a group of particles. Optical tweezers has been used in many research areas such as atomic physics, medical physics, biophysics, and chemistry. Here, a simple optical tweezers has been constructed using a modified Leybold laboratory optical microscope. The ocular lens of the microscope has been removed for laser light and digital camera accesses. A laser light from a Coherent diode laser with wavelength λ = 830 nm and power 50 mW is sent through an immersion oil objective lens with magnification 100 × and NA 1.25 to a cell made from microscope slides containing polystyrene particles. Polystyrene particles with size 3 μm and 10 μm are used. A CMOS Thorlabs camera type DCC1545M with USB Interface and Thorlabs camera lens 35 mm are connected to a desktop and used to monitor the trapping and measure the stiffness of the trap. The camera is accompanied by camera software which makes able for the user to capture and save images. The images are analyzed using ImageJ and Scion macro. The polystyrene particles have been trapped successfully. The stiffness of the trap depends on the size of the particles and the power of the laser. The stiffness increases linearly with power and decreases as the particle size larger.

  2. Proton conducting sulphonated fluorinated poly(styrene) crosslinked electrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soules, A.; Ameduri, B.; Boutevin, B.; David, G. [Institut Charles Gerhardt UMR CNRS 5253 Equipe, Ingenierie et Architectures Macromoleculaires,' ' Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier, Cedex 05 (France); Perrin, R. [CEA Le Ripault Departement des Materiaux, DMAT/SCMF/LSTP, BP16 - 37260 Monts (France); Gebel, G. [Structure et Proprietes des Architectures Moleculaires UMR 5819 (CEA-CNRS-UJF), INAC, SPrAM, CEA Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Potential membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell based on crosslinked sulphonated fluorinated polystyrenes (PS) were synthesised in two steps. First, azide-telechelic polystyrene was obtained by iodine transfer polymerisation of styrene in the presence of 1,6-diiodoperfluorohexane followed by azido chain-end functionalisation. Then azide-telechelic polystyrene was efficiently crosslinked with 1,10-diazido-1H,1H,2H,2H,9H,9H,10H,10H-perfluorodecane under UV irradiation. After 45 min only, almost completion of azide crosslinking could be achieved, resulting in crosslinked membranes with insoluble fractions higher than 95%. The sulphonation of the crosslinked membranes afforded ionic exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 2.2 to 3.2 meq g{sup -1}. The hydration number was shown to be very high (from 30 to 75), depending on both the content of perfluorodecane and of sulphonic acid groups. The morphology of the membranes, assessed by small-angle X-ray scattering, was found to be a lamellar-type structure with two types of ionic domains. For the membrane that exhibited an IEC value of 2.2 meq.g{sup -1}, proton conductivity was in the same range as that of Nafion {sup registered} (120-135 mS.cm{sup -1}), whereas the membrane IEC value of 3.2 meq.g{sup -1} showed a proton conductivity higher than that of Nafion {sup registered} in liquid water from 25 to 80 C, though a high water uptake. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Renewable Aromatics from the Degradation of Polystyrene under Mild Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jabri, Nouf M.

    2017-08-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is one of the most important polymers in the plastic sector due to its inexpensive cost as well as many preferred properties. Its international market is expected to achieve $28.2 billion by 2019. Although PS has a high calorific value of 87 GJ tonne-1, there is no a practical method to manage its waste but landfill. As a result, the PS debris in the oceans has reached 70% of the total plastic debris. This issue is considered as the main economical and environmental drivers of converting polystyrene waste into renewable chemical feedstocks. The aim of this work is to develop a catalyst for converting PS into renewable chemicals under mild conditions. We introduce FeCu/Alumina with excellent catalytic activity to fully degrade polystyrene with 66% liquid yield at 250 °C. The GC/MS confirmed that the primary products are in the gasoline range. Next, we present the bimetallic FeCo/Alumina and successfully we have obtained 100% PS conversion and 90% liquid yield with maintaining the products selectivity. Later, the tri-metallic FeCuCo/Alumina was synthesized and showed 100% PS conversion and 91% liquid yield. Surprisingly, ethylbenzene was the major product in which 80 wt. % was achieved with excellent reproducibility. Furthermore, the real waste Styrofoam was thermally and catalytically degraded at 250 °C. Interestingly, a high styrene content of 78 wt. % was recovered after 30 minutes of the reaction under mild conditions. Keeping in mind that a good balance between acidity and basicity is required to convert PS into aromatic under mild reaction conditions catalytically. Finally, the performance of the catalysts was compared to literature reports and showed novel liquid yields. In conclusion, we have synthesized cheap, easy to scale up, and efficient catalysts to fully degrade PS into high liquid yields of aromatics with excellent selectivity.

  4. The effect of the metal-on-metal hip controversy on internet search activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Nigel

    2014-01-04

    The recall of the articular surface replacement (ASR) hip prosthesis in 2010 represents one of the most controversial areas in orthopaedic surgery in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the metal-on-metal hip controversy on Internet search activity in four different regions and determine whether the number of related news reports affected Internet search activity. The Google Trends, Keywords and News applications were used to record the number of news articles and Internet search activity for the terms "hip recall", "metal-on-metal hip" and "ASR hip" from October 2009 to October 2012 in the USA, the UK, Australia and Ireland. There was a large increase in search activity following the official recall in August 2010 in all countries. There was significantly greater search activity after the recall in Ireland compared with the UK for the search term "hip recall" (P = 0.004). For the term "metal-on-metal hip", the UK had significantly more search activity (P = 0.0009). There was a positive correlation between the number of news stories in UK and Ireland with Internet search activity but not in the USA or Australia. Differences between countries affected by the same recall highlight the complex effects of the media on public awareness. The data demonstrates a window of opportunity prior to the official recall for the development of an awareness campaign to provide patients with accurate information.

  5. Limit of Superheat of Polystyrene-Cyclohexane Solutions: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Howland Jennings

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory for the surface tension of polymer solutions is used along with classical nucleation theory to predict the temperature rise above the solvent limit of superheat due to addition of polymer.  Polystyrene, of 2000 and 4000 molecular weight, was added to cyclohexane and it produced a linear rise in the superheat to an extent that depends upon both molecular weight and concentration.  The theory is used in the athermal case (dT = 0 to give the additional temperature rise with respect to weight fraction.

  6. Morphology Evolution of Polycarbonate-Polystyrene Blends During Compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuai, Chengzhi; Almdal, Kristoffer; Johannsen, Ib;

    2001-01-01

    The morphology evolution of polycarbonate-polystyrene (PC/PS) blends during the compounding process in three blending methods of industrial relevance, namely melt blending, re-melt blending in a twin-screw extruder and tri-melt blending in an injection-moulding machine, was investigated using......-empirical model. The results show that the formation of co-continuous morphology strongly depends on blend composition and melt blending method, whereas the model prediction for phase inversion deviates from the experimental values. Further, we found that the initial mechanism of morphology evolution involves...

  7. Polystyrene-based scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmurin, P.N.; Lebedev, V.N.; Titskaya, V.D.; Adadurov, A.F., E-mail: adadurov@isma.kharkov.ua; Elyseev, D.A.; Pereymak, V.N.

    2014-10-11

    Polystyrene-based scintillators with 2-phenyl-5-(4-tert-butylephenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (tert-BuPPD) or 2,5-di-(3-methylphenyl)-1,3,4 oxadiazole (m-DMePPD) are proposed for pulse-shape n/γ-discrimination. These scintillators have improved mechanical properties, long operational time and high n/γ discrimination parameter – figure of merit (1.49 and 1.81 in a wide energy region), so they can be used as detectors of fast neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background.

  8. Preparation of Silver-Coated Polystyrene Composite Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓; 詹鹏; 章建辉; 王振林; 章维益; 闵乃本

    2003-01-01

    We report a feasible approach to the preparation of monodispersed metal-shell composite microspheres based on a combination of surface reaction and surface seeding techniques. The method was implemented for coating polystyrene (PS) spheres with silver shell having a variable thickness by controlling the amount of reagents in the reaction procedure. These composite spherical particles in dimensions of the submicrometer range may become attractive building blocks for the creation of metallo-dielectric photonic band gap materials when they are organized into crystals.

  9. SOLID PHASE TRANSITION OF SYNDIOTACTIC POLYSTYRENE IN SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ying Li; Jia-song He

    2002-01-01

    Solid phase transition of the a form crystals to the β form crystals in syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) samples has occurred in supercritical CO2. This transformation is different from those detected under other conditions. The effects of some factors (e.g. time, temperature, and pressure) on the solid phase transformation of sPS in supercritical CO2 were analyzed in detail. Experimental results show that longer time, higher temperature or higher pressure favors the transformation of the α form crystals to the β form crystals.

  10. Simulation and fabrication of integrated polystyrene microlens in microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-05-17

    This paper presents a simple and quick method to integrate microlens with the microfluidics systems. The polystyrene (PS) based microlens is fabricated with the free surface thermal compression molding methods, a thin PS sheet with the microlens is bonded to a PMMA substrate which contains the laser ablated microchannels. The convex profiler of the microlens will give a magnified images of the microchannels for easier observation. Optical simulation software is being used for the design and simulation of the microlens to have optimal optical performance with the desired focal length. A microfluidic system with the integrated PS microlens is also fabricated for demonstration.

  11. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs.

  12. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers.

  13. Safety Issue of Hip Resurfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McTighe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hip Resurfacing (HR development of the 1970s was an attempt to address the failures of conventional cemented stems. Those early HR designs failed because problems with maintaining bone under the resurfaced femoral head, and loosening of the socket with substantial acetabular bone loss. However technology, knowledge and surgical techniques have evolved over the past 45 years. The more recent designs like the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR focused on metal to metal bearing surfaces. These devices are under attack and maybe they should be. However, lets not ignore the significant amount of information and potential improvements in both design technology and surgical techniques that have come about over the past few years.

  14. Pathogenesis of osteoporotic hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized late in the course of the disease by an increased risk of fracture, particularly in the elderly. It occurs in both sexes, affecting approximately 8 million women and 2 million men aged > or = 50 years (1). While low bone density is a predictor of fractures, it is not the only determinant of fracture risk. Other factors include advanced age, altered bone quality, a personal or family history of falls, frailty, poor eyesight, debilitating diseases, and high bone turnover. A diet with sufficient calcium and vitamin D is important to minimize bone loss and, along with regular exercise, to maintain muscle strength. Bisphosphonates have been shown to reduce the risk of hip fracture. For elderly patients, the use of hip protectors may be used as a treatment of last resort. Regardless of the age of the patient, individual patient risk factors must be considered to target appropriate treatment and prevent fracture.

  15. Editorial Commentary: Anatomical Vandalism of the Hip? Hip Capsular Repair Seems a Sound Adjunct to Hip Arthroscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arkel, Richard J; Jeffers, Jonathan R T; Amis, Andrew A

    2017-02-01

    The study "Contribution of the Pubofemoral Ligament to Hip Stability: A Biomechanical Study" by Martin, Khoury, Schröder, Johnson, Gómez-Hoyos, Campos, and Palmer found that cutting the hip capsular ligament allowed a large increase in femoral internal rotation, particularly in the flexed hip, causing subluxation to occur. In addition to providing new data on the role of the pubofemoral ligament, it raises the question of whether hip joint surgeons should repair the capsule-what are the likely consequences?-and whether any beneficial effects persist in long-term clinical follow-ups. For now, hip capsular repair seems a sound adjunct to hip arthroscopic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance in collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Mettinger, Lindsey M; Caswell, Shane V; Burtt, Andrea; Cortes, Nelson

    2014-10-01

    Lower extremity injuries such as Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears remain a concern in collegiate female athletes. Core endurance and hip strength reportedly influence ACL and lower extremity injury risk. Good neuromuscular control, as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) test is associated with decreased lower extremity injuries. The exact relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance (SEBT scores), and how they impact one another in the female collegiate athlete remain unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance in collegiate female athletes. Forty collegiate female athletes (19.6±1.1yrs, 163.1±7.8cm, 61.3±6.5kgs) performed the SEBT in anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial directions bilaterally (% leg length), McGill's anterior, posterior, and left and right plank core endurance tests (seconds), and hip abductor, flexor, extensor, and external rotator isometric strength tests bilaterally (N) using handheld dynamometry. Pearson's product moment correlations examined relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance. A linear regression analysis examined whether core endurance and hip strength influenced balance (p≤0.05). Anterior SEBT scores were fairly positively correlated with hip flexor and extensor strength. Posterolateral SEBT scores were fairly positively correlated with hip abductor, extensor, and flexor strength (p=0.02-to-0.004; r=0.26-to-0.45). Fair positive correlations existed between posterior core endurance and hip extensor strength bilaterally (right: p=0.02, r=0.37; left: p=0.003, r=0.47). Core endurance and SEBT scores were not correlated (p>0.05). Core endurance and hip strength did not influence SEBT scores (p=0.47). Overall, hip strength, but not core endurance was related to SEBT scores in collegiate female athletes. Females with greater hip flexor, extensor, and abductor strength also had better

  17. 针刀对股骨头缺血性坏死患者髋关节囊内压和骨内压影响的临床研究%Clinical Study of Impact of Acupotomy Therapy on the Hip Intracapsular Pressure and Intraosseous Pressure of Patients with Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿群威; 陈四海; 王胜成; 曹可政

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究针刀对股骨头缺血性坏死( ANFH)患者的疗效以及对髋关节囊内压和骨内压的影响。方法:60例患者随机分为3组,观察组运用针刀进行髋关节腔减压、骨髓腔减压和髋关节周围软组织松解的整体松解治疗,对照1组只进行髋关节腔减压和骨髓腔减压治疗,对照2组单纯进行骨髓腔减压治疗。3个月后统计疗效并测量治疗前后患侧髋关节囊内压和骨内压。结果:除X线评分外,观察组各项疗效评价指标的改善率明显高于两个对照组(P<0.05或0.01);观察组和对照1组患者囊内压和骨内压治疗后均有显著性下降(P<0.01),对照2组骨内压也有显著性下降(P<0.01),但囊内压下降无显著性差异(P>0.05);观察组的囊内压和骨内压下降幅度明显大于两个对照组(P<0.05或0.01)。结论:针刀整体松解治疗可以明显降低ANFH患者囊内压和骨内压,降压效果和临床疗效均优于针刀单纯骨髓腔减压或骨髓腔和髋关节腔联合减压。%Objective:To study the curative effect of acupotomy in the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head ( ANFH) and the impact of this therapy on the hip intracapsular pressure and intraosseous pressure among these patients .Methods:60 patients were divided randomly and equally into three groups .The observa-tion group was treated with acupotomy overall release therapy comprising the hip joint cavity decompression , marrow cavity decompression and hip surrounding soft tissues release .The control group 1 was only treated with hip joint cavity decompression and marrow cavity decompression .The control group 2 was treated simply with marrow cavity decompression .After three months their curative effective was evaluated and hip intracapsular pressure and intraosseous pressure were measured before and after treatment .Results:With the exception of x-ray scores , the

  18. Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty in adult dysplastic hips: ten to twenty three year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Vávra, Jaroslav; Chochola, Antonín

    2012-12-01

    Hip shelf arthroplasty is currently considered to be a salvage procedure. The aim of the study is to present outcomes of Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty in adolescent dysplastic hips with a minimum ten-year follow-up. The basic group comprised 25 hips in 18 patients with the mean age of 31 years (range, 16-52) at the time of operation. Subgroup A included 20 hips that were evaluated prior to operation as spherical, centric hips without osteoarthritic changes (acetabular dysplasia). The heterogeneous subgroup B comprised five hips. Of these, three hips were evaluated as aspheric, without osteoarthritic changes, and two hips as aspheric, with osteoarthritic changes of grade 2 according to Tönnis. In addition, two hips in subgroup B were evaluated as decentred (subluxated), one hip without and one hip with osteoarthritic changes. The mean follow-up was 15 years (range, ten-23). In subgroup A, the positive effect of operation had lasted at the time of the final follow-up for ten to 22 years postoperatively (average follow-up 14 years) in 19 hips. Only one female patient, 46 years old at the time of operation, developed hip osteoarthritis within ten years, that was treated by THA. In subgroup B, a lasting positive effect of operation was recorded in two cases at the time of the final follow-up (12 and 15 years). The third female patient with an aspheric and decentred hip developed severe hip osteoarthritis 21 years after shelf procedure that was treated by THA. In two patients who had hip osteoarthritis already before the operation, the positive effect of the shelf procedure survived over 13 and 20 years. Although hip osteoarthritis progressed, THA was performed as late as 15 and 23 years after the shelf procedure. The mean Harris hip score in 21 hips with a still functional hip shelf was 68 (range, 56-82) before and 90 (range, 76-100) after the surgery. The best outcomes of Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty may be expected in a dysplastic spherical centred hip

  19. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations.

  20. TOUGHENING AND STIFFENING EFFECTS OF T-ZnOw WHISKERS ON POLYSTYRENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-bao He; Yong Wang; Hong-wei Bai; Bo Song

    2008-01-01

    The main subject of this work is about the effect of T-ZnOw on the toughness and stiffness of polystyrene (PS). In order to avoid the rupture of T-ZnOw during the melt processing, T-ZnOw/PS composites were obtained via the combination of solution blending and injection moulding methods. Although the tensile strength of the composites decreases slightly, the impact strength and tensile modulus increase with the increase of the T-ZnOw content in the matrix. The stiffness and toughness of the composites are enhanced simultaneously. SEM results of the impact-fractured surface show more polymer avulsions, ridges and micro-cracks formed in the T-ZnOw/PS composites, companied with pullout of T-ZnOw from PS matrix and local yielding of PS matrix around T-ZnOw during the impact processing. The possible reasons for the toughness increment of T-ZnOw/PS composites are attributed to the interracial debonding, pullout of T-ZnOw from PS matrix,anchoring effect of T-ZnOw's special three dimensional structure, local yielding of PS matrix and the formation and propagation of micro-cracks.

  1. Polystyrene-ZnO core-shell microspheres and hollow ZnO structures synthesized with the sulfonated polystyrene templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chu, Ying; Zhang, Yanping; Yang, Fuyong; Liu, Jinglin

    2006-02-01

    Mono-sized sulfonated polystyrene (PS) microspheres were used as templates to prepare PS-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell microspheres. Two different hollow ZnO structures were obtained after removing the PS cores by solvent extraction or calcinations. However, we obtained rod-like ZnO by either using unsulfonated PS microspheres as templates or without any templates. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were used to characterize the structures and morphologies of all the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED) and infrared (IR) spectra were, respectively, used to study the crystal structure and composition of samples, respectively.

  2. Field efficacy of expanded polystyrene and shredded waste polystyrene beads for mosquito control in artificial pools and field trials, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, A; Vatandoost, H; Jabbari, H; Mesdaghinia, A R; Mahvi, A H; Younesian, M; Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Bozorgzadeh, S

    2012-10-01

    Concerns about traditional chemical pesticides has led to increasing research into novel mosquito control methods. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 different types of polystyrene beads for control of mosquito larvae in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran. Simulated field trials were done in artificial pools and field trials were carried out in 2 villages in an indigenous malaria area using WHO-recommended methods. Application of expanded polystyrene beads or shredded, waste polystyrene chips to pool surfaces produced a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment density of mosquitoes (86% and 78% reduction respectively 2 weeks after treatment). There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 types of material. The use of polystyrene beads as a component of integrated vector management with other supportive measures could assist in the control of mosquito-borne diseases in the Islamic Republic of Iran and neighbouring countries.

  3. Inherently fluorescent polystyrene microspheres for coating, sensing and cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jian-Bo; Xu, Yu-Liang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yanan; Sui, Yuanhong; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2017-04-01

    Commercially available polystyrene (PS) fluorescent microspheres are widely used in biological field for tracing, in vivo imaging and calibration of flow cytometry, among other applications. However, these particles do suffer from some drawbacks such as the leakage and photobleaching of organic dyes within them. In the present study, inherently fluorescent properties of PS based microspheres have been explored for the first time. Here we find that a simple chloromethylation reaction endows the polystyrene particles with inherent fluorescence without any subsequent conjugation of an external fluorophore. A possible mechanism for fluorescence is elucidated by synthesizing and investigating p-ethylbenzyl chloride, a compound with similar structure. Significantly, no photobleaching or leaking issues were observed owing to the stable structure of the microspheres. Chloromethylated PS (CMPS) microspheres can keep their perpetual blue fluorescence even in dry powder state making them attractive as a potential coating material. Furthermore, the chloromethyl groups on CMPS microspheres make them very convenient for further functionalization. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted microspheres showed good biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity, and could be used to image intracellular Fe(3+) due to the selective fluorescence quenching effect of aqueous Fe(3+) in cytoplasm.

  4. Study of electrodepositing Au on hollow polystyrene microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Rong [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039 (China); Zhang Yunwang [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhang Lin, E-mail: zhlmy@sina.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wei Chengfu, E-mail: wcf@mail.xhu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039 (China); Guo Jianjun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gold is electrodeposited on hollow polystyrene microspheres by self-designed setup in this paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Au electrodeposit is finer and more uniform on account of the microspheres freely move on the cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology, thickness and roughness of Au electrodeposits were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscope, respectively. - Abstract: The electrodeposited Au film on hollow polystyrene microspheres is successfully prepared by a set of self-designed device. The film is more compact and uniform on account of the microspheres freely moving on the cathode. These experiments mainly focus on the analysis of spherical symmetry, thickness and roughness of electrodeposited Au film. Under conditions of current density 1.5-3 mA cm{sup -2}, the temperature 25 Degree-Sign C, and the stirring rate 150 rpm, the electrodeposited microsphere is coated with a considerably orbicular film. The morphology, thickness and roughness of Au electrodeposits are studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), respectively.

  5. High deuteron polarization in trityl radical doped deuterated polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li, E-mail: wang_li@dhu.edu.cn [Institut für Experimentalpysik I, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Physics Department, School of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Berlin, A. [Institut für Experimentalpysik I, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Doshita, N. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Herick, J.; Hess, C. [Institut für Experimentalpysik I, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Iwata, T.; Kondo, K. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Institut für Experimentalpysik I, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    Deuterated polystyrene for polarized solid targets has been prepared by chemical doping with the trityl radical ‘Finland D36’ (AH 110 355 deutero acid form). Thin foils doped with various radical densities have been produced using tetrahydrofuran as solvent. Dynamic nuclear polarization technique has been applied to polarize deuterons in the samples (98%-D) at the temperature range of about 1 K and magnetic fields of 2.5 T and 5.0 T. A maximum deuteron polarization of −61.5% with a build-up time of 100 min has been achieved at 5.0 T and about 500 mK at a radical density of 1.16×10{sup 19} spins/g. -- Highlights: •Deuterated polystyrene has been prepared by chemical doping with the trityl radical. •Thin foils doped with various radical densities have been produced. •Deuterons are polarized in the samples (98%-D) at about 1 K and 2.5 T and 5.0 T. •Maximum D-polarization of −61.5% with a T{sub bu} of 100 min has been achieved.

  6. Mass Transport Through Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongzhou; Tran, Tuan

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been widely used as test channels to study nanofluidic transport, which has been found to have distinctive properties compared to transport of fluids in macroscopic channels. A long-standing challenge in the study of mass transport through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is the determination of flow enhancement. Various experimental investigations have been conducted to measure the flow rate through CNTs, mainly based on either vertically aligned CNT membranes or individual CNTs. Here, we proposed an alternative approach that can be used to quantify the mass transport through CNTs. This is a simple method relying on the use of carbon nanotube-polystyrene bundles, which are made of CNTs pulled out from a vertically aligned CNT array and glued together by polystyrene. We experimentally showed by using fluorescent tagging that the composite bundles allowed measureable and selective mass transport through CNTs. This type of composite bundle may be useful in various CNT research areas as they are simple to fabricate, less likely to form macroscopic cracks, and offer a high density of CNT pores while maintaining the aligned morphology of CNTs.

  7. Measurements of extrinsic fluorescence in Intralipid and polystyrene microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Le, Vinh Nguyen; Nie, Zhaojun; Hayward, Joseph E.; Farrell, Thomas J.; Fang, Qiyin

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence of Intralipid and polystyrene microspheres with sphere diameter of 1 µm at a representative lipid and microsphere concentration for simulation of mucosal tissue scattering has not been a subject of extensive experimental study. In order to elucidate the quantitative relationship between lipid and microsphere concentration and the respective fluorescent intensity, the extrinsic fluorescence spectra between 360 nm and 650 nm (step size of 5 nm) were measured at different lipid concentrations (from 0.25% to 5%) and different microsphere concentrations (0.00364, 0.0073, 0.0131 spheres per cubic micrometer) using laser excitation at 355 nm with pulse energy of 2.8 µJ. Current findings indicated that Intralipid has a broadband emission between 360 and 650 nm with a primary peak at 500 nm and a secondary peak at 450 nm while polystyrene microspheres have a single peak at 500 nm. In addition, for similar scattering properties the fluorescence of Intralipid solutions is approximately three-fold stronger than that of the microsphere solutions. Furthermore, Intralipid phantoms with lipid concentrations ~2% (simulating the bottom layer of mucosa) produce up to seven times stronger fluorescent emission than phantoms with lipid concentration ~0.25% (simulating the top layer of mucosa). The fluoresence decays of Intralipid and microsphere solutions were also recorded for estimation of fluorescence lifetime. PMID:25136497

  8. Conversion of waste polystyrene through catalytic degradation into valuable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Adnan [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-08-15

    Waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) represents a source of valuable chemical products like styrene and other aromatics. The catalytic degradation was carried out in a batch reactor with a mixture of polystyrene (PS) and catalyst at 450 .deg. C for 30 min in case of Mg and at 400 .deg. C for 2 h both for MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts. At optimum degradation conditions, EPS was degraded into 82.20±3.80 wt%, 91.60±0.20 wt% and 81.80±0.53 wt% liquid with Mg, MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts, respectively. The liquid products obtained were separated into different fractions by fractional distillation. The liquid fractions obtained with three catalysts were compared, and characterized using GC-MS. Maximum conversion of EPS into styrene monomer (66.6 wt%) was achieved with Mg catalyst, and an increase in selectivity of compounds was also observed. The major fraction at 145 .deg. C showed the properties of styrene monomer. The results showed that among the catalysts used, Mg was found to be the most effective catalyst for selective conversion into styrene monomer as value added product.

  9. Slip and flow dynamics of polydisperse thin polystyrene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzevari, Seyed Mostafa; McGraw, Joshua D.; Jacobs, Karin; Wood-Adams, Paula M.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the slip of binary and ternary mixtures of nearly monodisperse polystyrene samples on Teflon-coated (AF2400) silicon wafers using dewetting experiments. Binary mixtures of long and short chains along with ternary mixtures with a fixed weight-average molecular weight Mw but different number-average molecular weight Mn were prepared. Thin films of ca. 200 nm were spin coated on mica from polymer solutions and transferred to Teflon substrates. Above the glass transition temperature Tg the films break up via nucleation and growth of holes. The hole growth rate and rim morphology are monitored as a function of Mn and annealing protocol of the films before transfer to Teflon substrates. Slip properties, accessed using hydrodynamic models, and flow dynamics are then examined and compared. We found that the rim morphology and slip of polystyrene blends on Teflon depends on the molecular weight distribution. Similarly, flow dynamics is affected by the presence of short chains in mixture. Moreover, we can provoke differences in slip by choosing appropriate annealing and film transfer protocols for PS films that have first been spin cast on mica surfaces.

  10. Accurately controlled sequential self-folding structures by polystyrene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dongping; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yong; Lan, Xing; Tice, Jesse

    2017-08-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) printing overcomes the traditional fabrication limitations by designing heterogeneous materials to enable the printed structures evolve over time (the fourth dimension) under external stimuli. Here, we present a simple 4D printing of self-folding structures that can be sequentially and accurately folded. When heated above their glass transition temperature pre-strained polystyrene films shrink along the XY plane. In our process silver ink traces printed on the film are used to provide heat stimuli by conducting current to trigger the self-folding behavior. The parameters affecting the folding process are studied and discussed. Sequential folding and accurately controlled folding angles are achieved by using printed ink traces and angle lock design. Theoretical analyses are done to guide the design of the folding processes. Programmable structures such as a lock and a three-dimensional antenna are achieved to test the feasibility and potential applications of this method. These self-folding structures change their shapes after fabrication under controlled stimuli (electric current) and have potential applications in the fields of electronics, consumer devices, and robotics. Our design and fabrication method provides an easy way by using silver ink printed on polystyrene films to 4D print self-folding structures for electrically induced sequential folding with angular control.

  11. Application of polystyrene films for indoor radon dosimetry as SSNTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Kamal; Sarshough, Samira; Faghihi, Reza; Taheri, Mehran

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the sensitivities and calibration factors of polystyrene (PS) to (220)Rn and (222)Rn have been investigated. The sensitivity of compact disks (CD/DVD) as thick polycarbonates (PC) to (220)Rn and (222)Rn has been also obtained by applying a new etching condition. Five different brands of X-ray radiology and MRI films with polystyrene base and four brands of CD/DVDs have been studied to assess their applicability as a passive detector for indoor radon monitoring. The comparison between the sensitivities of PS samples, CD/DVDs (as thick PC) and Lexan PC to (222)Rn and (220)Rn shows an improved sensitivity of PS over conventional PC currently being used as solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The sensitivity of X-ray radiology PS films to (222)Rn and (220)Rn was found to be 8.77±0.591 and 0.028±0.006 (cm(-2)kBq(-1)d(-1)m(3)). The sensitivities of MRI PS films to Rn-222 and Rn-220 was found to be 12.2±1.25 and 0.360±0.090 (cm(-2)kBq(-1)d(-1)m(3)). The CD/DVD PC found to have a sensitivity of 0.178±0.013 and 0.0024±0.00013 (cm(-2)kBq(-1)d(-1)m(3)) to (222)Rn and (220)Rn respectively.

  12. The Calorimetric Glass Transition of Polystyrene Ultrathin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siyang; Koh, Yung; Simon, Sindee; Texas Tech University Team

    2013-03-01

    The glass transition temperature (Tg) for nanoconfined materials have been widely studied since the early 1990s. For supported polystyrene ultrathin films, Tg differs from bulk value. Recent work has attributed nanoconstrained Tg effects to artifact. In this study, we attempted to resolve this controversy and measure Tg for single polystyrene ultrathin films using Flash DSC. Films have been prepared in two ways: spincast films placed on a layer of inert oil or grease and films directly spincast on the back of the calorimetric chip. For the films on oil or on grease, the 160 nm thick films show no Tg depression. On the other hand, thinner films on oil and on grease show a Tg depression which decreases with increasing cooling rate. The depression reverts to the bulk values over the course of a day at 160 °C due to dewetting and thickening. For directly spincast films, no Tg depression is observed, consistent with results from other nanocalorimetry work. Our results are consistent with literature results that Tg decreases with decreasing substrate surface energy, and they also demonstrate that the Tg depression observed is not due to degradation or to plasticization effects.

  13. Polystyrene Microbeads by Dispersion Polymerization: Effect of Solvent on Particle Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene microspheres (PS were synthesized by dispersion polymerization in ethanol/2-Methoxyethanol (EtOH/EGME blend solvent using styrene (St as monomer, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator, and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 as stabilizer. The typical recipe of dispersion polymerization is as follows: St/Solvent/AIBN/PVP = 10 g/88 g/0.1 g/2 g. The morphology of polystyrene microspheres was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the molecular weights of PS particles were measured by the Ubbelohde viscometer method. The effect of ethanol content in the blend solvent on the morphology and molecular weight of polystyrene was studied. We found that the size of polystyrene microspheres increased and the molecular weight of polystyrene microspheres decreased with the decreasing of the ethanol content in the blend solvent from 100 wt% to 0 wt%. What is more, the size monodispersity of polystyrene microspheres was quite good when the pure ethanol or pure 2-Methoxyethanol was used; however when the blend ethanol/2-Methoxyethanol solvent was used, the polystyrene microspheres became polydisperse. We further found that the monodispersity of polystyrene microspheres can be significantly improved by adding a small amount of water into the blend solvent; the particles became monodisperse when the content of water in the blend solvent was up to 2 wt%.

  14. Enhanced polystyrene surface mobility under carbon dioxide at low temperature for nanoparticle embedding control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Qiuyan; Xu, Qun; Loos, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The surface properties of polystyrene (PS) films under carbon dioxide (CO2) were studied via a particle embedding technique at quite a low temperature range (308 to 323 K) in which polystyrene is typically considered to be in a glassy state without CO2. Atomic force microscope (AFM) technique with a

  15. Altered behavior, physiology, and metabolism in fish exposed to polystyrene nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Karin; Ekvall, Mikael T; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2015-01-01

    administered 24 and 27 nm polystyrene nanoparticles to fish through an aquatic food chain, from algae through Daphnia, and studied the effects on behavior and metabolism. We found severe effects on feeding and shoaling behavior as well as metabolism of the fish; hence, we conclude that polystyrene...

  16. Quantitative prediction of transient and steady-state elongational viscosity of nearly monodisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Kheirandish, Saeid; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Elongational behavior of four narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of masses 50 000, 100 000, 200 000, and 390 000, g/mol, respectively was investigated up to Hencky strains of 5. All melts show strain hardening behavior. For the two highest molar mass polystyrenes, strain hardening s...

  17. A fresh study of optical and thermal properties of polystyrene solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Durai; P Ramadoss

    2004-02-01

    Polymers have immense practical applications and one such polymer is polystyrene. It is a linear polymer and useful for plastic optical components. The optical and thermal properties of polystyrene solutions are investigated in this paper making use of the ultrasonic velocity and fluid parameters. The results reveal a number of significant informations.

  18. Non-aqueous retention measurements: ultrafiltration behaviour of polystyrene solutions and colloidal silver particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage, M.A.M.; Heijnen, M.L.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The retention behaviour of polyimide ultrafiltration membranes was investigated using dilute solutions of polystyrene in ethyl acetate as test solutions. It is shown that flow-induced deformation of the polystyrene chains highly affects the membrane retention. This coil-stretch transition is not ins

  19. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cejas, María Dolores; de-Torres-Ramírez, Inés; Alonso-Cotoner, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

  20. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol

    OpenAIRE

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas; Inés de Torres-Ramírez; Carmen Alonso-Cotoner

    2013-01-01

    Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

  1. Improved synthesis of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide)-heparin block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulic, I.; Loman, A.J.B.; Feijen, J.; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    A novel procedure for the synthesis of block copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene, a hydrophilic block of poly(ethylene oxide) and a bioactive block of nitrous acid-degraded heparin was developed. Amino-semitelechelic polystyrene was prepared by anionic polymerization of styrene

  2. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions. 63.1318 Section 63.1318 Protection of Environment...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except as specified...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous process vents using...

  6. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol.

  7. Improved synthesis of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide)-heparin block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulic, I.; Loman, A.J.B.; Feijen, Jan; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    A novel procedure for the synthesis of block copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene, a hydrophilic block of poly(ethylene oxide) and a bioactive block of nitrous acid-degraded heparin was developed. Amino-semitelechelic polystyrene was prepared by anionic polymerization of styrene

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide)-heparin block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulić, I.; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.; Feijen, Jan

    1988-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of new block copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene, a hydrophilic spacer-block of poly(ethylene oxide) and a bioactive block of heparin was investigated. Polystyrene with one amino group per chain was synthesized by free radical oligomerization of

  9. A randomised trial into the effect of an isolated hip abductor strengthening programme and a functional motor control programme on knee kinematics and hip muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kathryn; Hebron, Clair; Williams, Jonathan M

    2015-05-03

    Dynamic knee valgus and internal femoral rotation are proposed to be contributory risk factors for patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Multimodal interventions including hip abductor strengthening or functional motor control programmes have a positive impact of pain, however their effect on knee kinematics and muscle strength is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of isolated hip abductor strengthening and a functional motor control exercise on knee kinematics and hip abductor strength. This prospective, randomised, repeated measures design included 29 asymptomatic volunteers presenting with increase knee valgus and femoral internal rotation. Participants completed either isolated hip abductor strengthening or a functional motor control exercise for 5 weeks. Knee kinematics were measured using inertial sensors during 2 functional activities and hip abductor strength measured using a load cell during isometric hip abduction. There were no significant differences in dynamic knee valgus and internal rotation following the isolated hip abductor or functional motor control intervention, and no significant differences between the groups for knee angles. Despite this, the actual magnitude of reduction in valgus was 10° and 5° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. The actual magnitude of reduction in internal rotation was 9° and 18° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. Therefore there was a tendency towards clinically significant improvements in knee kinematics in both exercise groups. A statistically significant improvement in hip abductor strength was evident for the functional motor control group (27% increase; p = 0.008) and strengthening group (35% increase; p = 0.009) with no significant difference between the groups being identified (p = 0.475). Isolated hip strengthening and functional motor control exercises resulted in

  10. Wear debris in cemented total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, M H; Salvati, E A; Buly, R L

    1991-03-01

    One of the most prevalent clinical problems in long-term follow up of total hip arthroplasty patients is loosening of prosthetic fixation. Factors contributing to mechanical failure of total hip reconstruction are complex and multiple. It has become increasingly apparent that wear debris from the prosthetic components may contribute significantly to this process. The authors summarize some of the current concepts concerning the detrimental effects of metallic debris in total hip arthroplasty.

  11. [Treatment of infected total hip endoprostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkens, K W; Forst, R; Casser, H R

    1989-07-01

    In total hip arthroplasty the most serious complication besides aseptic loosening is infection. The results observed in 42 cases of infected hip arthroplasties are presented. In contrast to early superficial infection, deep infection following total hip replacement is difficult to treat. Depending on the general condition of the patient, a well-defined, adequate treatment is required. In patients at vital risk the provocation of a permanent fistula can be recommended as an alternative method in preference to revision arthroplasty.

  12. Hip and Spine in Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Persson-Bunke, Måns

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have an increased risk of scoliosis, contractures including windswept hip deformity (WS), and hip dislocation. In 1994, a follow-up program and registry for children and adolescents with CP (CPUP) was initiated in Sweden to allow the early detection and prevention of hip dislocations and other musculoskeletal deformities. Purpose: To analyze the prevalence of scoliosis and WS in children with CP and to study the effect of CPUP. To e...

  13. Imaging findings of anterior hip dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Kyle [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Leslie, Michael [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, New Haven, CT (United States); Menn, Kirsten; Haims, Andrew [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Anterior hip dislocations are rare orthopedic emergencies resulting from high-energy trauma and have unique imaging characteristics on radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging findings on CT and MRI allow for the prompt recognition and classification of anterior hip dislocations, which guides patient management and reduces complications. The purpose of this article is to review imaging findings of anterior hip dislocations, specifically focusing on CT and MRI. (orig.)

  14. Pelvic Incidence in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip osteoarthritis (OA is a major cause of pain and disability that results in considerable social and medical costs. Mechanics such as posture, alignment and orientation of the hips and the spinal column and the relationship between these factors have been implicated in the development of both hip and spine pathologies. This study aims to test the hypothesis if pelvic incidence varies in patients with and without osteoarthritis. We assessed the relationship between spinopelvic alignment as measured by pelvic incidence (PI and the presence of hip OA. Methods: We collected supine pelvis CT scans of 1,012 consecutive patients not known to have hip OA. Our first group consisted of 95 patients with moderate to severe hip OA as per radiology reports. The second group included 87 patients with no evidence of hip OA. Power analysis revealed the need for 77 patients per group to find a mean difference in PI of 5º or less between both groups. Two trained physicians independently measured the PI to account for inter-observer reliability. Results: Patients with moderate to severe hip OA had a mean PI of 56.5º±12.8º. The mean PI for patients without hip OA was 57.2º±7.5º. An independent samples t-test revealed no significant difference between the PI values of the two groups. Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.754 demonstrated a high inter-observer reliability. Conclusion: There was no difference in PI angle of hip OA patients and "healthy" patients. Our measurements of patients without OA were almost identical to the reported normal PI values in the literature. It appears that hip OA is not associated with PI angle, refuting the hypothesis made in previous studies, stating that elevated PI contributes to the future development of hip arthritis. CT scan seems to be a reliable and accurate way of assessing pelvic incidence.

  15. HIP RESURFACING - FIRST IMPRESSIONS AND NEW OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kuropatkin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midi-time follow-up results of hip resurfacing were retrospectively analyzed. 117 operations in 109 patients with average age 36,2 years were performed. From one to four years follow-up results showed good clinical and functional result with proximal hip bone stock preservation. In spite of technical difficulties of resurfacing, complication level was not more, than in standard total hip arthroplasty. This surgical procedure may be recommends for young, active patients.

  16. Martial arts fall training to prevent hip fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, B E; Smulders, E; de Kam, D; Duysens, J; Weerdesteyn, V

    2010-02-01

    Hip fractures are a common and serious consequence of falls. Training of proper fall techniques may be useful to prevent hip fractures in the elderly. The results suggested that martial arts fall techniques may be trainable in older individuals. Better performance resulted in a reduced impact force. Hip fractures are a common and serious consequence of falls. Fall training may be useful to prevent hip fractures in the elderly. This pilot study determined whether older individuals could learn martial arts (MA) fall techniques and whether this resulted in a reduced hip impact force during a sideways fall. Six male and nineteen female healthy older individuals completed a five-session MA fall training. Before and after training, force and kinematic data were collected during volitional sideways falls from kneeling position. Two MA experts evaluated the fall performance. Fear of falling was measured with a visual analog scale (VAS). After fall training, fall performance from a kneeling position was improved by a mean increase of 1.6 on a ten-point scale (P < 0.001). Hip impact force was reduced by a mean of 8% (0.20 N/N, P = 0.016). Fear of falling was reduced by 0.88 on a VAS scale (P = 0.005). MA techniques may be trainable in older individuals, and a better performance may reduce the hip impact force in a volitional sideways fall from a kneeling position. The additional reduction of fear of falling might result in the prevention of falls and related injuries.

  17. Modification of Jute Fibers with Polystyrene via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Jankova, Katja Atanassova; Egsgaard, Helge

    2005-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was investigated as a method of covalently bonding polystyrene to jute (Corchorus capsularis) and as a possible approach to fiber composites with enhanced properties. Jute fibers were modified with a brominated initiator and subsequently ATRP modified...... to attach polystyrene and then examined using SEM, DSC, TGA, FTIR, XPS, elemental analysis, and Py-GC-MS. These techniques confirmed that polystyrene had been covalently bound to the fibers and consequently ATRP-modified jute fiber mats were used to prepare hot-pressed polystyrene composites. Composite...... applications, we conclude that further optimization of the ATRP method is required, possibly targeting higher and more uniform loading of polystyrene on the fibers....

  18. Enhanced sensitivity of a microfabricated resonator using a graphene-polystyrene bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Minhyuk; Lee, Eunho; Cho, Kilwon; Jeon, Sangmin, E-mail: jeons@postech.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18

    A graphene layer was synthesized using chemical vapor deposition methods and a polystyrene solution was spin-cast onto the graphene film. The graphene-polystyrene bilayer membrane was attached between the two tines of a microfabricated quartz tuning fork (QTF). The modulus of the graphene-polystyrene bilayer was measured to be twice that of a pristine polystyrene membrane. Exposure of the membrane-coated QTF to ethanol vapor decreased the resonance frequency of the microresonator. The bilayer membrane-coated QTF produced a frequency change that was three times the change obtained using a polystyrene membrane-coated QTF, with a lower degree of degradation in the Q factor. The limit of detection of the bilayer membrane-coated QTF to ethanol vapor was determined to be 20 ppm.

  19. Modification of jute fibers with polystyrene via atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, David; Jankova, Katja; Egsgaard, Helge; Hvilsted, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was investigated as a method of covalently bonding polystyrene to jute (Corchorus capsularis) and as a possible approach to fiber composites with enhanced properties. Jute fibers were modified with a brominated initiator and subsequently ATRP modified to attach polystyrene and then examined using SEM, DSC, TGA, FTIR, XPS, elemental analysis, and Py-GC-MS. These techniques confirmed that polystyrene had been covalently bound to the fibers and consequently ATRP-modified jute fiber mats were used to prepare hot-pressed polystyrene composites. Composite specimens were tensile tested and fracture surfaces examined using SEM. Although SEM examination suggested different fracture modes between unmodified fiber and ATRP-modified samples, the tensile strength of modified samples was slightly lower on average than that of unmodified samples. For fiber composite applications, we conclude that further optimization of the ATRP method is required, possibly targeting higher and more uniform loading of polystyrene on the fibers.

  20. The Effect of Polystyrene on the Carrier Flotation of Fine Smithsonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfeng Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrier flotation is a common technique used to improve flotation recovery of ultrafine ores. In this study, we used coarse polystyrene as the carrier material to enhance flotation recovery of fine smithsonite (ZnCO3 particles. Sodium oleate was used as the collector and played a role in the adhesion of fine smithsonite to polystyrene due to its amphipathic properties. The carrier feature of polystyrene was demonstrated using particle size analysis, total organic carbon, and scanning electron microscopy. The fine smithsonite particles coated the polystyrene particles through a reaction between the active zinc sites and the carboxyl head groups of the oleate adsorbed on smithsonite and through a hydrophobic interaction between polystyrene and the hydrocarbon chains of the oleate. Newly enlarged particle aggregates with smithsonite shells enhanced collision and attachment of the hydrophobized aggregates with bubbles, which accelerated smithsonite flotation recovery.