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Sample records for impact factor based

  1. Validity of Basing Authors' Publication Strategy on Journal Impact Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša; Bar-Ilan, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Choosing the best scientific venue for the submission of a manuscript, with the aim of maximizing the impact of the future publication, is a frequent task faced by scholars. In this paper, we show that the Impact Factor (IF) of a journal allows to rationally achieve this goal. We take advantage of a comprehensive bibliographic and citation dataset of about 2.5 million articles from 16,000 journals, and demonstrate that the probability of receiving more citations in one journal compared to another is a universal function of the IF values of the two journals. The relation is well described by a modified logistic function, and provides an easy-to-use rule to guide a publication strategy. The benefit of publishing in a journal with a higher IF value, instead of another with a lower one grows slowly as a function of the ratio of their IF values. For example, receiving more citations is granted in 90\\% of the cases only if the IF ratio is greater than $\\sim$6, while targeting a journal with an IF 2$\\times$ higher t...

  2. Impact beyond the impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Günther K H

    2014-02-01

    The journal impact factor is an annually calculated number for each scientific journal, based on the average number of times its articles published in the two preceding years have been cited. It was originally devised as a tool for librarians and publishers to provide information about the citation performance of a journal as a whole, but over the last few decades it has increasingly been used to assess the quality of specific articles and the research performance of individual investigators, institutions, and countries. In addition to this clear abuse of the journal impact factor, several conceptual and technical issues limit its usability as a measure of journal reputation, especially when journals are compared across different fields. An author's decision regarding the suitability of a scholarly journal for publication should, therefore, be based on the impact that this journal makes in the field of research, rather than on the journal impact factor.

  3. Scopus's Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) versus a Journal Impact Factor based on Fractional Counting of Citations

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Impact factors (and similar measures such as the Scimago Journal Rankings) suffer from two problems: (i) citation behavior varies among fields of science and therefore leads to systematic differences, and (ii) there are no statistics to inform us whether differences are significant. The recently introduced SNIP indicator of Scopus tries to remedy the first of these two problems, but a number of normalization decisions are involved which makes it impossible to test for significance. Using fractional counting of citations-based on the assumption that impact is proportionate to the number of references in the citing documents-citations can be contextualized at the paper level and aggregated impacts of sets can be tested for their significance. It can be shown that the weighted impact of Annals of Mathematics (0.247) is not so much lower than that of Molecular Cell (0.386) despite a five-fold difference between their impact factors (2.793 and 13.156, respectively).

  4. Impactitis: The impact factor myth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In the early 1960s, Eugene Garfield and Irving Sher created the journal impact factor to help select journals for the Science Citation Index (SCI. Today it has become a widespread subject of controversy even for Garfield, the man who created it who is quoted saying " Impact Factor is not a perfect tool to measure the quality of articles but there is nothing better and it has the advantage of already being in existence and is, therefore, a good technique for scientific evaluation". The use of the term "impact factor" has gradually evolved, especially in Europe, to include both journal and author impact. This ambiguity often causes problems. It is one thing to use impact factors to compare journals and quite another to use them to compare authors. Journal impact factors generally involve relatively large populations of articles and citations. Individual authors, on average, produce much smaller numbers of articles. Objectives: Impact factor, an index based on the frequency with which a journal′s articles are cited in scientific publications, is a putative marker of journal quality. However, empiric studies on impact factor′s validity as an indicator of quality are lacking. The authors try to evaluate and highlight the validity of Impact Factors and its significance as a tool of assessment for scientific publications. Methods: Analysis of the several reports in literature and from their own point of view. Conclusion: A journal′s impact factor is based on 2 elements: the numerator, which is the number of citations in the current year to any items published in a journal in the previous 2 years, and the denominator, which is the number of substantive articles (source items published in the same 2 years. The impact factor could just as easily be based on the previous year′s articles alone, which would give an even greater weight to rapidly changing fields.

  5. Young onset dementia: the impact of emergent age-based factors upon personhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Edward; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Kingston, Paul

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluates how emergent age-based factors may impact upon the experience of dementia. A review of selected literature is undertaken to explore how personhood has been conceptualised in relation to dementia. It is then highlighted that very little literature explicitly addresses personhood with reference to young onset dementia. Young onset dementia is defined, and evaluation is then undertaken of the distinctive age-based factors that might shape the experience of the condition. It is noted that whilst there are separate literatures on both personhood and young onset dementia, there appears to be little endeavour to draw these two strands of thought together. The distinctive factors that shape young onset dementia suggest that a more heterogeneous perspective should be developed that accounts more appropriately for how personal characteristics shape the lived experience of dementia. The paper concludes that further research should be undertaken that has an explicit focus on personhood and young onset dementia.

  6. The impact of situational factors on health care preferences: exploring the prospect of situationally based segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1991-06-01

    Health care marketing research has examined the relationship between health care utilization and (1) client demographic characteristics and (2) service characteristics. The impact of situational factors on health care utilization has received limited attention. The authors find that the influence of situational factors in the health care market is substantial and suggest some preliminary situational segmentation strategies.

  7. Scopus’s Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) versus a Journal Impact Factor based on Fractional Counting of Citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.

    2010-01-01

    Impact factors (and similar measures such as the Scimago Journal Rankings) suffer from two problems: (a) citation behavior varies among fields of science and, therefore, leads to systematic differences, and (b) there are no statistics to inform us whether differences are significant. The recently in

  8. Scopus’s Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) versus a Journal Impact Factor based on Fractional Counting of Citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.

    2010-01-01

    Impact factors (and similar measures such as the Scimago Journal Rankings) suffer from two problems: (a) citation behavior varies among fields of science and, therefore, leads to systematic differences, and (b) there are no statistics to inform us whether differences are significant. The recently

  9. Scopus’s Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) versus a Journal Impact Factor based on Fractional Counting of Citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.

    2010-01-01

    Impact factors (and similar measures such as the Scimago Journal Rankings) suffer from two problems: (a) citation behavior varies among fields of science and, therefore, leads to systematic differences, and (b) there are no statistics to inform us whether differences are significant. The recently in

  10. TERM WEIGHTING BASED ON POSITIVE IMPACT FACTOR QUERY FOR ARABIC FIQH DOCUMENT RANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Sholikah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Query becomes one of the most decisive factor on documents searching. A query contains several words, where one of them will become a key term. Key term is a word that has higher information and value than the others in query. It can be used in any kind of text documents, including Arabic Fiqh documents. Using key term in term weighting process could led to an improvement on result’s relevancy. In Arabic Fiqh document searching, not using the proper method in term weighting will relieve important value of key term. In this paper, we propose a new term weighting method based on Positive Impact Factor Query (PIFQ for Arabic Fiqh documents ranking. PIFQ calculated using key term’s frequency on each category (mazhab on Fiqh. The key term that frequently appear on a certain mazhab will get higher score on that mazhab, and vice versa. After PIFQ values are acquired, TF.IDF calculation will be done to each words. Then, PIFQ weight will be combine with the result from TF.IDF so that the new weight values for each words will be produced. Experimental result performed on a number of queries using 143 Arabic Fiqh documents show that the proposed method is better than traditional TF.IDF, with 77.9%, 83.1%, and 80.1% of precision, recall, and F-measure respectively.

  11. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  12. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  13. Milestones and Impact Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

  14. Milestones and impact factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, David M; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-07-08

    Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

  15. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  16. Exposure factors for marine eutrophication impacts assessment based on a mechanistic biological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources enrich marine waters and promote planktonic growth. This newly synthesised organic carbon is eventually exported to benthic waters where aerobic respiration by heterotrophic bacteria results in the consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO...... routes from primary (cell aggregates) and secondary producers (faecal pellets, carcasses, and active vertical transport). Carbon export production (PE) and ecosystems eXposure Factors (XF), which represents a nitrogen-to-oxygen 'conversion' potential, were estimated at a spatial resolution of 66 large...... is essential to estimate a marine eutrophication impacts indicator in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of anthropogenic-N emissions. Every relevant process was modelled and the uncertainty of the driving parameters considered low suggesting valid applicability in characterisation modelling in LCIA....

  17. How is impact factor impacting our research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Seema

    2014-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of an journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. However it is not a perfect metric and has its own limitations. Journals are increasingly finding new ways to improve their impact factor by increasing self citation, publishing more review articles. This correspondence discuss the fallacies of the impact factor.

  18. Milestones and impact factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozonoff, David M; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable...... type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published...... was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent...

  19. Evaluating the impact of implementation factors on family-based prevention programming: methods for strengthening causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Coffman, Donna L; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Despite growing recognition of the important role implementation plays in successful prevention efforts, relatively little work has sought to demonstrate a causal relationship between implementation factors and participant outcomes. In turn, failure to explore the implementation-to-outcome link limits our understanding of the mechanisms essential to successful programming. This gap is partially due to the inability of current methodological procedures within prevention science to account for the multitude of confounders responsible for variation in implementation factors (i.e., selection bias). The current paper illustrates how propensity and marginal structural models can be used to improve causal inferences involving implementation factors not easily randomized (e.g., participant attendance). We first present analytic steps for simultaneously evaluating the impact of multiple implementation factors on prevention program outcome. Then, we demonstrate this approach for evaluating the impact of enrollment and attendance in a family program, over and above the impact of a school-based program, within PROSPER, a large-scale real-world prevention trial. Findings illustrate the capacity of this approach to successfully account for confounders that influence enrollment and attendance, thereby more accurately representing true causal relations. For instance, after accounting for selection bias, we observed a 5% reduction in the prevalence of 11th grade underage drinking for those who chose to receive a family program and school program compared to those who received only the school program. Further, we detected a 7% reduction in underage drinking for those with high attendance in the family program.

  20. Implementing groundwater extraction in life cycle impact assessment: characterization factors based on plant species richness for The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Schipper, Aafke M; Rombouts, Michiel; Snepvangers, Judith; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-01-15

    An operational method to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with groundwater use is currently lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). This paper outlines a method to calculate characterization factors that address the effects of groundwater extraction on the species richness of terrestrial vegetation. Characterization factors (CF) were derived for The Netherlands and consist of a fate and an effect part. The fate factor equals the change in drawdown due to a change in groundwater extraction and expresses the amount of time required for groundwater replenishment. It was obtained with a grid-specific steady-state groundwater flow model. Effect factors were obtained from groundwater level response curves of potential plant species richness, which was constructed based on the soil moisture requirements of 625 plant species. Depending on the initial groundwater level, effect factors range up to 9.2% loss of species per 10 cm of groundwater level decrease. The total Dutch CF for groundwater extraction depended on the value choices taken and ranged from 0.09 to 0.61 m(2)·yr/m(3). For tap water production, we showed that groundwater extraction can be responsible for up to 32% of the total terrestrial ecosystem damage. With the proposed approach, effects of groundwater extraction on terrestrial ecosystems can be systematically included in LCA.

  1. The impact of workplace factors on evidence-based speech-language pathology practice for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gladys; Trembath, David; Arciuli, Joanne; Togher, Leanne

    2013-08-01

    Although researchers have examined barriers to implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) at the level of the individual, little is known about the effects workplaces have on speech-language pathologists' implementation of EBP. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of workplace factors on the use of EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study sought to (a) explore views about EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with ASD, (b) identify workplace factors which, in the participants' opinions, acted as barriers or enablers to their provision of evidence-based speech-language pathology services, and (c) examine whether or not speech-language pathologists' responses to workplace factors differed based on the type of workplace or their years of experience. A total of 105 speech-language pathologists from across Australia completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The results indicate that, although the majority of speech-language pathologists agreed that EBP is necessary, they experienced barriers to their implementation of EBP including workplace culture and support, lack of time, cost of EBP, and the availability and accessibility of EBP resources. The barriers reported by speech-language pathologists were similar, regardless of their workplace (private practice vs organization) and years of experience.

  2. The impact of a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factor awareness among a Gujarati community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, I; Mitchell, D A

    2013-08-01

    To determine any differences in oral cancer risk factor awareness and behaviour among first and second generation Gujarati muslims and to investigate the impact of a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factor awareness. Respondents completed a confidential, bilingual questionnaire in English and Gujarati regarding alcohol, tobacco, paan, sopari, paan masala and gutka use before and after a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factors. Community Health Fair. Indian Muslim Welfare Association, Batley, West Yorkshire. Ninety-six male and female Gujarati muslims aged 16 to 81 years. Quantitative results on oral cancer risk factor awareness before and after a health education programme. Quantitative figures obtained from the questionnaire with regards to alcohol, tobacco, paan, sopari, paan masala and gutka usage. There were very low levels of alcohol consumption among Gujarati muslims. First generation Gujarati males consumed significantly more tobacco than second generation Gujarati males, difference in proportion 0.30 (0.03 to 0.56, p = 0.03). There was complete absence of paan use among Gujarati females. First generation Gujarati males consumed significantly higher amounts of sopari compared with their male counterparts in the second generation (p = 0.003). There were very low rates of paan masala use. Only first generation Gujarati males consumed gutka. Significantly more first generation males and females correctly identified all oral cancer risk factors after the health education intervention compared with baseline (difference 0.40, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.57, p = Gujarati muslims and that a local community-based health education programme was effective in raising awareness.

  3. Scale Effects of the Relationships between Urban Heat Islands and Impact Factors Based on a Geographically-Weighted Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat island (UHI effect, the side effect of rapid urbanization, has become an obstacle to the further healthy development of the city. Understanding its relationships with impact factors is important to provide useful information for climate adaptation urban planning strategies. For this purpose, the geographically-weighted regression (GWR approach is used to explore the scale effects in a mountainous city, namely the change laws and characteristics of the relationships between land surface temperature and impact factors at different spatial resolutions (30–960 m. The impact factors include the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, the Index-based Built-up Index (IBI, and the Soil Brightness Index (NDSI, which indicate the coverage of the vegetation, built-up, and bare land, respectively. For reference, the ordinary least squares (OLS model, a global regression technique, is also employed by using the same dependent variable and explanatory variables as in the GWR model. Results from the experiment exemplified by Chongqing showed that the GWR approach had a better prediction accuracy and a better ability to describe spatial non-stationarity than the OLS approach judged by the analysis of the local coefficient of determination (R2, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc, and F-test at small spatial resolution (< 240 m; however, when the spatial scale was increased to 480 m, this advantage has become relatively weak. This indicates that the GWR model becomes increasingly global, revealing the relationships with more generalized geographical patterns, and then spatial non-stationarity in the relationship will tend to be neglected with the increase of spatial resolution.

  4. Land use impacts on biodiversity in LCA: proposal of characterization factors based on functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, Danielle Maia de; Flynn, Dan F. B.; DeClerck, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The focus of land use modeling in life cycle impact assessment has been mainly on taxonomic measures of biodiversity, namely species richness (SR). However, increasing availability of trait data for species has led to the use of functional diversity (FD) as a promising metric to reflect the disti......The focus of land use modeling in life cycle impact assessment has been mainly on taxonomic measures of biodiversity, namely species richness (SR). However, increasing availability of trait data for species has led to the use of functional diversity (FD) as a promising metric to reflect...... on data compiled by previous regional meta-analysis on SR and FD, in different land use types in the Americas. The taxonomic groups included were mammals, birds, and plants. Within each study, calculated values for FD for different land use types were compared with the natural or close-to-natural state...

  5. Higher Education Marketing Strategies Based on Factors Impacting the Enrollees' Choice of a University and an Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimullin, Aydar M.; Dobrotvorskaya, Svetlana G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of studying the stated problem is due to the fact that for increasing the efficiency of higher education marketing it is necessary to take into account several factors, namely, factors that impact the choice of a university and an academic program by enrollees, as well as socio-psychological characteristics of the latter, while…

  6. Reliability of journal impact factor rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Darren C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal impact factors and their ranks are used widely by journals, researchers, and research assessment exercises. Methods Based on citations to journals in research and experimental medicine in 2005, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty associated with these journal performance indicators. Results Intervals representing plausible ranges of values for journal impact factor ranks indicated that most journals cannot be ranked with great precision. Only the top and bottom few journals could place any confidence in their rank position. Intervals were wider and overlapping for most journals. Conclusion Decisions placed on journal impact factors are potentially misleading where the uncertainty associated with the measure is ignored. This article proposes that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of journal impact factors and their ranks, and specifically that a measure of uncertainty should be routinely presented alongside the point estimate.

  7. SUCCESS AND IMPACT FACTORS OF CARD-BASED LOYALTY SYSTEMS - AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS IN THE GERMAN RETAIL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Ruch

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector in Germany has also been badly hit by intensifying international competition. Confronted with lowering margins and the movement of customers to the most favourable provider in each case, it became increasingly more difficult for companies to reach such goals as turnover and market share inputs. With the introduction of Card-based Loyalty Systems (CBLS, an instrument appears to have been found which increases customer retention through the evaluation of purchasing information and enables the companies to realize their goals even under difficult market conditions. The provision for this, however, is the permanent acceptance of the customer with regard to these systems.This paper first gives an overview of the connections between CBLS and increased customer retention before their impact factors are empirically analyzed for consumer utility. If these factors flow into a cost-benefit analysis, it appears that privacy of the consumers is endangered in the long term and an added value and consequently the preconditional permanent acceptance of the customer is not necessarily given. The resulting question ";Why do customers make use of CBLS anyway?"; can be answered using the approach of hyperbolic utility-discounting.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Faking on Binary Personality Measures: An IRT-Based Multiple-Group Factor Analytic Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a model-based multiple-group procedure for assessing the impact of faking on personality measures and the scores derived from these measures. The assessment is at the item level and the base model, which is intended for binary items, can be parameterized both as an Item Response Theory (IRT) model and as an Item…

  9. Predicting Recidivism in Juvenile Offenders on Community-Based Orders: The Impact of Risk Factors and Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Rebecca; Homel, Ross

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the Queensland government trialled the Youth Justice Service which fundamentally changed the way supervision, rehabilitation and reintegration services were provided to young offenders on community based orders. The Youth Justice Service aims to monitor order compliance, address risk factors associated with the offending behaviour and…

  10. IMPACTS OF STRUCTURAL FACTORS ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN CLUSTER-BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Cevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy is the major driving factor for research on wireless sensor networks. Clustering alleviates this energy shortage problem by reducing data traffic conveyed over the network and therefore several clustering methods are proposed in the literature. Researchers put forward their methods by making serious assumptions such as always locating single sink at one side of the topology or making clusters near to the sink with smaller sizes. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive research that investigates the effects of various structural alternatives on energy consumption of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we thoroughly analyse the impact of various structural approaches such as cluster size, number of tiers in the topology, node density, position and number of sinks. Extensive simulation results are provided. The results show that the best performance about lifetime prolongation is achieved by locating a sufficient number of sinks around the network area.

  11. Impacts of Structural Factors on Energy Consumption in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks : A Comprehensive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Cevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy is the major driving factor for research on wireless sensor networks. Clustering alleviates this energy shortage problem by reducing data traffic conveyed over the network and therefore several clustering methods are proposed in the literature. Researchers put forward their methods by making serious assumptions such as always locating single sink at one side of the topology or making clusters near to the sink with smaller sizes. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive research that investigates the effects of various structural alternatives on energy consumption of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we thoroughly analyse the impact of various structural approaches such as cluster size, number of tiers in the topology, node density, position and number of sinks. Extensive simulation results are provided. The results show that the best performance about lifetime prolongation is achieved by locating a sufficient number of sinks around the network area.

  12. Socioeconomic Impact on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Wallonia, Belgium: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Streel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Monitoring the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs and their determinants is important to develop appropriate recommendations to prevent cardiovascular diseases in specific risk groups. The NESCaV study was designed to collect standardized data to estimate the prevalence of CRFs in relation to socioeconomic parameters among the general adult population in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium. Methods. A representative stratified random sample of 1017 subjects, aged 20–69 years, participated in the NESCaV study (2010–2012. A self-administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests were performed on participants. CRFs included hypertension, dyslipidemia, global obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Covariates were education and subjective and objective socioeconomic levels. Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, global obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity was higher in subjects with low education and who considered themselves “financially in need.” Living below poverty threshold also increased the risk of global and abdominal obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Conclusion. The study shows that socioeconomic factors impact the prevalence of CRFs in the adult population of Wallonia. Current public health policies should be adjusted to reduce health inequalities in specific risk groups.

  13. Impact of DEM Resolution and Spatial Scale: Analysis of Influence Factors and Parameters on Physically Based Distributed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanchen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically based distributed hydrological models were used to describe small-scale hydrological information in detail. However, the sensitivity of the model to spatially varied parameters and inputs limits the accuracy for application. In this paper, relevant influence factors and sensitive parameters were analyzed to solve this problem. First, a set of digital elevation model (DEM resolutions and channel thresholds were generated to extract the hydrological influence factors. Second, a numerical relationship between sensitive parameters and influence factors was established to define parameters reasonably. Next, the topographic index (TI was computed to study the similarity. At last, simulation results were analyzed in two different ways: (1 to observe the change regularity of influence factors and sensitive parameters through the variation of DEM resolutions and channel thresholds and (2 to compare the simulation accuracy of the nested catchment, particularly in the subcatchments and interior grids. Increasing the grid size from 250 m to 1000 m, the TI increased from 9.08 to 11.16 and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE decreased from 0.77 to 0.75. Utilizing the parameters calculated by the established relationship, the simulation results show the same NSE in the outlet and a better NSE in the simple subcatchment than the calculated interior grids.

  14. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The methodological basis and procedures for determination ofChinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization references for each region were calculated on the basis of an inventory of all of the region's environmental emissions in 1990. The normalization reference was determined as the total environmental impact potential for the area in question in 1990(EP(j)90) divided by the population. The weighting factor was determined as the normalization reference (ER(j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 based on Chinese political reduction plans, ER(j)T2000.). This paper peessents and discuss resubts obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China:global warming,hazardous waste and slag and ashes.

  15. The Measuring and Impacting Factors Analysis of Rural Straw Yield-Based on the Perspective of Constructing Low-carbon Agricultural Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the status quo and using developmental trend of China’s straw,4 indices are selected:straw yield,planting area,using amount of fertilizer and effective irrigation area.According to the relevant data of China Statistical Yearbook from 1991 to 2008,by using linear regression model,we calculate China’s rural straw yield,analyze the factors impacting straw yield,and point out that the using amount of fertilizer is the important factor impacting straw yield.Based on these,in the perspective of low-carbon agricultural economy,we put forward suggestions of using straw comprehensively from 4 perspectives in order to provide theoretical reference for decision-makers:improve fertilizer dependence;develop straw reuse technology;popularize the technology of straw gasification actively;strengthen farmers’ low-carbon awareness.

  16. The potential ecotoxicological impact of pharmaceutical and personal care products on humans and freshwater, based on USEtox™ characterization factors. A Spanish case study of toxicity impact scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta-Mata, Rubén

    2017-07-26

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are being increasingly included in Life Cycle Assessment studies (LCAs) since they have brought into evidence both human and ecological adverse effects due to their presence in different environmental compartments, wastewater facilities and industry. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to estimate the characterization factors (CFs) of 27 PPCPs widely used worldwide in order to incorporate their values into Life Cycle Impact Assessment studies (LCIA) or to generate a toxicity impact score ranking. Physicochemical properties, degradation rates, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity and human health effects were collected from experimental data, recognized databases or estimated using EPI Suite™ and the USEtox™ software, and were subsequently used for estimating CFs. In addition, a Spanish toxicity impact score ranking was carried out for 49 PPCPs using the 27 newly calculated CFs, and 22 CFs already available in the literature, besides the data related to the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment in Spain. It has been highlighted that emissions into the continental freshwater compartment showed the highest CFs values for human effects (ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-3)Cases·kg(-1)), followed by emissions into the air (10(-9) to 10(-5)Cases·kg(-1)), soil (10(-11) to 10(5)Cases·kg(-1)) and seawater (10(-12) to 10(-4)Cases·kg(-1)). CFs regarding the affectation of freshwater aquatic environments were the highest of those proceeding from emissions into continental freshwater (between 1 to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)) due to the direct contact between the source of emission and the compartment affected, followed by soil (among 10(-1) to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)), and air (among 10(-2) to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)) while the lowest were the CFs of continental seawater (among 10(-28) to 10(-3)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)). Freshwater aquatic ecotoxicological CFs are much higher than human

  17. [The "impact factor" and the impact of medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H

    1998-02-01

    Original articles published in scientific journals are important parameters for committees when they evaluate academic promotions or research grant applications. The analysis usually tries to give each paper a qualitative/quantitative assessment. An article's citation by others is accepted as a fair estimate of the value assigned to its originality and importance. A main determinant of every citation index is the international relevance attained by the journal where the article appeared. The "impact factor" of journals enlisted in the mainstream literature, as defined by the Journal Citation Reports (ISI), is being used by many assessors worldwide. But this index appears to be an unfair unit of measurement for journals that, although included in the main international data bases, are published in non-English languages. Furthermore, some local journals that are not enlisted by the Institute for Scientific Information apply external peer review to select their publications. In contrast, those same journals may have great relevance for their contributing authors and a high impact in their readers. The Editor's proposal is to classify original articles published in biomedical sciences, clinical medicine and public health topics using a three steps scale: a low score to articles published in local journals that use the peer review system, even though they were not enlisted in international data bases; a higher score to articles published in journals included in the mainstream literature, without considering their "impact factors" as differential values; and the highest score to articles published in journals recognized as international leaders in biomedicine, general medicine or in the subspecialties. Therefore, mainstream journals published in non-English languages would not be discriminated from other journals having higher "impact factors" mainly due to their use of the English language.

  18. Changes in carbon dioxide emissions and LMDI-based impact factor decomposition:the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region as a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG; Jun LEI; Xuan ZHOU; XiaoLei ZHANG; Wen DONG; Yu YANG

    2014-01-01

    Studies on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at provincial level can provide a scientific basis for the op-timal use of energy and the formulation of CO2 reduction policies. We studied the variation of CO2 emissions of primary energy consumption and its influencing factors based on data in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region from 1952 to 2008, which were calculated according to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inven-tories. Xinjiang’s CO2 emission process from 1952 to 2008 could be divided into five stages according to the growth rates of total amount of CO2 emissions and CO2 emission intensity. The impact factors were quantitatively analyzed using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method in each stage. Various factors, including government policies and technological progress related to the role of CO2 emissions, were comprehensively analyzed, and the internal relationships among various factors were clarified. The results show that the contribution rates of various impact factors are different in each stage. Overall, economic growth and energy consumption intensity were the main driving factors for CO2 emissions. Since the implementation of the birth control policy, the driving force of population growth on the increase in CO2 emissions has slowly weakened. The energy consumption intensity was further af-fected by the industrial structure and energy consumption intensity of primary, secondary and tertiary industries, with the energy consumption intensity of the secondary industries and the proportion of secondary industries being the most important factors affecting the energy consumption intensity. Governmental policies and technological progress were also important factors that affected CO2 emissions.

  19. Analysis of the impact of economic growth factors to resources and environment in Jiangsu Province – Based on Commoner model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to response to the increasingly polluted environment, maintain sustainable economic and social development in Jiangsu province, the author calculated the index of the resource environment in Jiangsu, using LMDI(logarithmic-mean Divisia index decomposition method based on the Commoner model(we can see from formula(2,(5,(6&(7, to reflect the three major influencing factors of cumulative effects. In table 2 and figure 3, the research results show the expansion of the size of economy and growth of population make resources consumption increase and environmental pollution aggravate, while technological progress reduce the pressure of resources and environment. According to the findings, the paper proposes the policy recommendations, such as develop circular economy, promote technological innovation and strengthen regional cooperation mechanism and so on to reduce the environmental pollution while economic developing. These will be useful to the policymakers.

  20. Correlation Feature Selection and Mutual Information Theory Based Quantitative Research on Meteorological Impact Factors of Module Temperature for Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The module temperature is the most important parameter influencing the output power of solar photovoltaic (PV systems, aside from solar irradiance. In this paper, we focus on the interdisciplinary research that combines the correlation analysis, mutual information (MI and heat transfer theory, which aims to figure out the correlative relations between different meteorological impact factors (MIFs and PV module temperature from both quality and quantitative aspects. The identification and confirmation of primary MIFs of PV module temperature are investigated as the first step of this research from the perspective of physical meaning and mathematical analysis about electrical performance and thermal characteristic of PV modules based on PV effect and heat transfer theory. Furthermore, the quantitative description of the MIFs influence on PV module temperature is mathematically formulated as several indexes using correlation-based feature selection (CFS and MI theory to explore the specific impact degrees under four different typical weather statuses named general weather classes (GWCs. Case studies for the proposed methods were conducted using actual measurement data of a 500 kW grid-connected solar PV plant in China. The results not only verified the knowledge about the main MIFs of PV module temperatures, more importantly, but also provide the specific ratio of quantitative impact degrees of these three MIFs respectively through CFS and MI based measures under four different GWCs.

  1. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-06

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future.

  2. Impact of risk factors on different interval cancer subtypes in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Blanch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000-2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%, 235 false-negatives (23.2%, 172 minimal-signs (17.2% and 114 occult tumors (11.3%. Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. RESULTS: A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28-3.23; this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24-12.40 than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59-3.21. A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60-2.78, previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71. High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58-9.38, followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00-2.49. CONCLUSION: The role of women's characteristics differs among

  3. Impact of Risk Factors on Different Interval Cancer Subtypes in a Population-Based Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Jordi; Sala, Maria; Ibáñez, Josefa; Domingo, Laia; Fernandez, Belén; Otegi, Arantza; Barata, Teresa; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Ferrer, Joana; Castells, Xavier; Rué, Montserrat; Salas, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. Methods We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000–2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%), 235 false-negatives (23.2%), 172 minimal-signs (17.2%) and 114 occult tumors (11.3%). Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. Results A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28–3.23); this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24–12.40) than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59–3.21). A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60–2.78), previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23–2.71). High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58–9.38), followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18–2.36) and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00–2.49). Conclusion The role of women's characteristics differs among

  4. Population-based study of epilepsy in Cambodia associated factors, measures of impact, stigma, quality of life, knowledge-attitude-practice, and treatment gap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Bhalla

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Identify epilepsy-associated factors and calculate measures of impact, stigma, quality of life (QOL, knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP and treatment gap in Prey Veng, Cambodia. METHODS: This first Cambodian population-based case-control study had 96 epileptologist-confirmed epilepsy cases and 192 randomly selected matched healthy controls. Standard questionnaires, which have been used in similar settings, were used for collecting data on various parameters. Univariate and multivariate regression was done to determine odds ratios. Jacoby stigma, 31-item QOL, KAP etc were determined and so were the factors associated with them using STATA software. Treatment gap was measured using direct method. KEY FINDINGS: Multivariate analyses yielded family history of epilepsy, difficult or long delivery, other problems beside seizures (mainly mental retardation, hyperthermia, and eventful pregnancy of the subject's mother as factors associated with epilepsy. There was high frequency of seizure precipitants esp. those related to sleep. Population attributable risk (% was: family history (15.0, eventful pregnancy of subject's mother (14.5, long/difficult birth (6.5, and other problem beside seizures (20.0. Mean stigma (1.9±1.1, on a scale of 3 was mainly related to treatment efficacy. Mean QOL (5.0±1.4 on a scale of 10 was mainly related to treatment regularity. Cause or risk factor could be determined in 56% of cases. Treatment gap was 65.8%. SIGNIFICANCE: Factors in pre- and perinatal period were found to be most crucial for epilepsy risk in Cambodia which inturn provides major prevention opportunities. A global action plan for treatment, stigma reduction and improvement of QOL should be set-up in this country.

  5. The impact of clinical, demographic and risk factors on rates of HIV transmission: a population-based phylogenetic analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Art F Y; Joy, Jeffrey B; Woods, Conan K; Shurgold, Susan; Colley, Guillaume; Brumme, Chanson J; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2015-03-15

    The diversification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is shaped by its transmission history. We therefore used a population based province wide HIV drug resistance database in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to evaluate the impact of clinical, demographic, and behavioral factors on rates of HIV transmission. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies from 27,296 anonymized bulk HIV pol sequences representing 7747 individuals in BC-about half the estimated HIV prevalence in BC. Infections were grouped into clusters based on phylogenetic distances, as a proxy for variation in transmission rates. Rates of cluster expansion were reconstructed from estimated dates of HIV seroconversion. Our criteria grouped 4431 individuals into 744 clusters largely separated with respect to risk factors, including large established clusters predominated by injection drug users and more-recently emerging clusters comprising men who have sex with men. The mean log10 viral load of an individual's phylogenetic neighborhood (composed of 5 other individuals with shortest phylogenetic distances) increased their odds of appearing in a cluster by >2-fold per log10 viruses per milliliter. Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-05-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  7. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Raj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year $t$ is the average number of citations given by papers published in year $t$ to papers published by A in a period of $\\Delta t$ years before year $t$. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the $h$-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  8. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-05-12

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  9. Journal impact factor: this editorial, academic and scientific influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milton Artur; Greco, Oswaldo Tadeu; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2009-01-01

    In this report the authors present information on the bibliometric instruments and their importance in measuring the quality of scientific journals and researchers. They in particular the history and deployment of the impact factor of the existing Institute for Scientific Information since 1955. Are presented and discussed the criticism regarding the inadequacy of the impact factor for evaluation of scientific production, misuse and strategies editorial handling of the bibliometric index. It is presented to the new classification CAPES for the journals, based on various criteria and the impact factor and its influence on national scientific and academic life. The authors conclude that, despite all obstacles and discussions, the impact factor of the Institute for Scientific Information is still an useful tool and the only isolation available to assess the scientific and intellectual productivity.

  10. Correlation between journal self-citation with impact factor for the scientific publications in humanities published between 2001 and 2007 based on Persian journal citation report generated by Islamic Science Citation database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Mehrad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available   The present study investigate the correlation between journal citations with impact factor in the humanities scientific journals published for the 2001-2007 period based on the Persian journal citation reports generated by Islamic Science Citation (ISC database. Citation analysis method was used. Findings demonstrated that there is a significant link between impact factor and journal self-citation (r=0.606, s =0.0000. In other words, journals with low impact factors have fewer self-citations, i.e. self-citation has a positive impact on the journal impact factor. There is a negative correlation between impact factor and number of articles in humanities in the period studied. The impact factor does not increase with increase in the number of articles. There is significant correlation between the number of article published and number of self-citation. The higher the number of articles, the higher would be the number of self-citation in the journal. Findings indicated that the rate of journal self-citation in humanities had been downward for the period studied. When screening journals for self-citations, 108 journals had their ranks reduced while 204 journals had their ranking increased. The ranking in 32 journals remained unchanged.

  11. [Obtaining the Impact Factor by Ginekologia Polska].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaczyński, Marek; Januszek-Michalecka, Lucyna; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Kedzia, Witold; Spaczyński, Robert; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata

    2011-08-01

    Scientific journals are ranked and evaluated to measure their relative importance and influence on science within a specific field. One of the tools most widely used to evaluate and compare journals is the Thomson Reuters Impact Factor In Poland a specific value of a scientist's Impact Factor is required for academic promotion. Ginekologia Polska was placed on the Master Journal List in 2008 in the result of changes introduced in 2007 by the new Chief Editor prof. Marek Spaczynski. In 2010, first time in its history the journal was listed in the Journal Citation Reports with the Impact Factor 0.367. The analysis of Ginekologia Polska contemporary value, as well as of prospects for its development was conducted on the basis of the Journal Citation Reports. In the light of the JCR data, Ginekologia Polska is a highly regarded title compared to other Polish journals. Its value and importance is gradually growing.

  12. Citation graph, weighted impact factors and performance indices

    OpenAIRE

    Zyczkowski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    A scheme of evaluating an impact of a given scientific paper based on importance of papers quoting it is investigated. Introducing a weight of a given citation, dependent on the previous scientific achievements of the author of the citing paper, we define the weighting factor of a given scientist. Technically the weighting factors are defined by the components of the normalized leading eigenvector of the matrix describing the citation graph. The weighting factor of a given scientist, reflecti...

  13. The impact of arthritis on the physical function of a rural Maya-Yucateco community and factors associated with its prevalence: a cross sectional, community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Wilkins, Seanne

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of arthritis on the physical function of people living in a Maya-Yucateco rural community and to assess the association of known modifiable risk factors with the prevalence of overall arthritis and its main types (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis). Using a cross-sectional, community-based census design, data collected from the adult population (≥18 years) of the Municipality of Chankom, Yucatán, México, were analyzed (n = 1523). Participants' physical function was assessed using a culturized version of the health assessment questionnaire disability index. Social, physical, and behavioral factors linked to overall arthritis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis, were assessed through the "Community-Oriented-Program-for-the-Control-of-Rheumatic-Diseases [COPCORD]" questionnaire. A physiatrist and a rheumatologist confirmed all osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis cases using the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Arthritis was confirmed in 169 cases (22 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19-25) of those assessed for musculoskeletal symptoms (n = 779): osteoarthritis = 144, rheumatoid arthritis = 17, and non-specific arthritis = 8. Arthritis was associated with a higher prevalence of disability after controlling for age, gender, and number of comorbidities (odds ratio = 4.0, 95 % CI 3.0-6.0). Higher level of wealth was associated with lower arthritis prevalence (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Higher body mass index was associated with higher hip and/or knee osteoarthritis prevalence (odds ratio = 1.1, 95 % CI 1.03-1.1). Arthritis is highly associated with disability in the Mayan people living in Chankom. The prevalence of arthritis in Chankom is associated with social factors, such as people's level of wealth, while the prevalence of low-extremity osteoarthritis is associated with people's body mass index.

  14. A proposal for a novel impact factor as an alternative to the JCR impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2013-12-03

    One disadvantage of the JCR impact factor, the most commonly used assessment tool for ranking and evaluating scientific journals, is its inability in distinguishing among different shapes of citation distribution curves, leading to unfair evaluation of journals in some cases. This paper aims to put forward an alternative impact factor (IF') that can properly reflect citation distributions. The two impact factors are linearly and positively correlated, and have roughly the same order of magnitude. Because of the ability of IF' in distinguishing among different shapes of citation distribution curves, IF' may properly reflect the academic performance of a scientific journal in a way that is different from the JCR impact factor with some unique features that reward journals with highly cited papers. Therefore, it is suggested that IF' could be used to complement the JCR impact factor.

  15. Impact Factors for Reggeon-Gluon Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Fadin, V S

    2015-01-01

    General expressions for the impact factors up to terms vanishing at the space-time dimension $D\\rightarrow 4$ are presented. Their infrared behaviour is analysed and calculation of exact in $D\\rightarrow 4$ asymptotics at small momenta of Reggeized gluons is discussed.

  16. Rain-based factors of high agricultural impacts over Senegal. Part I: integration of local to sub-regional trends and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salack, S.; Muller, B.; Gaye, A. T.

    2011-11-01

    The evolution of seasonal cycle and interannual rainfall, the number of rainy days and daily rainfall types, dry spells frequency of occurrence, onset/cessation/length of rainy season, sowing dates, and the duration of the cropping period, are investigated at local (individual sites) and sub-regional scales (four different rainfall zones) using daily records of station data (83 sites) over Senegal. In the limits of a case study, these analyses complement and update previous studies conducted in the extreme Western Sahel (11-16° N and 20° W-10° E). The results unveil noticeable evolution of some of these rain-based factors in the recent periods as compared to the previous dry years. In the regions recording less than 800 mm/year (Sudan and Sahel sub-regions), the positive and statistically significant trends of rainfall amount are associated with new features of increasing frequency of short dry spell category, increasing number of some classes of extreme daily rainfall amounts and shifts in the peak number of rainy days. At sub-regional scales, the starting years (or change points) the magnitude and the signs of the new trends are unevenly distributed in the period post-1990. Earlier and higher amplitude changes are found at local scales and not less than one third of the sites in each sub-regional network are significantly affected. The extreme Southern sub-region exhibits no significant changes. Statistically significant trends are not observed on daily rain records ≤10 mm, onset/cessation dates, successful sowing dates, rainy season length, cropping period, medium and extreme dry spell categories. Rather, some of these factors such as the successful sowing date and the cropping season length exhibit significant variability. The onset (cessation) dates of the rainy season are followed (preceded) by extreme dry spell episodes. In the perspectives of climate impact assessments on the local agriculture a sub-regional periodic synopsis of the major rain-based

  17. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  18. The prediction of the impact of climatic factors on short-term electric power load based on the big data of smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yunfei; Li, Xizhong; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Qinghe; Wei, Zhanmeng; Yue, Yaqin

    2017-08-01

    The climate changes have great impact on the residents’ electricity consumption, so the study on the impact of climatic factors on electric power load is of significance. In this paper, the effects of the data of temperature, rainfall and wind of smart city on short-term power load is studied to predict power load. The authors studied the relation between power load and daily temperature, rainfall and wind in the 31 days of January of one year. In the research, the authors used the Matlab neural network toolbox to establish the combinational forecasting model. The authors trained the original input data continuously to get the internal rules inside the data and used the rules to predict the daily power load in the next January. The prediction method relies on the accuracy of weather forecasting. If the weather forecasting is different from the actual weather, we need to correct the climatic factors to ensure accurate prediction.

  19. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  20. Weighing the impact (factor) of publishing in veterinary journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M

    2015-06-01

    The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many limitations, publishing decisions by authors often are based solely on a journal's impact factor. This can disadvantage journals in small disciplines, such as veterinary medicine, and limit the ability of authors to reach key audiences. In this article, factors that can influence the impact factor of a journal and its applicability, including precision, citation practices, article type, editorial policies, and size of the research community will be reviewed. The value and importance of veterinary journals such as the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology for reaching relevant audiences and for helping shape disciplinary specialties and influence clinical practice will also be discussed. Lastly, the efforts underway to develop alternative measures to assess the scientific quality of individual authors and articles, such as article-level metrics, as well as institutional measures of the economic and social impact of biomedical research will be considered. Judicious use of the impact factor and the implementation of new metrics for assessing the quality and societal relevance of veterinary research articles will benefit both authors and journals.

  1. Impact and cost of a 2-week community-based screening and awareness program for diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in a Swiss canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovet P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Bovet1, Philippe Hirsiger2, Frédéric Emery3, Jessica De Bernardini2, Christophe Rossier3, Josefine Trebeljahr2, Isabelle Hagon-Traub21Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP, University of Lausanne and Centre Universitaire Hospitalier Vaudois (CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Public Health Service, Department of Health and Social Action, Canton of Vaud, Lausanne, Switzerland; 3Association of Pharmacists, Canton of Vaud, Lausanne, SwitzerlandBackground: Community-based diabetes screening programs can help sensitize the population and identify new cases. However, the impact of such programs is rarely assessed in high-income countries, where concurrent health information and screening opportunities are common place.Intervention and methods: A 2-week screening and awareness campaign was organized as part of a new diabetes program in the canton of Vaud (population of 697,000 in Switzerland. Screening was performed without appointment in 190 out of 244 pharmacies in the canton at the subsidized cost of 10 Swiss Francs per participant. Screening included questions on risk behaviors, measurement of body mass index, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, random blood glucose (RBG, and A1c if RBG was ≥7.0 mmol/L. A mass media campaign promoting physical activity and a healthy diet was channeled through several media, eg, 165 spots on radio, billboards in 250 public places, flyers in 360 public transport vehicles, and a dozen articles in several newspapers. A telephone survey in a representative sample of the population of the canton was performed after the campaign to evaluate the program.Results: A total of 4222 participants (0.76% of all persons aged ≥18 years underwent the screening program (median age: 53 years, 63% females. Among participants not treated for diabetes, 3.7% had RBG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L and 1.8% had both RBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and A1c ≥ 6.5. Untreated blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and/or untreated cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol

  2. Evaluation of impact factors on PM2.5 based on long-term chemical components analyses in the megacity Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Cen, Kuang; Liu, Xiuli; Yu, Yang; Zibat, Volker; Dietze, Volker; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Nine years of sampling and analyses of fine particles (PM2.5) were performed in Beijing from 2005 to 2013. Twenty-seven chemical elements and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were analyzed in order to study chemical characteristics and temporal distribution of Beijing aerosols. Principle component analysis defined different types of elemental sources, based on which, the influences of a variety of anthropogenic activities including governmental intervention measures and natural sources on air quality were evaluated. For the first time, Ga is used as a tracer element for heating activities mainly using coal in Beijing, due to its correlation with BC and coal combustion, as well as its concentration variation between the heating- and non-heating periods. The traffic restrictions effectively reduced emissions of relevant heavy metals such as As, Cd, Sn and Sb. The expected long-term effectiveness of the steel smelters relocation was not observed due to the nearby relocation with increased capacity. Firework display during every Chinese spring festival season and special events such as the Olympic Games resulted in several times higher concentrations of K, Sr and Ba than other days and thus they were proposed as tracers for firework display. The impacts of all these factors were quantified and evaluated. Sand dust or dust storms induced higher concentrations of geogenic elements in PM2.5 compared to non-dust days. Sustainable mitigation measures, such as traffic restrictions, are necessary to be continued and improved to obtain more "blue sky" days in the future.

  3. Reviewing Impact Factor to Evaluate the Quality of Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Samadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact Factor is one of the most important tools to evaluate journals in ISI. In this article, have been tried to extract factors increase the journals' impact factor via studying the literatures and also introduce the factors that may be effective in reducing the weaknesses. The effect of factors such as interval, national, and individual motivations to increase the impact factor of journals and also issues that should be considered when calculating the impact factor, comprised some of the contents of this paper. At the end of the study, in order to evaluate the effect of using the optimal impact factor of journals, some recommendations were presented.

  4. Web Impact Factors for Iranian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the Web Impact Factors (WIFs for Iranian universities and introduces a new system of measurement. Counts of links to the web sites of Iranian universities were calculated from the output of AltaVista search engine. The WIFs for Iranian universities were calculated by dividing link page counts by the number of pages found in AltaVista for each university at a given point in time. These WIFs were then compared, to study the impact, visibility, and influence of Iranian university web sites. Overall, Iranian university web sites have a low inlink WIF. While specific features of sites may affect an institution's Web Impact Factor, there is a significant correlation between the proportion of English-language pages at an institution's site and the institution's backlink counts. This indicates that for linguistic reasons, Iranian (Persian-language web sites may not receive and attract the attention that they deserve from the World Wide Web. This raises the possibility that information may be ignored due to linguistic and geographic barriers, and this should be taken into account in the development of the global Web.

  5. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  6. Impact maturity times and citation time windows: The 2-year maximum journal impact factor

    CERN Document Server

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Journal metrics are employed for the assessment of scientific scholar journals from a general bibliometric perspective. In this context, the Thomson Reuters journal impact factors (JIF) are the citation-based indicators most used. The 2-year journal impact factor (2-JIF) counts citations to one and two year old articles, while the 5-year journal impact factor (5-JIF) counts citations from one to five year old articles. Nevertheless, these indicators are not comparable among fields of science for two reasons: (i) each field has a different impact maturity time, and (ii) because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In fact, the 5-JIF firstly appeared in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) in 2007 with the purpose of making more comparable impacts in fields in which impact matures slowly. However, there is not an optimal fixed impact maturity time valid for all the fields. In some of them two years provides a good performance whereas in others three or more years are...

  7. Diagnosis of Photochemical Ozone Production Rates and Limiting Factors based on Observation-based Modeling Approach over East Asia: Impact of Radical Chemistry Mechanism and Ozone-Control Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Growth of tropospheric ozone, causing health and climate impacts, is concerned over East Asia, because emissions of precursors have dramatically increased. Photochemical production rates of ozone and limiting factors, primarily studied for urban locations, have been poorly assessed within a perspective of regional-scale air pollution over East Asia. We performed comprehensive observations of ozone precursors at several locations with regional representativeness and made such assessment based on the observation-based modeling approach. Here, diagnosis at Fukue Island (32.75°N, 128.68°E) remotely located in western Japan (May 2009) is highlighted, where the highest 10% of hourly ozone concentrations reached 72‒118 ppb during May influenced by Asian continental outflow. The average in-situ ozone production rate was estimated to be 6.8 ppb per day, suggesting that in-travel production was still active, while larger buildup must have occurred beforehand. Information on the chemical status of the air mass arriving in Japan is important, because it affects how further ozone production occurs after precursor addition from Japanese domestic emissions. The main limiting factor of ozone production was usually NOx, suggesting that domestic NOx emission control is important in reducing further ozone production and the incidence of warning issuance (>120 ppb). VOCs also increased the ozone production rate, and occasionally (14% of time) became dominant. This analysis implies that the VOC reduction legislation recently enacted should be effective. The uncertainty in the radical chemistry mechanism governing ozone production had a non-negligible impact, but the main conclusion relevant to policy was not altered. When chain termination was augmented by HO2-H2O + NO/NO2 reactions and by heterogeneous loss of HO2 on aerosol particle surfaces, the daily ozone production rate decreased by <24%, and the fraction of hours when the VOC-limited condition occurred varied from 14% to 13

  8. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  9. ISI's Impact Factor as Misnomer: A Proposed New Measure To Assess Journal Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Stephen P.; Nisonger, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses "impact factor," a measure of journal impact defined by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and available in Journal Citation Reports. Argues that "impact factor" is misnamed and misused, suggesting an alternative name and interpretation of the measure, and proposes two new measures to assess the impact of…

  10. 基于认知可靠性的飞行差错影响因素体系的构建%Establishment of impact factor system for flight error based on cognitive reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孟杰; 孙瑞山

    2013-01-01

    The probability of flight error could be reduced effectively through improving the cognitive reliability of pilots.Impact factor analysis on flight error is helpful for an objective and quick flight risk assessment and an im -provement on flight safety .The P-D-A-F flight cognitive reliability model based on human cognitive reliability was established and the flight error occurrence mechanism was analyzed .Combining with result of human cognitive reli-ability factors, an impact factor system for flight error was developed , and the main impact factors were psychologi-cal, physiological and external factors .Finally the Delphi method was used to define the final 40 factors to build the factors system, and the impacting ways to flight errors were concluded as two ways of separate or combined influ-ence.The impact factor system can be applied into flight error analysis and evaluation .%提高飞行员认知可靠性可以有效降低飞行差错发生概率。合理确定飞行差错影响因素有利于客观、快速地评估飞行差错,提高飞行中的安全性。基于人的认知可靠性建立P-D-A-F飞行认知可靠性模型分析飞行差错发生机理;并结合对人的认知可靠性影响因素分析结果,构建以心理、生理、外部为主要影响因素的飞行差错影响因素体系;运用Delphi法确定体系包含40个影响因子,并提出影响因子以独立或者联合影响的方式影响飞行差错。该影响因素体系可以应用于飞行差错分析与评估。

  11. State based factors affecting inward FDI employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kornecki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density.  In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.Keywords: FDI, Growth, Employment, State, Economy

  12. Trends in impact factors of ophthalmology journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vainer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To test whether there is an association between the growth in the number of ophthalmic journals in the past years and their mean and maximum impact factor (IF as a common sign of scientific proliferation. Methods: Using data from the 2013 Journal Citation Report database a study of the major clinical medical fields was conducted to assess the correlation between the number of journals and maximum IF in a given field in the year 2013. In the field of ophthalmology, we examined the correlation between year, number of journals, mean IF and maximum IF in the field of ophthalmology throughout the years 2000–2013. Results: In the major medical fields, a positive correlation was found between the number of journals and the maximum IF (quadratic R2 = 0.71, P< 0.001. When studying the field of ophthalmology a positive correlation between the number of journals and mean IF (R2 = 0.84, P< 0.001 and between number of journals and maximum IF (R2 = 0.71, P< 0.001 was detected. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the variation in the IF can be explained by the number of journals in the field of ophthalmology. In the future, the formation of additional ophthalmology journals is likely to further increase the IFs of existing journals.

  13. Trends in impact factors of ophthalmology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Igor; Mimouni, Francis; Blumenthal, Eytan Z; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-09-01

    To test whether there is an association between the growth in the number of ophthalmic journals in the past years and their mean and maximum impact factor (IF) as a common sign of scientific proliferation. Using data from the 2013 Journal Citation Report database a study of the major clinical medical fields was conducted to assess the correlation between the number of journals and maximum IF in a given field in the year 2013. In the field of ophthalmology, we examined the correlation between year, number of journals, mean IF and maximum IF in the field of ophthalmology throughout the years 2000-2013. In the major medical fields, a positive correlation was found between the number of journals and the maximum IF (quadratic R2 = 0.71, Pjournals and mean IF (R2 = 0.84, Pjournals and maximum IF (R2 = 0.71, Pjournals in the field of ophthalmology. In the future, the formation of additional ophthalmology journals is likely to further increase the IFs of existing journals.

  14. Steady impact factor growth for MDPI open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, Alexander

    2012-09-12

    For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [1-3]. In 2012 we are-once again-pleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPI's Open Access journals continues. This year's edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR), which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact Factors- International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), Materials Nutrients. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2011. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded.

  15. On the Behavior of Journal Impact Factor Rank-Order Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mansilla; Köppen, E.; Cocho, G.; Miramontes, P.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical law for the rank-order behavior of journal impact factors is found. Using an extensive data base on impact factors including journals on Education, Agrosciences, Geosciences, Biosciences and Environ- mental, Chemical, Computer, Engineering, Material, Mathematical, Medical and Physical Sciences we have found extremely good fits out- performing other rank-order models. Some extensions to other areas of knowledge are discussed.

  16. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...... a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated...

  17. Steady Impact Factor Growth for MDPI Open Access Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Thiesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [1–3]. In 2012 we are—once again—pleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPI’s Open Access journals continues. This year’s edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR, which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact Factors—International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH, Materials and Nutrients. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2011. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE.

  18. Fractal analysis and its impact factors on pore structure of artificial cores based on the images obtained using magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Liu, Yu; Song, Yongchen; Zhao, Yuechao; Zhao, Jiafei; Wang, Dayong

    2012-11-01

    Pore structure is one of important factors affecting the properties of porous media, but it is difficult to describe the complexity of pore structure exactly. Fractal theory is an effective and available method for quantifying the complex and irregular pore structure. In this paper, the fractal dimension calculated by box-counting method based on fractal theory was applied to characterize the pore structure of artificial cores. The microstructure or pore distribution in the porous material was obtained using the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three classical fractals and one sand packed bed model were selected as the experimental material to investigate the influence of box sizes, threshold value, and the image resolution when performing fractal analysis. To avoid the influence of box sizes, a sequence of divisors of the image was proposed and compared with other two algorithms (geometric sequence and arithmetic sequence) with its performance of partitioning the image completely and bringing the least fitted error. Threshold value selected manually and automatically showed that it plays an important role during the image binary processing and the minimum-error method can be used to obtain an appropriate or reasonable one. Images obtained under different pixel matrices in MRI were used to analyze the influence of image resolution. Higher image resolution can detect more quantity of pore structure and increase its irregularity. With benefits of those influence factors, fractal analysis on four kinds of artificial cores showed the fractal dimension can be used to distinguish the different kinds of artificial cores and the relationship between fractal dimension and porosity or permeability can be expressed by the model of D = a - bln(x + c).

  19. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of urban heat island variation in Beijing city and surrounding areas and impact factors based on remote sensing satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiahua; HOU Yingyu; LI Guicai; YAN Hao YANG Limin; YAO Fengmei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the land surface temperature (LST), the land cover classification map,vegetation coverage, and surface evapotranspiration derived from EOS-MODIS satellite data, and by the use of GIS spatial analytic technique and multivariate statistical analysis method, the urban heat island (UHI) spatial distribution of the diurnal and seasonal variabilities and its driving forces are studied in Beijing city and surrounding areas in 2001. The relationships among UHI distribution and landcover categories, topographic factor, vegetation greenness, and surface evapotranspiration are analyzed. The results indicate that: (i) The significant UHI occur in Beijing city areas in the four seasons due to high heat capacity and multi-reflection of compression building, as well as with special topographic features of its three sides surrounded by mountains,especially in the summer. The UHI spatial distribution is corresponding with the urban geometry structure profile. The LST difference is approximately 4-6℃ between Beijing city and suburb areas, comparatively is 8- 10℃ between Beijing city area and outer suburb area in northwestern regions. (ii) The UHI distribution and intensity in daytime are different from nighttime in Beijing city area, the nighttime UHI is obvious. However, in the daytime, the significant UHI mainly appears in the summer, the autumn takes second place, and the UHI in the winter and the spring seem not obvious. The surface evapotranspiration in suburb areas is larger than that in urban areas in the summer, and high latent heat exchange is evident, which leads to LST difference between city area and suburb area. (iii) The reflection of surface landcover categories is sensitive to the UHI, the correlation between vegetation greenness and UHI shows obviously negative.The scatterplot shows that there is the negative correlation between NDVI and LST (R2 = 0.6481).The results demonstrate that the vegetation greenness is an important factor for reducing the UHI

  20. LU factorization for accelerator-based systems

    KAUST Repository

    Agullo, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Multicore architectures enhanced with multiple GPUs are likely to become mainstream High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms in a near future. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an LU factorization using tile algorithm that can fully exploit the potential of such platforms in spite of their complexity. We use a methodology derived from previous work on Cholesky and QR factorizations. Our contributions essentially consist of providing new CPU/GPU hybrid LU kernels, studying the impact on performance of the looking variants as well as the storage layout in presence of pivoting, tuning the kernels for two different machines composed of multiple recent NVIDIA Tesla S1070 (four GPUs total) and Fermi-based S2050 GPUs (three GPUs total), respectively. The hybrid tile LU asymptotically achieves 1 Tflop/s in single precision on both hardwares. The performance in double precision arithmetic reaches 500 Gflop/s on the Fermi-based system, twice faster than the old GPU generation of Tesla S1070. We also discuss the impact of the number of tiles on the numerical stability. We show that the numerical results of the tile LU factorization will be accurate enough for most applications as long as the computations are performed in double precision arithmetic. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Factors That Impact the Ethical Behavior of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob; Berry, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 182 college students in the midwestern and northwestern United States. Ethical behavior of peers had the most significant impact on ethical behavior of students. Success (in terms of grade point average) of students, and gender of the respondents, also significantly impacted ethical…

  2. Building a List of Journals with Constructed Impact Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmann, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    Describes the building of a list of constructed-impact factors (CIF) for biomedical journals not included in the 1996 editions of the "Journal Citation Reports." The online retrieval from the host DIMDI of the data needed for impact-factor calculation is described. The top 100 (of 338 titles, ranked according to their CIFs) are…

  3. The pragmatics of a diachronic journal impact factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    With reference to Vanclay (Scientometrics in press, 2012) the paper argues for a pragmatic approach to the Thomson-Reuter’s journal impact factor. The paper proposes and discusses to replace the current synchronous Thomson-Reuter journal impact factor by an up-to-date diachronic version (DJIF...

  4. [Use of the Citation Index and impact factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitterová, K

    1999-09-01

    Article deals with evaluation method of scientific works by means of Citation Indexes and Impact Factor which are produced by Institute for Scientific Information of Philadelphia. It criticises criteria of the usage of Impact factor and way of research workers evaluation.

  5. Impact factors of dermatological journals for 1991 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemec Gregor BE

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact factors of scientific journals are interesting but not unproblematic. It is speculated that the number of journals in which citations can be made correlates with the impact factors in any given speciality. Methods Using the Journal Citation Report (JCR for 1997, a bibliometric analysis was made to assess the correlation between the number of journals available in different fields of clinical medicine and the top impact factor. A detailed study was made of dermatological journals listed in the JCR 1991–2000, to assess the relevance of this general survey. Results Using the 1997 JCR definitions of speciality journals, a significant linear correlation was found between the number of journals in a given field and the top impact factor of that field (rs = 0.612, p Studying the trend for dermatological journals 1991 to 2000 a similar pattern was found. Significant correlations were also found between total number of journals and mean impact factor (rs = 0.793, p = 0.006, between the total number of journals and the top impact factor (rs = 0.759, p = 0.011 and between the mean and the top impact factor (rs = 0.827, p = 0.003. Conclusions The observations suggest that the number of journals available predict the top impact factor. For dermatology journals the top and the mean impact factor are predicted. This is in good agreement with theoretical expectations as more journals make more print-space available for more papers containing citations. It is suggested that new journals in dermatology should be encouraged, as this will most likely increase the impact factor of dermatological journals generally.

  6. Simulation and Analysis on the Influence Factors of Water Jet Impact Force Based on FLUENT%基于FLUENT的水射流冲击力影响因素仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建友; 吕彦明

    2014-01-01

    Based on water jet impact model,the jet impact numerical simulation and simulation analysis was carried out by FLUENT. The content include the effect of different jet pressures ,jet distances and the diameters of nozzle outlet on jet impact force and area. The results indicate that impact force increases with the increase of jet pressure ,decreases after first increase with the increase of target distance when other related factors was determined. The ratio of impact is approximately equal to the nozzle exit diameter ratio of the square. Jet impact area is related to the nozzle exit diameter ,its area is about 2.9 times of the exit zone.%基于水射流冲击模型,应用FLUENT流体分析软件对喷嘴射流冲击力数值模拟和仿真,得出不同的射流压强、喷距及喷嘴出口直径对射流冲击力及冲击作用区域的影响。结果表明:其他相关因素确定时,射流冲击力随着射流压强的增加而增大,随着喷距的增加先增大、后减小;不同喷嘴出口直径的射流冲击力的比值约为喷嘴出口直径的平方比,射流冲击的作用区域与喷嘴出口直径有关,其面积约为出口直径的2.9倍。

  7. Research on the Relationships between Chinese Journal Impact Factors and External Web Link Counts and Web Impact Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lu; Qiu, Junping

    2004-01-01

    Journal impact factors (JIFs) as determined by the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information of China (ISTIC) of forty-two Chinese engineering journals were compared with external Web link counts, obtained from Lycos, and Web Impact Factors (WIFs) of corresponding journal Web sites to determine if any significant correlation existed…

  8. A STUDY ON IMPACT OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ON JOB SATISFACTION IN CONSTRUCTION COMPANY AT CHENNAI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Nandhini

    2017-01-01

      This study is based on descriptive research it has been undertaken in Construction Company in Chennai city, Tamilnadu with the objectives of examining the impact of motivational factors on job satisfaction...

  9. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jianxin; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2001-01-01

    was determined as the normalization reference (ER ( j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 abased on Chinese political reduction plans, ER ( j)(T2000). This paper presents and discuss results obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China: global warming...

  10. Examining the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D; Merchant, William; Bishop, Malachy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) to assess its suitability for modeling the impact of MS on a nation-wide sample of individuals from the United States. Investigators completed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to examine the two-factor structure proposed by Hobart et al. [17]. Although the original MSIS-29 factor structure did not fit the data exactly, the hypothesized two-factor model was partially supported in the current data. Implications for future instrument development and rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  11. The meaning of the Impact Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Garfield

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El factor de impacto y otros índices bibliométricos son utilizados en la actualidad, en la mayoría de los países, para evaluar la investigación científica: proyectos de investigación, revistas, artículos, investigadores e instituciones. En el presente artículo se responden a las preguntas mas frecuentes sobre qué es el factor de impacto y cómo debe ser utilizado. En concreto, se habla de su origen, de los criterios que debe cumplir una revista, del factor de impacto como criterio de evaluación, de la relación entre la calidad de las revistas y el factor de impacto, de la evaluación de la calidad de las publicaciones, del período de evaluación para el cálculo del índice de impacto, del calculo del índice de impacto, de la comparación entre revistas de diferentes campos científicos, de la generalización del factor de impacto de una revista a cada uno de los artículos publicados en ella, de la relación entre el factor de impacto y la dificultad de publicar, del idioma en que publican las revistas y de cómo mejorar el factor de impacto de una revista.

  12. [The invalidity of the impact factor as indicator of the impact of Latin American scientific journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-03-01

    Use of the Impact Factor is currently being discarded in industrialized countries where, to name one case, up to 40% of the articles published in Nature are never cited, despite the high Impact Factor of that journal. However, it is still used in Latin America to evaluate journals and authors, potentially influencing who are given positions and who receives funding. To find out how valid the Impact Factor is for Latin American research, 1 used the database BINABITROP to see how much of the relevant literature was used to measure impact. I found that the Science Citation Index (SCI) excluded 96% of the relevant literature when measuring the impact of biological articles about Costa Rica for the studied year (2011). Therefore, the impact of Latin American science is unknown and the Impact Factor should not be used to assess how often a journal, institution or author are cited.

  13. Impact of Life Factors upon Attitudes toward Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Kevin J.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…

  14. Individualistic impact of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolade, Mathew K

    2016-05-01

    The individualistic effect of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products (moin-moin, akara, and gbegiri) was investigated. Four cowpea types (IT93K-452-1, IT95K-499s-35, IT97K-568-18, and market sample) were used for the study, whereas the three traditional food products were produced from each of the cowpea types, respectively. The results revealed that every unit operation involved in the production of moin-moin, akara or gbegiri contributed to the overall reduction of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic acid (PA), and tannin; though at varying degrees. In the production of moin-moin, the major contributions to the overall reduction in TIA were from steaming (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The contributions to the overall reduction in PA were from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and steaming (7.8-14.0%), whereas that of tannin were from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), steaming (19.6-24.7%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). For akara production, the major contributions to TIA reduction were from deep frying (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The PA reduction was from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and deep frying (9.6-15.9%), whereas that of tannin reduction was from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), deep frying (20.7-25.3%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). In the production of gbegiri, the overall reduction in TIA was contributed from pressure cooking (79.0-84.8%), preliminary soaking (5.8-11.3%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The reduction in PA was contributed by dehulling (34.0-40.4%), pressure cooking (24.7-35.0%), and preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), whereas the overall reduction in tannin content was similarly contributed by dehulling (39.7-47.6%), pressure cooking (29.8-34.4%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%).

  15. Inflated impact factors? The true impact of evolutionary papers in non-evolutionary journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Postma

    Full Text Available Amongst the numerous problems associated with the use of impact factors as a measure of quality are the systematic differences in impact factors that exist among scientific fields. While in theory this can be circumvented by limiting comparisons to journals within the same field, for a diverse and multidisciplinary field like evolutionary biology, in which the majority of papers are published in journals that publish both evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers, this is impossible. However, a journal's overall impact factor may well be a poor predictor for the impact of its evolutionary papers. The extremely high impact factors of some multidisciplinary journals, for example, are by many believed to be driven mostly by publications from other fields. Despite plenty of speculation, however, we know as yet very little about the true impact of evolutionary papers in journals not specifically classified as evolutionary. Here I present, for a wide range of journals, an analysis of the number of evolutionary papers they publish and their average impact. I show that there are large differences in impact among evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers within journals; while the impact of evolutionary papers published in multidisciplinary journals is substantially overestimated by their overall impact factor, the impact of evolutionary papers in many of the more specialized, non-evolutionary journals is significantly underestimated. This suggests that, for evolutionary biologists, publishing in high-impact multidisciplinary journals should not receive as much weight as it does now, while evolutionary papers in more narrowly defined journals are currently undervalued. Importantly, however, their ranking remains largely unaffected. While journal impact factors may thus indeed provide a meaningful qualitative measure of impact, a fair quantitative comparison requires a more sophisticated journal classification system, together with multiple field

  16. impact of physicochemical factors on zooplankton species richness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    A study on the impact of physicochemical factors on zooplankton species richness and abundance was carried out .... into the water until the screen showed a fixed reading as described .... Transparency enables the sun rays to penetrate to a.

  17. Factors impacting on the adoption of biometric technology by South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review Volume 15 Number 1 2011. Factors impacting ... By definition, biometric .... data. The survey was limited to four large banks in South Africa: ..... Analyzing Quantitative Data: From Description to Explanation.

  18. Factors impacting on the nutritional status of population aged 45 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors impacting on the nutritional status of population aged 45 years and ... Information on selected demographic and socio-economic household ... and obesity are problems facing this population group aged 45 years and above in Nairobi.

  19. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... factors that impact sexual risk-taking behaviour among African students in Kwazulu-. Natal, South ...... to attract different genders and sexual orientation. Moreover, .... Journal of Psychology in Africa, 15(1), 17–24. Peltzer, K.

  20. The impact of climate change and anthropogenic factors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of climate change and anthropogenic factors on desertification in the ... Currently, approximately 22.6% of the country's landmass is being affected by ... production, ecological degradation and emigration of people and animals.

  1. [Impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama Zurián, Juan Carlos; Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio

    2004-12-01

    The impact factor is a bibliometric indicator published annually in the Journal Citation Reports, and widely regarded as a quality ranking of the journals included in this database. The problem with this indicator is that the impact factor of several journals not listed in the Science Citation Index database is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the 2001 national and international impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. The National impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was obtained by adding the number of cites in 2001 from a total of 87 Spanish medical journals of greater scientific quality. Also, bibliographical references from Spanish journals indexed in the 2001 Journal Citation reports database have been included to determine the international impact factor of this analyzed journal. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología received a total of 62 cites from published articles in 1999 to 2001, coming from 20 different journals, being their self-citation index 10.1%. The journal with the highest number of cites to Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was Journal of Clinical Microbiology, with 12 cites (19.3%). According to this findings the national and international impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was 0.266 and 0.606, respectively. The impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, although not included in the Science Citation Index database, was higher than other Journal Citation Reports. Moreover, Revista Iberoamericana de Micología received most of its citations from high impact factor journals included in the Journal Citation Reports database. These data support the international recognition of the scientific level of the journal.

  2. Full Open Access Journals Have Increased Impact Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to report the increase of the impact factors of MDPI journals during 2007 and 2008. In 2005 and part of 2006, the use of a two tier publication system, whereby we offered full Open Access publication to those authors willing to contribute financially to support this option, while providing the alternative choice of free publication without Open Access for those authors who preferred not to pay, resulted in the obviously decreased impact factors seen in 2006 [...

  3. Causes for the persistence of impact factor mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-03-18

    ABSTRACT Numerous essays have addressed the misuse of the journal impact factor for judging the value of science, but the practice continues, primarily as a result of the actions of scientists themselves. This seemingly irrational behavior is referred to as "impact factor mania." Although the literature on the impact factor is extensive, little has been written on the underlying causes of impact factor mania. In this perspective, we consider the reasons for the persistence of impact factor mania and its pernicious effects on science. We conclude that impact factor mania persists because it confers significant benefits to individual scientists and journals. Impact factor mania is a variation of the economic theory known as the "tragedy of the commons," in which scientists act rationally in their own self-interests despite the detrimental consequences of their actions on the overall scientific enterprise. Various measures to reduce the influence of the impact factor are considered. IMPORTANCE Science and scientists are currently afflicted by an epidemic of mania manifested by associating the value of research with the journal where the work is published rather than the content of the work itself. The mania is causing profound distortions in the way science is done that are deleterious to the overall scientific enterprise. In this essay, we consider the forces responsible for the persistence of the mania and conclude that it is maintained because it disproportionately benefits elements of the scientific enterprise, including certain well-established scientists, journals, and administrative interests. Our essay suggests steps that can be taken to deal with this debilitating and destructive epidemic.

  4. [The impact factor and those who dislike it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András

    2015-06-28

    Since its introduction in 1976, the impact factor is permanently a subject of both criticism and glorification. This paper gives an overview on what actually the reservations and objections attack. A closer look often reveals that the criticisms are not against the specific substantial features of the impact factor. They may formulate much more general doubts or, on the other hand, superficial technical details, easily remediable flaws or inconsistensies resulting erroneous use.

  5. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  6. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  7. On indexing in the Web of Science and predicting journal impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Fang; Fu, Qiang; Rousseau, Ronald

    2008-07-01

    We discuss what document types account for the calculation of the journal impact factor (JIF) as published in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Based on a brief review of articles discussing how to predict JIFs and taking data differences between the Web of Science (WoS) and the JCR into account, we make our own predictions. Using data by cited-reference searching for Thomson Scientific's WoS, we predict 2007 impact factors (IFs) for several journals, such as Nature, Science, Learned Publishing and some Library and Information Sciences journals. Based on our colleagues' experiences we expect our predictions to be lower bounds for the official journal impact factors. We explain why it is useful to derive one's own journal impact factor.

  8. Editorial:On indexing in the Web of Science and predicting journal impact factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-fang WU; Qiang FU; Ronald ROUSSEAU

    2008-01-01

    We discuss what document types account for the calculation of the journal impact factor (JIF) as published in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Based on a brief review of articles discussing how to predict JIFs and taking data differences between the Web of Science (WoS) and the JCR into account, we make our own predictions. Using data by cited-reference searching for Thomson Scientific's WoS, we predict 2007 impact factors (IFs) for several journals, such as Nature, Science,Learned Publishing and some Library and Information Sciences journals. Based on our colleagues' experiences we expect our predictions to be lower bounds for the official journal impact factors. We explain why it is useful to derive one's own journal impact factor.

  9. Analysis on Impact Factors for Forest Management Income of Forest Farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the investigation in Anji County of Zhejiang Province and Ba'nan District of Chongqing, this paper analyzed the characteristics of forest management behaviors of forest farmers in China and the impact factors for forest management income, and then came up with some policy recommendations to increase the forest management income of forest farmers. It argued that the factors to impact on forest management income of forest farmers in China include the choice of forest products type, the elements in fo...

  10. Virtual photon impact factors with exact gluon kinematic

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, A; Peschanski, R

    2001-01-01

    An explicit analytic formula for the transverse and longitudinal impact factors S_{T,L}(N,\\gamma) of the photon using k_T factorization with exact gluon kinematics is given. Applications to the QCD dipole model and the extraction of the unintegrated gluon structure function from data are proposed.

  11. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  12. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  13. Impact factors: Scientific and career assessment by numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bruining (Nico); P.A. Cummins (Paul); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe most used scientific evaluation parameters today are: 1) The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals in which the papers of researchers, and their collaborators, are published and 2) The so-called H-factor which is used to evaluate the work of individual scientists. We explore in d

  14. [National and international impact factor of Revista Española de Cardiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama Zurián, Juan C; Castellano Gómez, Miguel; Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; Simó Meléndez, Raquel; Navarro Molina, Carolina

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the bibliometric indicators for Revista Española de Cardiologíathat were obtained from the "Potential impact factor of Spanish medical journals in 2001" study financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Educacion, Cultura y Deporte. Citations to Revista Española de Cardiología, its national and international impact factor, and its immediacy index were calculated with methods similar to those used by the Institute for Scientific Information. National indicators were based only on citations from 87 Spanish journals considered source journals, whereas international indicators were calculated on the basis of citations from both national journals and foreign source journals in the Science Citation Index. Revista Española de Cardiologíaobtained a national impact factor of 0.719 and an international impact factor of 0.837, placing it at the head of the ranking of Spanish medical journals.

  15. The weakening relationship between the Impact Factor and papers' citations in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, George A; Gingras, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Historically, papers have been physically bound to the journal in which they were published but in the electronic age papers are available individually, no longer tied to their respective journals. Hence, papers now can be read and cited based on their own merits, independently of the journal's physical availability, reputation, or Impact Factor. We compare the strength of the relationship between journals' Impact Factors and the actual citations received by their respective papers from 1902 to 2009. Throughout most of the 20th century, papers' citation rates were increasingly linked to their respective journals' Impact Factors. However, since 1990, the advent of the digital age, the strength of the relation between Impact Factors and paper citations has been decreasing. This decrease began sooner in physics, a field that was quicker to make the transition into the electronic domain. Furthermore, since 1990, the proportion of highly cited papers coming from highly cited journals has been decreasing, and accor...

  16. Integrated Impact Indicators (I3) compared with Impact Factors (IFs): An alternative research design with policy implications

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-01-01

    In bibliometrics, the association of "impact" with central-tendency statistics is mistaken. The impact of two collisions is more than the mean or median of the two impacts; impacts add up, and citation curves should therefore be integrated instead of averaged. For example, the journals MIS Quarterly and JASIST differ by a factor of two in terms of their respective impact factors (IF), but the journal with the lower IF has the higher impact. Using percentiles (e.g., top-1%, top-10%, etc.), an integrated impact indicator (I3) can be based on integration of the citation curves after normalization to the same scale. The results across document sets can be compared as percentages of the total impact of a reference set. Total number of citations, however, should not be used instead because the shape of the citation curves is then not appreciated. In addition to comparing I3 with IFs for the journals in two ISI Subject Categories ("Information Science & Library Science" and "Multidisciplinary Sciences"), we show...

  17. Complete Impact Factor (CIF): A full index to evaluate journal impact

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a full index to evaluate journal impact, Complete Impact Factor (CIF), was proposed. In general, CIF= total citations for published articles in the journal since it has been sponsored / total number of published articles of the journal since it has been sponsored. CIF changes dynamically over time.

  18. Complete Impact Factor (CIF: A full index to evaluate journal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a full index to evaluate journal impact, Complete Impact Factor (CIF, was proposed. In general, CIF= total citations for published articles in the journal since it has been sponsored / total number of published articles of the journal since it has been sponsored. CIF changes dynamically over time.

  19. AGU journals increase in importance according to 2010 Impact Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bill

    2011-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in many categories in the 2010 Journal Citation Report (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2010 statistics, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. Four different AGU titles are ranked in the top three journals in six different cohorts. The Impact Factor of several AGU journals increased significantly over the previous year.

  20. Rethinking the meaning and significance of journal impact factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2007-06-01

    It is not the case that impact factors are unhelpful and that their use should be abolished. Indeed, ISI is continuing to refine existing and develop new databases to provide important information to researchers, administrators, librarians, and editors. Impact factor data do provide useful information for the review process if used judiciously and with an awareness of what these data do and do not indicate. Perhaps it is timely for members of the nursing discipline to think more broadly about the nature of impact and to talk more about the ways in which review processes can account for the many ways the impact of research can be demonstrated. For example, as part of the review process, reviewers might ask each researcher to provide exemplars from teaching or clinical practice settings in which their research is actually being used. Researchers might also be asked to describe the impact that has occurred in ways other than through publication (e.g., presentations, consulting) and how this impact was determined. Creating review processes that allow researchers to describe their decision making related to disseminating their research and how this reflects their ability to influence the discipline may provide a more realistic picture of impact than calculated figures alone.

  1. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score.

  3. Transcription factor-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jeffrey A; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

  4. Multidimensional journal evaluation analyzing scientific periodicals beyond the impact factor

    CERN Document Server

    Haustein, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Scientific communication depends primarily on publishing in journals. The most important indicator to determine the influence of a journal is the Impact Factor. Since this factor only measures the average number of citations per article in a certain time window, it can be argued that it does not reflect the actual value of a periodical. This book defines five dimensions, which build a framework for a multidimensional method of journal evaluation. The author is winner of the Eugene Garfield Doctoral Dissertation Scholarship 2011.

  5. Evaluating Academic Journals without Impact Factors for Collection Management Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilevko, Juris; Atkinson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of evaluating academic journals for collection management decisions focuses on a methodological framework for evaluating journals not ranked by impact factors in Journal Citation Reports. Compares nonranked journals with ranked journals and then applies this framework to a case study in the field of medical science. (LRW)

  6. AGU journals continue to rank highly in Impact Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jon; Warner, Mary

    2012-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in the 2011 Journal Citation Reports (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. The impact factor of several AGU journals increased significantly, continuing their trend over the previous 5 years, while others remained consistent with the previous year's ranking. Paleoceanography is an outstanding performer in both the Paleontology and Oceanography categories. Since 1995, Paleoceanography has been the top-ranked journal in the Paleontology category (of 49 titles in 2011), with an Impact Factor of 3.357. In the Oceanography group (59 journals total), Paleoceanography ranks third in Impact Factor. Reviews of Geophysics, with an Impact Factor of 12.364 (an increase of 2.826 from the prior year's score of 9.538), ranks second in Geochemistry and Geophysics out of a total of 77 journals in this cohort. Water Resources Research comes in at second place in the Limnology group, with 19 titles, and third place in the Water Resources group, which has a cohort of 78 titles.

  7. Why do statistics journals have low impact factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen

    In this paper, we answer the question why statistics journals get lower impact factors than journals in other disciplines. We analyze diffusion patterns of papers in several journals in various academic fields. To obtain insights into the diffusion of the citation counts of the papers, the data are

  8. Field-normalization of impact factors: rescaling versus fractionally counted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Radicchi, F.; Bornmann, L.; Castellano, C.; de Nooy, W.; Gorraiz, J.; Schiebel, E.; Gumpenberger, C.; Hörlesberger, M.; Moed, H.

    2013-01-01

    Two methods for comparing impact factors and citation rates across fields of science are tested against each other using citations to the 3,705 journals in the Science Citation Index 2010 (CD-Rom version of SCI) and the 13 field categories used for the Science and Engineering Indicators of the US Na

  9. Impact Factor for Exclusive Diffractive Dijet Production with NLO Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Boussarie, R; Szymanowski, L; Wallon, S

    2016-01-01

    Relying on the shockwave approach, we present the main steps of the computation of the impact factor for the exclusive diffractive photo- or electro- production of a forward dijet with NLO accuracy. We provide details of the cancellation mechanisms for all the divergences which appear in the intermediate results.

  10. Why do statistics journals have low impact factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we answer the question why statistics journals get lower impact factors than journals in other disciplines. We analyze diffusion patterns of papers in several journals in various academic fields. To obtain insights into the diffusion of the citation counts of the papers, the data are

  11. DEPENDENCE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CRITICAL QUALITY FACTORS AND SOCIAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the empirical study conducted in 186 tourist accommodation businesses in Spain certified under the “Q for Tourist Quality”, own System Quality Management. It was raised with the purpose of analyzing the structure of the relationship between critical quality factors and results-social impact, how they operate and the level of their influence on obtaining these results within the company. Starting from a deep theoretical revision we propose a theoretical model together with the hypotheses to be tested, and we proceed to validation using the technique of Structural Equation Models. The results obtained show that companies wishing to improve their social impact should take into account that leadership is the most important factor to achieve it. Leadership indirectly affects the social impact through its influence on alliances and resources, quality policy/planning, personnel management and learning.

  12. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2016-01-01

    and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...... and oxygen. Other important factors include prey availability for first-feeding larvae, egg predation by sprat and herring and cannibalism on juveniles, all in one way or the other related to the prevailing hydrographic conditions. These factors cannot explain increased reproductive success in the last...

  13. Impact Factors of Energy Productivity in China: An Empirical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chu; Shen Manhong

    2007-01-01

    This article developed a decomposition model of energy productivity on the basis of the economic growth model. Four factors were considered which may influence China's energy productivity according to this model: technology improvement, resource allocation structure, industrial structure and institute arrangement. Then, an econometric model was employed to test the four factors empirically on the basis of China's statistical data from 1978 to 2004. Results indicated that capital deepening contributes the most (207%) to energy efficiency improvement, and impact from labor forces (13%) is the weakest one in resource factor; industrial structure (7%) and institute innovation (9.5%) positively improve the energy productivity.

  14. Impact factors of forensic science and toxicology journals: what do the numbers really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W

    2003-04-23

    This article presents review and opinion about the use and abuse of journal impact factors for judging the importance and prestige of scientific journals in the field of forensic science and toxicology. The application of impact factors for evaluating the published work of individual scientists is also discussed. The impact factor of a particular journal is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations to a journal's articles that were published in the previous 2 years by the total number of citable items (articles and reviews) published in the same 2-year period. Journal impact factors differ from discipline to discipline and range from 0 for a journal whose articles are not cited in the previous 2 years to 46 for a journal where the average recent article is cited 46 times per year. The impact factor reflects the citation rate of the average article in a journal and not a specific article. Many parameters influence the citation rate of a particular journal's articles and, therefore, its impact factor. These include the visibility and size of the circulation of the journal including availability of electronic formats and options for on-line search and retrieval. Other things to consider are editorial standards especially rapid and effective peer-reviewing and a short time lag between acceptance and appearance in print. The number of self-citations and citation density (the ratio of references to articles) and also the inclusion of many review articles containing hundreds of references to recently published articles will boost the impact factor. Judging the importance of a scientist's work based on the average or median impact factor of the journals used to publish articles is not recommended. Instead an article-by-article citation count should be done, but this involves much more time and effort. Moreover, some weighting factor is necessary to allow for the number of co-authors on each article and the relative positioning of the individual names

  15. The A&A Experience With Impact Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Sandqvist, A

    2004-01-01

    There is a widespread impression that the scientific journal "Astronomy & Astrophysics" (A&A) has a smaller impact, as measured by citations to articles, than some of the other major astronomy journals. This impression was apparently supported - and probably created - by the Journal Citation Report (JCR), which is prepared annually by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge. The published poor impact factor of A&A was in fact wrong and was due to a serious flaw in the method used by ISI Web of Knowledge to determine it. The resulting damage inflicted upon A&A by the JCR is incalculable.

  16. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

  17. Factors that impact interdisciplinary natural science research collaboration in academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2005-01-01

    to provide a more comprehensive understanding of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration within the natural sciences in academia. Data analysis confirmed factors previously identified in various literatures and yielded new factors. A total of twenty factors were identified, and classified......Interdisciplinary collaboration occurs when people with different educational and research backgrounds bring complementary skills to bear on a problem or task. The strength of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration is its capacity to bring together diverse scientific knowledge...... to address complex problems and questions. However, interdisciplinary scientific research can be difficult to initiate and sustain. We do not yet fully understand factors that impact interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration. This study synthesizes empirical data from two empirical studies...

  18. Factors that impact interdisciplinary natural science research collaboration in academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2005-01-01

    to provide a more comprehensive understanding of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration within the natural sciences in academia. Data analysis confirmed factors previously identified in various literatures and yielded new factors. A total of twenty factors were identified, and classified......Interdisciplinary collaboration occurs when people with different educational and research backgrounds bring complementary skills to bear on a problem or task. The strength of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration is its capacity to bring together diverse scientific knowledge...... to address complex problems and questions. However, interdisciplinary scientific research can be difficult to initiate and sustain. We do not yet fully understand factors that impact interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration. This study synthesizes empirical data from two empirical studies...

  19. Impact factor and its role in academic promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Russell

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Richard Russell,1 Dave Singh21Wrexham Park Hospital, Berkshire, UK; 2Northwest Lung Research Centre, South Manchester University Hospitals Trust, Manchester, UKThis statement was adopted unanimously at the May 17, 2009 meeting of the International Respiratory Journal Editors Roundtable.In our collective experience as editors of international peer-reviewed journals, we propose that the impact factor calculated for individual journals should not be used as a basis for evaluating the significance of an individual scientist’s past performance or scientific potential. There are several reasons not to equate the impact factor of a journal in which the scientist publishes with the quality of the scientist’s research.

  20. [Acupuncture clinical trials published in high impact factor journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Liu, Jian-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2014-12-01

    Acupuncture clinical trials are designed to provide reliable evidence of clinical efficacy, and SCI papers is one of the high-quality clinical efficacy of acupuncture research. To analyze these papers published in high impact factor journals on acupuncture clinical trials, we can study clinical trials from design to implementation, the efficacy of prevention and cure, combined with international standard practices to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture. That is the core of acupuncture clinical trials, as well as a prerequisite for outstanding academic output. A scientific and complete acupuncture clinical trial should be topically novel, designed innovative, logically clear, linguistically refining, and the most important point lies in a great discovery and solving the pragmatic problem. All of these are critical points of papers to be published in high impact factor journal, and directly affect international evaluation and promotion of acupuncture.

  1. Cellular & Molecular Immunology receives its first Impact Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Tian

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 2009 edition of the JCR, in which Cellular (c) Molecular Immunology (CMI) is listed for the first time, reveals an Impact Factor of 2.765, placing CMI 63rd out of 128 in the Immunology subject category. According to ISI's ranking this also places the journal 5th out of 114 journals published in China and 23rd out of 587 journals published in the Asia-Pacific region. This is an excellent first Impact Factor for a young journal like CMI and,together with our publishing partner Nature Publishing Group and the continued support of our readers and authors, we hope to further build on this into the future. We are delighted that CMI can be internationally recognized as important in the field of immunology.

  2. Impact of Internal Factors on Information Technology Adoption: An Empirical Investigation of Chinese Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chunming; ZHAO Jing; XIA Liang; ZHU Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Organizations differ significantly in their inclination to deploy information technology (IT). The factors that determine the organizational inclination to deploy IT need to be classified to help firms formulate an appropriate e-strategy. This paper discusses a framework that explains the influence of internal factors on IT adoption. The framework is based on quantitative data on IT adoption from 95 firms in China. The results highlight that the internal factors of leadership, organizational learning, and IT resources positively impact IT adoption. The study also shows that these factors are correlated.

  3. Web Link Counts Correlate with ISI Impact Factors: Evidence from Two Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Liwen; Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study that compared counts of links to the Web home pages of academic journals with the citation based Journal Impact Factor (JIF) for two disciplines: library and information science, and law. Highlights include compiling the lists of journals (which are appended); locating Web pages; and correlations between JIF and link counts.…

  4. Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal is considered a measure of how important a journal is within its discipline, and it is based on a simple relationship between the number of citations of the journal’s articles divided by the number of articles in the scientific journal (http://en.wikipe...

  5. Weighing the impact (factor) of publishing in veterinary journals

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, MM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many...

  6. The impact of psychosis on social inclusion and factors associated

    OpenAIRE

    Killaspy, H; White, S.; Lalvani, N; Berg, R.; Thachil, A.; Kallumpuram, S.; Nasiruddin, O.; Wright, C.; Mezey, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with mental health problems are known to be socially excluded but the contribution of pre-morbid characteristics, symptoms and needs, and the impact on quality of life is unknown. Aims: To investigate change in social inclusion after the development of a psychotic Illness and factors associated with this. Methods: A cross-sectional community survey of people with psychosis was carried out in three areas of London. Five domains of social inclusion (social integration...

  7. The impact of psychosis on social inclusion and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Killaspy, H; White, S.; Lalvani, N; Berg, R.; Thachil, A.; Kallumpuram, S.; Nasiruddin, O.; Wright, C.; Mezey, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with mental health problems are known to be socially excluded but the contribution of pre-morbid characteristics, symptoms and needs, and the impact on quality of life is unknown.\\ud \\ud Aims: To investigate change in social inclusion after the development of a psychotic Illness and factors associated with this.\\ud \\ud Methods: A cross-sectional community survey of people with psychosis was carried out in three areas of London. Five domains of social inclusion (social integ...

  8. 基于IPAT扩展模型分析人口因素对碳排放的影响%Analysis of Impacts of Demographic Factors on Carbon Emissions based on the IPAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓晖; 张裕芬; 汪艺梅; 冯银厂

    2012-01-01

    以5个典型国家(中国、日本、印度、德国和美国)为研究对象,利用IPAT模型比较分析了人口总量、能源强度和人均财富对碳排放的影响程度.结果表明:中国和印度的人口总量是影响其碳排放变化的主要因素;而美国和日本财富的积累刺激碳排放增加的作用明显.基于1978-2007年中国人口和能源相关数据,以STIRPAT模型为框架,分别构建了总人口模型及家庭户模型,用于分析我国人口数量、人口结构、能源强度及消费变化对碳排放产生的影响.经模型验证发现,家庭户模型的解释力度总体优于总人口模型.碳排放量的各解释因素按其影响程度的大小依次为平均家庭户规模、人均居民消费额、人口结构、能源强度和家庭户数.针对适应低碳发展的人口政策提出了相关建议.%Using the IP AT model, effects on carbon emissions of population, energy intensity and wealth per capita were analyzed in the five countries of China, Japan, India, Germany and the United States, as well as on the global average level. The results showed that in China and India, population was the major factor determining carbon emissions, but the accumulation of national wealth was the main source of carbon emissions in developed countries such as the USA and Japan. In addition, using the STIRPAT model as a framework, the total population and the household modes were constructed based on population and energy data from 1978 to 2007 in China. The impacts on carbon emissions of population size, population structure, technology development and residential consumption were tested by these models. It was revealed that the performance of the household model on carbon emission growth was better than that of total population model, and the impacts of different factors on carbon emissions decreased in the. following order; average household size > amount of per capita consumption > population structure > energy density

  9. The China carbon trading price impact factor assessment based on the AHP%基于AHP的中国碳交易价格影响因素评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于波涛; 王锐浩

    2011-01-01

    碳交易作为一种全新的交易,在我国发展迅速。目前我国以清洁发展机制为主要的交易项目,是全球碳交易市场最大的排放权输出国。然而我国碳交易的价格持续走低,远远低于国际碳交易的价格,使得交易利润被大幅度压缩,阻碍了我国碳交易的顺利发展。运用层次分析法,从市场、技术、生态、政策管理四个方面,选取对中国碳交易价格有影响的19个主要因素进行分析和评价,确定各个因素的影响权重,从而找出影响我国碳交易价格的最主要因素,得出排在前五位的影响因素分别是欧盟配额数量、各国的实际排放量、国际制度的变化、交易成本和碳信用的认证标准。根据碳交易价格的主要影响因素提出对策,促进我国碳交易的进一步发展,完善我国碳交易市场。%As a new trading, carbon trading has developed rapidly in China. At present, China takes the clean development mechanism as its main transactions, acting as the largest exporting country of global carbon emissions trading market. However, the price of carbon trading continued to decrease, far below the international price of carbon trading, making trading profits significantly compressed, impeding the smooth development of China's carbon trading. By means of hierarchy analytic, the paper analyzed and evaluated the 19 major factors that affect the China's carbon trading price, based on the market, technology, ecology, and policy management, then determined the weight of each impact factor, in order to identify the main factors that affect the Carbon trading price. The top six influence factors were the quota of the European Union, the actual emissions of all the countries, the changes of international system, the total amount of investment of the forestry, transaction costs and carbon credit authentication standard. Put forward countermeasures according to the main influence factors that

  10. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (Korean version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Il; Lee, Soonmook; Patton, Lauren L; Kim, Hae-Young

    2016-04-01

    Empirical support for the factor structure of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) has not been fully established. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the factor structure of the Korean version of the COHIP (COHIP-K) empirically using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on the theoretical framework and then to assess whether any of the factors in the structure could be grouped into a simpler single second-order factor. Data were collected through self-reported COHIP-K responses from a representative community sample of 2,236 Korean children, 8-15 yr of age. Because a large inter-factor correlation of 0.92 was estimated in the original five-factor structure, the two strongly correlated factors were combined into one factor, resulting in a four-factor structure. The revised four-factor model showed a reasonable fit with appropriate inter-factor correlations. Additionally, the second-order model with four sub-factors was reasonable with sufficient fit and showed equal fit to the revised four-factor model. A cross-validation procedure confirmed the appropriateness of the findings. Our analysis empirically supported a four-factor structure of COHIP-K, a summarized second-order model, and the use of an integrated summary COHIP score.

  11. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K

    2016-08-01

    . There may be differences between journals for different medical specialties since the citations in some areas seem to "burn out" within a few years while some articles continue to be cited even after several years. Therefore, a citation window that is longer than 2 years has been proposed 5.For this editorial we took a look at the 60 articles published in UiM/EJU in 2010. Half of them were no longer being cited in 2015. However, 10 articles were cited more than 5 times in 2015, and 5 of these were cited more than 10 times 6 7 8 9 10. It therefore seems that many of our articles have a long scientific life and generate more citations than indicated by the IF. Moreover, some articles have the highest number of citations after three years when they are no longer contributing to the impact factor. The most frequently cited articles from 2010 were multicenter studies, recommendations, and papers on hot topics like contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and elastography, but it should be noted that there were also articles on the same topics that were poorly cited.The same trending topics continued into 2013 now topped by European guidelines and recommendations 11 12 13. 9 of the 10 most cited articles we published in 2014 were on CEUS or elastography 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22, but the most cited article from that year so far has been on peripheral nerves 23. Surprisingly many good scientific papers on obstetrics/fetal US and musculoskeletal US have low citation rates 24 25 26. Our predictions for 2016 based on the topics of submitted articles in the last 12 months are that CEUS and elastography will continue to be popular topics.It is also worth mentioning that there can be a discrepancy between which titles are cited and which are accessed online. In addition to international guidelines, our CME articles are usually popular according to online access. CME articles are well established educational papers but they are rarely cited for the IF. Looking at the most read full

  12. Impact of interpersonal factors on insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélène, Tastet; Hélène, Verdoux; Jean, Bouisson; Jean-Marc, Destaillats; Antoinette, Prouteau

    2014-11-01

    Whereas clinical insight in schizophrenia has been consistently associated with personal factors (i.e. sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms or cognition), little is known about its relationships with interpersonal factors (i.e. close environment and personal characteristics involved in social interactions). Most of the few studies available have focused on one particular interpersonal factor, such as social cognition, contact frequencies or therapeutic alliance. To date, no study has explored the specificity of associations between clinical insight and different levels of interpersonal factors, neither if these associations are independent of personal factors. Associations between insight and interpersonal factors were explored through multiple regression in a sample of 80 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Lower insight was associated with lower interpersonal functioning, independently from personal factors such as age, gender, age at first hospitalization, executive functioning and symptoms. Our findings replicate previous studies with regard to the associations between clinician-rated insight and social cognition or social contact frequencies. They also provide new information about specific associations between clinician-rated insight and perceived social support as well as between patient-rated insight and therapeutic alliance. Finally, models of insight based on personal factors were significantly improved by the inclusion of interpersonal factors. These results strongly support the crucial role of interpersonal factors in insight, both from the clinician's and the patient's point of view. These exploratory data require further replication.

  13. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSchmitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders.

  14. 基于灰色关联分析的新疆旅游经济影响因素研究%A Research of Impacting Xinjiang Tourism Economic Factors Based on Gray Correlative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何瑛

    2012-01-01

    This paper established a county of indicators on measure impact Xinjiang tourism economic development, including human resources, tourism reception, tourism transport, information service, financial support indicator and opening to the outside world, 12 specific indicators. Then it used gray correlative analysis to research of internal system factor which impact Xinjiang tourism economic development. At last it analyzed the major factors of impacting Xinjiang tourism economic development, so as to make Xinjiang tourism economic sustain and coordinate.%通过建立影响新疆旅游经济发展的因子指标体系,包括人力资源、旅游接待、旅游交通、信息服务、资金支持因子和对外开放因子6个一级指标,12个二级指标,采用灰色关联度分析方法分别对影响新疆国际、国内旅游经济发展的内部系统因子进行实证研究,总结分析影响新疆旅游发展的主要因子,促进新疆旅游业持续协调发展.

  15. Factors impacting teachers' argumentation instruction in their science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; González-Howard, María; Loper, Suzanna

    2016-08-01

    Science education research, reform documents and standards include scientific argumentation as a key learning goal for students. The role of the teacher is essential for implementing argumentation in part because their beliefs about argumentation can impact whether and how this science practice is integrated into their classroom. In this study, we surveyed 42 middle school science teachers and conducted follow-up interviews with 25 to investigate the factors that teachers believe impact their argumentation instruction. Teachers responded that their own learning goals had the greatest impact on their argumentation instruction while influences related to context, policy and assessment had the least impact. The minor influence of policy and assessment was in part because teachers saw a lack of alignment between these areas and the goals of argumentation. In addition, although teachers indicated that argumentation was an important learning goal, regardless of students' backgrounds and abilities, the teachers discussed argumentation in different ways. Consequently, it may be more important to help teachers understand what counts as argumentation, rather than provide a rationale for including argumentation in instruction. Finally, the act of trying out argumentation in their own classrooms, supported through resources such as curriculum, can increase teachers' confidence in teaching argumentation.

  16. Impact of Non-Price Factors on Purchase Intention Counterfeits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research purposes to investigation of impact of non-price factors on consumer attitude and purchase intention counterfeits luxury brand. We used a survey with 398 students of Islamic Azad university of central unit was conducted in the Iranian students although self-questionnaire that a questionnaire was developed consisting of previously used scales and also we used the Structural Equation Modeling technique to examine the hypothesized relationships. In addition, we involved AMOS software for analysis. We found that perceived risk and subjective norms factors are most influence on attitude toward counterfeits that they are only impact antecedent’s attitude on behavioral intention. This research limited to only a city (Tehran and just dedicated to students, therefore we cannot generalize to whole consumer society and we have time and money limited. This research offer in-depth understanding from consumer attitude toward counterfeits luxury brands in Iran country and help to marketers that find strategies for preventing of purchasing counterfeit luxury brands. This research performed for first in Iran, focused of demand side`s counterfeits and investigated social and personality influences on attitude toward counterfeits that they are non-price factors.

  17. An Analysis of the Factors Impacting Employee's Specific Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ai-hua; GE Wen-lei

    2008-01-01

    The amount of specific investment from employees is limited, and the reasons of the under-investment from employees are analyzed in this paper. Based on the relationship of the specific investment and the employee demission, an empirical study has been conducted focusing on the factors influencing the employee turnover and the specific investment. A theoretical model of the factors influencing employee's specific investment is given.

  18. Difficult factors in Management of Impacted Dental Prosthesis in Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efiaty A. Soepardi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A dental prosthesis which ingested and impacted in esophagus, is an emergency case and life threatening, so require immediate esophagoscopy intervention for removing. The objective of this study is to assess some factors can caused dtfficulties in diagnosing and treating the ingested and impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus and their complications. This retrospective study analyzed patient’s chart whose underwent esophagoscopy for removing the impacted dental prosthesis in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia during a period between January 1997 and December 2003. Neck-chest X-ray and esophagoscopy were performed in all patients to identify the existence of the dental prosthesis as a diagnostic and treatment procedure. The length of time for removing the dental prosthesis was recorded and stated as a less difficult esophagoscopy when it takes time less than 60 minutes and as a difficult  esophagoscopy takes 60 minutes or longer. Some risk difficulties factors were statistically analyzed. There were 53 patients of ingested dental prosthesis in esophagus. Only 51 cases were analyzed According to the length of time for removing the dental prosthesis by esophagoscopy, 22 patients were recorded as less difficult cases and 29 patients as difficult cases. Two cases among the cases needed cervicotomy after unsuccessful esophagoscopy removal. The difficulties to diagnose an impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus caused by unreliable clinical history, unclear signs and symptoms, unable to be detected by X-ray and was not found during esophagoscopy. The difficulties in treating due to mucosal laceration, edema, bleeding, failure of the first extraction and conformity with the size and shape, the wire outside the dental prosthesis and the length of time stayed in the esophagus. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 33-6Keywords: ingested dental prosthesis, radioluscent foreign body, length of time of esophagoscopy

  19. Comparing journals from different fields of Science and Social Science through a JCR Subject Categories Normalized Impact Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo; 10.1007/s11192-012-0929-9

    2013-01-01

    The journal Impact Factor (IF) is not comparable among fields of Science and Social Science because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In this work, a decomposing of the field aggregate impact factor into five normally distributed variables is presented. Considering these factors, a Principal Component Analysis is employed to find the sources of the variance in the JCR subject categories of Science and Social Science. Although publication and citation behaviour differs largely across disciplines, principal components explain more than 78% of the total variance and the average number of references per paper is not the primary factor explaining the variance in impact factors across categories. The Categories Normalized Impact Factor (CNIF) based on the JCR subject category list is proposed and compared with the IF. This normalization is achieved by considering all the indexing categories of each journal. An empirical application, with one hundred journals in two ...

  20. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  1. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, hazard indicators and vulnerability factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauhut, V.; Stahl, K.; Stagge, J. H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; De Stefano, L.; Vogt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work (1) tests the capability of commonly applied hazard indicators and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and (2) combines information on past drought impacts, drought hazard indicators, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This "hybrid approach" bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact forecast in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro region specific sensitivities of hazard indicators, with the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for a twelve month aggregation period (SPEI-12) as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictor, with information about landuse and water resources as best vulnerability-based predictors. (3) The application of the "hybrid approach" revealed strong regional (NUTS combo level) and sector specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer aggregation periods, and a combination of information on landuse and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information

  2. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorus, Caspar; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal's impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated) by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very) high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings.

  3. 基于GAM模型研究金枪鱼围网沉降性能影响因素%Impact factors of sinking performance for tuna purse seine based on the generalized additive model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐浩; 许柳雄; 周成; 朱国平; 王学昉

    2013-01-01

    Tuna purse seining is the most efficient fishing method in the modern tuna fisheries,and the this present study analyzed the sinking performance in tuna purse seines and its relationships with impact factors,which are beneficial to improve efficient fishing in tuna purse seines.Based on the data collected from the tuna purse seiner "JINHUI 7" operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean(WCPO) during September to December 2011,the present study analyzed the relationship between sinking depth (H)and other variables,including shooting duration(T),shooting velocity(V0),length of purse line(L),length of ran line(L1)andcurrent speed(V10,V60 and V120) of 10 m,60 m and 120 m layers,the impact factors on sinking depth are also estimated using the generalized additive model(GAM).The results show that(1) the relationship between the sinking depth (H) and time (t) for the middle section of leadline can be described by the formula H =-0.000 2 t2 +0.408 6 t + 1.809 9 (R2 =0.999 3).(2) the sinking speed decreased with the increasing depth,the relationship between the sinking speed (V) at the middle part of leadline and time (t) can be described using the formula V=2.5 × 10-7 t2-6 × 10-4 t +0.441 2(R2 =0.985 2).(3) the analysis of stepwise GAM shows that four factors have a significant impact on the sinking depth (P < 0.05) and the significance can be ordered by V120,L,T and V60;(4) the analysis of GAM shows that the sinking depth increases gradually with the increasing shooting duration,which concentrates on the period of 500-550 s;current speed has a negative correlation to the sinking depth;the length of purse line is mainly concentrated in about 1 800 m.%金枪鱼围网渔业是现代金枪鱼渔业中捕捞效率最高的方法,研究围网沉降性能与影响因子之间的关系有利于提高围网捕捞效率.利用2011年9-12月金枪鱼围网渔船“金汇7号”在中西太平洋作业时所收集的数据,实验分析了围网沉降深度(H)与

  4. Impact of Anthropogenic Factor on Urboecological Space Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprina Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues of the impact of the anthropogenic factor on urboecological space development. The issues are considered taking into account retrospective theoretical data to show the process of Anthropoecology development as a new branch of sociological science. At present the noosphere acquires features of anthropoecosystems having a number of parameters from the endogenous and exogenous point of view. Anthropoecology has special socio-cultural significance as considers the interaction of all actors of international space. There introduced the new branch Ecopsycology as the outer world is the reflection of the inner human world. There is a definition of the sustainability of ecological system. In the practical part of the article there is an example of academic mobility as the basis of the human potential with possible transfer into the human capital supporting by survey data. In conclusion there are recommendations on management and adaptation of the anthropogenic factor (a kind of biogenesis in modern urboecological space.

  5. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications.

  6. Factor investing based on Musharakah principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Shahril; Omar, Mohd; Lazam, Norazliani Md; Amin, Mohd Nazrul Mohd

    2015-10-01

    Shariah stock investing has become a widely discussed topic in financial industry as part of today's investment strategy. The strategy primarily applies market capitalization allocations. However, some researchers have argued that market capitalization weighting is inherently flawed and have advocated replacing market capitalization allocations with factor allocations. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for factor investing based on Musharakah principle. The essential elements or factors of Musharakah principle such as business sector, management capability, profitability growth and capital efficiency are embedded in the Shariah-compliant stock. We then transform these factors into indexation for better analysis and performance measurement. Investment universe for this research covers Malaysian stocks for the period of January 2009 to December 2013. We found out that these factor indexes have historically earned excess returns over market capitalization weighted indexes and experienced higher Sharpe Ratios.

  7. Knowledge Factors and Their Impact on the Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kozjek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The research question is whether managers in organisations recognize the benefits of knowledge management. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the factors of knowledge which have a significant impact on the organisation. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature in the field of knowledge management. On this basis, we summarized the factors of knowledge. We performed a survey among the 69 biggest Slovenian commercial companies (public and banking sectors were excluded. Results: Research has shown that managers recognize the positive effects of knowledge. Factor analysis, with the discovery of latent variables, additionally confirmed already established facts from the research literature. This led us to the discovery that knowledge is the common denominator of all companies, regardless of the business in which they operate. Organisation: From the examined literature, we can conclude that knowledge management has a positive impact on the company's results. Identification of knowledge factors allows a more efficient use of company’s resources and enables further development of the organisation. Society: Knowledge has become a highly appreciated "resource", therefore it is necessary to be able to manage it. Knowledge is the foundation of progress, not only for the development of the company but for the entire civilization. Originality: We see the original contribution in the identification of dilemmas in building connections between knowledge management and the company's success. Limitations / further research: The research matter is extremely difficult because the evidence that knowledge is the most influencing matter of a company’s success can not be easily confirmed. The connection (we remain inside the topic of human capital between knowledge and company's result is also manifested with other elements of the business, such as organisational culture, public relations, etc. Additional question is

  8. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otto Schwake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.

  9. The top-ten in journal impact factor manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Alexiou, Vangelis G

    2008-01-01

    A considerable part of the scientific community is, at least to some degree, involved in the "impact factor game". Editors strive to increase their journals' impact factor (IF) in order to gain influence in the fields of basic and applied research and scientists seek to profit from the "added value" of publishing in top IF journals. In this article we point out the most common "tricks" of engineering and manipulating the IF undertaken by a portion of professionals of the scientific publishing industry. They attempt to increase the nominator or decrease the denominator of the IF equation by taking advantage of certain design flaws and disadvantages of the IF that permit a degree of artificial and arbitrary inflation. Some of these practices, if not scientifically unethical, are at least questionable and should be abandoned. Editors and publishers should strive for quality through fair and thoughtful selection of papers forwarded for peer review and editorial comments that enhance the quality and scientific accuracy of a manuscript.

  10. Impact factors and publication times for plastic surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanaris, Apostolos P; Vassiliadu, Agapi P; Polykandriotis, Elias; Tjiawi, Jimmy; Arkudas, Andreas; Horch, Raymund E

    2007-12-01

    The purposes of the authors' analysis were to assess the values that plastic surgical journals demonstrate in terms of the standardized measures created by the Institute for Scientific Information's Journal Citation Report, and to assess the relationship between these values and the turnaround time of these journals. The overall indexes of surgical journals were compared with those of journals in other fields of medicine using the following parameters: highest impact factor, average impact factor, cited half-life, immediacy index, and number of journals. Similarly, plastic surgery journals were compared with the highest ranking journals from various fields of surgery. In addition, an evaluation of all original articles published in 2005, assessing the time intervals from submission to publication, submission to acceptance, and acceptance to publication, was conducted for all plastic surgical journals and the highest ranking journals from various surgical fields listed in the Journal Citation Report. Plastic surgical journals demonstrated low overall index values and a greater elongation of their turnaround time in comparison to journals in other fields of surgery and medicine. The fact that the field of plastic surgery targets a rather specific and limited medical audience, and that plastic surgical articles usually get quoted by this audience, partly explains these values. Furthermore, the elongated turnaround time contributes to their endurance. Since plastic surgical journals cannot attract a broader medical audience, journals should speed up their publication times to help these values rise.

  11. MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.

  12. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series.

  13. The Journal Impact Factor is under attack - use the CAPCI factor instead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2017-01-16

    The uses and misuses of the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) have been thoroughly discussed in the literature. A few years ago, I predicted that JIF would soon be replaced, while another colleague argued the opposite. Over the past few months, attacks on JIF have intensified, with some publishing organizations gradually removing the indicator from their journals' websites. Here, I argue that most, if not all of the misuses of JIF are related to its name. The word "impact" should be removed, since it implies an influential attribute, either for the journals, their published papers, or their authors. I propose instead the use of a new name, the "CAPCI factor", standing for Citation Average Per Citable Item, which accurately describes what is represented by this measure.

  14. The introduction of the 5-year impact factor : does it benefit statistics journals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of the introduction of 5-year impact factors. We collect impact factor data for all disciplines available in the Journal Citation Reports. For all these categories, we give insights into the relationship between the traditional 2-year impact factor and the n

  15. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  16. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  17. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  18. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF TAX ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Tsakas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the performance of tax organizations in Greece, based on data obtained from a sample of 35 tax offices. Performance evaluation was conducted using DEA with bootstrap methods. In addition, Tobit regression analysis was employed to examine the environmental variables that impact on the efficiency performance of these tax offices. From the analysis, weaknesses, and management issues are derived from the tax offices inefficiency. The general conclusion is that a robust governance structure within the tax office operational framework is needed in order to improve organisational efficiency.

  19. The story of fake impact factor companies and how we detected them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Beginning about three years ago, the world of academic publishing has become infected by fake impact factors and misleading metrics that are launched by bogus companies. The misleading metrics and fake impact factors have damaged the prestige and reliability of scientific research and scholarly journals. This article presents the in-depth story of some of the main bogus impact factors, how they approached the academic world, and how the author identified them. Some names that they use are Universal Impact Factor (UIF), Global Impact Factor (GIF), and Citefactor, and there even is a fake Thomson Reuters Company.

  20. Strong Showing for AGU Journals in 2009 Impact Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bill

    2010-06-01

    AGU publishes great science, which is recognized in several ways. One of the most widely recognized is from Thomson Reuters, which provides the Journal Citation Report (JCR) each year as a component of the Web of Science®. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2009 statistics released last week, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. For the twelfth time, two different AGU titles hold the top rank in their categories, and AGU titles hold the second spot in two other categories and third in two more.

  1. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  2. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  3. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  4. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  5. Characterization and normalization factors of abiotic resource depletion for life cycle impact assessment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The availability of resources for economic activities differs between regions, and the importance of the resources is consequently observed to be different within regions compared to a global scale. With the current situation in Chinese mining industry and its statistic characteristics, the characterization procedures of abiotic resource in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) have demonstrated certain limita-tions in the Chinese materials industry. The aim of this paper is to propose new characterization and normalization factors for abiotic resource depletion categories such as metals and non-renewable en- ergy resources in a Chinese context. The actual production of abiotic resources calculated by a modi- fied model is compared to the reserve base in line with the new national standard to determine char- acterization factors in equivalence units, with antimony as the reference mineral. The normalization factors are based on the total base reserves of the most important minerals in China. A case study on primary magnesium production using the Pidgeon process is used to compare LCIA results for abiotic resource categories that are between current LCIA factors and the new Chinese factors. These factors not only reflect the importance of abiotic resource with respect to region-specific resource depletion, but also can compare with the global factors.

  6. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  7. Impact of dietary factors and food processing on food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepski, Silke; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Allergic reactions to food can significantly reduce the quality of life and even result in life-threatening complications. In addition, the prevalence of food allergy has increased in the last decades in industrialized countries and the mechanisms underlying (increased) sensitization are still not fully understood. It is believed that the development and maintenance of oral tolerance to food antigens is a process actively mediated by the immune system and that this reaction is essential to inhibit sensitization. Ongoing research indicates that different dietary factors also may contribute to immune homeostasis and oral tolerance to food and that food processing modulates allergenicity. One of the major questions in food allergy research is therefore which impact nutrition and food processing may have on allergenicity of food and perhaps on sensitization. We summarize in this review the different dietary factors that are believed to contribute to induction of oral tolerance and discuss the underlying mechanisms. In addition, the functional consequences of allergen modification will be emphasized in the second part as severity of allergic reactions and perhaps sensitization to food is influenced by structural modifications of food allergens.

  8. The impact of psychosis on social inclusion and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Lalvani, Nabeela; Berg, Rachel; Thachil, Ajoy; Kallumpuram, Sen; Nasiruddin, Omar; Wright, Christine; Mezey, Gill

    2014-03-01

    People with mental health problems are known to be socially excluded but the contribution of pre-morbid characteristics, symptoms and needs, and the impact on quality of life is unknown. To investigate change in social inclusion after the development of a psychotic Illness and factors associated with this. A cross-sectional community survey of people with psychosis was carried out in three areas of London. Five domains of social inclusion (social integration, consumption, access to services, productivity, political engagement) were assessed prior to the onset of illness and currently using the Social Inclusion Questionnaire User Experience. Quality of life, symptoms and needs were also assessed using standardized measures. Factors associated with change in social inclusion were investigated using multiple regression. Productivity and social integration among the 67 participants reduced after the onset of psychosis. Older age at onset and longer duration of illness were associated with greater reduction in productivity. Less reduction in social integration was associated with greater quality of life. Participants reported barriers to social inclusion that were directly related to symptoms of their illness, low confidence and poor self-esteem. A greater focus on interventions that can facilitate the occupation and the social networks of people with psychosis is required. Interventions that tackle 'self-stigma' may also prove useful in mitigating the social exclusion experienced by people with psychosis.

  9. Prognostic impact of hemoglobin level and other factors in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy and sequential chemotherapy based on temozolomide. A 10-year experience at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausili Cefaro, Giampiero; Genovesi, Domenico; Vinciguerra, Annamaria; Trignani, Marianna; Taraborrelli, Maria; Augurio, Antonietta [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti, SS. Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Buonaguidi, Roberto [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti, Spirito Santo Hospital, Pescara (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Galzio, Renato J. [Univ. of L' Aquila, San Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy). Dept. of Operative Unit of Neurosurgery and Health Sciences; Di Nicola, Marta [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti (Italy). Lab. of Biostatistics

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the influence of serum hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy and other prognostic factors on survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. From 2001-2010, we retrospectively evaluated a total of 48 patients with malignant glioma treated with surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A total of 37 of 48 patients received sequential temozolomide. Hemoglobin levels were assayed before radiotherapy in all patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the overall survival, while the log-rank test was applied to evaluate the differences on survival probability between prognostic subgroups. Results were assessed in 43 patients. The median overall survival time was 18 months (95% confidence interval: 12-40 months). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.2% and 36.3%, respectively. The prognostic factors analyzed were gender, age, extent of surgery, performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, and methylation of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT). In univariate analysis, the variables significantly related to survival were performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, and hemoglobin level. The median overall survival in patients with a hemoglobin level {<=} 12 g/dl was 12 months and 23 months in patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 46.7% and 20.0%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level {<=} 12 mg/dl and 69.6% and 45.7%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. Our results confirm the impact of well-known prognostic factors on survival. In this research, it was found that a low hemoglobin level before radiotherapy can adversely influence the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.

  10. The Impact of Internal Factors on Bank Profitability in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Haliti Rudhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks play an important role in the economic development and financial stability; therefore this study investigated the influence of internal factors in the profitability of commercial banks in Kosovo. Based on the literature review, a crucial internal factor on the profitability of banks in Kosovo was deemed: the repayment of assets (ROA as a measure of profitability influenced by other independent variables, such as: bank size, capital adequacy, loan and liquidity risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the empirical relation between internal factors determining bank profitability and profitability as a dependent variable. The empirical analysis is based on the data of commercial banks in Kosovo published in the period 2010-2014. The data were analysed with SPSS 21 version, and the hypotheses were tested by means of correlation and linear regression. The findings of the study proved that commercial banks in Kosovo could enlarge their profitability by increasing the level of bank loaning and other investments, except for managing risk and liquidity properly.

  11. The Study of Factors Impacting Social Adaptation of College Students Based on Ecosystem Theory%基于生态系统理论的大学生社会适应影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚亚飞

    2014-01-01

    研究以生态系统理论为基础,认为大学生的社会适应主要受到微系统、中介系统、外系统和大系统四个系统的影响。在四个环境系统中,微系统的影响是关键,因而重点讨论了认知因素、情绪因素和人格因素等微系统的三个方面对大学生社会适应的影响。%Based on the ecosystem theory, this study believes that the social adaptation of the college students is mainly affected by four systems including microsystem, mesosystem, esosystem and macrosystem, and internal psychological environment. Among the four environment systems, the microsystem is the key factor. The article will focus on the cognitive factors, emotional factors and personality factors which influence college students' social adaptation.

  12. The impact of human factor on labor productivity at the mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinigina Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the term “human factor” which implies a person involved in the organizational process in the diversity of his natural and socio-psychological characteristics. The necessity to identify the impact of human factor on labour productivity at the mining enterprises is proved. It is assumed that considering human factor can be one of the ways to increase labour productivity. A research technique of the complex – mechanized team in order to identify the impact of human factor on its productivity is described. Definite research results and analysis which strongly support the assumption are given. The stages at which the human factor should be considered are analyzed. Based on the fact that person's mood determines all his vital functions, the following interpretation of the human factor was propose: to consider the human factor means to take into account everything that might spoil the mood of a person starting from his coming to the place of work till the work is finished. If it is necessary to provide high productivity, take care of the human mind. This thesis does not require proof and justification, it is obvious.

  13. Analysis on Impact Factors of Water Utilization Structure in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conglin Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an essential foundation for socio-economic development and environmental protection. As such, it is very critical for a city’s sustainable development. This study analyzed the changes in water utilization structure and its impact factors using water consumption data for agricultural, industrial, domestic and ecological areas in the city of Tianjin, China from 2004 to 2013. On this base, the evolution law and impact factors of water utilization structure were depicted by information entropy and grey correlation respectively. These analyses lead to three main results. First, the total amount of water consumption in Tianjin increased slightly from 2004 to 2013. Second, the information entropy and equilibrium degree peaked in 2010. From 2004 to 2010, the water utilization structure tended to be more disordered and balanced. Third, the economic and social factors seemed to influence the water utilization structure, while the main impact factors were industrial structure, per capita green area, cultivated area, effective irrigation area, rural electricity consumption, animal husbandry output, resident population, per capita domestic water etc.

  14. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  15. The global impact factors of net primary production in different land cover types from 2005 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    With the seriously polluted environment due to social development, the sustainability of net primary production (NPP), which is used to feed most lives on the earth, has become one of the biggest concerns that we have to consider for the sake of food shortage. There have been many researches analyzing one or two potential impact factors of NPP based on field observation data, which brings about many uncertainties for further calculation. Moreover, the frequently used process-based models heavily depend on the understandings of researchers about the NPP process. The premises of such models hinder the impact factor analysis from being objective and confident. To overcome such shortages, we collected 27 potential impact factors of global NPP in terms of eight land cover types. The feature variables include atmosphere, biosphere, anthroposphere and lithosphere parameters, which can be obtained from public available remote sensed products. The experiment shows that latitude, irradiance ultraviolet and normalized difference vegetation index are dominant factors impacting global NPP. Anthropogenic activities, precipitation and surface emissivity are influencing NPP calculation largely. However, some commonly used biosphere parameters in process-based models are actually not playing that important roles in NPP estimation. This work provides a new insight in analyzing NPP impact factors, being more objective and comprehensive compared with frequently used process-based models.

  16. Factors impacting self-care for urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jill L; Moore, Katherine N

    2006-02-01

    Behavioral strategies such as pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME), bladder retraining, and dietary modifications are generally considered to be the first line of treatment for urinary incontinence (UI). Yet little is understood about the client's abilities/motivation to manage their UI in the home setting. Self-care, the ability of clients to act on their own behalf to achieve and maintain health, is a fundamental component of these strategies. Despite the frequently chronic nature of UI, there is growing evidence that such maintenance of behavioral therapies is sporadic at best. The purpose of this study was to enhance understanding of self-care strategies that individuals with UI employ, the perceived benefits of these strategies, the factors that influence their self-care choices, and the factors that impede or facilitate maintenance of behavioral therapies. In this qualitative descriptive study, individual and focus group interviews with community-dwelling participants were conducted to enhance understanding regarding the participants' management of UI at home and why they maintain certain strategies and not others. Data were collected via loosely constructed individual (n=25) and focus group (n=3) interviews to facilitate open discussion of participants' perceptions. Thirty-eight individuals (33 women and 5 men) participated in the study. Analysis of data resulted in a major category of self-care strategies related to UI that was further subcategorized into factors that facilitated PFME and barriers to PFME performance. Factors that facilitated PFME included: (a) realistic goals and expectation, (b) positive affirmation, (c) follow up, and (d) maintaining an exercise routine. Barriers noted were: (a) insufficient information, (b) characteristics of the exercises, (c) competing interests, (d) financial cost, and (e) minor psychosocial impact. This study described the self-care strategies that participants with UI had initiated and maintained and additionally

  17. Hospital Factors Impact Variation in Emergency Department Length of Stay more than Physician Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Scott P.; Cornelius, Angela P.; Addison, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To analyze the correlation between the many different emergency department (ED) treatment metric intervals and determine if the metrics directly impacted by the physician correlate to the “door to room” interval in an ED (interval determined by ED bed availability). Our null hypothesis was that the cause of the variation in delay to receiving a room was multifactorial and does not correlate to any one metric interval. Methods We collected daily interval averages from the ED information system, Meditech©. Patient flow metrics were collected on a 24-hour basis. We analyzed the relationship between the time intervals that make up an ED visit and the “arrival to room” interval using simple correlation (Pearson Correlation coefficients). Summary statistics of industry standard metrics were also done by dividing the intervals into 2 groups, based on the average ED length of stay (LOS) from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2008 Emergency Department Summary. Results Simple correlation analysis showed that the doctor-to-discharge time interval had no correlation to the interval of “door to room (waiting room time)”, correlation coefficient (CC) (CC=0.000, p=0.96). “Room to doctor” had a low correlation to “door to room” CC=0.143, while “decision to admitted patients departing the ED time” had a moderate correlation of 0.29 (p <0.001). “New arrivals” (daily patient census) had a strong correlation to longer “door to room” times, 0.657, p<0.001. The “door to discharge” times had a very strong correlation CC=0.804 (p<0.001), to the extended “door to room” time. Conclusion Physician-dependent intervals had minimal correlation to the variation in arrival to room time. The “door to room” interval was a significant component to the variation in “door to discharge” i.e. LOS. The hospital-influenced “admit decision to hospital bed” i.e. hospital inpatient capacity, interval had a correlation to

  18. A general exergy-based environmental impact index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Mendez, Sosimo E. [Autonomous University of Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Rodriguez-Lelis, Jose Maria [National Center for Research and Technical Development, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel [Guanajuato University, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    An ecosystem is a complex system in which biotic and abiotic factors interact and influence each other both directly and indirectly. Each of these factors has to comply with a specific function in the different processes that occur inside the ecosystem, whether transporting or transforming energy or both. When anthropogenic emissions are produced, part of the useful energy of the ecosystem is used to assimilate or absorb those emissions, and the energy spent, loses its function and becomes lost work in accordance with the Gouy-Stodola theorem. Thus, the work that an ecosystem can carry out varies as a function of the lost work produced by anthropogenic sources. The permanency or loss of the ecosystem depends on how many irreversibilities it can support. The second law of thermodynamics through a systematic use of the exergy and lost work is the basis of this paper where a general environmental impact index, based on exergy, is proposed. For the purpose of this work, the ecosystem is divided in subsystems--water, soil, atmosphere, organisms and society- -all of them inter-related. The ideal work variation can be obtained from each subsystem within the selected ecosystem, and a global index can be determined by adding the partial lost work of each subsystem. This global index is then used to determine the trend followed by the ecosystem from its pristine, original or environmental line base state. This environmental impact index applicability is presented for a simple combustion example.

  19. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang, Yize Sun, Yang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8 m/s, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000 W/m2. Root mean square error (RMSE between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  20. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  1. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  2. Self-citation rate and impact factor in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Michael; Segal, Ori

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the self-citation rate (SCR) of ophthalmology journals, determine its possible effect on a journal's impact factor (IF) and compare the SCR of subspecialty journals versus general ophthalmology journals. A retrospective consecutive study of ophthalmology journals listed in the Journal Citations Report (JCR) 2013. We retrieved these parameters from each journal's report: IF, total citations, self-citations, SCR and IF without self-citations (corrected IF). A significant correlation was detected between the number of self-citations and publications (R(2) = 86.3, p = 0.000). Subspecialty journals had a significantly higher SCR than general journals (p = 0.017). No significant difference was found in terms of IF and corrected IF between general and subspecialty journals (p = 0.260 and p = 0.108, respectively). No significant correlation between IF and SCR was detected (p = 0.099). The corrected IF was inversely correlated with SCR (R(2) = -32.6, p = 0.013). An inverse correlation was detected between SCR and IF in the 29 ophthalmology journals with the lowest IF (R(2) = -57.3, p = 0.001). Unlike other fields of medicine, the IF of an ophthalmology journal does not correlate with its SCR. Self-citation is found more often in journals with a low corrected IF and is inversely correlated with IF in the bottom half. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Clarivate Analytics: Continued Omnia vanitas Impact Factor Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Bernès, Sylvain

    2017-02-23

    This opinion paper takes aim at an error made recently by Clarivate Analytics in which it sent out an email that congratulated academics for becoming exclusive members of academia's most cited elite, the Highly Cited Researchers (HCRs). However, that email was sent out to an undisclosed number of non-HCRs, who were offered an apology shortly after, through a bulk mail, which tried to down-play the importance of the error, all the while praising the true HCRs. When Clarivate Analytics senior management was contacted, the company declined to offer an indication of the number of academics who had been contacted and erroneously awarded the HCR status. We believe that this regrettable blunder, together with the opacity offered by the company, fortify the corporate attitude about the value of the journal impact factor (JIF), and what it represents, namely a marketing tool that is falsely used to equate citations with quality, worth, or influence. The continued commercialization of metrics such as the JIF is at the heart of their use to assess the "quality" of a researcher, their work, or a journal, and contributes to a great extent to driving scientific activities towards a futile endeavor.

  4. A Demonstration of the Impact of Outliers on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Wu, Amery D.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have rarely examined the impact of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to extract in an exploratory factor analysis. The few studies that have investigated this issue have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding whether outliers inflated or deflated the number of factors extracted. By systematically…

  5. 基于多元逐步回归的脑卒中发病影响因子分析%Analysis of stroke incidence impact factors based on stepwise multiple regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建芳

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,stroke incidence impact factors were analyzed.First,the huge cases information through statistics and analysis,then it presented a mathematical model through regression fitting method,and established the relationship between stroke incidence and air temperature,barometric pressure and humidity.Last,it made some suggestions on the high-risk groups.As a result,the 2012 Higher Education Press Cup National Mathematical Contest in Modeling C title problem given a complete answer.%对脑卒中发病影响因子进行了分析和研究.首先对庞大的病例信息进行了统计分析,然后通过回归拟合的方法建立了数学模型,确立了脑卒中发病率与气温、气压和湿度间的关系,最后就高危人群提出了一些建议.由此,对2012“高教社杯”全国大学生数学建模竞赛C题的各问题给出了完整的解答.

  6. Publication times, impact factors, and advance online publication in ophthalmology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Chun Hui; Jhanji, Vishal

    2013-08-01

    Publication speed of peer-reviewed journals may play a major role in early dissemination of knowledge and may raise the citation index. In this study, we evaluated the publication speed of ophthalmology journals. Observational study. Observational study of bibliometric data in published ophthalmology journals. A list of ophthalmic journals featured in the 2010 Journal Citation Report was obtained on September 1, 2011. A total of 12 articles were chosen randomly from each of these journals published between January and December 2010. Median publication time and interquartile range (IQR) were obtained from the full texts of the published articles. Time lag between submission and revision, acceptance, and publication of the manuscripts was calculated. Correlation between publication time lag and journal impact factor as well as advance online publication was analyzed. A total of 51 ophthalmic journals were included. There was no statistically significant difference in the impact factors of journals based on their reporting of submission, revision, or acceptance times of the manuscripts (both P>0.05, Wilcoxon test). The median peer review and publication time of all ophthalmology journals was 133 days (IQR, 100.5-171.5) and 100 days (IQR, 62.9-166.3), respectively. There was no correlation between the journal impact factors and publication time lag (Spearman correlation). Approximately half of the ophthalmology journals (n = 26; 50.98%) published online in advance. Journals with advance online publication had higher impact factors compared with those without this feature (median, 1.692 [IQR, 1.05-2.80] vs. 1.02 [0.39-1.53]; P = 0.015, Mann-Whitney U test). For journals with advance online publication, the median time from acceptance to advance online publication (74.3 days [IQR, 48.3-115 days]) was significantly shorter than the median time between acceptance and print publication (170.75 days [IQR, 101.4-217 days]; Pjournals was not correlated with journal impact

  7. Productivity and Impact of Space-based Astronomical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia; Zaich, Paul; Bosler, Tammy

    2006-04-01

    In 2001, 18 journals published about 1270 astronomical papers that reported and/or analyzed data gathered by space-based observatories and missions. These papers were cited 24,460 times in papers published in 2002-2004, an average of 19.26 citations per paper or 6.42 citations per paper per year (sometimes called impact or impact factor). About 60 satellites, rockets, balloons, and planetary missions were represented, including six ground-based Cerenkov detectors for ultra-high energy gamma rays, because we didn't know where else to put them. Of these facilities, 21 provided the data for at least five papers, when credit was divided equally among all contributing facilities. We analyze here distributions of papers, citations, and impact factors among the facilities and among subject areas and compare the results with studies of optical and radio telescopes (Trimble et al. and Trimble & Zaich). Some similarities include the rarity of completely uncited papers (only 41 of 1274, or 3.2%) and the concentrations of the most highly cited papers toward popular topics, high-profile journals, and the most successful telescopes of the year. Some important differences arise because many space-based observatories have lifetimes shorter than the typical time required to think of an interesting astronomical observation, propose for it, get the data, write the paper and publish it (including the fight with the referee), and have citations accumulate. The result is superstar status in citation numbers for XMM-Newton (whose first-light package appeared in 2001) and in paper numbers for Chandra (launched 5 months earlier), while aging satellites (RXTE, BeppoSAX, ASCA) and the archival-only ROSAT, ISO, IRAS, etc., were still important contributors, but with fewer papers and less highly cited papers. The impact factor of 6.42 for the totality of these gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, space infrared and optical, and planetary mission papers (6.42) was larger than the corresponding radio

  8. Measuring the quality of journals and journal articles: the impact factor tells but a portion of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2008-02-01

    Much emphasis has been placed on the IMPACT FACTOR, a measure of journal article citation rates used as a surrogate marker of both journal and article quality. There is little doubt that the impact factor is an important audit of journal article usage, as it in essence provides a measure of the level of peer attention being given to articles within journals and (by extrapolation) of the level of attention being given to the journal containing those articles. However, the impact factor has its limitations and only tells a very small fraction of the overall story regarding the utility of journals and the articles within them. In addition, the impact factor can be easily manipulated. The current article includes a brief review of the current and past uses and abuses of the impact factor and describes some of its strengths and limitations. In addition, a review of past publications, primarily from this journal, has been undertaken to help show the potential use of alternative measures of journal utility, such as Internet-based journal sessions and article downloads. The evaluation of previously published articles also helps serve to illustrate, by example, some of the limitations to the use of the impact factor as the sole determinant of a journal's "quality."

  9. The Journal Impact Factor: Moving Toward an Alternative and Combined Scientometric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Udovik, Elena E; Baryshnikov, Aleksandr A; Kitas, George D

    2017-02-01

    The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a single citation metric, which is widely employed for ranking journals and choosing target journals, but is also misused as the proxy of the quality of individual articles and academic achievements of authors. This article analyzes Scopus-based publication activity on the JIF and overviews some of the numerous misuses of the JIF, global initiatives to overcome the 'obsession' with impact factors, and emerging strategies to revise the concept of the scholarly impact. The growing number of articles on the JIF, most of which are in English, reflects interest of experts in journal editing and scientometrics toward its uses, misuses, and options to overcome related problems. Solely displaying values of the JIFs on the journal websites is criticized by experts as these average metrics do not reflect skewness of citation distribution of individual articles. Emerging strategies suggest to complement the JIFs with citation plots and alternative metrics, reflecting uses of individual articles in terms of downloads and distribution of related information through social media and networking platforms. It is also proposed to revise the original formula of the JIF calculation and embrace the concept of the impact and importance of individual articles. The latter is largely dependent on ethical soundness of the journal instructions, proper editing and structuring of articles, efforts to promote related information through social media, and endorsements of professional societies.

  10. Resources based factors of competitiveness of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyja Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many different definitions of competitiveness it is difficult to pinpoint the most appropriate one. In the paper it was defined as the ability to be profitable by effective use of available resources. The profitability ratios (ROS, ROA, ROE and value index were proposed as measures of competitiveness and resources were indicated as one of the group of factors that has an impact on it. Precisely, the purpose of the paper was to examine the relationship between selected resourced based factors and competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The study was done with the use of correlation analysis on the basis of statistical data on selected Polish companies operating in agriculture. The main finding was that the analyzed resources (the level of labour, size and quality of agricultural land and size of assets were weakly correlated with competitiveness. This observation means that other factors have stronger impact on agricultural company’s competitiveness. They can refer to intangible resources (such as relational capital, know-how, managerial competencies, technological resources etc. and external conditions (such as climate, legal issues of agricultural enterprises.

  11. Smoking and health: association between telomere length and factors impacting on human disease, quality of life and life span in a large population-based cohort under the effect of smoking duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are of primary importance as they cause damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA either endogenously by cellular mechanism, or through exogenous exposure to environmental injury factors, including oxidation insult factors, such as tobacco smoke. Currently 46.3 million adults (25.7 percent of the population) are smokers. This includes 24 million men (28.1 percent of the total) and more than 22 million women (23.5 percent). The prevalence is highest among persons 25-44 years of age. Cigarette smokers have a higher risk of developing several chronic disorders. These include fatty buildups in arteries, several types of cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). As peripheral leukocytes have been the main target of human telomere research, most of what is known about human telomere dynamics in vivo is based on these cells. Leukocyte telomere length (TL) is a complex trait that is shaped by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants. In this article, we consider that smoking modifies leukocyte TL in humans and contributes to its variability among individuals, although the smoking effect on TL and its relation with other metabolic indices may accelerate biological aging and development of smoking-induced chronic diseases in a large human population-based cohorts with smoking behavior. Recent studies confirmed that individuals with shorter telomeres present a higher prevalence of arterial lesions and higher risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. This study originally suggests that efficient therapeutic protection of TL and structure in response to stresses that are known to reduce TL, such as oxidative damage or inflammation associated with tobacco smoking, would lead to better telomere maintenance. Recently, we have discovered the potential use of telomere-restorative imidazole-containing dipeptide (non-hydrolized carnosine, carcinine) based therapy for better survival of smokers. We conclude that a better

  12. Impact of a 3-year multi-centre community-based intervention on risk factors for chronic disease and obesity among free-living adults: the Healthy Alberta Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytvyak, Ellina; Olstad, Dana Lee; Schopflocher, Donald P; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Storey, Kate E; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Raine, Kim D

    2016-04-18

    Healthy Alberta Communities (HAC) was a 3-year community-based intervention to reduce lifestyle-related risk factors for chronic disease and obesity at a population-level. The current paper examines changes in blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric indicators within HAC communities compared to secular trends. Between 2006 and 2009, this community-academic partnership sought to create environments supportive of healthier dietary and physical activity behaviours within four diverse communities in Alberta, Canada. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference and BP were measured among 1554 and 1808 community residents at baseline (2006) and follow-up (2009), respectively. A comparison sample was drawn from a representative national survey. Samples were stratified by age and change between pre- and post-intervention was assessed using t-tests. Changes in parameters over time between groups were compared using meta-analysis. The net difference in change in outcomes (change in intervention communities minus change in comparison group) represented the effect of the intervention. Adjusted systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP declined within most age groups in HAC communities from pre- to post-intervention. The net decline in SBP was 1 mmHg in 20-39 year olds (p = 0.006) and 2 mmHg in 40-59 year olds (p = 0.001), while the net decline in DBP was 3 mmHg in 20-39 year olds (p risk factors can be achieved through relatively diffuse and shorter-term community-level environmental changes, improvements in others may require interventions of greater intensity and duration. Evaluating the success of community-based interventions based on their efficacy in changing individual-level clinical indicators may, however, underestimate their potential.

  13. The impact of anthropogenic factors on the natural values of the water reservoirs in Sosnowiec (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Dominika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many plant and animal species are closely related to the aquatic environment. Small reservoirs are a place of the biodiversity concentration. Reservoirs are especially important for amphibian species as a place of feeding, shelter and wintering. Many anthropogenic factors has a significant impact on the natural values of water reservoirs (surroundings of the water reservoirs, the shore`s type, distance from roads and buildings, the role of the object and the chemical status. They can eliminate or change amphibian population. The effect of three such factors was determined for one of the cities in the Upper Silesian Agglomeration - Sosnowiec (91 km2. The paper presents an assessment of the impact of the type of surroundings, the percentage share of the open space around water reservoirs and the distance from roads and buildings on the number of amphibian species present in the reservoir. In the analysis were taken into account 20 reservoirs, in which amphibian species were found. This analysis indicates the influence urban factors on the number of amphibian species in water reservoirs based on positive correlations in the case of Spearman Rank correlation and the Fisher’s exact test. Results of these calculations highlight the negative impact of the anthropopressure (the changes in the environment on the amphibian breeding places and the biodiversity.

  14. Financial impact of community-based dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Howard L

    2010-10-01

    The financial impact of community-based dental education on dental school and community clinic budgets is a major issue. The evidence suggests that community experiences for dental students of fifty or more days, if effectively managed, can increase school net revenues due to the following factors: 1) the community rotations increase student productivity, approximating the loss of dental school clinical income; 2) the reallocation of unused clinical resources at the dental school reduces student clinic deficits; 3) schools and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) that share surplus student patient revenues generate additional net income; and 4) enrollment of more students without additional new facilities and faculty increases total school tuition revenues. For FQHC dental clinics, student rotations increase the number of patients treated and may generate surplus revenues. Community-based dental education also provides schools and clinics important non-financial advantages.

  15. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  16. [Spanish versus English as a language of publication and impact factor of Neurologia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Alonso-Arroyo, A; Miguel-Dasit, A; González de Dios, J; de Granda Orive, Ji

    2007-01-01

    Although the English language is considered nowadays as the international language of medical publications, some important Spanish journals with impact factor in the Journal Citation Reports as Neurologia, they bet for the publication in Spanish. Neurologia is the official publication of the Sociedad Española de Neurología and there is the conviction that you can have a Spanish language journal with a high quality and a strong impact. Its presence in the most important international data bases and the possibility of free access to its contents through Internet guarantees its proper diffusion around the world. From the point of view of citation, the repercussion of the language for Neurologia, is reflected in the fact that the 46,8 % of the citations that receive are from journals that are published in Spanish. The main factor to improve the impact of the journal is the quality of their papers, as well as the fulfillment of the international rules about periodical publications, the punctuality in its edition and distribution, the presence in national and international bibliographical data bases, its free diffusion in Internet, the training of its researchers and their sensitivity to consult and cite articles that have been published in quality Spanish journals, when necessary.

  17. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL.

  18. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Torres MARTINS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00. The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents’/caregivers’ schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1% out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson’s regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001.Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL.

  19. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0.8, and

  20. Impact factors of fractal analysis of porous structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of pore structure is one of the key problems for fabrication and application research on porous materials. But, complexity of pore structure makes it difficult to characterize pore structure by Euclidean geometry and traditional experimental methods. Fractal theory has been proved effective to characterize the complex pore structure. The box dimension method based on fractal theory was applied to characterizing the pore structure of fiber porous materials by analyzing the electronic scanning microscope (SEM) images of the porous materials in this paper. The influences of image resolution, threshold value, and image magnification on fractal analysis were investigated. The results indicate that such factors greatly affect fractal analysis process and results. The appropriate magnification threshold and fractal analysis are necessary for fractal analysis.

  1. Impact phenomena as factors in the evolution of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    It is estimated that 30 to 200 large impact basins could have been formed on the early Earth. These large impacts may have resulted in extensive volcanism and enhanced endogenic geologic activity over large areas. Initial modelling of the thermal and subsidence history of large terrestrial basins indicates that they created geologic and thermal anomalies which lasted for geologically significant times. The role of large-scale impact in the biological evolution of the Earth has been highlighted by the discovery of siderophile anomalies at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and associated with North American microtektites. Although in neither case has an associated crater been identified, the observations are consistent with the deposition of projectile-contaminated high-speed ejecta from major impact events. Consideration of impact processes reveals a number of mechanisms by which large-scale impact may induce extinctions.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis on the Impact Factors of the GSHP System Considering Energy Generation and Environmental Impact Using LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a crisis due to energy depletion and environmental pollution. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system, the most efficient new/renewable energy (NRE system that can reduce the load of heating/cooling equipment in a building, can be used to address this crisis. Designers and contractors have implemented such systems depending on their experience, although there are many factors that affect the performance of the GSHP system. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a sensitivity analysis on the impact factors in terms of energy generation and environmental impact. This study was conducted as follows: (i collecting the impact factors that affect the GSHP system’s performance; (ii establishing the GSHP system’s scenarios with the impact factors; (iii determining the methodology and calculation tool to be used for conducting sensitivity analysis; and (iv conducting sensitivity analysis on the impact factors of the GSHP system in terms of energy generation and environmental impact using life cycle assessment. The results of this study can be used: (i to establish the optimal design strategy for different application fields and different seasons; and (ii to conduct a feasibility study on energy generation and environmental impact at the level of the life cycle.

  3. [The impact factor: a factor of impact or the impact of a (sole) factor? The limits of a bibliometric indicator as a candidate for an instrument to evaluate scientific production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensini, G F; Conti, A A

    1999-01-01

    The Impact Factor is a bibliometric quantitative parameter introduced in 1971 and used to evaluate, classify and compare scientific journals. It is essentially the ratio between the number of citations they receive, computed on the basis of those included in the Science Citation Index, and the number of published articles. It is thus a dynamic parameter and an indicator of the editorial quality of a journal. It has also been considered a putative index of the scientific production of a single author. The Impact Factor was first proposed as a useful instrument for planning library choices, programming personal journal buying and reading, and directing scientific journal editors in their editorial strategies. However, since among the numerous variables which may influence the Impact Factor there are such parameters as: the average number of bibliographical references in a single article, self-citations, "salami publications", the Impact Factor, though adequate to judge entities such as journals, institutions and whole scientific communities, seems on the contrary inadequate to evaluate accurately the quality of the single investigator, paper, and research group. Furthermore, a limited number of papers, all focused on the so-called "hot topics", may contribute to increase the Impact Factor of a single journal. There is therefore still much research to be done to find truly "objective" methods to evaluate critically the "quality" (and not only the "quantity") of the work of a single author, a scientific group, and an entire institution, so that not only quantitative, but also qualitative evidence may be acquired!

  4. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric. PMID:27105434

  5. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Weineck, Silke B; Koelblinger, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric.

  6. The impact of the impact factor ¿myth or reality?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidias E. Leon Sarmiento

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of scientific production in Latin America has had several eras being the numerical impact factor (FIN the one that became the most popular one in recent years; unfortunately, the FIN measures journal popularity more than journal prestige. Thus, a lot of idiomatic, mathematical and scientific biases prevent the use of the FIN as a Latin American bibliometric measurement. New scienciometric methods such as webometrics and the like developed in more scientific way that than obtained by the Institute of Scientific Information must be considered from now on. It includes the Page Rank and the Y Factor both of which seem to give more consistent results than those obtained with the FIN. Due to this, it is mandatory to continue the analysis and, hopefully, to get a re-evaluation of the FIN as an universal scienciometric measure, mostly in Spanish-speaking countries as it has already been advanced in some academic and scientific circles of the so-called first world.

  7. Which factors are associated with difficult surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars?

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyeong-Lok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate factors associated with increased difficulty in the surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars and to improve identification of difficult cases. Materials and Methods A total of 680 patients who required 762 surgical extractions of impacted lower third molars from 2009 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic factors, clinical factors, radiographic factors, surgical extraction difficulty, and presumed causes of d...

  8. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important.

  9. Impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, M.; Kruger, R.; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We wanted to test the impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage (TOD) defined as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arterioclerosis and microvascular damage. Design and method: In a population based cohort study of 2115 healthy subjects (1049......SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (24hDBP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by M-mode echocardiography, carotid plaques (CP) by carotid ultra sound and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). To establish best model for association of LVMI, CP, PWV and UACR we used multiple linear regression analysis starting...... associated to hypertrophy, arteriosclerosis and microvascular damage in healthy subjects....

  10. Calculating impact factor: how bibliographical classification of journal items affects the impact factor of large and small journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubic, Rajna; Rudes, Mihael; Kovacic, Natasa; Marusic, Matko; Marusic, Ana

    2008-03-01

    As bibliographical classification of published journal items affects the denominator in this equation, we investigated how the numerator and denominator of the impact factor (IF) equation were generated for representative journals in two categories of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). We performed a full text search of the 1st-ranked journal in 2004 JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal" (New England Journal of Medicine, NEJM, IF = 38.570) and 61st-ranked journal (Croatian Medical Journal, CMJ, IF = 0.690), 1st-ranked journal in category "Multidisciplinary Sciences" (Nature, IF = 32.182) and journal with a relative rank of CMJ (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, AABC, IF = 0.435). Large journals published more items categorized by Web of Science (WoS) as non-research items (editorial material, letters, news, book reviews, bibliographical items, or corrections): 63% out of total 5,193 items in Nature and 81% out of 3,540 items in NEJM, compared with 31% out of 283 items in CMJ and only 2 (2%) out of 126 items in AABC. Some items classified by WoS as non-original contained original research data (9.5% in Nature, 7.2% in NEJM, 13.7% in CMJ and none in AABC). These items received a significant number of citations: 6.9% of total citations in Nature, 14.7% in NEJM and 18.5% in CMJ. IF decreased for all journals when only items presenting original research and citations to them were used for IF calculation. Regardless of the journal's size or discipline, publication of non-original research and its classification by the bibliographical database have an effect on both numerator and denominator of the IF equation.

  11. The impact of social factors on human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in a minority region of Si-chuan, the People's Republic of China: a population-based survey and testing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiting Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV studies have been performed in Liangshan, most were focused only on HIV infection and based on a sampling survey. In order to fully understand HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence and related risk factors in this region, this study implemented in 2009, included a survey, physical examination, HIV and HCV test in two towns. METHODS: All residents in two towns of the Butuo county were provided a physical examination and blood tests for HIV and HCV, and then followed by an interview for questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 10,104 residents (92.4% were enrolled and 9,179 blood samples were collected for HIV and HCV testing, 6,072 were from individuals >14 years old. The rates of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were 11.4%, 14.0%, and 7.7%, respectively for >14-year-old residents. The 25-34 yr age group had the highest prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, reaching 24.4%, 26.2% and 16.0%, respectively. Overall, males had a much higher prevalence of all infections than females (HIV: 16.3% vs. 6.8%, HCV: 24.6% vs. 3.9%, HIV/HCV co-infected: 14.7% vs. 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.000. Approximately half of intravenous drug users tested positive for HIV (48.7% and 68.4% tested positive for HCV. Logistic regression analysis showed that five factors were significantly associated with HIV and HCV infection: gender (odds ratio [OR]  = 5.8, education (OR = 2.29; occupation (student as reference; farmer: OR = 5.02, migrant worker: OR = 6.12; drug abuse (OR = 18.0; and multiple sexual partners (OR = 2.92. Knowledge of HIV was not associated with infection. CONCLUSION: HIV and HCV prevalence in the Liangshan region is very serious and drug use, multiple sexual partners, and low education levels were the three main risk factors. The government should focus on improving education and personal health awareness while enhancing drug control programs.

  12. The impacts of anthropogenic factors on the environment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Ignatius A

    2009-03-01

    Generally speaking, there has been a consensus on the primary drivers of anthropogenic induced environmental degradation. However, little progress has been made in determining the magnitude of the impacts, particularly in developing countries. This creates a lacuna that needs to be filled up. The purpose of this study therefore is to ascertain the degree of anthropogenic induced environmental impacts in Nigeria. To achieve the aim, fossil fuel consumption was used as a surrogate for carbon dioxide emissions while the magnitude of the impacts was determined by regression statistics and the STIRPAT model. The results show that only three variables, namely population, affluence and urbanization, were statistically significant and that the regression model accounts for 60% of the variation in the environmental impacts. However, population and affluence, which have ecological elasticities of 1.699 and 2.709, respectively, are the most important anthropogenic drivers of environmental impacts in Nigeria while urbanization, with an elasticity of -0.570, reduces the effect of the impacts. This implies that modernization brings about a reduction in environmental impacts. The paper therefore makes a significant contribution to knowledge by successfully testing the STIRPAT model in this part of the world and by being the first application of the model at political units below the regional or nation states.

  13. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  14. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  15. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  16. What does the Web of Science fi ve-year synchronous impact factor have to offer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronald; Rousseau

    2009-01-01

    With a random sample of 10 JCR(Science)subject areas it is shown that the2-year and the 5-year impact factor of journals lead statistically to the same ranking per category.Yet in a majority of cases,the 5-year impact factor is larger than the 2-year one.

  17. Some Comments on Egghe’s Derivation of the Impact Factor Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Waltman (Ludo); N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper, Egghe [Egghe, L. (in press). Mathematical derivation of the impact factor distribution. Journal of Informetrics] provides a mathematical analysis of the rank-order distribution of journal impact factors. We point out that Egghe’s analysis relies on an unrealistic assum

  18. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  19. 消费者感知的在线评论有用性影响因素研究%Research on Impact Factors of Online Reviews Helpfulne ss Based on Consumer Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝清民; 魏凤霞

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with valid identification and influence factors of many online comments, the author conducted em-pirical study on 595 valid comments which are more than two on cosmetics and digital camera from the perspective of the characteristics of the comments themselves.The results showed that neutral comments and comments on the title objectively are more useful and positive-emotion-oriented comments had a significant influence on comments usefulness.It also turned out that the comment publisher indirectly exert impact on online comments.Through comment length and emotional tenden-cy,the space commentators rankings and historical comment numbers have indirect effect on usefulness of comments .The product type is in close relationship with comment length and numbers of publishers’ comments.There is a positive correla-tion relationship the length and usefulness of comments , especially in search products.On the countrary, a negative corre-lation relationship exists comment numbers and usefulness , espcially in search products.%针对网上大量在线评论的有效识别和影响因素问题,从评论发布者和评论本身特性角度,选择了亚马逊网站上化妆品和数码相机两类产品总投票数不少于2的595条有效评论进行实证研究。结果表明:中立评论、客观评论标题的有用性更高;积极情感倾向的评论对评论有用性有着显著的正影响;验证了评论发布者属性对在线评论的间接影响效应:评论者空间排名和历史评论数量通过评论长度和评论情感倾向间接地影响评论有用性;产品类型对评论长度和发布者历史评论数量的调节效应显著;评论长度与评论的有用性存在正相关关系,在搜索型产品中更加显著;历史评论数量与评论有用性存在负相关关系,在搜索型产品中更加显著。

  20. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  1. Assessing hydrological impacts of tree-based bioenergy feedstock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a methodology for assessing the hydrological impacts of tree-based bioenergy feedstock. Based on experience gained in South Africa, it discusses the tasks required to reach an understanding of the likely water resource impacts...

  2. Italian risk factor-based screening for gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, F; Pintaudi, B; Di Vieste, G; Interdonato, M L; Magliarditi, M; Santamaria, A; D'Anna, R; Di Benedetto, A

    2014-09-01

    There is a debate about whether universal or risk factors-based screening is most appropriate for gestational diabetes diagnosis. The aim of our retrospective study was to compare in our population the universal screening test recommended by the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) panel and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) versus the selective screening proposed by the United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines (NICE) but modified by the Italian National Institute of Health. From May 2010 to October 2011 all consecutive pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes according to the IADPSG's panel criteria, while all the risk factors for each patient were registered. Of the 1015 pregnant women included in the study, 113 (11%) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes and 26 (23%) of them would not have been identified by the selective screening proposed by the Italian National Institute of Health. However, all the risk factors considered by the selective screening revealed a good predictive role except for maternal age ≥ 35 years (OR: 0.98). In the group without the risk factors considered, it was reported the predictive role for gestational diabetes of prepregnancy BMI and nulliparity. The selective risk factors-based screening proposed by the Italian National Institute of Health has detected 77% of gestational diabetes cases in our population, sparing the oral glucose tolerance test for more than 40% of pregnant women at the same time. More information on the clinical impact of this choice could be obtained by a strict analysis of treatment, perinatal outcome and follow-up of an adequate sample size of "missed" gestational diabetes.

  3. The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on cardiac fibroblasts grown under altered gravity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin; Pietsch, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor...

  4. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  5. The Psychological Impact of Forced Displacement and Related Risk Factors on Eastern Congolese Adolescents Affected by War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the current knowledge base on the mental health effects of displacement is mainly limited to refugees residing in industrialised countries, this paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement and related risk factors on the mental health of Eastern Congolese adolescents, and compares currently internally displaced…

  6. Impact of sentinel node status and other risk factors on the clinical outcome of head and neck melanoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leong, SPL; Accortt, NA; Essner, R; Ross, M; Gershenwald, JE; Pockaj, B; Hoekstra, HJ; Garberoglio, C; White, RL; Biel, M; Charney, K; Wanebo, H; Avisar, E; Vetto, J; Soong, SJ

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of sentinel lymph node (SLN) status and other risk factors on recurrence and overall survival in head and neck melanoma patients. Design: The SLN Working Group, based in San Francisco, Calif, with its 11 member centers, the John Wayne Cancer Institute, and The Univ

  7. Continued Growth of the Impact Factors of MDPI Open Access Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Rordorf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to report the continued increase of the Impact Factors of MDPI journals in 2009 (see Table 1 and Figure 1. As noted in a similar Editorial published in June 2009, the Impact Factors of MDPI journals have been steadily recovering since the inception of the full Open Access publishing policy in early 2007 [1]. We are pleased to see that all journals now have an Impact Factor much higher than 1. In 2011 the Journal Citation Report (JCR will include the first official Impact Factor of Entropy , and in 2012, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health will be included for the first time. Nevertheless, we are already able to compute a preliminary impact factor of approximately 1.4 for Entropy [2]. [...

  8. The evaluation of the individual impact factor of researchers and research centers using the RC algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Villafáfila, Amelia; Ramos-Brieva, Jesus A

    2015-01-01

    The RC algorithm quantitatively evaluates the personal impact factor of the scientific production of isolated researchers. The authors propose an adaptation of RC to evaluate the personal impact factor of research centers, hospitals and other research groups. Thus, these could be classified according to the accredited impact of the results of their scientific work between researchers of the same scientific area. This could be useful for channelling budgets and grants for research.

  9. An analysis of factors that impact secondary science outcomes in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Suzanne Lawson

    The purpose of this study was to analyze school and district characteristics for 2005--2006 through 2007--2008 to determine which factors impacted science achievement for the graduating class of 2008--2009 in Tennessee. School size, socioeconomic status, per pupil instructional expenditures and rurality/urbanicity were predictor variables. Achievement was represented by performance on the science and reasoning portion of the ACT. Correlational studies indicated that socioeconomic status had a significant impact on science achievement while the impact of school size and rurality/urbanicity was observed to be weak. Statistical analyses through multiple linear regression produced a model in which socioeconomic status and rurality/urbanicity explained 65.4% of the variance observed. Schools were segmented into quintiles based on socioeconomic status in an effort to control for poverty and correlational studies were repeated. School size and rurality/urbanicity appeared to have a more significant impact on achievement, particularly for students in the highest and lowest poverty bands.

  10. Hypothetical influence of non-indexed Spanish journals on the impact factor of radiological journals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel-Dasit, Alberto [MR Section, La Plana de Vila-Real Hospital, Castellon (Spain); Aleixandre, Rafael [Institute of History of Science and Documentation Lopez Pinero, University of Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Valderrama, Juan C. [Institute of History of Science and Documentation Lopez Pinero, University of Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Marti-Bonmati, Luis [Department of Radiology, MR Section, Dr. Peset University Hospital, Avenida Gaspar Aguilar 90, E-46017 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: marti_lui@gva.es; Sanfeliu, Pilar [Cardenal Herrera-CEU University, Alfara, Valencia (Spain)

    2005-06-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the hypothetical changes in the 2001 impact factor of 52 radiological journals included in the Science Citation Index-Journal Citation Reports by also counting cites proceeding from 73 Spanish journals on different medical specialties. Also, to estimate the possible impact factor of the official Spanish radiology journal, Radiologia, not included in this database. Materials and methods: A modified 2001 impact factor of 52 radiological journals and Radiologia was obtained by adding the number of cites in 1999 and 2000 from the medical Spanish journals. Data were obtained by consulting the 2001 edition of the Journal Citation Reports in the 'Web of Science' database. Results: The 16,985 bibliographical references were analysed (232 of them to radiological journals). The journal with the largest increase in its 2001 impact factor (from 1.83 to 1.90) was Radiologic Clinics of North America. European Journal of Radiology was the European journal with the highest increase (from 1.084 to 1.110) in the difference between the 2001 modified and original impact factor. The modified 2001 impact factor of the 34 American journals was statistically higher (P = 0.016) than that of the 18 European journals (1.64 versus 0.93). Differences between the 2001 modified and original impact factor were slightly higher in the American journals (no statistically significant difference). The 2001 impact factor of Radiologia was 0.056. Discussion: Differences between the 2001 original and modified impact factor were small, but larger in the American journals. The 2001 impact factor of Radiologia was modest, although similar to other publications included in the Journal Citation Reports.

  11. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines.

  12. The Financial Impact of Risk Factors Affecting Project Cost Contingency: Evidential Reasoning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Abeere-Inga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of cost modeling using risk analysis for construction projects is very crucial for the achievement of project success. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the financial impact of risk factors affecting key construction work sections; using a systematic risk methodology based on empirical judgment. The failure mode effect analysis (FMEA and the evidential reasoning methods are presented as qualitative and quantitative risk tools respectively. Data analysis from structured questionnaires revealed that four work sections are prone to high scope changes contemporaneous with seven risk factors. Contrary to the usual 10% contingency estimate allowed for construction projects in Ghana, an approximate overall physical contingency range of between 13.36% and 17.88% was determined using evidential reasoning methods. The likely impact of the integrated work sections and risk factors provide a clue to estimators on how to estimate and account for project cost contingency. The research concludes by recommending a framework for improving the estimation process of cost contingency through the integration of efficient risk management strategies, cost estimation and design management process.

  13. Household Livelihood Strategy Choices, Impact Factors, and Environmental Consequences in Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Household livelihood strategies are embedded in the natural and socioeconomic contexts in which people live. Analyzing the factors that influence household livelihood choice and defining their consequences can be beneficial for informing rural household policies. In turn, this has great significance for fostering sustainable livelihood strategies. We grouped household livelihood strategies based on the income distribution of 756 households and analyzed their influencing factors and possible livelihood consequences in the watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the only source of surface water currently available for domestic use in Beijing, China. Local farmers’ livelihood strategies can be grouped into three types: farming, local off-farm, and labor-migrant. Farming households have the lowest livelihood capitals, other than natural capital, compared with labor-migrant households and off-farm households, the latter having better livelihood capital status. Geographical location, natural capital, household structure, labor quality, and ecological policies are the main factors affecting farmers’ choice of livelihood strategy. Local off-farm households have a significantly lower dependency on firewood, land resources, and investment than that of farming and labor-migrant households, and have the highest reliance on fossil fuel. This household classification can help us understand the livelihood characteristics, impact factors, and consequences of different types of household strategies, which also suggest tailored policy and management options to promote sustainable livelihoods based on different household types.

  14. The impact of von Willebrand factor on factor VIII memory immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Schroeder, Jocelyn A; Luo, Xiaofeng; Shi, Qizhen

    2017-08-22

    Immune tolerance induction (ITI) with aggressive infusion of factor VIII (FVIII) is the current strategy used to eradicate FVIII inhibitors and restore normal FVIII pharmacokinetics in inhibitor patients. Whether the use of FVIII products containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) will affect the efficacy of ITI is still controversial. In this study, we explored the impact of VWF on FVIII memory immune responses in hemophilia A (HA) mice. A T-cell proliferation assay and cytokine profile analysis were used to study FVIII-primed CD4(+) T cells. When CD4(+) T cells from primed FVIII(null) mice were restimulated with recombinant human FVIII (rhF8) plus recombinant human VWF (rhVWF) in vitro, the percentages of daughter CD4(+) T cells were significantly decreased compared with the groups cultured with rhF8 only. Levels of interferon-γ and interleukin 10 were significantly lower in the rhF8 plus rhVWF groups than in the rhF8 groups. When memory B-cell pools from primed FVIII(null) mice were cultured with rhF8 with or without rhVWF to induce differentiation of memory B cells into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), the number of ASCs was significantly lower in the rhF8 plus VWF group than in the rhF8 group. When memory B-cell pools were transferred into NSGF8KO mice followed by rhF8 immunization with or without rhVWF, the titers of anti-F8 inhibitors and total immunoglobulin G were significantly higher in the rhF8 group than in the rhF8 plus rhVWF group, with an average difference of 2.23- and 2.04-fold. Together, our data demonstrate that VWF attenuates FVIII memory immune responses in HA mice.

  15. Outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Impact of antibiotic therapy and other factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noyal Mariya Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVentilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most frequent infection in patients intubated for longer than 48 hours. There is a great interest in determining the factors influencing the outcome of VAP, as it may help in reducing the associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the impact of appropriate antibiotic therapy based on endotracheal aspirate cultures on the outcome of VAP. We have also studied the other factors that may influence the outcome of VAP.MethodA cohort study was conducted in the intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital in South India over a period of 15 months.The outcome of VAP was assessed by prolongation of the duration of mechanical ventilation and/ or death of the patient.ResultsThe duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly prolonged in patients with VAP (16.61 ± 8.2 d vs. 8.21 ± 5.9 d, P 2 days in administering the first dose of appropriate antibiotic therapy significantly prolonged the duration of ventilation (P < 0.0001. Infection by multi-drug resistant pathogens, polymicrobial infection and time of onset of VAP did not have significant impact on the outcome of VAP.ConclusionEarly administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy, based on the antibiogram of the VAP pathogens identified by quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirate, could lead to an improved outcome of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  16. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  17. Impact factor analysis: combining prediction with parameter ranking to reveal the impact of behavior on health outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doryab, Afsaneh; Frost, Mads; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    suffering from bipolar disorder. In the MONARCA system, patients report their daily mood score and by analyzing self-reported and automatically sensed behavioral data with this mood score, the system is able to identify the impact of different behavior on the patient’s mood. We report from a study involving...... ten bipolar patients, in which we were able to estimate mood values with an average mean absolute error of 0.5. This was used to rank the behavior parameters whose variations indicate changes in the mental state. The rankings acquired from our algorithms correspond to the patients’ rankings......, identifying physical activity and sleep as the highest impact parameters. These results revealed the feasibility of identifying behavioral impact factors. This data analysis motivated us to design an impact factor inference engine as part of the MONARCA system. To our knowledge, this is a novel approach...

  18. The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the job satisfaction of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, K; Campbell, S M; Broge, B; Dörfer, C E; Brodowski, M; Szecsenyi, J

    2012-10-01

    The Two-Factor Theory of job satisfaction distinguishes between intrinsic-motivation (i.e. recognition, responsibility) and extrinsic-hygiene (i.e. job security, salary, working conditions) factors. The presence of intrinsic-motivation facilitates higher satisfaction and performance, whereas the absences of extrinsic factors help mitigate against dissatisfaction. The consideration of these factors and their impact on dentists' job satisfaction is essential for the recruitment and retention of dentists. The objective of the study is to assess the level of job satisfaction of German dentists and the factors that are associated with it. This cross-sectional study was based on a job satisfaction survey. Data were collected from 147 dentists working in 106 dental practices. Job satisfaction was measured with the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. Organizational characteristics were measured with two items. Linear regression analyses were performed in which each of the nine items of the job satisfaction scale (excluding overall satisfaction) were handled as dependent variables. A stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with overall job satisfaction as the dependent outcome variable, the nine items of job satisfaction and the two items of organizational characteristics controlled for age and gender as predictors. The response rate was 95.0%. Dentists were satisfied with 'freedom of working method' and mostly dissatisfied with their 'income'. Both variables are extrinsic factors. The regression analyses identified five items that were significantly associated with each item of the job satisfaction scale: 'age', 'mean weekly working time', 'period in the practice', 'number of dentist's assistant' and 'working atmosphere'. Within the stepwise linear regression analysis the intrinsic factor 'opportunity to use abilities' (β = 0.687) showed the highest score of explained variance (R(2) = 0.468) regarding overall job satisfaction. With respect to the Two-Factor

  19. The Short-run Impact on Total Factor Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Jacobsen, Joannes; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus

    This project was prepared for The Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation (DASTI) under The Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education. The scope of the project was to conduct the first comprehensive productivity impact assessment of the Danish system of innovation...

  20. Sustained Growth of the Impact Factors of MDPI Open Access Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Rordorf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the tradition established during the past two years [1,2], we are pleased to report the newly released Impact Factors of MDPI open access journals by the means of an editorial. This year’s edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR, which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes seven journals published by MDPI, including three that received their first official Impact Factors – Energies, Entropy, and more surprisingly Viruses – the latest with citation data from 2009 only. We are pleased to announce that the continued growth in Impact Factors reported during the past two years has been sustained, and Impact Factors of MDPI journals continue on a growth path. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2010. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for the four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE. [...

  1. Comparative Study of Impacting Factors of Grain Production of Inner Mongolia Region in Different Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of grey correlation analysis,8 factors impacting grain production prominently as follows are selected to establish indices system:yield per unit(X1),grain planting area(X2),agricultural labor forces(X3),the total power of agricultural machinery(X4),using amount of fertilizer(X5),the damaged area of crops(X6),effective irrigation area(X7),and agricultural fixed assets investment(X8).According to the relevant data of Inner Mongolia Statistical Yearbook from 1988 to 2008,we use the method of grey correlation analysis to analyze the factors impacting grain production in Inner Mongolia,quantify the correlation degree of the total grain output and all factors,and finally conclude the impacting capacity of all factors on grain production in the light of correlation degree value.The results show that yield per unit still is the principal factor impacting the total output of grain in Inner Mongolia;the area of grain planting and the area of affected crops are the two most important factors responsible for the decrease of grain output;effective irrigation area the total power of agricultural machinery are the two primary factors impacting the increase of grain output;the using amount of fertilizer shows dwindling impact on grain production;agricultural fixed assets investment still hovers at the minuscule impact degree on grain production.

  2. Wake Identification Based Wake Impact Alleviation Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Jana; Fischenberg, Dietrich; Niedermeier, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    During a wake vortex encounter an aircraft is exposed to strong unsteady disturbance velocities which can lead to significant changes in the aircraft attitude and flight path. This can represent a severe safety risk and can result in injuries to the passengers and crew as well as damages to the aircraft. The application of a wake impact alleviation control system can considerably decrease the aircraft’s response during the wake encounter, and hence diminish the pilot workload while reducing t...

  3. Imputation for transcription factor binding predictions based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the cell-specific binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to studying gene regulatory networks in biological systems, for which ChIP-seq not only provides valuable data but is also considered as the gold standard. Despite tremendous efforts from the scientific community to conduct TF ChIP-seq experiments, the available data represent only a limited percentage of ChIP-seq experiments, considering all possible combinations of TFs and cell lines. In this study, we demonstrate a method for accurately predicting cell-specific TF binding for TF-cell line combinations based on only a small fraction (4%) of the combinations using available ChIP-seq data. The proposed model, termed TFImpute, is based on a deep neural network with a multi-task learning setting to borrow information across transcription factors and cell lines. Compared with existing methods, TFImpute achieves comparable accuracy on TF-cell line combinations with ChIP-seq data; moreover, TFImpute achieves better accuracy on TF-cell line combinations without ChIP-seq data. This approach can predict cell line specific enhancer activities in K562 and HepG2 cell lines, as measured by massively parallel reporter assays, and predicts the impact of SNPs on TF binding. PMID:28234893

  4. Impact of festival factor on electric quantity multiplication forecast model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to improve the forecasting precision of electric quantity. It is discovered that the total electricity consumption considerably increased during the Spring Festival by the analysis of the electric quantity time series from 2002 to 2007 in Shandong province. The festival factor is ascertained to be one of the important seasonal factors affecting the electric quantity fluctuations, and the multiplication model for forecasting is improved by introducing corresponding variables and parameters...

  5. Establishing in Malaysia : The Impact of Cultural Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dohlnér, Lisa; Grom, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is one of the developing countries in the world that is on the verge to become de-veloped (Internationella Programkontoret, 2003). In 2004, Malaysia had a growth rate around 7% (United Nation Statistic Division, 2005) and it is implied that the Malaysian market is continuously growing. One factor that can increase the growth rate in Malaysia is foreign direct investments (FDI), which is, according to Chino (2004), one factor of sus-tainable growth. It has been noticed that the world ...

  6. Key Impact Factors to Success of Forest Certification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Forest certification has developed very quickly across the world as one of the most important market initiative to promote sustainable forest management (SFM). Its success and effectiveness are influenced by some key factors, including credibility, cost effectiveness, certification standard, effectiveness, equitableness, government's role and laws/regulations framework. The paper analyzed these key factors to the success of forest certification and put forward relevant suggestions and advices for China to d...

  7. Impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in N = 4 SYM with large number of colours

    CERN Document Server

    Fadin, Victor S

    2014-01-01

    We calculate impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with four supercharges at large number of colours Nc. In the next-to-leading order impact factors are not uniquely defined and must accord with BFKL kernels and energy scales. We obtain the impact factor corresponding to the kernel and the energy evolution parameter, which is invariant under Moebius transformation in momentum space, and show that it is also Moebius invariant up to terms taken into account in the BDS ansatz.

  8. Impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in N=4 SYM with large number of colours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadin, V.S., E-mail: fadin@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of SD RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Fiore, R., E-mail: roberto.fiore@cs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    We calculate impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory with four supercharges at large number of colours N{sub c}. In the next-to-leading order impact factors are not uniquely defined and must accord with BFKL kernels and energy scales. We obtain the impact factor corresponding to the kernel and the energy evolution parameter, which is invariant under Möbius transformation in momentum space, and show that it is also Möbius invariant up to terms taken into account in the BDS ansatz.

  9. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Igor R C; Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho de; Andrade, Pedro Beraldo de; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometric indexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement.

  10. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Igor R C; de Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho; de Andrade, Pedro Beraldo; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometricindexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  11. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor R C Bienert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometricindexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement.

  12. The effect of social media (#SoMe) on journal impact factor and parental awareness in paediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, F; Nason, G J; Manecksha, R P; Cascio, S; Quinn, F J; Leonard, M; Koyle, M A; Farhat, W; Leveridge, M J

    2017-04-21

    Social media (SoMe) comprises a number of internet-based applications that have the capability to disseminate multimodal media and allow for unprecedented inter-user connectivity. The role of Twitter has been studied in conferences and education; moreover, there is increasing evidence that patients are more likely to use social media for their own health education. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media platforms on the impact factor of both urological and paediatric journals that publish on paediatric urology, and to assess parental awareness of social media in paediatric urology. A filtered Journal of Citation Reports (JCR) search was performed for the period 2012-16 for journals that published articles on paediatric urology. Journals were ranked according to impact factor, and each individual journal website was accessed to assess for the presence of social media. Parents in paediatric urology clinics and non-paediatric urology patients also filled out a questionnaire to assess for awareness and attitudes to social media. All statistical analysis was performed using Prism 6 software (Prism 6, GraphPad Software, California, USA). Overall, there were 50 urological journals and 39 paediatric journals with a mean impact factor of 2.303 and 1.766, respectively. There was an overall average increase in impact factor across all urological journals between 2012 and 16. The presence of a Twitter feed was statistically significant for a rise in impact factor over the 4 years (P = 0.017). The cohort of parents was statistically more likely to have completed post-secondary education, to have and access to a social media profile, use it for health education, and use it to access journal/physician/hospital social media accounts. This study examined, for the first time, the role of social media in paediatric urology, and demonstrated that SoMe use is associated with a positive influence in impact factor, but also a parental appetite for it

  13. The journal impact factor: how to interpret its true value and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2009-02-01

    In 1955, Garfield suggested that the number of references could be used to measure the "impact" of a journal, but the term "impact factor" was introduced in 1963 by Garfield and Sher. The primary goal of impact factor analysis was to improve the management of library journal collections. Single-parameter measurements of the quality of a journal article have become increasingly popular as a substitute for scientific quality. The simplicity of its counting system and convenience of its use are significant benefits. Probably for these reasons, funding bodies, academic authorities, and some governments began using the impact factor to guide decisions about allocating grants, awarding appointments and academic degrees, and defining scientific policy. The journal impact factor, which is often recognized as a symbol of scientific prestige and relevance, can be, however, greatly influenced by the type of medical article (review vs original work), clinical specialty, and research. The true value and implications of the journal impact factor (JIF) are important to understand. It is critical to remember that JIF can be used only to evaluate journals. All comparisons should include only journals and never individuals or departments. Only similar journals (particularly those dedicated to the same scientific specialty) must be compared, because the value of the impact factor varies greatly by discipline.

  14. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-06-17

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  15. Factors Impacting on Development of IT and E-Commerce in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sirous Alidousti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Shifts in both the sense and direction of IT development coupled with shifts in global economy have caused small to medium enterprises (SMEs to enjoy an increasing prominence in national economic development. In order to succeed within a competitive milieu, these companies must boost the quality of their products and management processes while reducing costs. Therefore it becomes imperative to deploy IT. Studies show that while SMEs could profit from IT and E-Commerce, but to reap its benefits and succeed in deploying this technology they need to secure special conditions. In other words, the success rate in SMEs is contingent-based. Such realities have led to numerous studies and research to identify the factors impacting on IT deployment in SMEs. The present paper initially explains the role of SMEs in economic development and would follow it up with the application of IT in these enterprises. The cogent impact factors are categorized and presented within the framework of Pettigrew and Whipp change model.

  16. Development of Chinese characterization factors for land use in life cycle impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A model with Chinese characterization factors for quantifying the damages to environment by land use in terms of the change in net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystem was developed in the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA).In this method,the forms of land utilization were divided into two aspects involving long-term use of land (e.g.,for arable farming),namely "land occupation",and the change of land properties (e.g.,from agricultural area to urban area),namely "land transformation".Furthermore,the land use elementary flows (occupation and transformation) and parameters were linked to the impact indicators,and the characterization formulas of the two forms of land utilization were derived respectively according to the ecological theory.Moreover,based on this method,the characterization factors of both land occupation and land transformation were calculated using Chinese empirical information on NPP,which can be incorporated into LCA framework and applied to Chinese LCA case study to fill up the important gap in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of land use.

  17. Scientist impact factor (SIF): a new metric for improving scientists' evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2017-08-01

    The publication of scientific research is the mainstay for knowledge dissemination, but is also an essential criterion of scientists' evaluation for recruiting funds and career progression. Although the most widespread approach for evaluating scientists is currently based on the H-index, the total impact factor (IF) and the overall number of citations, these metrics are plagued by some well-known drawbacks. Therefore, with the aim to improve the process of scientists' evaluation, we developed a new and potentially useful indicator of recent scientific output. The new metric scientist impact factor (SIF) was calculated as all citations of articles published in the two years following the publication year of the articles, divided by the overall number of articles published in that year. The metrics was then tested by analyzing data of the 40 top scientists of the local University. No correlation was found between SIF and H-index (r=0.15; P=0.367) or 2 years H-index (r=-0.01; P=0.933), whereas the H-index and 2 years H-index values were found to be highly correlated (r=0.57; Particles published in one year and the total number of citations to these articles in the two following years (r=0.62; Pscientists, wherein the SIF reflects the scientific output over the past two years thus increasing their chances to apply to and obtain competitive funding.

  18. Scientist impact factor (SIF): a new metric for improving scientists’ evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Background The publication of scientific research is the mainstay for knowledge dissemination, but is also an essential criterion of scientists’ evaluation for recruiting funds and career progression. Although the most widespread approach for evaluating scientists is currently based on the H-index, the total impact factor (IF) and the overall number of citations, these metrics are plagued by some well-known drawbacks. Therefore, with the aim to improve the process of scientists’ evaluation, we developed a new and potentially useful indicator of recent scientific output. Methods The new metric scientist impact factor (SIF) was calculated as all citations of articles published in the two years following the publication year of the articles, divided by the overall number of articles published in that year. The metrics was then tested by analyzing data of the 40 top scientists of the local University. Results No correlation was found between SIF and H-index (r=0.15; P=0.367) or 2 years H-index (r=−0.01; P=0.933), whereas the H-index and 2 years H-index values were found to be highly correlated (r=0.57; Particles published in one year and the total number of citations to these articles in the two following years (r=0.62; Pscientists, wherein the SIF reflects the scientific output over the past two years thus increasing their chances to apply to and obtain competitive funding. PMID:28856143

  19. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan, E-mail: wyn3615@126.com; Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  20. The Impact of Non-intelligent Factors in English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程芸

    2015-01-01

    China has taken the police of Reform and Open for about more than twenty years, which changed China a lot. During the development of China, it has joined the World Trade Organization (WTO), and succeeded in applying for the permission to hold the 2008 the Beijing Olympic Games and the 2010 the Guangzhou Asian Games, either in the official occasion or our daily life, English has played a more and more important role. The government and the society pay more attention to English in the national education as well. However, English study is not an easy job, it is influenced by many factors, among which, and non-intelligent factor is important one.

  1. The educational gradient in cardiovascular risk factors: impact of shared family factors in 228,346 Norwegian siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariansen, Inger; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities in the gradi......Background: Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities...... category lower educational level was associated with 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 0.8) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (27% attenuation), 0.4 (0.4 to 0.5) mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (30%), 1.0 (1.0 to 1.1) more beats per minute higher heart rate (21%), 0.07 (0.06 to 0.07) mmol...

  2. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  3. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  4. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  5. Factors Impacting Teachers' Adoption of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Callum, Kathryn; Jeffrey, Lynn; Kinshuk

    2014-01-01

    As mobile technology has advanced, awareness is growing that these technologies may benefit teaching and learning. However, despite this interest, the factors that will determine the acceptance of mobile technology by lecturers have been limited. This study proposed and tested a new model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) with…

  6. Impact of Contextual Factors on Prostate Cancer Risk and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    retail food environment index 1 (Model 4b: ( convenience stores + fast food restaurants )/supermarkets), retail food environment index 2 (Model 4c...street segments), traffic density, commute, restaurant environment, retail food environment, parks, and farmers markets; and the social environment...neighborhood SES, and case-level education, adjusted sequentially for behavioral factors + hospital characteristics (Model 3), restaurant index (Model 4a

  7. Mobile phone usage of young adults: The impact of motivational factors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Biljon, J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the impact of motivational factors on mobile phone use profiles and the influence thereof on the design of mobile phones. It aims to provide an alternative to the current feature driven design perspectives...

  8. Risk factors for hypertension and impact of postoperative hypertension on medium survival after heart transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳青

    2013-01-01

    Objective To access the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension after heart transplantation(HT),and the impact of post-transplant hypertension on mediumterm survival among HT patients.Methods Data from 265 consecutive

  9. Sludge based Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides: viscosity impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2005-08-01

    Viscosity studies were performed on raw, pre-treated (sterilised and thermal alkaline hydrolysed or both types of treatment) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) fermented sludges at different solids concentration (10-40 g/L) for production of biopesticides. Correlations were established among rheological parameter (viscosity), solids (total and dissolved) concentration and entomotoxicity (Tx) of Bt fermented sludges. Exponential and power laws were preferentially followed by hydrolysed fermented compared to raw fermented sludge. Soluble chemical oxygen demand variation corroborated with increase in dissolved solids concentration on pre-treatments, contributing to changes in viscosity. Moreover, Tx was higher for hydrolysed fermented sludge in comparison to raw fermented sludge owing to increased availability of nutrients and lower viscosity that improved oxygen transfer. The shake flask results were reproducible in fermenter. This study will have major impact on selecting fermentation, harvesting and formulation techniques of Bt fermented sludges for biopesticide production.

  10. Impact of school policies on non-communicable disease risk factors - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Bassi, Shalini; Nazar, Gaurang P; Saluja, Kiran; Park, MinHae; Kinra, Sanjay; Arora, Monika

    2017-04-04

    Globally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are identified as one of the leading causes of mortality. NCDs have several modifiable risk factors including unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Schools provide ideal settings for health promotion, but the effectiveness of school policies in the reduction of risk factors for NCD is not clear. This study reviewed the literature on the impact of school policies on major NCD risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to identify, collate and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of school policies on reduction of NCD risk factors. A search strategy was developed to identify the relevant studies on effectiveness of NCD policies in schools for children between the age of 6 to 18 years in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Data extraction was conducted using pre-piloted forms. Studies included in the review were assessed for methodological quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tool. A narrative synthesis according to the types of outcomes was conducted to present the evidence on the effectiveness of school policies. Overall, 27 out of 2633 identified studies were included in the review. School policies were comparatively more effective in reducing unhealthy diet, tobacco use, physical inactivity and inflammatory biomarkers as opposed to anthropometric measures, overweight/obesity, and alcohol use. In total, for 103 outcomes independently evaluated within these studies, 48 outcomes (46%) had significant desirable changes when exposed to the school policies. Based on the quality assessment, 18 studies were categorized as weak, six as moderate and three as having strong methodological quality. Mixed findings were observed concerning effectiveness of school policies in reducing NCD risk factors. The findings demonstrate that schools can be a good setting for initiating positive changes in reducing NCD risk factors, but more research is

  11. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, E. A.; Huang, C.; Smith, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factos such as time in tillage practice and type and distribution of residue cover, are weighed against inherent tillage impacts to soil structure in terms of relative effects on herbicide transport with runoff water. In this study, two small watersheds (one in no-till (NT) and one rotational till (RT)) were monitored during the first three years since conversion of the RT watershed from NT. In addition, rainfall simulation was applied to plots within each watershed during the first, third, and fifth years since the conversion. Runoff atrazine and glyphosate losses from RT areas were compared to losses from NT areas as a ratio of RT:NT. Results indicate a trend of increasing RT:NT value with time in tillage. Watershed monitoring indicated greater herbicide loading to runoff water from the NT watershed than the RT watershed during the first year since RT conversion, but this relationship reversed by the third year since conversion to RT. In addition, rainfall simulations were performed on small boxes of NT or RT soil having varying types and levels of residue cover in an attempt to isolate residue cover effects from true tillage effects.

  12. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Faculté de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France)

    2015-04-10

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  13. Bradford's law, the long tail principle, and transparency in Journal Impact Factor calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the commonly mentioned limitations of the Journal Impact Factor, we discuss the obsolete principle of selecting journals to create a fake-representative sample of 'journals that matter' and the opacity around the calculation and listing of Impact Factors. We use the example of Pharmacy Practice: in 2015 for illustration. We hypothesize that a business-oriented system of measuring the science and quality of scholarly journals may not be the best option to avoid biases and conflicts of interest.

  14. A receptor model for urban aerosols based on oblique factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Sørensen, Morten S.; Pind, Niels

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for the construction of receptor models of urban aerosols, based on factor analysis. The advantage of the procedure is that the covariation of source impacts is included in the construction of the models. The results are compared with results obtained by other receptor-modelling...... procedures. It was found that procedures based on correlating sources were physically sound as well as in mutual agreement. Procedures based on non-correlating sources were found to generate physically obscure models....

  15. Web-based evaluation of experts' opinions on impacted maxillary canines forced eruption using CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims at examining the difficulty in performing forced eruption of impacted maxillary canines, using CBCT information and according to experienced orthodontist's opinion. The second aim was to find the most important factors related to this decision. METHODS: Based on a careful literature review on impacted maxillary canines, ten main factors were selected to assess difficulties associated with impacted teeth. Thirty six consecutive patients with 50 impacted maxillary canines were examined and variables were measured for each impacted tooth using Dolphin 3D software. Ten orthodontists assessed the radiographs of teeth and provided their opinion on the difficulty in bringing impacted teeth into occlusion named subjective degree of difficulty (SDD. The correlation established between mean SDD of each tooth and measured variables were analyzed by means of linear regression. RESULTS: Mean SDD was 6.45 ± 1.22 for all 50 teeth. Linear regression showed a high coefficient of correlation between mean SDD and age, dilacerations, vertical height, angulation and horizontal overlap (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: To predict the difficulty of impacted maxillary canines forced eruption, according to the opinion of experienced orthodontists, the factors age, dilaceration, angulation, overlap and vertical distance from the occlusal plane are the most important variables.

  16. [Technogenic factors of ecological impact on properties of snake venom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiev, G A; Babaev, E T; Topchieva, Sh A; Chuburidze, T B; Kikalishvili, B Iu

    2009-12-01

    In article comparative literary and experimental data about degree of a level of scrutiny of snake venoms are presented. Obtained data shows that increased pollution of industrial regions results in higher levels of heavy metals in snake venom. Change of physical and chemical parametres, and also pharmacological activity and toxicity of zootoxins under influence biotics, abiotics factors and including heavy metals and radiation is noted.

  17. The impacts of problem gambling on concerned significant others accessing web-based counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Rodda, Simone N; Lubman, Dan I; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-08-01

    The 'concerned significant others' (CSOs) of people with problem gambling frequently seek professional support. However, there is surprisingly little research investigating the characteristics or help-seeking behaviour of these CSOs, particularly for web-based counselling. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of CSOs accessing the web-based counselling service (real time chat) offered by the Australian national gambling web-based counselling site, explore the most commonly reported CSO impacts using a new brief scale (the Problem Gambling Significant Other Impact Scale: PG-SOIS), and identify the factors associated with different types of CSO impact. The sample comprised all 366 CSOs accessing the service over a 21 month period. The findings revealed that the CSOs were most often the intimate partners of problem gamblers and that they were most often females aged under 30 years. All CSOs displayed a similar profile of impact, with emotional distress (97.5%) and impacts on the relationship (95.9%) reported to be the most commonly endorsed impacts, followed by impacts on social life (92.1%) and finances (91.3%). Impacts on employment (83.6%) and physical health (77.3%) were the least commonly endorsed. There were few significant differences in impacts between family members (children, partners, parents, and siblings), but friends consistently reported the lowest impact scores. Only prior counselling experience and Asian cultural background were consistently associated with higher CSO impacts. The findings can serve to inform the development of web-based interventions specifically designed for the CSOs of problem gamblers.

  18. Dream recall frequency: impact of prospective measures and motivational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Antonio; Robert, Geneviève

    2012-12-01

    Significant individual differences exist in dream recall frequency (DRF) but some variance is likely attributable to instrument choice in measuring DRF. Three hundred and fifty eight participants estimated their weekly DRF and recorded their dreams in either a narrative log (n = 165) or checklist log (n = 193) for 2-5 weeks. There was an early peak in DRF within the first week of both types of prospective logs after which DRF remained relatively stable. Although the two groups did not differ in their estimated DRF, significantly fewer dreams were reported per week on the narrative logs and only checklist logs yielded significantly higher DRF than participants' questionnaire estimates. The interactions between DRF measures did not vary across groups with low, medium or high baseline levels of DRF. Keeping a dream log does not necessarily increase DRF and narrative logs' time consuming nature can impact subjects' motivation to report all of their dreams over time.

  19. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly...... affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate......, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal...

  20. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A; Pollack, Keshia M; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice.

  1. Identifying predictive factors for long-term complications following button battery impactions: A case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michael J; Melzer, Jonathan M; Winters, Jessica R; Gallagher, Thomas Q

    2016-08-01

    To complement a case series review of button battery impactions managed at our single military tertiary care center with a thorough literature review of laboratory research and clinical cases to develop a protocol to optimize patient care. Specifically, to identify predictive factors of long-term complications which can be used by the pediatric otolaryngologist to guide patient management after button battery impactions. A retrospective review of the Department of Defense's electronic medical record systems was conducted to identify patients with button battery ingestions and then characterize their treatment course. A thorough literature review complemented the lessons learned to identify potentially predictive clinical measures for long-term complications. Eight patients were identified as being treated for button battery impaction in the aerodigestive tract with two sustaining long-term complications. The median age of the patients treated was 33 months old and the median estimated time of impaction in the aerodigestive tract prior to removal was 10.5 h. Time of impaction, anatomic direction of the battery's negative pole, and identifying specific battery parameters were identified as factors that may be employed to predict sequelae. Based on case reviews, advancements in battery manufacturing, and laboratory research, there are distinct clinical factors that should be assessed at the time of initial therapy to guide follow-up management to minimize potential catastrophic sequelae of button battery ingestion. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Investigation of factors impacting mobility and gait in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; McNeely, Marie E; Campbell, Meghan C; Duncan, Ryan P; Earhart, Gammon M

    2016-10-01

    Mobility and gait limitations are major issues for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Identification of factors that contribute to these impairments may inform treatment and intervention strategies. In this study we investigated factors that predict mobility and gait impairment in PD. Participants with mild to moderate PD and without dementia (n=114) were tested in one session 'off' medication. Mobility measures included the 6-Minute Walk test and Timed-Up-and-Go. Gait velocity was collected in four conditions: forward preferred speed, forward dual task, forward fast as possible and backward walking. The predictors analyzed were age, gender, disease severity, balance, balance confidence, fall history, self-reported physical activity, and executive function. Multiple regression models were used to assess the relationships between predictors and outcomes. The predictors, in different combinations for each outcome measure, explained 55.7% to 66.9% of variability for mobility and 39.5% to 52.8% for gait velocity. Balance was the most relevant factor (explaining up to 54.1% of variance in mobility and up to 45.6% in gait velocity). Balance confidence contributed to a lesser extent (2.0% to 8.2% of variance) in all models. Age explained a small percentage of variance in mobility and gait velocity (up to 2.9%). Executive function explained 3.0% of variance during forward walking only. The strong predictive relationships between balance deficits and mobility and gait impairment suggest targeting balance deficits may be particularly important for improving mobility and gait in people with PD, regardless of an individual's age, disease severity, fall history, or other demographic features.

  3. Performance based design of reinforced concrete beams under impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tachibana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to collect fundamental data and to establish a performance-based design method for reinforced concrete beams under perpendicular impact load.

    Series of low speed impact experiments using reinforced concrete beams were performed varying span length, cross section and main reinforcement.

    The experimental results are evaluated focusing on the impact load characteristics and the impact behaviours of reinforced concrete beams. Various characteristic values and their relationships are investigated such as the collision energy, the impact force duration, the energy absorbed by the beams and the beam response values. Also the bending performance of the reinforced concrete beams against perpendicular impact is evaluated.

    An equation is proposed to estimate the maximum displacement of the beam based on the collision energy and the static ultimate bending strength. The validity of the proposed equation is confirmed by comparison with experimental results obtained by other researchers as well as numerical results obtained by FEM simulations. The proposed equation allows for a performance based design of the structure accounting for the actual deformation due to the expected impact action.

  4. IMPACT FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan-Vladut NUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of developed economies is the vital role of entrepreneurship as a central pillar of economic growth. In the context of growing number of new businesses, this article aims to highlight the key factors that affect the entrepreneurship in Romania. The authors reviewed several scientific articles and business reports and also primary data collected via direct interaction with young entrepreneurs and students that aspire to become entrepreneurs in Romania. Issues like access to financing, taxes and other administrative barriers and also entrepreneurial skills and education are discussed. Moreover, entrepreneurs’ opinions on measures to improve the entrepreneurial education are listed.

  5. Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. Methods We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI) teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. Results No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. Conclusions No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of QI teams on the quality of

  6. Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Versteeg Marleen H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. Methods We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. Results No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. Conclusions No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of

  7. Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marleen H; Laurant, Miranda G H; Franx, Gerdien C; Jacobs, Annelies J; Wensing, Michel J P

    2012-01-09

    Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI) teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of QI teams on the quality of healthcare can be drawn, but support of

  8. Analyzing the impact of human capital factors on competitivenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óhegyi Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of approaches to measure national competitiveness. However, in these reports human capital typically appears indirectly. The author's purpose is to uncover how human capital contributes to competitiveness of economies and to propose an approach to identify the most effective improvement opportunities for countries, illustrated on the example of Hungary. The analysis is based on the data of the Global Talent Index Report (2011 and the Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. The components of the Global Talent Index (GTI and their relation to the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI were analyzed with a linear programming based similarity analysis method, component-based object comparison for objectivity (COCO. Based on the output of the analysis it was identified how sensitive the Global Competitiveness Index is to the components of the GTI. Hungary's position was analyzed further to quantify improvement opportunities and threats based on the step function resulted by the COCO analysis. The author concludes that the human resource of a country is a pivotal element of national competitiveness. By developing human capital of the country the overall competitive position may be improved. Areas of priorities may be identified and the level of intervention may be quantified specific to a country. This could help policy makers to decide in the allocation of resource to maximize effectiveness, leading to improve (or protect a country's overall competitive position in the global arena.

  9. The impact of organisational factors on horizontal bullying and turnover intentions in the nursing workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Sheila; Harlos, Karen; Macleod, Martha L P; Hardy, Cindy L

    2015-11-01

    To examine the impact of organisational factors on bullying among peers (i.e. horizontal) and its effect on turnover intentions among Canadian registered nurses (RNs). Bullying among nurses is an international problem. Few studies have examined factors specific to nursing work environments that may increase exposure to bullying. An Australian model of nurse bullying was tested among Canadian registered nurse coworkers using a web-based survey (n = 103). Three factors - misuse of organisational processes/procedures, organisational tolerance and reward of bullying, and informal organisational alliances - were examined as predictors of horizontal bullying, which in turn was examined as a predictor of turnover intentions. The construct validity of model measures was explored. Informal organisational alliances and misuse of organisational processes/procedures predicted increased horizontal bullying that, in turn, predicted increased turnover intentions. Construct validity of model measures was supported. Negative informal alliances and misuse of organisational processes are antecedents to bullying, which adversely affects employment relationship stability. The results suggest that reforming flawed organisational processes that contribute to registered nurses' bullying experiences may help to reduce chronically high turnover. Nurse leaders and managers need to create workplace processes that foster positive networks, fairness and respect through more transparent and accountable practices. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dynamic Impact Factors Analysis of China's Foreign Trade at Coastal Waterways Based on State Space Model%沿海水路运输外贸动态冲击因素研究——基于状态空间模型的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑莉; 王晓惠; 陈全润

    2015-01-01

    China's ocean transportation for international trade plays a major role in global transportation for international trade, and port is the important link in international logistics transport. The international and domestic macroeconomic factors and their time impact trajectories on China's foreign trade cargo handled at coastal seaports are investigated based on the state space model. The main findings are as follows. Since the financial crisis, the positive impact of world economic growth on China's foreign trade cargo handled at coastal seaports is increased;the positive impact of the actual use of foreign direct investment is significantly weakened;the negative impact of fluctuations in the RMB nominal effective exchange rate is weakened;the positive impact of domestic economic growth is gradually weakened; the positive impact of investment on coastal transportation is increased. We obtain an indirect evidence for the transformation of China's economic development from the empirical results, i.e. China is transforming from an export-orientation-economy to a home-demand-economy, and then proposes the relevant policy recommendations.%我国海洋外贸运输在全球外贸运输中发挥重大作用,而港口是国际物流运输的重要环节.基于状态空间模型,考察了金融危机之前及之后,国际、国内主要宏观因素对我国沿海港口外贸货物吞吐量的影响轨迹.结果发现:自金融危机以来,世界经济状况对我国沿海港口外贸货物吞吐量的边际正面影响在逐渐提高,外商直接投资的边际正面影响明显减弱,人民币实际有效汇率指数波动的边际负面影响在减弱,国内经济状况的边际正面影响逐渐减弱,沿海交通建设固定资产投资的边际正面影响在增强.基于实证结果,得出我国经济由外需拉动向内需推动转型的间接证据并提出政策建议.

  11. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  12. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations.

  13. [New bibliometric indicators. Is this the end of the impact factor era?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhidi, Anna; Szluka, Péter; Vasas, Lívia

    2009-06-01

    More and more bibliometric indicators emerge beside the impact factor, and a few of them are promising performance indicators. The aim of the study is to show briefly, but clearly the newest bibliometric measure numbers - like the recent enhancements of Journal Citation Report Web, Hirsch-index, Eigenfactor and SCImago Journal & Country Rank algorithms - focusing on the ranking of oncological journals, and to demonstrate the similarities and differences of the results with some examples. There are unified and well-structured web pages behind the newly appeared indicators, and some of the new numbers are presented in the well-known databases (Web of Science, Scopus) as scientific measures. The ranking of the compared oncological journals based on the different indicators show more similarities than differences, but more in-depth studies are required to find out how the results converge on any scientific area. There are some other methods, such as usage factor of the journals, beyond the indicators based on the citations. But the main point is that any ranking system should be a valid and correct representation of the scientific quality.

  14. Reintegration Success and Failure: Factors Impacting Reintegration among Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…

  15. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  16. Quantitative Analyses in a Multivariate Study of Language Attrition: The Impact of Extralinguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Monika S.; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Most linguistic processes--acquisition, change, deterioration--take place in and are determined by a complex and multifactorial web of language internal and language external influences. This implies that the impact of each individual factor can only be determined on the basis of a careful consideration of its interplay with all other factors. The…

  17. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  18. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Grobbee, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Data on the impact of the many dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western societies are lacking. This study quantified the contributions of body weight, physical inactivity and dietary factors to the prevalence of hypertension in Finland, Italy, the Nether

  19. Reintegration Success and Failure: Factors Impacting Reintegration among Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…

  20. Impact of Organisational Factors on the Knowledge Sharing Practice of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the various organizational factors that influence the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various organizational factors on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the study…

  1. Relationship between CH4 and N2O emissions from rice field and its impacting factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOUAixin; CHENGuanxiong; WUJie; WANGZhengping

    1998-01-01

    To find out the relationship between CH4 and N2O emissions from rice field and determine the key factors affecting the emissions, and give a scientifie basis for working out mitigation options of their emissions from flooded rice field, we measured the emissions and their impacting environmental factors systematically and simultaneously from Mar to Dee in 1995-1996 in northern China.

  2. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  3. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Data on the impact of the many dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western societies are lacking. This study quantified the contributions of body weight, physical inactivity and dietary factors to the prevalence of hypertension in Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Unite

  4. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Grobbee, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Data on the impact of the many dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western societies are lacking. This study quantified the contributions of body weight, physical inactivity and dietary factors to the prevalence of hypertension in Finland, Italy, the Nether

  5. Impact Factors of Choosing Willingness for Picking up Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To obtain promotion schemes for picking up service in e-commerce logistics system, a regression analysis model of customer willingness was established with four types of independent variables including personal characteristics, parcel characteristics, environment characteristics and service evaluation on traditional home delivery. An empirical study with 479 samples collected from Taobao networks was conducted, if controlling gender and age, significant effects were confirmed such as perceived convenience on home delivery, age of online shopping, frequency of online shopping and parcel’s value. However the anticipated effects of traffic congestion, parcel dimensions, service evaluation on home delivery and other factors were not proved. The results investigated that attraction of picking up service was limited, related firms should propose a targeted marketing plan focusing on customer characteristics and parcel properties

  6. Different Impacts of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Blesa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH with and without insulin resistance. Oxidative stress markers (oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehide together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and activation of both pro-oxidant enzyme (NAPDH oxidase components and AGTR1 genes, as well as antioxidant enzyme genes (CuZn-SOD, CAT, GPX1, GSR, GSS and TXN were measured in mononuclear cells of controls (n = 20 and patients (n = 90 by assessing mRNA levels. Activity of some of these antioxidant enzymes was also tested. An increase in OS and pro-oxidant gene mRNA values was observed in patients compared to controls. The hypertensive group showed not only the highest OS values, but also the highest pro-oxidant activation compared to those observed in the other groups. In addition, in HT a significantly reduced antioxidant activity and mRNA induction of antioxidant genes were found when compared to controls and the other groups. In FH and FCH, the activation of pro-oxidant enzymes was also higher and antioxidant ones lower than in the control group, although it did not reach the values obtained in hypertensives. The thioredoxin system was more activated in patients as compared to controls, and the highest levels were in hypertensives. The increased oxidative status in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is a consequence of both the activation of pro-oxidant mechanisms and the reduction of the antioxidant ones. The altered response of the main cytoplasmic antioxidant systems largely contributes to OS despite the apparent attempt of the thioredoxin system to

  7. Analysis of factors impacting on long-term safety of coal companies based on ISM model%基于 ISM 模型的煤矿企业长效安全影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞柒; 阮平南

    2014-01-01

    This paper adopts the ISM model in an effort to establish a long-term safety sys-tem for coal companies. By analyzing the causal relations between factors within the system,this paper employs the methodology of Interpretative Structural Modeling to transform the previously complex and ambiguous structure into a clear and well-defined system. It has thus come to the conclusion that:when it comes to safe production,coal companies,while ensuring balanced bas-ic,important and key causal factors,should also focus on issues such as public opinion and hu-manistic considerations,core corporate values and morality.%采用 ISM 模型分析方法,构建了煤矿企业长效安全系统结构。通过分析系统内各因素之间的相互因果关系,运用解释结构模型方法,将复杂的、模糊不清的结构,理顺为清晰的层级结构。得到的结论是,在煤矿企业在安全生产中,除了解决好基本原因因素、重要原因因素、关键原因因素之外,着重需要解决好社会群众舆论与人文关怀、企业的核心观念文化和人的伦理道德问题。

  8. Impact of manikin based training in intern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Pramila Menon,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Newborn care is a crucial challenge that is faced by every health professional dealing with maternal and child health. Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK" a simple training module on Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation using manikins. Training of Doctors, Nurses and ANMs with appropriate knowledge and skill base of neonatal resuscitation is very important to improve the quality of newborn survival. Material and Methods: We conducted NSSK training for interns at Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Pune Regional Centre. (n= 69 .They were given pre Test which included written evaluation and Performance evaluation Part .The workshop methodology included lecture PowerPoint presentation , demonstration, videos of the same and individual practice . There was introduction and demonstration of performance evaluation (mega code followed by practice performance evaluation (mega code at respective stations .The workshop concluded with post test written test and Performance evaluation test.Results: There were good suggestions and students liked the programme very much. Majority of them expressed their confidence in handling newborns improved after this training and commented about the methodology of training as excellent. They liked the videos, demonstration, systematic and individual approach. The best part of the training was Kangaroo mother care .The participants opined that this type of training given in initial period of internship will be really useful. Conclusion: manikin based workshops along with videos and demonstrations helped the participants to increase the confidence level in handling newborns and also helped in active thinking.

  9. Ethiopia: The Impact of External Factors on the Security of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Záhořík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Ethiopia witnesses so far unseen economic growth while the transformation to democracy more or less failed. Due to the fact that the Horn of Africa belongs to the most unstable regions in Africa, external factors play a significant role in shaping and reshaping of internal politics of each state. In this study, we will focus on an analysis of external factors and their impact on security and politics in Ethiopia. As we argue, it is these factors that have a substantial impact on Ethiopian politics and security.

  10. Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor…

  11. The Impact Of Socio-Demographic Factors And Political Perceptions On Consumer Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Foods: An Econometric Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonopoulou, Lina; Christos T. Papadas; Targoutzidis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    This survey-based paper investigates the impact of socio-demographic factors, along with political perceptions, as expressed by attitudes towards globalization, on consumer attitudes towards GM foods, in Greece. Different aspects of consumer attitudes regarding GM foods are examined, such as general preference, banning, labeling, intention to purchase them at a sufficiently low price, the nutritional category of food product and the proximity of the genetic modification to the final product. ...

  12. Factor Analysis of the Aggregated Electric Vehicle Load Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs and the related infrastructure are being developed rapidly. In order to evaluate the impact of factors on the aggregated EV load and to coordinate charging, a model is established to capture the relationship between the charging load and important factors based on data mining. The factors can be categorized as internal and external. The internal factors include the EV battery size, charging rate at different places, penetration of the charging infrastructure, and charging habits. The external factor is the time-of-use pricing (TOU policy. As a massive input data is necessary for data mining, an algorithm is implemented to generate a massive sample as input data which considers real-world travel patterns based on a historical travel dataset. With the input data, linear regression was used to build a linear model whose inputs were the internal factors. The impact of the internal factors on the EV load can be quantified by analyzing the sign, value, and temporal distribution of the model coefficients. The results showed that when no TOU policy is implemented, the rate of charging at home and range anxiety exerts the greatest influence on EV load. For the external factor, a support vector regression technique was used to build a relationship between the TOU policy and EV load. Then, an optimization model based on the relationship was proposed to devise a TOU policy that levels the load. The results suggest that implementing a TOU policy reduces the difference between the peak and valley loads remarkably.

  13. Integrated impact indicators compared with impact factors : An alternative research design with policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    2011-01-01

    In bibliometrics, the association of “impact” with central-tendency statistics is mistaken. Impacts add up, and citation curves therefore should be integrated instead of averaged. For example, the journals MIS Quarterly and Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology diffe

  14. A Factoring and Discrete Logarithm based Cryptosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Ciss, Abdoul Aziz; Sow, Djiby

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new public key cryptosystem based on two hard problems : the cube root extraction modulo a composite moduli (which is equivalent to the factorisation of the moduli) and the discrete logarithm problem. These two hard problems are combined dur- ing the key generation, encryption and decryption phases. By combining the IFP and the DLP we introduce a secure and efficient public key cryptosystem. To break the scheme, an adversary may solve the IFP and the DLP separately which is computationally infeasible. The key gen- eration is a simple operation based on the discrete logarithm modulo a composite moduli. The encryption phase is based both on the cube root computation and the DLP. These operations are computationally efficient.

  15. Real Estate Price Impact Factors Analysis Based on Spatial Econometrics%基于空间计量的房地产价格影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤

    2012-01-01

    Traditional literatures suppose real estate prices in different regions are independent of each other, but the spatial dependence problem will make the regression results biased, this paper,global spatial autocorrelation Moran' s I indices are calculated and local spatial autocorrelation LISAs are figured. Results show that real estate prices exist spatial autocorrelation in our country. Using the panel data( 1999 -2009) and general spatial model, we analyse real estate prices of nationwide, eastern regions, middle regions and western regions, we find that space factor determines eastern regions' real estate price, supply and demand factors determine western regions real estate price,while nationwide and middle regions' real estate prices are decided by both. Interest rate and exchange rate have no significant effect on real estate prices.%现有文献大都认为各个地区的房地产价格是相互独立的,而事实上,空间依赖的存在会使得回归结果是有偏的。本文首先利用全局空间自相关指标(Moran’s I统计量)和局部空间自相关指标(LISA指标)检验我国房价的空间自相关,结果显示我国房价存在空间自相关。然后利用1999—2009年的省际面板数据,运用广义空间面板数据模型分析全国范围以及东、中、西部分区域房价,结果表明,在考虑了房价的空间相关性后,我国各区域房价的影响因素已不尽相同,东部地区房价基本完全由空间因素决定,西部地区房价由供给和需求等因素决定,而全国范围及中部地区房价受两者的共同影响,利率和汇率的变化对我国房价无显著影响。

  16. Impact of external factors on sperm motility of Sepiella maindroni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia; JIANG Xiamin; FENG Xiandong

    2011-01-01

    Sperm motility is important in reproductive biology. To understand the physiological ecology characteristics of sperm of Sepiella maindroni, we studied the activation rate, active time, and lifespan of sperm to evaluate the influence of external factors, including temperature, salinity, pH, glucose, NaC1, KC1, MgCl2, CaCl2, EDTA-2Na and artificial seawater on sperm motility. The results show that the appropriate activation and motility condition for sperm were: temperature 20-30掳C (optimum 25掳C), salinity 10.6-30.6 (optimum 15.9) and pH 8.0-8.6 (optimum 8.0-8.4). Sperm activity varied in different concentrations of glucose, NaCl, K.C1, MgCl2 and CaCl2. None of the selected concentrations of EDTA-2Na solution could activate the sperm. The activation rate in artificial seawater devoid of Ca+2, Mg+2 or HCO-3 was low. The results should help further studies on the preservation and activation of squid sperm.

  17. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia N Hocine

    Full Text Available We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention.

  18. Vibration factors impact analysis on aerial film camera imaging quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Han, Wei; Xu, Zhonglin; Tan, Haifeng; Yang, Mingquan

    2017-08-01

    Aerial film camera can acquire ground target image information advantageous, but meanwhile the change of aircraft attitude, the film features and the work of camera inside system could result in a vibration which could depress the image quality greatly. This paper presented a design basis of vibration mitigation stabilized platform based on the vibration characteristic of the aerial film camera and indicated the application analysis that stabilized platform could support aerial camera to realize the shoot demand of multi-angle and large scale. According to the technique characteristics of stabilized platform, the development direction are high precision, more agility, miniaturization and low power.

  19. Evaluating risk factor assumptions: a simulation-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglioretti Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsimulation models are an important tool for estimating the comparative effectiveness of interventions through prediction of individual-level disease outcomes for a hypothetical population. To estimate the effectiveness of interventions targeted toward high risk groups, the mechanism by which risk factors influence the natural history of disease must be specified. We propose a method for evaluating these risk factor assumptions as part of model-building. Methods We used simulation studies to examine the impact of risk factor assumptions on the relative rate (RR of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality for a cohort with a risk factor compared to a cohort without the risk factor using an extension of the CRC-SPIN model for colorectal cancer. We also compared the impact of changing age at initiation of screening colonoscopy for different risk mechanisms. Results Across CRC-specific risk factor mechanisms, the RR of CRC incidence and mortality decreased (towards one with increasing age. The rate of change in RRs across age groups depended on both the risk factor mechanism and the strength of the risk factor effect. Increased non-CRC mortality attenuated the effect of CRC-specific risk factors on the RR of CRC when both were present. For each risk factor mechanism, earlier initiation of screening resulted in more life years gained, though the magnitude of life years gained varied across risk mechanisms. Conclusions Simulation studies can provide insight into both the effect of risk factor assumptions on model predictions and the type of data needed to calibrate risk factor models.

  20. Classification of Gait Types Based on the Duty-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with classification of human gait types based on the notion that different gait types are in fact different types of locomotion, i.e., running is not simply walking done faster. We present the duty-factor, which is a descriptor based on this notion. The duty-factor is independent...

  1. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  2. THE IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION ON ACCOUNTING FIRMS IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL: FACTOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir Zwirtes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of computer use and software development brought about intense modifications in accounting firms’ procedures as from the 1990’s. From the perspective of accounting professionals, the impact of these innovations has not been properly analyzed. Therefore, the general objective in this study is to assess the impacts technological innovation has caused in the accounting firms in Rio Grande do Sul as from 1990. From the methodological viewpoint, the research is exploratory and the data were collected through a survey, using a structured questionnaire with a scale from zero to ten. The non-probabilistic sample included 408 respondents and the analyses based on these questionnaires took place using “R” factor analysis. Among the results, the respondents’ perception that the technological innovation permitted more agile service provision is highlighted, as well as better information quality and the provision of more useful information to the managers. The element that most influenced the firms was the arrival of the Internet. Nevertheless, these innovations enhanced the complexity of the firms’ tasks and the need to capture the employees.

  3. Suggestion: Human Factor Based User Interface Design Tool

    OpenAIRE

    S.Q. Abbas,; Rizwan Beg; Shahnaz Fatima

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce HFBUIT, Human Factor based user interface tool that enables designers and engineers to create human factor based user interface. This tool will help the designer to utilize the knowledge about the user to configure the interface for different users, i.e. each user may have different skills, level of experience, or cognitive and physical disabilities. The tool makes it easy to knowhuman factors & to reduce the number of usability problems. HFBUIT can be used in real...

  4. Factors that may impact on immunosenescence: an appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kövesdi Valéria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing ratio of ageing population poses new challenges to healthcare systems. The elderly frequently suffer from severe infections. Vaccination could protect them against several infectious diseases, but it can be effective only if cells that are capable of responding are still present in the repertoire. Recent vaccination strategies in the elderly might achieve low effectiveness due to age-related immune impairment. Immunosenescence affects both the innate and adaptive immunity. Beside individual variations of genetic predisposition, epigenetic changes over the full course of human life exert immunomodulating effects. Disturbances in macrophage-derived cytokine release and reduction of the natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity lead to increased frequency of infections. Ageing dampens the ability of B cells to produce antibodies against novel antigens. Exhausted memory B lymphocyte subsets replace naïve cells. Decline of cell-mediated immunity is the consequence of multiple changes, including thymic atrophy, reduced output of new T lymphocytes, accumulation of anergic memory cells, and deficiencies in cytokines production. Persistent viral and parasitic infections contribute to the loss of immunosurveillance and premature exhaustion of T cells. Reduced telomerase activity and Toll-like receptor expression can be improved by chemotherapy. Reversion of thymic atrophy could be achieved by thymus transplantation, depletion of accumulated dysfunctional naive T cells and herpesvirus-specific exhausted memory cells. Administration of interleukin (IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, keratinocyte growth factor, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, as well as leptin and growth hormone boost thymopoiesis. In animals, several strategies have been explored to produce superior vaccines. Among them, virosomal vaccines containing polypeptide antigens or DNA plasmids as well as new adjuvanted vaccine formulations elicit higher dendritic cell activity and more

  5. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Seitz, K

    2016-01-01

    been on peripheral nerves 23. Surprisingly many good scientific papers on obstetrics/fetal US and musculoskeletal US have low citation rates 24 25 26. Our predictions for 2016 based on the topics of submitted articles in the last 12 months are that CEUS and elastography will continue to be popular...... topics.It is also worth mentioning that there can be a discrepancy between which titles are cited and which are accessed online. In addition to international guidelines, our CME articles are usually popular according to online access. CME articles are well established educational papers...... observed that some journals have abandoned the publication of case reports, thus leaving them to spin-off journals. The rationale is that keeping case reports in a journal will only increase the denominator, thereby decreasing the IF 39. At our journal we have seen a decline in case report submissions...

  6. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ).

  7. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-06-15

    Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO₂ is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Asthma phenotypes modify the impact of environmetnal factors on lung function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have examined the role of childhood asthma phenotypes based on clinical history on asthma severity and symptom aggravation by environmental risk factors. The current study focuses on the associations between lung function in childhood and environmental factors an...

  9. Factors impacting the decision to participate in and satisfaction with public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-10-01

    During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership.

  10. The citation-based indicator and combined impact indicator - New options for measuring impact

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Metrics based on percentile ranks (PRs) for measuring scholarly impact involves complex treatment because of various defects such as overvaluing or devaluing an object caused by percentile ranking schemes, ignoring precise citation variation among those ranked next to each other, and inconsistency caused by additional papers or citations. These defects are especially obvious in a small-sized dataset. To avoid the complicated treatment of PRs based metrics, we propose two new indicators - the citation-based indicator (CBI) and the combined impact indicator (CII). Document types of publications are taken into account. With the two indicators, one would no more be bothered by complex issues encountered by PRs based indicators. For a small-sized dataset with less than 100 papers, special calculation is no more needed. The CBI is based solely on citation counts and the CII measures the integrate contributions of publications and citations. Both virtual and empirical data are used so as to compare the effect of rel...

  11. Where's the impairment: an examination of factors that impact sustained attention following a stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Welhaf, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    The impact of stress on cognitive functioning has been examined across multiple domains. However, few studies investigate both physical and psychological factors that impact cognitive performance. The current study examined the impact of a physical and psychosocial stressor on sustained attention and identified factors related to sustained attention, including cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and mind wandering. A total of 53 participants completed either the socially evaluated cold pressor task or a control task followed by the sustained attention to response task with mind wandering measures. Participants also provided saliva samples following the attention task. Results indicate the stressor task did not impact mind wandering or sustained attention but increased cortisol and sAA. Mind wandering was negatively related to sustained attention and mediated the relationship between cortisol and sustained attention. The findings highlight the importance of examining multiple sources of stress-related cognitive impairments.

  12. The Skin Picking Impact Scale: Factor structure, validity and development of a short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Flessner, Christopher A; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Woods, Douglas W

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Impact Scale (SPIS; Keuthen, Deckersbach, Wilhelm et al., 2001), a 10 item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the psychosocial impact of skin picking disorder (SPD). Participants were 650 individuals who met criteria for SPD in an online survey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a unitary factor structure with high internal consistency (α = 0.94). Consequently, we constructed an abbreviated 4-item version that retained good internal consistency (α = 0.87) and a robust factor structure. Both the short and the full versions demonstrated discriminant and convergent/concurrent validity. In conclusion, the findings indicate that both versions are psychometrically sound measures of SPD related psychosocial impact; however, some potential limitations of the full scale are discussed.

  13. [Limiting a Medline/PubMed query to the "best" articles using the JCR relative impact factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avillach, P; Kerdelhué, G; Devos, P; Maisonneuve, H; Darmoni, S J

    2014-12-01

    Medline/PubMed is the most frequently used medical bibliographic research database. The aim of this study was to propose a new generic method to limit any Medline/PubMed query based on the relative impact factor and the A & B categories of the SIGAPS score. The entire PubMed corpus was used for the feasibility study, then ten frequent diseases in terms of PubMed indexing and the citations of four Nobel prize winners. The relative impact factor (RIF) was calculated by medical specialty defined in Journal Citation Reports. The two queries, which included all the journals in category A (or A OR B), were added to any Medline/PubMed query as a central point of the feasibility study. Limitation using the SIGAPS category A was larger than the when using the Core Clinical Journals (CCJ): 15.65% of PubMed corpus vs 8.64% for CCJ. The response time of this limit applied to the entire PubMed corpus was less than two seconds. For five diseases out of ten, limiting the citations with the RIF was more effective than with the CCJ. For the four Nobel prize winners, limiting the citations with the RIF was more effective than the CCJ. The feasibility study to apply a new filter based on the relative impact factor on any Medline/PubMed query was positive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting miniature Izod impact strength of tungsten-fiber-metal-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The miniature Izod and Charpy impact strengths of copper, copper-nickel, and nickel-base superalloy uniaxially reinforced with continuous tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases, impact strength was increased by increasing fiber or matrix toughness, decreasing fibermatrix reaction, increasing test temperature, hot working, or heat treating. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber content or matrix toughness. An equation relating impact strength to fiber and matrix properties and fiber content was developed. Program results imply that tungsten alloy-fiber/superalloy matrix composites can be made with adequate impact resistance for turbine blade or vane applications.

  15. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  16. 教师因素、学生因素对学生学业成绩影响的实证研究——基于大规模测验数据的多层线性模型分析%A Empirical Study on the Impact of Teacher' s and Student' s Factors to Their Academic Performance ~-Based on A Multi -Linear Analysis to A Large Scale Test Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咏梅; 郝懿; 李美娟

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the teacher' s and student' factors to their academic performance, based on an analysis to the test data from Beijing large scale 0ssessment in compulsory education. The teacher's factor includes their personal background and working styles, while student' s factor includes of their personal background and learning styles. Through a multilevel analysis, it found that: 1 ) Students' performance shows significant difference among classes ; 2) For the teacher's background factor, their gender, years of teaching, and knowledge background have significantly impact on the students' performance, while their educational level and academic title show no impact; 3 ) For the teacher' s working style factor, whether or not teaching different subject has significant impact on the student' s performance, while their week- ly instruction hours shows no impact; 4) For the student' s background factors, gender and single child or not show signifi- cant influence on their performance, while local or non - local identification has no influence; 5 ) For student' s learning style factor, their self education expectation, learning habit, homework completion, reading, and extracurricular study, all have significant impact on their learning, while hours for homework shows no influence.%运用北京市义务教育阶段三年级学生大规模学业测验数据,对影响学生学业成绩的教师因素、学生因素进行分析。多层线性模型分析结果表明:学生学业成绩具有显著的班级间差异。来自于教师背景因素的教师性别、教龄和专业一致化程度,教师工作因素中的教师是否兼教等对班级学业成绩产生显著影响;来自于学生背景因素的学生性别、独生与否,学生学习因素中的学生自我教育期待、学习习惯、完成作业方式、课外阅读量、课外学习情况等对学生学业成绩产生显著影响。

  17. The Impact of Soft Factors on Quality Improvement in Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Fauzi Ahmad, Md; Kong, Mei Wan

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, soft factors have become the key factors of success in quality improvement of an organisation. Many organisations have neglected the importance of soft factors, this may influence the organisational performance. Hence, the purpose of this research is to examine the impact of soft factors on quality improvement in manufacturing industries. Six hypotheses were examined while considering six dimensions of soft factors including management commitment, customer focus, supplier relationship, employee involvement, training and education, and reward and recognition that have a positive impact on quality improvement. In this study, eighty one managers from the quality department were randomly selected in the manufacturing industry in Batu Pahat, Johor. The questionnaires were distributed to them. The researcher analysed the quantitatively collected data using descriptive analysis and correlation analysis. The findings of this study revealed that all soft factors are correlated to the quality improvement in an organisation with a high significant value but the regression analysis shows that the supplier relationship and employee involvement has more significant impact on quality improvement as compared to other soft factors which contributes of this study.

  18. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  19. Bradford’s law, the long tail principle, and transparency in Journal Impact Factor calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Llimos F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the commonly mentioned limitations of the Journal Impact Factor, we discuss the obsolete principle of selecting journals to create a fake-representative sample of ‘journals that matter’ and the opacity around the calculation and listing of Impact Factors. We use the example of Pharmacy Practice in 2015 for illustration. We hypothesize that a business-oriented system of measuring the science and quality of scholarly journals may not be the best option to avoid biases and conflicts of interest.

  20. Advancing the science of nursing education: rethinking the meaning and significance of impact factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2007-01-01

    It is not the case that impact factors are unhelpful and that their use should be abolished. Indeed, ISI is continuing to refine existing and develop new databases to provide important information to researchers, administrators, librarians, and editors. Impact factor data do provide useful information for the review process if used judiciously and with an awareness of what these data do and do not indicate. Perhaps it is timely for members of the nursing discipline to think more broadly about the nature of impact and to talk more about the ways in which review processes can account for the many ways the impact of research can be demonstrated. For example, as part of the review process, reviewers might ask each researcher to provide exemplars from teaching or clinical practice settings in which their research is actually being used. Researchers might also be asked to describe the impact that has occurred in ways other than through publication (e.g., presentations, consulting) and how this impact was determined. Creating review processes that allow researchers to describe their decision making related to disseminating their research and how this reflects their ability to influence the discipline may provide a more realistic picture of impact than calculated figures alone.

  1. Prioritization of factors impacting on performance of power looms using AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulange, S. R.; Pundir, A. K.; Ganapathy, L.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors influencing the performance of power loom textiles, to evaluate their impact on the organizational performance and to find out the effect of these factors on the organizational performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Solapur (Maharashtra) industrial sector using AHP. In the methodology adopted, factors are identified through the literature survey and finalization of these factors is done by taking the opinion of experts in the Indian context. By cognitive map, the relation between these factors (direct and indirect effect) is determined and cause and effect diagram is prepared. Then these factors are arranged hierarchically and tree diagram is prepared. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts; data is collected. Using expert choice software data is filled to quantify by pair-wise comparison of these factors and are prioritized. The weights demonstrate several key findings: local and global priority reveals that there is a substantial effect of the human resource, product style, and volume on the organizational performance. The skills and technology upgradation impact on organizational performance. Maintenance plays an important role in improving the organizational performances of the SMEs. Overall, the results showed the central role of the operational factors are important. The research is subject to the normal limitations of AHP. The study is using perceptual data provided by Experts which may not provide clear measures of impact factors. However, this can be overcome using more experts to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalisable outside Solapur like Ichalkarnji, Malegaon, and Bhiwadi (Maharashtra). Solapur power loom SMEs should consider AHP as an innovative tool for quantification of factors impacting on performance and improving operational and organizational performance in today's dynamic

  2. [The Impact of Risk Factors and Effective Factors on Success in Crisis Intervention for Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisiol, Florian; Juen, Barbara; Unterrainer, Christine

    2017-05-01

    The Impact of Risk Factors and Effective Factors on Success in Crisis Intervention for Children and Adolescents This article focuses on the evaluation of (inpatient) crisis interventions for children and adolescents, who can be admitted into the residential area of the KIZ for up to eight weeks in order to provide acute protection against massive violence, neglect or family conflicts in emergency situations. How successful the crisis intervention is or can be depends on various factors that have been worked out in this study. Various factors have an impact on success in crisis intervention; above all the participation, a good relationship and/or cooperation with the Counselors in the Crisis Intervention Center contribute to a great success. Restoring their own possibilities for action after a massive crisis, the strengthening of self-efficacy in crisis intervention must be considered critically. The young clients see little change here. The crisis intervention must therefore not only focus on its most important function, protection and security, but also on the strengthening of self-esteem and a positive sense of coherence as part of the crisis intervention.

  3. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  4. School-Based Management Developments: Challenges and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandur, Agustinus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the current school-based management (SBM) policy reform in Indonesia, with an emphasis on the impacts of shifting authority and responsibility to school level, as well as challenges confronted by the school council members, followed by remedial measures to minimize the problems.…

  5. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  6. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch.

  7. Soil factors of ecosystems' disturbance risk reduction under the impact of rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechetov, Pavel; Koroleva, Tatyana; Sharapova, Anna; Chernitsova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Environmental impacts occur at all stages of space rocket launch. One of the most dangerous consequences of a missile launch is pollution by components of rocket fuels ((unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)). The areas subjected to falls of the used stages of carrier rockets launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome occupy thousands of square kilometers of different natural landscapes: from dry steppes of Kazakhstan to the taiga of West Siberia and mountains of the Altai-Sayany region. The study aims at assessing the environmental risk of adverse effects of rocket fuel on the soil. Experimental studies have been performed on soil and rock samples with specified parameters of the material composition. The effect of organic matter, acid-base properties, particle size distribution, and mineralogy on the decrease in the concentration of UDMH in equilibrium solutions has been studied. It has been found that the soil factors are arranged in the following series according to the effect on UDMH mobility: acid-base properties > organic matter content >clay fraction mineralogy > particle size distribution. The estimation of the rate of self-purification of contaminated soil is carried out. Experimental study of the behavior of UDMH in soil allowed to define a model for calculating critical loads of UDMH in terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  9. Impacts of Climatic Factors on Runoff Coefficients in Source Regions of the Huanghe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liqun; LIU Changming; LI Yanping; WANG Guoqiang

    2007-01-01

    Runoff coefficients of the source regions of the Huanghe River in 1956-2000 were analyzed in this paper. In the 1990s runoff of Tangnaihai Hydrologic Station of the Huanghe River experienced a serious decrease, which had attracted considerable attention. Climate changes have important impact on the water resources availability. From the view of water cycling, runoff coefficients are important indexes of water resources in a particular catchment. Kalinin baseflow separation technique was improved based on the characteristics of precipitation and streamflow. After the separation of runoff coefficient (R/P), baseflow coefficient (Br/P) and direct runoff coefficient (Dr/P) were estimated. Statistic analyses were applied to assessing the impact of precipitation and temperature on runoff coefficients (including Dr/P,Br/P and R/P). The results show that in the source regions of the Huanghe River, mean annual baseflow coefficient was higher than mean annual direct runoff coefficient. Annual runoff coefficients were in direct proportion to annual precipitation and in inverse proportion to annual mean temperature. The decrease of runoff coefficients in the 1990s was closely related to the decrease in precipitation and increase in temperature in the same period. Over different sub-basins of the source regions of the Huanghe River, runoff coefficients responded differently to precipitation and temperature. In the area above Jimai Hydrologic Station where annual mean temperature is -3.9 ℃, temperature is the main factor influencing the runoff coefficients. Runoff coefficients were in inverse relation to temperature, and precipitation had nearly no impact on runoff coefficients. In subbasin between Jimai and Maqu Hydrologic Station Dr/P was mainly affected by precipitation while R/P and Br/P were both significantly influenced by precipitation and temperature. In the area between Maqu and Tangnaihai hydrologic stations all the three runoff coefficients increased with the rising

  10. Impact of nonsynonymous mutations of factor X on the functions of factor X and anticoagulant activity of edoxaban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kengo; Morishima, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Shinichi; Ishihara, Hiroaki; Shibano, Toshiro; Murata, Mitsuru

    2015-03-01

    Edoxaban is an oral direct factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor and its efficacy as an oral anticoagulant is less subject to drug-food and drug-drug interaction than existing vitamin K antagonists. Although this profile of edoxaban suggests it is well suited for clinical use, it is not clear whether genetic variations of factor X influence the activity of edoxaban. Our aim was to investigate a possible impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the factor X gene on the functions of factor X and the activity of edoxaban. Two nonsynonymous SNPs within mature factor X, Ala152Thr and Gly192Arg, were selected as possible candidates that might affect the functions of FXa and the activity of edoxaban. We measured catalytic activities of wild type and mutant FXas in a chromogenic assay using S-2222 and coagulation times including prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thrombin time (aPTT) of plasma-containing recombinant FXs in the presence and absence of edoxaban. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters of FXas, Km and Vmax values, PT and aPTT were not influenced by either mutation indicating these mutations do not affect the FXa catalytic and coagulation activities. The Ki values of edoxaban for the FXas and the concentrations of edoxaban required to double PT and aPTT were not different between wild type and mutated FXas indicating that both mutations have little impact on the activity of edoxaban. In conclusion, these data suggest that edoxaban has little interpatient variability stemming from SNPs in the factor X gene.

  11. Space-based Observation for sensitive Factors of Global Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huadong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global change refers to anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, pedosphere and lithosphere over the past century. It is a long process with large dimensions. Factors sensitive to these changes mainly include performance factors (such as temperature and precipitation), response factors (such as eco-system, natural disasters, water resources, variations in snow and ice), and driving factors (greenhouse gases and reflection rates). Global change has caught the attention of the world. China is one of the countries exerting a profound impact on this process. In addition, it has typical and unique zones vulnerable to global change: high-altitude regions (such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau), arid and semi-arid areas (such as farming-grazing transitional zones), long coastal zones and regions for intensive human activities.

  12. Impact of cultural factors on attitude toward using ERP systems in public hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez; Lourdes Bartual-Sopena

    2015-01-01

    The main problems that arise in adopting most enterprise resources planning (ERP) strategies come from organizational, rather than technical, issues, for example, social and cultural barriers, and user resistance. This paper analyzes the impact of cultural factors on user attitudes toward ERP use in public hospitals and identifying influencing factors. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The proposed model has six constructs (“resistance to be...

  13. Using Factor Analysis Tool to Analyze the Important Packaging Elements that Impact Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vjollca Visoka Hasani; Jusuf Zeqiri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the elements that play an important role on consumer’s buying behavior. The purpose of this research is to find out the main important factors related with the packaging effect. Companies in order to create the right packaging for their products, they must understand the consumer buying process and understand the role and the impact of packaging elements as variables that can influence the purchase decision. So, by understanding what factors influen...

  14. A two-factor theory for concussion assessment using ImPACT: memory and speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Maerlender, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    We present the initial validation of a two-factor structure of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) using ImPACT composite scores and document the reliability and validity of this factor structure. Factor analyses were conducted for baseline (N = 21,537) and post-concussion (N = 560) data, yielding "Memory" (Verbal and Visual) and "Speed" (Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time) Factors; inclusion of Total Symptom Scores resulted in a third discrete factor. Speed and Memory z-scores were calculated, and test-retest reliability (using intra-class correlation coefficients) at 1 month (0.88/0.81), 1 year (0.85/0.75), and 2 years (0.76/0.74) were higher than published data using Composite scores. Speed and Memory scores yielded 89% sensitivity and 70% specificity, which was higher than composites (80%/62%) and comparable with subscales (91%/69%). This emergent two-factor structure has improved test-retest reliability with no loss of sensitivity/specificity and may improve understanding and interpretability of ImPACT test results.

  15. The Impact of MALL on Task-based Curriculum Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文辉

    2015-01-01

    The following is a research proposal for finding out“what is the impact of MALL on task-based curriculum development”.Ever since late 1960, the emergence of online learning has brought a wave of new MALL.The study aims to provides model of better assess for students to acquire knowledge through MALL.A cross-sectional survey combining both qualitative and quantitative method would be employed to apply a prospective research on the corresponding impact.Expected results of the transformation of student learning performance after the utilization of MALL would lead to the influence of activity theory.

  16. Reachability-based impact as a measure for insiderness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2013-01-01

    Insider threats pose a difficult problem for many organisations. While organisations in principle would like to judge the risk posed by a specific insider threat, this is in general not possible. This limitation is caused partly by the lack of models for human behaviour, partly by restrictions...... of impact of an insider, and present different realisations of impact. The suggested approach results in readily usable techniques that allow to get a quick overview of potential insider threats based on locations and assets reachable by employees. We present several variations ranging from pure...

  17. Study on ecological impact evaluation for land consolidation based on cloud model: a case study of Miaotan town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-lin; Fan, Min; Yang, Xiao-yu; Liu, Hui

    2008-10-01

    Combining the basic theory of cloud model and the process of ecological impact evaluation for land consolidation, the author constructs the rule of ecological impact evaluation and the cloud models of the antecedent and the consequent, by translating the uncertain factor conditions into quantitative values with the uncertain illation based on cloud model, computes the evaluation factor scores and comprehensive scores of MiaoTan, and then, comparing the results with composite index computation method and fuzzy comprehensive assessment, a feasible method used in Ecological Impact Evaluation for Land Consolidation is proposed.

  18. The impact factor of rheumatology journals : an analysis of 2008 and the recent 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Min; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite various weaknesses, the impact factor (IF) is still used as an important indictor for scientific quality in specific subject categories. In the current study, the IFs of rheumatology journals over the past 10 years were serially analyzed and compared with that from other fields. For the past

  19. The impact factor of rheumatology journals : an analysis of 2008 and the recent 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Min; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite various weaknesses, the impact factor (IF) is still used as an important indictor for scientific quality in specific subject categories. In the current study, the IFs of rheumatology journals over the past 10 years were serially analyzed and compared with that from other fields. For the past

  20. Impact factor trends for general medical journals: non-English-language journals are lagging behind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) is a common citation metric used for evaluating and comparing scientific journals within a certain field. Previous studies have shown that IFs are increasing. However, rates may depend on journal publication language. The aim of this study was to determine IF values...... and trends for general medical journals, comparing non-English-language with English-language journals....

  1. Impact of environmental factors on the demographic characteristics in Tomsk Oblast (Russia, 1980-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, E.; Mezhibor, A.; Makarenko, T.

    2016-09-01

    The research represents the analysis of essential demographic indexes in Tomsk Oblast (Russia): birth-rate, death-rate, natural increase (1980-2015), migration increase (19972014), and child mortality (1990-2015). Environmental factors were determined as influencing the health and as a consequence, having the impact on the demographic characteristics of the studied region.

  2. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk.

  3. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  4. [National and international impact factor of Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Castellano Gómez, M; Simó Meléndez, R; Navarro Molina, C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the bibliometric indicators of Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría that were obtained from the study "Potential impact factor of the Spanish medical journals in 2001", financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. The citations made in Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría and its national and international impact factor and immediacy index have been obtained by the use of a methodology similar to the one used by the Institute for Scientific Information. The national indicators only take into account the citations made in 87 Spanish journals considered as sources, while those from the foreign source journals of Science Citation Index have been added to the previously cited ones. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría has obtained a national impact factor of 0.315 and an international impact factor of 0.395, which places it as a leader in the Spanish psychiatric journals.

  5. The Journal Impact Factor: Does It Devalue Applied Research in Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Elward K.

    2012-01-01

    A troubling trend in research is the reliance on the journal impact factor (IF) to establish a perceived "value" or importance of scholarly publications. Given that the IF of different scholarly journals may vary greatly, this phenomenon not only influences which journals receive submissions, but is beginning to influence the type of research that…

  6. Quantitative analyses in a multivariate study of language attrition : the impact of extralinguistic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, Monika S.; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Most linguistic processes - acquisition, change, deterioration - take place in and are determined by a complex and multifactorial web of language internal and language external influences. This implies that the impact of each individual factor can only be determined on the basis of a careful conside

  7. Quantitative analyses in a multivariate study of language attrition: The impact of extralinguistic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, M.S.; Dusseldorp, E.

    2010-01-01

    Most linguistic processes - acquisition, change, deterioration - take place in and are determined by a complex and multifactorial web of language internal and language external influences. This implies that the impact of each individual factor can only be determined on the basis of a careful conside

  8. [SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF THE IMPACT FACTOR OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    The reason of higher number of citations of some articles is discussed. Some considerations about the journals' impact factor, its merits and its pitfalls are also made. Scientific journals' impact factor, popularized by the Institute for Scientific Information, has become an objective parameter for authors' evaluation and also for institutions and other related circumstances. There is no reason for the impact factor's gap between some English journals and those written in other languages. English journals probably benefit of the "Mathew's effect", according to which eminent scientists are more rewarded by similar contributions than others less known. It is paradoxical that most of the major achievements of our age do not appear among the 100 most cited articles. There is no homogeneity among all the articles appearing in each scientific journal: half of the articles are cited ten times more than the other half. However, those articles cited 0 times are credited like the better ones. Each article should be evaluated by its own citations, which would be its impact factor; the authors should be evaluated by their H index.

  9. Factors that Impact Software Project Success in Offshore Information Technology (IT) Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edara, Venkatarao

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are unsuccessful at a rate of 65% to 75% per year, in spite of employing the latest technologies and training employees. Although many studies have been conducted on project successes in U.S. companies, there is a lack of research studying the impact of various factors on software project success in offshore IT…

  10. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  11. Impact of ideal health behaviors and health factors on the detection rate of the carotid plaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高竞生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of ideal health behaviors and health factors on the detection rate of the carotid plaques. Methods Subjects with previous stroke,TIA,myocardial infarction were excluded from the study.A total of 5 852 employees(active and retired employers

  12. Judicious Use of Journal Impact Factors and the Preservation of Our Fields of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    This article comments on the judicious use of journal impact factors. It aims to preserve our fields of study within the context of increased scholarly scrutiny and the hierarchical structures inherent in academia. It concludes by recommending actions for "JOPERD," other journals in the field, and the producers and evaluators of…

  13. The Journal Impact Factor: Does It Devalue Applied Research in Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Elward K.

    2012-01-01

    A troubling trend in research is the reliance on the journal impact factor (IF) to establish a perceived "value" or importance of scholarly publications. Given that the IF of different scholarly journals may vary greatly, this phenomenon not only influences which journals receive submissions, but is beginning to influence the type of research that…

  14. [Beyond the impact factor. Reflections on the book of Stefanie Haustein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András

    2015-09-20

    The excellent book on multidimensional journal evaluation by Stefanie Haustein helps to find the place of the impact factor in the complex system of journal evaluation indicators. By delimiting the dimensions of evaluation and the user groups, the author of the book creates a framework that serves as a novel and useful guidance both for the lay reader and the expert.

  15. The "Human Factor" in Pure and in Applied Mathematics. Systems Everywhere: Their Impact on Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the relationship between people and mathematics could have on the development of pure and applied mathematics. Argues for (1) a growing interest in philosophy, history and sociology of science; (2) new models in educational and psychological research; and (3) a growing awareness of the human factor in technology,…

  16. Form or Flesh: Social Factors That Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Patricia A.

    The social factors that impact Caucasian middle-class women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE) were examined through in-depth interviews with 15 women who were selected to represent a mix of women who practiced BSE monthly, occasionally, or never. The meaning of BSE was analyzed in relation to body image and the social definition of being…

  17. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  18. An empirical survey to measure the impact of different factors on the success of electronic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sehhat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role in today business enterprises. Today, many invest more and more to increase their abilities on providing better services on the internet. In this paper, we study the impact of five factors namely awareness from the site, site attractiveness, promotional effectiveness, effectiveness and Shopping impacts and effectiveness and loyalty on the success of electronic marketing. We have distributed a questionnaire consists of various questions and distributed them among 984 people and received 595 in Likert scale. The Cronbach alphas for all five sets of questions were well above the minimum desired level. We implement a multi regression function and the results confirm that all five mentioned factors impact the sales of e-marketing, significantly.

  19. Fire-related cognitions moderate the impact of risk factors on adjustment following wildfire disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Christine D; Ellwanger, Joel

    2009-10-01

    This study builds upon current understanding of risk and protective factors for post-disaster adjustment by examining relationships between disaster-related cognitions, three empirically supported risk factors for poorer adjustment (i.e., greater disaster impact, female gender, and racial/ethnic minority status), and three common post-disaster outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints). Participants were 200 students exposed to wildfire disaster. Simultaneous hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, during the acute stress period: (1) disaster-related cognitions in interaction with fire impact and minority status, as well as gender, were related to anxiety symptoms, (2) cognitions were related to depression symptoms, and (3) cognitions in interaction with minority status, as well as fire impact, were related to somatic symptoms. No examined variables predicted symptom change.

  20. Integrative Approach to Quality Assessment of Medical Journals Using Impact Factor, Eigenfactor, and Article Influence Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Jacques; Sin, Don D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impact factor (IF) is a commonly used surrogate for assessing the scientific quality of journals and articles. There is growing discontent in the medical community with the use of this quality assessment tool because of its many inherent limitations. To help address such concerns, Eigenfactor (ES) and Article Influence scores (AIS) have been devised to assess scientific impact of journals. The principal aim was to compare the temporal trends in IF, ES, and AIS on the rank order of leading medical journals over time. Methods The 2001 to 2008 IF, ES, AIS, and number of citable items (CI) of 35 leading medical journals were collected from the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and the http://www.eigenfactor.org databases. The journals were ranked based on the published 2008 ES, AIS, and IF scores. Temporal score trends and variations were analyzed. Results In general, the AIS and IF values provided similar rank orders. Using ES values resulted in large changes in the rank orders with higher ranking being assigned to journals that publish a large volume of articles. Since 2001, the IF and AIS of most journals increased significantly; however the ES increased in only 51% of the journals in the analysis. Conversely, 26% of journals experienced a downward trend in their ES, while the rest experienced no significant changes (23%). This discordance between temporal trends in IF and ES was largely driven by temporal changes in the number of CI published by the journals. Conclusion The rank order of medical journals changes depending on whether IF, AIS or ES is used. All of these metrics are sensitive to the number of citable items published by journals. Consumers should thus consider all of these metrics rather than just IF alone in assessing the influence and importance of medical journals in their respective disciplines. PMID:20419115

  1. Identification of High-Impact cis-Regulatory Mutations Using Transcription Factor Specific Random Forest Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Svetlichnyy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genomes contain vast amounts of somatic mutations, many of which are passenger mutations not involved in oncogenesis. Whereas driver mutations in protein-coding genes can be distinguished from passenger mutations based on their recurrence, non-coding mutations are usually not recurrent at the same position. Therefore, it is still unclear how to identify cis-regulatory driver mutations, particularly when chromatin data from the same patient is not available, thus relying only on sequence and expression information. Here we use machine-learning methods to predict functional regulatory regions using sequence information alone, and compare the predicted activity of the mutated region with the reference sequence. This way we define the Predicted Regulatory Impact of a Mutation in an Enhancer (PRIME. We find that the recently identified driver mutation in the TAL1 enhancer has a high PRIME score, representing a "gain-of-target" for MYB, whereas the highly recurrent TERT promoter mutation has a surprisingly low PRIME score. We trained Random Forest models for 45 cancer-related transcription factors, and used these to score variations in the HeLa genome and somatic mutations across more than five hundred cancer genomes. Each model predicts only a small fraction of non-coding mutations with a potential impact on the function of the encompassing regulatory region. Nevertheless, as these few candidate driver mutations are often linked to gains in chromatin activity and gene expression, they may contribute to the oncogenic program by altering the expression levels of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

  2. Analysis of impact factors about satisfaction degree for food safety supervision based on grey relational model%基于灰色关联模型的食品安全监管满意度影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育红; 林峰; 仝静; 吴林海; 唐建荣

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of impact factors about satisfaction degree for food safety supervision was developed in this paper. For problems that there were many factors having impacts on satisfaction degree of food safety supervision,the extent of regulation of the law system for food safety,the extent of law enforcement and food industry supervision,the extent of publicity for food safety,the extent of perfection of food safety certification mechanism and the building of government emergency response capacity for food safety were used to form the mainly questionnaire. The most important factor which had an impact on the satisfaction degree of food safety could be found based on grey relational analysis according to the collecting data. At the same time, a sequence could be obtained in terms of the important extent. The extent of perfection of food safety certification mechanism was the most important factor influencing the satisfaction degree of food safety supervision in terms of the empirical result. And the next was the extent of law enforcement and food industry supervision. The government could improve the satisfaction degree of food safety supervision by strengthening the extent of perfection of food safety certification mechanism and the extent of law enforcement and food industry supervision according to research results.%主要对食品安全监管满意度的主要影响因素进行分析.针对食品安全监管满意度影响因素众多的问题,使用食品安全法律体系规范程度、食品行业监管与执法力度、食品安全宣传力度、食品安全认证机制完善程度、食品安全事件政府应急反应能力建设等影响因素设置调查问卷.根据调研得到的数据,通过灰色关联分析的方法寻找影响食品安全监管满意度的最重要影响因素,并把上述5个因素按重要程度进行排序.根据实际调研数据得到的计算结果,发现食品安全认证机制完善程度对食品安全监管满意度的影响

  3. Multi-Factor Impact Analysis of Agricultural Production in Bangladesh with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Major, David C.; Yu, Winston H.; Alam, Mozaharul; Hussain, Sk. Ghulam; Khan, Abu Saleh; Hassan, Ahmadul; Al Hossain, Bhuiya Md. Tamim; Goldberg, Richard; Horton, Radley M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario.

  4. The Impact of Interactive Factors on Romanian Students’ Understanding of Place Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Tanase

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Students’ mathematics learning is influenced by school factors (i.e., teachers’ knowledge of content, pedagogy, students, and curriculum and nonschool factors (parental involvement, expectations, and teaching techniques. This study looks holistically at the way these factors impact the learning of mathematics of first-grade Romanian students, examining the interactions between teachers, students, and their parents, as well as the interactions between parents and their children. Findings reveal that successful mathematics learning occurs when teachers and parents meet frequently to discuss the mathematics teaching and learning that takes place at school and at home.

  5. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one.

  6. Analysis of effect factors-based stochastic network planning model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Looking at all the indeterminate factors as a whole and regarding activity durations as independent random variables,the traditional stochastic network planning models ignore the inevitable relationship and dependence among activity durations when more than one activity is possibly affected by the same indeterminate factors.On this basis of analysis of indeterminate effect factors of durations,the effect factors-based stochastic network planning (EFBSNP) model is proposed,which emphasizes on the effects of not only logistic and organizational relationships,but also the dependent relationships,due to indeterminate factors among activity durations on the project period.By virtue of indeterminate factor analysis the model extracts and describes the quantitatively indeterminate effect factors,and then takes into account the indeterminate factors effect schedule by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique.The method is flexible enough to deal with effect factors and is coincident with practice.A software has been developed to simplify the model-based calculation,in VisualStudio.NET language.Finally,a case study is included to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and comparison is made with some advantages over the existing models.

  7. Journal impact factor versus the evidence level of articles published in plastic surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria A; Tedesco, Ana C B; Nahas, Fabio X; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between impact factor and the level of evidence of articles in plastic surgery journals. The four plastic surgery journals with the top impact factors in 2011 were selected. Articles were selected using the PubMed database between January 1 and December 31, 2011. The journal evidence index was calculated by dividing the number of randomized clinical trials by the total number of articles published in the specific journal, multiplied by 100. This index was correlated to the impact factor of the journal and compared with the average of the other journals. Two investigators independently evaluated each journal, followed by a consensus and assessment of the interexaminer concordance. The kappa test was used to evaluate the concordance between the two investigators and Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate which journal presented the highest number of randomized clinical trials. The journal evidence index values were as follows: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1.70; Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 0.40; Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 0.56; and Annals of Plastic Surgery, 0.35. The impact factors of these journals in 2011 were as follows: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 3.382; Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 1.494; Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 1.407; and Annals of Plastic Surgery, 1.318. After consensus, the quantity of adequate studies was low and similar between these journals; only the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery showed a higher journal evidence index. The journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery exhibited the highest journal evidence index and had the highest impact factor. The number of adequate articles was low in all of the assessed journals.

  8. Publication Metrics of Dental Journals - What is the Role of Self Citations in Determining the Impact Factor of Journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study are to examine the publication metrics of dental journals and to delineate the role of self citations in determining the impact factor of journals. The Journal Citation Reports database was used. All dental journals that had an impact factor assigned for year 2013 were selected. The outcomes were Impact Factor (IF), Eigenfactor™ (EF), article influence score (AIS), and proportion of self-citations to total citations. Independent variables were geographic region of journal and ranking of journal (based on IF). Non-parametric tests were used to examine the associations between outcomes and independent variables. During the year 2013, 82 journals in dentistry had an IF. Mean IF was 1.489 and mean IF without including self-citations was 1.231. Mean EF scores and AIS were .00458 and .5141 respectively. Mean percentage of self cites to total citations for all dental journals was 12.24%. Higher ranking journals were associated with significantly higher EF and AIS. Journals published in USA/Canada or Europe were associated with higher IF and EF compared to those published in other regions. There were no differences in percentages of self citations to total citations either across journal rankings or geographic region. Top ranking journals tend to have higher IFs due to higher EF and AIS rather than by self-citations. Self-citations increase the impact factors of dental journals by 21%. There was no geographic influence in the percentage of self-citations to total citations thus indicating a healthy dental scientific publishing environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Workplace-based Assessment; Applications and Educational Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf Guraya, Salman

    2015-11-01

    Workplace based assessment (WPBA) refers to a group of assessment modalities which evaluates trainees' performance during the clinical settings. Hallmark of WPBA is the element of observation of the trainee's performance in real workplace environment along with relevant feedback, thus fostering reflective practice. WPBA consists of observation of clinical performance (mini-clinical evaluation exercise, direct observation of procedural skills), discussion of clinical cases (case based discussion), and feedback from peers, coworkers, and patients (multisource feedback). This literature review was conducted on the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library. Data were retrieved by connecting Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: 'workplace based assessment' AND 'mini-clinical evaluation exercise' AND 'direct observation of procedural skills' AND 'case based discussion' AND 'multi-source feedback'. Additional studies were searched in the reference lists of all included articles. As WPBA is gaining popularity, there is a growing need for continuing faculty development and greater evidence regarding the validity and reliability of these instruments, which will allow the academia to embed this strategy in the existing curricula. As of today, there are conflicting reports about the educational impact of WPBA in terms of its validity and reliability. This review draws upon the spectrum of WPBA tools, their designs and applications, and an account of the existing educational impact of this emerging assessment strategy in medical education. Finally, the study reports some educational impact of WPBAs on learning and emphasises the need for more empirical research in endorsing its application worldwide.

  10. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2016-09-01

    Group of Eight developed countries (D8 plus China. Technology spillover indexes are thus decomposed into two components: Imports of capital goods and foreign direct investment (FDI. Index of capital goods imports measures imports of capital goods from major commercial partners of Iran (D8 countries and china. Foreign direct investment (FDI represents the share of foreign capital in agricultural sectors. Therefore, the empirical analysis of the technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors is based on theatrical framework and ARDL model. Results and Discussion: According to the results of the ARDL model, technological spillover effect on the TFP of agricultural sector, in long-term shows that technology spillover has a positive and significant effect on agricultural productivity from both channels of capital goods import and foreign direct investment (FDI. But in short-term spillover variable from a capital goods import channel is not significant. This indicates that absorption of the technology from imports of capital goods channel do not perform very well and probably low-tech and without affecting on TFP of agriculture sector is imported. But in long-term technology spillover from imports channels also had a positive impact on total factor productivity of the agricultural sector. In fact, high technologies in long-term can be absorbed through the imports and influenced on TFP. According to thesis study results, the estimated coefficient of error correction term is equal to 0.53.This means that in each period, 53 percent of imbalances of agricultural TFP will be resolved. The average speed of upward of adjustment reflects the fact that in Iran economy, deviations and imbalances have arisen in the agricultural sector TFP caused by technology spillovers shocks, move very fast towards long-run equilibrium. Conclusions: The purpose of this paper is to advance the knowledge for a key question with evident implications for economic policy: What is the

  11. Culture and social support: neural bases and biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, David K; Kim, Heejung S; Taylor, Shelley E

    2009-01-01

    Social support is an effective means by which people cope with stressful events, and consequently, it beneficially affects health and well-being. Yet there are profound cultural differences in the effectiveness of different types of support and how people use their support networks. In this paper, we examine research on the impact of culture on social support, the neural underpinnings of social support, and how cultural differences in social support seeking are manifested biologically. We focus on cultural factors that may affect individuals' decisions to seek or not to seek social support and how culture moderates the impact of support seeking on biological and psychological health outcomes. We also examine recent research on the interaction between genes and culture in social support use. Discussion centers on the importance of developing an overarching framework of social support that integrates health psychology, cultural psychology, social neuroscience, and genetics.

  12. The impact of adipose tissue-derived factors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsanis, Christos; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina; Malliaraki, Niki; Mytaras, Vasilis; Margioris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces factors, including adipokines, cytokines and chemokines which, when released, systemically exert endocrine effects on multiple tissues thereby affecting their physiology. Adipokines also affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis both centrally, at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, and peripherally acting on the gonads themselves. Among the adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin and the peptide kisspeptin have pleiotropic actions on the HPG axis affecting male and female fertility. Furthermore, adipokines and adipose tissue-produced factors readily affect the immune system resulting in inflammation, which in turn impact the HPG axis, thus evidencing a link between metabolic inflammation and fertility. In this review we provide an overview of the existing extensive bibliography on the crosstalk between adipose tissue-derived factors and the HPG axis, with particular focus on the impact of obesity and the metabolic syndrome on gonadal function and fertility.

  13. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  14. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy. PMID:28281668

  15. The Impact of Environmental Factors in Influencing Epigenetics Related to Oxidative States in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative states exert a significant influence on a wide range of biological and molecular processes and functions. When their balance is shifted towards enhanced amounts of free radicals, pathological phenomena can occur, as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in tissue microenvironment or in the systemic circulation can be detrimental. Epidemic chronic diseases of western societies, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes correlate with the imbalance of redox homeostasis. Current advances in our understanding of epigenetics have revealed a parallel scenario showing the influence of oxidative stress as a major regulator of epigenetic gene regulation via modification of DNA methylation, histones, and microRNAs. This has provided both the biological link and a potential molecular explanation between oxidative stress and cardiovascular/metabolic phenomena. Accordingly, in this review, we will provide current insights on the physiological and pathological impact of changes in oxidative states on cardiovascular disorders, by specifically focusing on the influence of epigenetic regulation. A special emphasis will highlight the effect on epigenetic regulation of human’s current life habits, external and environmental factors, including food intake, tobacco, air pollution, and antioxidant-based approaches. Additionally, the strategy to quantify oxidative states in humans in order to determine which biological marker could best match a subject’s profile will be discussed.

  16. Self-citation rate and impact factor in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shimpei

    2017-05-09

    Journal ranking based on the impact factor (IF) can be distorted by self-citation. The aim of this study is to investigate the present status of self-citation in the plastic surgery journals and its effect on the journals' IFs. IF, IF without self-citations (corrected IF), self-cited rate, and self-citing rate for 11 plastic surgery journals were investigated from 2009-2015, by reviewing the Journal Citation Report(®). The correlations of the IF with the self-cited rate and the self-citing rate were statistically assessed. In addition, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was compared with 15 top journals from other surgical specialties in 2015. IF was significantly correlated with the self-cited rate (R: 0.594, p = 0.001) and the self-citing rate (R: 0.824, p journals from other surgical specialties. The IFs of Microsurgery and Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery increased greatly in recent years, but they were inflated by high self-cited and self-citing rates. The self-citation rate positively affects the IF in plastic surgery journals. A high concentration of self-citation of some journals could distort the ranking among plastic surgery journals in general.

  17. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-10

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  18. [Characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain in Fuzhou and Xiamen 1992-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiu-Ping; Wang, Hong; Chen, Bin-Bin; Sui, Ping; Lin, Wen

    2014-10-01

    Based on the observed acid rain data, synoptic situations and mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants data from 1992 to 2012, the temporal variation characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain were analyzed in Fuzhou and Xiamen. The results showed that acid rain and non-acid rain accounted for 38.1% and 61.9% respectively in Fuzhou, 40.6% and 59.4% respectively in Xiamen. The annual average pH was 4.1-5.5 in Fuzhou. Acid rain pollution alleviated after 2007 in Fuzhou, and alleviated after 2006 in Xiamen. Acid rain was more serious in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Precipitation intensity could affect the acidity of rain. Acid rain was observed more serious in southeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Fuzhou, and more serious in northeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Xiamen. Acid rain was most severe under the condition of transformed surface cold high, while most light under the conditions of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone) and outside of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone). There was a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, PM10, and the pH of rain in Fuzhou.

  19. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras' speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the "Wipe Off 5" campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and billboard) to

  20. THE IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON COMPETITION POLICY EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, more and more countries have enacted competition laws, understanding the importance of this process in providing a normal functioning of the economy. Analyzing competition policy effectiveness is important not only because of the recent extent of the phenomenon, but also because of the impact of competition policy effectiveness on economic development and, in the current economic climate, on the economic recovery process. For this reason, quantitative evaluation for competition policy effectiveness became very useful as data handling and understanding the whole phenomenon are easier this way and an international perspective is provided. This was made possible by various international institutions that have created a system of aggregated indicators for the evaluation of competition law enforcement and competition advocacy (perceived effectiveness. The purpose of our research is to identify the macroeconomic factors that influence the effectiveness of competition law implementation within the European Union Member States. We have tasted the influence of 13 macroeconomic, using panel data methodology and data from the last four years. We obtained ß coefficients statistically significant only for 11 of them. The results are consistent with prior analyzed studies and economic logic: positive influence from market division, intensity of local competition, ethical behavior of firms, strength of auditing and reporting standards, efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes, protection of minority shareholders’ interests, public trust of politicians, economic dimension and market size and negative influence from corruption level and diversion of public funds. Based on the achieved results we can perform an analysis of principal components leading to causal space reduction with minimal information loss and without informational redundancy, creating the premises for building a model that explains competition policy

  1. Is insomnia a perpetuating factor for late-life depression in the IMPACT cohort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Hegel, Mark; Unützer, Jürgen; Fan, Ming-Yu; Sateia, Michael J; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Phillips, Cindy; Perlis, Michael L

    2008-04-01

    Insomnia and depressive disorders are significant health problems in the elderly. Persistent insomnia is a risk factor for the development of new-onset and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Less clear is whether persistent insomnia may perpetuate MDD andlor dysthymia. The present longitudinal study examines the relationship of insomnia to the continuation of depression in the context of an intervention study in elderly subjects. Data were drawn from Project IMPACT, a multisite intervention study, which enrolled 1801 elderly patients with MDD and/or dysthymia. In the current study, subjects were assigned to an insomnia-status group (Persistent, Intermediate, and No Insomnia) based on insomnia scores at both baseline and 3-month time points. Logistic regressions were conducted to determine whether Persistent Insomnia was prospectively associated with increased risk of remaining depressed and/or achieving a less than 50% clinical improvement at 6 and at 12 months compared with the No Insomnia reference group. The Intermediate Insomnia group was compared with the other 2 groups to determine whether a dose-response relationship existed between insomnia type and subsequent depression. Eighteen primary clinics in 5 states. Older adults (60+) with depression. Overall, patients with persistent insomnia were 1.8 to 3.5 times more likely to remain depressed, compared with patients with no insomnia. The findings were more robust in patients receiving usual care for depression than in patients receiving enhanced care. Findings were also more robust in subjects who had MDD as opposed to those with dysthymia alone. These findings suggest that, in addition to being a risk factor for a depressive episode, persistent insomnia may serve to perpetuate the illness in some elderly patients and especially in those receiving standard care for depression in primary care settings. Enhanced depression care may partially mitigate the perpetuating effects of insomnia on depression.

  2. Critical factors that impact on the efficiency of the Lagos seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ojadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the past two decades, the Lagos seaports have experienced vessel and storage yard cargo congestion, resulting in dwell times of about 30 days for containerised imports and high trade logistics costs.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the critical factors that impact the operational efficiency of the Lagos seaports with a view to improving liner trade activities.Method: The study adopted an operational-based approach to understand the dynamics of the various interfaces of the port value chain. The research paradigm adopted for the study was therefore a combination of constructivism and post-positivism paradigms, which entailed the exploration and understanding of the various stakeholders in the port value chain. The epistemology of the research relied on the use of the exploratory sequential mixed method research technique (i.e. the qualitative approach followed by the quantitative approach at the operational level of port operations.Results: The result of the research showed that significant challenges exist and that some of these challenges cut across all functions of port operations. Challenges are experienced in the areas of corruption, trade fraud, transport infrastructure deficits, the absence of a supply chain culture and shortcomings in the execution of the ‘contract of customs’. Additionally, these factors include the deficiencies in services and facilities provided by state agencies and government-appointed service providers and private sector companies such as truckers, inland container depots, Inland Container Depots (ICDs and terminal operators.Conclusion: Specific recommendations are made to address the issues identified which, if implemented, could significantly address the current inefficiencies observed in the Lagos seaport’s operations.

  3. The impact of childhood maltreatment: A review of neurobiological and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon eMcCrory

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child's psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such experiences and risk for psychopathology has been shown to vary as a function of genetic factors. In this review we begin by providing a brief overview of neuroendocrine findings, which indicate an association between maltreatment and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then selectively review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies that have investigated possible structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Differences in the corpus callosum identified by structural MRI have now been reliably reported in children who have experienced abuse, while differences in the hippocampus have been reported in adults with childhood histories of maltreatment. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from functional MRI studies of adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment of amygdala hyperactivity and atypical activation of frontal regions. These functional differences can be partly understood in the context of the information biases observed in event-related potential and behavioural studies of physically abused children. Finally we consider research that has indicated that the effect of environmental adversity may be moderated by genotype, reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment (GxE interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention.

  4. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  5. 商业模式创新中顾客价值主张影响因素的三棱锥模型--基于传统企业的多案例探索研究%Triangular Pyramid Model of Impact Factors on Customer Value Propositions in Business Model Innovation:Based on Multiple Cases of Traditional Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雪飞; 董大海

    2015-01-01

    This paper selects five traditional enterprises which are carrying on business model innovation, discusses the impacts of the innovation culture, top managers push and drive market orientation on customer value proposi-tions in enterprise business model innovation with multiple case study method. It found that, innovation culture is the driving factor of forming customer value proposition in business model innovation. Top management promotes the realization of the business model innovation by emphasizing, actively participating and financial and resources supporting, which is the support condition of forming the customer value proposition. Enterprises drives market proactively through the active creation and potential demand finding of the customers, which is the key step of forming the customer value proposition. Based on the above studies, this paper puts forward the triangular pyra-mid model of impact factors on customer value proposition in business model innovation.%运用多案例研究方法,选取5家正在进行商业模式创新的企业案例,对创新文化、高层管理者推动和驱动市场导向如何影响企业商业模式创新中的顾客价值主张进行了深入探讨。研究表明,创新文化是企业商业模式创新中顾客价值主张形成的驱动因素;高层管理者通过强调、积极参与和资源资金支持推动企业商业模式创新的实现,是形成顾客价值主张的支撑条件;企业通过主动创造和发现顾客潜在需求从而驱动市场是形成顾客价值主张的关键步骤。基于上述研究发现,提出了企业商业模式创新中顾客价值主张影响因素的三棱锥模型。

  6. Temporal trends in the impact factor of European versus USA biomedical journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drosos E Karageorgopoulos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact factors of biomedical journals tend to rise over time. We sought to assess the trend in the impact factor, during the past decade, of journals published on behalf of United States (US and European scientific societies, in four select biomedical subject categories (Biology, Cell Biology, Critical Care Medicine, and Infectious Diseases. METHODS: We identified all journals included in the above-mentioned subject categories of Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports® for the years 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008. We selected those that were published on behalf of US or European scientific societies, as documented in journal websites. RESULTS: We included 167 journals (35 in the subject category of Biology, 79 in Cell Biology, 27 in Critical Care Medicine, and 26 in Infectious Diseases. Between 1999 and 2008, the percentage increase in the impact factor of the European journals was higher than for the US journals (73.7±110.0% compared with 39.7±70.0%, p = 0.049. Regarding specific subject categories, the percentage change in the factor of the European journals tended to be higher than the respective US journals for Cell Biology (61.7% versus 16.3%, Critical Care Medicine (212.4% versus 65.4%, Infectious Diseases (88.3% versus 48.7%, whereas the opposite was observed for journals in Biology (41.0% versus 62.5%. CONCLUSION: Journals published on behalf of European scientific societies, in select biomedical fields, may tend to close the "gap" in impact factor compared with those of US societies. WHAT'S ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC?: The impact factors of biomedical journals tend to rise through years. The leading positions in productivity in biomedical research are held by developed countries, including those from North America and Western Europe. WHAT DOES THIS ARTICLE ADD?: The journals from European biomedical scientific societies tended, over the past decade, to increase their impact factor more than the respective US

  7. A Two-Factor Autoregressive Moving Average Model Based on Fuzzy Fluctuation Logical Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Guan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the existing autoregressive moving average (ARMA forecast models are based on one main factor. In this paper, we proposed a new two-factor first-order ARMA forecast model based on fuzzy fluctuation logical relationships of both a main factor and a secondary factor of a historical training time series. Firstly, we generated a fluctuation time series (FTS for two factors by calculating the difference of each data point with its previous day, then finding the absolute means of the two FTSs. We then constructed a fuzzy fluctuation time series (FFTS according to the defined linguistic sets. The next step was establishing fuzzy fluctuation logical relation groups (FFLRGs for a two-factor first-order autoregressive (AR(1 model and forecasting the training data with the AR(1 model. Then we built FFLRGs for a two-factor first-order autoregressive moving average (ARMA(1,m model. Lastly, we forecasted test data with the ARMA(1,m model. To illustrate the performance of our model, we used real Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX and Dow Jones datasets as a secondary factor to forecast TAIEX. The experiment results indicate that the proposed two-factor fluctuation ARMA method outperformed the one-factor method based on real historic data. The secondary factor may have some effects on the main factor and thereby impact the forecasting results. Using fuzzified fluctuations rather than fuzzified real data could avoid the influence of extreme values in historic data, which performs negatively while forecasting. To verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the model, we also employed our method to forecast the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHSECI from 2001 to 2015 and the international gold price from 2000 to 2010.

  8. Using Reward/Utility Based Impact Scores in Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    ing approach called Reward/Utility-Based Impact ( RUBI ). RUBI nds an e ective partitioning of agents while requir- ing no prior domain knowledge...provides better performance by discovering a non-trivial agent partitioning, and leads to faster simulations. We test RUBI in the Air Tra c Flow Management...partitioning with RUBI in the ATFMP, there is a 37% increase in per- formance, with a 510x speed up per simulation step over non-partitioning approaches

  9. [Analysis of citations and national and international impact factor of Farmacia Hospitalaria (2001-2005)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; González Alcaide, G; Miguel-Dasit, A; González de Dios, J; de Granda Orive, J I; Valderrama Zurián, J C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the citation patterns and impact and immediacy indicators of the Farmacia Hospitalaria journal during the period 2001-2005. An analysis of citations chosen from 101 Spanish health science journals was carried out in order to determine the citing and cited journals and the national and international impact and immediacy indicators. A similar methodology used by Thomson ISI in Science Citation Index (SCI) and Journal Citation Reports (JRC) was applied. Farmacia Hospitalaria made 1,370 citations to 316 different journals. The percentage of self-citations was 9%. The national impact factor increased from 0.178 points in 2001 to 0.663 points in 2005 while the international impact factor increased from 0.178 to 0.806 for the same period. The analysis of citation patterns demonstrates the multidisciplinary nature of Farmacia Hospitalaria and a significant growth in the impact indicators over recent years. These indicators are higher than those of some other pharmacy journals included in Journal Citation Reports. Self-citation was not excessive and was similar to that of other journals.

  10. Factors influencing the prophylactic removal of asymptomatic impacted lower third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros-Marqués, N; Alaejos-Algarra, E; Quinteros-Borgarello, M; Berini-Aytés, L; Gay-Escoda, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse factors indicating prophylactic removal of impacted lower third molars, and how they, and possibly surgeon experience, influence the therapeutic decision-making process. A descriptive observational study was made of 40 asymptomatic impacted lower third molars. Orthopantomographs were scanned and presented to four professionals with different degrees of surgical experience. The examiners received information relating to patient age and sex, molar inclination and degree of impaction, and expressed their opinion on the necessity for teeth removal. There was a statistically significant relationship between examiner decision and the estimated probability of pathology if the molars were not removed (Pmolar, age, degree of impaction and patient sex. No statistically significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between residents and trainers in terms of the decision to remove or estimated risk of complications. The management approach adopted by oral surgeons regarding the removal of asymptomatic impacted lower third molars depends upon the perceived risk of complications if such teeth are not removed, other factors being secondary. The surgical experience of the professional does not seem to influence treatment decision.

  11. Comprehensive assessment method for environmental impact of railway based on geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小萍; 陈秀方; 马超群; 杨晓宇; 冉茂平; 孟祥定

    2004-01-01

    By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the geographic information system (GIS), a GIS based map overlay method was developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around railway and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of railway environmental impact and the optimization of railway alignments. The assessment process of the GIS based map overlay method was presented, which includes deciding the system structure and weights of assessment factors, making environmental vulnerability grade maps, and evaluating the alternative alignments comprehensively to obtain the best one. With the GIS functions of spatial analysis, such as overlay analysis and buffer analysis, and functions of handling attribute data, the GIS based map overlay method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing map overlay method and the conclusion is more reasonable. In the end, a detailed case study was illustrated to verify the efficiency of the method.

  12. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction.

  13. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia;

    2015-01-01

    of magnitude, due to the variability of ventilation rate, building occupation, and volume. To compare health impacts as a result of indoor exposure with those from outdoor exposure, the indoor exposure characterization factors determined with the modified USEtox model were applied in a case study on cooking...... in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization...

  14. Impact of Growth Factor Independence 1 in Human T-Cell Lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowska, Magdalena Julia; Dybkær, Karen; Johansen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    Impact of Growth Factor Independence 1 in Human T-Cell Lymphomas; Pathogenic Potential Identified by Insertional Mutagenesis in a Murine T-Cell Lymphoma Model. Magdalena Julia Dabrowska *,1, Karen Dybkaer *,1, Preben Johansen *,2, Hans Erik Johnsen1 and Finn Skou Pedersen *,3 1 Department...... role in the development of MLV induced lymphomas and strongly indicates that retroviral insertional mutagenesis in murine models of human NHLs can be used to identify new genes involved in lymphomagenesis and, by use of functional assays, their impact on human lymphomas can be evaluated. Disclosures...

  15. Personal and Psychological Factors-Does it Impact the Choice of Advertising Medium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izian Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Advertising is a multidimensional phenomenon that has been studied in several disciplines. It is one of the most fascinating phenomena in modern capitalist markets. It is pervasive, perplexing, multidimensional and unfathomably rich. The effectiveness of advertising depends on both the quality of the product being advertised and the quality of the ad itself and also the media context in which the ad appears. Personal factors (such as gender and age and psychological factors (for example status and personality may affect the choice of advertising medium. Consumers’ interest may change due to these factors. The analysis had proved that both factors do impact the choice of advertising medium. The study may help marketers, advertisers and businesses to create and come out with suitable advertisements that suits the interests of consumers’ derived from those factors. It may help them to choose suitable advertising media for different target market. The study searched for to find out whether personal and psychological factors have any impact to the choice of advertising medium. Approach: For this study purposes, questionnaires and copy testing had been used to addresses issues related to the effectiveness of each advertisement. About 100 printed questionnaires were distributed among respondents which comprised age from 18 years old and above where 30 respondents were tested for copy testing from all mediums, online and traditional where these respondents were given a series of all advertisements from newspaper, magazine, TV, radio, Internet, SMS and MMS. Results: The coefficient analysis showed that both personal and psychological factors had positive relationship with customer satisfaction. Between these two factors, personal factors had high level of significant relationship (p = 0.000 compared to psychological factors (p = 0.087. The analysis had proved that both factors do impact the choice of advertising medium. Conclusion

  16. A more comprehensive index in the evaluation of scientific research: the single researcher impact factor proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Limonta, Daniel; Sarmiento, Luis; Molinari, Enrico

    2010-11-05

    Good alternatives to the Impact Factor (IF) algorithm are needed. The Thomson IF represents a limited measure of the importance of an individual article because 80% of a journal's IF is determined by only the 20% of the papers published. In the past few years, several new indexes has been created to provide alternatives to the IF algorithm. These include the removal of self citations from the calculation of the IF using the Adjusted IF, Index Copernicus initiative and other modifications such as the Cited Half-Life IF, Median IF, Disciplinary IF, and Prestige Factor. There is also the Euro-Factor, born in Europe to avoid the strong US centrality, and the English language basis of the Thomson database. One possible strategy to avoid "IF supremacy" is to create a new index, the Single Researcher Impact Factor (SRIF), that would move the evaluation from the power of scientific journals to the quality of single researchers. This measure can take into account the number and quality of the traditional publications and other activities usually associated with being a researcher, such as reviewing manuscripts, writing books, and attending scientific meetings. Also, in funding policy, it might be more useful to consider the merits, contributions, and real impact of all the scientific activities of a single researcher instead of adding only the journals' IF numbers. The major aim of this paper is to propose and describe the SRIF index that could represent a novel option to evaluate scientific research and researchers.

  17. Game Factors and Game-Based Learning Design Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ru Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to design useful digital game-based learning is a topic worthy of discussion. Past research focused on specific game genres design, but it is difficult to use when the target game genre differs from the default genres used in the research. This study presents macrodesign concepts that elucidates 11 crucial game-design factors, including game goals, game mechanism, game fantasy, game value, interaction, freedom, narrative, sensation, challenges, sociality, and mystery. We clearly define each factor and analyze the relationships among the 11 factors to construct a game-based learning design model. Two application examples are analyzed to verify the usability of the model and the performance of these factors. It can assist educational game designers in developing interesting games.

  18. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  19. Adoption of ERP system: An empirical study of factors influencing the usage of ERP and its impact on end user

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Angeline Rajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex information systems like the ERP integrate the data of all business areas within the organization. The implementation of ERP is a difficult process as it involves different types of end users. Based on literature, we proposed a conceptual framework and examined it to find the effect of some of the individual, organizational, and technological factors on the usage of ERP and its impact on the end user. The results of the analysis suggest that computer self-efficacy, organizational support, training, and compatibility have a positive influence on ERP usage which in turn has significant influence on panoptic empowerment and individual performance.

  20. The Impacts of Total System Design Factors on Human Performance in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have an impact on the overall performance of the power plants in the context of total human engineering or macroergonomy. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal power plant? To achieve the above objective the TSD factors were addressed and assessed through a detailed questionnaire. The relationships between TSD factors and human performance were then examined through non-parametric correlation analysis (Kramer’s Phi and Kruskal-Wallis test of means. The selected TSD factors are related to procedures, work assessment, teamwork, self-organization, information exchange and communication. The results of this study show that the TSD factors such as organizational and safety procedures, teamwork, self-organization, job design and information exchange influence human performance in the power plant. The findings also suggest that the selected TSD factors correlate to human performance and must be considered, designed and tested concurrently with the engineering factors at the design phase of the system development cycle. Consequently, total system’s faults and organizational errors are reduced to an acceptable level and human performance is significantly increased. This is a challenging task for designers of power plants but is required if we are facing unforeseen and complex issues of such systems in twenty-first century. The methodology discussed here may be easily extended to all types of power plants.

  1. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  2. Physics-based features for identifying contextual factors affecting landmine detection with ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2011-06-01

    It has been established throughout the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) literature that environmental factors can severely impact the performance of GPR sensors in landmine detection applications. Over the years, electromagnetic inversion techniques have been proposed for determining these factors with the goal of mitigating performance losses. However, these techniques are often computationally expensive and require models and responses from canonical targets, and therefore may not be appropriate for real-time route-clearance applications. An alternative technique for mitigating performance changes due to environmental factors is context-dependent classification, in which decision rules are adjusted based on contextual shifts identified from the GPR data. However, analysis of the performance of context-dependent learning has been limited to qualitative comparisons of contextually-similar GPR signatures and quantitative improvement to the ROC curve, while the actual information extracted regarding soils has not been investigated thoroughly. In this work, physics-based features of GPR data used in previous context-dependent approaches were extracted from simulated GPR data generated through Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) modeling. Statistical techniques where then used to predict several potential contextual factors, including soil dielectric constant, surface roughness, amount of subsurface clutter, and the existence of subsurface layering, based on the features. Results suggest that physics-based features of the GPR background may contain informatin regarding physical properties of the environment, and contextdependent classification based on these features can exploit information regarding these potentially-important environmental factors.

  3. Education and adult cause-specific mortality--examining the impact of family factors shared by 871 367 Norwegian siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Oyvind; Hoff, Dominic A; Lawlor, Debbie;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood.......To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood....

  4. Impact Factors for the "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education"--What Are They and Are They Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The notion of an impact factor was first posited by Eugene Garfield (1972) to study the use, prestige, and status of scientific journals. The Institute for Scientific Information created the impact factor as a means to measure the number of times an "average article" published in a journal was cited over a particular time period ("The impact…

  5. Impact of the Fano Factor on Position and Energy Estimation in Scintillation Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H; Jha, Abhinav K; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The Fano factor for an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Light from various scintillation crystals have been reported to have Fano factors from sub-Poisson (Fano factor factor > 1). For a given mean, a smaller Fano factor implies a smaller variance and thus less noise. We investigated if lower noise in the scintillation light will result in better spatial and energy resolutions. The impact of Fano factor on the estimation of position of interaction and energy deposited in simple gamma-camera geometries is estimated by two methods - calculating the Cramér-Rao bound and estimating the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator. The methods are consistent with each other and indicate that when estimating the position of interaction and energy deposited by a gamma-ray photon, the Fano factor of a scintillator does not affect the spatial resolution. A smaller Fano factor results in a better energy resolution.

  6. A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest villages in Iran named Maymand. The results indicate that there is a strong positive relationship, 0.873, between developing economy and tourism. In other word, developing tourism industry will help create more jobs, increase land prices, increase people's income and flourish environment. There is also a positive correlation, 0.854, between social development and tourism industry. This means we could expect a better health care system as well as medical treatment facilities, which helps prevent immigration to big cities.

  7. Impact Factor: outdated artefact or stepping-stone to journal certification?

    CERN Document Server

    Vanclay, Jerome K

    2012-01-01

    A review of Garfield's journal impact factor and its specific implementation as the Thomson Reuters Impact Factor reveals several weaknesses in this commonly-used indicator of journal standing. Key limitations include the mismatch between citing and cited documents, the deceptive display of three decimals that belies the real precision, and the absence of confidence intervals. These are minor issues that are easily amended and should be corrected, but more substantive improvements are needed. There are indications that the scientific community seeks and needs better certification of journal procedures to improve the quality of published science. Comprehensive certification of editorial and review procedures could help ensure adequate procedures to detect duplicate and fraudulent submissions.

  8. Contextual Factors Impacting Practice Beliefs and Practice Behaviors among Social Workers with Lesbian and Gay Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary H

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author explores contextual factors that impact practice beliefs and behaviors among social workers with lesbian and gay clients. The Gay Affirmative Practice scale was used to measure levels of gay affirmative practice beliefs and practice behaviors among social workers in a medical setting. A model is presented that illustrates how contextual factors related to education, training, relationships with lesbian and gay individuals, and religiosity affects social workers' practice behaviors. The results illustrate the importance of educational exposure and affirming practice beliefs on practice behaviors.

  9. Rough K-means Outlier Factor Based on Entropy Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Budiyanto Setyohadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of outlier detection have been developed based on the cluster-based outlier detection approach, since it does not need any prior knowledge of the dataset. However, the previous studies only regard the outlier factor computation with respect to a single point or a small cluster, which reflects its deviates from a common cluster. Furthermore, all objects within outlier cluster are assumed to be similar. The outlier objects intuitively can be grouped into the outlier clusters and the outlier factors of each object within the outlier cluster should be different gradually. It is not natural if the outlierness of each object within outlier cluster is similar. This study proposes the new outlier detection method based on the hybrid of the Rough K-Means clustering algorithm and the entropy computation. We introduce the outlier degree measure namely the entropy outlier factor for the cluster based outlier detection. The proposed algorithm sequentially finds the outlier cluster and calculates the outlier factor degree of the objects within outlier cluster. Each object within outlier cluster is evaluated using entropy cluster-based to a whole cluster. The performance of the algorithm has been tested on four UCI benchmark data sets and show outperform especially in detection rate.

  10. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Van Loon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought. In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a

  11. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research

  12. Analysis of Impact Factor and Citation Frequency%影响因子和引用频率浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文丽

    2001-01-01

    Through an alytical explanation of the concept of impact factor and its derivatives presented by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) of the United States,and the case study of their limitations in the process of academic evaluation,this paper clarifies that impact factor and its derivatives can not directly reflect or reveal the actual impact and quality of journals and the papers published therein.

  13. The impact of site of graduate medical education training and other factors on physician employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Steven P; Lee, Marian D; Griffis, Julie; Rawal, Bhupendra; Robinson, Nell; Murray, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine if the site of graduate medical training or other factors impact the length of institutional employment. Physician hires for the home institution were catalogued from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2006. In analyzing the 253 physician hires, we found no statistically significant advantage in employee retention associated with hiring "one's own" or with U.S. medical school graduates.

  14. THE IMPACT OF HACCP ON FACTOR DEMAND AND OUTPUT SUPPLY ELASTICITIES OF RED MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.; Mazzocco, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    This study uses firm-level data during the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) implementation period (1997 - 2000) to analyze the impact of HACCP on input demand and output supply elasticities of firms in the red meat industry and derive implications for efficiency and moral hazard issues associated with the implementation of HACCP systems. The results show that HACCP causes factor demand for labor, material, and capital to be less inelastic while the elasticity of output supply di...

  15. MORTALITY RATE AND OUTCOME FACTORS IN MIXED CRYOGLOBULINAEMIA: THE IMPACT OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadori, Stefano; Della Rossa, Alessandra; et, al.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) is a chronic small-vessel vasculitis. Shortly after the discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989, an association between HCV infection and MC was being increasingly reported, suggesting the potential pathogenetic implication of HCV in most of the cases that had been previously diagnosed as essential MC. A number of studies have pointed out prognostic factors linked to mortality in this disorder. None of them, however, have clarified the impact of H...

  16. The Gluon-Induced Mueller-Tang Jet Impact Factor at Next-to-Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, Martin; Murdaca, Beatrice; Vera, Agustín Sabio

    2014-01-01

    We complete the computation of the Mueller-Tang jet impact factor at next-to-leading order (NLO) initiated in arXiv:1406.5625 and presented in arXiv:1404.2937 by computing the real corrections associated to gluons in the initial state making use of Lipatov's effective action. NLO corrections for this effective vertex are an important ingredient for a reliable description of large rapidity gap phenomenology within the BFKL approach.

  17. Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in adults of Shandong province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Hong; Xu, Ai Qiang; Lu, Zi Long; Yan, Liu Xia; Guo, Xiao Lei; Wang, Hui Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Zhang, Ji Yu; Dong, Jing; Wang, Lin Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in 2 140 adults aged 18-69 years were analyzed. The mean daily sodium intake was 5745.0 (5427.6-6062.5) mg per day, which was higher in males than in females (Psodium intake was significantly higher in participants with a lower education level, drinkers and smokers than in those with a higher education level, nondrinkers and nonsmokers (Psodium intake in adults of Shandong Province is higher than the recommended standards.

  18. The impact factor of open access journals:data and trends

    OpenAIRE

    E. Giglia

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a large debate has arisen about the citation advantage of Open Access (OA). Many studies have been conducted on different datasets and according to different perspectives, which led to different and somehow contradictory results depending on the considered disciplinary field, the researchers’ attitude and citational behaviour, and the applied methodology. One of the bibliometric indicators most used worldwide to measure citations is Impact Factor – not free from criticisms an...

  19. Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eFaith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In refining methodology to develop a mouse model for inhalation of Francisella tularensis, it was noted that both relative humidity and growth media impacted the aerosol concentration of the live vaccine strain (LVS of F. tularensis. A relative humidity of less than 55% had a negative impact on the spray factor, the ratio between the concentration of LVS in the aerosol and the nebulizer. The spray factor was significantly higher for LVS grown in brain heart infusion (BHI broth than LVS grown in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHb or Chamberlain’s Chemically Defined Medium (CCDM. The variability between aerosol exposures was also considerably less with BHI. LVS grown in BHI survived desiccation far longer than MHb-grown or CCDM-grown LVS (~70% at 20 minutes for BHI compared to <50% for MHb and CCDM. Removal of the capsule by hypertonic treatment impacted the spray factor for CCDM-grown LVS or MHb-grown LVS but not BHI-grown LVS, suggesting the choice of culture media altered the adherence of the capsule to the cell membrane. The choice of growth media did not impact the LD50 of LVS but the LD99 of BHI-grown LVS was 1 log lower than that for MHb-grown LVS or CCDM-grown LVS. Splenomegaly was prominent in mice that succumbed to MHb- and BHI-grown LVS but not CCDM-grown LVS. Environmental factors and growth conditions should be evaluated when developing new animal models for aerosol infection, particularly for vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  20. Impact of Organizational Context Factors on Individuals' Self-Reported Knowledge Sharing Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Nandy, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of teams and team-based activities emphasizes the need to understand knowledge sharing behaviors in order to facilitate team performance. Knowledge sharing in teams is valuable and indispensable for both academic and corporate organizations in order to meet and manage team effectiveness. Knowledge is driven by people who behave in different ways based on their environment and its accompanying factors. Considering what factors facilitate knowledge sharing behaviors in teams w...

  1. Information systems implementation and IT-enabled organisational change in the Eastern Caribbean tourism sector : an examination of factors impacting on the successful adoption and use of the Internet and web-based systems in national tourist offices and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertin, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    This research project addresses the adoption of the Internet and implementation of webbased systems by quasi-governmental organisations responsible for the management of tourism in the small island developing states (SIDS) in the Eastern Caribbean. The key aspects of this work entail the examination oft the factors which impact upon the systems implementation process and IT-enabled organisational change, levels of Internet adoption and maturity, the extent to which the implementation of web-b...

  2. Correlation Analysis of Application Research Journals’ Citation Number and Impact Factor Empirical Analysis ---Based on 107 Social Sciences Journals%应用研究型期刊引文数量与影响因子关系分析--基于107种期刊的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕观盛

    2015-01-01

    以2014年版《中国学术期刊影响因子年报(人文社会科学)》中的“信息与新闻出版学”、“图书馆学、情报学”和“体育”三个学科共107种应用研究型期刊作为分析样本,以“不同学科期刊影响因子平均值和平均引文数平均值”、“学科影响因子平均值和平均引文数平均值位序排列”、“学科期刊和所有期刊不同影响区段影响因子和平均引文数集中度”三个参数作为测度指标,实证分析期刊引文数量与期刊影响因子的相关性。结果显示:不管是学科而言,还是整体而言,应用型研究期刊的平均引文数量与期刊影响因子之间具有明显关联性。%Taking 107 application research periodicals in the three subjects of Information and Publishing News, Library and Information Science and Sports in the 2014 edition of Chinese Academic Journal Impact Factor Annual Report (Humanities and Social Sciences) as the analytical sample, with the three parameters of “different disciplines journal averages impact factor and the average number of citations”,“average impact factor and the av-erage citation number” and “ concentration of impact factor and the citation number among different location ” as measurement index , the empirical research analyses the correlation between the citation number and the journal im -pact factors.The results show that:in terms of subject matter, or the whole, there is a significant correlation be-tween applied research journals ’ average number of citations and journal impact factors .

  3. State Based Factors Affecting inward FDI Employment in the U.S. Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kornecki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density. In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.

  4. [Impact factors and bibliometrics of science. Does pure science really exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochman, J; Belán, A

    2003-01-01

    The impact factor is an artificially created indicator which when applied separately does not achieve the value attributed to it. In its assessment a number of different influences are projected which cause partial mistakes with a cumulative effect. It can have an even worse effect if the impact factor is incorrectly conceived or inadequately handled. Only in a long-term review using specific corrections it can serve to determine really top class periodicals but only within the framework of a single scientific discipline. It is not suitable for comparison of interdisciplinary journals. It should be used very carefully in the evaluation of authors. However it is still used in various types of administrative management. From the submitted paper it may seen that with a certain amount of overstatement it is personified and acts on its own. Its personification is homo sapiens scientometricus who evaluates himself as well as his environment which is represented by mere homo sapiens scientificus. In addition to the impact factor the authors discuss also other indicators and some aspects of scientometry.

  5. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Turnage, J. J.; Jones, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment.

  6. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ASHISH SHRIVASTAVA; BHIM SINGH

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage UPF based electronic ballast, boost PFC converter and a half bridge series resonant inverter (HBSRI) share a common power switch. Thus one power switch is reduced as compared to the conventional two-stage approach. The design, modeling, analysis and implementation of this topology were carried out in MATLAB-Simulink environment for a T8 36 W, 220 V, 50 Hz fluorescent lamp. The switching frequency was kept morethan the resonant frequency of the inverter, to ensure the zero voltage switching (ZVS) operation of both power switches. This resulted in reduction of high frequency switching losses. The power quality parameters such as displacement power factor (DPF), distortion factor (DF), power factor (PF), crest factor (CF) and total harmonicdistortion of ac mains current (THDi) were evaluated to analyze the performance of proposed electronic ballast. Test results on a developed prototype of PFC electronic ballast were included to validate the design and simulated results.

  7. [Non-communicable chronic diseases in Brazil: from risk factors to social impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, I; Mendonça, G A; Teixeira, M T

    1996-05-01

    The current epidemiologic profile of Brazil includes both the diseases of underdevelopment and those associated with modern life. Consequently, the country faces the difficult task of carrying out health promotion and protection activities aimed at controlling communicable diseases as well as noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCDs). This study sought to describe the epidemiologic situation of Brazilian adults with regard to NCDs and to present available data on the quality of care provided for these diseases and their social impact. To these ends, a literature review was conducted for the period 1964-1995--that is, since the beginning of the production and dissemination of data on cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Of the 153 bibliographic references that were discovered, 97 were used. The social, political, economic, and health inequities that exist among Brazil's geographic regions are reflected in the national scientific production, which is concentrated in the Southeast and South. Most of the studies based on primary data come from those regions. Information is scarce from the North-east, except the city of Salvador. Therefore, the health profile of adults--including risk factors and morbidity and mortality--can be better delineated for residents of the South and Southeast of the country, whereas for the other regions the necessary information is practically nonexistent. Risk factors linked to life-style are as widespread and important in Brazil as they are in industrialized countries. Prevalence and mortality rates among persons with or without certain socio-environmental risks (such as low level of schooling or unskilled occupations) indicate that NCDs predominate in the lowest social strata. Inter-regional differences in the prevalence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the most common fatal cardiovascular causes, and the predominant cancers, as well as morbidity and mortality in both sexes, illustrate the political, social, and

  8. Impact of Stress and Glucocorticoids on Schema-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Nixon, Patricia; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2016-12-14

    Pre-existing knowledge, a 'schema', facilitates the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of schema-relevant information. Such schema-based memory is key to every form of education and provides intriguing insights into the integration of new information and prior knowledge. Stress is known to have a critical impact on memory processes, mainly through the action of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. However, whether stress and these major stress mediators affect schema-based learning is completely unknown. To address this question, we performed two experiments, in which participants acquired a schema on day 1 and learned schema-related as well as schema-unrelated information on day 2. In the first experiment, participants underwent a stress or control manipulation either immediately or about 25 min before schema-based memory testing. The second experiment tested whether glucocorticoid and/or noradrenergic activation is sufficient to modulate schema-based memory. To this end, participants received orally a placebo, hydrocortisone, the α2-adrenoceptor-antagonist yohimbine, leading to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs, before completing the schema-based memory test. Our data indicate that stress, irrespective of the exact timing of the stress exposure, impaired schema-based learning, while leaving learning of schema-unrelated information intact. A very similar effect was obtained after hydrocortisone, but not yohimbine, administration. These data show that stress disrupts participants' ability to benefit from prior knowledge during learning and that glucocorticoid activation is sufficient to produce this effect. Our findings provide novel insights into the impact of stress and stress hormones on the dynamics of human memory and have important practical implications, specifically for educational contexts.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/npp.2016.256.

  9. The Impact Factor: Measuring Student Professional Growth in an Online Doctoral Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Dawson, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the impact of an online Ed.D. in educational technology based on data collected from students at regular intervals during the program. It documents how students who were working professionals applied learning from the program within their practice, enculturated into the educational technology community, and grew…

  10. The criteria weight determination of factors impacting the melt flow index of degradable plastics using Lambda-Max method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Rosma Mohd; Saadon, Nurul Adzlyana; Mohamad, Daud

    2013-09-01

    Three common methods of determining criteria weights using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are extent analysis, logarithmic least square method (LLSM) and Lambda-Max. Lambda-Max criteria weights determination method uses pair wise comparison of criteria considered. Studies have shown that Lambda-Max is a preferred criteria weight determination method since it involves lesser computation with consistent results of precise criteria weights generated. In this paper the criteria weights of four factors impacting the Melt Flow Index of degradable plastics are calculated using Lambda-Max method. The input factors (criteria) are the percentages by mass of polyethylene, oil palm biomass, palm olein and starch used in the formulation of degradable plastics. The criteria weights are calculated using Lambda-Max based on input given by four experts. The finding indicates the feasibility of using Lambda-Max method in criteria weight determination for determining the impact of four factors in the formulation of degradable plastics as reflected by the consistency control index value calculated.

  11. Effective Factors in Job Motivation of Faculty Members of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Based on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation in 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaie Ziar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The most important factor for success in every organization, s its human resources. Human resources with the power of creativity, imagination, faith and commitment, have a great impact on the performance of the organization. University faculty members are the main pillars of human resources and affect the development of universities to promote academic standing in their communities. In this regard, the role of job motivation of faculty members to further efficiency helps universities. Materials and Methods: To determine the effective factors in job motivation of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences’ faculty members, we conducted the study based on Herzberg's two factor motivation theory. In this across-sectional study, a sample of 137, (10% of the population in 12 faculties were selected by random and proportional sampling based on size and gender of faculty members. The instrument used was a questionnaire containing 40 of the 11 areas of external factors and an effective two-factor theory of Herzberg's motivation-based job. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha (%86. After collecting data gamma and correlation multipliers Ki-test and logistic regression analysis was carried was with software SPSS16. Results: The internal factors were more important than external factors. Internal factors were more important in younger people. External factors, however, were more important in older people. Three areas, nature of work, professional development and career is also the most importance among the areas of internal factors, respectively. Two areas of occupational safety and connection are the most importance among the external factors. Conclusion: Providing the perfect environment, according to members of academic faculty, job security, moral values, decreasing problems of employment due to age and work experience, training individuals and providing a salary based on ability

  12. Factors that influence effective evidence-based medicine instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a health care practice is being incorporated into education programs across the spectrum of medical education to develop lifelong learning skills and to enhance the practice of evidence-based health care. Since improving the quality of patient care is the ultimate goal of EBM, EBM learning must be integrated with clinical application, and resulted outcomes must be reflected in learning transfer (or EBM practice) within the context of solving patient problems. Different factors may constitute the context or environment in which EBM is learned, practiced, and sustained. However, these contextual factors are seldom considered and examined in the development, implementation, and evaluation of EBM instruction for learners at different levels. This article will introduce several contextual factors as tips and strategies that affect EBM learning and transfer. Also included in the article are recommended practices for designing effective EBM instruction that would contribute to a sustainable change in learner behavior.

  13. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  14. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  15. Climate change impacts: The challenge of quantifying multi-factor causation, multi-component responses, and leveraging from extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    area is the ability to utilize data of uneven quality and standards. Novel approaches to meta-analysis provide other options for taking advantage of diverse case studies. Techniques for summarizing responses across impacts, drivers, and scales can play a huge role in increasing the value of information from case studies. In some cases, expert elicitation may provide alternatives for identifying mechanisms or for interpreting multi-factor drivers or responses. Especially when designed to focus on a well-defined set of observations, a sophisticated elicitation can establish formal confidence limits on responses that are otherwise difficult to constrain. A final possible approach involves a focus on the mechanisms contributing to an impact, rather than the impact itself. Approaches based on quantified mechanisms are especially appealing in the context of models where the number of interactions makes it difficult to intuitively understand the chain of connections from cause to effect, when actors differ in goals or sensitivities, or when scale affects parts of the system differently. With all of these approaches, useful evidence may not conform to traditional levels of statistical confidence. Some of the biggest challenges in taking advantage of the potential tools will involve defining what constitutes a meaningful evaluation.

  16. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  17. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  18. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  19. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  20. Innovative processes impact on the factors optimal number formation of the enterprise location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franiv Ihor Andriiovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Determination of the factors to locate enterprises for searching optimal location place, therefore grounding enterprise location place with one or several factors one should consider innovative development nowadays. The results of the analysis. The branches referring to this or that production group will always have relative character and will concern time period, because – various factors value can be changed under influence of innovation introduction. Technological and organizational changes of production with big probability impact effect its location. On the territory of some states or regions the enterprise can be built, which earlier it was not efficiently to build. Taking into account this “innovative prism” concerning enterprises location factor, we can form ten factors, which are taken by enterprises while searching their optimal location places. Direction of production attention to raw sources. The enterprises orient to be located close to raw sources and producing based due to this factor. Direction of attention to the raw sources is reasonably to conduct in the following cases. Firstly, raw procurement, processing or mining (minerals mining, sawmilling industry, fish-processing industry, etc. enterprises have raw orientation. Secondly, enterprises, which waste a lot of raw materials in relation to final product, i.e. material-intensive production, direct their attention to the raw sources. Thirdly, enterprises, processing raw, which is quickly spoiled: wine industry, food-canning industry, fish-processing industry, etc., are closely situated to the raw sources. Direction of the producing attention to electric power and fuel sources. Highly energy-intensive productions (fuel and energetic costs component is half of the whole costs for production have to direct their attention to close location to fuel bases (heat and power stations, petrochemical industry enterprises, etc. or close to the electric power

  1. Impact factor and other indices to assess science, scientists and scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, K

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of measures and parameters for the evaluation of science and scientific journals from the first attempts during the early part of the last century to the development of the most popular, current and widely used metrics viz., citations, impact factor (IF) etc. The identification of measures of evaluation in science and scientific reporting paralled the post-war increase in funding in the United States of America. Biomedical and medical sciences continue to garner a major share, estimated to be almost two-thirds of total research and development funding of over US$ 350 billion. There has been a concomitant growth in the publications in learned journals. About 1.4 million papers are published every year in an estimated 20,000 journals. In India there are an estimated 100 journals in medical sciences. With a steady increase of about 10% every year, the competition for grants, awards, rewards etc., is fierce. This unrelenting increase in number of scientists and the resultant competition, the limitation of peer review was felt. A search was on for new quantifiable measures for informed decision making for funding, awards, rewards, etc. Now virtually all major decisions all over the world are based on some data linked to publications and/or citations. The concept of citations as tool for 'evaluating' science was first proposed by Eugene Garfield in 1955. The availability of Science Citation Index (SCI), Journal Citation Reports (JCR), Web of Science etc. and the relative ease with which they could be used (and abused) has spawned an entirely new area bibliometrics/scientometrics. As only a limited number of journals could be included in the Thomson Reuters (TR) databases (currently numbering about 10500), analyses based on such a limited dataset (also selected in a non-transparent way by the TR) has been widely and severely criticized by both the developed and developing countries. Yet, studies have shown that citation-based data and

  2. Impact of fertility transmission and other sociodemographic factors on reproductive success and coalescent trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Toupance, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Summary Fertility transmission (FT) is a phenomenon with a cultural and/or genetic basis, whereby a positive correlation exists between the number of offspring of an individual and that of his/her parents. Theoretical studies using a haploid individual-based model have shown that FT increases the variance and intergenerational correlation in reproductive success and results in an imbalance in the coalescent tree of sampled genes. This phenomenon has been documented in several demographic studies conducted on the correlation in fertility between generations, or through the reconstruction of the genealogical trees of mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, as mtDNA is a single locus, potentially subject to other forces (e.g. natural selection), it is of interest to extend the theory of FT to nuclear loci. We show that because random mating between individuals leads to a mixing of their fertility profiles, FT in these cases will have less influence on the variance and intergenerational correlation of reproductive success. This, in turn, results in less impact on the shape of the coalescent trees. Nevertheless, in the presence of FT, high heterogeneity in reproductive success and homogamy for family size will increase the imbalance in the coalescent tree. Thus, FT should be easier to detect when occurring in conjunction with these other factors. We also show the utility of analysing different kinds of loci (X-linked, Y-linked, mitochondrial and autosomal) to assess whether FT is matrilineal, patrilineal or biparental. Finally, we demonstrate that the shape of the coalescent tree depends upon population size, in contrast to the classical Kingman's model.

  3. IMPACTS, PATTERNS, INFLUENCING FACTORS AND POLICIES OF FUELWOOD EXTRACTION IN WAY KAMBAS NATIONAL PARK, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Rakatama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled fuelwood extraction from conservation forest of Way Kambas National Park (WKNP could threaten the existing forest. This paper studies the way to tackle the forest degradation in WKNP, with less negative impacts to the local people. Study was conducted by analysing existing data and maps of WKNP in terms of forest degradation, forest inventories, current policies, survey on how fuelwood is extracted, observation on fuelwood gatherers, fuelwood demand, and identification of further policy options. Results show that the most significant factors influencing the fuelwood extraction activity in WKNP are land ownership, followed by the distance to forest area, income level, the number of household members and age of household head. In the field, the fuelwood utilization is allowed by WKNP Authority, although it is formally forbidden.It was stated that fuelwood extraction in the area should be less than 2.89 ton/ha/year to maintain its sustainability, based on the mean WNKP forest tree annual increment. The fact shows that fuelwood extraction in WKNP reduces of forest biomass stock (1.06 tons/ha/year and decreases species diversity index (from 3.05 to 2.45, species evenness index (from 1.06 to 0.91 and old-young tree ratio (from 1.29 to 1. Ecosystem quality reduction is mainly caused by destructive techniques in extracting fuelwood such as slashing, scratching cambium, and cutting trees. Therefore, recommended policy includes legalizing fuelwood extraction with restrictions, providing alternative fuelwood and other biomass energy resources outside WKNP, conducting preventive (establishing checkpoints and increasing patrols and pre-emptive (educating and campaigning efforts, collaborating with other stakeholders, and empowering local economy.

  4. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

  5. The impact of children with disabilities on parent health-related quality of life and family functioning in Kelantan and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Aziz, Aniza Abd; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ibrahim, Wan Pauzi Wan; Mohamad, Norsarwany; Othman, Azizah; Rahman, Normastura Abd; Harith, Sakinah; Van Rostenberghe, Hans

    2013-05-01

    Caring for children with disabilities brings about a significant impact on the parents and families. The purposes of this study were to determine the impact of having children with disabilities on parents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL), family functioning, and total family impact and to identify the associated factors. A total of 425 parents/caregivers of children with disabilities who were registered to community-based rehabilitation centers in 5 districts in Kelantan, Malaysia, participated in this study. The Malay version of PedsQL Family Impact Module was used as research instrument. General linear regression was applied to analyze the association between family impact scores (Total Impact, Parent HRQOL Summary, and Family Functioning Summary) and study factors using Stata/SE 11 software. The mean (SD) Total Impact Score and Parent HRQOL Summary Score of the parents/caregivers was 75.1 (16.85) and 75.0 (18.74) respectively, and the median (IQR) of Family Functioning Summary Score was 84.4 (28.13). Mothers, non-Malays, and widowed parents/caregivers, parents/caregivers having male children with disabilities, and children with more complex disability had significantly lower parent HRQOL and family functioning. Both parents/caregivers' characteristics and children's characteristics contributed to family impact in local setting. Results of this study emphasize the importance of the whole family involvement as the focus of services and supports by health care providers.

  6. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangmo Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms−2 along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane.

  7. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms{sup −2}) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane. .

  8. Large-scale identification of sequence variants impacting human transcription factor occupancy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurano, Matthew T.; Haugen, Eric; Sandstrom, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Shafer, Anthony; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of human regulatory regions depends exquisitely on their local genomic environment and cellular context, complicating experimental analysis of the expanding pool of common disease- and trait-associated variants that localize within regulatory DNA. We leverage allelically resolved genomic DNaseI footprinting data encompassing 166 individuals and 114 cell types to identify >60,000 common variants that directly impact transcription factor occupancy and regulatory DNA accessibility in vivo. The unprecedented scale of these data enable systematic analysis of the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor occupancy in vivo. We leverage this analysis to develop accurate models of variation affecting the recognition sites for diverse transcription factors, and apply these models to discriminate nearly 500,000 common regulatory variants likely to affect transcription factor occupancy across the human genome. The approach and results provide a novel foundation for analysis and interpretation of noncoding variation in complete human genomes, and for systems-level investigation of disease-associated variants. PMID:26502339

  9. The impact of visual layout factors on performance in Web pages: a cross-language study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parush, Avi; Shwarts, Yonit; Shtub, Avy; Chandra, M Jeya

    2005-01-01

    Visual layout has a strong impact on performance and is a critical factor in the design of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and Web pages. Many design guidelines employed in Web page design were inherited from human performance literature and GUI design studies and practices. However, few studies have investigated the more specific patterns of performance with Web pages that may reflect some differences between Web page and GUI design. We investigated interactions among four visual layout factors in Web page design (quantity of links, alignment, grouping indications, and density) in two experiments: one with pages in Hebrew, entailing right-to-left reading, and the other with English pages, entailing left-to-right reading. Some performance patterns (measured by search times and eye movements) were similar between languages. Performance was particularly poor in pages with many links and variable densities, but it improved with the presence of uniform density. Alignment was not shown to be a performance-enhancing factor. The findings are discussed in terms of the similarities and differences in the impact of layout factors between GUIs and Web pages. Actual or potential applications of this research include specific guidelines for Web page design.

  10. Systematic review: psychological morbidity in young people with inflammatory bowel disease - risk factors and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A J; Rowse, G; Ryder, A; Peach, E J; Corfe, B M; Lobo, A J

    2016-07-01

    Psychological morbidity in young people aged 10-24 years, with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increased, but risk factors for and impacts of this are unclear. To undertake a systematic literature review of the risk factors for and impact of psychological morbidity in young people with IBD. Electronic searches for English-language articles were performed with keywords relating to psychological morbidity according to DSM-IV and subsequent criteria; young people; and IBD in the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINAHL databases for studies published from 1994 to September 2014. One thousand four hundred and forty-four studies were identified, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. The majority measured depression and anxiety symptoms, with a small proportion examining externalising behaviours. Identifiable risk factors for psychological morbidity included: increased disease severity (r(2) = 0.152, P young people with IBD were wide-ranging and included abdominal pain (r = 0.33; P young people with IBD in a range of ways, highlighting the need for psychological interventions to improve outcomes. Identified risk factors provide an opportunity to develop targeted therapies for a vulnerable group. Further research is required to examine groups under-represented in this review, such as those with severe IBD and those from ethnic minorities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Nechuta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, obesity, and several other well-studied unhealthy lifestyle-related factors each have been linked to the risk of multiple chronic diseases and premature death, little is known about the combined impact on mortality outcomes, in particular among Chinese and other non-Western populations. The objective of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors beyond that of active cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study in China. Participants included 71,243 women aged 40 to 70 years enrolled during 1996-2000 who never smoked or drank alcohol regularly. A healthy lifestyle score was created on the basis of five lifestyle-related factors shown to be independently associated with mortality outcomes (normal weight, lower waist-hip ratio, daily exercise, never exposed to spouse's smoking, higher daily fruit and vegetable intake. The score ranged from zero (least healthy to five (most healthy points. During an average follow-up of 9 years, 2,860 deaths occurred, including 775 from cardiovascular disease (CVD and 1,351 from cancer. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality decreased progressively with an increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. Compared to women with a score of zero, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for women with four to five factors were 0.57 (0.44-0.74 for total mortality, 0.29 (0.16-0.54 for CVD mortality, and 0.76 (0.54-1.06 for cancer mortality. The inverse association between the healthy lifestyle score and mortality was seen consistently regardless of chronic disease status at baseline. The population attributable risks for not having 4-5 healthy lifestyle factors were 33% for total deaths, 59% for CVD deaths, and 19% for cancer deaths

  12. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. Methods A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Results Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52% - 65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71% - 75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. Conclusions This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single

  13. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamtema, Angelo S; Urassa, David P; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-04-17

    The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52%-65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71%-75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single magic bullet intervention exists for

  14. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urassa David P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. Methods A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Results Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC, placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52% - 65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71% - 75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. Conclusions This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries

  15. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...in their decision-making process. The President’s Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has issued regulations to implement NEPA that include...Order (EO) 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, was issued by the President on

  16. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-08-19

    One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research.

  17. Examining the impact of worker and workplace factors on prolonged work absences among Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franche, Renée-Louise; Murray, Eleanor; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Smith, Peter; Carnide, Nancy; Côté, Pierre; Gibson, Jane; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of worker and workplace factors and of their relationships on work absence duration. Structural equation modeling of 11,762 female, Canadian nurses from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses. Worker and workplace factors were associated with prolonged work absence. Key proximal predictors were pain-related work interference, depression, pain severity, and respect and support at work. More distal predictors were multimorbidity, abuse at work, and organizational culture. Worker health and workplace factors are important in explaining work absence duration. Self-management for pain and mood, adapted to the work context, may be useful for nurses with chronic pain or depression. Policy makers and administrators should focus on creating respect and support at work, and improving organizational culture.

  18. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2008-01-01

    be delayed at natural migration barriers. Often, the magnitude of delay is not predictable; fish may be considerably delayed at barriers that appear to humans to be easily passable, or they may quickly pass barriers that appear difficult. Stressful events like catch-and-release angling may affect upstream...... migration. Impacts of human activities may also cause altered migration patterns, affect the within-river distribution of the spawning population, and severe barriers may result in displacement of the spawning population to other rivers. Factors documented to affect within-river migration include previous......We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on the factors affecting migration is essential...

  19. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consumption from an operating coal surface mine in the United States. Results: There is a strong linear correlation among power, fuel consumption and engine load factor. Reduction in load factor by 15% may significantly reduce the fuel consumption and the CO2 emission. Conclusion/Recommendation: Application of appropriate bulldozer's load factor may help mine operators manage fuel consumption, cost and environmental burden.

  20. 多元化战略影响因素的三棱锥模型——基于制造企业的多案例研究%Triangular Pyramid Model of Impact Factors on Diversification Strategy: Based on Multiple Cases of Manufacturing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敬勤; 刘静

    2012-01-01

    This paper selected diversification strategies of three manufacturing companies, discussing impact of the external environment, the technological capabilities, management capabilities and resource integration capabilities with muhiple case study method. It found that: the external environment is the driving factor for diversification strategy; the technological capabilities obtained through exogenous and endogenous means are an important diversification strategy supporting conditions; management capabilities in R&D management and organizational management and so on are necessary security conditions; integration capabilities gained by collaboration, integration of acquisitions and restructuring and other resources can reduce costs. Based on the above findings, this paper presents the diversification strategy pyramid model, and proposed that enterprises should take into account four main factors in diversification strategy.%运用多案例研究方法,选取三家制造企业进入新产业多元化的案例,对外部环境、企业的技术能力、管理能力和资源整合能力如何影响企业的多元化战略进行了探讨。研究发现:外部环境是企业多元化战略的驱动因素;企业通过外生性手段和内生性手段获取的技术能力是多元化战略的重要支撑条件;企业在研发管理与组织管理等方面具备的管理能力是企业实施多元化战略的必要保障条件;企业通过合作、收购以及重组等资源整合方式能够使企业快速实现多元化结构整合,并有效降低成本。基于上述研究发现,提出了多元化战略影响因素的三棱锥模型,并指出企业在实施多元化战略时应综合考虑四个主要影响因素。