WorldWideScience

Sample records for impact animal populations

  1. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  2. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  3. Epigenetics in natural animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Barrett, R D H

    2017-09-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important mechanism for populations to buffer themselves from environmental change. While it has long been appreciated that natural populations possess genetic variation in the extent of plasticity, a surge of recent evidence suggests that epigenetic variation could also play an important role in shaping phenotypic responses. Compared with genetic variation, epigenetic variation is more likely to have higher spontaneous rates of mutation and a more sensitive reaction to environmental inputs. In our review, we first provide an overview of recent studies on epigenetically encoded thermal plasticity in animals to illustrate environmentally-mediated epigenetic effects within and across generations. Second, we discuss the role of epigenetic effects during adaptation by exploring population epigenetics in natural animal populations. Finally, we evaluate the evolutionary potential of epigenetic variation depending on its autonomy from genetic variation and its transgenerational stability. Although many of the causal links between epigenetic variation and phenotypic plasticity remain elusive, new data has explored the role of epigenetic variation in facilitating evolution in natural populations. This recent progress in ecological epigenetics will be helpful for generating predictive models of the capacity of organisms to adapt to changing climates. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Black-swan events in animal populations

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sean C.; Branch, Trevor A.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Dulvy, Nicholas K.

    2017-01-01

    Black swans?statistically improbable events with profound consequences?happen more often than expected in financial, social, and natural systems. Our work demonstrates the rare but systematic presence of black-swan events in animal populations around the world (mostly birds, mammals, and insects). These events are predominantly downward, implying that unexpected population crashes occur more frequently than increases. Black-swan events are not driven by life history (e.g., lifespan) but by ex...

  5. How do HIV and AIDS impact the use of natural resources by poor rural populations? The case of wild animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Shackleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of heightened financial and food insecurity, populations adversely affected by HIV and/or AIDS may be more likely to utilise wild natural resources to supplement their diet and livelihoods. Should this effect be pronounced, HIV and AIDS may pose a serious environmental threat. We explored the hypothesis that the presence of factors in the household, such as chronic illness in and recent mortality of individuals in a high HIV-risk age group, as well as the fostering of orphans, are associated with increased utilisation of wild animal products (WAPs at the household level. We randomly surveyed 519 households from four sites in rural South Africa, recording household socio-economic status, the utilisation of wild animal products and health and demographic factors attributed to HIV or AIDS. Binary logistic regressions were used to test if households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction were more likely to have a higher incidence and frequency of WAP utilisation relative to non-afflicted households, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic variables. We found that, although households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS were generally poorer and had higher dependency ratios, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that WAP harvesting was associated with either poverty, or markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction. Our findings suggest that generalisations about a possible interaction between HIV and/or AIDS and the environment may not uniformly apply to all categories of natural resources or to all user groups.

  6. Genomics of coloration in natural animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Jose, Luis M; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-07-05

    Animal coloration has traditionally been the target of genetic and evolutionary studies. However, until very recently, the study of the genetic basis of animal coloration has been mainly restricted to model species, whereas research on non-model species has been either neglected or mainly based on candidate approaches, and thereby limited by the knowledge obtained in model species. Recent high-throughput sequencing technologies allow us to overcome previous limitations, and open new avenues to study the genetic basis of animal coloration in a broader number of species and colour traits, and to address the general relevance of different genetic structures and their implications for the evolution of colour. In this review, we highlight aspects where genome-wide studies could be of major utility to fill in the gaps in our understanding of the biology and evolution of animal coloration. The new genomic approaches have been promptly adopted to study animal coloration although substantial work is still needed to consider a larger range of species and colour traits, such as those exhibiting continuous variation or based on reflective structures. We argue that a robust advancement in the study of animal coloration will also require large efforts to validate the functional role of the genes and variants discovered using genome-wide tools.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Effects of drought on the animal population in Eritrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woldehiwet, Z; Haywood, S; Trafford, J

    1985-08-17

    Most nomads in Eritrea have lost their animals due to outright starvation or diseases aggravated by malnutrition, resulting in part from drought. Animals surviving the drought itself are succumbing to infectious diseases and ecto- and endoparasites. Affected animals include camels as well as bovine and caprine populations.

  8. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.Keywords: animal products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, meat, milk, nutrients.

  9. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from 3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (-6 with relative “deficiency” of -3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the -6 / -3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  10. Linking animal population dynamics to alterations in foraging behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard; Tougaard, Jakob

    Background/Question/Methods The survival of animal populations is strongly influenced by the individuals’ ability to forage efficiently, yet there are few studies of how populations respond when disturbances cause animals to deviate from their natural foraging behavior. Animals that respond...... that are increasingly exposed to noise from ships, wind turbines, etc. In the present study we investigate how the dynamics of the harbor porpoise population (Phocoena phocoena) in the inner Danish waters is influenced by disturbances using an agent- based simulation model. In the model animal movement, and hence...... the animals’ ability to forage efficiently and to sustain their energy intake, is influenced by noise emitted from wind turbines and ships. The energy levels in turn affect their survival. The fine-scale movements of the simulated animals was governed by a spatial memory, which allowed the model to produce...

  11. Time series sightability modeling of animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ArchMiller, Althea A; Dorazio, Robert M; St Clair, Katherine; Fieberg, John R

    2018-01-01

    Logistic regression models-or "sightability models"-fit to detection/non-detection data from marked individuals are often used to adjust for visibility bias in later detection-only surveys, with population abundance estimated using a modified Horvitz-Thompson (mHT) estimator. More recently, a model-based alternative for analyzing combined detection/non-detection and detection-only data was developed. This approach seemed promising, since it resulted in similar estimates as the mHT when applied to data from moose (Alces alces) surveys in Minnesota. More importantly, it provided a framework for developing flexible models for analyzing multiyear detection-only survey data in combination with detection/non-detection data. During initial attempts to extend the model-based approach to multiple years of detection-only data, we found that estimates of detection probabilities and population abundance were sensitive to the amount of detection-only data included in the combined (detection/non-detection and detection-only) analysis. Subsequently, we developed a robust hierarchical modeling approach where sightability model parameters are informed only by the detection/non-detection data, and we used this approach to fit a fixed-effects model (FE model) with year-specific parameters and a temporally-smoothed model (TS model) that shares information across years via random effects and a temporal spline. The abundance estimates from the TS model were more precise, with decreased interannual variability relative to the FE model and mHT abundance estimates, illustrating the potential benefits from model-based approaches that allow information to be shared across years.

  12. Time series sightability modeling of animal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ArchMiller, Althea A.; Dorazio, Robert; St. Clair, Katherine; Fieberg, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Logistic regression models—or “sightability models”—fit to detection/non-detection data from marked individuals are often used to adjust for visibility bias in later detection-only surveys, with population abundance estimated using a modified Horvitz-Thompson (mHT) estimator. More recently, a model-based alternative for analyzing combined detection/non-detection and detection-only data was developed. This approach seemed promising, since it resulted in similar estimates as the mHT when applied to data from moose (Alces alces) surveys in Minnesota. More importantly, it provided a framework for developing flexible models for analyzing multiyear detection-only survey data in combination with detection/non-detection data. During initial attempts to extend the model-based approach to multiple years of detection-only data, we found that estimates of detection probabilities and population abundance were sensitive to the amount of detection-only data included in the combined (detection/non-detection and detection-only) analysis. Subsequently, we developed a robust hierarchical modeling approach where sightability model parameters are informed only by the detection/non-detection data, and we used this approach to fit a fixed-effects model (FE model) with year-specific parameters and a temporally-smoothed model (TS model) that shares information across years via random effects and a temporal spline. The abundance estimates from the TS model were more precise, with decreased interannual variability relative to the FE model and mHT abundance estimates, illustrating the potential benefits from model-based approaches that allow information to be shared across years.

  13. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... prepare an environmental impact statement to examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass... of animal carcass management options used throughout the United States. The EIS will analyze and...

  14. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... pests or diseases. Large numbers of animals and carcasses may need to be disposed of or otherwise... management of large numbers of carcasses during an animal health emergency must be timely, safe, biosecure...

  15. Building the bridge between animal movement and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan M; Moorcroft, Paul R; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Frair, Jacqueline L; Kie, John G; Powell, Roger A; Merrill, Evelyn H; Haydon, Daniel T

    2010-07-27

    While the mechanistic links between animal movement and population dynamics are ecologically obvious, it is much less clear when knowledge of animal movement is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting population dynamics. GPS and other technologies enable detailed tracking of animal location concurrently with acquisition of landscape data and information on individual physiology. These tools can be used to refine our understanding of the mechanistic links between behaviour and individual condition through 'spatially informed' movement models where time allocation to different behaviours affects individual survival and reproduction. For some species, socially informed models that address the movements and average fitness of differently sized groups and how they are affected by fission-fusion processes at relevant temporal scales are required. Furthermore, as most animals revisit some places and avoid others based on their previous experiences, we foresee the incorporation of long-term memory and intention in movement models. The way animals move has important consequences for the degree of mixing that we expect to find both within a population and between individuals of different species. The mixing rate dictates the level of detail required by models to capture the influence of heterogeneity and the dynamics of intra- and interspecific interaction.

  16. Animal Ownership Among Vulnerable Populations in Regional South Australia: Implications for Natural Disaster Preparedness and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Trigg, Joshua; Smith, Bradley

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of animal ownership among populations likely to be at greater risk from disaster events within a bushfire context. To investigate the proportion of vulnerable community members keeping animals and the types of animals kept, as well as perceived risk of harm to pets, and their inclusion in bushfire survival planning. Statewide anonymous online survey in 2014 of adult South Australian animal owners threatened by bushfire in January 2014. Respondents were asked about animal ownership, their bushfire risk perception, and household survival planning. Descriptive statistics are presented for 5 groups considered likely to contribute to increased risk of harm for households: linguistically diverse, older adults, families with young children, physically frail, and self-identifying disabled, as well as individuals with mental health considerations. An opt-in purposively targeted sample of anonymous South Australians living in high fire-risk locations. Adult South Australian animal owners threatened or directly impacted by bushfire events, including individuals matching 1 of the 5 vulnerable groups. Self-reported details of animal ownership, perceived fire risk, survival planning, and vulnerability characteristics. Animal ownership was found to be more prevalent in these 5 populations than in the wider South Australian population. Perceived risk to pets was low to moderately low in these individuals. Variation was observed in the role of animals generally and pets specifically as motivators for preparing bushfire survival plans. Emergency services and associated agencies need to consider how the unique needs of vulnerable populations that keep animals, and their potential differences in risk perception, relate to their bushfire survival planning and preparedness requirements.

  17. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  18. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D; Kennedy, Chris A

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai-the world's most densely populated megacity-at 6.5 W m -2 , surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m -2 ) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m -2 ). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  19. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  20. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  2. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2010-12-31

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  3. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  4. [An integrated theory of natural control of animal populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, F

    1968-11-01

    Since the twenties of our century, at least 15 theories worth discussing have been developped which intend to explain the causes of natural control of animal populations (for details see SCHWERDTFEGER, 1968). An attempt is made to integrate the different-partly contrary-ideas and new results into a general theory. The basis to start from is the cybernetic principle of feed-back mechanism introduced into population dynamics by WILBERT (1962): an actual value (e.g. the inside temperature of a refrigerator) is permanently changed by perturbances (the always higher outside temperature); through a regulator (a thermostat), each change puts in action a regulating variable (a cooling device) which alters the actual towards the index value (required inside temperature).The often complicated processes that take part in the natural control of populations are summarized in Fig. 6. The actual value is the existing population density (Abundanz). The perturbances primarily causing its fluctuations (Fluktuation) are fertility and immigration which raise the abundance, mortality and emigration which lower it.The amplitude of the fluctuation must be limited, if the population is not to die out or to destroy its habitat by continuous increase. It is determined (Determination) as a sort of index value, the lower limit of which corresponds in the extreme to the minimal density guaranteeing the existence of the population, while the upper limit is formed by the environmental capacity. The latter is determined either by the total supply of requisites and the ability of the animals to use it or by the local minimum of adverse effects. The capacity of the environment and therewith the amplitude of fluctuations can be fixed or variable. It is fixed in a population of Great Tits with territorial behaviour: in an oak stand, the number of breeding pairs cannot be higher than the number of territories fitting in. It is variable in the case of bark beetles living in wind thrown spruce trees

  5. Multidrug resistant bacteria in companion animals: impact on animal health and zoonotic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro

    -resistant bacteria include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria will be described with focus on their prevalence across Europe, their impact on animal...

  6. Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are toxic to humans, fish and many other animals, even in low concentrations. Susceptibility to aflatoxins varies by age, health status, species and other factors. Most research has focused on aflatoxins in maize or groundnuts and their impacts on human health. However, aflatoxins are found in other foods and can also ...

  7. Environmental impact of population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Rosamond; Matson, Pamela

    Earth's population currently numbers 5.4 billion; even given optimistic assumptions for reduction in growth rates, the number will double by the middle of the next century with most of the increase in the developing countries. Rapid population growth in the developing world raises the fundamental dilemma of how to alleviate chronic hunger and poverty in the short run while preserving the atmosphere and ecosystem services required for long-term human and biospheric sustenance. This dilemma, and the compromises required to solve it, were discussed by twenty-five researchers from five countries at the Aspen Global Change Institute 1992 Summer Science Session III, Food, Conservation, and Global Environmental Change: Is Compromise Possible?, held from August 16 to 28, in Aspen, Colo.

  8. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella . Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis , the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen.

  9. Population Impact of Drug Interactions with Warfarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín-Pérez, Mar; Gaist, David; de Abajo, Francisco J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the population impact of previously reported interactions between warfarin and other drugs on international normalized ratio (INR) levels. METHODS:  Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a United Kingdom primary care database, a cohort of warfarin users between.......55) and in the proportion of patients with INR levels out of therapeutic range (population...

  10. Population-animating on self protection of over irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, I.

    1994-01-01

    Decrease of over irradiation of the population, by X-rays examinations and from radon, can be helped by self protection of the population. This one must previously have sufficiently information about the radiation and about the prevention of the radiation. The author has organised and continually carried out health education of the population, in such a manner as it was desired upon an asking of the population. After eight years of activity in this manner the radiation exposition of the population was a third lesser. The health education about the prevention and protection of the radiation exposition must be organized systematically and continually by the leading of responsible experts and corresponding institutions

  11. The Role and Impact of Animals with Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Anna Tielsch; Gilmer, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Animal-facilitated therapy (AFT), more specifically known as animal-assisted therapy (AAT) or "pet therapy," has had an increased presence in the literature with a surge of recent research methodologies exploring this complementary alternative medicine (CAM) intervention. However, limited studies have been conducted in the pediatric population, with many articles anecdotal in nature. A literature review included primary data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, and CINAHL, and yielded positive and beneficial outcomes to be gained through AAT in the pediatric population. Primary outcome variables of decreased anxiety and pain are the most commonly reported results. Further research studies are indicated to include the effects of AFT with children with different diseases and diagnoses. Exploration of other psychosocial and physical variables, such as self-esteem, would be useful. Interdisciplinary strategies are needed to develop interventions to help reduce patient symptoms and treatment-associated stress, as well as to facilitate healing and wellness beyond traditional medical treatment plans. Complementary therapies are of continued interest to the health care community, especially for pediatric nurses. Effective use of animals to facilitate conversation, lead discussion, or break communication barriers has been demonstrated through both research and anecdotal reports.

  12. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  13. Use of Animal Species Data in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knegtering, Edo; Drees, J. Marijke; Geertsema, Paul; Huitema, Hans J.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs referred to specific species and the accuracy of survey data referred to; and (c) apparent roles of different EIA actors in species inclusion. EIAs were found to use data on various taxa but on limited numbers of species. The frequency with which taxa were included varied significantly. Birds were most frequently included, followed by mammals, amphibians, and other species groups. The quality of data on birds exceeded that regarding other vertebrates. Our results indicate that (a) EIA working groups of independent experts were the most influential in determining the data to be used; (b) on average, proponents included data more often than required by guidelines; and (c) in 30 to 40% of the EIAs, the participation of nongovernmental organizations prompted use of data. Despite the key role of experts in data inclusion, the taxon rankings found in the EIAs showed little deviation from those observed in studies on people’s preferences for species. Given the limited ranges of species considered, it is doubtful that the EIAs examined effectively contributed to conserving animal species diversity.

  14. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  15. Effects of radioactive fallout on soil animal populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutzkij, D.A.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were carried out during July and September 1986, April 1987 and October 1988. Radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl atomic power station (APS) accident induced catastrophic effects on populations of small pine-litter faunae within the 30km zone around the station. Effects on soil faunae were not so marked due to shielding by the soil, or on litter faunae at the edge of the 30km zone due to distance from the source. Thirty-gray doses did not directly affect adult animals in the soil and litter, but impacted their eggs and juveniles. Resident populations recovered slowly during the first year after the accident. Insect migration into the contaminated area was the primary source of soil animal population recovery. After 2-2.5 year, marked differences between populations in the contaminated and control areas were no longer found. (author). 5 refs.; 6 tabs

  16. Molluscan Population Of An African Arid Zone Lake | Idowu | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species composition, abundance and distribution of molluscs population together with some physico-chemical variables from five different stations in the littoral region of lake Alau, MaiduguriBorno state, were studied from October 2001 to September 2002. Three patterns of seasonal abundance were found, maximal ...

  17. Vertebrate animal populations of the McCormick Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA FS

    1975-01-01

    Describes the means of surveying and estimating the populations of birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles in 1972 and 1973 on this 17,000-acre forest in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Gives an annotated list of birds and mammals and estimates biomass of amphibians in four habitats.

  18. Impact of Relationships between Test and Reference Animals and between Reference Animals on Reliability of Genomic Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sun, Dongxiao

    This study investigated reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to relationship between test and reference animals and between animals within the reference population. Different reference populations were generated from EuroGenomics data and 1288 Nordic Holstein bulls...... as a common test population. A GBLUP model and a Bayesian mixture model were applied to predict Genomic breeding values for bulls in the test data. Result showed that a closer relationship between test and reference animals led to a higher reliability, while a closer relationship between reference animal...... resulted in a lower reliability. Therefore, the design of reference population is important for improving the reliability of genomic prediction. With regard to model, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to slightly a higher reliability of genomic prediction than the GBLUP model...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus in Animals and Food: Methicillin Resistance, Prevalence and Population Structure. A Review in the African Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lozano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest about Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA in livestock, and domestic and wild animals has significantly increased. The spread of different clonal complexes related to livestock animals, mainly CC398, and the recent description of the new mecC gene, make it necessary to know more about the epidemiology and population structure of this microorganism all over the world. Nowadays, there are several descriptions about the presence of S. aureus and/or MRSA in different animal species (dogs, sheep, donkeys, bats, pigs, and monkeys, and in food of animal origin in African countries. In this continent, there is a high diversity of ethnicities, cultures or religions, as well as a high number of wild animal species and close contact between humans and animals, which can have a relevant impact in the epidemiology of this microorganism. This review shows that some clonal lineages associated with humans (CC1, CC15, CC72, CC80, CC101, and CC152 and animals (CC398, CC130 and CC133 are present in this continent in animal isolates, although the mecC gene has not been detected yet. However, available studies are limited to a few countries, very often with incomplete information, and many more studies are necessary to cover a larger number of African countries.

  20. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  1. Impact of relationships between test and training animals and among training animals on reliability of genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Lund, M S; Sun, D; Zhang, Q; Su, G

    2015-10-01

    One of the factors affecting the reliability of genomic prediction is the relationship among the animals of interest. This study investigated the reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to the relationship between test and training animals, and among animals within the training data set. Different training data sets were generated from EuroGenomics data and a group of Nordic Holstein bulls (born in 2005 and afterwards) as a common test data set. Genomic breeding values were predicted using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and a Bayesian mixture model. The results showed that a closer relationship between test and training animals led to a higher reliability of genomic predictions for the test animals, while a closer relationship among training animals resulted in a lower reliability. In addition, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to a slightly higher reliability of genomic prediction, especially for the scenario of distant relationships between training and test animals. Therefore, to prevent a decrease in reliability, constant updates of the training population with animals from more recent generations are required. Moreover, a training population consisting of less-related animals is favourable for reliability of genomic prediction. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. A Study on Impact of Informatization on Tourist Behavior : Analysis of Anime Pilgrimage

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 健

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows impact of informatization on tourist behavior in Japan. This research adopts analysis of "Anime Pilgrimage" in order to accomplish the above mentioned objective. Recently, in Japan, some of anime fans make "Anime Pilgrimage" which is a kind of tourist behavior. It would appear that this behavior was affected by informatization strongly. As a result, it was found that "Anime Pilgrim" was affected by informatization not only before "Anime Pilgrimage" but also throughout "Anime ...

  3. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  4. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  5. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  6. Prudent Use of Veterinary Drugs: Impact on Safe Animal Products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like any other therapeutic compounds, veterinary drugs are used to alleviate diseases in animals as either therapeutic or prophylactic compounds for specific disease entities. They can also be used as production aids in food producing animals to increase market sale of these animals whereby the producers save on the ...

  7. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  8. Comparing environmental impacts from insects for feed and food as an alternative to animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hansen, Hanne Helene; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    This chapter systematically compares and contrasts the known environmental impacts of traditional vertebrate animal production with insect production intended for both food and animal feed. There are major physiological and biological differences between traditional livestock species and insects,...

  9. Effect of plant-animal interactions on individual performance and population dynamics of Scorzonera hispanica

    OpenAIRE

    Červenková, Zita

    2016-01-01

    The population dynamics of plants with regard to plant-animal interactions is a remarkably complex topic. To look into how individual life stages are influenced in different directions by various animals is beyond the scope of a single paper. For each of the studies described below, I and my co-authors attempted to collect data that would cover as much of the plant life cycle as possible, focusing on interactions between plants and different animals during the flowering period and their conse...

  10. Impacts of prenatal nutrition on animal production and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2017-01-01

    The concept of foetal programming (FP) originated from human epidemiological studies, where foetal life nutrition was linked to health and disease status later in life. Since the proposal of this phenomenon, it has been evaluated in various animal models to gain further insights into the mechanisms...... programming in animals born precocial, such as sheep. Appropriate attention to the nutrition of the late pregnant dam should therefore be a priority in animal production systems....

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; André, François-Xavier; Denis, Olivier; Coenye, Tom; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-07-09

    While Staphylococcus epidermidis, as part of the commensal flora, is a well-known human opportunistic pathogen, only little is known about the genetic relatedness of S. epidermidis carriage isolates from animal and human origin. This study aimed to compare S. epidermidis recovered from livestock, livestock-farmers and humans associated with the hospital environment. A total of 193 S. epidermidis isolates from three populations [animals (n=33), farmers (n=86) and hospital-associated (n=74)] were characterized by broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The overall S. epidermidis nasal colonization rate was low in animals (1-9%) but high among farmers (75%). High levels of multi-resistance were found in all populations. Tetracycline resistance was high in animal and farmer isolates; resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim was high in animal and hospital-associated isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis - MRSE isolates were found in all collections, with 22 (67%) MRSE in animals, 44 (51%) MRSE in farmers and 42 (57%) MRSE associated with the hospital-setting. Known SCCmec types and variants were detected in 79% of MRSE; the rest were non-typeable cassettes. In total 79 PFGE-types were found, of which 22 were shared between livestock, farmers and the hospital settings. Clonal complex 2 was predominant in all three populations and most STs corresponded to types previously observed in community and nosocomial S. epidermidis populations. S. epidermidis isolates from livestock, farmers and hospital-setting showed a high level of diversity, but some clones can be found in humans as well as in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of population genetics to animal breeding, from wright, fisher and lush to genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William G

    2014-01-01

    Although animal breeding was practiced long before the science of genetics and the relevant disciplines of population and quantitative genetics were known, breeding programs have mainly relied on simply selecting and mating the best individuals on their own or relatives' performance. This is based on sound quantitative genetic principles, developed and expounded by Lush, who attributed much of his understanding to Wright, and formalized in Fisher's infinitesimal model. Analysis at the level of individual loci and gene frequency distributions has had relatively little impact. Now with access to genomic data, a revolution in which molecular information is being used to enhance response with "genomic selection" is occurring. The predictions of breeding value still utilize multiple loci throughout the genome and, indeed, are largely compatible with additive and specifically infinitesimal model assumptions. I discuss some of the history and genetic issues as applied to the science of livestock improvement, which has had and continues to have major spin-offs into ideas and applications in other areas.

  13. Population sensitivities of animals to chronic ionizing radiation-model predictions from mice to elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykina, Tatiana G

    2018-02-01

    Model predictions of population response to chronic ionizing radiation (endpoint 'morbidity') were made for 11 species of warm-blooded animals, differing in body mass and lifespan - from mice to elephant. Predictions were made also for 3 bird species (duck, pigeon, and house sparrow). Calculations were based on analytical solutions of the mathematical model, simulating a population response to low-LET ionizing radiation in an ecosystem with a limiting resource (Sazykina, Kryshev, 2016). Model parameters for different species were taken from biological and radioecological databases; allometric relationships were employed for estimating some parameter values. As a threshold of decreased health status in exposed populations ('health threshold'), a 10% reduction in self-repairing capacity of organisms was suggested, associated with a decline in ability to sustain environmental stresses. Results of the modeling demonstrate a general increase of population vulnerability to ionizing radiation in animal species of larger size and longevity. Populations of small widespread species (mice, house sparrow; body mass 20-50 g), which are characterized by intensive metabolism and short lifespan, have calculated 'health thresholds' at dose rates about 6.5-7.5 mGy day -1 . Widespread animals with body mass 200-500 g (rat, common pigeon) - demonstrate 'health threshold' values at 4-5 mGy day -1 . For populations of animals with body mass 2-5 kg (rabbit, fox, raccoon), the indicators of 10% health decrease are in the range 2-3.4 mGy day -1 . For animals with body mass 40-100 kg (wolf, sheep, wild boar), thresholds are within 0.5-0.8 mGy day -1 ; for herbivorous animals with body mass 200-300 kg (deer, horse) - 0.5-0.6 mGy day -1 . The lowest health threshold was estimated for elephant (body mass around 5000 kg) - 0.1 mGy day -1 . According to the model results, the differences in population sensitivities of warm-blooded animal species to ionizing radiation are generally

  14. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  15. Radiation adaptation as one of the factors for microevolution processes in animals populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaychenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the main directions of response populations of individual species and faunistic complexes provides opportunity to address the relationship of adaptations of animals to radiation press by raising the level of epige-netic variability and features of a survival strategy. It is suggested to increase the level of microevolutionary processes in conditions of radioactive contamination biocenosis.

  16. Medicinal animals: knowledge and use among riverine populations from the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Leme da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article documents the use of animals in the home medicine among riverine populations from the Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and observations concerning to the knowledge and everyday practices of the use of medicinal animals. About 60 animal species are known with medicinal purposes. The knowledge is well distributed between sexes (men and women and localities (urban and rural. The use of medicinal animals is embedded in etiological concepts and involves a complex cosmological vision of the cure process. The rural exodus and the facilitated access to the western medicine may be promoting the loss of the traditional knowledge, which can be mitigated through the valorization and transmission of this knowledge to the future generations.

  17. Enhancing Communication of Climate Impacts Assessments: Examples of Local Stories, Animations and Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive climate impacts assessments are important vehicles for conveying salient information to the public and policy makers. However, over the last few decades communication of this important information has been hampered for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have a rapidly changing social media landscape, where there are fewer opportunities for in-depth treatment of issues. To compete in this arena, climate information needs to be packaged in sound bites, and much of the nuance and complexity may be lost. Secondly, scientific literacy among the general U.S. population is not particularly high, which creates a barrier to understanding and limits the audiences that can be reached. Thirdly, climate science has been undermined by misinformation over many years often funded by fossil fuel interests. While this latter obstacle is clearly diminishing - largely in the face of evidence from the undeniable climate impacts that are already being seen by communities - there has been much confusion generated to date. Despite the fact that 97% of active climate scientists agree that the planet is warming as a result of human greenhouse gas emission, only 42% of the U.S. population agrees (Pew Research, 2013). In the face of these challenges, much of the work that the Union of Concerned Scientists does to translate climate impacts assessments has shifted to visuals, animations, and videos that people can relate to and connect with more readily. In this session we will share some of the general design features, discuss target audiences, and outline production limitations of several local stories involving videos and animations, as well as present some recent infographics. One example of this work are case studies that focus on sea level rise and involve a local personality who can speak to climate impacts at the community level. We understand the power of visual images and stories in creating messages that stick, and we use this in designing animations that explain the

  18. [The susceptibility of different animal species to synanthropic and natural populations of Trichinella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Iu G; Artemenko, L P

    1997-01-01

    Pigs have been found to be highly susceptible to the synanthropic (domestic) population of Trichinella [correction of Trachina] and weakly susceptible to the natural (native) one. Fur-bearing animals (polar foxes and foxes) are more susceptible to the natural population of Trichinella [correction of Trachina], but minks are equally sensible to the two variants of T. spiralis. In the host's body, synanthropic Trichinella [correction of Trachinas] form capsules of lemon-like, less frequently, oval shape, but the native population do round capsules. There is larval adaptation when Trichinella [correction of Trachina] larvae enter the nonspecific host's body after their prepassage through the organism of domestic carnivorous animals (cats, dogs). The pig is successfully infected with T. spiralis nativa via the cat or dog; the infection rate is approximately close to that observed during control infection of pigs with synanthropic Trichinella [correction of Trachina].

  19. The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of animal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Nabe-Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of wild animal populations is of crucial importance to wildlife managers and conservation biologists, but obtaining experimental evidence using real landscapes is usually impossible. To circumvent this problem we used individual-based models (IBMs of interacting animals in experimental modifications of a real Danish landscape. The models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of four species with contrasting life-history characteristics: skylark (Alauda arvensis, vole (Microtus agrestis, a ground beetle (Bembidion lampros and a linyphiid spider (Erigone atra. This allows us to quantify the population implications of experimental modifications of landscape configuration and composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Starting with a real agricultural landscape, we progressively reduced landscape complexity by (i homogenizing habitat patch shapes, (ii randomizing the locations of the patches, and (iii randomizing the size of the patches. The first two steps increased landscape fragmentation. We assessed the effects of these manipulations on the long-term persistence of animal populations by measuring equilibrium population sizes and time to recovery after disturbance. Patch rearrangement and the presence of corridors had a large effect on the population dynamics of species whose local success depends on the surrounding terrain. Landscape modifications that reduced population sizes increased recovery times in the short-dispersing species, making small populations vulnerable to increasing disturbance. The species that were most strongly affected by large disturbances fluctuated little in population sizes in years when no perturbations took place. SIGNIFICANCE: Traditional approaches to the management and conservation of populations use either classical methods of population analysis, which fail to adequately account for the spatial configurations

  20. Uncertainty in Population Estimates for Endangered Animals and Improving the Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Rachlow

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available United States recovery plans contain biological information for a species listed under the Endangered Species Act and specify recovery criteria to provide basis for species recovery. The objective of our study was to evaluate whether recovery plans provide uncertainty (e.g., variance with estimates of population size. We reviewed all finalized recovery plans for listed terrestrial vertebrate species to record the following data: (1 if a current population size was given, (2 if a measure of uncertainty or variance was associated with current estimates of population size and (3 if population size was stipulated for recovery. We found that 59% of completed recovery plans specified a current population size, 14.5% specified a variance for the current population size estimate and 43% specified population size as a recovery criterion. More recent recovery plans reported more estimates of current population size, uncertainty and population size as a recovery criterion. Also, bird and mammal recovery plans reported more estimates of population size and uncertainty compared to reptiles and amphibians. We suggest the use of calculating minimum detectable differences to improve confidence when delisting endangered animals and we identified incentives for individuals to get involved in recovery planning to improve access to quantitative data.

  1. The impact of the postnatal gut microbiota on animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Ejsing-Duun, Maria; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Quality control of laboratory animals has been mostly concentrated on eliminating and securing the absence of specific infections, but event barrier bred laboratory animals harbour a huge number of gut bacteria. There is scientific evidence that the nature of the gut microbiota especially in early...... correlated to factors related to early exposure to microorganisms, e.g. the so-called hygiene hypothesis claims that the increasing human incidence of allergy. T1D, RA and IBD may be due to the lack of such exposure. It is possible today by various molecular techniques to profile the gut microbiota...

  2. Research Article: Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, ...

  3. Impacts of human-induced environmental change in wetlands on aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Hale, Robin; Parris, Kirsten M; Swearer, Stephen E

    2018-02-01

    Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. This risk will be heightened if such wetlands are ecological traps - preferred habitats that confer lower fitness than another available habitat. Wetlands functioning as ecological traps could decrease both local and regional population persistence, and ultimately lead to extinctions. Most studies have examined how animals respond to changes in environmental conditions by measuring responses at the community and population levels, but studying ecological traps requires information on fitness and habitat preferences. Our current lack of knowledge of individual-level responses may therefore limit our capacity to manage wetland ecosystems effectively since ecological traps require different management practices to mitigate potential consequences. We conducted a global meta-analysis to characterise how animals respond to four key drivers of wetland alteration: agriculture, mining, restoration and urbanisation. Our overarching goal was to evaluate the ecological impacts of human alterations to wetland ecosystems, as well as identify current knowledge gaps that limit both the current understanding of these responses and effective wetland management. We extracted 1799 taxon-specific response ratios from 271 studies across 29 countries. Community- (e.g. richness) and population-level (e.g. density) measures within altered wetlands were largely comparable to those within reference wetlands. By contrast, individual fitness measures (e.g. survival) were often lower, highlighting the potential

  4. Why are some animal populations unaffected or positively affected by roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2013-11-01

    In reviews on effects of roads on animal population abundance we found that most effects are negative; however, there are also many neutral and positive responses [Fahrig and Rytwinski (Ecol Soc 14:21, 2009; Rytwinski and Fahrig (Biol Conserv 147:87-98, 2012)]. Here we use an individual-based simulation model to: (1) confirm predictions from the existing literature of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to negative effects of roads on animal population abundance, and (2) improve prediction of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to neutral and positive effects of roads on animal population abundance. Simulations represented a typical situation in which road mitigation is contemplated, i.e. rural landscapes containing a relatively low density (up to 1.86 km/km(2)) of high-traffic roads, with continuous habitat between the roads. In these landscapes, the simulations predict that populations of species with small territories and movement ranges, and high reproductive rates, i.e. many small mammals and birds, should not be reduced by roads. Contrary to previous suggestions, the results also predict that populations of species that obtain a resource from roads (e.g. vultures) do not increase with increasing road density. In addition, our simulations support the predation release hypothesis for positive road effects on prey (both small- and large-bodied prey), whereby abundance of a prey species increased with increasing road density due to reduced predation by generalist road-affected predators. The simulations also predict an optimal road density for the large-bodied prey species if it avoids roads or traffic emissions. Overall, the simulation results suggest that in rural landscapes containing high-traffic roads, there are many species for which road mitigation may not be necessary; mitigation efforts should be tailored to the species that show negative population responses to roads.

  5. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and health. ... the widest array of complex scientific, economic, environmental and political issues. ... investment in research and extrapolation of information towards appropriate ...

  6. Mid-term financial impact of animal welfare improvements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    This study used a stochastic bioeconomic simulation model to simulate the business and financial risk of different broiler production systems over a 5-yr period. Simulation analysis was conducted using the @Risk add-in in MS Excel. To compare the impact of different production systems on economic

  7. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  8. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population. 68.30 Section 68.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle...

  9. Predicting farm-level animal populations using environmental and socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Mary; Jewell, Christopher; McKenzie, Joanna; Hollings, Tracey; Robinson, Andrew; Burgman, Mark; Bingham, Paul; Carpenter, Tim

    2017-09-15

    Accurate information on the geographic distribution of domestic animal populations helps biosecurity authorities to efficiently prepare for and rapidly eradicate exotic diseases, such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Developing and maintaining sufficiently high-quality data resources is expensive and time consuming. Statistical modelling of population density and distribution has only begun to be applied to farm animal populations, although it is commonly used in wildlife ecology. We developed zero-inflated Poisson regression models in a Bayesian framework using environmental and socioeconomic variables to predict the counts of livestock units (LSUs) and of cattle on spatially referenced farm polygons in a commercially available New Zealand farm database, Agribase. Farm-level counts of cattle and of LSUs varied considerably by region, because of the heterogeneous farming landscape in New Zealand. The amount of high quality pasture per farm was significantly associated with the presence of both cattle and LSUs. Internal model validation (predictive performance) showed that the models were able to predict the count of the animal population on groups of farms that were located in randomly selected 3km zones with a high level of accuracy. Predicting cattle or LSU counts on individual farms was less accurate. Predicted counts were statistically significantly more variable for farms that were contract grazing dry stock, such as replacement dairy heifers and dairy cattle not currently producing milk, compared with other farm types. This analysis presents a way to predict numbers of LSUs and cattle for farms using environmental and socio-economic data. The technique has the potential to be extrapolated to predicting other pastoral based livestock species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  11. Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; van Beest, Floris; Grimm, Volker

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to anthropogenic disturbances that cause animals to change behavior and move away from potential foraging grounds. Here we present a process-based modeling framework for assessing population consequences of such sub-lethal behavioral effects. It builds...... on how disturbances influence animal movements, and how this in turn affect their foraging and energetics. The animals’ tendency to move away from disturbances is directly related to the experienced noise level. The reduced foraging in noisy areas affects the animals’ energy budget, fitness...... that determine animal fitness, are expected to have high predictive power in novel environments, making them ideal tools for marine management....

  12. The impact of disease on wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1969-01-01

    It is postulated that disease is a product of adverse habitats. Overpopulation causes overutilization of food supplies, which results in malnutrition and a decrease in resistance to diseases. Examples of such ecological relationships in populations of Canada geese, California quail, red grouse, deer, rabbits, voles, mice and lemmings are presented.

  13. Impact of animal-assisted therapy for outpatients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A; Bernstein, Cheryl D; Constantin, Janet M; Kunkel, Frank A; Breuer, Paula; Hanlon, Raymond B

    2013-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy using dogs trained to be calm and provide comfort to strangers has been used as a complementary therapy for a range of medical conditions. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of brief therapy dog visits for fibromyalgia patients attending a tertiary outpatient pain management facility compared with time spent in a waiting room. Open label with waiting room control. Tertiary care, university-based, outpatient pain management clinic. A convenience sample of fibromyalgia patients was obtained through advertisements posted in the clinic. Participants were able to spend clinic waiting time with a certified therapy dog instead of waiting in the outpatient waiting area. When the therapy dog was not available, individuals remained in the waiting area. OUTCOME MEASURES.: Self-reported pain, fatigue, and emotional distress were recorded using 11-point numeric rating scales before and after the therapy dog visit or waiting room time. Data were evaluated from 106 therapy dog visits and 49 waiting room controls, with no significant between-group demographic differences in participants. Average intervention duration was 12 minutes for the therapy dog visit and 17 minutes for the waiting room control. Significant improvements were reported for pain, mood, and other measures of distress among patients after the therapy dog visit, but not the waiting room control. Clinically meaningful pain relief (≥2 points pain severity reduction) occurred in 34% after the therapy dog visit and 4% in the waiting room control. Outcome was not affected by the presence of comorbid anxiety or depression. Brief therapy dog visits may provide a valuable complementary therapy for fibromyalgia outpatients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Social and behavioral barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.S.

    1988-12-31

    Disease and pathogens have been studied as regulators of animal populations but not really as selective forces. The authors propose that pathogens can be major selective forces influencing social behaviors when these are successful at reducing disease transmission. The behaviors whose evolution could have been influenced by pathogen effects include group size, group isolation, mixed species flocking, migration, seasonal sociality, social avoidance, and dominance behaviors. Mate choice, mating system, and sexual selection are put in a new light when examined in terms of disease transmission. It is concluded that pathogen avoidance is a more powerful selective force than has heretofore been recognized.

  15. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Groff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of animals are used in research and toxicity testing, including in drug, medical device, chemical, cosmetic, personal care, household, and other product sectors, but the environmental consequences are yet to be adequately addressed. Evidence suggests that their use and disposal, and the associated use of chemicals and supplies, contribute to pollution as well as adverse impacts on biodiversity and public health. The objective of this review is to examine such evidence. The review includes examinations of (1 resources used in animal research; (2 waste production in laboratories; (3 sources of pollution; (4 impacts on laboratory workers’ health; and (5 biodiversity impacts. The clear conclusion from the review is that the environmental implications of animal testing must be acknowledged, reported, and taken into account as another factor in addition to ethical and scientific reasons weighing heavily in favor of moving away from allowing and requiring animal use in research and testing.

  16. Selection and adaptation in irradiated plant and animal populations: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Available literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on mutation rates, variability and adaptive responses to selection in exposed plant and animal populations is reviewed. Accumulated variability, and hence potential selection differentials, may be increased by many times due to induced mutation. The radiation dose that maximizes induced mutation varies greatly among species, strains and genetic systems. Induced variability tends to enhance the respose to selection, but this effect may be delayed or prevented by an initial reduction in the heritability of induced variation. Significantly, the detrimental effects of harmful mutations in irradiated populations may exceed the beneficial effects of selection for adaptive characteristics. Selection for radioresistance may occur at lethal or sub-lethal radiation doses but dose relationships are highly variable. (author)

  17. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On-going surveillance on dog

  18. Predicting the future impact of droughts on ungulate populations in arid and semi-arid environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Duncan

    Full Text Available Droughts can have a severe impact on the dynamics of animal populations, particularly in semi-arid and arid environments where herbivore populations are strongly limited by resource availability. Increased drought intensity under projected climate change scenarios can be expected to reduce the viability of such populations, yet this impact has seldom been quantified. In this study, we aim to fill this gap and assess how the predicted worsening of droughts over the 21(st century is likely to impact the population dynamics of twelve ungulate species occurring in arid and semi-arid habitats. Our results provide support to the hypotheses that more sedentary, grazing and mixed feeding species will be put at high risk from future increases in drought intensity, suggesting that management intervention under these conditions should be targeted towards species possessing these traits. Predictive population models for all sedentary, grazing or mixed feeding species in our study show that their probability of extinction dramatically increases under future emissions scenarios, and that this extinction risk is greater for smaller populations than larger ones. Our study highlights the importance of quantifying the current and future impacts of increasing extreme natural events on populations and species in order to improve our ability to mitigate predicted biodiversity loss under climate change.

  19. A method for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew; O'Keefe, Joy M; Walters, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    While numerous methods exist for estimating abundance when detection is imperfect, these methods may not be appropriate due to logistical difficulties or unrealistic assumptions. In particular, if highly mobile taxa are frequently absent from survey locations, methods that estimate a probability of detection conditional on presence will generate biased abundance estimates. Here, we propose a new estimator for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals. The estimator assumes that the target population conforms to a fission-fusion grouping pattern, in which the population is divided into groups that frequently change in size and composition. If assumptions are met, it is not necessary to locate all groups in the population to estimate abundance. We derive an estimator, perform a simulation study, conduct a power analysis, and apply the method to field data. The simulation study confirmed that our estimator is asymptotically unbiased with low bias, narrow confidence intervals, and good coverage, given a modest survey effort. The power analysis provided initial guidance on survey effort. When applied to small data sets obtained by radio-tracking Indiana bats, abundance estimates were reasonable, although imprecise. The proposed method has the potential to improve abundance estimates for mobile species that have a fission-fusion social structure, such as Indiana bats, because it does not condition detection on presence at survey locations and because it avoids certain restrictive assumptions.

  20. Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navinder J; Leonardsson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS)'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana), moose (Alces alces) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents) may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS) populations as well.

  1. Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navinder J Singh

    Full Text Available Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana, moose (Alces alces and red deer (Cervus elaphus to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS populations as well.

  2. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Banks

    Full Text Available Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing, as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.

  3. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  4. Local knowledge and perceptions of animal population abundances by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal abundances and population trends is a fundamental goal of ecology. The aim of this study was to examine local ecological knowledge (LEK) held by local people bordering the northern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe, concerning domestic and wild animal species abundances

  5. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Dolan, Emily D.; Reid, Pamela; Slater, Margaret R.; Mulligan, Hugh; Weiss, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Recent research has called into question the value of the food guarding assessment as a predictive tool for determining the safety of shelter dogs. This study examined the effect of eliminating the food guarding assessment in nine U.S. animal shelters. It was found that when the food guarding assessment was removed, bites or other injuries to staff or adopters did not increase. However, dogs exhibiting food guarding behavior were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized than dogs in the general population. Based on previous research and this study’s findings, the authors recommend that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. Abstract Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs) and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. PMID:29419746

  6. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Psustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  7. The role of infectious disease impact in informing decision-making for animal health management in aquaculture systems in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Maria; Mohan, Chadag Vishnumurthy; Rahman, Meezanur; Wieland, Barbara; Häsler, Barbara

    2018-03-20

    improvement of surveillance and diagnostic systems. Improved systems along with evidence on disease impact could inform the prioritisation of diseases and resource allocation for disease control in Bangladesh. Further, this evidence needs to be used to advise decisions to have a true value, for which establishing and strengthening communication pathways and processes is critical to make systematic use of the information and improve animal health management. In the light of future threats to Bangladesh such as climate change, increasing population density and demand for animal source foods, it is crucial to strengthen animal health management systems to reduce livelihoods vulnerability, food insecurity and the likelihood of disease emergence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  9. Flaws in animal studies exploring statins and impact on meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moja, Lorenzo; Pecoraro, Valentina; Ciccolallo, Laura; Dall'Olmo, Luigi; Virgili, Gianni; Garattini, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    Animal experiments should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported to increase their scientific validity and maximise the knowledge gained from each experiment. This systematic review of animal experiments investigating statins evaluates their quality of reporting and methodological aspects as well as their implications for the conduction of meta-analyses. We searched medline and embase for studies reporting research on statins in mice, rats and rabbits. We collected detailed information about the characteristics of studies, animals and experimental methods. We retrieved 161 studies. A little over half did not report randomisation (55%) and most did not describe blinding (88%). All studies reported details on the experimental procedure, although many omitted information about animal gender, age or weight. Four percent did not report the number of animals used. None reported the sample size. Fixed- and random-effects models gave different results (ratio of effect size increased by five folds). Heterogeneity was consistently substantial within animal models, for which accounting for covariates had minimal impact. Publication bias is highly suspected across studies. Although statins showed efficacy in animal models, preclinical studies highlighted fundamental problems in the way in which such research is conducted and reported. Results were often difficult to interpret and reproduce. Different meta-analytic approaches were highly inconsistent: a reliable approach to estimate the true parameter was imperceptible. Policies that address these issues are required from investigators, editors and institutions that care about the quality standards and ethics of animal research. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency preparedness were collected from all wards (n = 22, human health facilities (n = 40 and livestock facilities in the two districts using interview checklists and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics for resources were calculated and mapped by district. Kibaha district had a higher human population density, more health workers, better equipped health facilities and better communication and transport systems. On the other hand, Ngorongoro had a higher population of livestock and more animal health facilities but a poorer ratio of animal health workers to livestock. The average ratio of health personnel to population in catchment areas of the health facilities was 1:147 (range of 1:17−1:1200. The ratio of personnel to human population was significantly higher in Kibaha (1:95 than in Ngorongoro (1:203 district (p = 0 < 0.001. Considering the limited resources available to both human and animal health sectors and their different strengths and weaknesses there are opportunities for greater collaboration and resource-sharing between human and animal health for improved surveillance and emergency-preparedness.

  11. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of power plant impingement on the 1974 and 1975 year classes of the Hudson River white perch population is assessed using a simple model derived from Ricker's theory of fisheries dynamics. The impact of impingement is expressed in the model as the conditional mortality rate, rather than as the more commonly used exploitation rate. Since the calculated impact is sensitive to errors in the estimation of population size and total mortality, ranges of probable values of these quantities are used to compute upper and lower bounds on the fractional reduction in abundance of each year class. Best estimates of abundance and mortality are used to compute the conditional impingement mortality rate separately for each plant and month. The results are used to assess the relative impacts of white perch impingement at six Hudson River power plants and to identify the seasons during which the impact is highest

  12. FIVE FREEDOMS OF ANIMAL WELLFARE APPLIED TO DOGS: PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF THE POPULATION FROM SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The term animal welfare, although is frequently used, does not have a precise definition. The scientific community is increasingly accepting that vertebrate animals indeed have consciousness and feelings, with emphasis on the genetic similarities between animal species, including humans. In order to facilitate the identification of the factors that affect and assist, respectively, the animal well being and defense, the Five Freedoms that outline animal welfare was created. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and practice about the welfare factors of dogs in different strata of Sinop city of Mato Grosso State population. Thus, a descriptive qualitative and quantitative study was performed in which 130 dog owners, older than 18 years of age, answered a semi-structured survey with 20 objective and multiple-choice questions. The people that answer the study tried to meet the needs of their animals, even those people who have never heard of animal welfare. Therefore, information related to animal rights and animal welfare need to be provided to the population of Sinop-MT.

  13. [Human and animal fascioliasis in Peru: impact in the economy of endemic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, José R; Terashima, Angélica; Herrera-Velit, Patricia; Marcos, Luis A

    2010-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis in Peru; the disease is an important public health problem by the high prevalence of the human infection affecting mainly children and a major veterinary problem by the high rates of infected livestock. The human disease is endemic in the Sierra and the Coast but sporadic in the Amazonia, and reported in 18 Departments, while the animal infection in 21 of 24 Departments of Peru. Transmission occurs in Andean rural populations engaged in agriculture, but recently an increasing number of people became infected in the cities. The epidemiological situation in Peru includes i) Departments with non-autochtonous cases, where infection occurs by consumption of contaminated vegetables brought from endemic areas or infection is acquired by visit to endemic areas; ii) Departments with hypoendemic and mesoendemic villages, where transmission occurs by ingest of contaminated vegetables and prevalence ≤10%; and iii) Departments with hyper-endemic villages with human prevalence >10 %, with an intense transmission by consumption of contaminated vegetables. The disease affects bovine, sheep, goat, swine, equine, South American camelids, rabbits and guinea pigs. The negative impact of fasciolosis in the livestock economy is not lesser than US$ 50 million per year, estimation based on the prevalence and the number of condemned livers in the abattoirs. It is difficult to estimate the economic impact of this infection in the human health due to its status of neglected disease, but fasciolosis is hyper-endemic in the poorest Andean areas of Peru where the situation has to be recognized as a public health emergency.

  14. Survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium animal care staff attitudes regarding humane euthanasia for population management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M; Ardaiolo, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    The humane euthanasia of animals for population management, or culling, has been suggested as one possible tool for managing animal populations for sustainability, and recent, highly publicized euthanasia of zoo animals in Copenhagen has stimulated global conversation about population management in zoos. We conducted a nationwide survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium personnel, including keepers, managers, and leaders of AZA animal programs, to assess their overall attitudes regarding population management euthanasia. The surveyed populations were generally very aware of the concept of population management euthanasia. Managers and animal program leaders were more supportive of euthanasia than keepers. We found that regardless of role, men were more supportive of euthanasia than women. Those personnel who were aware of instances of population management euthanasia at their institutions before were more supportive of it than those who were not. Support for culling varied with the kind of animal being considered for it, with three general taxon acceptability groupings emerging. Education, tenure in the profession, taxonomic expertise, and whether or not the responder took the survey before or after the Copenhagen events were not strong predictors of attitudes. Overall, the surveyed populations were approximately evenly split in terms of being in favor of euthanasia, not supporting euthanasia, or being unsure. Most responders indicated that they would be more likely to accept culling if more information was provided on its rationale. These results will form the basis for further discussions on the role of humane euthanasia for population management. Zoo Biol. 35:187-200, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Animal breeding strategies can improve meat quality attributes within entire populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Conroy, S; Pabiou, T; Cromie, A R

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of animal breeding to changes in animal performance is well documented across a range of species. Once genetic variation in a trait exists, then breeding to improve the characteristics of that trait is possible, if so desired. Considerable genetic variation exists in a range of meat quality attributes across a range of species. The genetic variation that exists for meat quality is as large as observed for most performance traits; thus, within a well-structured breeding program, rapid genetic gain for meat quality could be possible. The rate of genetic gain can be augmented through the integration of DNA-based technologies into the breeding program; such DNA-based technologies should, however, be based on thousands of DNA markers dispersed across the entire genome. Genetic and genomic technologies can also have beneficial impact outside the farm gate as a tool to segregate carcasses or meat cuts based on expected meat quality features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubankova, Monika; Kralik, Petr; Lamka, Jiri; Zakovcik, Vladimir; Dolanský, Marek; Vasickova, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

  17. Anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in North America over the past century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Faraji, Ary; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Barker, Christopher M.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2016-12-01

    The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America. Mosquito populations have increased as much as tenfold, and mosquito communities have become two- to fourfold richer over the last five decades. These increases are correlated with the decay in residual environmental DDT concentrations and growing human populations, but not with temperature. These results illustrate the far-reaching impacts of multiple anthropogenic disturbances on animal communities and suggest that interactions between land use and chemical use may have unforeseen consequences on ecosystems.

  18. Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

    2014-10-01

    Globally, food-producing animals consume 70 to 90% of genetically engineered (GE) crop biomass. This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature on performance and health of animals consuming feed containing GE ingredients and composition of products derived from them. It also discusses the field experience of feeding GE feed sources to commercial livestock populations and summarizes the suppliers of GE and non-GE animal feed in global trade. Numerous experimental studies have consistently revealed that the performance and health of GE-fed animals are comparable with those fed isogenic non-GE crop lines. United States animal agriculture produces over 9 billion food-producing animals annually, and more than 95% of these animals consume feed containing GE ingredients. Data on livestock productivity and health were collated from publicly available sources from 1983, before the introduction of GE crops in 1996, and subsequently through 2011, a period with high levels of predominately GE animal feed. These field data sets, representing over 100 billion animals following the introduction of GE crops, did not reveal unfavorable or perturbed trends in livestock health and productivity. No study has revealed any differences in the nutritional profile of animal products derived from GE-fed animals. Because DNA and protein are normal components of the diet that are digested, there are no detectable or reliably quantifiable traces of GE components in milk, meat, and eggs following consumption of GE feed. Globally, countries that are cultivating GE corn and soy are the major livestock feed exporters. Asynchronous regulatory approvals (i.e., cultivation approvals of GE varieties in exporting countries occurring before food and feed approvals in importing countries) have resulted in trade disruptions. This is likely to be increasingly problematic in the future as there are a large number of "second generation" GE crops with altered output traits for improved livestock

  19. Comparing impacts of alien plants and animals in Europe using a standard scoring system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumschick, S.; Bacher, S.; Evans, T.; Marková, Zuzana; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Vaes-Petignat, S.; van der Veer, G.; Vila, M.; Nentwig, W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2015), s. 552-561 ISSN 0021-8901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * ecological impact * plants and animals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.196, year: 2015

  20. Diagnosing avian influenza infection in vaccinated populations by systems for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, I; Cattoli, G

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza is recommended as a tool to support control measures in countries affected by avian influenza. Vaccination is known to increase the resistance of susceptible birds to infection and also to reduce shedding; however, it does not always prevent infection. Vaccinated infected flocks can therefore be a source of infection and thus be responsible for the perpetuation of infection. To avoid the spread of infection in a vaccinated population, immunization strategies must allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), combined with an appropriate monitoring system. Vaccinated exposed flocks must be identified and managed by restriction policies that include controlled marketing and stamping-out. Several vaccines and diagnostic tests to detect infection in vaccinated populations are available, the tests having various properties and characteristics. In order to achieve eradication, the most appropriate DIVA vaccination strategy must be identified and an appropriate monitoring programme be designed, taking into account risk factors, the epidemiological situation and the socioeconomic implications of the policy.

  1. The impact of animation on the length of stay and radius of movement of the excursion-recreational tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrić Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hypothesis from which we started in the paper is the claim that animation of visitors has a direct impact on the length and radius of excursion-recreational tourism. The main objective of the research is to define the role of animation in the choice of tourist destination and length of staying. In the area of the City of Belgrade, there are more protected natural areas and one of them is the Great War Island located at the confluence of the River Sava in River Danube. This area has three protected zones. Temporary population that was the subject of the interview, as well as the Association of Tourist Guides of Serbia occupate one of these zones. We concluded that one of the biggest advantages of developing tourism of the Great War Island is the possibility of developing certain forms of tourism, and one of these forms, the excursion-recreational tourism has multiple positive effects on the population. The paper concluded that the animation proportionally affects the length of stay of tourists, as well as the radius of their movement.

  2. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  3. POPULATION OF DOGS AND HOUSING CONDITIONS IN POLISH SHELTERS FOR HOMELESS ANIMALS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE DATA FROM THE SZCZECIN SHELTER FOR HOMELESS ANIMALS IN THE YEARS 2002 - 2007

    OpenAIRE

    MAŁGORZATA PIERKO; MARCELINA GAIK

    2009-01-01

    The analysis included the state and the housing conditions in the shelter, the population of dogs, adoptions, euthanasias, castrations, deaths, escapes, the number of dogs rehomed by the original owners. The observations ascertained the trends regarding the homeless dogs in the shelter, the future prospects for the center and its rank among other animal shelters in Poland. The overpopulation problem was noted, and henceforth the the exceeding quantity of euthanized and dead cases. Another pro...

  4. Impacts on Explorer 46 from an Earth orbiting population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Explorer 46 was launched into Earth orbit in August 1972 to evaluate the effectiveness of using double-wall structures to protect against meteoroids. The data from the Meteoroid Bumper Experiment on Explorer 46 is reexamined and it is concluded that most of the impacts originated from an Earth orbiting population. The probable source of this orbiting population is solid rocket motors fired in Earth orbit.

  5. An indicator of the impact of climatic change on European bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Gregory

    Full Text Available Rapid climatic change poses a threat to global biodiversity. There is extensive evidence that recent climatic change has affected animal and plant populations, but no indicators exist that summarise impacts over many species and large areas. We use data on long-term population trends of European birds to develop such an indicator. We find a significant relationship between interspecific variation in population trend and the change in potential range extent between the late 20(th and late 21(st centuries, forecasted by climatic envelope models. Our indicator measures divergence in population trend between bird species predicted by climatic envelope models to be favourably affected by climatic change and those adversely affected. The indicator shows a rapid increase in the past twenty years, coinciding with a period of rapid warming.

  6. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture & emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones: need to assess the impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehndiratta, P L; Bhalla, P

    2014-09-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics in human, veterinary medicine and agricultural settings has played a significant role in the emergence of resistant MRSA clones due to selection pressure. MRSA has now become established in human population as well as in various animal species. An animal associated clone, MRSA ST 398 has been reported from animal foods and also from human infections in the community as well as from the health care associated infections. Clonal relationship between strains of animal and human origins are indicators of interspecies transmission of clones. Spread of these organisms may pose a great impact on public health if animal associated strains enter into the community and health care settings. Surveillance is important to correlate the genetic changes associated with their epidemiological shift and expansion to predict its impact on public health. Strict regulations on the use of antibiotics in humans as well as in animal food production are required to control the emergence of drug resistant clones. t0 his article reviews the information available on the role of antibiotics in emergence of MRSA strains, their epidemiological shift between humans and animals and its impact on the public health.

  7. Impacts of invasive plants on animal diversity in South Africa: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Clusella-Trullas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing numbers of invasive alien plant (IAP species are establishing around the globe and can have negative effects on resident animal species function and diversity. These impacts depend on a variety of factors, including the extent of invasion, the region and the taxonomic group affected. These context dependencies make extrapolations of IAP impacts on resident biota from region to region a substantial challenge. Objectives: Here, we synthesised data from studies that have examined the effects of IAPs on animal diversity in South Africa. Our focus is on ectothermic organisms (reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. Method: We sourced relevant articles using keywords relating to (1 the effects of IAPs on species diversity (abundance, richness and composition, (2 the IAP and (3 the native ectotherm. We extracted the taxonomic and spatial coverage of IAPs and affected native species and assessed the extent of information given on potential mechanisms driving IAP impacts. Results: Across the 42 studies, IAPs had a decreasing or neutral effect on native animal abundance and richness and significantly changed species composition. This review highlighted the paucity of studies and the research deficits in taxonomic and geographic coverage and in the mechanisms underlying IAP impacts on ectotherms. Conclusion: By assessing the status of knowledge regarding the impacts of IAPs on resident animal species in South Africa, this study identifies information gaps and research priorities at the country level with a view to informing monitoring and conservation efforts, such as alien plant removal and control programmes, and ensuring that endemic terrestrial animal diversity is maintained.

  8. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    E.D. Karimuribo; B. Jones; M.I. Matee; D.M. Kambarage; S. Mounier-Jack; M.M. Rweyemamu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam) while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency pre...

  9. Workshop summary: detection, impact, and control of specific pathogens in animal resource facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Keith G; Riley, Lela K; Kent, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances, infectious diseases remain a threat to animal facilities, continue to affect animal health, and serve as potential confounders of experimental research. A workshop entitled Detection, Impact, and Control of Specific Pathogens in Animal Resource Facilities was sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) and National Institutes of Aging (NIA) and held April 23-24, 2009, at the Lister Hill Conference Center on the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Bethesda campus. The meeting brought together laboratory animal scientists and veterinarians with experience in fish, rodent, and nonhuman primate models to identify common issues and problems. Session speakers addressed (1) common practices and current knowledge of these species, (2) new technologies in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, (3) impact of environmental quality on infectious disease, (4) normal microbial flora in health and disease, (5) genetics and infectious disease, and (6) specific infectious agents and their impact on research. Attendees discussed current challenges and future needs, highlighting the importance of education and training, the funding of critical infrastructure and resource research, and the need for improved communication of disease risks and integration of these risks with strategic planning. NIH and NCRR have a strong record of supporting resource initiatives that have helped address many of these issues and recent efforts have focused on the building of consortium activities among such programs. This manuscript summarizes the presentations and conclusions of participants at the meeting; abstracts and a full conference report are available online (www.ncrr.nih.gov).

  10. Identifying the impacts of climate change on key pests and diseases of plant and animal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, Jo; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Finlay, Kyla; Azuloas, Joe; Constable, Fiona; Rijswijk, Bonny Rowles-Van

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major threat to natural and agricultural systems. Understanding these threats will enable government and primary industries to better prepare and adapt to climate change. While observations of climate change are well documented, the potential effects on pests, pathogens and their hosts are not clearly understood. To address this, a review of the potential impacts on plant biosecurity was undertaken to determine the effects of climate change on the behaviour and distribution of emergent plant pests and pathogens. The review identified increasing C02 and temperature, decreasing frost events, heavy and unseasonal rains, increased humidity, drought, cyclones and hurricanes, and warmer winter temperatures as influencing the behaviour of plant pests and pathogens. To study the effects of these changes in detail, three key plant biosecurity threats were analysed in case studies; wheat stripe rust, silver leaf whitefly and citrus canker. The predicted distribution of citrus canker was examined with increasing temperature scenarios using the bioclimatic model CLIMEX. The model predicted a southerly shift in the geographic range of the causal organism which would threaten the major southern citrus growing regions in future climates. A similar study on Bluetongue disease of sheep, spread by the Culicoides midge, also predicted a southerly shift in the vector's geographic range. Significant limitations were identified with bioclimatic modelling when examining the effects of climate change on pests and diseases. The model was unable to assess the plant and animal response to increasing temperature in conjunction with the pest. Also the influence of temperature on the life cycle of the organism, pathogenicity of strains, competition with other species, host coverage and the general effect on the biology of the organism could not be assessed. To begin to address this, a dynamic model was constructed using daily

  11. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...

  12. Impact of animal health programmes on poverty reduction and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, J P

    2017-04-01

    Based on data from publications and field observations, this study analyses the interactions between animal health, rural poverty and the performance and environmental impact of livestock farming in low-income countries and middle-income countries. There are strong statistical correlations between the quality of Veterinary Services, livestock productivity and poverty rates. In countries with effective Veterinary Services, livestock growth stems mainly from productivity gains and poverty rates are the lowest. Conversely, these analyses identify no statistical link between the quality of Veterinary Services and increased livestock production volumes. However, where animal diseases are poorly controlled, productivity is low and livestock growth is extensive, based mainly on a steady increase in animal numbers. Extensive growth is less effective than intensive growth in reducing poverty and aggravates the pressure of livestock production on natural resources and the climate.

  13. The impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-28

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well.

  14. The potential impact of current animal research on the meat industry and consumer attitudes towards meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Klont, Ronald; Plastow, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Progress in animal nutrition, reproduction, quantitative genetics, and the development of molecular genetics, proteomics, and functional genomics open new perspectives for the meat sector. The most promising developments include a wider utilisation of molecular markers, the possibilities of semen sexing and the targeted use of nutrition to modify the composition of meat. The increased use of biotechnology will have a considerable impact on the economics of production of meat and further processed products. New technologies will increase the possibilities for product differentiation and improve homogeneity of live animals. The consumer and society in general will influence the direction of these developments. This review will focus on the long-term impact of new technologies for the meat production chain.

  15. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouar, Pascaline J; Vallet, Dominique; David, Laetitia; Bermejo, Magdalena; Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Petit, Eric J; Ménard, Nelly

    2009-12-18

    Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed. We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected). Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population. Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  16. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline J Le Gouar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed.We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected. Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population.Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  17. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Groff; Eric Bachli; Molly Lansdowne; Theodora Capaldo

    2014-01-01

    Millions of animals are used in research and toxicity testing, including in drug, medical device, chemical, cosmetic, personal care, household, and other product sectors, but the environmental consequences are yet to be adequately addressed. Evidence suggests that their use and disposal, and the associated use of chemicals and supplies, contribute to pollution as well as adverse impacts on biodiversity and public health. The objective of this review is to examine such evidence. The review in...

  18. Impact of the economic recession on companion animal relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia: a Chicago animal shelter's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hart, Lynette A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how the current economic recession (since December 2007) has affected dog and cat relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia at the Anti-Cruelty Society animal shelter in Chicago, Illinois. The study compared temporal patterns of the investigated statistics before (2000-2007) the start of the current recession with the patterns after the start of the recession (2008-2010). The results showed that once the guardianship (ownership) of a nonhuman animal had been established, the recession did not greatly affect the owner's decision on relinquishment-except for the relinquishment of senior dogs, which may be associated with increased costs of care. However, an unfavorable economic environment may have reduced adoption of animals. The consequences of a decline in adoptions might be reflected in an increase in the proportion or number of sheltered animals euthanized. This study demonstrated how monitoring changes in temporal patterns in these shelter statistics can help guide animal shelters to better prepare for the current recession.

  19. [Impact of sperm capacitation on various populations of human spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Díaz, C; Suárez Juárez, M; Díaz, M A; Ayala Ruiz, A

    1989-02-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the impact of spermatic capacitation on different spermatozooa populations, 49 samples of semen, before and after in vitro spermatic capacitation with Ham F-10 medium, were studied; motility of cells was evaluated according to WHO criteria. There was diminution of percentage of immobile cells, 27.8 to 20.0, as well as increase in population of cells with more mobility, 28.6% to 39.1%. Both difference were statistically significant (p = less than 0.05 and p = less than 0.005, respectively). These data suggest that spermatic capacitacion activates "in cascade" all groups of gametes.

  20. Importance of sampling design and analysis in animal population studies: a comment on Sergio et al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, Hans

    2008-01-01

    1. The use of predators as indicators and umbrellas in conservation has been criticized. In the Trentino region, Sergio et al. (2006; hereafter SEA) counted almost twice as many bird species in quadrats located in raptor territories than in controls. However, SEA detected astonishingly few species. We used contemporary Swiss Breeding Bird Survey data from an adjacent region and a novel statistical model that corrects for overlooked species to estimate the expected number of bird species per quadrat in that region. 2. There are two anomalies in SEA which render their results ambiguous. First, SEA detected on average only 6.8 species, whereas a value of 32 might be expected. Hence, they probably overlooked almost 80% of all species. Secondly, the precision of their mean species counts was greater in two-thirds of cases than in the unlikely case that all quadrats harboured exactly the same number of equally detectable species. This suggests that they detected consistently only a biased, unrepresentative subset of species. 3. Conceptually, expected species counts are the product of true species number and species detectability p. Plenty of factors may affect p, including date, hour, observer, previous knowledge of a site and mobbing behaviour of passerines in the presence of predators. Such differences in p between raptor and control quadrats could have easily created the observed effects. Without a method that corrects for such biases, or without quantitative evidence that species detectability was indeed similar between raptor and control quadrats, the meaning of SEA's counts is hard to evaluate. Therefore, the evidence presented by SEA in favour of raptors as indicator species for enhanced levels of biodiversity remains inconclusive. 4. Synthesis and application. Ecologists should pay greater attention to sampling design and analysis in animal population estimation. Species richness estimation means sampling a community. Samples should be representative for the

  1. Impact of Biochar on Earthworm Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Weyers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming importance of earthworm activity in the soil system, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the impact resulting from biochar addition to soil. Biochar is part of the black carbon continuum of chemo-thermal converted biomass. This review summarizes existing data pertaining to earthworms where biochar and other black carbon substances, including slash-and-burn charcoals and wood ash, have been applied. After analyzing existing studies on black carbon, we identified that these additions have a range from short-term negative impacts to long-term null effects on earthworm population density and total biomass. Documented cases of mortality were found with certain biochar-soil combinations; the cause is not fully understood, but hypothesized to be related to pH, whether the black carbon is premoistened, affects feeding behaviors, or other unknown factors. With wood ashes, negative impacts were overcome with addition of other carbon substrates. Given that field data is limited, soils amended with biochar did not appear to cause significant long-term impacts. However, this may indicate that the magnitude of short-term negative impacts on earthworm populations can be reduced with time.

  2. Evidence of animal mtDNA recombination between divergent populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Recombination is typically assumed to be absent in animal mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). However, the maternal mode of inheritance means that recombinant products are indistinguishable from their progenitor molecules. The majority of studies of mtDNA recombination assess past recombination events, where patterns of recombination are inferred by comparing the mtDNA of different individuals. Few studies assess contemporary mtDNA recombination, where recombinant molecules are observed as direct mosaics of known progenitor molecules. Here we use the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, to investigate past and contemporary recombination. Past recombination was assessed within and between populations of G. pallida, and contemporary recombination was assessed in the progeny of experimental crosses of these populations. Breeding of genetically divergent organisms may cause paternal mtDNA leakage, resulting in heteroplasmy and facilitating the detection of recombination. To assess contemporary recombination we looked for evidence of recombination between the mtDNA of the parental populations within the mtDNA of progeny. Past recombination was detected between a South American population and several UK populations of G. pallida, as well as between two South American populations. This suggests that these populations may have interbred, paternal mtDNA leakage occurred, and the mtDNA of these populations subsequently recombined. This evidence challenges two dogmas of animal mtDNA evolution; no recombination and maternal inheritance. No contemporary recombination between the parental populations was detected in the progeny of the experimental crosses. This supports current arguments that mtDNA recombination events are rare. More sensitive detection methods may be required to adequately assess contemporary mtDNA recombination in animals.

  3. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Sustainable Ecosystems: Domestic cats and their effect on wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, S E

    2015-03-01

    Domestic cats are estimated to kill billions of small mammals and birds each year. In certain areas of the world, it is not uncommon for either feral or free-ranging cats to have high population densities, creating concern regarding their level of hunting. Many cats are considered to be subsidized predators, as they receive care and food from humans. Arguments abound regarding the presence of cats in the habitats of native small mammals and birds and whether or not local ecosystems can sustain this predator-prey relationship. The effects of cats on native wildlife can depend on several factors, including cat classification (feral vs. free ranging vs. indoor-outdoor), geographical location (islands vs. mainland), and type of habitat (rural vs. suburban vs. urban). Feral and free-ranging cats may have a greater impact on native species on islands because habitat is severely limited. Continued urbanization and development of rural areas also creates fragmented habitats, and native species may struggle to survive with the added pressure of hunting by domestic cats. Additionally, cats in rural areas are frequently fed by humans, which can support high population densities and intensify pressure on native species. Species targeted by cats may also vary based on prey availability in different areas, but small mammals are generally preferred over birds, reptiles, or invertebrates. Domestic cats certainly have the potential to roam and hunt in very large areas inhabited by native species and loss of biodiversity is a major concern. Therefore, it is possible that ecosystems may not be able to sustain hunting by domestic cats. Because this predator-prey relationship is probably not sustainable, it is necessary to responsibly manage outdoor domestic cats.

  4. Forecasting climate change impacts on plant populations over large spatial extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredennick, Andrew T.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Homer, Collin G.; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R.; Adler, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant population models are powerful tools for predicting climate change impacts in one location, but are difficult to apply at landscape scales. We overcome this limitation by taking advantage of two recent advances: remotely sensed, species-specific estimates of plant cover and statistical models developed for spatiotemporal dynamics of animal populations. Using computationally efficient model reparameterizations, we fit a spatiotemporal population model to a 28-year time series of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) percent cover over a 2.5 × 5 km landscape in southwestern Wyoming while formally accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We include interannual variation in precipitation and temperature as covariates in the model to investigate how climate affects the cover of sagebrush. We then use the model to forecast the future abundance of sagebrush at the landscape scale under projected climate change, generating spatially explicit estimates of sagebrush population trajectories that have, until now, been impossible to produce at this scale. Our broadscale and long-term predictions are rooted in small-scale and short-term population dynamics and provide an alternative to predictions offered by species distribution models that do not include population dynamics. Our approach, which combines several existing techniques in a novel way, demonstrates the use of remote sensing data to model population responses to environmental change that play out at spatial scales far greater than the traditional field study plot.

  5. Impact of population growth and population ethics on climate change mitigation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; Budolfson, Mark B; Dennig, Francis; Fleurbaey, Marc; Siebert, Asher; Socolow, Robert H; Spears, Dean; Wagner, Fabian

    2017-11-14

    Future population growth is uncertain and matters for climate policy: higher growth entails more emissions and means more people will be vulnerable to climate-related impacts. We show that how future population is valued importantly determines mitigation decisions. Using the Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy model, we explore two approaches to valuing population: a discounted version of total utilitarianism (TU), which considers total wellbeing and is standard in social cost of carbon dioxide (SCC) models, and of average utilitarianism (AU), which ignores population size and sums only each time period's discounted average wellbeing. Under both approaches, as population increases the SCC increases, but optimal peak temperature decreases. The effect is larger under TU, because it responds to the fact that a larger population means climate change hurts more people: for example, in 2025, assuming the United Nations (UN)-high rather than UN-low population scenario entails an increase in the SCC of 85% under TU vs. 5% under AU. The difference in the SCC between the two population scenarios under TU is comparable to commonly debated decisions regarding time discounting. Additionally, we estimate the avoided mitigation costs implied by plausible reductions in population growth, finding that large near-term savings ($billions annually) occur under TU; savings under AU emerge in the more distant future. These savings are larger than spending shortfalls for human development policies that may lower fertility. Finally, we show that whether lowering population growth entails overall improvements in wellbeing-rather than merely cost savings-again depends on the ethical approach to valuing population. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. The impact of population ageing on future Danish drug expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    expenditure among the elderly partly is due the high "costs of dying". Aims The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the ageing Danish population on future total expenditures on out-of-hospital prescription drugs and to describe the association between age and drug expenditure among survivors......Background Population ageing is likely to place an increasing burden on future health care budgets. Several studies have demonstrated that the impact of ageing on future hospital expenditures will be overestimated when not accounting for proximity to death. This is because greater health care...... compared to that of decedents. Methods Taking expenditure during the last year of life and the changes in mortality rates into account, future drug expenditure was projected by multiplying estimated mean annual drug expenditure according to age, gender and survival status by the predicted future number...

  7. The work impact of dysthymia in a primary care population

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, David A.; Irish, Julie; McLaughlin, Thomas J.; Perissinotto, Carla; Chang, Hong; Hood, Maggie; Lapitsky, Leueen; Rogers, William H.; Lerner, Debra

    2004-01-01

    Physicians regard individuals with dysthymia as having relatively normal levels of functioning. This study examines in detail the work impact of dysthymia in a population of employed primary care patients. As part of an observational study conducted between 2001 and 2003 in clinics associated with three health plans in Massachusetts, we compared 69 patients diagnosed with DSM-IV dysthymia without concurrent major depressive disorder to 175 depression-free controls. Patients were employed at l...

  8. Impact of Selenium Addition to Animal Feeds on Human Selenium Status in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Pavlovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the 1980s demonstrated Se deficiency in humans. Increased inclusion of selenium in animal feeds started from the year 2000 onwards. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of selenium inclusion in animal feeds on human selenium status and dietary habits of the Serbian population related to food of animal origin. Plasma selenium concentration in healthy adult volunteers, including residents of one of the regions with the lowest (Eastern Serbia, n = 60 and of one of the regions with the highest Se serum levels reported in the past (Belgrade, n = 82, was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate analysis was employed to determine the correlation between Se plasma levels and dietary intake data derived from food frequency questionnaires and laboratory tests. The mean plasma Se level of the participants was 84.3 ± 15.9 μg/L (range: 47.3–132.1 μg/L, while 46% of participants had plasma Se levels lower than 80 μg/L. Frequency of meat, egg, and fish consumption was significantly correlated with plasma selenium level (r = 0.437, p = 0.000. Selenium addition to animal feed in the quantity of 0.14 mg/kg contributed to the improvement of human plasma selenium levels by approximately 30 μg/L.

  9. Impact of Population Aging on Military and Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šimková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is among the most important problems of developed European countries and the most frequently discussed social issues. The Czech Republic also faces population ageing and we cannot expect a different trend in the future. Life expectancy has increased due to better health care while current lifestyle often leads to lower natality, resulting in a negative rate of natural increase and a decreasing proportion of young people in population in the future. This problem affects all spheres of life and social and economic development. Population ageing may pose a threat to the security of the population in different ways. The functioning of the security system may be threatened due to decreasing workforce. Population ageing may undercut resources for military budgets. Young recruits represent an important part of military forces and the latter are competing in the labour market with more attractive occupations. Especially ensuring the stability of the personnel needed for securing crisis situations would be a significant problem of near future. This paper presents a demographic perspective on staffing and correct operation of military forces in the context of population ageing. It describes the current situation of human resources in the military policy of the Czech Republic and determines the negative impact of population ageing on recruitment potential. It deals with the sustainability of human resources for security forces.

  10. [Techniques and possibilities of traceability of food: genotyping of the domestic animal population as an innovative contribution to food safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, G

    2004-07-01

    Traceability of meat has become a very important aspect of quality assurance of food. DNA analyses could be used for identification and verification of farm animals and animal derived products. A prerequisite is the collection of qualified samples from entire populations of production animals or from regionally or specially characterised animal populations. The expenditure for conventional carrying out collection, preservation, cataloguing, and storage would be enormous. Therefore we have developed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive method for the collection using the ear tagging process and for preservation of samples at room temperature. A similar collection technology can also be used for sampling of carcasses, meat and meat products. Isolation of DNA from these tissue samples can be preformed using a new single step technology. For identifying individuals microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms are analysed. Comparison of DNA fingerprints or SNP signatures allows to traceback samples collected from products to the animals they are coming from. If the system will be established on a nationwide basis the total costs would be less than 0.05 EUR per kilogram meat sold.

  11. Estimating population sizes for elusive animals: the forest elephants of Kakum National Park, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, L S; Eggert, J A; Woodruff, D S

    2003-06-01

    African forest elephants are difficult to observe in the dense vegetation, and previous studies have relied upon indirect methods to estimate population sizes. Using multilocus genotyping of noninvasively collected samples, we performed a genetic survey of the forest elephant population at Kakum National Park, Ghana. We estimated population size, sex ratio and genetic variability from our data, then combined this information with field observations to divide the population into age groups. Our population size estimate was very close to that obtained using dung counts, the most commonly used indirect method of estimating the population sizes of forest elephant populations. As their habitat is fragmented by expanding human populations, management will be increasingly important to the persistence of forest elephant populations. The data that can be obtained from noninvasively collected samples will help managers plan for the conservation of this keystone species.

  12. Urban impacts on oxidative balance and their implications for animal signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce eHutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Though many animal ornaments and signals are sensitive to and encode information about the oxidative balance (OB of individuals (e.g. antioxidant supplies/activity, reactive oxygen species, cellular oxidative damage/repair, often the environmental and/or physiological sources of such OB are unknown. Here we review the mechanistic underpinnings and functional consequences of how human urbanization drives antioxidant/oxidative status in animals and how this affects signal expression and use. Urban development is among the most recent, pervasive, and persistent human stressors on the planet and impacts many environmental and physiological parameters of animals. Here, we review literature on the potential effects of urbanization on OB and its linkage to signal expression and honesty in animals. Although we find that urbanization has strong negative effects on signal quality (e.g., visual, auditory, chemical and OB across a range of taxa, few urban ecophysiological studies address signals and oxidative stress in unison, and even fewer in a fitness context. We also highlight particular signal types, taxa, life-histories, and anthropogenic environmental modifications on which future work integrating OB, signals, and urbanization could be centered. Last, we examine the conceptual and empirical framework behind the idea that urban conditions may disentangle signal expression from honesty and affect plasticity and adaptedness of sexually selected traits and preferences in the city.

  13. Chemical speciation of technetium in soil and plants: impact on soil-plant-animal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Bruwaene, R. van; Janssens, J.; Kirchmann, R.; Myttenaere, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable uncertainties are associated with the environmental behaviour of technetium-99 and its transfer from soil to plants and then to animals and man. For this reason, most of the mathematical models built to simulate the environmental transport of Tc and to calculate the dose to man are associated with conservative simplifications and produce overestimates of the calculated dose. In order to follow the new ICRP recommendations, transfer models are needed that estimate as accurately as possible the dose to the population; this implies a better knowledge of the behaviour of Tc in the environment, especially concerning its long-term behaviour. At this time, most of the available data deal with the short-term and only scanty results have been obtained regarding the plant-animal transfer, especially in the case of polygastric mammals. (author)

  14. Chemical speciation of technetium in soil and plants: Impact on soil-plant-animal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Van Bruwaene, R.; Janssens, J.; Kirchmann, R.; Myttenaere, C.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable uncertainties are associated with the environmental behaviour of technetium-99 and its transfer from soil to plants and then to animals and man. For this reason, most of the mathematical models built to simulate the environmental transport of Tc and to calculate the dose to man are associated with conservative simplifications and produce overestimates of the calculated dose. In order to follow the new ICRP recommendations, transfer models are needed that estimate as accurately as possible the dose to the population; this implies a better knowledge of the behaviour of Tc in the environment, especially concerning its long-term behaviour. At this time, most of the available data deals with the short-term and only scanty results have been obtained regarding the plant-animal transfer, especially in the case of polygastric mammals

  15. The safety, efficacy and regulatory triangle in drug development: Impact for animal models and the use of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, Peter J K; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-07-15

    Nonclinical studies in animals are conducted to demonstrate proof-of-concept, mechanism of action and safety of new drugs. For a large part, in particular safety assessment, studies are done in compliance with international regulatory guidance. However, animal models supporting the initiation of clinical trials have their limitations, related to uncertainty regarding the predictive value for a clinical condition. The 3Rs principles (refinement, reduction and replacement) are better applied nowadays, with a more comprehensive application with respect to the original definition. This regards also regulatory guidance, so that opportunities exist to revise or reduce regulatory guidance with the perspective that the optimal balance between scientifically relevant data and animal wellbeing or a reduction in animal use can be achieved. In this manuscript we review the connections in the triangle between nonclinical efficacy/safety studies and regulatory aspects, with focus on in vivo testing of drugs. These connections differ for different drugs (chemistry-based low molecular weight compounds, recombinant proteins, cell therapy or gene therapy products). Regarding animal models and their translational value we focus on regulatory aspects and indications where scientific outcomes warrant changes, reduction or replacement, like for, e.g., biosimilar evaluation and safety testing of monoclonal antibodies. On the other hand, we present applications where translational value has been clearly demonstrated, e.g., immunosuppressives in transplantation. Especially for drugs of more recent date like recombinant proteins, cell therapy products and gene therapy products, a regulatory approach that allows the possibility to conduct combined efficacy/safety testing in validated animal models should strengthen scientific outcomes and improve translational value, while reducing the numbers of animals necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical specifications for monitoring Community trends in zoonotic agents in foodstuffs and animal populations on request from EFSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Chriél, Mariann; Korsgaard, Helle

    of criteria for the selection of the zoonotic agent/animal or food category combinations where trend analyses would be justified. Based on data available from 2004 to 2007, the following combinations are suggested for trend analyses: Salmonella in fresh broiler and pig meat, flocks of laying hens and broilers......Technical specifications are proposed for the monitoring of temporal trends in zoonotic agents in animal and food populations at Community or Member State group level in the framework of Directive 2003/99/EC. Two types of trend monitoring are identified: trend watching, which covers general...

  17. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health.

  18. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  19. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  20. Temporal correlations in population trends: Conservation implications from time-series analysis of diverse animal taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Keith; H. Resit Akcakaya; Stuart H.M. Butchart; Ben Collen; Nicholas K. Dulvy; Elizabeth E. Holmes; Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Doug Keinath; Michael K. Schwartz; Andrew O. Shelton; Robin S. Waples

    2015-01-01

    Population trends play a large role in species risk assessments and conservation planning, and species are often considered threatened if their recent rate of decline meets certain thresholds, regardless how large the population is. But how reliable an indicator of extinction risk is a single estimate of population trend? Given the integral role this decline-...

  1. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  2. Estimating abundance of an open population with an N-mixture model using auxiliary data on animal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketz, Alison C; Johnson, Therese L; Monello, Ryan J; Mack, John A; George, Janet L; Kraft, Benjamin R; Wild, Margaret A; Hooten, Mevin B; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2018-04-01

    Accurate assessment of abundance forms a central challenge in population ecology and wildlife management. Many statistical techniques have been developed to estimate population sizes because populations change over time and space and to correct for the bias resulting from animals that are present in a study area but not observed. The mobility of individuals makes it difficult to design sampling procedures that account for movement into and out of areas with fixed jurisdictional boundaries. Aerial surveys are the gold standard used to obtain data of large mobile species in geographic regions with harsh terrain, but these surveys can be prohibitively expensive and dangerous. Estimating abundance with ground-based census methods have practical advantages, but it can be difficult to simultaneously account for temporary emigration and observer error to avoid biased results. Contemporary research in population ecology increasingly relies on telemetry observations of the states and locations of individuals to gain insight on vital rates, animal movements, and population abundance. Analytical models that use observations of movements to improve estimates of abundance have not been developed. Here we build upon existing multi-state mark-recapture methods using a hierarchical N-mixture model with multiple sources of data, including telemetry data on locations of individuals, to improve estimates of population sizes. We used a state-space approach to model animal movements to approximate the number of marked animals present within the study area at any observation period, thereby accounting for a frequently changing number of marked individuals. We illustrate the approach using data on a population of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Northern Colorado, USA. We demonstrate substantial improvement compared to existing abundance estimation methods and corroborate our results from the ground based surveys with estimates from aerial surveys during the same seasons. We develop a

  3. Estimated impact of global population growth on future wilderness extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, E.

    2012-06-01

    Wilderness areas in the world are threatened by the environmental impacts of the growing global human population. This study estimates the impact of birth rate on the future surface area of biodiverse wilderness and on the proportion of this area without major extinctions. The following four drivers are considered: human population growth (1), agricultural efficiency (2), groundwater drawdown by irrigation (3), and non-agricultural space used by humans (buildings, gardens, roads, etc.) (4). This study indicates that the surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land will reduce with about 5.4% between 2012 and 2050. Further, it indicates that the biodiverse land without major extinctions will reduce with about 10.5%. These percentages are based on a commonly used population trajectory which assumes that birth rates across the globe will reduce in a similar way as has occurred in the past in many developed countries. Future birth rate is however very uncertain. Plausible future birth rates lower than the expected rates lead to much smaller reductions in surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land (0.7% as opposed to 5.4%), and a reduction in the biodiverse land without major extinctions of about 5.6% (as opposed to 10.5%). This indicates that birth rate is an important factor influencing the quality and quantity of wilderness remaining in the future.

  4. Rates of change in climatic niches in plant and animal populations are much slower than projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezkova, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may soon threaten much of global biodiversity. A critical question is: can species undergo niche shifts of sufficient speed and magnitude to persist within their current geographic ranges? Here, we analyse niche shifts among populations within 56 plant and animal species using time-calibrated trees from phylogeographic studies. Across 266 phylogeographic groups analysed, rates of niche change were much slower than rates of projected climate change (mean difference > 200 000-fold for temperature variables). Furthermore, the absolute niche divergence among populations was typically lower than the magnitude of projected climate change over the next approximately 55 years for relevant variables, suggesting the amount of change needed to persist may often be too great, even if these niche shifts were instantaneous. Rates were broadly similar between plants and animals, but especially rapid in some arthropods, birds and mammals. Rates for temperature variables were lower at lower latitudes, further suggesting that tropical species may be especially vulnerable to climate change. PMID:27881748

  5. Population dynamics, overpopulation, and the welfare of companion animals: new insights on old and new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, S; Morris, J; Salman, M D; Ruch-Gallie, R

    1998-01-01

    Americans profess a great love for their companion animals, and, indeed, their expenditures on food and other products for their dogs and cats would seem to confirm this. However, each year, many millions of dogs and cats are brought to animal shelters, where the majority are euthanized. Our inability to provide reasonably valid statistics related to this concern makes it difficult to offer a credible presentation on the need for a concerted effort to deal with the issue, design initiatives to ameliorate the problem, or evaluate progress and performance of these efforts. In this article we review some of the past efforts to document the scale of the "pet overpopulation" problem. We reexamine long-term shelter statistics from a single shelter system and present new data that reflect a recent cooperative effort to understand the origins and disposition of dogs and cats received by animal shelters.

  6. Orimulsion impact on population and biomass of bioorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrenas, P.; Idzelis, R.; Petraitis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of earthworms, Eisenia foetida (Californian line), their survival and biomass change in the soil polluted with orimulsion was carried out under laboratory conditions. The investigation was carried out in plastic buckets (capacity of 7 liters) with 3.5 kg of orimulsion contaminated soil 25% of which was the substratum of organisms. An experiment was made under specific conditions, i. e. at the temperature of 20-22 degrees Celsius and around 80% of humidity. During the experiment pH of the soil was controlled. Every tenth day the soil was aerated. In order to assess the impact of different orimulsion doses on earthworms, the buckets were filled with 10 g/kg, 15 g/kg, 25 g/kg and 50 g/kg of orimulsion, respectively. Orimulsion impact on the survival and reproduction of earthworms was registered after 4, 7, 10, 15, 25 days from the beginning of the experiment. The obtained data showed a direct relationship between the orimulsion concentration in the soil and the survival and change of earthworm population. When the orimulsion dose was 10 g/kg, the population of earthworms decreased by around 1.2%. When the dose was the biggest the population of earthworms decreased by 17-18%. The investigation results showed that when the orimulsion doses in the soil are low (10 g/kg), a negative influence on earthworms was observed only during the first few days. The greatest effect on the biomass of earthworms was registered when the concentration of orimulsion was 50 g/kg. In this case the biomass of population decreased by around 40 g. According to our results we can confirm that the negative effect of orimulsion on the soil fauna (earthworms) is less than that of crude oil. (author)

  7. Prediction of human pharmacokinetics of activated recombinant factor VII and B-domain truncated factor VIII from animal population pharmacokinetic models of haemophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Groth, Andreas Velsing

    2018-01-01

    activated factor VII (rFVIIa) and recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) in several experimental animal models using population PK modelling, and apply a simulation-based approach to evaluate how well the developed animal population PK models predict human PK. PK models were developed for rFVIIa and r...

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, J; Griffith, M; Blair, I; Cormican, M; Dooley, J S G; Goldsmith, C E; Glover, S G; Loughrey, A; Lowery, C J; Matsuda, M; McClurg, R; McCorry, K; McDowell, D; McMahon, A; Cherie Millar, B; Nagano, Y; Rao, J R; Rooney, P J; Smyth, M; Snelling, W J; Xu, J; Moore, J E

    2008-04-01

    Faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, as well as Arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in Belfast Zoological Gardens, during July-September 2006. Thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (11 of 44; 25%). Yersinia spp. were isolated from seven animal species (seven of 44; 15.9%) and included, Yersinia enterocolitica (five of seven isolates; 71.4%) and one isolate each of Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia kristensenii. Only one isolate of Salmonella was obtained throughout the entire study, which was an isolate of Salmonella dublin (O 1,9,12: H g, p), originating from tiger faeces after enrichment. None of the animal species found in public contact areas of the zoo were positive for any gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Also, water from the lake in the centre of the grounds, was examined for the same bacterial pathogens and was found to contain C. jejuni. This study is the first report on the isolation of a number of important bacterial pathogens from a variety of novel host species, C. jejuni from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), C. lari from a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Y. kristensenii from a vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) and Y. enterocolitica from a maned wolf and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the faeces of animals in public contact areas of the zoo were not positive for the bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens examined. This is reassuring for the public health of visitors, particularly children, who enjoy this educational and recreational resource.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host-microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR, one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU. Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance

  12. Climate Change-Related Water Disasters' Impact on Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Bender, Annah K; Seal, Stella; Corley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Rising global temperatures have resulted in an increased frequency and severity of cyclones, hurricanes, and flooding in many parts of the world. These climate change-related water disasters (CCRWDs) have a devastating impact on communities and the health of residents. Clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base planning, prevention, and disaster response to these events. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the impact of CCRWDs on public health in order to identify factors in these events that are amenable to preparedness and mitigation. Ultimately, this evidence could be used by nurses to advocate for greater preparedness initiatives and inform national and international disaster policy. A systematic literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) was conducted using a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach in January 2017 to describe major themes and associated factors of the impact of CCRWDs on population health. Three major themes emerged: environmental disruption resulting in exposure to toxins, population susceptibility, and health systems infrastructure (failure to plan-prepare-mitigate, inadequate response, and lack of infrastructure). Direct health impact was characterized by four major categories: weather-related morbidity and mortality, waterborne diseases/water-related illness, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and psychiatric/mental health effects. Scope and duration of the event are factors that exacerbate the impact of CCRWDs. Discussion of specific factors amenable to mitigation was limited. Flooding as an event was overrepresented in this analysis (60%), and the majority of the research reviewed was conducted in high-income or upper

  13. [Stingrays in rivers in southeastern Brazil: occurrence localities and impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, our aim was to describe the process of colonization of the upper Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil, by stingrays, showing the current situation, likely trend and impact caused and discussing some management actions and mitigation measures. Interviews were held with riverbank people and health professionals, to gather information on occurrences of stingrays and accidents associated with these animals, along with underwater observations and collection of specimens, between 2004 and 2009 in localities in the States of São Paulo, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southeastern, southern and part of the central-western regions of Brazil. Three species of stingrays were identified in the study area, thus demonstrating that they were using the paths opened by the Tietê-Paraná Waterway to disperse. Sixteen victims of accidents involving these animals were found, mainly bathers and fishermen. Attention was drawn to the fact that these cases had not been reported, yet they presented high morbidity with notable temporary incapacity for work. This is the first report on biological invasion involving species of elasmobranchs in the literature and, because stingrays are colonizing densely populated areas and are expanding their range of distribution each year, it can be expected that their negative interactions with humans will intensify, with important changes in the epidemiological profile of accidents due to venomous animals occurring in southeastern Brazil.

  14. Analysis of impingement impacts on Hudson River fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; van Winkle, W.

    1988-01-01

    Impacts of impingement, expressed as reductions in year-class abundance, were calculated for six Hudson River fish populations. Estimates were made for the 1974 and 1975 year classes of white perch, striped bass, Atlantic tomcod, and American shad, and the 1974 year classes of alewife and blueback herring. The maximum estimated reductions in year-class abundance were less than 5% for all year classes except the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes and the 1974 striped bass year class. Only for white perch were the estimates greater than 10% per year. For striped bass, the 146,000 fish from the 1974 year class that were killed by impingement could have produced 12,000-16,000 5-year-old fish or 270-300 10-year-olds. Also estimated were the reductions in mortality that could have been achieved had closed-cycle cooling systems been installed at one or more of three power plants (Bowline point, Indian Point, and Roseton) and had the screen-wash systems at Bowline Point and Indian Point been modified to improve the survival of impinged fish. Closed-cycle cooling at all three plants would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch, striped bass, and Atlantic tomcod by 75% or more; installation of closed-cycle cooling at Indian Point alone would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch and Atlantic tomcod by 50%-80%. Modified traveling screens would have been less effective than closed-cycle cooling, but still would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch by roughly 20%. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama eSzmolka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of E. coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these bad genes in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the

  16. A review of simulation modelling approaches used for the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, S; Poljak, Z; Revie, C W; Bridgland, J; McNab, B; Leger, E; Sanchez, J

    2013-09-01

    Increasing incidences of emerging and re-emerging diseases that are mostly zoonotic (e.g. severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza H5N1, pandemic influenza) has led to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to tackling these threats to public and animal health. Accordingly, a global movement of 'One-Health/One-Medicine' has been launched to foster collaborative efforts amongst animal and human health officials and researchers to address these problems. Historical evidence points to the fact that pandemics caused by influenza A viruses remain a major zoonotic threat to mankind. Recently, a range of mathematical and computer simulation modelling methods and tools have increasingly been applied to improve our understanding of disease transmission dynamics, contingency planning and to support policy decisions on disease outbreak management. This review provides an overview of methods, approaches and software used for modelling the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animals and humans, particularly those related to the animal-human interface. Modelling parameters used in these studies are summarized to provide references for future work. This review highlights the limited application of modelling research to influenza in animals and at the animal-human interface, in marked contrast to the large volume of its research in human populations. Although swine are widely recognized as a potential host for generating novel influenza viruses, and that some of these viruses, including pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009, have been shown to be readily transmissible between humans and swine, only one study was found related to the modelling of influenza spread at the swine-human interface. Significant gaps in the knowledge of frequency of novel viral strains evolution in pigs, farm-level natural history of influenza infection, incidences of influenza transmission between farms and between swine and humans are clearly evident. Therefore, there is a need to direct

  17. Acute physiological impacts of CO2 ocean sequestration on marine animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimatsu, A.; Hayashi, M.; Lee, K.S.; Murata, K.; Kumagai, E.

    2005-01-01

    The biological impacts of ocean carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration must be carefully considered before it is implemented as a mitigation strategy. This paper presented details of a study investigating the effects of high CO 2 concentrations on marine fish, lobster, and octopus. The influence of water temperature on the physiological effects of CO 2 was also discussed. In the first part of the study, eggs and larvae of red seabream were exposed to both CO 2 and HCI-acidified seawater at identical pH levels. Seabream in the CO 2 group showed a much higher mortality rate than fish in the HCI group. Other tests showed that Japanese Flounder died after complete recovery of pH in seawater equilibrated with 5 per cent CO 2 . Cardiac output was rapidly depressed in Yellowtail fish without significant changes in blood oxygen concentrations. Lower temperatures resulted in higher mortality and delayed pH recovery during hypercapnia in all fish. Western rock lobsters were the most tolerant to CO 2 among all species tested. The recovery of hemolymph pH was complete at exposure to CO 2 concentrations of 1 per cent. Changes in hemolymph bicarbonate concentrations indicated that acid-based regulatory mechanisms differed between fish and lobsters. Mortality rates for octopus were significant at CO 2 concentrations of 1 per cent. The results of all tests showed that aquatic animals are more susceptible to increases in ambient CO 2 levels than terrestrial animals. It was concluded that even slight elevations in CO 2 concentration levels adversely affected physiological functioning in the tested species. It was concluded that CO 2 sequestration in deeper, colder waters will have a more pronounced effect on aquatic animals due to the interactions between CO 2 and lower temperatures, as well as the fact that most deep-sea fish are less tolerant to environmental perturbations. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  18. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  19. Mid-term financial impact of animal welfare improvements in Dutch broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-12-01

    This study used a stochastic bioeconomic simulation model to simulate the business and financial risk of different broiler production systems over a 5-yr period. Simulation analysis was conducted using the @Risk add-in in MS Excel. To compare the impact of different production systems on economic feasibility, 2 cases were considered. The first case focused on the economic feasibility of a completely new system, whereas the second examined economic feasibilities when a farm switches from a conventional to an animal welfare-improving production system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the key drivers of economic feasibility and to reveal systematic differences across production systems. The study shows that economic feasibility of systems with improved animal welfare predominantly depends on the price that farmers receive. Moreover, the study demonstrates the importance of the level and variation of the price premium for improved welfare, particularly in the first 5 yr after conversion. The economic feasibility of the production system increases with the level of welfare improvements for a sufficiently high price level for broiler meat and low volatility in producer prices. If this is not the case, however, risk attitudes of farmers become important as well as the use of potential risk management instruments.

  20. The impact of a pathogenic bacterium on a social carnivore population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Goller, Katja V; Hofer, Heribert; Runyoro, Victor; Thierer, Dagmar; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Müller, Thomas; East, Marion L

    2012-01-01

    1. The long-term ecological impact of pathogens on group-living, large mammal populations is largely unknown. We evaluated the impact of a pathogenic bacterium, Streptococcus equi ruminatorum, and other key ecological factors on the dynamics of the spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta population in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. 2. We compared key demographic parameters during two years when external signs of bacterial infection were prevalent ('outbreak') and periods of five years before and after the outbreak when such signs were absent or rare. We also tested for density dependence and calculated the basic reproductive rate R(0) of the bacterium. 3. During the five pre-outbreak years, the mean annual hyena mortality rate was 0.088, and annual population growth was relatively high (13.6%). During the outbreak, mortality increased by 78% to a rate of 0.156, resulting in an annual population decline of 4.3%. After the outbreak, population size increased moderately (5.1%) during the first three post-outbreak years before resuming a growth similar to pre-outbreak levels (13.9%). We found no evidence that these demographic changes were driven by density dependence or other ecological factors. 4. Most hyenas showed signs of infection when prey abundance in their territory was low. During the outbreak, mortality increased among adult males and yearlings, but not among adult females - the socially dominant group members. These results suggest that infection and mortality were modulated by factors linked to low social status and poor nutrition. During the outbreak, we estimated R(0) for the bacterium to be 2.7, indicating relatively fast transmission. 5. Our results suggest that the short-term 'top-down' impact of S. equi ruminatorum during the outbreak was driven by 'bottom-up' effects on nutritionally disadvantaged age-sex classes, whereas the longer-term post-outbreak reduction in population growth was caused by poor survival of juveniles during the outbreak and subsequent

  1. The work impact of dysthymia in a primary care population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, David A.; Irish, Julie; McLaughlin, Thomas J.; Perissinotto, Carla; Chang, Hong; Hood, Maggie; Lapitsky, Leueen; Rogers, William H.; Lerner, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Physicians regard individuals with dysthymia as having relatively normal levels of functioning. This study examines in detail the work impact of dysthymia in a population of employed primary care patients. As part of an observational study conducted between 2001 and 2003 in clinics associated with three health plans in Massachusetts, we compared 69 patients diagnosed with DSM-IV dysthymia without concurrent major depressive disorder to 175 depression-free controls. Patients were employed at least 15 h per week, had no immediate plans to leave the labor market, and no major comorbid medical conditions. We assessed work absences and productivity loss due to on-the-job performance limitations (“presenteeism”). Patients with dysthymia, compared with controls, had less stable work histories and a greater frequency of significant problems at work. While absence rates were not significantly different (1.2 vs. 0.74 days, P dysthymia experienced significantly greater on-the-job productivity loss (6.3% vs. 2.8%, P Dysthymia is an unrecognized cause of work impairment that has long-term negative consequences for individuals and their employers. The persistence of dysthymia with its serious impact on work functioning calls out for the development of new interventions. PMID:15234821

  2. The Annual Dose for Qena Generative Population Due to Consume the Animal Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Sahalel Din, K.; Abbady, A.; Saad, N.

    2010-01-01

    Several kinds of cattle and poultry fodder samples collected from South Valley University and Qena governorate farm, Qena, Upper Egypt were estimated for their natural radioactivity concentrations due to Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides. Twenty nine fodder samples were analyzed by using low-level gamma-spectrometric. Based on radionuclides concentrations in animal fodder and annual consumption rate, the human health risk from irradiation due to indirect ingestion can be assessed. The annual effective dose from these radionuclides, which may reach the local consumer through beef, milk, poultry and eggs consumption have been estimated as 2.7 E +00, 1.4 E +01, 1.0 E -01 and 1.4 E -01 μSv/y, respectively

  3. Individual-based analysis opens new insights into understanding population structure and animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planes, Serge; Lemer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Studying the movement of individuals in the wild has always been a challenge in ecology. However, estimating such movement is essential in life sciences as it is the base-line for evaluating connectivity, a major component in developing management and conservation plans. Furthermore, movement, or migration, is an essential parameter in population genetics, as it directly affects genetic differentiation. The development of highly variable markers has allowed genetic discrimination between individuals within populations and at larger scales, and the availability of high-throughput technologies means that many samples and hence many individuals can be screened. These advances mean that we can now use genetic identification for tracking individuals, and hence follow both survival and reproductive output through the life cycle. The paper by Morrissey & Ferguson (2011, this issue) is a demonstration of this new capability, as authors were able to infer the movement of salmonid fish initially captured as juveniles, and later as reproductively mature adults.

  4. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  5. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Kansai dialekts Japānas populārajā kultūrā – anime un manga.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubene, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Kansai dialekts Japānas populārajā kultūrā - anime un manga” ir veltīts Kansai dialekta lomas izpētei šajos populārās kultūras medijos. Pētījums atspoguļo stereotipus, kas mūsdienu japāņu sabiedrībā saistās ar Kansai dialektu un tā tipisku runātāju. Tiek apskatīti anime un mangas personāži kā šo stereotipu nesēji. Darbs sastāv no četrām daļām. Pirmā daļa sniedz teorētisko bāzi, kas ir nepieciešama, lai izprastu stereotipu par Kansai dialektu rašanās vēsturiskos un sociālo...

  7. Unexpected competitiveness of Methanosaeta populations at elevated acetate concentrations in methanogenic treatment of animal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Cheng, Huicai; Liu, Jiang; Hazen, Terry C; Huang, Vicki; He, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Acetoclastic methanogenesis is a key metabolic process in anaerobic digestion, a technology with broad applications in biogas production and waste treatment. Acetoclastic methanogenesis is known to be performed by two archaeal genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina. The conventional model posits that Methanosaeta populations are more competitive at low acetate levels (competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate was further supported by the enrichment of Methanosaeta with high concentrations of acetate (20 mM). The dominance of Methanosaeta in the methanogen community could be reproduced in anaerobic digesters with the direct addition of acetate to above 20 mM, again supporting the competitiveness of Methanosaeta over Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. This study for the first time systematically demonstrated that the dominance of Methanosaeta populations in anaerobic digestion could be linked to the competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate concentrations. Given the importance of acetoclastic methanogenesis in biological methane production, findings from this study could have major implications for developing strategies for more effective control of methanogenic treatment processes.

  8. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic count: An Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramana, V; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Goud, E V Soma Shekara; Arafath, Mohammed; Krishnan, Santhana

    2014-01-01

    Background : The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of systemically administered BP-Pamidronate, on Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) along with osteoclastic quantification in New Zealand white rabbits. Materials & Methods : Twenty rabbits used in the study, were equally divided into 2 groups ; Group-1 as Control & Group-2 as Experimental. A sentalloy NITI closed coil spring (GAC International, USA) of 100 gram force, ligated between the lower first molar and the anterior most incisors of the rabbit has served as orthodontic force element. The BP- Pamidronate was administered at the dosage of 1.5 mg/kg body intra-peritonially, on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. On the 21st day both group of animals were sacrificed, mandibles were dissected. The formed diastema between the 1st and 2nd molar was measured on the dissected mandibles using standard metric scale, which is considered as the OTM in the mesial direction. Next, the alveolar bone regions along with intact mesial surfaces were processed for histological investigation (osteoclastic count). Results : The student ‘t’ test has been done to compare the mean values of molar tooth movement and osteoclastic count. Parameter :1 molar tooth movement has shown a significant difference between the control (3.750 ± 0.548 mm) and the experimental group (3.050 ± 0.556 mm) with calculated ‘p’ value (p-value S, Reddy BV, Goud EV, Arafath M, Krishnan S. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and olsteoclastic count: An Animal Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):1-8. PMID:24876695

  9. Human and animal Trypanosomes in Côte d'Ivoire form a single breeding population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Capewell

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African Sleeping Sickness in humans and contributes to the related veterinary disease, Nagana. T. brucei is segregated into three subspecies based on host specificity, geography and pathology. T. b. brucei is limited to animals (excluding some primates throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is non-infective to humans due to trypanolytic factors found in human serum. T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are human infective sub-species. T. b. gambiense is the more prevalent human, causing over 97% of human cases. Study of T. b. gambiense is complicated in that there are two distinct groups delineated by genetics and phenotype. The relationships between the two groups and local T. b. brucei are unclear and may have a bearing on the evolution of the human infectivity traits.A collection of sympatric T. brucei isolates from Côte d'Ivoire, consisting of T. b. brucei and both groups of T. b. gambiense have previously been categorized by isoenzymes, RFLPs and Blood Incubation Infectivity Tests. These samples were further characterized using the group 1 specific marker, TgSGP, and seven microsatellites. The relationships between the T. b. brucei and T. b. gambiense isolates were determined using principal components analysis, neighbor-joining phylogenetics, STRUCTURE, FST, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium.Group 1 T. b. gambiense form a clonal genetic group, distinct from group 2 and T. b. brucei, whereas group 2 T. b. gambiense are genetically indistinguishable from local T. b. brucei. There is strong evidence for mating within and between group 2 T. b. gambiense and T. b. brucei. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that group 2 T. b. gambiense are hybrids of group 1 and T. b. brucei, suggesting that human infectivity has evolved independently in groups 1 and 2 T. b. gambiense.

  10. Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on (Marine) Animals: Physiological Underpinnings and Evolutionary Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, Hans O; Gutt, Julian

    2016-07-01

    variability throughout earth's history have influenced animal evolution and co-defined their success or failure from a bio-energetic point of view. Deepening such understanding may further reduce uncertainty about projected impacts of anthropogenic climate variability and change on the distribution, productivity and last not least, survival of aquatic and terrestrial species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Acute physiological impacts of CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration on marine animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimatsu, A.; Hayashi, M.; Lee, K.S.; Murata, K.; Kumagai, E. [Nagasaki Univ., Nagasaki (Japan). Marine Research Inst.; Kikkawa, T. [Marine Ecology Research Inst., Chiba (Japan). Central Laboratory; Kita, J. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The biological impacts of ocean carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration must be carefully considered before it is implemented as a mitigation strategy. This paper presented details of a study investigating the effects of high CO{sub 2} concentrations on marine fish, lobster, and octopus. The influence of water temperature on the physiological effects of CO{sub 2} was also discussed. In the first part of the study, eggs and larvae of red seabream were exposed to both CO{sub 2} and HCI-acidified seawater at identical pH levels. Seabream in the CO{sub 2} group showed a much higher mortality rate than fish in the HCI group. Other tests showed that Japanese Flounder died after complete recovery of pH in seawater equilibrated with 5 per cent CO{sub 2}. Cardiac output was rapidly depressed in Yellowtail fish without significant changes in blood oxygen concentrations. Lower temperatures resulted in higher mortality and delayed pH recovery during hypercapnia in all fish. Western rock lobsters were the most tolerant to CO{sub 2} among all species tested. The recovery of hemolymph pH was complete at exposure to CO{sub 2} concentrations of 1 per cent. Changes in hemolymph bicarbonate concentrations indicated that acid-based regulatory mechanisms differed between fish and lobsters. Mortality rates for octopus were significant at CO{sub 2} concentrations of 1 per cent. The results of all tests showed that aquatic animals are more susceptible to increases in ambient CO{sub 2} levels than terrestrial animals. It was concluded that even slight elevations in CO{sub 2} concentration levels adversely affected physiological functioning in the tested species. It was concluded that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deeper, colder waters will have a more pronounced effect on aquatic animals due to the interactions between CO{sub 2} and lower temperatures, as well as the fact that most deep-sea fish are less tolerant to environmental perturbations. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic count: An Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramana, V; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Goud, E V Soma Shekara; Arafath, Mohammed; Krishnan6, Santhana

    2014-04-01

    Background : The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of systemically administered BP-Pamidronate, on Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) along with osteoclastic quantification in New Zealand white rabbits. Materials & Methods : Twenty rabbits used in the study, were equally divided into 2 groups ; Group-1 as Control & Group-2 as Experimental. A sentalloy NITI closed coil spring (GAC International, USA) of 100 gram force, ligated between the lower first molar and the anterior most incisors of the rabbit has served as orthodontic force element. The BP- Pamidronate was administered at the dosage of 1.5 mg/kg body intra-peritonially, on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. On the 21st day both group of animals were sacrificed, mandibles were dissected. The formed diastema between the 1st and 2nd molar was measured on the dissected mandibles using standard metric scale, which is considered as the OTM in the mesial direction. Next, the alveolar bone regions along with intact mesial surfaces were processed for histological investigation (osteoclastic count). Results : The student 't' test has been done to compare the mean values of molar tooth movement and osteoclastic count. Parameter :1 molar tooth movement has shown a significant difference between the control (3.750 ± 0.548 mm) and the experimental group (3.050 ± 0.556 mm) with calculated 'p' value (p-value <0.05) is significant at 0.0110 level. Parameter : 2 osteoclastic count has shown a significant difference between the control (13.335000 ± 0.735856 per square mm.) and the experimental group (11.426900 ± 1.49369 per square mm) calculated 'p' value (p-value <0.05) is significant at 0.003 level. Conclusion : The molar tooth movement and the osteoclastic count were significantly reduced in BP - Pamidronate administered animals than non-drug recipients. How to cite the article: Venkataramana V, Chidambaram S, Reddy BV, Goud EV, Arafath M, Krishnan S. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth

  13. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  14. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  15. Impact of extraneous mispositioned events on motion-corrected brain SPECT images of freely moving animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, Georgios I.; Ryder, William J.; Bashar, Rezaul; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging of freely moving small animals would allow a wide range of important neurological processes and behaviors to be studied, which are normally inhibited by anesthetic drugs or precluded due to the animal being restrained. While rigid body motion of the head can be tracked and accounted for in the reconstruction, activity in the torso may confound brain measurements, especially since motion of the torso is more complex (i.e., nonrigid) and not well correlated with that of the head. The authors investigated the impact of mispositioned events and attenuation due to the torso on the accuracy of motion corrected brain images of freely moving mice. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic voxelized mouse phantom and a dual compartment phantom were performed. Each phantom comprised a target and an extraneous compartment which were able to move independently of each other. Motion correction was performed based on the known motion of the target compartment only. Two SPECT camera geometries were investigated: a rotating single head detector and a stationary full ring detector. The effects of motion, detector geometry, and energy of the emitted photons (hence, attenuation) on bias and noise in reconstructed brain regions were evaluated. Results: The authors observed two main sources of bias: (a) motion-related inconsistencies in the projection data and (b) the mismatch between attenuation and emission. Both effects are caused by the assumption that the orientation of the torso is difficult to track and model, and therefore cannot be conveniently corrected for. The motion induced bias in some regions was up to 12% when no attenuation effects were considered, while it reached 40% when also combined with attenuation related inconsistencies. The detector geometry (i.e., rotating vs full ring) has a big impact on the accuracy of the reconstructed images, with the full ring detector being more

  16. Theoretical models of the impact of climate change on natural populations, communities and ecosystems. Final report, 1989--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, R.

    1992-12-31

    Land use change is a relatively understudied aspect of global change. In many cases, the impact of land use on plant and animal species may be far greater than the impact of climate change per se. As an integral part of our long-term studies of the response of animal populations to global change, we have focused on land use change as a dominant driving force. Climate change, no doubt, will also play a role in determining the future abundance and distribution of many species, but, for many species, the signal from climate change per se may be difficult to detect if we do not first understand the impact of land use change. This formed the dominant theme of the research by the PI (Pulliam). Both land use change and year to year climate change can directly affect other populations and two examples of this formed the focus of the remaining research, models of invertebrates in Carolina Bays and a model of a commercial estuarine population of blue crabs.

  17. ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT OF RUSTIC ANIMAL BREEDS IN BANAT WITH CO-ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Luminita Matiuti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th and the 20th centuries, they developed in the Banat of Temeswar animalbreeds with economic performances comparable to those of other breeds in Europe.Traditionally, they also breed animal breeds and populations developed in Transylvania, amulti-cultural, multi-ethnic historical region that resembles the Banat of Temeswar verymuch from this point of view. Some of the rustic breeds from the Banat of Temeswar orfrom Transylvania are economically behind other specialised breeds. These rustic breedsare, in exchange, well adapted to the areas and they have genes that endow them withparticular disease-resistance. Reform of farm support policies in OECD countries is awelcome step which has led to a decline in the aggregate trade distortion coefficient from0.96 in 1986 to 0.74 in 2007. Climate change and increased biofuel production representmajor risks for long-term food security. Although countries in the Southern hemisphere arenot the main originators of climate change, they may suffer the greatest share of damage inthe form of declining yields and greater frequency of extreme weather events. Nowadays asustainable economy must become rural, based on Agrifood Biodiversity. Bioeconomy andEco-Economy scientifically applied to the rural economy, in the context of a sustainablerural development, the possibility exists to issue the following tentative terms forconsideration in the future: a. Bioeconomic sustainable development of the rural areas;b.Eco-Economic sustainable development of the agrifood production; c. Eco-Bioeconomicsustainable development of the agrifood green power.

  18. Nutrition during Pregnancy Impacts Offspring's Epigenetic Status—Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling A. Geraghty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring's epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins. Evidence suggests that maternal nutrition does not largely influence global methylation patterns, particularly in nutrient-replete populations; however, an important impact on gene-specific methylation is observed. A link is shown between maternal nutrition and the methylome of the offspring; however, there remains a paucity of research. With the potential to use DNA methylation patterns at birth to predict health of the child in later life, it is vital that further research be carried out.

  19. The effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of four animal species in a Danish landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forchhammer Mads C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in carrying capacity and population return rates is generally ignored in traditional studies of population dynamics. Variation is hard to study in the field because of difficulties controlling the environment in order to obtain statistical replicates, and because of the scale and expense of experimenting on populations. There may also be ethical issues. To circumvent these problems we used detailed simulations of the simultaneous behaviours of interacting animals in an accurate facsimile of a real Danish landscape. The models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of skylarks Alauda arvensis, voles Microtus agrestis, a ground beetle Bembidion lampros and a linyphiid spider Erigone atra. This allows us to quantify and evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of the four species. Results Both spatial and temporal heterogeneity affected the relationship between population growth rate and population density in all four species. Spatial heterogeneity accounted for 23–30% of the variance in population growth rate after accounting for the effects of density, reflecting big differences in local carrying capacity associated with the landscape features important to individual species. Temporal heterogeneity accounted for 3–13% of the variance in vole, skylark and spider, but 43% in beetles. The associated temporal variation in carrying capacity would be problematic in traditional analyses of density dependence. Return rates were less than one in all species and essentially invariant in skylarks, spiders and beetles. Return rates varied over the landscape in voles, being slower where there were larger fluctuations in local population sizes. Conclusion Our analyses estimated the traditional parameters of carrying capacities and return rates, but these are now seen as varying continuously over the landscape depending on habitat quality and the mechanisms

  20. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment.

  1. Impact of Psychological Stress on Pain Perception in an Animal Model of Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Siomara; Cruz, Myrella L; Seguinot, Inevy I; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2017-10-01

    Pain in patients with endometriosis is considered a significant source of stress but does not always correlate with severity of the condition. We have demonstrated that stress can worsen endometriosis in an animal model. Here, we tested the impact of a psychological stress protocol on pain thresholds and pain receptors. Endometriosis was induced in female rats by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery. Sham rats had sutures only. Rats were exposed to water avoidance stress for 7 consecutive days or handled for 5 minutes (no stress). Fecal pellets and serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured as an index of anxiety. Pain perception was assessed using hot plate and Von Frey tests. Substance P, enkephalin, endomorphin-2, Mu opioid receptor (MOR), and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the spinal cord were measured by immunohistochemistry. Fecal pellets and CORT were significantly higher in the endo-stress (ES) group than endo-no stress (ENS; P stress groups (SNS; P stress reversed the allodynic effect caused by endo ( P stress develop more severe symptoms but interestingly stress seems to have beneficial effects on abdominal allodynia, which could be a consequence of the stress-induced analgesia phenomenon.

  2. China's Population Policy at the Crossroads: Social Impacts and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    China's total fertility rate fell below replacement level in the 1990s. From the 1970s the fertility rate declined dramatically, mainly as a consequence of the national population policy whose aim has been to limit birth numbers, control population growth and boost economic growth. Having achieved such a low fertility rate, how will China's population policy evolve in the future? This paper first reviews the history of China's population policy since 1970 in terms of three stages: 1970-1979; ...

  3. The Impact of Animated Books on the Vocabulary and Language Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Two School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broemmel, Amy D.; Moran, Mary Jane; Wooten, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of electronic media over the past two decades, young children have been found to have increased exposure to video games, computer-based activities, and electronic books (e-books). This study explores how exposure to animated ebooks impacts young children's literacy development. A stratified convenience sample (n = 24) was…

  4. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  6. Animal source food intake and association with blood cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in a northern Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Igl

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The high intake of game meat in populations with a subsistence-based diet may affect their blood lipids and health status. Objective . To examine the association between diet and circulating levels of blood lipid levels in a northern Swedish population. Study design . We compared a group with traditional lifestyle (TLS based on reindeer herding (TLS group with those from the same area with a non-traditional lifestyle (NTLS typical of more industrialized regions of Sweden (NTLS group. The analysis was based on self-reported intake of animal source food (i.e. non-game meat, game meat, fish, dairy products and eggs and the serum blood level of a number of lipids [total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, triglycerides (TG, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids]. Results . The TLS group had higher cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels than the reference group. Of the TLS group, 65% had cholesterol levels above the threshold for increased risk of coronary heart disease (≥240 mg/dl, as compared to 38% of the NTLS group. Self-reported consumption of game meat was positively associated with TC and LDL. Conclusions . The high game meat consumption of the TLS group is associated with increased cholesterol levels. High intake of animal protein and fat and low fibre is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but other studies of the TLS in northern Sweden have shown comparable incidences of cardiovascular disease to the reference (NTLS group from the same geographical area. This indicates that factors other than TC influence disease risk. One such possible factor is dietary phospholipids, which are also found in high amounts specifically in game meat and have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption.

  7. Animal source food intake and association with blood cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in a northern Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Wilmar; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Johansson, Asa; Liebisch, Gerhard; Gnewuch, Carsten; Schmitz, Gerd; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The high intake of game meat in populations with a subsistence-based diet may affect their blood lipids and health status. To examine the association between diet and circulating levels of blood lipid levels in a northern Swedish population. We compared a group with traditional lifestyle (TLS) based on reindeer herding (TLS group) with those from the same area with a non-traditional lifestyle (NTLS) typical of more industrialized regions of Sweden (NTLS group). The analysis was based on self-reported intake of animal source food (i.e. non-game meat, game meat, fish, dairy products and eggs) and the serum blood level of a number of lipids [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids]. The TLS group had higher cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels than the reference group. Of the TLS group, 65% had cholesterol levels above the threshold for increased risk of coronary heart disease (≥ 240 mg/dl), as compared to 38% of the NTLS group. Self-reported consumption of game meat was positively associated with TC and LDL. The high game meat consumption of the TLS group is associated with increased cholesterol levels. High intake of animal protein and fat and low fibre is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but other studies of the TLS in northern Sweden have shown comparable incidences of cardiovascular disease to the reference (NTLS) group from the same geographical area. This indicates that factors other than TC influence disease risk. One such possible factor is dietary phospholipids, which are also found in high amounts specifically in game meat and have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption.

  8. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  9. Total Environmental Impact of Three Main Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Content of Animal and Plant Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baroni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the most recent available scientific evidence, the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (USDA DG provide information and advice for choosing a healthy diet. To compare the environmental impacts of, respectively, omnivorous (OMN, lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV and vegan (VEG dietary patterns as suggested in the USDA DG, we analyzed the three patterns by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The presence of animal food in the diet was the main determinant of environmental impact. The major impact always stemmed from land and water use. The second largest impact came from energy use. Emission of toxic inorganic compounds into the atmosphere was the third cause of impact. Climate change and acidification/eutrophication represented other substantial impacts.

  10. Total Environmental Impact of Three Main Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Content of Animal and Plant Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Luciana; Berati, Marina; Candilera, Maurizio; Tettamanti, Massimo

    2014-07-25

    Based on a review of the most recent available scientific evidence, the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (USDA DG) provide information and advice for choosing a healthy diet. To compare the environmental impacts of, respectively, omnivorous (OMN), lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) and vegan (VEG) dietary patterns as suggested in the USDA DG, we analyzed the three patterns by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The presence of animal food in the diet was the main determinant of environmental impact. The major impact always stemmed from land and water use. The second largest impact came from energy use. Emission of toxic inorganic compounds into the atmosphere was the third cause of impact. Climate change and acidification/eutrophication represented other substantial impacts.

  11. Future development of animal welfare science and use of new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The expected human population growth to 9 billion people by 2050 will impact all animals with which we share this planet. We will see more farm animals, greater companion animal ownership, increasing feral populations, increased use of laboratory animals and threatened wildlife species diversity, im...

  12. The economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases in developing countries: new roles, new demands for economics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karl M; Perry, Brian D

    2011-09-01

    Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of "bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R P Elmore

    Full Text Available Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg or phosphate buffered saline (PBS was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function

  14. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin A; Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Gogarten, Jan F; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-05-26

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qin, E-mail: zhuqin@fudan.edu.cn; Peng Xizhe, E-mail: xzpeng@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  16. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978–2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qin; Peng Xizhe

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: ► We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. ► We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. ► The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. ► The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. ► The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  17. The Impact of Animation in CD-ROM Books on Students' Reading Behaviors and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Cindy; Hayes, Renee

    This study evaluated the use of children's literature presented via one of three conditions: an adult reading a book to the child; the child reading a CD-ROM version of a book on the computer but without animation; and the child reading the book on the computer with high levels of animation. The study, in one primary grade classroom, involved 10…

  18. Impact of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on employee turnover in animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelberg, Steven G; Reeve, Charlie L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; DiGiacomo, Natalie; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa; Walker, Alan G; Starling, Paula G; Carter, Nathan T

    2007-03-01

    To examine the effects of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on the turnover rate among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters. Cross-sectional original study. 36 shelters across the United States that employed at least 5 full-time employees and performed euthanasia on site. By mail, 1 survey was sent to each shelter. Surveys were completed by a senior member of management and were returned by mail. Questions assessed characteristics (eg, euthanasia rates) and practices of the animal shelter, along with employee turnover rates. By use of correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analyses, key predictors of turnover rates among employees with euthanasia responsibilities were investigated. Employee turnover rates were positively related to euthanasia rate. Practices that were associated with decreased turnover rates included provision of a designated euthanasia room, exclusion of other live animals from vicinity during euthanasia, and removal of euthanized animals from a room prior to entry of another animal to be euthanized. Making decisions regarding euthanasia of animals on the basis of factors other than behavior and health reasons was related to increased personnel turnover. With regard to human resources practices, shelters that used a systematic personnel selection procedure (eg, standardized testing) had comparatively lower employee turnover. Data obtained may suggest several specific avenues that can be pursued to mitigate turnover among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters and animal control or veterinary medical organizations.

  19. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBDG

    Associates of the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of ... nutrition), the role of animal source foods as part of a healthy diet requires continuous investment ... Keywords: Animal source foods, livestock products, nutrition, health ..... sensation of fullness that persists after eating until hunger returns (Benelam, ...

  20. Boophilus microplus: BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF ACARICIDE RESISTANCE AND THEIR IMPACT ON ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Inés Dominguez-García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Application of Ixodicidas has been considered for a long time the alternative for control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, however, its use is currently limited in reducing tick infestations, due to the appearance of resistant field tick populations. Ixodicide resistance is a growing problem that needs to be attended, because, it is currently affecting the competitiveness of the Mexican Cattle industry in general and in particular the income of cattle producers. The solution to this problem needs to increase the budget dedicated to basic research in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ixodicide resistance leading to the discovery of new molecular targets for ixodicide resistance detection and recombinant vaccine development. The recent use of new genomic tools, as well as reverse genetics approaches, will provide an extraordinary contribution to the improvement of tick control strategies and ixodicide resistance mitigation programs. The aim of the present review is to make a compilation of different topics related with acaricide resistance in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, starting with some biological and molecular considerations on its new classification, to the analysis of ixodicide resistance, its impact on the Mexican cattle industry and the perspective of the genomic research in order to solve the problems associated to tick control, new diagnostic tools and development of tick vaccines.

  1. Pattern of third molar impaction in a Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Hassan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twenty-two (40.5% of the 1039 OPG showed at least one impacted third molar, with no significant difference between males (222; 52.6% and females (200; 47.4% (P = 0.284. The most common number of impacted third molars per OPG was one (72.5%. Impacted third molars were 1.64 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesial (33.4%, while the most common angulation in the maxilla, was the vertical (49.6%. Level B impaction was the most common in both maxilla (48.2% and mandible (67.7%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides in both jaws.Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the western region of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction that is greater in the mandibles and with no sex predilection.Keywords: third molar, impaction, prevalence, Saudi 

  2. Estimating diagnostic test accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae accounting for the complexities of population structure in food animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hartnack

    Full Text Available For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test ("gold standard" is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect, robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9 and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3, respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8. For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals.

  3. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  4. The impact of sarcoptic mange Sarcoptes scabiei on the British fox Vulpes vulpes population

    OpenAIRE

    Soulsbury, Carl; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Philip; Cole, Nik; Funk, Stephan; Harris, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    1. Disease epizootics can significantly influence host population dynamics and the structure and functioning of ecological communities. Sarcoptic mange Sarcoptes scabiei has dramatically reduced red fox populations Vulpes vulpes in several countries, including Britain, although impacts on demographic processes are poorly understood. We review the literature on the impact of mange on red fox populations, assess its current distribution in Britain through a questionnaire survey a...

  5. Impact of heat stress on health and performance of dairy animals: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramendra Das

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in livestock production system is largely affected by climate change. An imbalance between metabolic heat production inside the animal body and its dissipation to the surroundings results to heat stress (HS under high air temperature and humid climates. The foremost reaction of animals under thermal weather is increases in respiration rate, rectal temperature and heart rate. It directly affect feed intake thereby, reduces growth rate, milk yield, reproductive performance, and even death in extreme cases. Dairy breeds are typically more sensitive to HS than meat breeds, and higher producing animals are, furthermore, susceptible since they generates more metabolic heat. HS suppresses the immune and endocrine system thereby enhances susceptibility of an animal to various diseases. Hence, sustainable dairy farming remains a vast challenge in these changing climatic conditions globally.

  6. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. A population genetic analysis of the potential for a crude oil spill to induce heritable mutations and impact natural populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, M.A. [LGL Alaska Research Associates Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Bickham, J.W. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences; LGL Ecological Genetics Inc., Bryan, TX (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The primary environmental impact following an oil spill typically is acute toxicity to fish and wildlife. However, multigenerational effects through toxicant-induced heritable mutations might also occur. Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of crude oil are potentially mutagenic, although specific components and doses that induce mutations are poorly known. We applied population genetics concepts to assess the extent of mortality and the persistence of deleterious heritable mutations resulting from exposure to potential mutagens, such as crude oil. If lethal mutations are induced, the population will experience some mortality, but the mutations are quickly removed or reduced to low frequency by natural selection. This occurs within one or a few generations when mutations are dominant or partially recessive. Totally recessive alleles persist in low frequency for many generations, but result in relatively little impact on the population, depending on the number of mutated loci. We also applied population genetics concepts to assess the potential for heritable mutations induced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to affect pink salmon populations. We stress that breeding units (e.g., streams with distinct spawning populations of salmon) must be considered individually to assess heritable genetic effects. For several streams impacted by the oil spill, there is inconsistency between observed egg mortality and that expected if lethal heritable mutations had been induced by exposure to crude oil. Observed mortality was either higher or lower than expected depending on the spawning population, year, and cohort considered. Any potential subtle effect of lethal mutations induced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill is overridden by natural environmental variation among spawning areas. We discuss the need to focus on population-level effects in toxicological assessments because fish and wildlife management focuses on populations, not

  8. Behavioral and cognitive impact of early life stress: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesong; Atrooz, Fatin; Salvi, Ankita; Salim, Samina

    2017-08-01

    Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages. We utilized the single prolonged stress (SPS), a rodent model of PTSD, to study the effects of early life stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to SPS on post-natal day (PND) 25. Tests to assess anxiety- and depression-like behavior, as well as learning and memory function were performed at PND32, 60 and 90. Rats exposed to SPS exhibited both anxiety- and depression-like behavior at PND32. And, short-term (STM) but not long-term memory (LTM) was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND60 exhibited anxiety- but not depression-like behavior. STM but not LTM was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND90 exhibited fearful (as indicated by elevated plus maze test) but not an overall anxiety-like behavior (in light and dark test). These rats also displayed significant depression-like behavior with no changes in STM or LTM. Interestingly, when data was further analyzed, two subsets of PND90 rats exposed to SPS were identified, "susceptible": with depression-like behavior and "resilient": without depression-like behavior. Importantly, while resilient group expressed early signs of anxiety- (at PND32 and PND60) and depression-like behavior (at PND32), these behavioral deficits were absent at PND90. On the other hand, susceptible PND90 rats exposed to SPS expressed later onset of anxiety-like behavior (at PND60), while depression

  9. Assessing the value of phenotypic information from non-genotyped animals for QTL mapping of complex traits in real and simulated populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Thaise P; Takada, Luciana; Baldi, Fernando; Oliveira, Henrique N; Dias, Marina M; Neves, Haroldo H R; Schenkel, Flavio S; Albuquerque, Lucia G; Carvalheiro, Roberto

    2016-06-21

    QTL mapping through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is challenging, especially in the case of low heritability complex traits and when few animals possess genotypic and phenotypic information. When most of the phenotypic information is from non-genotyped animals, GWAS can be performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP (WssGBLUP) method, which permits to combine all available information, even that of non-genotyped animals. However, it is not clear to what extent phenotypic information from non-genotyped animals increases the power of QTL detection, and whether factors such as the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the population and weighting SNPs in WssGBLUP affect the importance of using information from non-genotyped animals in GWAS. These questions were investigated in this study using real and simulated data. Analysis of real data showed that the use of phenotypes of non-genotyped animals affected SNP effect estimates and, consequently, QTL mapping. Despite some coincidence, the most important genomic regions identified by the analyses, either using or ignoring phenotypes of non-genotyped animals, were not the same. The simulation results indicated that the inclusion of all available phenotypic information, even that of non-genotyped animals, tends to improve QTL detection for low heritability complex traits. For populations with low levels of LD, this trend of improvement was less pronounced. Stronger shrinkage on SNPs explaining lower variance was not necessarily associated with better QTL mapping. The use of phenotypic information from non-genotyped animals in GWAS may improve the ability to detect QTL for low heritability complex traits, especially in populations in which the level of LD is high.

  10. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  11. Enclaves of genetic diversity resisted Inca impacts on population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Sandoval, José R; Valqui, Jairo; Shimelman, Aviva; Ziemendorff, Stefan; Schröder, Roland; Geppert, Maria; Roewer, Lutz; Gray, Russell; Stoneking, Mark; Fujita, Ricardo; Heggarty, Paul

    2017-12-12

    The Inca Empire is claimed to have driven massive population movements in western South America, and to have spread Quechua, the most widely-spoken language family of the indigenous Americas. A test-case is the Chachapoyas region of northern Peru, reported as a focal point of Inca population displacements. Chachapoyas also spans the environmental, cultural and demographic divides between Amazonia and the Andes, and stands along the lowest-altitude corridor from the rainforest to the Pacific coast. Following a sampling strategy informed by linguistic data, we collected 119 samples, analysed for full mtDNA genomes and Y-chromosome STRs. We report a high indigenous component, which stands apart from the network of intense genetic exchange in the core central zone of Andean civilization, and is also distinct from neighbouring populations. This unique genetic profile challenges the routine assumption of large-scale population relocations by the Incas. Furthermore, speakers of Chachapoyas Quechua are found to share no particular genetic similarity or gene-flow with Quechua speakers elsewhere, suggesting that here the language spread primarily by cultural diffusion, not migration. Our results demonstrate how population genetics, when fully guided by the archaeological, historical and linguistic records, can inform multiple disciplines within anthropology.

  12. Impact of Multidetector Computerized Tomography (MDCT) On The General Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, B.B.; Ribeiro, N.C. [Servico de Radiologia, Hospital de Curry Cabral, Rua da Beneficencia, 8, 1069-166 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    Multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) appeared in the early 1990s, as a technological evolution of computerized tomography. As one would expect, the evolution continues and, each year, more powerful equipments appear, with new medical applications. However, the general use of this technique has lead to the dramatic increase on the general population irradiation. Special concern is required regarding the most vulnerable groups, like the pediatric population, the pregnant and the young female. Due to a larger awareness of this irradiation risks, some initiatives have been developed, coming from different areas, aiming to maximize the benefit to risk ratio of MDCT. (author)

  13. [Impact of animal-assisted intervention on rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoldos, Amanda; Sátori, Agnes; Zana, Agnes

    2014-09-28

    The animal-assisted programs represent an interdisciplinary approach. They can be integrated into preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative processes as complementary methods. The aim of the study was to promote the psychological adaptation and social reintegration of patients who suffered spinal cord injury, as well as reducing depression and feelings of isolation caused by the long hospitalization. The hypothesis of the authors was that the animal-assisted intervention method can be effectively inserted into the rehabilitation process of individuals with spinal cord injury as complementary therapy. 15 adults with spinal cord injury participated in the five-week program, twice a week. Participants first filled out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, and after completion of the program they participated in a short, directed interview with open questions. During the field-work, after observing the participants, qualitative data analysis was performed. The results suggest that the therapeutic animal induced a positive effect on the emotional state of the patients. Participants acquired new skills and knowledge, socialization and group cohesion had been improved. The authors conclude that the animal-assisted activity complemented by therapeutic elements can be beneficial in patients undergoing spinal cord injury rehabilitation and that knowledge obtained from the study can be helpful in the development of a future animal-assisted therapy program for spinal cord injury patients.

  14. Using scenario planning to evaluate the impacts of climate change on wildlife populations and communities in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, Christopher P.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Beerens, James M.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Brandt, Laura A.; Hart, Kristen M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2015-01-01

    It is uncertain how climate change will impact hydrologic drivers of wildlife population dynamics in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades, or how to accommodate this uncertainty in restoration decisions. Using projections of climate scenarios for the year 2060, we evaluated how several possible futures could affect wildlife populations (wading birds, fish, alligators, native apple snails, amphibians, threatened and invasive species) across the Everglades landscape and inform planning already underway. We used data collected from prior research and monitoring to parameterize our wildlife population models. Hydrologic data were simulated using a spatially explicit, regional-scale model. Our scenario evaluations show that expected changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level could significantly alter important ecological functions. All of our wildlife indicators were negatively affected by scenarios with less rainfall and more evapotranspiration. Under such scenarios, habitat suitability was substantially reduced for iconic animals such as wading birds and alligators. Conversely, the increased rainfall scenario benefited aquatic prey productivity and apex predators. Cascading impacts on non-native species is speculative, but increasing temperatures could increase the time between cold events that currently limit expansion and abundance of non-native fishes, amphibians, and reptiles with natural ranges in the tropics. This scenario planning framework underscored the benefits of proceeding with Everglades restoration plans that capture and clean more freshwater with the potential to mitigate rainfall loss and postpone impacts of sea level rise.

  15. Using Scenario Planning to Evaluate the Impacts of Climate Change on Wildlife Populations and Communities in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, Christopher P.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Beerens, James M.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Brandt, Laura A.; Hart, Kristen M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2015-04-01

    It is uncertain how climate change will impact hydrologic drivers of wildlife population dynamics in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades, or how to accommodate this uncertainty in restoration decisions. Using projections of climate scenarios for the year 2060, we evaluated how several possible futures could affect wildlife populations (wading birds, fish, alligators, native apple snails, amphibians, threatened and invasive species) across the Everglades landscape and inform planning already underway. We used data collected from prior research and monitoring to parameterize our wildlife population models. Hydrologic data were simulated using a spatially explicit, regional-scale model. Our scenario evaluations show that expected changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level could significantly alter important ecological functions. All of our wildlife indicators were negatively affected by scenarios with less rainfall and more evapotranspiration. Under such scenarios, habitat suitability was substantially reduced for iconic animals such as wading birds and alligators. Conversely, the increased rainfall scenario benefited aquatic prey productivity and apex predators. Cascading impacts on non-native species is speculative, but increasing temperatures could increase the time between cold events that currently limit expansion and abundance of non-native fishes, amphibians, and reptiles with natural ranges in the tropics. This scenario planning framework underscored the benefits of proceeding with Everglades restoration plans that capture and clean more freshwater with the potential to mitigate rainfall loss and postpone impacts of sea level rise.

  16. Controlling Japanese barberry: Alternative methods and impact on tick populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Scott C. Williams; Thomas E. Worthley

    2011-01-01

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is classified as invasive in 20 states and four Canadian provinces. It is also established in another 11 states. In addition to forming dense thickets that can inhibit forest regeneration and native herbaceous plant populations, barberry understories can harbor greatly enhanced levels of blacklegged ticks (

  17. Global impact of Torque teno virus infection in wild and domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzin, Aldo; Mallus, Francesca; Macera, Lisa; Maggi, Fabrizio; Blois, Sylvain

    2015-07-04

    Infection with Torque teno viruses (TTVs) is not restricted to humans. Different domestic and wild animal species are naturally infected with species-specific TTVs worldwide. Due to the global spread of the infection, it is likely that essentially all animals are naturally infected with species-specific TTVs, and that co-evolution of TTVs with their hosts probably occurred. Although TTVs are potentially related to many diseases, the evidence of the widespread infection in healthy human and nonhuman hosts raised doubts about their pathogenic potential. Nonetheless, their role as superimposed agents of other diseases or as triggers for impairment of immune surveillance is currently under debate. The possible contribution of animal TT viruses to interspecies transmission and their role as zoonotic agents are currently topics of discussion.

  18. Individual and population-level impacts of an emerging poxvirus disease in a wild population of great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife can have severe effects on host populations and constitute a pressing problem for biodiversity conservation. Paridae pox is an unusually severe form of avipoxvirus infection that has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease particularly affecting an abundant songbird, the great tit (Parus major, in Great Britain. In this study, we study the invasion and establishment of Paridae pox in a long-term monitored population of wild great tits to (i quantify the impact of this novel pathogen on host fitness and (ii determine the potential threat it poses to population persistence. We show that Paridae pox significantly reduces the reproductive output of great tits by reducing the ability of parents to fledge young successfully and rear those young to independence. Our results also suggested that pathogen transmission from diseased parents to their offspring was possible, and that disease entails severe mortality costs for affected chicks. Application of multistate mark-recapture modelling showed that Paridae pox causes significant reductions to host survival, with particularly large effects observed for juvenile survival. Using an age-structured population model, we demonstrate that Paridae pox has the potential to reduce population growth rate, primarily through negative impacts on host survival rates. However, at currently observed prevalence, significant disease-induced population decline seems unlikely, although pox prevalence may be underestimated if capture probability of diseased individuals is low. Despite this, because pox-affected model populations exhibited lower average growth rates, this emerging infectious disease has the potential to reduce the resilience of populations to other environmental factors that reduce population size.

  19. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  20. Impact of weight change on albuminuria in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, Aminu K.; de Zeeuw, Dick; El Nahas, Meguid; Brantsma, Auke H.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    Background. Increased levels of albuminuria have been recognized as a feature of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal disease. The impact of weight change on albuminuria and its possible mechanism has not been studied yet in the

  1. Impact of Population Aging on Asia's Future Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Donghyun; Shin, Kwanho

    2011-01-01

    First, the expert contributors argue, Asia must find ways to sustain rapid economic growth in the face of less favorable demographics, which implies slower growth of the workforce. Second, they contend, Asia must find ways to deliver affordable, adequate, and sustainable old-age economic security for its growing elderly population. Underpinned by rigorous analysis, a wide range of concrete policy options for sustaining economic growth while delivering economic security for the elderly are the...

  2. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...

  3. Scientist' assessment of the impact of housing and management on animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 22 scientists contributed to a consensus-oriented conceptual framework for assessment of farm animal welfare, addressing priority issues in cattle, pigs, and chickens. They used the Delphi method, in which participants contributed anonymously through e-mail. The framework puts welfare in

  4. Fostering Social Agency in Multimedia Learning: Examining the Impact of an Animated Agent's Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert K.; Mayer, Richard E.; Merrill, Mary Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Consistent with social agency theory, we hypothesized that learners who studied a set of worked-out examples involving proportional reasoning narrated by an animated agent with a human voice would perform better on near and far transfer tests and rate the speaker more positively compared to learners who studied the same set of examples narrated by…

  5. The impact of climatic change on wild animals and plants: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Root; Jeff T. Price; Kimberly R. Hall; Stephen H. Schneider; Cynthia Rosenzweig; J. Alan Pounds

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 100 years, the global average temperature has increased approximately 0.6° C. Using information from the literature, we examine the extent to which animals and plants are already exhibiting a discernible change consistent with changing temperatures and predicted by our understanding of the species’ physiological constraints. The types of...

  6. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  7. Chronic stress impacts the cardiovascular system: animal models and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Laher, Ismail

    2015-06-15

    Psychological stresses are associated with cardiovascular diseases to the extent that cardiovascular diseases are among the most important group of psychosomatic diseases. The longstanding association between stress and cardiovascular disease exists despite a large ambiguity about the underlying mechanisms. An array of possibilities have been proposed including overactivity of the autonomic nervous system and humoral changes, which then converge on endothelial dysfunction that initiates unwanted cardiovascular consequences. We review some of the features of the two most important stress-activated systems, i.e., the humoral and nervous systems, and focus on alterations in endothelial function that could ensue as a result of these changes. Cardiac and hematologic consequences of stress are also addressed briefly. It is likely that activation of the inflammatory cascade in association with oxidative imbalance represents key pathophysiological components of stress-induced cardiovascular changes. We also review some of the commonly used animal models of stress and discuss the cardiovascular outcomes reported in these models of stress. The unique ability of animals for adaptation under stressful conditions lessens the extrapolation of laboratory findings to conditions of human stress. An animal model of unpredictable chronic stress, which applies various stress modules in a random fashion, might be a useful solution to this predicament. The use of stress markers as indicators of stress intensity is also discussed in various models of animal stress and in clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Impact of Animal Assisted Therapy Reading Instruction on Reading Performance of Homeschooled Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    While animal assisted therapy (AAT) has been a successful part of treatment plans within the medical field for several decades, AAT has not been quantitatively researched as a viable instructional tool that can be used in conjunction with other reading intervention strategies. With over one-third of elementary school aged children experiencing…

  9. Impact of uranium tailings on the environment and population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladka, E.; Burian, I.; Svoboda, S.

    1991-01-01

    Air contamination measurements and water analysis from the surroundings of dumps of some mines were performed in the Pribram mining district. The dumps pose a hazard of potential exposure basically by two routes: by contamination of the environment and by population exposure due to the leak of radon and its daughter products, and also of dust, from the dumps into air and into rainwater and snow-water, thus bringing about contamination of surface and underground waters. Measurements of the concentration of latent energy of radon daughters and of the exposure rate of external gamma radiation gave evidence that the limits set by the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic No. 59/1972 for individuals in the population are reached neither at the foot of the dump nor in nearby villages, although the values are higher than the natural background. The most serious contamination of the hydrosphere in the locality examined is due to moisture seeping from the dumps. The concentrations of radionuclides, of uranium in particular, are considerably higher than as corresponds to the natural background. With respect to the dose equivalent limit for individuals from the population, the contributions from the tailings are mere fractions of the annual limits. The doses, however, are higher than the value set by IAEA as the ''de minimis'' criterion, which is 10 μSv/year. (Z.S.). 4 tabs., 9 refs

  10. [Impact of backward sexual viewpoints on population development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B

    1991-04-01

    In the development of human society, the reproductive function was considered the sole purpose of sexual activities. Any other purposes were deemed abnormal or deviant. The prevalence of that viewpoint reflected the needs during the transformation from hunting to farming as major means of production of the society and the needs for large populations under the socioeconomic conditions of rural society. With the low level of productivity in a family-oriented economy, further development depended on the number of labor hands in the family. The wars for extension of territory and for survival need a constant supply of soldiers. Under such circumstances, the need for large populations implied the importance of fertility behavior in sexual relations. In the rural farming societies, fertility was important in strengthening and developing the family wealth, status, and family structure. Blood relations were emphasized in rural society for family inheritance, for expansion of family influence, and for old age support. The rapid decline of fertility in Europe at the beginning of this century was proposed by some Chinese scholars as the result of their citizens pursuing individual happiness including in sexual relations. The use of contraceptives prevented couples from being overburdened with children. These concepts on sexual relations facilitated the decline of fertility. The necessary social and economic conditions and advances in technology are already present for the changes of the traditional concepts toward sexual relations. The united efforts of social agencies in promoting these changes will be an efficient ensure in regulating the speed of population growth.

  11. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  12. Impact of animal waste application on runoff water quality in field experimental plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchoounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers

  13. Trends of forest area and population and the impact of population on forest area per hectare in Serbia without APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic changes throughout history have shaped the attitude towards the forest and most significant ones are changes in terms of population. Over the centuries population and population density have had a significant impact on deforestation and the reduction of forest areas. Therefore, it is important to check what kind of trends are concerned and how population growth affects forest areas, forest cover and forest area per capita. These elements are important for assessing the direction, intensity of activity and the degree of success in the implementation of all forest policy measures in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat, br. 43007/16-III: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  14. The impact of increased natural background of soil on the animal production of ruminants in the region of Livno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradaščević, N.; Saračević, L.; Samek, D.; Mihalj, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of increased levels of uranium and radium in soil on the levels of activity and radiation-hygienic validity of animal products of ruminants was investigated. Region around Livno town is placed on coal layer with the increased levels of uranium and radium compared with other coals used in Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result of mixing between coal matrix and soil, increased value of average absorbed dose rate at 1 m above the ground (144 nGy/h) was measured. The highest average value of 238U and 226Ra in the samples of animal products of ruminants was measured in the samples of sheep cheese (0.070 Bq/kg for 238U and 0.207 Bq/kg for 226Ra). The levels of these two radionuclides in the rest of animal product of ruminants were approximately similar and ranged 0.016–0.046 Bq/kg for 238U and 0.028–0.080 Bq/kg for 226Ra. Levels of 40K were in the range of average values for animal products (31.2–86.4 Bq/kg). Calculated annual effective dose by ingestion of the animal products of ruminants were approximately 0.064 mSv with the highest dose contribution of 40K (96.4%). On the base of obtained results, animal products of ruminants produced in observed region, can be considered as valid for human consumption from radiation- hygienic aspect

  15. The impact of electronic cigarettes on the paediatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the impact of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on children. Methods Five electronic databases were searched through 31 December 2013. Studies in English that included data for children younger than 18 years of age were included. In addition, relevant data from articles identified during searches of the e-cigarette literature, relevant state survey data and paediatric voluntary adverse event reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed an...

  16. Exome Sequencing Provides Evidence of Polygenic Adaptation to a Fat-Rich Animal Diet in Indigenous Siberian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Hallmark, Brian; Watkins, Joseph; Karafet, Tatiana M; Osipova, Ludmila P; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Hammer, Michael F

    2017-11-01

    Siberia is one of the coldest environments on Earth and has great seasonal temperature variation. Long-term settlement in northern Siberia undoubtedly required biological adaptation to severe cold stress, dramatic variation in photoperiod, and limited food resources. In addition, recent archeological studies show that humans first occupied Siberia at least 45,000 years ago; yet our understanding of the demographic history of modern indigenous Siberians remains incomplete. In this study, we use whole-exome sequencing data from the Nganasans and Yakuts to infer the evolutionary history of these two indigenous Siberian populations. Recognizing the complexity of the adaptive process, we designed a model-based test to systematically search for signatures of polygenic selection. Our approach accounts for stochasticity in the demographic process and the hitchhiking effect of classic selective sweeps, as well as potential biases resulting from recombination rate and mutation rate heterogeneity. Our demographic inference shows that the Nganasans and Yakuts diverged ∼12,000-13,000 years ago from East-Asian ancestors in a process involving continuous gene flow. Our polygenic selection scan identifies seven candidate gene sets with Siberian-specific signals. Three of these gene sets are related to diet, especially to fat metabolism, consistent with the hypothesis of adaptation to a fat-rich animal diet. Additional testing rejects the effect of hitchhiking and favors a model in which selection yields small allele frequency changes at multiple unlinked genes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pleuromutilins: use in food-producing animals in the European Union, development of resistance and impact on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijkeren, Engeline; Greko, Christina; Pringle, Märit; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; Jukes, Helen; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constança Matias Ferreira; Pyörälä, Satu; Rantala, Merja; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Törneke, Karolina

    2014-08-01

    Pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin) are antimicrobial agents that are used mainly in veterinary medicine, especially for swine and to a lesser extent for poultry and rabbits. In pigs, tiamulin and valnemulin are used to treat swine dysentery, spirochaete-associated diarrhoea, porcine proliferative enteropathy, enzootic pneumonia and other infections where Mycoplasma is involved. There are concerns about the reported increases in the MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin for porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from different European countries, as only a limited number of antimicrobials are available for the treatment of swine dysentery where resistance to these antimicrobials is already common and widespread. The loss of pleuromutilins as effective tools to treat swine dysentery because of further increases in resistance or as a consequence of restrictions would present a considerable threat to pig health, welfare and productivity. In humans, only one product containing pleuromutilins (retapamulin) is authorized currently for topical use; however, products for oral and intravenous administration to humans with serious multidrug-resistant skin infections and respiratory infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are being developed. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the usage of pleuromutilins, resistance development and the potential impact of this resistance on animal and human health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Impact of minimum catch size on the population viability of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae) in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Joanne R; Mandujano, María del Carmen

    2014-12-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas represents one of the most important fishery resources of the Caribbean but heavy fishing pressure has led to the depletion of stocks throughout the region, causing the inclusion of this species into CITES Appendix II and IUCN's Red-List. In Mexico, the queen conch is managed through a minimum fishing size of 200 mm shell length and a fishing quota which usually represents 50% of the adult biomass. The objectives of this study were to determine the intrinsic population growth rate of the queen conch population of Xel-Ha, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and to assess the effects of a regulated fishing impact, simulating the extraction of 50% adult biomass on the population density. We used three different minimum size criteria to demonstrate the effects of minimum catch size on the population density and discuss biological implications. Demographic data was obtained through capture-mark-recapture sampling, collecting all animals encountered during three hours, by three divers, at four different sampling sites of the Xel-Ha inlet. The conch population was sampled each month between 2005 and 2006, and bimonthly between 2006 and 2011, tagging a total of 8,292 animals. Shell length and lip thickness were determined for each individual. The average shell length for conch with formed lip in Xel-Ha was 209.39 ± 14.18 mm and the median 210 mm. Half of the sampled conch with lip ranged between 200 mm and 219 mm shell length. Assuming that the presence of the lip is an indicator for sexual maturity, it can be concluded that many animals may form their lip at greater shell lengths than 200 mm and ought to be considered immature. Estimation of relative adult abundance and densities varied greatly depending on the criteria employed for adult classification. When using a minimum fishing size of 200 mm shell length, between 26.2% and up to 54.8% of the population qualified as adults, which represented a simulated fishing impact of almost one third of the

  19. Animal culture impacts species' capacity to realise climate-driven range shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keith, Sally A.; Bull, Joseph William

    2017-01-01

    Ecological predictions of how species will shift their geographical distributions under climate change generally consider individuals as machines that respond optimally to changing environmental conditions. However, animals frequently make active behavioural decisions based on imperfect information...... about their external environment, potentially mediated by information transmitted through social learning (i.e. culture). Vertical transmission of culture (between generations) might encourage conservative behaviour, constraining the ability of a species to respond, whilst horizontal transmission...... (within generations) can encourage innovation and so facilitate dynamic responses to a changing environment. We believe that the time is right to unite recent advances in ecological modelling and behavioural understanding to explicitly incorporate the influence of animal culture into future predictions...

  20. The impact of electronic cigarettes on the paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-05-01

    To review the impact of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on children. Five electronic databases were searched through 31 December 2013. Studies in English that included data for children younger than 18 years of age were included. In addition, relevant data from articles identified during searches of the e-cigarette literature, relevant state survey data and paediatric voluntary adverse event reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed and included. Use of e-cigarettes by youth is increasing and is not limited to traditional cigarette smokers. Data regarding the reasons for youth e-cigarette initiation and ongoing use are limited. The effects of e-cigarette marketing and the availability of flavoured e-liquids on youth use are unknown. The abuse liability of e-cigarettes in youth is also not known. Unintentional exposures to e-cigarettes and e-liquids have been reported in children. The number of e-cigarette-related reports received by poison centres is increasing. No data are available on secondhand and thirdhand e-cigarette aerosol exposures in children. Data on the impact of e-cigarettes on children are extremely limited. The available data indicate that youth awareness is high and use is increasing rapidly. The extent to which e-cigarette use in youth will result in nicotine dependence and subsequent use of other tobacco products is unknown. e-cigarettes present risks of unintentional nicotine exposure and are potential choking hazards. A greater understanding of the impact of e-cigarettes on children is needed and will be important in the evaluation of the effects of these products on the public health.

  1. Population-level impact of Zimbabwe's National Behavioural Change Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Benedikt, Clemens; Langhaug, Lisa; Copas, Andrew; Mundida, Oscar; Mugurungi, Owen; Watadzaushe, Constancia; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Tambashe, Basile O; Chidiya, Samson; Woelk, Godfrey; Cowan, Frances M

    2014-12-15

    To assess the impact of Zimbabwe's National Behavioural Change Programme (NBCP) on biological and behavioral outcomes. Representative household biobehavioral surveys of 18- to 44-year-olds were conducted in randomly selected enumeration areas in 2007 and 2011 to 2012. We examined program impact on HIV prevalence among young women, nonregular partnerships, condom use with nonregular partners, and HIV testing, distinguishing between highly exposed and low-exposed communities and individuals. We conducted (1) difference-in-differences analyses with communities as unit of analysis and (2) analyses of key outcomes by individual-level program exposure. Four thousand seven hundred seventy-six people were recruited in 2007 and 10,059 in 2011 to 2012. We found high exposure to NBCP in 2011. Prevalence of HIV and reported risky behaviors declined between 2007 and 2011. Community-level analyses showed a smaller decline in HIV prevalence among young women in highly exposed areas (11.0%-10.1%) than low-exposed areas (16.9%-10.3%, P = 0.078). Among young men, uptake of nonregular partners declined more in highly exposed areas (25%-16.8%) than low-exposed areas (21.9%-20.7%, P = 0.055) and HIV testing increased (27.2%-46.1% vs. 31.0%-34.4%, P = 0.004). Individual-level analyses showed higher reported condom use with nonregular partners among highly exposed young women (53% vs. 21% of unexposed counterparts, P = 0.037). We conducted the first impact evaluation of a NBCP and found positive effects of program exposure on key behaviors among certain gender and age groups. HIV prevalence among young women declined but could not be attributed to program exposure. These findings suggest substantial program effects regarding demand creation and justify program expansion.

  2. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  3. Climate change: impact on honey bee populations and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, Y; Navajas, M

    2008-08-01

    The European honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the most economically valuable pollinator of agricultural crops worldwide. Bees are also crucial in maintaining biodiversity by pollinating numerous plant species whose fertilisation requires an obligatory pollinator. Apis mellifera is a species that has shown great adaptive potential, as it is found almost everywhere in the world and in highly diverse climates. In a context of climate change, the variability of the honey bee's life-history traits as regards temperature and the environment shows that the species possesses such plasticity and genetic variability that this could give rise to the selection of development cycles suited to new environmental conditions. Although we do not know the precise impact of potential environmental changes on honey bees as a result of climate change, there is a large body of data at our disposal indicating that environmental changes have a direct influence on honey bee development. In this article, the authors examine the potential impact of climate change on honey bee behaviour, physiology and distribution, as well as on the evolution of the honey bee's interaction with diseases. Conservation measures will be needed to prevent the loss of this rich genetic diversity of honey bees and to preserve ecotypes that are so valuable for world biodiversity.

  4. Cross-sectional survey on the use and impact of the Danish national antibiotic use guidelines for companion animal practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Møller Sørensen, Tina; Lilja, Zenia Littau

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Danish antibiotic use guidelines for companion animal practice were published by the Danish Veterinary Association in 2012. Since then, national surveillance data indicate a 10% reduction in the total use of antibiotics for companion animals, particularly a marked reduction...... in the use of third generation cephalosporins. The aim of the study was to assess if and how the guidelines have impacted diagnostic and antibiotic prescription habits of the users, and to identify user perceived barriers to implementation. Results: An online questionnaire was sent to all 882 members...... cent indicated that the guidelines had influenced their habits in one or more of the areas being investigated, i.e. perioperative use of antibiotics, use of first line antibiotics for the treatment of pyoderma or UTI, and/or use of microbiological diagnostics. Perioperative use of antibiotics for clean...

  5. Incidence and economic impact of rabies in the cattle population of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have

  6. The Impact of an Aging Population in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mercedia Stevenson; Burns, Candace; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2018-03-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of people 65 years of age or older living in the United States is projected to double by 2030 to 72 million adults, representing 20% of the total U.S. Evidence suggests that older Americans are working longer and spending more time on the job than their peers did in previous years. The increased number of older adults working longer is observed not only in the Unites States but also worldwide. There are numerous ramifications associated with the changing demographics and the expanding prevalence of an aging population in the workforce. Dynamics that arise include stereotyping and discrimination, longevity and on-site expert knowledge, variances in workplace behavior, a multigenerational employee pool, chronic disease management, occupational safety, and the application of adaptive strategies to reduce injury occurrences. Occupational health nurses play a pivotal role in implementing best practices for an aging-friendly workplace.

  7. Impact of tobacco control policy on teenager population in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Abascal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the evolution of the prevalence of tobacco use, comparing data obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2007 and 2014 editions. Materials and methods. Data from the World Youth Tobacco Survey 2007 and 2014 were compared. Tobacco control measures implemented in the period under review were also analyzed. Results. Data shows a decrease in 30-day cigarette consumption in population aged 13 to 15 years: from 20.2% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014. No significant differences were found between the sexes. Susceptibility to become a smoker in the next year decreased from 25.8% in 2007 to 16.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The implementation, almost simultaneously, of measures included in WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is an effective strategy to achieve the objectives of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use.

  8. Intervention analysis of power plant impact on fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madenjian, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Intervention analysis was applied to 10 yr (years 1973-1982) of field fish abundance data at the D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, southeastern Lake Michigan. Three log-transformed catch series, comprising monthly observations, were examined for each combination of two species (alewife, Alosa pseudoharenga, or yellow perch, Perca flavescens) and gear (trawl or gill net): catch at the plant discharged transect, catch at the reference transect, and the ratio of plant catch to reference catch. Time series separated by age groups were examined. Based on intervention analysis, no change in the abundance of fish populations could be attributed to plant operation. Additionally, a modification of the intervention analysis technique was applied to investigate trends in abundance at both the plant discharge and reference transects. Significant declines were detected for abundance of alewife adults at both of the transects. Results of the trend analysis support the contention that the alewives have undergone a lakewide decrease in abundance during the 1970s

  9. [Impact of tobacco control policy on teenager population in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal, Winston; Lorenzo, Ana

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence of tobacco use, comparing data obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2007 and 2014 editions. Data from the World Youth Tobacco Survey 2007 and 2014 were compared. Tobacco control measures implemented in the period under review were also analyzed. Data shows a decrease in 30-day cigarette consumption in population aged 13 to 15 years: from 20.2% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014. No significant differences were found between the sexes. Susceptibility to become a smoker in the next year decreased from 25.8% in 2007 to 16.6% in 2014. The implementation, almost simultaneously, of measures included in WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is an effective strategy to achieve the objectives of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use.

  10. Anti-Halal and Anti-Animal Slaughtering Campaigns and Their Impact in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Agus Yusoff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the overall impact of anti-halal and anti-slaughtering campaigns in the context of post-war Sri Lanka. The reemergence of majoritarian ethno-religious anti-minority nationalist forces and their intensified anti-minority hatred and violence have made it challenging for ethno-religious minorities in Sri Lanka to engage in religious norms and duties. This is especially true for the Muslim community. Numerous Islamic fundamentals have been criticized and opposed. Muslims have had to endure threats and acts of violence. These campaigns and violent oppositions, imposed by the Buddhist-nationalist forces, have caused concern for Muslims performing their obligatory religious duties and norms. In Sri Lanka, the Muslim community has been allowed to produce halal food and slaughter animals for human consumption and religious rituals for a long period without disturbance. Unfortunately, retaliation and hatred in the post-civil war era in the country have threatened these rights. Thus, it has become imperative to investigate the motivating factors of the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughtering campaigns and violence, as well as their related impact, which is lacking in the existing literature on ethno-religious politics in the context of Sri Lanka. This study found that the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughtering campaigns and oppositions that have been intensified by the Buddhist nationalist forces were part of anti-Muslim sentiments intended to sabotage the economic pride of Muslims and undermine their religious renaissance. The study also found that these campaigns have been facilitated by the state and that continuous facilitation of the anti-Muslim sentiments and campaigns, including the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughter campaigns, would challenge the country’s economic prosperity and the rebuilding of ethno-religious harmony.

  11. Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts across species and elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. However, few studies have attempted to estimate disease transmission and mortality, survival, and individual species impacts in this distinctive ecosystem. We combined multi-state capture-recapture (longitudinal) models with cumulative age-prevalence (cross-sectional) models to evaluate these patterns in Apapane, Hawai‘i Amakihi, and Iiwi in low-, mid-, and high-elevation forests on the island of Hawai‘i based on four longitudinal studies of 3–7 years in length. We found species-specific patterns of malaria prevalence, transmission, and mortality rates that varied among elevations, likely in response to ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance. Malaria infection was highest at low elevations, moderate at mid elevations, and limited in high-elevation forests. Infection rates were highest for Iiwi and Apapane, likely contributing to the absence of these species in low-elevation forests. Adult malaria fatality rates were highest for Iiwi, intermediate for Amakihi at mid and high elevations, and lower for Apapane; low-elevation Amakihi had the lowest malaria fatality, providing strong evidence of malaria tolerance in this low-elevation population. Our study indicates that hatch-year birds may have greater malaria infection and/or fatality rates than adults. Our study also found that mosquitoes prefer feeding on Amakihi rather than Apapane, but Apapane are likely a more important reservoir for malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Our approach, based on host abundance and infection rates, may be an

  12. I Want More and Better Cells! - An Outreach Project about Stem Cells and Its Impact on the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela Amaral, Sara; Forte, Teresa; Ramalho-Santos, João; Girão da Cruz, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Although science and technology impact every aspect of modern societies, there is still an extensive gap between science and society, which impairs the full exercise of citizenship. In the particular case of biomedical research increased investment should be accompanied by parallel efforts in terms of public information and engagement. We have carried out a project involving the production and evaluation of educational contents focused on stem cells - illustrated newspaper chronicles, radio interviews, a comic book, and animated videos - and monitored their impact on the Portuguese population. The study of the outreach materials in a heterogeneous sample of the population suggests that they are valuable tools to disseminate scientific messages, and that this is especially true for the comic-book format. Furthermore, the data showed that clear and stimulating outreach materials, that are able to teach new concepts and to promote critical thinking, increase engagement in science at different levels, depending on the depth of the concepts involved. Additionally, these materials can influence political, social and personal attitudes toward science. These results, together with the importance attributed to scientific research in stem cells by the population sampled, validates the diffusion of such materials as a significant contribution towards an overall public understanding and engagement in contemporary science, and this strategy should thus be considered in future projects. Regardless, stringent quality control must be implemented in order to efficiently communicate accurate scientific developments, and the public stimulated in terms of finding additional sources of reliable information.

  13. I Want More and Better Cells! – An Outreach Project about Stem Cells and Its Impact on the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela Amaral, Sara; Forte, Teresa; Ramalho-Santos, João; Girão da Cruz, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Although science and technology impact every aspect of modern societies, there is still an extensive gap between science and society, which impairs the full exercise of citizenship. In the particular case of biomedical research increased investment should be accompanied by parallel efforts in terms of public information and engagement. We have carried out a project involving the production and evaluation of educational contents focused on stem cells - illustrated newspaper chronicles, radio interviews, a comic book, and animated videos - and monitored their impact on the Portuguese population. The study of the outreach materials in a heterogeneous sample of the population suggests that they are valuable tools to disseminate scientific messages, and that this is especially true for the comic-book format. Furthermore, the data showed that clear and stimulating outreach materials, that are able to teach new concepts and to promote critical thinking, increase engagement in science at different levels, depending on the depth of the concepts involved. Additionally, these materials can influence political, social and personal attitudes toward science. These results, together with the importance attributed to scientific research in stem cells by the population sampled, validates the diffusion of such materials as a significant contribution towards an overall public understanding and engagement in contemporary science, and this strategy should thus be considered in future projects. Regardless, stringent quality control must be implemented in order to efficiently communicate accurate scientific developments, and the public stimulated in terms of finding additional sources of reliable information. PMID:26222053

  14. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

    2012-01-01

    While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F1 females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

  15. Impacts of Verotoxigenic and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Vtec and Ehec on Animal, Human and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Suwito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verotoxigenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC and EHEC are strains that produce a toxin on the Vero cells in vitro, therefore the toxin called verotoxin. Strain VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from human and various animal species, mainly ruminants and pigs. The prevalence of VTEC in cattle is 35%, milk 10%, cheese 1.5%. In beef meat, pork, poultry, goat and sheep is 3.7, 1.5, 1.5, 2 and 2.5%, respectively. In contrast, the human prevalence in United States, Spain and France 5 – 10, 2.5 and 3.4%, respectively. In Indonesia, nine cases of VTEC were reported by Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital and four out of nine cases were died. The verotoxin also named Shiga toxins (Stx, is active in vivo as a pathogen on the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the gastro intestinal mucosa, kidneys, brain and other tissues of human and piglets. Verotoxin in human, ruminants and piglets causes bloody diarrhea so with ruminants. In the adult ruminants, verotoxin results in clinical signs and they act as asymptomatic carriers of VTEC and EHEC strains but in human, it produced haemorrhagic colitis (HC, haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and thrombocytopenia purpura (TPP. Infection in human by the most famous EHEC strain belongs to the O157:H7 serotype, through faecal contamination or environment of either food of animal origin, or other foodstuffs (fruits and vegetables. Infection from EHEC strains could be prevented by avoiding food of animal origin and unpasteurized milk, and by taking care of food hygiene for comsumption.

  16. The trans-generational impact of population density signals on host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jessica; Ebert, Dieter; Hall, Matthew D

    2016-11-25

    The density of a host population is a key parameter underlying disease transmission, but it also has implications for the expression of disease through its effect on host physiology. In response to higher densities, individuals are predicted to either increase their immune investment in response to the elevated risk of parasitism, or conversely to decrease their immune capacity as a consequence of the stress of a crowded environment. However, an individual's health is shaped by many different factors, including their genetic background, current environmental conditions, and maternal effects. Indeed, population density is often sensed through the presence of info-chemicals in the environment, which may influence a host's interaction with parasites, and also those of its offspring. All of which may alter the expression of disease, and potentially uncouple the presumed link between changes in host density and disease outcomes. In this study, we used the water flea Daphnia magna and its obligate bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, to investigate how signals of high host density impact on host-parasite interactions over two consecutive generations. We found that the chemical signals from crowded treatments induced phenotypic changes in both the parental and offspring generations. In the absence of a pathogen, life-history changes were genotype-specific, but consistent across generations, even when the signal of density was removed. In contrast, the influence of density on infected animals depended on the trait and generation of exposure. When directly exposed to signals of high-density, host genotypes responded differently in how they minimised the severity of disease. Yet, in the subsequent generation, the influence of density was rarely genotype-specific and instead related to ability of the host to minimise the onset of infection. Our findings reveal that population level correlations between host density and infection capture only part of the complex relationship

  17. Impact of social stress in addiction to psychostimulants: what we know from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Maria A; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Miñarro, José; Do Couto, Bruno Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction, most notably cocaine and amphetamine - type stimulants are an important public health problem worldwide. It appears that social factors may influence the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. Several animal models have been developed to study addiction, highlighting drug self-administration (SA) and the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. These models have been modified to accurately reflect the characteristics of drug addiction in its different stages. One factor that clearly plays a major role in addiction is stress, which is a risk factor not only for the initiation, maintenance and escalation of drug consumption, but also for relapse. In animal models, stress for itself can provoke reinstatement of self-administration or CPP. The relationship between stress and addiction is very tight. One example is the close anatomical relationship of some areas that share these two phenomena. It seems obvious to think that the main source of stress in humans is social interaction. The aim of the present review is to gather the current information regarding the role of social stress in the addiction to psychostimulant drugs in animal models. First, we briefly describe the mechanisms by which stress exerts its effects and the basic concepts of addiction. We will try to establish common pathways of stress and addiction, to address later social stress effects on different stages of addiction. Then, we will address pharmacological therapies and preventive factors that counteract the enhancing effects of social stress in addiction. Finally, we will analyze how negative environmental conditions may induce individuals to increased vulnerability to drugs, and how favorable environmental conditions may have protective and curative effects against addiction. In this sense, we also analyze the importance of social interactions and their ability to modulate the different stages of addiction. As a conclusion, and despite the scarcity of

  18. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Nasreen, Z.; Usman, S.; Zahra, N.

    2013-01-01

    Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung) for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors. (author)

  19. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhawat Ali1

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors.

  20. [Population impact of a podiatric school health programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Galván, José; Álvarez-Ruiz, Verónica; Tovaruela-Carrión, Natalia; Mahillo-Durán, Ramón; Gago-Reyes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the work done over the past 12 years in a collaboration between the school communities at various primary and secondary schools and the practical experience managers working in the Preventive and Community Podiatry area of the Podiatry degree at the University of Seville (Spain). The article presents several strategies, which were carried out in the fields of Foot Health for All and Preventive and Community Podiatry as part of the Hermes Research Group (CTS-601) aimed at promoting general foot health. Foot examinations were conducted in a total of 4,630 school pupils, with foot problems being confirmed in 677 of them. Some 7,145 members of the school community were also helped, with these people being reached through educational activities around foot care. The aim of the initiative was to prevent foot damage among children, which could have a harmful impact on their quality of life as adults. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of population and economic growth on carbon emissions in Taiwan using an analytic tool STIRPAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chao Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission has increasingly become an issue of global concern because of climate change. Unfortunately, Taiwan was listed as top 20 countries of carbon emission in 2014. In order to provide appropriate measures to control carbon emission, it appears that there is an urgent need to address how such factors as population and economic growth impact the emission of carbon dioxide in any developing countries. In addition to total population, both the percentages of population living in urban area (i.e., urbanization percentage, and non-dependent population may also serve as limiting factors. On the other hand, the total energy-driven gross domestic production (GDP and the percentage of GDP generated by the manufacturing industries are assessed to see their respective degree of impact on carbon emission. Therefore, based on the past national data in the period 1990–2014 in Taiwan, an analytic tool of Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT was employed to see how well those aforementioned factors can describe their individual potential impact on global warming, which is measured by the total amount of carbon emission into the atmosphere. Seven scenarios of STIRPAT model were proposed and tested statistically for the significance of each proposed model. As a result, two models were suggested to predict the impact of carbon emission due to population and economic growth by the year 2025 in Taiwan.

  2. Impacts of Extreme Flooding on Hydrologic Connectivity and Water Quality in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Implications for Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Moser, H. A.; Christenson, E. C.; Gray, J.; Hedgespeth, M. L.; Jass, T. L.; Lowry, D. S.; Martin, K.; Nichols, E. G.; Stewart, J. R.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought extreme flooding to eastern North Carolina, including record regional flooding along the Lumber River and its tributaries in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Situated in a region dominated by large-scale crop-cultivation and containing some of the highest densities of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and animal processing operations in the U.S., the Lumber River watershed is also home to the Lumbee Tribe of American Indians. Most of the tribe's 60,000+ members live within or immediately adjacent to the 3,000 km2 watershed where they maintain deep cultural and historical connections. The region, however, also suffers from high rates of poverty and large disparities in healthcare, education, and infrastructure, conditions exacerbated by Hurricane Matthew. We summarize ongoing efforts to characterize the short- and long-term impacts of extreme flooding on water quality in (1) low gradient streams and riverine wetlands of the watershed; (2) surficial aquifers, which provide water resources for the local communities, and (3) public drinking water supplies, which derive from deeper, confined aquifers but whose infrastructure suffered widespread damage following Hurricane Matthew. Our results provide mechanistic understanding of flood-related connectivity across multiple hydrologic compartments, and provide important implications for how hydrological natural hazards combine with land use to drive water quality impacts and affect vulnerable populations.

  3. Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate-dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wall, D.H.; Bradford, M.A.; John, M.G.St.; Trofymow, J.A.; Behan-Pelletier, V.; Bignell, D.E.; Dangerfield, J.M.; Parton, W.J.; Rusek, Josef; Voigt, W.; Wolters, V.; Gardel, H.Z.; Ayuke, F. O.; Bashford, R.; Beljakova, O.I.; Bohlen, P.J.; Brauman, A.; Flemming, S.; Henschel, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Jones, T.H.; Kovářová, Marcela; Kranabetter, J.M.; Kutny, L.; Lin, K.-Ch.; Maryati, M.; Masse, D.; Pokarzhevskii, A.; Rahman, H.; Sabará, M.G.; Salamon, J.-A.; Swift, M.J.; Varela, A.; Vasconcelos, H.L.; White, D.; Zou, X.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 11 (2008), s. 2661-2677 ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : climate decomposition index * decomposition * litter Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.876, year: 2008

  4. A New Metric for Quantifying the Relative Impact of Risk Factors on Loss of Working Life Illustrated in a Population of Working Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Lormier, Geoffrey; Harvey, Naomi D; England, Gary C W; Asher, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    In a resource-limited world, organisations attempting to reduce the impact of health or behaviour issues need to choose carefully how to allocate resources for the highest overall impact. However, such choices may not always be obvious. Which has the biggest impact? A large change to a small number of individuals, or a small change to a large number of individuals? The challenge is identifying the issues that have the greatest impact on the population so potential interventions can be prioritised. We addressed this by developing a score to quantify the impact of health conditions and behaviour problems in a population of working guide dogs using data from Guide Dogs, UK. The cumulative incidence of different issues was combined with information about their impact, in terms of reduction in working life, to create a work score. The work score was created at population-level to illustrate issues with the greatest impact on the population and to understand contributions of breeds or crossbreeds to the workforce. An individual work deficit score was also created and means of this score used to illustrate the impact on working life within a subgroup of the population such as a breed, or crossbreed generation. The work deficit scores showed that those removed for behavioural issues had a greater impact on the overall workforce than those removed for health reasons. Additionally trends over time illustrated the positive influence of interventions Guide Dogs have made to improve their workforce. Information highlighted by these scores is pertinent to the effort of Guide Dogs to ensure partnerships are lasting. Recognising that the scores developed here could be transferable to a wide variety of contexts and species, most notably human work force decisions; we discuss possible uses and adaptations such as reduction in lifespan, quality of life and yield in production animals.

  5. A New Metric for Quantifying the Relative Impact of Risk Factors on Loss of Working Life Illustrated in a Population of Working Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Caron-Lormier

    Full Text Available In a resource-limited world, organisations attempting to reduce the impact of health or behaviour issues need to choose carefully how to allocate resources for the highest overall impact. However, such choices may not always be obvious. Which has the biggest impact? A large change to a small number of individuals, or a small change to a large number of individuals? The challenge is identifying the issues that have the greatest impact on the population so potential interventions can be prioritised. We addressed this by developing a score to quantify the impact of health conditions and behaviour problems in a population of working guide dogs using data from Guide Dogs, UK. The cumulative incidence of different issues was combined with information about their impact, in terms of reduction in working life, to create a work score. The work score was created at population-level to illustrate issues with the greatest impact on the population and to understand contributions of breeds or crossbreeds to the workforce. An individual work deficit score was also created and means of this score used to illustrate the impact on working life within a subgroup of the population such as a breed, or crossbreed generation. The work deficit scores showed that those removed for behavioural issues had a greater impact on the overall workforce than those removed for health reasons. Additionally trends over time illustrated the positive influence of interventions Guide Dogs have made to improve their workforce. Information highlighted by these scores is pertinent to the effort of Guide Dogs to ensure partnerships are lasting. Recognising that the scores developed here could be transferable to a wide variety of contexts and species, most notably human work force decisions; we discuss possible uses and adaptations such as reduction in lifespan, quality of life and yield in production animals.

  6. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations’ Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Simmons

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations’ decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1 logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2 factors impacting dog selection; (3 medical requirements; (4 partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5 perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization’s willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements.

  7. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  8. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The health impact of tourism on local and indigenous populations in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2008-09-01

    In the vast Travel Health literature there is still a considerable dearth on tourism's impact on local communities. This review attempts to remedy the situation. Its focus is on potential health impacts on populations living at tourist destinations outside the industrialised world. To facilitate a better understanding of how health is linked to tourism today, a brief overview of the historical and theoretical evolution of tourism is presented. Ecotourism is given special attention as it is perceived as a version of the industry that is more benign on environment and people. After discussing Indigenous Tourism, a variety of potential health implications is outlined. These follow a previously suggested classification of indirect and direct impacts, with the indirect impacts being based on economic, environmental, socio-cultural and, more recently, political impacts, and the direct impacts originating from immediate encounters between tourism and people. Finally, the urgent need for more research is highlighted, and some solutions to minimize health impact are suggested.

  10. Genetic approaches to understanding the population-level impact of wind energy development on migratory bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonhof, Maarten J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Russell, Amy L. [Grand Valley State Univ. Allendale, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. Yet there is little data on bat population sizes and trends to provide context for understanding the consequences of mortality due to wind power development. Using a large dataset of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation for eastern red bats, we demonstrated that: 1) this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population; 2) the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions; and 3) for large populations, genetic diversity measures and at least one coalescent method are insensitive to even very high rates of population decline over long time scales and until population size has become very small. Our data provide important context for understanding the population-level impacts of wind power development on affected bat species.

  11. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

  12. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  13. Representing the acquisition and use of energy by individuals in agent-based models of animal populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibly, RS; Grimm, Volker; Johnston, Alice S.A.

    2013-01-01

    of physiological ecology to identify major issues confronting the modeller and to make recommendations about how energy budgets for use in ABMs should be constructed. Our proposal is that modelled animals forage as necessary to supply their energy needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction....... If there is sufficient energy intake, an animal allocates the energy obtained in the order: maintenance, growth, reproduction, energy storage, until its energy stores reach an optimal level. If there is a shortfall, the priorities for maintenance and growth/reproduction remain the same until reserves fall to a critical...

  14. Integrated analysis for population estimation, management impact evaluation, and decision-making for a declining species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Brian A.; Moore, Clinton; Norton, Terry M.; Maerz, John C.

    2018-01-01

    A challenge for making conservation decisions is predicting how wildlife populations respond to multiple, concurrent threats and potential management strategies, usually under substantial uncertainty. Integrated modeling approaches can improve estimation of demographic rates necessary for making predictions, even for rare or cryptic species with sparse data, but their use in management applications is limited. We developed integrated models for a population of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) impacted by road-associated threats to (i) jointly estimate demographic rates from two mark-recapture datasets, while directly estimating road mortality and the impact of management actions deployed during the study; and (ii) project the population using population viability analysis under simulated management strategies to inform decision-making. Without management, population extirpation was nearly certain due to demographic impacts of road mortality, predators, and vegetation. Installation of novel flashing signage increased survival of terrapins that crossed roads by 30%. Signage, along with small roadside barriers installed during the study, increased population persistence probability, but the population was still predicted to decline. Management strategies that included actions targeting multiple threats and demographic rates resulted in the highest persistence probability, and roadside barriers, which increased adult survival, were predicted to increase persistence more than other actions. Our results support earlier findings showing mitigation of multiple threats is likely required to increase the viability of declining populations. Our approach illustrates how integrated models may be adapted to use limited data efficiently, represent system complexity, evaluate impacts of threats and management actions, and provide decision-relevant information for conservation of at-risk populations.

  15. Carotenoid deposition in plant and animal foods and its impact on bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2017-06-13

    Over the past decades, an enormous body of literature dealing with the natural deposition of carotenoids in plant- and animal-based foods has accumulated. Prominent examples are the large solid-crystalline aggregates in carrots and tomatoes or the lipid-dissolved forms in dairy products and egg yolk. Latest research has identified lipid-dissolved forms in a rare number of plant foods, such as tangerine tomatoes and peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes Kunth). In addition, liquid-crystalline forms were assumed in so-called tubular chromoplasts of numerous fruits, e.g., in papaya, mango, and bell pepper. The bioavailability of carotenoids from fresh and processed foods strongly depends on their genuine deposition form, since their effective absorption to the human organism requires their liberation from the food matrix and subsequent solubilization into mixed micelles in the small intestine. Consequently, a broad overview about the natural array of carotenoid deposition forms should be helpful to better understand and modulate their bioavailability from foods. Furthermore, naturally highly bioavailable forms may provide biomimetic models for the improved formulation of carotenoids in food supplements. Therefore, this review paper presents scientific evidence from human intervention studies associating carotenoid deposition forms with their bioavailability, thus suggesting novel technological and dietary strategies for their enhanced absorption.

  16. Animal models to study the impact of nutrition on the immune system of the transition cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana

    2018-02-01

    The immune system is particularly challenged in transition cows as marked physiological changes occur in this period which are driven by late gestation, partus and onset of lactation. As a consequence, the metabolic and nutritional state of the cow also changes significantly with possible implications for the plasticity and flexibility of the immune system. In order to understand how the balance between metabolism, nutritional status and the immune system is maintained under challenging conditions, such as an infection, various animal models can be used which specifically manipulate the nutritional status through various feeding and management strategies. Such models aim at exploring the immunological response to a challenge under largely varying nutritional and metabolic states. As energy balance (EB) is strongly associated both with the metabolic state and with the immunoreactivity of the cows the manipulation of the EB by either influencing energy intake or energy excretion with milk, or by both, offers model opportunities for studying EB effects on the immune system. For example, assigning cows with a higher body condition score (BCS) at least 6 weeks prior to calving to an energy-dense diet exceeding the energy requirement in combination with a decelerated increase in the concentrate feed proportion post partum was shown to be effective in inducing a ketotic metabolic state under ad libitum feeding conditions. Compared to an adequately managed control group this model allows studying immune responses in the transit period and in dependence on dietary interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulated Impacts of Juvenile Mortality on Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Tate

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We used an age-structured computer model to assess the impact of changes in juvenile mortality on the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon population in the Suwannee River, Florida. We simulated population trends under four levels of annual juvenile mortality (20, 25, 30, and 35%. As the rate of mortality increased, population size decreased, and rates of population growth shifted from positive to negative. Our models indicated that juvenile survival is important to the success of gulf sturgeon populations, and mortality estimates are needed to predict population viability. We suggest that life history studies in estuaries should be conducted, and bycatch rates for commercial fisheries should be quantified to aid in the management and conservation of gulf sturgeon.

  18. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  19. Which Individuals To Choose To Update the Reference Population? Minimizing the Loss of Genetic Diversity in Animal Genomic Selection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia E. Eynard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations.

  20. Which Individuals To Choose To Update the Reference Population? Minimizing the Loss of Genetic Diversity in Animal Genomic Selection Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynard, Sonia E; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P L; Restoux, Gwendal

    2018-01-04

    Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC) strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations. Copyright © 2018 Eynard et al.

  1. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  2. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  3. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.L.; Pollock, K.H.

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds

  4. The evolution of animal societies : An exploration of the effects of population structure, life-history and behavioural plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Why do animals invest time and resources in social interactions and help each other, when the natural world is driven by fierce competition? Cooperation indeed abounds in the natural world, where organisms form societies whose fabric is made by the seemingly selfless actions of individuals. In this

  5. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable,

  6. Impacts of Intelligent Automated Quality Control on a Small Animal APD-Based Digital PET Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Jonathan; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Bergeron, Mélanie; Cadorette, Jules; Arpin, Louis; Lecomte, Roger; Brunet, Charles-Antoine; Fontaine, Réjean

    2016-10-01

    Stable system performance is mandatory to warrant the accuracy and reliability of biological results relying on small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. This simple requirement sets the ground for imposing routine quality control (QC) procedures to keep PET scanners at a reliable optimal performance level. However, such procedures can become burdensome to implement for scanner operators, especially taking into account the increasing number of data acquisition channels in newer generation PET scanners. In systems using pixel detectors to achieve enhanced spatial resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the QC workload rapidly increases to unmanageable levels due to the number of independent channels involved. An artificial intelligence based QC system, referred to as Scanner Intelligent Diagnosis for Optimal Performance (SIDOP), was proposed to help reducing the QC workload by performing automatic channel fault detection and diagnosis. SIDOP consists of four high-level modules that employ machine learning methods to perform their tasks: Parameter Extraction, Channel Fault Detection, Fault Prioritization, and Fault Diagnosis. Ultimately, SIDOP submits a prioritized faulty channel list to the operator and proposes actions to correct them. To validate that SIDOP can perform QC procedures adequately, it was deployed on a LabPET™ scanner and multiple performance metrics were extracted. After multiple corrections on sub-optimal scanner settings, a 8.5% (with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of [7.6, 9.3]) improvement in the CNR, a 17.0% (CI: [15.3, 18.7]) decrease of the uniformity percentage standard deviation, and a 6.8% gain in global sensitivity were observed. These results confirm that SIDOP can indeed be of assistance in performing QC procedures and restore performance to optimal figures.

  7. Impacts of fresh lime juice and peel on atherosclerosis progression in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The main protective role of antioxidants in the progression of atherosclerosis has been shown in some studies. Therefore, this project evaluated the effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm juice and peel on antioxidant activity and atherosclerosis progression in rabbits receiving a hypercholesterolemic diet. METHODS: Forty white New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups. All groups were on hypercholesterolemic diet for two months. While the first group was considered as the hypercholesterolemic control, groups 2 and 3 (intervention groups received 5 ml/day lime juice and 1 g/day dried lime peel powder, respectively. Group 4 was fed a normal diet (normal control. Before and after the study, weight was measured and a fasting blood specimen was taken from the rabbits. Serum lipids analyses and antioxidant activity evaluations were then performed. The rabbits’ aorta and coronary arteries were separated and the presence of fatty streaks was studied. RESULTS: Comparing to the hypercholesterolemic control group (-25.2 ± 7.0, only the plasma total antioxidant capacity change was significantly more in rabbits supplemented with lime juice (16.3 ± 14.7 and peel (8.6 ± 7.1 (P = 0.008. The presence of fatty streaks in coronary arteries and aorta of the intervention groups [juice (0.2 ± 0.01; peel (0.0 ± 0.00] was significantly decreased compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group (1.2 ± 0.4 (P < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, Citrus aurantifolia peel and juice increase plasma antioxidant capacity in rabbits, and can thus prevent or decelerate the process of atherogenesis. However, lime peel is more effective than lime juice.   Keywords: Animal, Atherosclerosis, Atherogenic Diet, Fatty Streak, Intervention, Lime    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  8. Assessing the impact of power plant mortality on the compensatory reserve of fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, C.P.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is presented to quantify the concepts of compensation and compensatory reserve in exploited fish populations. The technique was used to examine the impact of power plant mortality on a hypothetical striped bass population. Power plant mortality had a more severe impact on the compensation ratio and compensatory reserve for an exploited stock. The technique can be applied to determine a critical compensation ratio which could serve as a standard against which additional sources of mortality, such as those caused by power plants, could be measured

  9. [The Impact of Medical And Non-Medical Factors on Population Mortality: Environment Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorodskaia, I V; Semenov, V Yu; Boitsov, S A

    2017-09-01

    The second analysis was implemented concerning results of study evaluating impact of environmental factors on indices of population mortality on the basis of hard copy and digital publications in Russian and English in 1990-2016. It is established that air pollution by tiny particles of different origin results in a reliable increasing of risk of premature death independently of level of economic development and geographical positioning of country. In European countries this occurrence conditions shortage of of life-span on 8-13 months. The industrial factors are a cause of about 30% of involuntary occupational traumas. The limitation of access to clear drinking water specific to developing countries conditions death of more than 3 million people annually. The impact of waves of cold and heat on mortality depends on particular region, their duration and intensity, level of economic development of country, social economic conditions and age of particular groups of population and is estimated in 1-16% of additional deaths. The global climate warming is associated with decreasing of level of mortality. the negative impact of environment is increased by residing in underdeveloped regions, lower social economic status, lower level of education, population density, shortcomings of architecture and public space, the factors of environment play a significant role in population mortality. As regards their impact an uncertainty exists: it is quite difficult to separate an impact of single factor. So, different approaches are applied in different studies.

  10. Evaluation of long term radiological impact on population close to remediated uranium mill tailings storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerouanton, David; Delgove, Laure

    2008-01-01

    A methodology is elaborated in order to evaluate the long term radiological impact of remediated uranium mill tailings storage. Different scenarios are chosen and modelled to cover future evolution of the tailings storages. Radiological impact is evaluated for different population such as adults and children living in the immediate vicinity or directly on the storage, road workers or walkers on the storage. Equation and methods are detailed. (author)

  11. Development and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacteria in animals and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Shewli; O'Dea, Mark; Barton, Mary; Kirkwood, Roy; Lee, Terence; Abraham, Sam

    2017-02-28

    Gram-negative bacteria are known to cause severe infections in both humans and animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Gram-negative bacteria is a major challenge in the treatment of clinical infections globally due to the propensity of these organisms to rapidly develop resistance against antimicrobials in use. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria possess highly efficient mechanisms through which the AMR can be disseminated between pathogenic and commensal bacteria of the same or different species. These unique traits of Gram-negative bacteria have resulted in evolution of Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials. The evergrowing resistance issue has not only resulted in limitation of treatment options but also led to increased treatment costs and mortality rates in humans and animals. With few or no new antimicrobials in production to combat severe life-threatening infections, AMR has been described as the one of the most severe, long-term threats to human health. Aside from overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in humans, another factor that has exacerbated the emergence of AMR in Gram-negative bacteria is the veterinary use of antimicrobials that belong to the same classes considered to be critically important for treating serious life-threatening infections in humans. Despite the fact that development of AMR dates back to before the introduction of antimicrobials, the recent surge in the resistance towards all available critically important antimicrobials has emerged as a major public health issue. This review thus focuses on discussing the development, transmission and public health impact of AMR in Gram-negative bacteria in animals. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Safety in Serbian animal source food industry and the impact of hazard analysis and critical control points: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašević, I.; Đekić, I.

    2017-09-01

    There is a significant lack of HACCP-educated and/or HACCP-highly trained personnel within the Serbian animal source food workforces and veterinary inspectors, and this can present problems, particularly in hazard identification and assessment activities. However, despite obvious difficulties, HACCP benefits to the Serbian dairy industry are widespread and significant. Improving prerequisite programmes on the farms, mainly through infrastructural investments in milk collectors and transportation vehicles on one hand, and increasing hygiene awareness of farmers through training on the other hand has improved the safety of milk. The decline in bacterial numbers on meat contact surfaces, meat handlers’ hands and cooling facilities presents strong evidence of improved process hygiene and justifies the adoption of HACCP in Serbian meat establishments. Apart from the absence of national food poisoning statistics or national foodborne disease databases, the main obstacle to fully recognising the impact of HACCP on the safety of animal source food in Serbia is the lack of research regarding the occurrence of chemical and/or physical hazards interrelated with its production.

  13. Cross-sectional survey on the use and impact of the Danish national antibiotic use guidelines for companion animal practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Møller Sørensen, Tina; Lilja, Zenia Littau

    2017-01-01

    of the Danish Small Animal Veterinary Association in October 2015. The survey was completed by 151 veterinarians. Respondents most frequently consulted the recommendations on skin and urinary tract infections (UTI), and users generally reported a high degree of adherence to the recommendations. Sixty-five per...... cent indicated that the guidelines had influenced their habits in one or more of the areas being investigated, i.e. perioperative use of antibiotics, use of first line antibiotics for the treatment of pyoderma or UTI, and/or use of microbiological diagnostics. Perioperative use of antibiotics for clean...... surgeries was uncommon, irrespective of whether respondents had consulted the relevant recommendations or not. On the contrary, significant differences in the prescribing habits between guideline users and non-users were observed for pyoderma and UTI, suggesting an impact of the guidelines towards more...

  14. Impact of wolf (Canis lupus on animal husbandry in an Apennine province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Russo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Predation has always been an important problem in extensive sheep farms, causing serious economic losses to the farmers. In the Province of Lucca, the presence of reproductive wolf packs has already been confirmed in natural reserves, but occasional signs of presence of the predator have been reported also in neighbouring areas. The present research has been carried out in this Province (between the Orecchiella Natural Reserve and the medium Serchio Valley, in order to obtain more complete information on the location of the wolf (with transects, wolfhowling and snow-tracking, and to verify the real impact and risk factors of predation on livestock (by means of on-farm surveys carried out in 42 semi-extensive farms in this area. The presence of wolf was confirmed in the study area with a minimum of four adult individuals and at least one pup: this pack lives around the peaks of the Apennines in the municipalities covered by this investigation. A growing conflict between the wolf and the sheep and goat farms was observed: since 2007 there have been 25 attacks and three farms can be considered subject to chronic predation. The major risk factors are high altitude, large flock size and lack of fences and of guardian dogs. An accurate knowledge of wolf presence and the identification of the farms mostly at risk can be useful for future planning of interventions aimed at prevention and support of farmers, in order to mitigate the conflict caused by predation.

  15. Comparison between a sire model and an animal model for genetic evaluation of fertility traits in Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... the results suggest that the animal model, rather than the sire model, should be used for genetic evaluation of fertility traits......Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... 1995 to 2004. The traits in the analysis were days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, days from first to last insemination, number of inseminations per conception, and nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The correlations between sire estimated breeding value...

  16. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-08-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. delta(15)N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. δ 15 N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis.

  18. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  19. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Rowe, Christopher L.; Eisenreich, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  20. Modelling the impact of toxic and disturbance stress on white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; Lenders, H J Rob; Foppen, Ruud P B; Hendriks, A Jan

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have related breeding success and survival of sea eagles to toxic or non-toxic stress separately. In the present investigation, we analysed single and combined impacts of both toxic and disturbance stress on populations of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), using an analytical single-species model. Chemical and eco(toxico)logical data reported from laboratory and field studies were used to parameterise and validate the model. The model was applied to assess the impact of ∑PCB, DDE and disturbance stress on the white-tailed eagle population in The Netherlands. Disturbance stress was incorporated through a 1.6% reduction in survival and a 10-50% reduction in reproduction. ∑PCB contamination from 1950 up to 1987 was found to be too high to allow the return of white-tailed eagle as a breeding species in that period. ∑PCB and population trends simulated for 2006-2050 suggest that future population growth is still reduced. Disturbance stress resulted in a reduced population development. The combination of both toxic and disturbance stress varied from a slower population development to a catastrophical reduction in population size, where the main cause was attributed to the reduction in reproduction of 50%. Application of the model was restricted by the current lack of quantitative dose-response relationships between non-toxic stress and survival and reproduction. Nevertheless, the model provides a first step towards integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple stressors on white-tailed eagle populations.

  1. Zebrafish: a model animal for analyzing the impact of environmental pollutants on muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Rossignol, R; Brèthes, D

    2013-01-01

    Mercury, anthropogenic release of uranium (U), and nanoparticles constitute hazardous environmental pollutants able to accumulate along the aquatic food chain with severe risk for animal and human health. The impact of such pollutants on living organisms has been up to now approached by classical toxicology in which huge doses of toxic compounds, environmentally irrelevant, are displayed through routes that never occur in the lifespan of organisms (for instance injecting a bolus of mercury to an animal although the main route is through prey and fish eating). We wanted to address the effect of such pollutants on the muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics under realistic conditions, at unprecedented low doses, using an aquatic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio. We developed an original method to measure brain mitochondrial respiration: a single brain was put in 1.5 mL conical tube containing a respiratory buffer. Brains were gently homogenized by 13 strokes with a conical plastic pestle, and the homogenates were immediately used for respiration measurements. Skinned muscle fibers were prepared by saponin permeabilization. Zebrafish were contaminated with food containing 13 μg of methylmercury (MeHg)/g, an environmentally relevant dose. In permeabilized muscle fibers, we observed a strong inhibition of both state 3 mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity after 49 days of MeHg exposure. We measured a dramatic decrease in the rate of ATP release by skinned muscle fibers. Contrarily to muscles, brain mitochondrial respiration was not modified by MeHg exposure although brain accumulated twice as much MeHg than muscles. When zebrafish were exposed to 30 μg/L of waterborne U, the basal mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was decreased in muscles after 28 days of exposure. This was due to an increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability. The impact of a daily ration of food containing gold nanoparticles of two sizes (12 and

  2. The impact of national policies on animal disease reporting within selected Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2018-04-20

    A semi-systematic literature review of national policies was carried out in relation to surveillance and disease reporting in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). It also analysed the animal disease reporting structures in Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of those reporting structures were examined in relation to how they impacted the detection and management of animal diseases in PICTs. Field missions collected information on animal disease reporting structures and these were discussed in detail with country officials and documented. The findings from the literature review indicated that there is very little policy to support work in surveillance and disease reporting within national government structures of the countries studied. This increases the potential for disease transmission and the introduction of exotic diseases as the efficiency of disease reporting is low. The findings from the SWOT analysis of the reporting structures indicated that there were commonalities across the countries studied, i.e. reporting structures were long with multiple legs that were not functioning properly and this was worsened when positions were vacant in the reporting structure. The hierarchical nature of the reporting structure also reduced reporting efficiency as reports took a longer time to reach decision makers at the top of the structure. High officer turnover and the shortage of veterinarians in the countries studied also affected the efficiency of disease reporting as most in-county officials were inexperienced and could not recognise disease signs and there were no veterinarians to supervise them. Existing reporting structures need to be reviewed to remove duplication and shorten the chain. However, this could override existing command structures and would need to be documented and awareness created with the officers involved. There also needs to be more collaboration

  3. Climate change and potential impacts on bristol bay sockeye salmon populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific research has shown that climate change has already caused detectable changes to ecosystems throughout Alaska. As warming is predicted to continue, it is likely to lead to changes in marine and freshwater aquatic ecosystems and impact sockeye salmon populations in Brist...

  4. Effects of reduced-impact logging and forest physiognomy on bat populations of lowland Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Presley; Michael R. Willig; Wunderle Jr. Joseph M.; Luis Nélio. Saldanha

    2008-01-01

    1.As human population size increases, demand for natural resources will increase. Logging pressure related to increasing demands continues to threaten remote areas of Amazonian forest. A harvest protocol is required to provide renewable timber resources that meet consumer needs while minimizing negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Reduced-impact...

  5. Wired: impacts of increasing power line use by a growing bird population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisco; Encarnação, Vitor; Rosa, Gonçalo; Gilbert, Nathalie; Infante, Samuel; Costa, Julieta; D'Amico, Marcello; Martins, Ricardo C.; Catry, Inês

    2017-02-01

    Power lines are increasingly widespread across many regions of the planet. Although these linear infrastructures are known for their negative impacts on bird populations, through collision and electrocution, some species take advantage of electricity pylons for nesting. In this case, estimation of the net impact of these infrastructures at the population level requires an assessment of trade-offs between positive and negative impacts. We compiled historical information (1958-2014) of the Portuguese white stork Ciconia ciconia population to analyze long-term changes in numbers, distribution range and use of nesting structures. White stork population size increased 660% up to 12000 breeding pairs between 1984 and 2014. In the same period, the proportion of nests on electricity pylons increased from 1% to 25%, likely facilitated by the 60% increase in the length of the very high tension power line grid (holding the majority of the nests) in the stork’s distribution range. No differences in breeding success were registered for storks nesting on electricity pylons versus other structures, but a high risk of mortality by collision and electrocution with power lines was estimated. We discuss the implications of this behavioral change, and of the management responses by power line companies, both for stork populations and for managers.

  6. Reproductive success is predicted by social dynamics and kinship in managed animal populations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul J. Newman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kin and group interactions are important determinants of reproductive success in many species. Their optimization could, therefore, potentially improve the productivity and breeding success of managed populations used for agricultural and conservation purposes. Here we demonstrate this potential using a novel approach to measure and predict the effect of kin and group dynamics on reproductive output in a well-known species, the meerkat Suricata suricatta. Variation in social dynamics predicts 30% of the individual variation in reproductive success of this species in managed populations, and accurately forecasts reproductive output at least two years into the future. Optimization of social dynamics in captive meerkat populations doubles their projected reproductive output. These results demonstrate the utility of a quantitative approach to breeding programs informed by social and kinship dynamics. They suggest that this approach has great potential for improvements in the management of social endangered and agricultural species.

  7. Four types of interference competition and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations and communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Andersen, Ken Haste; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how four types of interference competition - which alternatively affect foraging, metabolism, survival, and reproduction - impact the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations. Even though all four types of interference competition reduce population biomass, interference...

  8. Using Satellite Data for the Characterization of Local Animal Reservoir Populations of Hantaan Virus on the Weihe Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius are the main host for the Hantaan virus (HTNV, the cause of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in central China. It has been shown that host population density is associated with pathogen dynamics and disease risk. Thus, a higher population density of A. agrarius in an area might indicate a higher risk for an HFRS outbreak. Here, we surveyed the A. agrarius population density between 2005 and 2012 on the Weihe Plain, Shaanxi Province, China, and used this monitoring data to examine the relationships between the dynamics of A. agrarius populations and environmental conditions of crop-land, represented by remote sensing based indicators. These included the normalized difference vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, net photosynthesis (PsnNet, gross primary productivity, and land surface temperature. Structural equation modeling (SEM was applied to detect the possible causal relationship between PsnNet, A. agrarius population density and HFRS risk. The results showed that A. agrarius was the most frequently captured species with a capture rate of 0.9 individuals per hundred trap-nights, during 96 months of trapping in the study area. The risk of HFRS was highly associated with the abundance of A. agrarius, with a 1–5-month lag. The breeding season of A. agrarius was also found to coincide with agricultural activity and seasons with high PsnNet. The SEM indicated that PsnNet had an indirect positive effect on HFRS incidence via rodents. In conclusion, the remote sensing-based environmental indicator, PsnNet, was highly correlated with HTNV reservoir population dynamics with a 3-month lag (r = 0.46, p < 0.01, and may serve as a predictor of potential HFRS outbreaks.

  9. Food-chain analysis (lead and cadmium) in free-living animal populations in the Saar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, P.

    1983-02-01

    The populations and substrates involved in food webs are integrators of the burdening of areas and ecosystems. After several years of experiences my study group started continuous populations and residue analyses in Saarland (Aromatics, Heavy metals). It was shown that with the knowledge of the ecological variables, the analyses of soil types, of earth-worms (Lumbricidae), ground beetles (Carabidae), blackbirds (Turdus meruala), honey-bees (Apis mellifica), goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes) carried out at the same site yielded expecially useful area-related results. Heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd) in leaves of Populus nigra, Physa acuta, Erprobdella octoculata, Asellus aquaticus, earthworms, Carabids, goshawks and foxes are presented.

  10. A cat's tale: the impact of genetic restoration on Florida panther population dynamics and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2013-05-01

    substantially higher risk of extinction if the genetic restoration initiative had not been implemented. 6. Our results, along with those reporting increases in population size and improvements in biomedical correlates of inbreeding depression, provide strong evidence that genetic restoration substantially contributed to the observed increases in the Florida panther population. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  11. The impact of accelerating faster than exponential population growth on genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppell, Mark; Boehnke, Michael; Zöllner, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    Current human sequencing projects observe an abundance of extremely rare genetic variation, suggesting recent acceleration of population growth. To better understand the impact of such accelerating growth on the quantity and nature of genetic variation, we present a new class of models capable of incorporating faster than exponential growth in a coalescent framework. Our work shows that such accelerated growth affects only the population size in the recent past and thus large samples are required to detect the models' effects on patterns of variation. When we compare models with fixed initial growth rate, models with accelerating growth achieve very large current population sizes and large samples from these populations contain more variation than samples from populations with constant growth. This increase is driven almost entirely by an increase in singleton variation. Moreover, linkage disequilibrium decays faster in populations with accelerating growth. When we instead condition on current population size, models with accelerating growth result in less overall variation and slower linkage disequilibrium decay compared to models with exponential growth. We also find that pairwise linkage disequilibrium of very rare variants contains information about growth rates in the recent past. Finally, we demonstrate that models of accelerating growth may substantially change estimates of present-day effective population sizes and growth times.

  12. Pre-operative assessment of relationship between inferior dental nerve canal and mandibular impacted third molar in Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shujaat

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Our sample population most commonly exhibited horizontally angulated class I position B impactions of the mandible. The position of the ID canal significantly influenced the type of impaction and bone contact.

  13. Which individuals to choose to update the reference population? Minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in animal genomic selection programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eynard, Sonia E.; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P.L.; Restoux, Gwendal

    2018-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a

  14. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  15. The Potential Impact of Animal Science Research on Global Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health: A Landscape Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Jack; Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C

    2017-03-01

    High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1 ) preconception, 2 ) gestation and pregnancy, 3 ) lactation and suckling, and 4 ) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1 ) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2 ) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3 ) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4 ) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations

  16. The Potential Impact of Animal Science Research on Global Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health: A Landscape Review12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1) preconception, 2) gestation and pregnancy, 3) lactation and suckling, and 4) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations in global

  17. Population growth is limited by nutritional impacts on pregnancy success in endangered Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Samuel K; Lundin, Jessica I; Ayres, Katherine; Seely, Elizabeth; Giles, Deborah; Balcomb, Kenneth; Hempelmann, Jennifer; Parsons, Kim; Booth, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Resident killer whale population (Orcinus orca) was listed as endangered in 2005 and shows little sign of recovery. These fish eating whales feed primarily on endangered Chinook salmon. Population growth is constrained by low offspring production for the number of reproductive females in the population. Lack of prey, increased toxins and vessel disturbance have been listed as potential causes of the whale's decline, but partitioning these pressures has been difficult. We validated and applied temporal measures of progesterone and testosterone metabolites to assess occurrence, stage and health of pregnancy from genotyped killer whale feces collected using detection dogs. Thyroid and glucocorticoid hormone metabolites were measured from these same samples to assess physiological stress. These methods enabled us to assess pregnancy occurrence and failure as well as how pregnancy success was temporally impacted by nutritional and other stressors, between 2008 and 2014. Up to 69% of all detectable pregnancies were unsuccessful; of these, up to 33% failed relatively late in gestation or immediately post-partum, when the cost is especially high. Low availability of Chinook salmon appears to be an important stressor among these fish-eating whales as well as a significant cause of late pregnancy failure, including unobserved perinatal loss. However, release of lipophilic toxicants during fat metabolism in the nutritionally deprived animals may also provide a contributor to these cumulative effects. Results point to the importance of promoting Chinook salmon recovery to enhance population growth of Southern Resident killer whales. The physiological measures used in this study can also be used to monitor the success of actions aimed at promoting adaptive management of this important apex predator to the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Population growth is limited by nutritional impacts on pregnancy success in endangered Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available The Southern Resident killer whale population (Orcinus orca was listed as endangered in 2005 and shows little sign of recovery. These fish eating whales feed primarily on endangered Chinook salmon. Population growth is constrained by low offspring production for the number of reproductive females in the population. Lack of prey, increased toxins and vessel disturbance have been listed as potential causes of the whale's decline, but partitioning these pressures has been difficult. We validated and applied temporal measures of progesterone and testosterone metabolites to assess occurrence, stage and health of pregnancy from genotyped killer whale feces collected using detection dogs. Thyroid and glucocorticoid hormone metabolites were measured from these same samples to assess physiological stress. These methods enabled us to assess pregnancy occurrence and failure as well as how pregnancy success was temporally impacted by nutritional and other stressors, between 2008 and 2014. Up to 69% of all detectable pregnancies were unsuccessful; of these, up to 33% failed relatively late in gestation or immediately post-partum, when the cost is especially high. Low availability of Chinook salmon appears to be an important stressor among these fish-eating whales as well as a significant cause of late pregnancy failure, including unobserved perinatal loss. However, release of lipophilic toxicants during fat metabolism in the nutritionally deprived animals may also provide a contributor to these cumulative effects. Results point to the importance of promoting Chinook salmon recovery to enhance population growth of Southern Resident killer whales. The physiological measures used in this study can also be used to monitor the success of actions aimed at promoting adaptive management of this important apex predator to the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost: observations from the floating population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjun Zhao

    Full Text Available China has the world's largest floating (migrant population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population.A telephone survey was conducted in 2012. 644 subjects were surveyed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted on insurance coverage and medical cost.82.2% of the surveyed subjects were covered by basic insurance at hometowns with hukou or at residences. Subjects' characteristics including age, education, occupation, and presence of chronic diseases were associated with insurance coverage. After controlling for confounders, insurance coverage was not significantly associated with gross or out-of-pocket medical cost.For the floating population, health insurance coverage needs to be improved. Policy interventions are needed so that health insurance can have a more effective protective effect on cost.

  20. Health Insurance Coverage and Its Impact on Medical Cost: Observations from the Floating Population in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjun; Kang, Bowei; Liu, Yawen; Li, Yichong; Shi, Guoqing; Shen, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Background China has the world's largest floating (migrant) population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population. Methods A telephone survey was conducted in 2012. 644 subjects were surveyed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted on insurance coverage and medical cost. Results 82.2% of the surveyed subjects were covered by basic insurance at hometowns with hukou or at residences. Subjects' characteristics including age, education, occupation, and presence of chronic diseases were associated with insurance coverage. After controlling for confounders, insurance coverage was not significantly associated with gross or out-of-pocket medical cost. Conclusion For the floating population, health insurance coverage needs to be improved. Policy interventions are needed so that health insurance can have a more effective protective effect on cost. PMID:25386914

  1. Association of Animal and Plant Proteins Intake with Hypertension in Iranian Adult Population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence regarding the relationship between dietary proteins intake and blood pressure (BP, but they had inconsistent results. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the association between different kinds of protein intake (animal and plant protein and BP. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. We performed a cross-sectional study among 9660 randomly selected Iranian adults aged ≥19-year-old that they were selected from three large Iranian regions in 2007. A simplified validated 48-item-food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake including all kinds of protein. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured in duplicate by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Multivariable regressions were applied to assess the relationship between protein intake and BP levels and the presence of hypertension (HTN. Results: More frequent consumption of animal, plant, and total protein intake were inversely associated with BP in a crude model (P < 0.001; however, after adjustment for potential confounders this relationship remained only for plant protein (P = 0.04. The risk of HTN occurrence decreased in the highest quintile of total and plant protein consumption by 19% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; confidence interval [CI]: [0.65–0.96]; P for trend = 0.004 and 18% (OR = 0.82; [CI: (0.67–0.94]; P for trend = 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: More frequent protein intake, especially plant protein consumption was inversely associated with BP and risk of HTN among Iranian adults.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Brivio

    Full Text Available The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex: during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation. Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid

  3. Bayesian modeling to assess populated areas impacted by radiation from Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2017-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing spatio-temporal big data are increasingly important sources of information about populations that are impacted by natural disasters. Citizen science can be used to fill gaps in disaster monitoring data, in addition to inferring human exposure and vulnerability to extreme environmental impacts. As a response to the 2011 release of radiation from Fukushima, Japan, the Safecast project began collecting open radiation data which grew to be a global dataset of over 70 million measurements to date. This dataset is spatially distributed primarily where humans are located and demonstrates abnormal patterns of population movements as a result of the disaster. Previous work has demonstrated that Safecast is highly correlated in comparison to government radiation observations. However, there is still a scientific need to understand the geostatistical variability of Safecast data and to assess how reliable the data are over space and time. The Bayesian hierarchical approach can be used to model the spatial distribution of datasets and flexibly integrate new flows of data without losing previous information. This enables an understanding of uncertainty in the spatio-temporal data to inform decision makers on areas of high levels of radiation where populations are located. Citizen science data can be scientifically evaluated and used as a critical source of information about populations that are impacted by a disaster.

  4. Human migration is important in the international spread of exotic Salmonella serovars in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Bradshaw, S D; How, R A; Smith, D W

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken

  6. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume I. Entrainment-impact estimates for six fish populations inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreman, J.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Vaughn, D.S.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Kumar, K.D.; Kirk, B.L.; Van Winkle, W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the estimation of the direct (or annual) entrainment impact of power plants on populations of striped bass, white perch, Alosa spp. (blueback herring and alewife), American shad, Atlantic tomcod, and bay anchovy in the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment impact results from the killing of fish eggs, larvae, and young juveniles that are contained in the cooling water cycled through a power plant. An Empirical Transport Model (ETM) is presented as the means of estimating a conditional entrainment mortality rate (defined as the fraction of a year class which would be killed due to entrainment in the absence of any other source of mortality). Most of this volume is concerned with the estimation of several parameters required by the ETM: physical input parameters (e.g., power-plant withdrawal flow rates); the longitudinal distribution of ichthyoplankton in time and space; the duration of susceptibility of the vulnerable organisms; the W-factors, which express the ratios of densities of organisms in power plant intakes to densities of organisms in the river; and the entrainment mortality factors (f-factors), which express the probability that an organism will be killed if it is entrained. Once these values are obtained, the ETM is used to estimate entrainment impact for both historical and projected conditions

  7. Quantifying the detrimental impacts of land-use and management change on European forest bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S I Wade

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of changing forest management practices in Europe are poorly understood despite European forests being highly managed. Furthermore, the effects of potential drivers of forest biodiversity decline are rarely considered in concert, thus limiting effective conservation or sustainable forest management. We present a trait-based framework that we use to assess the detrimental impact of multiple land-use and management changes in forests on bird populations across Europe. Major changes to forest habitats occurring in recent decades, and their impact on resource availability for birds were identified. Risk associated with these changes for 52 species of forest birds, defined as the proportion of each species' key resources detrimentally affected through changes in abundance and/or availability, was quantified and compared to their pan-European population growth rates between 1980 and 2009. Relationships between risk and population growth were found to be significantly negative, indicating that resource loss in European forests is an important driver of decline for both resident and migrant birds. Our results demonstrate that coarse quantification of resource use and ecological change can be valuable in understanding causes of biodiversity decline, and thus in informing conservation strategy and policy. Such an approach has good potential to be extended for predictive use in assessing the impact of possible future changes to forest management and to develop more precise indicators of forest health.

  8. The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Caroline W; Gilbert, Marius; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine

    2017-01-26

    models can, therefore, be improved by including both population density and urbanization which have both been shown to have significant impact on malaria risk in this study.

  9. Impacts of hydro-electric reservoir on populations of caribou and grizzly bear in southern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, K.

    1987-02-01

    The impacts of a hydroelectric reservoir on populations of caribou and grizzly bear were studied north of Revelstoke, British Columbia. Information collected for 3 years prior to flooding was compared with data collected in 1984-85. The reservoir did not obstruct movement of caribou and animals did not attempt crossing during periods when ice conditions were hazardous. Evidence suggested that predator avoidance was the most important determinant of habitats used in spring. The cleared reservoir was an important habitat for caribou in the spring because of the abundant food and security from predators it offered. A potential decline in caribou recruitment was noted in 1985 coincident with reservoir flooding. Mitigative recommendations include clearing logged areas adjacent to formerly used reservoir habitats and maintaining movement corridors of mature timber between seasonal habitats. Inconclusive evidence suggested that the reservoir was a barrier to grizzly movement. Spring movements of grizzly were mainly related to finding good feeding sites. Avalanche paths in side drainages were the principal habitats used. Cleared areas did provide an abundance of food comparable to naturally disturbed habitats. The main impact of flooding was to shift habitat use of bears from relatively secure areas in the reservoir to high-risk habitats on the highway and power line rights-of-way. Mitigative recommendations include reducing the attractiveness of those rights-of-way and maintaining spring ranges in tributary valleys by careful development planning. 14 refs., 7 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Impacts of hydro-electric reservoir on populations of caribou and grizzly bear in southern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, K.

    1987-02-01

    The impacts of a hydroelectric reservoir on populations of caribou and grizzly bear were studied north of Revelstoke, British Columbia. Information collected for 3 years prior to flooding was compared with data collected in 1984-85. The reservoir did not obstruct movement of caribou and animals did not attempt crossing during periods when ice conditions were hazardous. Evidence suggested that predator avoidance was the most important determinant of habitats used in spring. The cleared reservoir was an important habitat for caribou in the spring because of the abundant food and security from predators it offered. A potential decline in caribou recruitment was noted in 1985 coincident with reservoir flooding. Mitigative recommendations include clearing logged areas adjacent to formerly used reservoir habitats and maintaining movement corridors of mature timber between seasonal habitats. Inconclusive evidence suggested that the reservoir was a barrier to grizzly movement. Spring movements of grizzly were mainly related to finding good feeding sites. Avalanche paths in side drainages were the principal habitats used. Cleared areas did provide an abundance of food comparable to naturally disturbed habitats. The main impact of flooding was to shift habitat use of bears from relatively secure areas in the reservoir to high-risk habitats on the highway and power line rights-of-way. Mitigative recommendations include reducing the attractiveness of those rights-of-way and maintaining spring ranges in tributary valleys by careful development planning. 14 refs., 7 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. A Measure of the Potential Impact of Hospital Community Health Activities on Population Health and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kahn, Linda M; Cunningham, Brooke A; Malcolm, Jan K; Potthoff, Sandra

    2017-12-13

    Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health. Develop and apply a measure to categorize and estimate the potential impact of hospitals' community health activities on population health and equity. We propose a scale of potential impact on population health and equity, based on the cliff analogy developed by Jones and colleagues. The scale is applied to the 317 activities reported in the community health needs assessment implementation plan reports of 23 health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area in 2015. Using a 5-point ordinal scale, we assigned a score of potential impact on population health and equity to each community health activity. A majority (50.2%) of health care organizations' community health activities are classified as addressing social determinants of health (level 4 on the 5-point scale), though very few (5.4%) address structural causes of health equity (level 5 on the 5-point scale). Activities that score highest on potential impact fall into the topic categories of "community health and connectedness" and "healthy lifestyles and wellness." Lower-scoring activities focus on sick or at-risk individuals, such as the topic category of "chronic disease prevention, management, and screening." Health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul metropolitan area vary substantially in the potential impact of their aggregated community health activities. Hospitals can be significant contributors to investment in upstream community health programs. This article provides a scale that can be used not only by hospitals but by other health care and public health organizations to better align their community health strategies, investments, and partnerships with programming and policies that address the foundational causes of population health and equity within the communities they serve.

  12. Attitudes of Local Population of Tourism Impacts on Destination Sustainability – Case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidora Marković

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Space as a resource is intensively used both by the tourism and the local community. Therefore the state of the tourism development must be measured trough time, along with attitudes of local population, to determine the impacts and the pressure that can continues tourism development cause. In the 1990s, tourism becomes the motor of the development of Croatia, which has resulted in continues increase of the number of tourist beds. On the other hand population of the Croatia is experiencing the demographic extinction. To explain pressures of the tourism development on the decreasing community, tourism function index was used in comparison with the research of the attitudes of local population considering tourism impacts. The main objective of this paper is to determine the correlation between the increase in the number of tourists and changes in the life of local population, which arises from the tourism activities in destinations, as well as from the ratio of the number of residents and tourists. The attitudes analysis has shown high level of the negative impacts of tourism in seven Adriatic counties, while in continental parts of Croatia tourism is seen as an activity with mostly positive effects. Still tourism has generally positive impact on the destination and is seen as desirable activity, even in areas with relatively high tourism function index. Accordingly, to enhance the positive impacts it is essential to diminish extremely big differences in tourism development between too developed coastal areas and mainly neglected continental part of the country and to reduce seasonality of tourism, trough sustainable management and diversification of tourism offer in accordance with spatial disparities.

  13. Identifying the Relevant Local Population for Environmental Impact Assessments of Mobile Marine Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine B. H. Chabanne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments must be addressed at a scale that reflects the biological organization for the species affected. It can be challenging to identify the relevant local wildlife population for impact assessment for those species that are continuously distributed and highly mobile. Here, we document the existence of local communities of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters of Perth, Western Australia, where major coastal developments have been undertaken or are proposed. Using sighting histories from a 4-year photo-identification study, we investigated fine-scale, social community structure of dolphins based on measures of social affinity, and network (Half-Weight Index—HWI, preferred dyadic association tests, and Lagged Association Rates—LAR, home ranges, residency patterns (Lagged Identification Rates—LIR, and genetic relatedness. Analyses revealed four socially and spatially distinct, mixed-sex communities. The four communities had distinctive social patterns varying in strength, site fidelity, and residency patterns. Overlap in home ranges and relatedness explained little to none of the association patterns between individuals, suggesting complex local social structures. The study demonstrated that environmental impact assessments for mobile, continuously distributed species must evaluate impacts in light of local population structure, especially where proposed developments may affect core habitats of resident communities or sub-populations. Here, the risk of local extinction is particularly significant for an estuarine community because of its small size, limited connectivity with adjacent communities, and use of areas subject to intensive human use. In the absence of information about fine-scale population structure, impact assessments may fail to consider the appropriate biological context.

  14. Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnack, Sonja; Springer, Svenja; Pittavino, Marta; Grimm, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Background Euthanasia of pets has been described by veterinarians as ?the best and the worst? of the profession. The most commonly mentioned ethical dilemmas veterinarians face in small animal practice are: limited treatment options due to financial constraints, euthanizing of healthy animals and owners wishing to continue treatment of terminally ill animals. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia of small animals. This include...

  15. Impact of Population Growth and Climate Change on the Freshwater Resources of Lamu Island, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Okello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demand for freshwater is rising with factors, such as population growth, land use change and climate variations, rendering water availability in the future uncertain. Groundwater resources are being increasingly exploited to meet this growing demand. The aim of this study is to identify the influence of population growth induced by land use change and climate change on the future state of freshwater resources of Lamu Island in Kenya where a major port facility is under construction. The results of this study show that the “no industrial development” population scenario (assuming the port was not constructed would be expected to reach ~50,000 people by 2050, while the projected population upon completion is expected to reach 1.25 million in the same year when the Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor Program (LAPSSET port reaches its full cargo-handling capacity. The groundwater abstraction in 2009 was 0.06 m3 daily per capita, while the demand is expected to raise to 0.1 m3 by 2050 according to the “LAPSSET development” projection. The modelling results show that the Shela aquifer in Lamu, which is the main source of water on the island, will not experience stress by 2065 for the “no industrial development” population scenario, whereas for the “LAPSSET development projection” population scenario, it will occur sooner (between 2020 and 2028. The modelling results show that the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP climate change scenarios will have a smaller impact on the effective water volume reserves than Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES for the “no industrial development”, while the impact is expected to be similar for the “LAPSSET development”, suggesting that population growth exacerbated by land use change will be a more significant driving force than climate change in affecting freshwater availability.

  16. Assessment of annual intake of thorium from animal origin food consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai; Prabhath, R.K.; Rao, D.D.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thorium ( 232 Th) concentration was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in animal origin food groups widely consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of Tamil Nadu, India. The annual intake was evaluated based on market basket study method for female and male population for different age groups. Annual committed effective dose due to 232 Th intake from the ingestion was evaluated for different age groups of individuals, using the ICRP ingestion dose coefficients and annual consumption rate obtained from National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB). Annual intake values of 232 Th for adult members of the population were obtained from food items as, fish from 0.2 to 0.8; flesh food (meat, beef and chicken), from 0.03 to 0.12; and milk from 0.2 to 0.3 Bq year -1 . The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotope in these food groups was 0.2 µSv year -1 for male adult population. (author)

  17. Integration of silicon-based neural probes and micro-drive arrays for chronic recording of large populations of neurons in behaving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Frédéric; Aarts, Arno; Holzhammer, Tobias; Ruther, Patrick; Borghs, Gustaaf; McNaughton, Bruce; Kloosterman, Fabian

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how neuronal assemblies underlie cognitive function is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. It poses the technical challenge to monitor the activity of populations of neurons, potentially widely separated, in relation to behaviour. In this paper, we present a new system which aims at simultaneously recording from a large population of neurons from multiple separated brain regions in freely behaving animals. The concept of the new device is to combine the benefits of two existing electrophysiological techniques, i.e. the flexibility and modularity of micro-drive arrays and the high sampling ability of electrode-dense silicon probes. Newly engineered long bendable silicon probes were integrated into a micro-drive array. The resulting device can carry up to 16 independently movable silicon probes, each carrying 16 recording sites. Populations of neurons were recorded simultaneously in multiple cortical and/or hippocampal sites in two freely behaving implanted rats. Current approaches to monitor neuronal activity either allow to flexibly record from multiple widely separated brain regions (micro-drive arrays) but with a limited sampling density or to provide denser sampling at the expense of a flexible placement in multiple brain regions (neural probes). By combining these two approaches and their benefits, we present an alternative solution for flexible and simultaneous recordings from widely distributed populations of neurons in freely behaving rats.

  18. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan, E-mail: wyn3615@126.com; Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  19. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions

  20. Fasciolosis humana y animal en el Perú: impacto en la economía de las zonas endémicas Human and animal fascioliasis in Peru: impact in the economy of endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Espinoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica es el agente etiológico de la fasciolosis en el Perú. La fasciolosis es un problema de salud pública por la alta prevalencia de la infección humana, especialmente niños y un problema veterinario de importancia por las altas tasas de infección del ganado en la mayoría de regiones del País. La fasciolosis es endémica en la sierra y la costa, y esporádica en la región amazónica. La infección humana se reporta en 18 regiones y la animal en 21 de las 24 regiones del Perú. La transmisión humana ocurre en poblaciones andinas rurales dedicadas a la agricultura, pero hay un creciente número de casos en ciudades. Diferentes situaciones epidemiológicas de la infección humana se presentan: i Regiones con casos no autóctonos, donde la infección es por consumo de vegetales contaminados traídos de zonas endémicas; ii Regiones con poblados hipo- y mesoendémicos, transmisión local y prevalencia Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis in Peru; the disease is an important public health problem by the high prevalence of the human infection affecting mainly children and a major veterinary problem by the high rates of infected livestock. The human disease is endemic in the Sierra and the Coast but sporadic in the Amazonia, and reported in 18 Departments, while the animal infection in 21 of 24 Departments of Peru. Transmission occurs in Andean rural populations engaged in agriculture, but recently an increasing number of people became infected in the cities. The epidemiological situation in Peru includes i Departments with non-autochtonous cases, where infection occurs by consumption of contaminated vegetables brought from endemic areas or infection is acquired by visit to endemic areas; ii Departments with hypoendemic and mesoendemic villages, where transmission occurs by ingest of contaminated vegetables and prevalence ≤10%; and iii Departments with hyper-endemic villages with human prevalence >10 %, with

  1. A New Approach to Assess Lifetime Dietary Patterns Finds Lower Consumption of Animal Foods with Aging in a Longitudinal Analysis of a Health-Oriented Adventist Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marcia C. T.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Mashchak, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Life-course diet patterns may impact risk of disease, but little is known about dietary trends with aging. In a retrospective longitudinal analysis we estimated lifetime intake of animal products and adherence to vegetarian dietary patterns among 51,082 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) subjects using data from a reliable life-course dietary (meats, dairy, eggs) questionnaire. Results showed a marked tendency to consume fewer animal products (in total) in older years and to reduce consumption of meat, poultry and fish, but not eggs or dairy. Among the 29% of elderly subjects who during their lifetime kept the same dietary pattern (LTS) were: LTS-vegans (1.1%), LTS-lacto-ovo vegetarians (31.2%), LTS-pesco vegetarians (0.49%), LTS-semi vegetarians (3.7%), and LTS-non-vegetarians (63.5%). Among the 71% of switchers were “Converters” (59.7%) who moved towards and “Reverters” (9.1%) who moved away from vegetarian diets, and Multiverters (31.2%), who had moved in both directions. LTS-non-vegetarians, and also reverters, were more overweight and showed a less healthy lifestyle than others. We conclude that the dietary patterns are dynamic with strong trends to reduce animal foods and to adopt more vegetarian patterns with aging. The disease experience of subjects with different lifetime dietary patterns can be compared. PMID:29027960

  2. A system for evaluating the impact of noise pollution on the population's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressane, Adriano; Mochizuki, Patricia Satie; Caram, Rosana Maria; Roveda, José Arnaldo Frutuoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a support system for the evaluation of noise pollution, applied to the central urban area of Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data were obtained from noise measurements and interviews with the population, generating the following indicators: equivalent sound level (Leq ), traffic noise index (LTNI ), and a participatory diagnosis (Dp ), integrated through a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The proposed system allowed classifying the measurement points according to the degree of impact of noise pollution on the population's health (IPS ) in the study area. Impact was considered significant in 31.4% of the measurement points and very significant in 62.9%. The FIS can be adjusted to local conditions, allowing generalization and thus also supporting noise pollution evaluation and respective environmental noise management in other geographic areas.

  3. Impact of stochasticity in immigration and reintroduction on colonizing and extirpating populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakaruna, Harshana; Potapov, Alexei; Lewis, Mark

    2013-05-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of populations at the edge of extinction is needed to manage both invasive and extirpating populations. Immigration can govern the population dynamics when the population levels are low. It increases the probability of a population establishing (or reestablishing) before going extinct (EBE). However, the rate of immigration can be highly fluctuating. Here, we investigate how the stochasticity in immigration impacts the EBE probability for small populations in variable environments. We use a population model with an Allee effect described by a stochastic differential equation (SDE) and employ the Fokker-Planck diffusion approximation to quantify the EBE probability. We find that, the effect of the stochasticity in immigration on the EBE probability depends on both the intrinsic growth rate (r) and the mean rate of immigration (p). In general, if r is large and positive (e.g. invasive species introduced to favorable habitats), or if p is greater than the rate of population decline due to the demographic Allee effect (e.g., effective stocking of declining populations), then the stochasticity in immigration decreases the EBE probability. If r is large and negative (e.g. endangered populations in unfavorable habitats), or if the rate of decline due to the demographic Allee effect is much greater than p (e.g., weak stocking of declining populations), then the stochasticity in immigration increases the EBE probability. However, the mean time for EBE decreases with the increasing stochasticity in immigration with both positive and negative large r. Thus, results suggest that ecological management of populations involves a tradeoff as to whether to increase or decrease the stochasticity in immigration in order to optimize the desired outcome. Moreover, the control of invasive species spread through stochastic means, for example, by stochastic monitoring and treatment of vectors such as ship-ballast water, may be suitable strategies

  4. Modeling the impacts of hunting on the population dynamics of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un

  5. Impact of stochasticity in immigration and reintroduction on colonizing and extirpating populations

    KAUST Repository

    Rajakaruna, Harshana

    2013-05-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of populations at the edge of extinction is needed to manage both invasive and extirpating populations. Immigration can govern the population dynamics when the population levels are low. It increases the probability of a population establishing (or reestablishing) before going extinct (EBE). However, the rate of immigration can be highly fluctuating. Here, we investigate how the stochasticity in immigration impacts the EBE probability for small populations in variable environments. We use a population model with an Allee effect described by a stochastic differential equation (SDE) and employ the Fokker-Planck diffusion approximation to quantify the EBE probability.Wefind that, the effect of the stochasticity in immigration on the EBE probability depends on both the intrinsic growth rate (r) and the mean rate of immigration (p). In general, if r is large and positive (e.g. invasive species introduced to favorable habitats), or if p is greater than the rate of population decline due to the demographic Allee effect (e.g., effective stocking of declining populations), then the stochasticity in immigration decreases the EBE probability. If r is large and negative (e.g. endangered populations in unfavorable habitats), or if the rate of decline due to the demographic Allee effect is much greater than p (e.g., weak stocking of declining populations), then the stochasticity in immigration increases the EBE probability. However, the mean time for EBE decreases with the increasing stochasticity in immigration with both positive and negative large r. Thus, results suggest that ecological management of populations involves a tradeoff as to whether to increase or decrease the stochasticity in immigration in order to optimize the desired outcome. Moreover, the control of invasive species spread through stochastic means, for example, by stochastic monitoring and treatment of vectors such as ship-ballast water, may be suitable strategies given

  6. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The impact of natural transformation on adaptation in spatially structured bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradigaravand, Danesh; Engelstädter, Jan

    2014-06-20

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural transformation and the formation of highly structured populations in bacteria are interconnected. In spite of growing evidence about this connection, little is known about the dynamics of natural transformation in spatially structured bacterial populations. In this work, we model the interdependency between the dynamics of the bacterial gene pool and those of environmental DNA in space to dissect the effect of transformation on adaptation. Our model reveals that even with only a single locus under consideration, transformation with a free DNA fragment pool results in complex adaptation dynamics that do not emerge in previous models focusing only on the gene shuffling effect of transformation at multiple loci. We demonstrate how spatial restriction on population growth and DNA diffusion in the environment affect the impact of transformation on adaptation. We found that in structured bacterial populations intermediate DNA diffusion rates predominantly cause transformation to impede adaptation by spreading deleterious alleles in the population. Overall, our model highlights distinctive evolutionary consequences of bacterial transformation in spatially restricted compared to planktonic bacterial populations.

  8. SOME COMMENTS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF POPULATION AGEING ON FISCAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Cristina NUTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the impact that demographic changes have had during the 1995-2013 fiscal indicators such as the level of public expenditure, the total/social budget deficit or public debt in Romania. Population aging affects a number of categories of expenditures (social protection expenditure, the health care expenditure or long-term care, and government revenue, through many mechanisms.

  9. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Italian population: A reassessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S; Sogni, R [CRR-PMP-SFA, Azienda USL, Piacenza (Italy); Tarroni, G [ENEA-AMB-IRP, Bologna (Italy); Tabet, E; Rogani, A [National Inst. of Health, Rome (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    In 1987 a preliminary evaluation of the radiological impact of Chernobyl accident on Italian population was performed. This evaluation took into account both the first year activity levels measured in various matrices and models for the time behavior of radioactive contamination. It comes out that the dose assessment which was then performed is in good agreement with the present evaluation, with some differences that should be noticed. 12 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-08-19

    One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research.

  11. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Italian population: A reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, S.; Sogni, R.; Tarroni, G.; Tabet, E.; Rogani, A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1987 a preliminary evaluation of the radiological impact of Chernobyl accident on Italian population was performed. This evaluation took into account both the first year activity levels measured in various matrices and models for the time behavior of radioactive contamination. It comes out that the dose assessment which was then performed is in good agreement with the present evaluation, with some differences that should be noticed. 12 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  12. [The effect of the multiyear agricultural use of animal husbandry wastes on the infectious morbidity of the local population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Tarabarova, S B; Dan'ko, O P; Kikot', V I

    1995-01-01

    The report presents results of study of relationship between the longterm practice of utilization of waste matter from livestock industry (solid, liquid portions of manure, redundant active silt) in the crop-growing of the steppe, forest-steppe zones as well as of those of woodlands in Ukraine, on the incidence of acute infective diseases of the intestine in the community. The soil of farm lands was found out to be affected by an extensive bacterial contamination due to the above wastes being utilized on a wide scale. The degrees of risk of acute intestinal infection morbility in population areas located in those zones having utilization fields, are significantly higher than beyond their bounderies. Significant direct relationship between the size of the utilization fields and the incidence of acute intestinal infection in the community was established.

  13. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Henn Birgit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5 μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]. TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements.

  14. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-03-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated with second-generation immigration was 0.70%. Highest cumulative incidence (CI=20.23%; 95% CI=18.10-22.62) was found in male offspring of 2 parents with schizophrenia. Cumulative incidences for male offspring or female offspring of a parent with schizophrenia were 9.53% (95% CI=7.71-11.79), and 4.89%, (95% CI 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches and seek to achieve higher predictive power on the individual level and higher population impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Validity and applicability of a video-based animated tool to assess mobility in elderly Latin American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Oliveira, Bruna Silva; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Rejeski, W Jack; Marsh, Anthony P; Ip, Edward H; Barnard, Ryan T; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2014-10-01

    To assess the reliability and the validity of Portuguese- and Spanish-translated versions of the video-based short-form Mobility Assessment Tool in assessing self-reported mobility, and to provide evidence for the applicability of these videos in elderly Latin American populations as a complement to physical performance measures. The sample consisted of 300 elderly participants (150 from Brazil, 150 from Colombia) recruited at neighborhood social centers. Mobility was assessed with the Mobility Assessment Tool, and compared with the Short Physical Performance Battery score and self-reported functional limitations. Reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations among mobility assessment tools and health, and sociodemographic variables. A significant gradient of increasing Mobility Assessment Tool score with better physical function was observed for both self-reported and objective measures, and in each city. Associations between self-reported mobility and health were strong, and significant. Mobility Assessment Tool scores were lower in women at both sites. Intraclass correlation coefficients of the Mobility Assessment Tool were 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.90-0.97) in Brazil and 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.91) in Colombia. Mobility Assessment Tool scores were lower in Manizales than in Natal after adjustment by Short Physical Performance Battery, self-rated health and sex. These results provide evidence for high reliability and good validity of the Mobility Assessment Tool in its Spanish and Portuguese versions used in Latin American populations. In addition, the Mobility Assessment Tool can detect mobility differences related to environmental features that cannot be captured by objective performance measures. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Contribution to the economic impact assessment of policy options to regulate animal cloning for food production with an economic simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Dillen; Emanuele Ferrari; Pascal Tillie; George Philippidis; Sophie Helaine

    2013-01-01

    The EU is currently evaluating different policy options towards the use of cloning or products derived from cloned animals in the food chain. This study presents a first attempt to quantify the likely effects of different policy scenarios on international trade and EU domestic production. In the context of the Impact Asessment process the JRC was requested to simulate via a modelling study the economic impact of selected policy options. Based on a literature review and the specific constra...

  17. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  18. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Kirk, B.L.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1982-02-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses of the magnitude and biological significance of the impingement of white perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Station and other Hudson River power plants. Included in these analyses were evaluations of: (1) two independent lines of evidence relating to the magnitude of impingement impacts on the Hudson River white perch population; (2) the additional impact caused by entrainment of white perch; (3) data relating to density-dependent growth among young-of-the-year white perch; (4) the feasibility of performing population-level analyses of impingement impacts on the white perch populations of Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River; and (5) the feasibility of using simple food chain and food web models to evaluate community-level effects of impingement and entrainment. Estimated reductions in the abundances of the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes, caused by impingement and entrainment, were high enough that the possibility of adverse long-term effects cannot be excluded.

  19. The impact of population growth on environment: the debate heats up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1992-02-01

    A proposed framework, which was introduced at the 1989 meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, included political constraints as well as population growth as a proximate cause with potentially important impacts on the environment in Paul and Ann Ehrlich's well-known PAT equation. PAT limitations are identified as the 1.2 billion people caught in the debt-poverty trap, less developed countries' balance of payments deficits, and "distortionary factors" that undermined economic incentives and contributed to mismanagement of resources. Such factors could be keeping farm prices low and have an impact on deterring use of environmentally sound traditional agricultural practices. Mismanagement of public lands occurs when large commercial enterprises or large scale mechanization displace population onto marginal or less productive lands. Intergroup warfare is a new form impacting on the environment. In Burma loggers are authorized to clear cut large tracts of teak forests in order to ferret out Karen guerrillas. Over 15 million refugees were thus displaced and forced to live in encampments that require trees for shelter, firewood for survival, and overgrazing of livestock. Social and economic environments are also undermined by "dependency" factors such as trade protectionism, brain drain, and limited foreign aid. The Group of 77 Non-Aligned Developing Countries proposed that discussions of the links between population and the environment be omitted from the agenda of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development. Basic clarifications are needed to distinguish ultimate versus proximate factors and current versus future concerns. The debate ignores distribution patterns, migration, or changing age structures. The debate blames unjustifiably rapid population growth as the ultimate cause of global environmental degradation and links population growth to a host of other social problems such as famine and refugees, while ignoring civil unrest

  20. What are the benefits of cognitive enhancers for Alzheimer's Disease: use of Population Impact Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller Richard F

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to quantify the population impact of prescribing cholinesterase inhibitors to slow the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and to compare with the benefit of treating hypertension to prevent the onset of AD. Methods Literature review to ascertain the prevalence of AD, benefits of interventions, analysis of local and national surveys to measure the current use of interventions in the relevant population and application of the relevant findings to calculate Population Impact Measures. The Number of Events Prevented in a Population (NEPP by the intervention over a defined time period is calculated for a UK urban population in one Local Authority (population size 217,000. Results Treatment of all eligible patients with mild to moderate AD with Cholinesterase Inhibitors would prevent cognitive deterioration (measured by ADAS – cog scale in 123.6 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI 82.3, 169.1, 16.4 (95% CI 2.1, 31.2 would show a mild improvement (4 points or more on the ADAS – cog scale and 2.6 (95% CI 0.2, 5.8 would show an improvement of 7 points or more over a period of 6 months. This would require the treatment of 406 patients with Cholinesterase Inhibitors. Increasing from the current treatment rate of 46% of eligible patients to 'best practice' level would prevent cognitive deterioration in 66.8 (95% CI 44.0, 92.6, 8.99 (95% CI 1.2, 16.8 and 1.4 (95% CI 0.11, 3.2 would improve by 4 and 7 points respectively on the ADAS – cog scale over 6 months. This would require the treatment of an extra 187 patients with Cholinesterase Inhibitors beyond current practice, at an additional annual direct drug cost of £187,000. Improving the treatment of hypertension from current practice by 20% could prevent 8.2 (95% CI 2.3, 16.8 incident cases of AD in the next year. This would require the treatment of an extra 2711 patients with antihypertensive drugs. Conclusion Population Impact Measures are a new method to

  1. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    , the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...

  2. Impact of tillage, plant population and mulches on phenological characters of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, B.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, H.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Peshawar, using open pollinated maize variety Azam in RCB design having 3 factors viz., tillage, maize populations and mulches with split-split plot arrangements. Tillage levels (zero and conventional) were assigned to the main plots, populations (90000, 60000 and 30000 plants ha/sup -1/) to sub-plots and four types of mulches (weeds mulch, black plastic mulch, white plastic mulch and mungbean as living mulch), a hand weeding and a weedy check were allotted to sub-sub plots, respectively. Data were recorded on days to tasseling, days to silking, days to maturity, leaf area of maize plant-1 (cm/sub 2/) and plant height (cm). Tillage affected leaf area of maize, where zero tillage resulted lower leaf area of 4094 cm/sub 2/ compared to conventional tillage (4722 cm/sub 2/). Different levels of plant populations affected all the physiological parameters. Days to tasseling, silking and maturity were more in higher plant population as compared to medium and lower plant population. Similarly, minimum leaf area plant-1 was recorded in higher plant population (3894 cm/sub 2/) than medium and lower plant population of 4398 and 4932 cm/sub 2/, respectively. Maximum plant height was recorded in hand weeding treatment (173 cm). However, it was statistically at par with black plastic mulch (171 cm), followed by weeds mulch (162 cm) and white plastic mulch (161 cm) as compared to weedy check (152 cm). Based on two years study it is suggested that even if tillage options and plant populations are a part of the weed management program, it should not be used as a sole management tool, as both have a negative impact on the phenological parameters of maize which subsequently affected the final yield and must be integrated and supplemented with other control methods. (author)

  3. Keloids: Assessment of effects and psychosocial- impacts on subjects in a black African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keloids are vexatious swelling on the skin or the conjuctiva. The effects and impacts of these lesions have not been assessed in a keloid endemic environment like Nigeria. Aims: The purpose of this study is to assess the psychosocial impact as well as effects of keloids on the subjects in a black African population where lesions are commonly seen. Methods: This is a prospective study which assesses the impacts of keloid on keloid patients. Consented patients who presented to the Plastic Surgery Clinic of the Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria were recruited into the study. A set of questionnaires were administered to all consented patients. The administered questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS version 10. Results: One hundred and thirty one patients were involved in this study. They comprised of 61 males and 70 females. Most (96.8% of them had the keloid lesion for more than one year. Sixteen (12.2% of the patients felt that keloids negatively affect their works, 64 (48.9% of the patients felt stigmatized by keloids, 28 (56.0% of them who had lesions in conspicuous parts while 24 (46.2% had lesions in non-conspicuous parts. Females (59.1% felt stigmatized than males. Only 47 (35.8% of the patients believed that keloid swelling limit their social interaction. Conclusion: Keloids do not appear to have significant negative impacts on keloid patients in a keloid-endemic community like a black African population.

  4. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guancheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despite the fact that the impacts of intention to abandon land management were not significant, we can ignore this preference in the workforce. The combination of changes in the composition of the working-age households indicates that 58.53 percent of the agricultural producers will likely quit. This is a potential threat for the future of agricultural development. We also found that elderly farmers who do not intend to abandon farming had higher agricultural output compared to other farmers. This indicates that the adverse effects of changes in the agricultural population age result more from the agricultural output of older farmers who intend to give up farming. This intention adversely affected other elements and reduced investment. Therefore, various forms of training should increase efforts to cultivate modern professional farmers and policies should be simultaneously developed to increase agricultural production levels.

  5. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  6. Population-Wide Impact of Non-Hip Non-Vertebral Fractures on Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach; Bliuc, Dana; van Geel, Tineke; Adachi, Jonathan D; Berger, Claudie; van den Bergh, Joop; Eisman, John A; Geusens, Piet; Goltzman, David; Hanley, David A; Josse, Robert G; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Kovacs, Christopher S; Langsetmo, Lisa; Prior, Jerilynn C; Nguyen, Tuan V; Center, Jacqueline R

    2017-09-01

    Data on long-term consequences of non-hip non-vertebral (NHNV) fractures, accounting for approximately two-thirds of all fragility fractures, are scanty. Our study aimed to quantify the population-wide impact of NHNV fractures on mortality. The national population-based prospective cohort study (Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study) included 5526 community dwelling women and 2163 men aged 50 years or older followed from July 1995 to September 2013. Population impact number was used to quantify the average number of people for whom one death would be attributable to fracture and case impact number to quantify the number of deaths out of which one would be attributable to a fracture. There were 1370 fragility fractures followed by 296 deaths in women (mortality rate: 3.49; 95% CI, 3.11 to 3.91), and 302 fractures with 92 deaths in men (5.05; 95% CI, 4.12 to 6.20). NHNV fractures accounted for three-quarters of fractures. In women, the population-wide impact of NHNV fractures on mortality was greater than that of hip and vertebral fractures because of the greater number of NHNV fractures. Out of 800 women, one death was estimated to be attributable to a NHNV fracture, compared with one death in 2000 women attributable to hip or vertebral fracture. Similarly, out of 15 deaths in women, one was estimated to be attributable to a NHNV fracture, compared with one in over 40 deaths for hip or vertebral fracture. The impact of forearm fractures (ie, one death in 2400 women and one out of 42 deaths in women attributable to forearm fracture) was similar to that of hip, vertebral, or rib fractures. Similar, albeit not significant, results were noted for men. The study highlights the important contribution of NHNV fractures on mortality because many NHNV fracture types, except for the most distal fractures, have serious adverse consequences that affect a significant proportion of the population. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society

  7. Waterfowl populations are resilient to immediate and lagged impacts of wildfires in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Schmutz, Joel A.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Lindberg, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. Wildfires are the principal disturbance in the boreal forest, and their size and frequency are increasing as the climate warms. Impacts of fires on boreal wildlife are largely unknown, especially for the tens of millions of waterfowl that breed in the region. This knowledge gap creates significant barriers to the integrative management of fires and waterfowl, leading to fire policies that largely disregard waterfowl. 2. Waterfowl populations across the western boreal forest of North America have been monitored annually since 1955 by the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey (BPOP), widely considered the most extensive wildlife survey in the world. Using these data, we examined impacts of forest fires on abundance of two waterfowl guilds – dabblers and divers. We modelled waterfowl abundance in relation to fire extent (i.e. amount of survey transect burned) and time since fire, examining both immediate and lagged fire impacts. 3. From 1955 to 2014, >1100 fires in the western boreal forest intersected BPOP survey transects, and many transects burned multiple times. Nonetheless, fires had no detectable impact on waterfowl abundance; annual transect counts of dabbler and diver pairs remained stable from the pre- to post-fire period. 4. The absence of fire impacts on waterfowl abundance extended from the years immediately following the fire to those more than a decade afterwards. Likewise, the amount of transect burned did not influence waterfowl abundance, with similar pair counts from the pre- to post-fire period for small (1–20% burned), medium (21–60%) and large (>60%) burns. 5. Policy implications. Waterfowl populations appear largely resilient to forest fires, providing initial evidence that current policies of limited fire suppression, which predominate throughout much of the boreal forest, have not been detrimental to waterfowl populations. Likewise, fire-related management actions, such as prescribed burning or targeted suppression

  8. Increasing weather-related impacts on European population under climate and demographic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Cescatti, Alessandro; Batista e Silva, Filipe; Kovats, Sari R.; Feyen, Luc

    2017-04-01

    Over the last three decades the overwhelming majority of disasters have been caused by weather-related events. The observed rise in weather-related disaster losses has been largely attributed to increased exposure and to a lesser degree to global warming. Recent studies suggest an intensification in the climatology of multiple weather extremes in Europe over the coming decades in view of climate change, while urbanization continues. In view of these pressures, understanding and quantifying the potential impacts of extreme weather events on future societies is imperative in order to identify where and to what extent their livelihoods will be at risk in the future, and develop timely and effective adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategies. Here we show a comprehensive assessment of single- and multi-hazard impacts on the European population until the year 2100. For this purpose, we developed a novel methodology that quantifies the human impacts as a multiplicative function of hazard, exposure and population vulnerability. We focus on seven of the most impacting weather-related hazards - including heat and cold waves, wildfires, droughts, river and coastal floods and windstorms - and evaluated their spatial and temporal variations in intensity and frequency under a business-as-usual climate scenario. Long-term demographic dynamics were modelled to assess exposure developments under a corresponding middle-of-the-road scenario. Vulnerability of humans to weather extremes was appraised based on more than 2300 records of weather-related disasters. The integration of these elements provides a range of plausible estimates of extreme weather-related risks for future European generations. Expected impacts on population are quantified in terms of fatalities and number of people exposed. We find a staggering rise in fatalities from extreme weather events, with the projected death toll by the end of the century amounting to more than 50 times the present number of people

  9. Efficiency or equity? Simulating the impact of high-risk and population intervention strategies for the prevention of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Platt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing both efficiency and equity are core considerations for population health. These considerations can result in tension in population health science as we seek to improve overall population health while achieving equitable health distributions within populations. Limited work has explored empirically the consequences of different population health intervention strategies on the burden of disease and on within- and between-group differences in disease. To address this gap, we compared the impact of four simulated interventions using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In particular, we focus on assessing how population and high-risk primary prevention and population and high-risk secondary interventions efforts to reduce smoking behavior influence systolic blood pressure (SBP and hypertension, and how such strategies influence inequalities in SBP by income. The greatest reductions in SBP mean and standard deviation resulted from the population secondary prevention. High-risk primary and secondary prevention and population secondary prevention programs all yielded substantial reductions in hypertension prevalence. The effect of population primary prevention did little to decrease population SBP mean and standard deviation, as well as hypertension prevalence. Both high-risk strategies had a larger impact in the low-income population, leading to the greatest narrowing the income-related gap in disease. The population prevention strategies had a larger impact in the high-income population. Population health approaches must consider the potential impact on both the whole population and also on those with different levels of risk for disease within a population, including those in under-represented or under-served groups.

  10. Stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its animal partner and the nutritional environment throughout a fly population's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téfit, Mélisandre A; Gillet, Benjamin; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Leulier, François

    2018-04-01

    In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process. Adult flies constantly ingest and excrete microbes from and onto their feeding substrate, which are then transmitted to the next generation developing within this shared habitat. We wanted to analyze the potential changes in the bacterial community during its reciprocal transfer between the two compartments of the niche (i.e. the fly and the diet). To address this question, we used a diverse, wild-derived microbial community and analyzed its relationship with the fly population and the nutritive substrate in a given habitat. Here we show that the community was overall well maintained upon transmission to a new niche, to a new fly population and to their progeny, illustrating the stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its fly partner and the nutritional environment. These results highlight the preponderant role of the nutritional substrate in the dynamics of Drosophila/microbiota interactions, and the need to fully integrate this variable when performing such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ancestry dynamics in a South American population: The impact of gene flow and preferential mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2017-07-01

    European ancestry in many populations in Latin America at autosomal loci is often higher than that from X-linked loci indicating more European male ancestry and more Amerindian female ancestry. Generally, this has been attributed to more European male gene flow but could also result from an advantage to European mating or reproductive success. Population genetic models were developed to investigate the dynamics of gene flow and mating or reproductive success. Using estimates of autosomal and X-chromosome European ancestry, the amount of male gene flow or mating or reproductive advantage for Europeans, or those with European ancestry, was estimated. In a population from Antioquia, Colombia with an estimated 79% European autosomal ancestry and an estimated 69% European X-chromosome ancestry, about 15% male gene flow from Europe or about 20% mating or reproductive advantage of Europeans over Amerindians resulted in these levels of European ancestry in the contemporary population. Combinations of gene flow and mating advantage were nearly additive in their impact. Gene flow, mating advantage, or a combination of both factors, are consistent with observed levels of European ancestry in a Latin American population. This approach provides a general methodology to determine the levels of gene flow and mating differences that can explain the observed contemporary differences in ancestry from autosomes and X-chromosomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of the HIV epidemic on population and household structure: the dynamics and evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuveline, Patrick

    2004-06-01

    HIV is contracted most frequently at birth and during early adulthood. The epidemic may thus impact the demographic structure and the household structure of affected populations. This paper reviews earlier evidence of such an impact, uses demographic theory to anticipate its changes over time, and reviews the most recent evidence for indications of these changes. Modest increases in the male : female ratio are beginning to show within certain age groups only (approximately 15% among 25-34 year olds). Similarly sized increases in the proportion of 15-29 year olds relative to 30-54 year olds are observed in some age pyramids. These 'youth bulges' are expected to fade out, whereas an aging effect phases in with the fertility impact of the epidemic. In the longer run, the size of all age groups will be reduced, but relatively less so for middle-aged adults. Proportions of orphans and widows have increased in the most affected countries. Fewer remarriage probabilities for widows were observed. Resulting increases in the proportion of female-headed households should only be temporary, as female mortality is catching up with male mortality. The number of double orphans is beginning to increase, but overall, orphans continue to live predominantly with a family member, most often the grandparents if not with the surviving parent. To date, the epidemic's impact on the population and household structure has been limited by demographic (aging) and social (adaptive movements of kin across households) processes that contribute to diffuse the epidemic throughout the entire population and all households.

  14. Chaos and order in stateless societies: Intercommunity exchange as a factor impacting the population dynamical patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvinsky, Alexander B., E-mail: medvinsky@iteb.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rusakov, Alexey V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We model community dynamics in stateless societies. > Intercommunity barter is shown to be a factor impacting the societies dynamics. > Increase in the human population growth rate can lead to appearance of chaos. > Secular and millennial cycles are found to arise as a result of the barter. - Abstract: The once abstract notions of dynamical chaos now appear naturally in various systems [Kaplan D, Glass L. Understanding nonlinear dynamics. New York: Springer; 1995]. As a result, future trajectories of the systems may be difficult to predict. In this paper, we demonstrate the appearance of chaotic dynamics in model human communities, which consist of producers of agricultural product and producers of agricultural equipment. In the case of a solitary community, the horizon of predictability of the human population dynamics is shown to be dependent on both intrinsic instability of the dynamics and the chaotic attractor sizes. Since a separate community is usually a part of a larger commonality, we study the dynamics of social systems consisting of two interacting communities. We show that intercommunity barter can lead to stabilization of the dynamics in one of the communities, which implies persistence of stable equilibrium under changes of the maximum value of the human population growth rate. However, in the neighboring community, the equilibrium turns into a stable limit cycle as the maximum value of the human population growth rate increases. Following an increase in the maximum value of the human population growth rate leads to period-doubling bifurcations resulting in chaotic dynamics. The horizon of predictability of the chaotic oscillations is found to be limited by 5 years. We demonstrate that the intercommunity interaction can lead to the appearance of long-period harmonics in the chaotic time series. The period of the harmonics is of order 100 and 1000 years. Hence the long-period changes in the population size may be considered as an

  15. Chaos and order in stateless societies: Intercommunity exchange as a factor impacting the population dynamical patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvinsky, Alexander B.; Rusakov, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We model community dynamics in stateless societies. → Intercommunity barter is shown to be a factor impacting the societies dynamics. → Increase in the human population growth rate can lead to appearance of chaos. → Secular and millennial cycles are found to arise as a result of the barter. - Abstract: The once abstract notions of dynamical chaos now appear naturally in various systems [Kaplan D, Glass L. Understanding nonlinear dynamics. New York: Springer; 1995]. As a result, future trajectories of the systems may be difficult to predict. In this paper, we demonstrate the appearance of chaotic dynamics in model human communities, which consist of producers of agricultural product and producers of agricultural equipment. In the case of a solitary community, the horizon of predictability of the human population dynamics is shown to be dependent on both intrinsic instability of the dynamics and the chaotic attractor sizes. Since a separate community is usually a part of a larger commonality, we study the dynamics of social systems consisting of two interacting communities. We show that intercommunity barter can lead to stabilization of the dynamics in one of the communities, which implies persistence of stable equilibrium under changes of the maximum value of the human population growth rate. However, in the neighboring community, the equilibrium turns into a stable limit cycle as the maximum value of the human population growth rate increases. Following an increase in the maximum value of the human population growth rate leads to period-doubling bifurcations resulting in chaotic dynamics. The horizon of predictability of the chaotic oscillations is found to be limited by 5 years. We demonstrate that the intercommunity interaction can lead to the appearance of long-period harmonics in the chaotic time series. The period of the harmonics is of order 100 and 1000 years. Hence the long-period changes in the population size may be considered as an

  16. Update on the state of play of Animal Health and Welfare and Environmental Impact of Animals derived from SCNT Cloning and their Offspring, and Food Safety of Products Obtained from those Animals

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) received in December 2011, a request from the European Commission for an update on the possible scientific developments for cloning of farmed animals for food production purposes. The present Statement follows the EFSA 2009 and 2010 Statements and the EFSA 2008 Scientific Opinion, and is based on peer reviewed scientific literature published since the EFSA 2010 Statement, information made available to EFSA following a call for data, and discu...

  17. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests targeting females in livestock production programming may better ensure improvements

  18. The prevalence and impact of Babesia canis and Theileria sp. in free-ranging grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ana; Huber, Doroteja; Polkinghorne, Adam; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Benko, Valerija; Mrljak, Vladimir; Reljić, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Reil, Irena; Beck, Relja

    2017-04-04

    Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. are important emerging causes of disease in dogs. Alongside these domesticated hosts, there is increasing recognition that these piroplasms can also be found in a range of wild animals with isolated reports describing the presence of these pathogen in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and captive grey wolves (Canis lupus). The prevalence and impact of these infections in free-ranging populations of canids are unknown. To gain a better insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of piroplasm infections in free-ranging grey wolves, pathological and molecular investigations into captive and free-ranging grey wolves in Croatia were performed. The carcasses of 107 free-ranging wolves and one captive wolf were the subjects of post-mortem investigations and sampling for molecular studies. A blood sample from one live captured wolf for telemetric tracking was also used for molecular analysis. PCR amplification targeting the 18S RNA gene revealed that 21 of 108 free-ranging wolves and one captive animal were positive for Theileria/Babesia DNA. Subsequent sequencing of a fragment of the 18S RNA gene revealed that 7/22 animals were positive for Babesia canis while the other amplified sequence were found to be identical with corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of Theileria capreoli isolated from wild deer (15/22). Haematological and cytological analysis revealed the presence of signet-ring shaped or pear-shaped piroplasms in several animals with the overall parasite burden in all positive animals assessed to be very low. Pathological investigation of the captive animal revealed fatal septicemia as a likely outcome of hemolytic anaemia. There was little or no evidence of hemolytic disease consistent with babesiosis in other animals. Importantly, the presence of B. canis in free-ranging grey wolves has not been described before but has been reported in a single fox and domestic dogs only. That B. canis infections cause disease in dogs but have little impact

  19. Proper context: Comparison studies demonstrate that United States food-animal production antimicrobial uses have minimal impact on antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (US) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses "substantially drive" antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comparison...

  20. The impact of minimum wages on population health: evidence from 24 OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Otto

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between minimum wages and several measures of population health by analyzing data from 24 OECD countries for a time period of 31 years. Specifically, I test for health effects as a result of within-country variations in the generosity of minimum wages, which are measured by the Kaitz index. The paper finds that higher levels of minimum wages are associated with significant reductions of overall mortality rates as well as in the number of deaths due to outcomes that have been shown to be more prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status (e.g., diabetes, disease of the circulatory system, stroke). A 10% point increase of the Kaitz index is associated with significant declines in death rates and an increase in life expectancy of 0.44 years. Furthermore, I provide evidence for potential channels through which minimum wages impact population health by showing that more generous minimum wages impact outcomes such as poverty, the share of the population with unmet medical needs, the number of doctor consultations, tobacco consumption, calorie intake, and the likelihood of people being overweight.

  1. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  2. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  3. Impact of hookworm infection and deworming on anaemia in non-pregnant populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L; Brooker, Simon

    2010-07-01

    To summarise age- and intensity-stratified associations between human hookworm infection and anaemia and to quantify the impact of treatment with the benzimidazoles, albendazole and mebendazole, on haemoglobin and anaemia in non-pregnant populations. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed) were searched for relevant studies published between 1980 and 2009, regardless of language, and researchers contacted about potential data. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was compared between uninfected individuals and individuals harbouring hookworm infections of different intensities, expressed as standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analysis of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigated the impact of treatment on Hb and anaemia. Twenty-three cross-sectional studies, six pre- and post-intervention studies and 14 trials were included. Among cross-sectional studies, moderate- and heavy-intensity hookworm infections were associated with lower Hb in school-aged children, while all levels of infection intensity were associated with lower Hb in adults. Among RCTs using albendazole, impact of treatment corresponded to a 1.89 g/l increase (95%CI: 0.13-3.63) in mean Hb while mebendazole had no impact. There was a positive impact of 2.37 g/l (95%CI: 1.33-3.50) on mean Hb when albendazole was co-administered with praziquantel, but no apparent additional benefit of treatment with benzimidazoles combined with iron supplementation. The mean impact of treatment with benzimidazoles alone on moderate anaemia was small (relative risk (RR) 0.87) with a larger effect when combined with praziquantel (RR 0.61). Anaemia is most strongly associated with moderate and heavy hookworm infection. The impact of anthelmintic treatment is greatest when albendazole is co-administered with praziquantel.

  4. Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.

  5. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  6. Approach to assessing local socio-cultural impacts using projections of population growth and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Poetsch, R.

    1977-08-01

    All assessment of future domestic development projects assumes that the problems to be examined have been properly identified and defined before the application of a projection technique. An attempt is made to codify socio-cultural problems mentioned in literature and clarify how existing demographic projection techniques can be applied to assessing the problems. The relationship between changes in local population size and composition induced by in-migration and the potential for socio-cultural incompatibilities is described heuristically. For simplification, the problems expected to emerge from differences in demographic composition are classified into three categories: (1) service needs, such as those for housing, recreation, and education; (2) types of social organizations related to capacities for, or constraints on, reaping the benefits of rapid economic development and social changes (e.g., employment and income); and (3) attitudes, values, and cultural perspectives. These areas of concern are very broad, and quantitative projections of population size and composition are more easily related to the first than to the third. Although demographic projection provides a valuable tool for estimating future social change, the knowledge about cause and effect is not sufficient to support the quantification of socio-cultural impact. Therefore, the projections are used only as relative indicators and the assessments of socio-cultural impact based on them are qualitative only. Therefore, identification and assessment of socio-cultural impacts are a means of developing plans to overcome the expected problems.

  7. Prevalence, Correlates, and Impact of Uncorrected Presbyopia in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd Man, Ryan Eyn; Fenwick, Eva Katie; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Li, Ling-Jun; Gupta, Preeti; Tham, Yih-Chung; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence, correlates, and impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-specific functioning (VF) in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based cross-sectional study. We included 7890 presbyopic subjects (3909 female; age range, 40-86 years) of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicities from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease study. Presbyopia was classified as corrected and uncorrected based on self-reported near correction use. VF was assessed with the VF-11 questionnaire validated using Rasch analysis. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of sociodemographic and clinical parameters with uncorrected presbyopia, and its impact on VF, respectively. As myopia may mitigate the impact of noncorrection, we performed a subgroup analysis on myopic subjects only (n = 2742). In total, 2678 of 7890 subjects (33.9%) had uncorrected presbyopia. In multivariable models, younger age, male sex, Malay and Indian ethnicities, presenting distance visual impairment (any eye), and lower education and income levels were associated with higher odds of uncorrected presbyopia (all P Malay and Indian ethnicities are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaria Caroline W

    2008-10-01

    significant differences between author-defined 'urban' and 'rural' designations in Africa, but not for the remainder of the malaria endemic world. The Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP urban extent mask proved most accurate for mapping these author-defined rural and urban locations, and further sub-divisions of urban extents into urban and peri-urban classes enabled the effects of high population densities on malaria transmission to be mapped and quantified. Conclusion The availability of detailed, contemporary census and urban extent data for the construction of coherent and accurate global spatial population databases is often poor. These known sources of uncertainty in population surfaces and urban maps have the potential to be incorporated into future malaria burden estimates. Currently, insufficient spatial information exists globally to identify areas accurately where population density is low enough to impact upon transmission. Medical intelligence does however exist to reliably identify malaria free cities. Moreover, in Africa, urban areas that have a significant effect on malaria transmission can be mapped.

  9. Economic and demographic impacts of passenger rail systems : the impact of intercity passenger rails on population and employment change in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This research examines the impact of intercity passenger rails on change in population and employment at the county level in the continental United States from 2000 to 2010. This research adopts an integrated spatial regression approach that incorpor...

  10. Population and labour force projections for 27 European countries, 2002-052: impact of international migration on population ageing: Projections de population et de population active pour 27 pays européens 2002-052: impact de la migration internationale sur le vieillissement de la population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Jakub; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Kupiszewski, Marek; Saczuk, Katarzyna; Kicinger, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Population and labour force projections are made for 27 selected European countries for 2002-052, focussing on the impact of international migration on population and labour force dynamics. Starting from single scenarios for fertility, mortality and economic activity, three sets of assumptions are explored regarding migration flows, taking into account probable policy developments in Europe following the enlargement of the EU. In addition to age structures, various support ratio indicators are analysed. The results indicate that plausible immigration cannot offset the negative effects of population and labour force ageing.

  11. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rey Gozalo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population.

  12. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-05-11

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population.

  13. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  14. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  15. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, European Moles (Talpa europaea and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1 establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes; 2 identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3 illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, moles (Talpa europaea and crows (Corvus corone in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation. For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among

  16. Radiological impact of diagnostic nuclear medicine technology on the Quebec population (patients and workers) in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, L.; Blanchette, J.

    1992-01-01

    Using the results of a six month survey on the doses received by non-monitored hospital workers from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients (DNMP) in three hospitals and published statistics on Quebec's workers and hospitals, an evaluation of the radiological impact of DNMP has been calculated on the Quebec's population. In 1989, diagnostic nuclear medicine gave an average of 6.4 mSv/act or a total of 2,800 sv-man. The diagnostic nuclear medicine technologists' community received 0.4 Sv-man and the non-monitored hospital workers 1.7 Sv-man from the DNMP in the same year. (author)

  17. Characterizing the impact of sustained sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use upon the Plasmodium falciparum population in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravenhall, Matt; Benavente, Ernest Diez; Mipando, Mwapatsa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malawi experienced prolonged use of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) as the front-line anti-malarial drug, with early replacement of chloroquine and delayed introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Extended use of SP, and its continued application in pregnancy is impacting...... the genomic variation of the Plasmodium falciparum population. METHODS: Whole genome sequence data of P. falciparum isolates covering 2 years of transmission within Malawi, alongside global datasets, were used. More than 745,000 SNPs were identified, and differences in allele frequencies between countries...

  18. Programmatic Impact of 5 Years of Mortality Surveillance of New York City Homeless Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Dova; Begier, Elizabeth; Gutkovich, Alexander; Mos, Robert; Griffin, Angela; Zimmerman, Regina; Madsen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    A homeless mortality surveillance system identifies emerging trends in the health of the homeless population and provides this information to key stakeholders in a timely and ongoing manner to effect evidence-based, programmatic change. We describe the first 5 years of the New York City homeless mortality surveillance system and, for the first time in peer-reviewed literature, illustrate the impact of key elements of sustained surveillance (i.e., timely dissemination of aggregate mortality data and real-time sharing of information on individual homeless decedents) on the programs of New York City’s Department of Homeless Services. These key elements had a positive impact on the department’s programs that target sleep-related infant deaths and hypothermia, drug overdose, and alcohol-related deaths among homeless persons. PMID:24148068

  19. Assessing the impact of heart failure specialist services on patient populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyratzopoulos Georgios

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of the impact of healthcare interventions may help commissioners of healthcare services to make optimal decisions. This can be particularly the case if the impact assessment relates to specific patient populations and uses timely local data. We examined the potential impact on readmissions and mortality of specialist heart failure services capable of delivering treatments such as b-blockers and Nurse-Led Educational Intervention (N-LEI. Methods Statistical modelling of prevented or postponed events among previously hospitalised patients, using estimates of: treatment uptake and contraindications (based on local audit data; treatment effectiveness and intolerance (based on literature; and annual number of hospitalization per patient and annual risk of death (based on routine data. Results Optimal treatment uptake among eligible but untreated patients would over one year prevent or postpone 11% of all expected readmissions and 18% of all expected deaths for spironolactone, 13% of all expected readmisisons and 22% of all expected deaths for b-blockers (carvedilol and 20% of all expected readmissions and an uncertain number of deaths for N-LEI. Optimal combined treatment uptake for all three interventions during one year among all eligible but untreated patients would prevent or postpone 37% of all expected readmissions and a minimum of 36% of all expected deaths. Conclusion In a population of previously hospitalised patients with low previous uptake of b-blockers and no uptake of N-LEI, optimal combined uptake of interventions through specialist heart failure services can potentially help prevent or postpone approximately four times as many readmissions and a minimum of twice as many deaths compared with simply optimising uptake of spironolactone (not necessarily requiring specialist services. Examination of the impact of different heart failure interventions can inform rational planning of relevant healthcare

  20. Population-level impact of active tuberculosis case finding in an Asian megacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Dowdy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential population-level impact of private-sector initiatives for tuberculosis (TB case finding in Southeast Asia remains uncertain. In 2011, the Indus Hospital TB Control Program in Karachi, Pakistan, undertook an aggressive case-finding campaign that doubled notification rates, providing an opportunity to investigate potential population-level effects. METHODS: We constructed an age-structured compartmental model of TB in the intervention area. We fit the model using field and literature data, assuming that TB incidence equaled the estimated nationwide incidence in Pakistan (primary analysis, or 1.5 times greater (high-incidence scenario. We modeled the intervention as an increase in the rate of formal-sector TB diagnosis and evaluated the potential impact of sustaining this rate for five years. RESULTS: In the primary analysis, the five-year intervention averted 24% (95% uncertainty range, UR: 18-30% of five-year cumulative TB cases and 52% (95% UR: 45-57% of cumulative TB deaths. Corresponding reductions in the high-incidence scenario were 12% (95% UR: 8-17% and 27% (95% UR: 21-34%, although the absolute number of lives saved was higher. At the end of five years, TB notification rates in the primary analysis were below their 2010 baseline, incidence had dropped by 45%, and annual mortality had fallen by 72%. About half of the cumulative impact on incidence and mortality could be achieved with a one-year intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained, multifaceted, and innovative approaches to TB case-finding in Asian megacities can have substantial community-wide epidemiological impact.

  1. Assessing the impact of heart failure specialist services on patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Cook, Gary A; McElduff, Patrick; Havely, Daniel; Edwards, Richard; Heller, Richard F

    2004-05-24

    The assessment of the impact of healthcare interventions may help commissioners of healthcare services to make optimal decisions. This can be particularly the case if the impact assessment relates to specific patient populations and uses timely local data. We examined the potential impact on readmissions and mortality of specialist heart failure services capable of delivering treatments such as b-blockers and Nurse-Led Educational Intervention (N-LEI). Statistical modelling of prevented or postponed events among previously hospitalised patients, using estimates of: treatment uptake and contraindications (based on local audit data); treatment effectiveness and intolerance (based on literature); and annual number of hospitalization per patient and annual risk of death (based on routine data). Optimal treatment uptake among eligible but untreated patients would over one year prevent or postpone 11% of all expected readmissions and 18% of all expected deaths for spironolactone, 13% of all expected readmisisons and 22% of all expected deaths for b-blockers (carvedilol) and 20% of all expected readmissions and an uncertain number of deaths for N-LEI. Optimal combined treatment uptake for all three interventions during one year among all eligible but untreated patients would prevent or postpone 37% of all expected readmissions and a minimum of 36% of all expected deaths. In a population of previously hospitalised patients with low previous uptake of b-blockers and no uptake of N-LEI, optimal combined uptake of interventions through specialist heart failure services can potentially help prevent or postpone approximately four times as many readmissions and a minimum of twice as many deaths compared with simply optimising uptake of spironolactone (not necessarily requiring specialist services). Examination of the impact of different heart failure interventions can inform rational planning of relevant healthcare services.

  2. The Poverty of Population and its Impact on Formation of Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pchelianska Halyna O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the causes of poverty, its negative manifestations, identifying the impact of poverty, determining its impact on food security, and finding ways to overcome it. It has been determined that the structural causes of poverty are considered to be the general macroeconomic and political living conditions of population. The individual approach implies that human poverty is influenced by both the subjective (family, education, skills, job availability or absence and the institutional factors. The author characterizes the economic, social, and political consequences of poverty, their impact on food security. The impact of structural factors on the level of poverty in Ukraine was analyzed. The article explores the level of poverty in different categories of households, i.e.: households in rural and urban areas, with and without children. It has been proven that the level of poverty affects the formation of household food security. The main directions for overcoming poverty and improving food security have been proposed.

  3. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on a rural population in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanoglou, X.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Karamanis, D.T.; Stamoulis, K.; Averin, V.; Howard, B.J.; Howard, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent research endeavour under programme ECP9 (transfer of radionuclides to animals, their comparative importance under different agricultural system and appropriate countermeasures) three distinct sites in the Republics of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus were selected for detailed radioecological study. The objective of this investigation was to identify the sources of radiocesium and radiostrontium intake to a specific segment of the population, i.e. subsistence farmers residing in areas where high contamination levels persist after the Chernobyl accident. The results was obtained from the District of Bragin in Belarus. Contamination levels in foodstuffs produced in the selected site were assessed by means of two approaches using a geographical modelling approach of estimating contamination levels in food products through deposition information and transfer parameters, and via direct measurements of activity levels in foodstuffs from private households. This information was combined with food consumption rates derived from dietary surveys on the population of the area in order to calculate radiocesium and radiostrontium intake. The results were then compared to data from whole body activity measurements

  4. Patterns of cross-contamination in a multispecies population genomic project: detection, quantification, impact, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenghien, Marion; Faivre, Nicolas; Galtier, Nicolas

    2017-03-29

    Contamination is a well-known but often neglected problem in molecular biology. Here, we investigated the prevalence of cross-contamination among 446 samples from 116 distinct species of animals, which were processed in the same laboratory and subjected to subcontracted transcriptome sequencing. Using cytochrome oxidase 1 as a barcode, we identified a minimum of 782 events of between-species contamination, with approximately 80% of our samples being affected. An analysis of laboratory metadata revealed a strong effect of the sequencing center: nearly all the detected events of between-species contamination involved species that were sent the same day to the same company. We introduce new methods to address the amount of within-species, between-individual contamination, and to correct for this problem when calling genotypes from base read counts. We report evidence for pervasive within-species contamination in this data set, and show that classical population genomic statistics, such as synonymous diversity, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous diversity, inbreeding coefficient F IT , and Tajima's D, are sensitive to this problem to various extents. Control analyses suggest that our published results are probably robust to the problem of contamination. Recommendations on how to prevent or avoid contamination in large-scale population genomics/molecular ecology are provided based on this analysis.

  5. The type VI secretion system impacts bacterial invasion and population dynamics in a model intestinal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Savannah L.; Shields, Drew S.; Hammer, Brian K.; Xavier, Joao B.; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    Animal gastrointestinal tracts are home to a diverse community of microbes. The mechanisms by which microbial species interact and compete in this dense, physically dynamic space are poorly understood, limiting our understanding of how natural communities are assembled and how different communities could be engineered. Here, we focus on a physical mechanism for competition: the type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS is a syringe-like organelle used by certain bacteria to translocate effector proteins across the cell membranes of target bacterial cells, killing them. Here, we use T6SS+ and T6SS- strains of V. cholerae, the pathogen that causes cholera in humans, and light sheet fluorescence microscopy for in vivo imaging to show that the T6SS provides an advantage to strains colonizing the larval zebrafish gut. Furthermore, we show that T6SS+ bacteria can invade and alter an existing population of a different species in the zebrafish gut, reducing its abundance and changing the form of its population dynamics. This work both demonstrates a mechanism for altering the gut microbiota with an invasive species and explores the processes controlling the stability and dynamics of the gut ecosystem. Research Corporation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the Simons Foundation.

  6. Proceedings of the 2015 international summit on fibropapillomatosis: Global status, trends, and population impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Stacy A.; Work, Thierry M.; Brunson, Shandell; Foley, Allen M.; Balazs, George H.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 International Summit on Fibropapillomatosis (FP) was convened in Honolulu, Hawaii June 11-14, 2015. Scientists from around the world were invited to present results from sea turtle monitoring and research programs as they relate to the global status, trends, and population impacts of FP on green turtles. The participants engaged in discussions that resulted in the following conclusions: 1.Globally, FP has long been present in wild sea turtle populations the earliest mention was in the late 1800s in the Florida Keys. 2.FP primarily affects medium-sized immature turtles in coastal foraging pastures. 3.Expression of FP differs across ocean basins and to some degree within basins. Turtles in the Southeast US, Caribbean, Brazil, and Australia rarely have oral tumors (inside the mouth cavity), whereas they are common and often severe in Hawaii. Internal tumors (on vital organs) occur in the Atlantic and Hawaii, but only rarely in Australia. Liver tumors are common in Florida but not in Hawaii. 4.Recovery from FP through natural processes, when the affliction is not severe, has been documented in wild populations globally. 5.FP causes reduced survivorship, but documented mortality rates in Australia and Hawaii are low. The mortality impact of FP is not currently exceeding population growth rates in some intensively monitored populations (e.g., Florida, Hawaii) as evidenced by increasing nesting trends despite the incidence of FP in immature foraging populations. 6.Pathogens, hosts, and potential disease and environmental cofactors have the capacity to change; while we are having success now, there needs to be continued monitoring to detect changes in the distribution, occurrence, and severity of the disease. 7.While we do not have clear evidence to provide the direct link, globally, the preponderance of sites with a high frequency of FP tumors are areas with some degree of degradation resulting from altered watersheds. Watershed management and responsible coastal

  7. Impact of classical risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Asian Indian, Chinese and Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Tuomilehto, J; Qiao, Q; Söderberg, S; Daimon, M; Chambers, J; Pitkäniemi, J

    2015-11-01

    This review investigated the population impact of major modifiable type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors, with special focus on native Asian Indians, to estimate population attributable risks (PARs) and compare them with estimates from Chinese and Japanese populations. Information was obtained on risk factors in 21,041 Asian Indian, 17,774 Chinese and 17,986 Japanese populations from multiple, large, cross-sectional studies (the DECODA project) of T2D. Crude and adjusted PARs were estimated for the major T2D risk factors. Age had the highest crude and adjusted PARs among Asian Indians and Chinese in contrast to waist-hip ratio among Japanese. After adjusting for age, the PAR for body mass index (BMI) in Asian Indians (41.4% [95% CI: 37.2%; 45.4%]) was second only to triglycerides (46.4% [95% CI: 39.5%; 52.8%]) compared with 35.8% [95% CI: 29.9%; 41.4%] in Japanese and 38.4% [95% CI: 33.5%; 43.2%] in Chinese people. The PAR for BMI adjusted for age, LDL and triglycerides (39.7% [95% CI: 31.6%; 47.2%]) was higher than for any other factor in Asian Indians, and was much higher than in the Chinese (16.8% [95% CI: 3.0%; 30.9%]) and Japanese (30.4% [95% CI: 17.5%; 42.2%]) populations. This review provides estimates of the association between major risk factors and prevalences of T2D among Asian populations by examining their PARs from large population-based samples. From a public-health point of view, the importance of BMI in Asian Indians is especially highlighted in comparison to the other Asian populations. Given these results and other recent findings on the causality link between BMI and T2D, it can be postulated that obesity may be involved in the aetiology of T2D through interaction with ethnic-specific genetic factors, although ethnicity itself is not a direct risk factor for T2D as people of all ethnic backgrounds develop diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats wit...

  9. Genetic diversity and connectivity remain high in eelgrass Zostera marina populations in the Wadden Sea, despite major impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferber, Steven; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in the 1930s, eelgrass meadows declined throughout the Wadden Sea, leaving populations susceptible to extinction through patchiness, low density and isolation. Additional anthropogenic impacts have altered current regimes, nutrients and turbidity-all of which affect eelgrass. Recent

  10. The role of population density on the impact of urbaniza-tion on GHG emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghong; Gao, Chaochao; Lu, Yingying

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization directly drives rural to urban population migration and indirectly causes west to east migration in China, two phenomena that may significantly impact China's greenhouse gas emissions given its huge population and vast difference between the western rural and eastern urban areas. These two phenomena were analyzed by using emissions as a per capita term, and extending the impact from the traditional urbanization rate effect to include population density effect. The results show that population density has actually been the dominant demographic player in changing per capita emissions for the past two decades in China, and its elasticity changed from positive in economically less-developed provinces to negative for the developed provinces. This study provides a new perspective in the study of the relationship between urbanization and greenhouse gas emissions, and the results indicate that population density change should be taken into account to accurately assess the impact of urbanization.

  11. Practising pastoralism in an agricultural environment: An isotopic analysis of the impact of the Hunnic incursions on Pannonian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne E Hakenbeck

    Full Text Available We conducted a multi-isotope study of five fifth-century AD cemeteries in modern-day Hungary to determine relationships between nomadic-pastoralist incomers-the historically documented Huns and other nomadic groups-and the sedentary agricultural population of the late Roman province of Pannonia. Contemporary historical sources describe this relationship as adversarial and destructive for the late Roman population, but archaeological evidence indicates high levels of hybridity between different groups. We undertook carbon, nitrogen, strontium and oxygen isotope analyses of bone collagen, dentine and tooth enamel at Keszthely-Fenékpuszta, Hács-Béndekpuszta, Győr-Széchenyi Square, Mözs and Szolnok-Szanda to examine these relationships through past subsistence practices. The patterns at all sites indicate medium to high animal protein consumption with little evidence for a significant contribution of aquatic resources. All populations relied to a great extent on C4 plants, most likely millet. Within each population, diet was heterogeneous, with significant variations in terms of animal protein and C3 and C4 plant consumption. High levels of intra-population and individual variability suggest that populations made use of a range of subsistence strategies, with many individuals exhibiting significant changes over their lifetimes. Rather than being characterised only by violence, the historically-documented influx of nomadic populations appears to have led to widespread changes in subsistence strategies of populations in the Carpathian basin. Nomadic-pastoralist groups may have switched to smaller herds and more farming, and, conversely, local populations may have integrated with a new economic system based on animal herding.

  12. Population, Environment, and Climate in the Albertine Rift: Understanding Local Impacts of Regional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartter, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Diem, J.; Palace, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is of critical concern for conservation and to develop appropriate policies and responses, it is important not only to anticipate the nature of changes, but also how they are perceived, interpreted and adapted to by local people. The Albertine Rift in East Africa is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots due to dense settlement, extreme poverty, and land conversion. We synthesize ongoing NSF-CNH research, where Ugandan park landscapes are examined to understand the impacts of climate change on livelihoods. Kibale National Park, the main study site, exemplifies the challenges facing many parks because of its isolation within a densely populated agricultural landscape. Three separate household surveys (n=251, 130, 100) reveal that the most perceived benefits provided by Kibale were ecosystem services and farmers cite rainfall as one of the park's most important benefits, but are also concerned with variable precipitation. Analysis of 30+ years of daily rainfall station data shows total rainfall has not changed significantly, but timing and transitions of seasons and intra-seasonal distribution are highly variable, which may contribute to changes in farming schedules and threaten food security. Further, the contrast between land use/cover change over 25 years around the park and the stability of forest within the park underscores the need to understand this landscape for future sustainability planning and the inevitable population growth outside its boundaries. Understanding climate change impacts and feedbacks to and from socio-ecological systems are important to address the dual challenge of biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation.

  13. Impact of Insertion Sequences and Recombination on the Population Structure of Staphylococcus haemolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ons Bouchami

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus haemolyticus is one of the most common pathogens associated with medical-device related infections, but its molecular epidemiology is poorly explored. In the current study, we aimed to better understand the genetic mechanisms contributing to S. haemolyticus diversity in the hospital environment and their impact on the population structure and clinical relevant phenotypic traits. The analysis of a representative S. haemolyticus collection by multilocus sequence typing (MLST has identified a single highly prevalent and diverse genetic lineage of nosocomial S. haemolyticus clonal complex (CC 29 accounting for 91% of the collection of isolates disseminated worldwide. The examination of the sequence changes at MLST loci during clonal diversification showed that recombination had a higher impact than mutation in shaping the S. haemolyticus population. Also, we ascertained that another mechanism contributing significantly to clonal diversification and adaptation was mediated by insertion sequence (IS elements. We found that all nosocomial S. haemolyticus, belonging to different STs, were rich in IS1272 copies, as determined by Southern hybridization of macrorestriction patterns. In particular, we observed that the chromosome of a S. haemolyticus strain within CC29 was highly unstable during serial growth in vitro which paralleled with IS1272 transposition events and changes in clinically relevant phenotypic traits namely, mannitol fermentation, susceptibility to beta-lactams, biofilm formation and hemolysis. Our results suggest that recombination and IS transposition might be a strategy of adaptation, evolution and pathogenicity of the major S. haemolyticus prevalent lineage in the hospital environment.

  14. The emergence of translational epidemiology: from scientific discovery to population health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Gwinn, Marta; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-09-01

    Recent emphasis on translational research (TR) is highlighting the role of epidemiology in translating scientific discoveries into population health impact. The authors present applications of epidemiology in TR through 4 phases designated T1-T4, illustrated by examples from human genomics. In T1, epidemiology explores the role of a basic scientific discovery (e.g., a disease risk factor or biomarker) in developing a "candidate application" for use in practice (e.g., a test used to guide interventions). In T2, epidemiology can help to evaluate the efficacy of a candidate application by using observational studies and randomized controlled trials. In T3, epidemiology can help to assess facilitators and barriers for uptake and implementation of candidate applications in practice. In T4, epidemiology can help to assess the impact of using candidate applications on population health outcomes. Epidemiology also has a leading role in knowledge synthesis, especially using quantitative methods (e.g., meta-analysis). To explore the emergence of TR in epidemiology, the authors compared articles published in selected issues of the Journal in 1999 and 2009. The proportion of articles identified as translational doubled from 16% (11/69) in 1999 to 33% (22/66) in 2009 (P = 0.02). Epidemiology is increasingly recognized as an important component of TR. By quantifying and integrating knowledge across disciplines, epidemiology provides crucial methods and tools for TR.

  15. Components and public health impact of population growth in the Arab world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asharaf Abdul Salam

    Full Text Available The Arab world, which consists of the 22 member states of the Arab League, is undergoing a rapid transition in demographics, including fertility, mortality, and migration. Comprising a distinctive geographic region spread across West Asia and North East Africa and unified by the Arabic language, these states share common values and characteristics despite having diverse economic and political conditions. The demographic lag (high fertility and low mortality that characterizes the Arab world is unique, but the present trend of declining fertility, combined with the relatively low mortality, brings about significant changes in its population size. This research aimed to: (i assess the population growth in the Arab world over 3 time periods, (ii explore its components, and (iii understand its public health impact. Data from the International Data Base (IDB of the U.S. Census Bureau for 3 time periods (1992, 2002, and 2012 in 21 countries of the Arab world were analyzed by dividing them into four geographic sectors, namely, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, West Asia, Maghreb, and the Nile Valley African Horn. The population of the Arab world has grown considerably due to both natural growth and migration. The immigration is pronounced, especially into resource-intensive GCC nations, not only from East Asian and Central African countries but also from resource-thrifty (limited-resource Arab nations. The migrations within, as well as outside, the Arab world reveal an interesting demographic phenomenon that requires further research: migration flows and trends. However, the transformations in public health statistics related to mortality-the impact of demographic changes-depict a new era in the Arab world.

  16. Components and public health impact of population growth in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; Khraif, Rshood; AlMutairi, Abdullah; Aldosari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The Arab world, which consists of the 22 member states of the Arab League, is undergoing a rapid transition in demographics, including fertility, mortality, and migration. Comprising a distinctive geographic region spread across West Asia and North East Africa and unified by the Arabic language, these states share common values and characteristics despite having diverse economic and political conditions. The demographic lag (high fertility and low mortality) that characterizes the Arab world is unique, but the present trend of declining fertility, combined with the relatively low mortality, brings about significant changes in its population size. This research aimed to: (i) assess the population growth in the Arab world over 3 time periods, (ii) explore its components, and (iii) understand its public health impact. Data from the International Data Base (IDB) of the U.S. Census Bureau for 3 time periods (1992, 2002, and 2012) in 21 countries of the Arab world were analyzed by dividing them into four geographic sectors, namely, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), West Asia, Maghreb, and the Nile Valley African Horn. The population of the Arab world has grown considerably due to both natural growth and migration. The immigration is pronounced, especially into resource-intensive GCC nations, not only from East Asian and Central African countries but also from resource-thrifty (limited-resource) Arab nations. The migrations within, as well as outside, the Arab world reveal an interesting demographic phenomenon that requires further research: migration flows and trends. However, the transformations in public health statistics related to mortality-the impact of demographic changes-depict a new era in the Arab world.

  17. Mechanisms regulating amphipod population density within macroalgal communities with low predator impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartvig Christie

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In eight mesocosms (land based basins macroalgae communities with associated fauna were transplanted from the sea and established during two years. Then, different doses of nutrients (N and P were added to the basins throughout the following three years. During the period of nutrient addition, macroinvertebrate grazers showed seasonal fluctuations with densities usually between 500,000 and 1 million individuals per mesocosm during summer and to a level of about 100,000 during winter. The macroinvertebrate grazers mainly consisted of about 10 species of amphipods and isopods, among which the amphipod Gammarus locusta dominated strongly by biomass. Although the number of predators was very low, the grazer populations never reached a density where considerable grazing impact could be found on the macroalgae. No increase in grazer density was found in the basins with improved nutrient conditions. Thus food quality may be insufficient for further population growth, or density dependant regulation mechanisms may have prevented the grazers from flourishing and overgrazing the system. In aquarium experiments we showed that G. locusta could grow and reproduce on Fucus serratus, Ulva lactuca, periphyton and detritus, and that cannibalism by adult G. locusta on juveniles may have great impact on the population growth. The basins were run with a water flow through system. Nets were placed in front of the inflow and outflow tubes to measure immigration and emigration. Only few individuals (and no Gammarus sp. were recorded in the inflowing water, while high numbers of both amphipods and isopods were found in the outflowing water. Emigration reached peak values during night-time, and it was then two to three times as high as during day-time. Emigration of mobile grazers from the basins amounted to 1-2% of the standing stock daily. These mechanisms that regulate grazers do contribute to maintenance of the seaweed dominance and thus the stability of the seaweed

  18. Clinical and psychological impact of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in a community heart failure population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arnous, S

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <\\/= 35%) has increased since the publication of the SCD-HEFT and MADIT-II data. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ICD use in a community heart failure population and to assess the impact on patient\\'s quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-one ICDs were inserted between the years 2002 and 2006. The mean follow-up from time of insertion was 24 +\\/- 11 months. Eighteen patients (25%) had potentially life-saving therapy. Seven (10%) patients received inappropriate shocks. Complications were encountered in five patients (7%). CONCLUSION: In a community heart failure population, prophylactic ICD implantation is associated with a high incidence of life-saving therapy, a low complication rate and a high level of tolerability. These data indicate translation of clinical trial benefits to the general heart failure population.

  19. The effects of demographic change on disease transmission and vaccine impact in a household structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geard, Nicholas; Glass, Kathryn; McCaw, James M; McBryde, Emma S; Korb, Kevin B; Keeling, Matt J; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-12-01

    The demographic structure of populations in both more developed and less developed countries is changing: increases in life expectancy and declining fertility have led to older populations and smaller households. The implications of these demographic changes for the spread and control of infectious diseases are not fully understood. Here we use an individual based model with realistic and dynamic age and household structure to demonstrate the marked effect that demographic change has on disease transmission at the population and household level. The decline in fertility is associated with a decrease in disease incidence and an increase in the age of first infection, even in the absence of vaccination or other control measures. Although large households become rarer as fertility decreases, we show that there is a proportionate increase in incidence of disease in these households as the accumulation of susceptible clusters increases the potential for explosive outbreaks. By modelling vaccination, we provide a direct comparison of the relative importance of demographic change and vaccination on incidence of disease. We highlight the increased risks associated with unvaccinated households in a low fertility setting if vaccine behaviour is correlated with household membership. We suggest that models that do not account for future demographic change, and especially its effect on household structure, may potentially overestimate the impact of vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of selective genotyping in the training population on accuracy and bias of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-08-01

    Estimating marker effects based on routinely generated phenotypic data of breeding programs is a cost-effective strategy to implement genomic selection. Truncation selection in breeding populations, however, could have a strong impact on the accuracy to predict genomic breeding values. The main objective of our study was to investigate the influence of phenotypic selection on the accuracy and bias of genomic selection. We used experimental data of 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The testcross progenies were evaluated in unreplicated field trials in ten environments and fingerprinted with 857 SNP markers. Random regression best linear unbiased prediction method was used in combination with fivefold cross-validation based on genotypic sampling. We observed a substantial loss in the accuracy to predict genomic breeding values in unidirectional selected populations. In contrast, estimating marker effects based on bidirectional selected populations led to only a marginal decrease in the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values. We concluded that bidirectional selection is a valuable approach to efficiently implement genomic selection in applied plant breeding programs.

  1. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  2. Extrapolating cetacean densities to quantitatively assess human impacts on populations in the high seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Laura; Roberts, Jason J; Miller, David L; Halpin, Patrick N

    2017-06-01

    As human activities expand beyond national jurisdictions to the high seas, there is an increasing need to consider anthropogenic impacts to species inhabiting these waters. The current scarcity of scientific observations of cetaceans in the high seas impedes the assessment of population-level impacts of these activities. We developed plausible density estimates to facilitate a quantitative assessment of anthropogenic impacts on cetacean populations in these waters. Our study region extended from a well-surveyed region within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone into a large region of the western North Atlantic sparsely surveyed for cetaceans. We modeled densities of 15 cetacean taxa with available line transect survey data and habitat covariates and extrapolated predictions to sparsely surveyed regions. We formulated models to reduce the extent of extrapolation beyond covariate ranges, and constrained them to model simple and generalizable relationships. To evaluate confidence in the predictions, we mapped where predictions were made outside sampled covariate ranges, examined alternate models, and compared predicted densities with maps of sightings from sources that could not be integrated into our models. Confidence levels in model results depended on the taxon and geographic area and highlighted the need for additional surveying in environmentally distinct areas. With application of necessary caution, our density estimates can inform management needs in the high seas, such as the quantification of potential cetacean interactions with military training exercises, shipping, fisheries, and deep-sea mining and be used to delineate areas of special biological significance in international waters. Our approach is generally applicable to other marine taxa and geographic regions for which management will be implemented but data are sparse. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

  4. Distribution and factors associated with Salmonella enterica genotypes in a diverse population of humans and animals in Qatar using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu C; Scaria, Joy; Ibraham, Mariamma; Doiphode, Sanjay; Chang, Yung-Fu; Sultan, Ali; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most commonly reported causes of bacterial foodborne illness around the world. Understanding the sources of this pathogen and the associated factors that exacerbate its risk to humans will help in developing risk mitigation strategies. The genetic relatedness among Salmonella isolates recovered from human gastroenteritis cases and food animals in Qatar were investigated in the hope of shedding light on these sources, their possible transmission routes, and any associated factors. A repeat cross-sectional study was conducted in which the samples and associated data were collected from both populations (gastroenteritis cases and animals). Salmonella isolates were initially analyzed using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the genetic diversity and clonality. The relatedness among the isolates was assessed using the minimum spanning tree (MST). Twenty-seven different sequence types (STs) were identified in this study; among them, seven were novel, including ST1695, ST1696, ST1697, ST1698, ST1699, ST1702, and ST1703. The pattern of overall ST distribution was diverse; in particular, it was revealed that ST11 and ST19 were the most common sequence types, presenting 29.5% and 11.5% within the whole population. In addition, 20 eBurst Groups (eBGs) were identified in our data, which indicates that ST11 and ST19 belonged to eBG4 and eBG1, respectively. In addition, the potential association between the putative risk factors and eBGs were evaluated. There was no significant clustering of these eBGs by season; however, a significant association was identified in terms of nationality in that Qataris were six times more likely to present with eBG1 compared to non-Qataris. In the MST analysis, four major clusters were presented, namely, ST11, ST19, ST16, and ST31. The linkages between the clusters alluded to a possible transmission route. The results of the study have provided insight into the ST distributions of S. enterica and

  5. [The impact of population growth on Tamba Kosi, a Himalayan valley in Nepal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verliat, S

    1994-01-01

    Two several-month-long stays in the isolated Tamba Kosi valley in Nepal in 1983 and 1986 allowed an assessment of the importance of changes in rural societies. In about 50 years, the oldest inhabitants of some villages have seen the number of houses quadruple. In the absence of reliable statistical data, the inhabitants say that the Tamba Kosi valley population has doubled in the last 25 years. This population growth exacerbates the multiethnic fight for good land (i.e., ground of modest slope, hot, and humid). Many people have emigrated, which has somewhat eased problems relative to population growth. Soil degradation, which is becoming more and more acute, drives the inhabitants to cut down trees and clear the land for cultivation of new plots. These new plots are running up against steep slopes and high altitude. Most families have barely two hectares, which must suffice to feed 5-6 people on average. This fuels intensification of agricultural production, resulting in low efficacy. Livestock mutilate forests with their hooves and teeth. The marked increase in the variety of livestock accelerates this destruction. Three types of building materials are used in this high valley: thatch, shingles (fir tree), and bamboo matting. The disappearance of wild grasses used to make thatch roofs and people moving to higher and higher altitudes resulted in use of shingles to make roofs. Buildings made of shingles, which demanded changes in construction techniques, changed the conception of homes. They became the preferred building type, which increased the demand for fir trees and deforestation. This lead to a demand for roofing material made of bamboo matting and another change in construction techniques. The retreat of the forest and disappearance of the most wanted plant species are the most spectacular impacts of population growth. This environmental degradation exacerbates erosion at all bioclimatic altitudes.

  6. Modeling the Impact of Baryons on Subhalo Populations with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Ethan O.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Wetzel, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    We identify subhalos in dark matter–only (DMO) zoom-in simulations that are likely to be disrupted due to baryonic effects by using a random forest classifier trained on two hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way (MW)–mass host halos from the Latte suite of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. We train our classifier using five properties of each disrupted and surviving subhalo: pericentric distance and scale factor at first pericentric passage after accretion and scale factor, virial mass, and maximum circular velocity at accretion. Our five-property classifier identifies disrupted subhalos in the FIRE simulations with an 85% out-of-bag classification score. We predict surviving subhalo populations in DMO simulations of the FIRE host halos, finding excellent agreement with the hydrodynamic results; in particular, our classifier outperforms DMO zoom-in simulations that include the gravitational potential of the central galactic disk in each hydrodynamic simulation, indicating that it captures both the dynamical effects of a central disk and additional baryonic physics. We also predict surviving subhalo populations for a suite of DMO zoom-in simulations of MW-mass host halos, finding that baryons impact each system consistently and that the predicted amount of subhalo disruption is larger than the host-to-host scatter among the subhalo populations. Although the small size and specific baryonic physics prescription of our training set limits the generality of our results, our work suggests that machine-learning classification algorithms trained on hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations can efficiently predict realistic subhalo populations.

  7. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others...... acidosis and imbalanced energy supply, respectively. Calving interval was used as an indicator for fertility. Milk recording data and treatment data were retrospectively collected for a one year period before and after the first farm visit. Focus areas of animal health and welfare plans were either...

  8. The impact of maths support tutorials on mathematics confidence and academic performance in a cohort of HE Animal Science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veggel, Nieky; Amory, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Students embarking on a bioscience degree course, such as Animal Science, often do not have sufficient experience in mathematics. However, mathematics forms an essential and integral part of any bioscience degree and is essential to enhance employability. This paper presents the findings of a project looking at the effect of mathematics tutorials on a cohort of first year animal science and management students. The results of a questionnaire, focus group discussions and academic performance analysis indicate that small group tutorials enhance students' confidence in maths and improve students' academic performance. Furthermore, student feedback on the tutorial programme provides a deeper insight into student experiences and the value students assign to the tutorials.

  9. Impact of animal density on cattle nutrition in dry Mediterranean rangelands: a faecal near-IR spectroscopy-aided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Yehuda, Y; Muklada, H; Peleg, G; Henkin, Z; Voet, H; Ungar, E D

    2018-02-01

    In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement. In each season, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict the chemical composition of herbage samples (ash, NDF, CP, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) content from IVDMD). Near-IR spectroscopy was applied also to faecal samples to determine the chemical composition of the diet selected by the animal, as well as the contents of ash, NDF and CP in the faeces themselves. A faecal-NIRS equation was applied to estimate the dietary proportion of PL. Seasonal categories were green, dry without PL supplementation and dry with it. We found no effects of animal density on nutrition during the green season but effects were apparent when cows consumed dry pasture. Ash content predicted by faecal NIRS was higher in the diet than in plant samples clipped from pasture, which infers that cows ingested soil. Dietary and faecal ash contents were higher (Panimals. During the dry period, dietary contents of ME were higher in L than in H (Panimal health, the above results cast doubts on the long-term sustainability of the higher of the animal densities tested. Although it may be sustainable vis-à-vis the vegetation, treatment H may have exceeded the boundaries of what is acceptable for cow health. Chemical information revealed with NIRS can be used to evaluate whether animal densities are compatible with animal health and welfare standards and can play a role in determining the carrying capacity of Mediterranean rangelands.

  10. Mental distress in the general population in Zambia: Impact of HIV and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipimo Peter J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population level data on mental health from Africa are limited, but available data indicate mental problems to represent a substantial public health problem. The negative impact of HIV on mental health suggests that this could particularly be the case in high prevalence populations. We examined the prevalence of mental distress, distribution patterns and the ways HIV might influence mental health among men and women in a general population. Methods The relationship between HIV infection and mental distress was explored using a sample of 4466 participants in a population-based HIV survey conducted in selected rural and urban communities in Zambia in 2003. The Self-reporting questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10 was used to assess global mental distress. Weights were assigned to the SRQ-10 responses based on DSM IV criteria for depression and a cut off point set at 7/20 for probable cases of mental distress. A structural equation modeling (SEM was established to assess the structural relationship between HIV infection and mental distress in the model, with maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The HIV prevalence was 13.6% vs. 18% in the rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of mental distress was substantially higher among women than men and among groups with low educational attainment vs. high. The results of the SEM showed a close fit with the data. The final model revealed that self-rated health and self perceived HIV risk and worry of being HIV infected were important mediators between underlying factors, HIV infection and mental distress. The effect of HIV infection on mental distress was both direct and indirect, but was particularly strong through the indirect effects of health ratings and self perceived risk and worry of HIV infection. Conclusion These findings suggest a strong effect of HIV infection on mental distress. In this population where few knew their HIV status, this effect was

  11. Impact of stochasticity in immigration and reintroduction on colonizing and extirpating populations

    KAUST Repository

    Rajakaruna, Harshana; Potapov, Alexei; Lewis, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of populations at the edge of extinction is needed to manage both invasive and extirpating populations. Immigration can govern the population dynamics when the population levels are low. It increases

  12. The genetics of muscle atrophy and growth: the impact and implications of polymorphisms in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Erynn S; Gordish Dressman, Heather A; Hoffman, Eric P

    2005-10-01

    Much of the vast diversity we see in animals and people is governed by genetic loci that have quantitative effects of phenotype (quantitative trait loci; QTLs). Here we review the current knowledge of the genetics of atrophy and hypertrophy in both animal husbandry (meat quantity and quality), and humans (muscle size and performance). The selective breeding of animals for meat has apparently led to a few genetic loci with strong effects, with different loci in different animals. In humans, muscle quantitative trait loci (QTLs) appear to be more complex, with few "major" loci identified to date, although this is likely to change in the near future. We describe how the same phenotypic traits we see as positive, greater lean muscle mass in cattle or a better exercise results in humans, can also have negative "side effects" given specific environmental challenges. We also discuss the strength and limitations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) association studies; what the reader should look for and expect in a published study. Lastly we discuss the ethical and societal implications of this genetic information. As more and more research into the genetic loci that dictate phenotypic traits become available, the ethical implications of testing for these loci become increasingly important. As a society, most accept testing for genetic diseases or susceptibility, but do we as easily accept testing to determine one's athletic potential to be an Olympic endurance runner, or quarterback on the high school football team.

  13. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  14. Prevalence of tetracycline resistance and genotypic analysis of populations of Escherichia coli from animals, carcasses and cuts processed at a pig slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuyu, Wu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Vieira, Antonio R

    2009-01-01

    A Danish pig slaughterhouse was visited in this study to investigate the impact of carcass processing on prevalence of tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli, and to identify the origins of carcass contaminations with E. coli by assessing genetic diversity of E. coli populations on carcasses....... A total of 105 carcasses were sampled at five sequential stages: after stunning, after scalding, after splitting, after cooling and after cutting. Total and tetracycline-resistant E. coli were counted for each sample and tetracycline resistance prevalence per sample was calculated by the fraction...... of tetracycline-resistant E. coli out of total E. coli. From 15 repeatedly sampled carcasses, 422 E. coli isolates from faeces, stunned carcasses, split carcasses and chilled carcasses were examined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The results showed that E...

  15. Impact of Pathogen Population Heterogeneity and Stress-Resistant Variants on Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abee, T; Koomen, J; Metselaar, K I; Zwietering, M H; den Besten, H M W

    2016-01-01

    This review elucidates the state-of-the-art knowledge about pathogen population heterogeneity and describes the genotypic and phenotypic analyses of persister subpopulations and stress-resistant variants. The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of persister phenotypes and genetic variants are identified. Zooming in on Listeria monocytogenes, a comparative whole-genome sequence analysis of wild types and variants that enabled the identification of mutations in variants obtained after a single exposure to lethal food-relevant stresses is described. Genotypic and phenotypic features are compared to those for persistent strains isolated from food processing environments. Inactivation kinetics, models used for fitting, and the concept of kinetic modeling-based schemes for detection of variants are presented. Furthermore, robustness and fitness parameters of L. monocytogenes wild type and variants are used to model their performance in food chains. Finally, the impact of stress-resistant variants and persistence in food processing environments on food safety is discussed.

  16. The impact of development and population policies on fertility in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A K

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the impact of development and population policies on fertility decline and regional variations in India during the 1970s. Indicators of development at the household level include female literacy and education, infant mortality, and poverty; at the village level they include availability of such social services as schools, medical facilities, and transportation and communication facilities. Multiple regression analysis of data aggregated at the state level demonstrates that conditions conducive to fertility decline include high adult female literacy and low infant mortality as indicators of social development, and high contraceptive use and, to a lesser extent, high female age at marriage as proximate determinants of fertility. There are reasons to believe that India's national family planning program contributed to the decline in fertility observed since the 1960s. The pace of fertility decline in the future will depend upon the pace of infant mortality decline, enhancement in female education, and improvements in family planning programs.

  17. Population Impact of Drug Interactions with Warfarin: A Real-World Data Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, Mar; Gaist, David; de Abajo, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Luis A García

    2018-03-01

     To investigate the population impact of previously reported interactions between warfarin and other drugs on international normalized ratio (INR) levels.  Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a United Kingdom primary care database, a cohort of warfarin users between 2005 and 2013 ( N  = 121,962) was followed until the first qualifying prescription for the potential interacting drugs was evaluated. Sixteen sub-cohorts, one for each study drug, and a control sub-cohort of warfarin were ascertained. Short-term changes in INR levels were assessed by comparing INR values measured before and after initiation of the interacting drug with paired Student's t -test. We also evaluated the proportion of patients with INR values outside the therapeutic range (INR: 2-3).  Miconazole use was associated with the highest mean increase in INR (+3.35), followed by amiodarone (+1.28), fluconazole (+0.79), metronidazole (+0.75) and nystatin (+0.65). After subtracting the natural INR variation observed in the control sub-cohort, supra-therapeutic levels (INR > 3) were found in 53.2% (miconazole), 45.5% (amiodarone), 23.3% (metronidazole), 23.2% (fluconazole) and 17.6% (nystatin) of patients initiating treatment with these drugs. Carbamazepine use was associated with a mean INR decrease of -0.63 and infra-therapeutic levels (INR < 2) were observed in 46.2% of patients initiating carbamazepine. For all other drugs, the change was small to moderate, in absolute INR units (+0.23 to +0.55) and in the proportion of patients with INR levels out of therapeutic range (<16%).  Clinically potentially important interactions were observed in several study drugs. The majority of them, although confirmed, had little impact after adjusting for standard INR variability in the general population of warfarin users. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  18. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardstaff Joanne L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles. The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to

  19. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstaff, Joanne L; Bulling, Mark T; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2012-06-27

    The persistence of bovine TB (bTB) in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles). The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6-8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to reduce bTB in badgers include efforts to minimise such

  20. Estimating the potential impact of canine distemper virus on the Amur tiger population (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Miquelle, Dale G; Goodrich, John M; Reeve, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Matthews, Louise; Joly, Damien O

    2014-01-01

    Lethal infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) have recently been diagnosed in Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), but long-term implications for the population are unknown. This study evaluates the potential impact of CDV on a key tiger population in Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Zapovednik (SABZ), and assesses how CDV might influence the extinction potential of other tiger populations of varying sizes. An individual-based stochastic, SIRD (susceptible-infected-recovered/dead) model was used to simulate infection through predation of infected domestic dogs, and/or wild carnivores, and direct tiger-to-tiger transmission. CDV prevalence and effective contact based on published and observed data was used to define plausible low- and high-risk infection scenarios. CDV infection increased the 50-year extinction probability of tigers in SABZ by 6.3% to 55.8% compared to a control population, depending on risk scenario. The most significant factors influencing model outcome were virus prevalence in the reservoir population(s) and its effective contact rate with tigers. Adjustment of the mortality rate had a proportional impact, while inclusion of epizootic infection waves had negligible additional impact. Small populations were found to be disproportionately vulnerable to extinction through CDV infection. The 50-year extinction risk in populations consisting of 25 individuals was 1.65 times greater when CDV was present than that of control populations. The effects of density dependence do not protect an endangered population from the impacts of a multi-host pathogen, such as CDV, where they coexist with an abundant reservoir presenting a persistent threat. Awareness of CDV is a critical component of a successful tiger conservation management policy.

  1. Estimating the potential impact of canine distemper virus on the Amur tiger population (Panthera tigris altaica in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gilbert

    Full Text Available Lethal infections with canine distemper virus (CDV have recently been diagnosed in Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica, but long-term implications for the population are unknown. This study evaluates the potential impact of CDV on a key tiger population in Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Zapovednik (SABZ, and assesses how CDV might influence the extinction potential of other tiger populations of varying sizes. An individual-based stochastic, SIRD (susceptible-infected-recovered/dead model was used to simulate infection through predation of infected domestic dogs, and/or wild carnivores, and direct tiger-to-tiger transmission. CDV prevalence and effective contact based on published and observed data was used to define plausible low- and high-risk infection scenarios. CDV infection increased the 50-year extinction probability of tigers in SABZ by 6.3% to 55.8% compared to a control population, depending on risk scenario. The most significant factors influencing model outcome were virus prevalence in the reservoir population(s and its effective contact rate with tigers. Adjustment of the mortality rate had a proportional impact, while inclusion of epizootic infection waves had negligible additional impact. Small populations were found to be disproportionately vulnerable to extinction through CDV infection. The 50-year extinction risk in populations consisting of 25 individuals was 1.65 times greater when CDV was present than that of control populations. The effects of density dependence do not protect an endangered population from the impacts of a multi-host pathogen, such as CDV, where they coexist with an abundant reservoir presenting a persistent threat. Awareness of CDV is a critical component of a successful tiger conservation management policy.

  2. Estimating the Potential Impact of Canine Distemper Virus on the Amur Tiger Population (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Miquelle, Dale G.; Goodrich, John M.; Reeve, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Matthews, Louise; Joly, Damien O.

    2014-01-01

    Lethal infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) have recently been diagnosed in Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), but long-term implications for the population are unknown. This study evaluates the potential impact of CDV on a key tiger population in Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Zapovednik (SABZ), and assesses how CDV might influence the extinction potential of other tiger populations of varying sizes. An individual-based stochastic, SIRD (susceptible-infected-recovered/dead) model was used to simulate infection through predation of infected domestic dogs, and/or wild carnivores, and direct tiger-to-tiger transmission. CDV prevalence and effective contact based on published and observed data was used to define plausible low- and high-risk infection scenarios. CDV infection increased the 50-year extinction probability of tigers in SABZ by 6.3% to 55.8% compared to a control population, depending on risk scenario. The most significant factors influencing model outcome were virus prevalence in the reservoir population(s) and its effective contact rate with tigers. Adjustment of the mortality rate had a proportional impact, while inclusion of epizootic infection waves had negligible additional impact. Small populations were found to be disproportionately vulnerable to extinction through CDV infection. The 50-year extinction risk in populations consisting of 25 individuals was 1.65 times greater when CDV was present than that of control populations. The effects of density dependence do not protect an endangered population from the impacts of a multi-host pathogen, such as CDV, where they coexist with an abundant reservoir presenting a persistent threat. Awareness of CDV is a critical component of a successful tiger conservation management policy. PMID:25354196

  3. Impact of migration on the expression of aggression and empathy in urban populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubov Atramentova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration is a very important and powerful factor of population dynamics. It can lead to evident genetic consequences, like allele frequency change, as well to non-direct effects by creating new environment for migrant genes to be realized, and different personality and somatic traits, governed by these genes, to be expressed, accordingly. Aim: The aim of this research was to assess the impact of migration on the level of empathy and aggression among native population and migrants of the Ukrainian megapolis. Subjects and methods: Altogether 444 males and 597 females – permanent residents of Kharkov aged 45–65 years passed a test for the level of aggression by Assinger's questionnaire and for the level of empathy by Mehrabian-Epstein's questionnaire. Results: Place of birth of both subjects and their parents was taken into account. The migration and the “alien” genes appear to increase the level of aggression and reduce the level of empathy. Combined action of these factors resulted in an average level of empathy by 15–16% and aggression by 5–6%. Conclusion: Variation in the level of aggression is much more dependent on the genetic factor (4% rather than on the environmental (1.8%. The rate of the environmental factor in the empathy variation is 9%, when the genetic − 7%. Keywords: Migration, Ukraine, Aggression, Empathy

  4. The impact of population ageing on the social security expenditure and economic growth in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, N

    1987-05-01

    The author considers the impact of demographic aging in Japan on the social security system and on economic growth. It is argued that "First of all, as the cost of social security (including social services) increases remarkably at the earlier stage of ageing, the disposable (after tax) income and private consumption of the present labour force generation tend to increase at a lower growth rate than that of the GNP....Secondly if pension systems are based on terminal funding schemes, the ageing of the population increases savings (net increase of the amount of the pension funds) at the earlier stage of the ageing of the population. Thirdly, there is a time lag between the increase of social security benefits and the decrease in the personal savings ratio. The high ratio of savings and the shortage of aggregate demand as well as the high pressure for export in...recent Japan can partly be attributed to the above factors." Possible future economic scenarios as demographic ageing in Japan proceeds are described, and policies to avert anticipated problems are outlined. (SUMMARY IN JPN) excerpt

  5. Potential health impacts of heavy metals on HIV-infected population in USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Noninfectious comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases have become increasingly prevalent and occur earlier in life in persons with HIV infection. Despite the emerging body of literature linking environmental exposures to chronic disease outcomes in the general population, the impacts of environmental exposures have received little attention in HIV-infected population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether individuals living with HIV have elevated prevalence of heavy metals compared to non-HIV infected individuals in United States. METHODS: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010 to compare exposures to heavy metals including cadmium, lead, and total mercury in HIV infected and non-HIV infected subjects. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, we found that HIV-infected individuals had higher concentrations of all heavy metals than the non-HIV infected group. In a multivariate linear regression model, HIV status was significantly associated with increased blood cadmium (p=0.03 after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, poverty income ratio, and smoking. However, HIV status was not statistically associated with lead or mercury levels after adjusting for the same covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HIV-infected patients might be significantly more exposed to cadmium compared to non-HIV infected individuals which could contribute to higher prevalence of chronic diseases among HIV-infected subjects. Further research is warranted to identify sources of exposure and to understand more about specific health outcomes.

  6. Invasive rats on tropical islands: Their population biology and impacts on native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A. Harper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most invasive rat species, black or ship rat Rattus rattus, brown or Norway rats, R. norvegicus and Pacific rat, R. exulans have been incrementally introduced to islands as humans have explored the world’s oceans. They have caused serious deleterious effects through predation and competition, and extinction of many species on tropical islands, many of which are biodiversity hotspots. All three rat species are found in virtually all habitat types, including mangrove and arid shrub land. Black rats tend to dominate the literature but despite this the population biology of invasive rats, particularly Norway rats, is poorly researched on tropical islands. Pacific rats can often exceed population densities of well over 100 rats ha−1 and black rats can attain densities of 119 rats ha−1, which is much higher than recorded on most temperate islands. High densities are possibly due to high recruitment of young although the data to support this are limited. The generally aseasonally warm climate can lead to year-round breeding but can be restricted by either density-dependent effects interacting with resource constraints often due to aridity. Apparent adverse impacts on birds have been well recorded and almost all tropical seabirds and land birds can be affected by rats. On the Pacific islands, black rats have added to declines and extinctions of land birds caused initially by Pacific rats. Rats have likely caused unrecorded extinctions of native species on tropical islands. Further research required on invasive rats on tropical islands includes the drivers of population growth and carrying capacities that result in high densities and how these differ to temperate islands, habitat use of rats in tropical vegetation types and interactions with other tropical species, particularly the reptiles and invertebrates, including crustaceans.

  7. Etiology and management of esophageal food impaction: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretarsdottir, Helga M; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Björnsson, Einar S

    2015-05-01

    Esophageal food impaction (FI) is a common clinical problem with limited information on incidence. Previous population based studies are lacking. The incidence, main etiological factors, recurrence and outcome of FI was determined in the present study in a population based setting. This was a study of consecutive adult patients who presented with FI from 2008 to 2013 at the National University Hospital of Iceland. The mean crude incidence rate of FI was calculated. Retrospective analysis was undertaken on relevant clinical data such as type of bolus, management, complications, recurrence rate, risk factors for recurrence, and outcome. Overall 308 patients had endoscopically confirmed FI, males 199/308 (65%), median age 62 years. The mean crude incidence was 25 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The types of FI was meat (68%), fish (12%), vegetable (4%) and other food/objects (16%). Causes for the FI included: esophageal strictures (45%), hiatal hernia (22%), eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) (16%) and esophageal carcinoma (2%). Recurrence appeared in 21%, in which 24/48 (50%) had EoE vs. 40/260 (15%) in others (p = 0.0001). The removal of the foreign body was successful in 98% of the cases during the first endoscopy. Endoscopic associated complications included four (1.3%) aspirations, one (0.3%) esophageal perforation and one Boerhaave syndrome at presentation (both had EoE). The incidence of FI is the highest reported to date. EoE was strongly associated with recurrence of FI. In a population based setting endoscopy is a safe and effective procedure for removing FI.

  8. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  9. [Environmental pollution, climate variability and climate change: a review of health impacts on the Peruvian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of the pollution of water, air and the effect of climate change on the health of the Peruvian population. A major air pollutant is particulate matter less than 2.5 μ (PM 2.5). In Lima, 2,300 premature deaths annually are attributable to this pollutant. Another problem is household air pollution by using stoves burning biomass fuels, where excessive indoor exposure to PM 2.5 inside the household is responsible for approximately 3,000 annual premature deaths among adults, with another unknown number of deaths among children due to respiratory infections. Water pollution is caused by sewage discharges into rivers, minerals (arsenic) from various sources, and failure of water treatment plants. In Peru, climate change may impact the frequency and severity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which has been associated with an increase in cases of diseases such as cholera, malaria and dengue. Climate change increases the temperature and can extend the areas affected by vector-borne diseases, have impact on the availability of water and contamination of the air. In conclusion, Peru is going through a transition of environmental risk factors, where traditional and modern risks coexist and infectious and chronic problems remain, some of which are associated with problems of pollution of water and air.

  10. Estimating population heat exposure and impacts on working people in conjunction with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Briggs, David

    2018-03-01

    hotter areas. In China, the heat impact will increase from 0.3 to 2%, and in India, from 2 to 8%. Especially affected countries, such as Cambodia, may have losses going beyond 10%, while countries with most of the population at high cooler altitude, such as Ethiopia, may experience much lower losses.

  11. Impact of Environmental Policies on the Adoption of Animal Waste Management Practices in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jeff; Ribaudo, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the ERS-NASS ARMS surveys to compare the use of best management practices on poultry and livestock farms inside the watershed and outside the watershed. Animal operations within the Chesapeake Bay States were found to be adopting some important manure management practices at a greater rate than operations outside the watershed. Adoption was taking place before the implementation of the TMDL, indicating that farmers may have been acting in response to building public pressure ...

  12. The impact of maternally derived immunity on influenza A virus transmission in neonatal pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerson, Matt; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan E; Gramer, Marie R; Joo, Han Soo; Romagosa, Anna; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-07

    The commonality of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure and vaccination on swine farms in the United States ensures that the majority of neonatal pigs will have some degree of maternal immunity to IAV. The influence of maternal immunity on IAV transmission in neonatal pig populations will impact virus prevalence and infection dynamics across pig populations. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of maternally derived immunity on IAV transmission in an experimental setting. Neonatal pigs suckled colostrum and derived maternal (passive) immunity from sows in one of three treatment groups: (a) non-vaccinated control (CTRL) or vaccinated with (b) homologous (PASSV-HOM) or (c) heterologous (PASSV-HET) inactivated experimental IAV vaccines. Sentinel neonatal pigs derived from the groups above were challenged with IAV via direct contact with an experimentally infected pig (seeder pig) and monitored for IAV infection daily via nasal swab sampling. A susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) experimental model was used to obtain and estimate transmission parameters in each treatment group via a generalized linear model. All sentinel pigs in the CTRL (30/30) and PASSV-HET (30/30) groups were infected with IAV following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimates (95% confidence interval) were 10.4 (6.6-15.8) and 7.1 (4.2-11.3), respectively. In contrast, 1/20 sentinel pigs in the PASSV-HOM group was infected following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimate was significantly lower compared to the CTRL and PASSV-HET groups at 0.8 (0.1-3.7). Under the conditions of this study, IAV transmission was reduced in neonatal pigs with homologous maternal immunity compared to seronegative neonatal pigs and pigs with heterologous maternal immunity as defined in this study. This study provides estimates for IAV transmission in pigs with differing types of maternal immunity which may describe the influence of maternal immunity on

  13. Climate change and environmental impacts on maternal and newborn health with focus on Arctic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkjel M. Sandanger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC presented a report on global warming and the impact of human activities on global warming. Later the Lancet commission identified six ways human health could be affected. Among these were not environmental factors which are also believed to be important for human health. In this paper we therefore focus on environmental factors, climate change and the predicted effects on maternal and newborn health. Arctic issues are discussed specifically considering their exposure and sensitivity to long range transported contaminants.Considering that the different parts of pregnancy are particularly sensitive time periods for the effects of environmental exposure, this review focuses on the impacts on maternal and newborn health. Environmental stressors known to affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas.The total number of environmental factors is today responsible for a large number of the global deaths, especially in young children. Climate change will most likely lead to an increase in this number. Exposure to the different environmental stressors especially air pollution will in most parts of the world increase with climate change, even though some areas might face lower exposure. Populations at risk today are believed to be most heavily affected. As for the persistent organic pollutants a warming climate leads to a remobilisation and a possible increase in food chain exposure in the Arctic and thus increased risk for Arctic populations. This is especially the case for mercury. The perspective for the next generations will be closely connected to the expected temperature changes; changes in housing conditions; changes in exposure patterns; predicted increased exposure to Mercury

  14. Adoption of a High-Impact Innovation in a Homogeneous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Curtis H.; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Glaser, Joshua I.; Pah, Adam R.; Persell, Stephen D.; Baker, David W.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Nunes Amaral, Luís A.

    2014-10-01

    Adoption of innovations, whether new ideas, technologies, or products, is crucially important to knowledge societies. The landmark studies of adoption dealt with innovations having great societal impact (such as antibiotics or hybrid crops) but where determining the utility of the innovation was straightforward (such as fewer side effects or greater yield). Recent large-scale studies of adoption were conducted within heterogeneous populations and focused on products with little societal impact. Here, we focus on a case with great practical significance: adoption by small groups of highly trained individuals of innovations with large societal impact but for which it is impractical to determine the true utility of the innovation. Specifically, we study experimentally the adoption by critical care physicians of a diagnostic assay that complements current protocols for the diagnosis of life-threatening bacterial infections and for which a physician cannot estimate the true accuracy of the assay based on personal experience. We show through computational modeling of the experiment that infection-spreading models—which have been formalized as generalized contagion processes—are not consistent with the experimental data, while a model inspired by opinion models is able to reproduce the empirical data. Our modeling approach enables us to investigate the efficacy of different intervention schemes on the rate and robustness of innovation adoption in the real world. While our study is focused on critical care physicians, our findings have implications for other settings in education, research, and business, where small groups of highly qualified peers make decisions about the adoption of innovations whose utility is difficult if not impossible to gauge.

  15. Adoption of a High-Impact Innovation in a Homogeneous Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis H. Weiss

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of innovations, whether new ideas, technologies, or products, is crucially important to knowledge societies. The landmark studies of adoption dealt with innovations having great societal impact (such as antibiotics or hybrid crops but where determining the utility of the innovation was straightforward (such as fewer side effects or greater yield. Recent large-scale studies of adoption were conducted within heterogeneous populations and focused on products with little societal impact. Here, we focus on a case with great practical significance: adoption by small groups of highly trained individuals of innovations with large societal impact but for which it is impractical to determine the true utility of the innovation. Specifically, we study experimentally the adoption by critical care physicians of a diagnostic assay that complements current protocols for the diagnosis of life-threatening bacterial infections and for which a physician cannot estimate the true accuracy of the assay based on personal experience. We show through computational modeling of the experiment that infection-spreading models—which have been formalized as generalized contagion processes—are not consistent with the experimental data, while a model inspired by opinion models is able to reproduce the empirical data. Our modeling approach enables us to investigate the efficacy of different intervention schemes on the rate and robustness of innovation adoption in the real world. While our study is focused on critical care physicians, our findings have implications for other settings in education, research, and business, where small groups of highly qualified peers make decisions about the adoption of innovations whose utility is difficult if not impossible to gauge.

  16. Consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef. The impact of exposure to technological information about animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sawada, Manabu; Sato, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    Novel food technologies, such as cloning, have been introduced into the meat production sector; however, their use is not widely supported by many consumers. This study was designed to assess whether Japanese consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef (specifically, beef derived from bovine embryo and somatic cell-cloned cattle) would change after they were provided with technological information on animal cloning through a web-based survey. The results revealed that most respondents did not discriminate between their attitudes toward the consumption of the two types of cloned beef, and that most respondents did not change their attitudes toward cloned beef after receiving the technological information. The respondents' individual characteristics, including their knowledge about the food safety of cloned beef and their basic knowledge about animal cloning, influenced the likelihood of a change in their attitudes after they received the information. In conclusion, some consumers might become less uncomfortable about the consumption of cloned beef by the straightforward provision of technological information about animal cloning; however, most consumers are likely to maintain their attitudes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Animated Spokes-Characters in Print Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Nilesh S; Rollins, Brent L; Perri, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    A randomized, posttest-only online survey study of adult U.S. consumers determined the advertising effectiveness (attitude toward ad, brand, company, spokes-characters, attention paid to the ad, drug inquiry intention, and perceived product risk) of animated spokes-characters in print direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs and the moderating effects of consumers' involvement. Consumers' responses (n = 490) were recorded for animated versus nonanimated (human) spokes-characters in a fictitious DTC ad. Guided by the elaboration likelihood model, data were analyzed using a 2 (spokes-character type: animated/human) × 2 (involvement: high/low) factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The MANCOVA indicated significant main effects of spokes-character type and involvement on the dependent variables after controlling for covariate effects. Of the several ad effectiveness variables, consumers only differed on their attitude toward the spokes-characters between the two spokes-character types (specifically, more favorable attitudes toward the human spokes-character). Apart from perceived product risk, high-involvement consumers reacted more favorably to the remaining ad effectiveness variables compared to the low-involvement consumers, and exhibited significantly stronger drug inquiry intentions during their next doctor visit. Further, the moderating effect of consumers' involvement was not observed (nonsignificant interaction effect between spokes-character type and involvement).

  18. The impact on environment and population of the sands with radioactive heavy minerals processing activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelian, F.; Popescu, M.; Georgescu, D.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a case study concerning the impact on environment and population of a Pilot Station, which was used between 1970 and 1996 to obtain mono-mineral concentrates (ilmenite, zircon, garnet, rutile, monazite) by processing alluvial and seashore sands. The processing technological flow sheet was constituted only of physical separation processes, where were operating equipments such as shaking tables, electric and magnetic separators, attrition equipments, etc. The paper is structured on three levels and presents: - A brief description of the Pilot Station activity, sand types processed and its physical, chemical and mineralogic characteristics. The obtained products were: garnets with 10 ppm uranium and 60 ppm thorium, ilmenite with 10 ppm uranium and 20 ppm thorium, zircon with 450 ppm uranium and 750 ppm thorium and monazite with 3,000 ppm uranium and 20,000 ppm thorium. The sterile accumulated during the Pilot Station functioning time is also characterized. - The impact of the Pilot Station activity on environment (soil, air). The contamination sources are identified and characterized. The only one contamination pathway is represented by 'radioactive dust' resulted from the sands processing activity. The contamination processes are explained and justified. The contaminated soil surface was investigated through: gamma rate doses determination (at the surface and on a depth o f up to 40 cm), measurement of Rn 222 + Rn 220 concentration at one meter distance from the surface and for 40 cm soil depth, analysis of uranium, radium and thorium for samples collected from a soil depth ranging between 10 and 40 cm. There were elaborated maps showing gamma rate doses distribution and the specific activity for the surface as well as for the different soil depths. It was established the contamination level and its value was compared to the ones stipulated by Romanian Nuclear Authority norms, namely 0.2 Bq/g for the specific activity (Ra 226 + Th 232) and 0.3

  19. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    Full Text Available In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health.The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP, on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms.The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64 traumatic events (range 0-18. Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4 and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47. The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021 and depression (p = 0·002 symptom models.The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  20. Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

  1. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokefree environments legislation is increasingly being implemented around the world. Evaluations largely find that the legislation is popular, compliance is high and report improved air quality and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The impact of the legislation on disadvantaged groups, including indigenous peoples has not been explored. We present findings from a multifaceted evaluation of the impact of the smokefree workplace provisions of the New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act on Māori people in New Zealand. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The Smokefree Environments Amendment Act extended existing smokefree legislation to almost all indoor workplaces in December 2004 (including restaurants and pubs/bars. Methods Review of existing data and commissioned studies to identify evidence for the evaluation of the new legislation: including attitudes and support for the legislation; stakeholders views about the Act and the implementation process; impact on SHS exposure in workplaces and other settings; and impact on smoking-related behaviours. Results Support for the legislation was strong among Māori and reached 90% for smokefree restaurants and 84% for smokefree bars by 2006. Māori stakeholders interviewed were mostly supportive of the way the legislation had been introduced. Reported exposure to SHS in workplaces decreased similarly in Māori and non-Māori with 27% of employed adult Māori reporting SHS exposure indoors at work during the previous week in 2003 and 9% in 2006. Exposure to SHS in the home declined, and may have decreased more in Māori households containing one or more smokers. For example, the proportion of 14–15 year old Māori children reporting that smoking occurred in their home fell from 47% in 2001 to 37% in 2007. Similar reductions in socially-cued smoking occurred among Māori and non-Māori. Evidence for the effect on smoking prevalence was mixed. M

  2. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background Smokefree environments legislation is increasingly being implemented around the world. Evaluations largely find that the legislation is popular, compliance is high and report improved air quality and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The impact of the legislation on disadvantaged groups, including indigenous peoples has not been explored. We present findings from a multifaceted evaluation of the impact of the smokefree workplace provisions of the New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act on Māori people in New Zealand. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The Smokefree Environments Amendment Act extended existing smokefree legislation to almost all indoor workplaces in December 2004 (including restaurants and pubs/bars). Methods Review of existing data and commissioned studies to identify evidence for the evaluation of the new legislation: including attitudes and support for the legislation; stakeholders views about the Act and the implementation process; impact on SHS exposure in workplaces and other settings; and impact on smoking-related behaviours. Results Support for the legislation was strong among Māori and reached 90% for smokefree restaurants and 84% for smokefree bars by 2006. Māori stakeholders interviewed were mostly supportive of the way the legislation had been introduced. Reported exposure to SHS in workplaces decreased similarly in Māori and non-Māori with 27% of employed adult Māori reporting SHS exposure indoors at work during the previous week in 2003 and 9% in 2006. Exposure to SHS in the home declined, and may have decreased more in Māori households containing one or more smokers. For example, the proportion of 14–15 year old Māori children reporting that smoking occurred in their home fell from 47% in 2001 to 37% in 2007. Similar reductions in socially-cued smoking occurred among Māori and non-Māori. Evidence for the effect on smoking prevalence was mixed. Māori responded to the new law with

  3. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-04-30

    Smokefree environments legislation is increasingly being implemented around the world. Evaluations largely find that the legislation is popular, compliance is high and report improved air quality and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The impact of the legislation on disadvantaged groups, including indigenous peoples has not been explored. We present findings from a multifaceted evaluation of the impact of the smokefree workplace provisions of the New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act on Māori people in New Zealand. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The Smokefree Environments Amendment Act extended existing smokefree legislation to almost all indoor workplaces in December 2004 (including restaurants and pubs/bars). Review of existing data and commissioned studies to identify evidence for the evaluation of the new legislation: including attitudes and support for the legislation; stakeholders views about the Act and the implementation process; impact on SHS exposure in workplaces and other settings; and impact on smoking-related behaviours. Support for the legislation was strong among Māori and reached 90% for smokefree restaurants and 84% for smokefree bars by 2006. Māori stakeholders interviewed were mostly supportive of the way the legislation had been introduced. Reported exposure to SHS in workplaces decreased similarly in Māori and non-Māori with 27% of employed adult Māori reporting SHS exposure indoors at work during the previous week in 2003 and 9% in 2006. Exposure to SHS in the home declined, and may have decreased more in Māori households containing one or more smokers. For example, the proportion of 14-15 year old Māori children reporting that smoking occurred in their home fell from 47% in 2001 to 37% in 2007. Similar reductions in socially-cued smoking occurred among Māori and non-Māori. Evidence for the effect on smoking prevalence was mixed. Māori responded to the new law with increased calls to the

  4. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Spurgin, Lewis G; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-05-01

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity, and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall, have received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I diversity over a 23-year period in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We found low and stable microsatellite and MHC diversity in the source population and evidence for only a limited loss of either type of diversity in the four new populations. However, we found evidence of significant, but low to moderate, genetic differentiation between populations, with those populations established with fewer founders clustering separately. Stochastic genetic capture (as opposed to subsequent drift) was the main determinant of translocated population diversity. Furthermore, a strong correlation between microsatellite and MHC differentiation suggested that neutral processes outweighed selection in shaping MHC diversity in the new populations. These data provide important insights into how to optimize the use of translocation as a conservation tool. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Ramjee

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002-2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old, unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole.

  6. The Impact of Coercive Migrations on the Changes of Total Population Flux in the War-Engulfed Croatian Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pažanin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the war impact and the impact of coercive migrations on the changes of total population fl ux between two censuses. On the eve of and during the Croatian War of Independence, the migration of population of the Republic of Croatia from the war-engulfed areas to the free areas of the country or to the foreign countries increased. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has caused a new wave of refugees from that country and a further migrational fl ux in our country. In the article, the