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Sample records for immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated

  1. Immunohistochemical demonstration of glial markers in retinoblastomas

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    Schrøder, H D

    1987-01-01

    Twenty retinoblastomas were studied immunohistochemically in order to visualize glial cells. In the retina, the glial cells in the ganglion cell layer and the Müller cells were GFAP positive, while only the glial cells of the ganglion cell layer expressed S-100 reactivity. In the tumours S-100/GFAP...... cells reactive for both S-100 and GFAP were demonstrated. The latter findings may represent differentiation in a glial direction in the more mature parts of retinoblastoma....

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of mechanoreceptors in the human posterior cruciate ligament: a demonstration of its proprioceptive role and clinical relevance.

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    Del Valle, M E; Harwin, S F; Maestro, A; Murcia, A; Vega, J A

    1998-12-01

    Although long-term studies report successful results with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), performed with or without posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retention, controversy exists as to which is preferable in regard to patient outcome and satisfaction. The possible proprioceptive role of the PCL may account for a more normal feeling of the arthroplasty. Although the PCL has been examined using various histological techniques, immunohistochemical techniques are the most sensitive for neural elements. Therefore an immunohistochemical study was designed to determine the patterns of innervation, the morphological types of the proprioceptors, and their immunohistochemical profile. During TKA, samples were obtained from 22 osteoarthritic PCLs and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis with mouse monoclonal antibodies against neurofilament protein (NFP), S100 protein (S100P), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and vimentin (all present in neuromechanoreceptors). Three normal PCLs from cadaveric specimens were also obtained and analyzed for comparison. Five types of sensory corpuscles were observed in both the normal and the arthritic PCLs: simple lamellar, Pacini-like, Ruffini, Krause-like, and morphologically unclassified. Their structure included a central axon, inner core, and capsule in lamellar and Pacini corpuscles and variable intracorpuscular axons and periaxonal cells in the Ruffini and Krause-like corpuscles. The immunohistochemical profile showed the central axon to have NFP immunoreactivity, periaxonal cells to have S100P and vimentin immunoreactivity, and the capsule to have EMA and vimentin immunoreactivity. Nerve fibers and free nerve endings displayed NFP and S100P immunoreactivity. The immunohistochemical profile of the PCL sensory corpuscles is almost identical to that of cutaneous sensory corpuscles. Some prior histological studies of the PCL reported Golgi-like mechanoreceptors, and others found encapsulated corpuscles but no Golgi-like structures

  3. Immunohistochemical Analysis Using Antipodocalyxin Monoclonal Antibody PcMab-47 Demonstrates Podocalyxin Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

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    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-10-01

    Podocalyxin is a CD34-related type I transmembrane protein that is highly glycosylated with N-glycan, O-glycan, and keratan sulfate. Podocalyxin was originally found in the podocytes of rat kidney and is reportedly expressed in many types of tumors, including brain tumors, colorectal cancers, and breast cancers. Overexpression of podocalyxin is an independent predictor of progression, metastasis, and poor outcome. We recently immunized mice with recombinant human podocalyxin, which was produced using LN229 glioblastoma cells, and produced a novel antipodocalyxin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PcMab-47, which reacts with endogenous podocalyxin-expressing cancer cell lines and normal cell lines independent of glycosylation in Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analyses. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis against oral cancers using PcMab-47. PcMab-47-stained oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in a cytoplasmic pattern and detected 26/38 (68.4%) of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells on tissue microarrays. These results indicate that PcMab-47 is useful in detecting podocalyxin of oral cancers for immunohistochemical analysis.

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of H3K27me3 demonstrates global reduction in group-A childhood posterior fossa ependymoma and is a powerful predictor of outcome.

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    Panwalkar, Pooja; Clark, Jonathan; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Hawes, Debra; Yang, Fusheng; Dunham, Christopher; Yip, Stephen; Hukin, Juliette; Sun, Yilun; Schipper, Matthew J; Chavez, Lukas; Margol, Ashley; Pekmezci, Melike; Chung, Chan; Banda, Adam; Bayliss, Jill M; Curry, Sarah J; Santi, Mariarita; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Snuderl, Matija; Karajannis, Matthias A; Saratsis, Amanda M; Horbinski, Craig M; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Wilson, Beverly; Johnston, Donna; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Zelcer, Shayna; Eisenstat, David; Silva, Marianna; Scheinemann, Katrin; Jabado, Nada; McNeely, P Daniel; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Hawkins, Cynthia; Korshunov, Andrey; Judkins, Alexander R; Venneti, Sriram

    2017-11-01

    Posterior fossa ependymomas (EPN_PF) in children comprise two morphologically identical, but biologically distinct tumor entities. Group-A (EPN_PFA) tumors have a poor prognosis and require intensive therapy. In contrast, group-B tumors (EPN_PFB) exhibit excellent prognosis and the current consensus opinion recommends future clinical trials to test the possibility of treatment de-escalation in these patients. Therefore, distinguishing these two tumor subtypes is critical. EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB can be distinguished based on DNA methylation signatures, but these assays are not routinely available. We have previously shown that a subset of poorly prognostic childhood EPN_PF exhibits global reduction in H3K27me3. Therefore, we set out to determine whether a simple immunohistochemical assay for H3K27me3 could be used to segregate EPN_PFA from EPN_PFB tumors. We assembled a cohort of 230 childhood ependymomas and H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry was assessed as positive or negative in a blinded manner. H3K27me3 staining results were compared with DNA methylation-based subgroup information available in 112 samples [EPN_PFA (n = 72) and EPN_PFB tumors (n = 40)]. H3K27me3 staining was globally reduced in EPN_PFA tumors and immunohistochemistry showed 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity in segregating EPN_PFA from EPN_PFB tumors. Moreover, H3K27me3 immunostaining was sufficient to delineate patients with worse prognosis in two independent, non-overlapping cohorts (n = 133 and n = 97). In conclusion, immunohistochemical evaluation of H3K27me3 global reduction is an economic, easily available and readily adaptable method for defining high-risk EPN_PFA from low-risk posterior fossa EPN_PFB tumors to inform prognosis and to enable the design of future clinical trials.

  5. Immunohistochemical analysis of forensic evidence from a double homicide.

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    Miller, Rodney T; Grantham, Ross; Lockett, Bruce; Temple-Camp, Cynric; Pang, James

    2002-12-01

    We report the use of immunohistochemical staining for analysis of forensic evidence from a double homicide. A 38-year-old woman and her 7-year-old daughter were murdered by multiple blows to the head and face with a tomahawk, resulting in multiple fragments of brain tissue scattered about the murder scene. The victims' husband and father was the main suspect, who maintained that he was out of town on business during the evening of the murders. However, a shirt taken from the suspect's car on the morning after the murders (secured by the police before the suspect visited the murder scene) was found to have two small stains. DNA analysis on the stains showed the presence of the deceased wife's DNA, and immunohistochemical stains on shirt fragments conclusively documented the presence of deep central nervous system tissue, providing the critical piece of evidence needed to arrest and prosecute the suspect. This report demonstrates that shirt or similar cloth fragments can be processed into paraffin blocks and subsequently immunostained to search for and classify types of tissue fragments that may be present on the fabric.

  6. An immunohistochemical analysis of naturally occurring chancroid.

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    King, R; Gough, J; Ronald, A; Nasio, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Plummer, F; Wilkins, J A

    1996-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is a major cause of genital ulcer disease in many developing countries and is associated with augmented transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the mechanisms through which H. ducreyi produces ulceration are poorly understood. The characteristics of the host response to H. ducreyi and the pathobiology of its potential contribution to increased HIV susceptibility are not known. Chancroid ulcer biopsies from 8 patients were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically. All biopsies had perivascular and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrates that extended deep into the dermis. The infiltrate, which contained macrophages and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, was consistent with a delayed hypersensitivity type cell-mediated immune response. The recruitment of CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages may in part explain the facilitation of HIV transmission in patients with chancroid.

  7. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ORAL MUCOSA LEUKOPLAKIA

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    Yu. G. KOLENKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the structure of oral mucosa diseases, in particular an increased ratio of precancerous diseases, so that an effective non-invasive detection of any sign of malignancy appears as an urgent and most actual task of dentistry. Aim: To study the proliferative activity of epithelial cells in Ki-67 antigenin patients with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. Materials and method: A complex clinical and laboratory examination was performed on 155 patients with oral leukoplakia, who addressed the Operative Dentistry Department of the “A.A.Bogomolets” National Medical University of Kiev between 2010 and 2014. All patients have been subjected to a careful clinical examination, which included: dental anamnesis, visual inspection, oral examination and digital palpation of oral mucosa and tongue mucosa, biopsy of leukoplakia lesions for cytological and histological examination. Results: Histological evaluation of the material has been performed according to the WHO (2005 classification of leukoplakia. 10 (14% sites of unaltered mucosa, 10 (14% samples of hyperkeratosis without atypia, 14 (19% biopsy specimens of hyperkeratosis SIN1, 15 (21% – hyperkeratosis SIN2, 10 (14% - SIN3 and 13 (18% cases of squamous cell carcinoma were evidenced. Immunohistochemical investigation evidenced the presence of protein Ki-67 in the nuclei of epithelial cells. In the unmodified epithelium of the oral mucosa, all epithelial cells with stained nuclei are virtually located in the basal layer. Conclusion: Against the general increase of the proliferative activity of epithelial cells with increasing SIN, a characteristic distribution of proliferating cells in the thickness of the epithelium was revealed for each studied group, as follows: in the control group and in leukoplakia without atypia, immunopositive cells are located in the basal layer, in leukoplakia (SIN1, SIN2 and SIN3 – in parabasal position while, in squamous

  8. Delineation of Chondroid Lipoma: An Immunohistochemical and Molecular Biological Analysis

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    de Vreeze, Ronald S. A.; van Coevorden, Frits; Boerrigter, Lucie; Nederlof, Petra M.; Haas, Rick L.; Bras, Johannes; Rosenwald, Andreas; Mentzel, Thomas; de Jong, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Aims. Chondroid lipoma (CL) is a benign tumor that mimics a variety of soft tissue tumors and is characterized by translocation t(11;16). Here, we analyze CL and its histological mimics. Methods. CL (n = 4) was compared to a variety of histological mimics (n = 83) for morphological aspects and immunohistochemical features including cyclinD1(CCND1). Using FISH analysis, CCND1 and FUS were investigated as potential translocation partners. Results. All CLs were strongly positive for CCND1. One of 4 myoepitheliomas, CCND1, was positive. In well-differentiated lipomatous tumors and in chondrosarcomas, CCND1 was frequently expressed, but all myxoid liposarcomas were negative. FISH analysis did not give support for direct involvement of CCND1 and FUS as translocation partners. Conclusions. Chondroid lipoma is extremely rare and has several and more prevalent histological mimics. The differential diagnosis of chondroid lipomas can be unraveled using immunohistochemical and molecular support. PMID:21559269

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in colorectal carcinoma correlates with high but not low level gene amplification, as demonstrated by CISH.

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    Hemmings, Chris; Broomfield, Amy; Bean, Elaine; Whitehead, Martin; Yip, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    To assess and compare immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with gene amplification as demonstrated by chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH), in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Sections from 100 consecutive colorectal cancer resection specimens were stained for EGFR using immunohistochemistry and CISH. Immunohistochemical assessment was independently performed at two laboratories, using the same antibody and protocols. With immunohistochemistry, strong circumferential membrane staining (3+ staining) was demonstrated in only 5% of cases, and this was only focal in three of five cases. At one laboratory, weak or incomplete staining (1+ or 2+) was observed in five further cases (5%), which had been negative at the other laboratory. CISH demonstrated high level gene amplification (>10 copies/nucleus) in the same five cases which had demonstrated 3+ staining with immunohistochemistry, and in those cases where the staining was focal, the amplification was demonstrated in the same foci of the tumour. Five further cases (5%) had low level amplification (5-10 copies per nucleus); these cases did not exhibit significant positive staining with immunohistochemistry. All the cases which demonstrated gene amplification (high or low level) arose in the distal colon. There was no correlation between gene amplification status and a variety of other variables, including stage at diagnosis, mucinous differentiation, neuroendocrine differentiation, or loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR is variable between laboratories, even using standardised protocols. 3+ staining is predictive of high level gene amplification, but correlates very poorly with low level amplification, which may still be clinically significant. In some cases gene amplification was only focal, offering a potential explanation for poor response to targeted therapy in patients with EGFR positive tumours.

  10. Simultaneous demonstration of gelatinolytic activity, morphology, and immunohistochemical reaction using zymography film.

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    Kanomata, Naoki; Hasebe, Takahiro; Moriya, Takuya; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2013-12-01

    In situ zymography has been used to assess gelatinolytic activity, which is mainly due to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cancer tissues. MMPs play an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Film in situ zymography (FIZ) enables the in situ evaluation of gelatinolytic activity with high reproducibility. In this article, we report a study of FIZ, in a case of breast cancer with an invasive carcinoma component showing clear gelatinolytic activity, and in a non-invasive carcinoma component showing little gelatinolytic activity. Immunohistochemistry on FIZ was also performed. The simultaneous detection of gelatinolytic activity and immunohistochemical reaction was established in a single film. Immunohistochemistry on FIZ may have good potential for the investigation of cancer microenvironment.

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts

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    Gaballah, Essam Taher M.A.; Tawfik, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor gene, the mutations of which are closely related to the decreased differentiation of cells. Findings of studies on immunohistochemical P53 expression in odontogenic cysts are controversial. The present study was carried-out to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts. Thirty paraffin blocks of diagnosed odontogenic cysts were processed to determine the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein. Nine of the 11 odontogenic keratocysts (81.8%) expressed P53, one of three dentigerous cyst cases expressed P53, while none of the 16 radicular cysts expressed P53 protein. The findings of the present work supported the reclassification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:23960493

  12. Germline MLH1 Mutations Are Frequently Identified in Lynch Syndrome Patients With Colorectal and Endometrial Carcinoma Demonstrating Isolated Loss of PMS2 Immunohistochemical Expression.

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    Dudley, Beth; Brand, Randall E; Thull, Darcy; Bahary, Nathan; Nikiforova, Marina N; Pai, Reetesh K

    2015-08-01

    Current guidelines on germline mutation testing for patients suspected of having Lynch syndrome are not entirely clear in patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical expression. We analyzed the clinical and pathologic features of patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 expression in an attempt to (1) determine the frequency of germline MLH1 and PMS2 mutations and (2) correlate mismatch-repair protein immunohistochemistry and tumor histology with germline mutation results. A total of 3213 consecutive colorectal carcinomas and 215 consecutive endometrial carcinomas were prospectively analyzed for DNA mismatch-repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry. In total, 32 tumors from 31 patients demonstrated isolated loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical expression, including 16 colorectal carcinomas and 16 endometrial carcinomas. Microsatellite instability (MSI) polymerase chain reaction was performed in 29 tumors from 28 patients with the following results: 28 tumors demonstrated high-level MSI, and 1 tumor demonstrated low-level MSI. Twenty of 31 (65%) patients in the study group had tumors demonstrating histopathology associated with high-level MSI. Seventeen patients underwent germline mutation analysis with the following results: 24% with MLH1 mutations, 35% with PMS2 mutations, 12% with PMS2 variants of undetermined significance, and 29% with no mutations in either MLH1 or PMS2. Three of the 4 patients with MLH1 germline mutations had a mutation that results in decreased stability and quantity of the MLH1 protein that compromises the MLH1-PMS2 protein complex, helping to explain the presence of immunogenic but functionally inactive MLH1 protein within the tumor. The high frequency of MLH1 germline mutations identified in our study has important implications for testing strategies in patients suspected of having Lynch syndrome and indicates that patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 expression

  13. Immunohistochemical and radioimmunological demonstration of alpha1-fetoprotein in nonmalignant changes of human gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falser, N.; Lederer, B.; Reissigl, H.; Innsbruck Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The occurence of α 1 fetoprotein in nonmalignant changes of the gastric mucosa was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry and radioimmunonoassay. The investigations were performed in tissue sections, cytological imprint preparations as well as in homogenized tissue samples (obtained by gastroscopy). α 1 fetoprotein could be demonstrated by immuno-histochemistry in about 90% of the samples originating from the surroundings of gastric ulcer and the region of gastrojejunostomy after B II-resection. The RIA was positive in about 75% of the tissue samples, whereas from gastric juice only 40% of positive results could be obtained. No α 1 fetoprotein-activity could be demonstrated in serum samples. These investigations indicate that α 1 fetoprotein is not exclusively synthesized by embryonic or neoplastic tissues and also can be synthesized also by regenerating cell-systems. It may be supposed that this synthesis represents an unspecific answer to growth-stimulation. (orig.) [de

  14. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 85 cases.

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    Mahta, Ali; Haghpanah, Vahid; Lashkari, Anahita; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas without clinically active hypersecretion are summarized under the term non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Since there are no specific serum markers, the differential diagnosis and treatment imply special difficulties. By using immunohistochemical methods we will have new insight into the nature and pathogenesis of these tumours. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its labelling index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of immunohistochemistry and MIB1-LI determination in NFPAs to predict tumoural behaviour and better management. In this clinicopathological study, 85 cases of NFPAs were analysed immunohistochemically. MIB1-LI was also determined in studied cases. Clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up data were also reviewed and the correlation between clinical and pathologic findings was established. Eighteen adenomas (21.2%) were immunoreactive to one or two adenohypophysial hormones of which 4 GH positive adenomas had aggressive behaviour (2 significant juxtasellar extensions and 2 recurrences). MIB-1 LI was more than 5% in only 5 cases including 2 invasive adenomas but with no evidence of recurrence. No significant statistical difference between clinical presentations in immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive NFPAs was observed except for unilateral temporal hemianopia which was more common in immunoreactive adenomas (P=0.022). NFPAs comprise several pathologically different types of tumours, some of which are potentially hormone producing, but some defects in hormone secretion or production of biologically inactive or insufficient amount of hormone may be the culprit in the lack of evidence of rising serum hormone levels. MIB-1 LI may be indicative of invasiveness but not a predictor of recurrence. Silent somatotropinomas may have more aggressive behaviour in comparison with other NFPAs.

  15. Immunohistochemical Analysis of P63 Expression in Odontogenic Lesions

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    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Eini, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (P = 0.86). Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells. PMID:24350278

  16. Hyperplastic corneal pannus: an immunohistochemical analysis and review.

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    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Stacy, Rebecca C; Mendoza, Pia R; Chodosh, James

    2014-01-01

    An exuberant corneal pannus usually develops in adults with a history of surgery or trauma in the anterior central stroma and appears as a glistening, vascularized, moderately elevated, well circumscribed white nodule. We describe a 78-year-old woman with such a pannus, which in the past has typically been referred to as keloidal or hypertrophic. The involved eye had only light perception, and she underwent a penetrating keratoplasty that improved her vision to 20/100. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of a the specimen disclosed a reactive spindle cell stromal proliferation of myofibroblasts that were smooth muscle actin positive with a low Ki67 proliferation index. Desmin, caldesmon, and calponin were negative, in keeping with the incomplete myofilamentary differentiation of a myofibroblast. There was a generous admixture of CD68/163-positive histiocytes and dispersed C3/5-positive T-lymphocytes. An absence of CD138- and IgG4-positive plasma cells ruled out an IgG4-related disease. For a lesion to be keloidal, the collagen must have a thick hyaline character, sharp edges, and a sparsity of intervening cells and vessels. A hypertrophic pannus would be composed of large swollen cells not necessarily increased in number. We therefore recommend adoption of the term hyperplastic for lesions like that described here because of the obvious increase in cellularity from proliferating myofibroblasts and the lack of true keloidal collagen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunohistochemical Analysis of P63 Expression in Odontogenic Lesions

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    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (. Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells.

  18. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Vimentin in Oral Sub mucous Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, M. T.; Singh, A.; Desai, R. S.; Vanaki, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition, is characterized by abnormal accumulation of collagen fibers in oral sub mucosa. Vimentin is a Class 2 intermediate filament (IF) and primarily expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin. Vimentin is also found to be involved in cell growth, cell cycling, and tumour differentiation. Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare the expression of vimentin in various histological grades of OSF. Materials and Methods. To assess the immunohistochemical expression of vimentin in 20 mild cases of OSF, 20 severe cases of OSF, and ten cases of normal oral buccal mucosa. Results. The overall staining intensity of vimentin significantly increased statistically (P<0.01) in OSF cases over normal control. A significant increase in the staining intensity of vimentin was also noted in the fibroblasts of severe cases of OSF (P=0.03). Conclusion. Considering the marked vimentin expression in the present study, future studies should include cytoskeleton IF and other filaments in the fibroblasts of OSF.

  19. Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy: Contribution of a Molecular and Immunohistochemical Analysis in Diagnosis in Morocco

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    Hanane Bellayou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations of the DMD gene located at Xp21. In DMD patients, dystrophin is virtually absent; whereas BMD patients have 10% to 40% of the normal amount. Deletions in the dystrophin gene represent 65% of mutations in DMD/BMD patients. To explain the contribution of immunohistochemical and genetic analysis in the diagnosis of these dystrophies, we present 10 cases of DMD/BMD with particular features. We have analyzed the patients with immunohistochemical staining and PCR multiplex to screen for exons deletions. Determination of the quantity and distribution of dystrophin by immunohistochemical staining can confirm the presence of dystrophinopathy and allows differentiation between DMD and BMD, but dystrophin staining is not always conclusive in BMD. Therefore, only identification involved mutation by genetic analysis can establish a correct diagnosis.

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of restenotic tissue after transjugular portosystemic shunt

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    Lu Qin; An Yanli; Deng Gang; Fang Wen; Zhu Guangyu; Li Guozhao; Wei Xiaoying; Liu Yuanyuan; Teng Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of several restenotic tissue elements after transjugular portosystemic shunt, and to provide more informations for the mechanism of TIPS restenosis. Methods: TIPS was performed in 6 swine to set up TIPS animal models. 14-21 days after operation, the models were sacrificed to obtain the TIPS tissues for pathological examinations, including electric microscope, HE staining, and immunohistochemical staining of anti-SMC-actin-α, PCNA, Vementin, myoglobulin, eNOS and iNOS. Then , the results were comparatively analyzed between TIPS obstructed shunt tissues and non-obstructed shunt tissues. Results: Restenosis was occurred with different degrees in 4 swine of the 6 TIPS models. Electric microscopic results showed that the restenosis tissues were composed of over proliferated collagen, SMCs and fibroblasts. Anti-SMC-actin-α and PCNA were strongly positive expression in restenotic tissues, and also positive in patent tissues. Vimentin expressed strongly in unstenotic tissues, on the contrary, it expressed obviously weaker in restenotic tissues. Myoglobulin expressed more strongly in restenotic tissues and weakened in unstenotic tissues. eNOS expressed positive in normal liver tissues, and expressed weaker near TIPS restenotic tissues. iNOS showed stronger expression in restenotic tissues and could hardly expressed in normal liver tissues. Conclusions: Restenotic rate may be 67% in TIPS swine models. Restenotic tissues may be mainly composed of proliferated SMCs positively expressed anti-SMC-actin-α with strong ability of movement. eNOS may be expressed in normal liver tissues and instead iNOS be expressed in strongly injured liver tissues. (authors)

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tissue microarray images using contextual classifiers

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    Stephen J McKenna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs are an important tool in translational research for examining multiple cancers for molecular and protein markers. Automatic immunohistochemical (IHC scoring of breast TMA images remains a challenging problem. Methods: A two-stage approach that involves localization of regions of invasive and in-situ carcinoma followed by ordinal IHC scoring of nuclei in these regions is proposed. The localization stage classifies locations on a grid as tumor or non-tumor based on local image features. These classifications are then refined using an auto-context algorithm called spin-context. Spin-context uses a series of classifiers to integrate image feature information with spatial context information in the form of estimated class probabilities. This is achieved in a rotationally-invariant manner. The second stage estimates ordinal IHC scores in terms of the strength of staining and the proportion of nuclei stained. These estimates take the form of posterior probabilities, enabling images with uncertain scores to be referred for pathologist review. Results: The method was validated against manual pathologist scoring on two nuclear markers, progesterone receptor (PR and estrogen receptor (ER. Errors for PR data were consistently lower than those achieved with ER data. Scoring was in terms of estimated proportion of cells that were positively stained (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-6 and perceived strength of staining (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-3. Average absolute differences between predicted scores and pathologist-assigned scores were 0.74 for proportion of cells and 0.35 for strength of staining (PR. Conclusions: The use of context information via spin-context improved the precision and recall of tumor localization. The combination of the spin-context localization method with the automated scoring method resulted in reduced IHC scoring errors.

  2. Metallothionein - immunohistochemical cancer biomarker: a meta-analysis.

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    Jaromir Gumulec

    Full Text Available Metallothionein (MT has been extensively investigated as a molecular marker of various types of cancer. In spite of the fact that numerous reviews have been published in this field, no meta-analytical approach has been performed. Therefore, results of to-date immunohistochemistry-based studies were summarized using meta-analysis in this review. Web of science, PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL databases were searched (up to April 30, 2013 and the eligibility of individual studies and heterogeneity among the studies was assessed. Random and fixed effects model meta-analysis was employed depending on the heterogeneity, and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's tests. A total of 77 studies were included with 8,015 tissue samples (4,631 cases and 3,384 controls. A significantly positive association between MT staining and tumors (vs. healthy tissues was observed in head and neck (odds ratio, OR 9.95; 95% CI 5.82-17.03 and ovarian tumors (OR 7.83; 1.09-56.29, and a negative association was ascertained in liver tumors (OR 0.10; 0.03-0.30. No significant associations were identified in breast, colorectal, prostate, thyroid, stomach, bladder, kidney, gallbladder, and uterine cancers and in melanoma. While no associations were identified between MT and tumor staging, a positive association was identified with the tumor grade (OR 1.58; 1.08-2.30. In particular, strong associations were observed in breast, ovarian, uterine and prostate cancers. Borderline significant association of metastatic status and MT staining were determined (OR 1.59; 1.03-2.46, particularly in esophageal cancer. Additionally, a significant association between the patient prognosis and MT staining was also demonstrated (hazard ratio 2.04; 1.47-2.81. However, a high degree of inconsistence was observed in several tumor types, including colorectal, kidney and prostate cancer. Despite the ambiguity in some tumor types, conclusive results are provided in the tumors of

  3. The Immunohistochemical Analysis of SOCS3 Protein Identifies a Subgroup of Prostatic Cancer Biopsies With Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierconti, Francesco; Martini, Maurizio; Cenci, Tonia; Larocca, Luigi M

    Recently, we demonstrated that hypermethylation of SOCS3 determines a significant reduction of its mRNA and protein expression and identifies a subgroup of prostate cancer with aggressive behavior. In this paper, our objective was to investigate whether the immunohistochemical expression of the SOCS3 protein could represent an alternative method to molecular analysis for the individualization of aggressive prostate carcinoma. We analyzed the SOCS3 immunohistochemical expression in 65 patients undergoing biopsies at the Institute of Urology of our hospital between September 2011 and October 2011 (median age, 66.4 y; range, 50 to 73 y), and in 35 cases, a subset of 65 cases originally used for the immunohistochemical study, we studied the methylation status of the SOCS3 promoter. We found that the percentage of cases with SOCS3 negativity (-) or with SOCS3 weak staining in <50% of the neoplastic glands (+/-) correlated to the worst prognosis in terms of the Gleason score (P=0.0001; Fisher's exact test), the pT stage (P=0.012; Fisher's exact test), and progression-free survival (P=0.0334; hazard ratio, 0.34; and 95% confidence interval, from 0.1261 to 0.9188). Moreover, some cases with an SOCS3 unmethylated pattern showed SOCS3-negative immunostaining (-) or SOCS3-negative glands with weak cytoplasmatic staining in <50% of the neoplastic glands (+/-). Our data suggest that in prostatic cancer biopsies, the immunohistochemical analysis of SOCS3 protein expression may provide a method that is less expensive and easier to apply than SOCS3 methylation analysis for the distinction of a subgroup of prostate cancer with a more aggressive behavior.

  4. Hormonal receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: immunohistochemical and tissue microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Huan; Wang, Dehui; Hu, Li; Liu, Quan; Sun, Xicai

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrated that juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs) express high levels of hormone receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with normal nasal mucosa. The interaction between hormone receptors and VEGF may be involved in the initiation and growth of JNA. JNA is a rare benign tumor that occurs almost exclusively in male adolescents. Although generally regarded as a hormone-dependent tumor, this has not been proven in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hormone receptors in JNA and the relationship with clinical characteristics. Standard immunohistochemical microarray analysis was performed on 70 JNA samples and 10 turbinate tissue samples. Specific antibodies for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), estrogen receptor-β (ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR), and VEGF were examined, and the relationships of receptor expression with age, tumor stage, and bleeding were evaluated. RESULTS showed that JNA expressed ER-α (92.9%), ER-β (91.4%), AR (65.7%), PR (12.8%), and VEGF (95.7%) at different levels. High level of VEGF was linked to elevated ER-α and ER-β. There was no significant relationship between hormonal receptors and age at diagnosis, tumor stage or bleeding. However, overexpression of ER-α was found to be an indicator of poor prognosis (p = 0.031).

  5. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hesami; Maryam Ayatollahi; Bita Geramizadeh; Akram Jamshidzadeh; Akbar Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), we used immunohistochemical analysis ...

  6. Tyrosine kinase receptor status in endometrial stromal sarcoma: an immunohistochemical and genetic-molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Contini, Marcella; Uras, Maria Gabriela; Muroni, Maria Rosaria; Pili, Francesca; Carru, Ciriaco; Bosincu, Luisanna; Massarelli, Giovannino; Nogales, Francisco F; De Miglio, Maria Rosaria

    2012-11-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are rare uterine malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, which are currently treated by surgery, as effective adjuvant therapies have not yet been established. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have rarely been applied in ESS therapy, with few reports describing imatinib responsivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the status of different tyrosine kinase receptors in an ESS series, in order to evaluate their potential role as molecular targets. Immunohistochemistry was performed for EGFR, c-KIT, PDGFR-α, PDGFR-β, and ABL on 28 ESS. EGFR, PDGFR-α, and PDGFR-β gene expression was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected cases. "Hot-spot" mutations were screened for on EGFR, c-KIT, PDGFR-α, and PDGFR-β genes, by sequencing. All analysis was executed from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. Immunohistochemical overexpression of 2 or more tyrosine kinase receptors was observed in 18 of 28 tumors (64%), whereas only 5 tumors were consistently negative. Gene expression profiles were concordant with immunohistochemical overexpression in only 1 tumor, which displayed both high mRNA levels and specific immunoreactivity for PDGFR-α, and PDGFR-β. No activating mutations were found on the tumors included in the study. This study confirms that TKRs expression is frequently observed in ESS. Considering that the responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is known to be related to the presence of specific activating mutations or gene over-expression, which are not detectable in ESS, TKRs immunohistochemical over-expression alone should not be considered as a reliable marker for targeted therapies in ESS. Specific post-translational abnormalities, responsible for activation of TKRs, should be further investigated.

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masami; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Hata, Jotaro; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Tahara, Eiichi.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, a total of 159 cases of colorectal cancers comprising 73 cases in exposed atomic bomb survivors and 86 cases in non-exposed individuals were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for various functioning proteins. No statistical differences could be demonstrated in the incidence of various marker expressions of colorectal cancers between the exposed group and control group. However, comparison by the site of colorectal cancer showed that sigmoid colon cancers in the exposed group or high dose group showed a significantly higher frequency of glycoproteins such as α 1 -antichymotrypsin (ACT), secretory component (SC), α 1 -antitrypsin (AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) when compared with the control group. These results correlated well with the epidemiological data that the radiation effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors was most remarkable in the sigmoid colon. (author)

  8. Immunohistochemical and radioimmunological demonstration of alpha/sub 1/-fetoprotein in nonmalignant changes of human gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falser, N; Lederer, B; Reissigl, H [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Pathologisch-Anatomisches Lab.; Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Gastroenterologisches Lab.)

    1977-07-01

    The occurence of ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fetoprotein in nonmalignant changes of the gastric mucosa was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry and radioimmunonoassay. The investigations were performed in tissue sections, cytological imprint preparations as well as in homogenized tissue samples (obtained by gastroscopy). ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fetoprotein could be demonstrated by immuno-histochemistry in about 90% of the samples originating from the surroundings of gastric ulcer and the region of gastrojejunostomy after B II-resection. The RIA was positive in about 75% of the tissue samples, whereas from gastric juice only 40% of positive results could be obtained. No ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fetoprotein-activity could be demonstrated in serum samples. These investigations indicate that ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fetoprotein is not exclusively synthesized by embryonic or neoplastic tissues and also can be synthesized also by regenerating cell-systems. It may be supposed that this synthesis represents an unspecific answer to growth-stimulation.

  9. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Travis, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly-differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemistry for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clone SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), Napsin A, Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma since they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly-differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly-differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25871623

  10. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hesami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats. Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4 intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1 at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p≤ 0.001 decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats

  11. Alveolar bone healing in rats: micro-CT, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Suemi HASSUMI

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats is a classical model of preclinical studies. The underlying morphometric, cellular and molecular mechanism, however, remains imprecise in a unique study. Objectives The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats by micro computed tomographic (Micro-CT, immunohistochemical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis. Material and Methods Thirty animals (Rattus norvegicus, Albinus Wistar were divided into three groups after upper incisors extraction at 7, 14, and 28 days. Micro-CT was evaluated based on the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, the histological analyses and immunostaining of osteoprotegerin (OPG, receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (RANKL and tartrate resistant acid phosphate (TRAP was performed. In addition, RT-PCR analyses of OPG, RANKL, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, osteocalcin (OC, osteopontin (OPN, osterix (OST and receptor activator of nuclear kappa B (RANK were performed to determine the expression of these proteins in the alveolar bone healing. Results Micro-CT: The morphometric parameters of bone volume and trabecular thickness progressively increased over time. Consequently, a gradual decrease in trabecular separation, trabecular space and total bone porosity was observed. Immunohistochemical: There were no differences statistically significant between the positive labeling for OPG, RANKL and TRAP in the different periods. RT-PCR: At 28 days, there was a significant increase in OPG expression, while RANKL expression and the RANKL/OPG ratio both decreased over time. Conclusion Micro-CT showed the newly formed bone had favorable morphometric characteristics of quality and quantity. Beyond the RUNX2, OC, OPN, OST, and RANK proteins expressed in the alveolar bone healing, OPG and RANKL activity showed to be essential for activation of basic

  12. Analysis of human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma using p16: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S.; Rao, R. S.; Amrutha, N.; Sanketh, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate the association of HPV in histological grades of OSCC using p16 (p16INK4a) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Subjects and Methods: This study consists of 30 histological diagnosed cases of OSCC (10-well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [WDOSCC], 10-moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [MDOSCC] and 10-poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [PDOSCC]). The sections were subjected to IHC procedure using p16. Two parameters in immunohistochemical p16 expression were evaluated by 3 observers based on the criteria by Galgano M. Tetal (2010) (a) percentage of p16 positive cases (b) pattern of p16 staining in various grades of OSCC. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test. Results: Totally, 30 samples of 0SCC, p16 positivity was noted in 26/30 (86.66%). Of 26 positive cases, p16 staining was positive in 7/10 (70%) of WDOSCC, 9/10 (90%) in MDOSCC and, 10/10 (100%) PDOSCC. Incidentally, we also found single dispersed cell staining in WDOSCC, patchy staining in MDOSCC and more diffuse staining pattern predominant in PDOSCC. Conclusions: Our study revealed an association between HPV and OSCC. Diffuse staining pattern was noted in PDOSCC, which in turn depicts the increase viral overload, which might have an influence on its aggressive behavior. PMID:24818098

  13. Immunohistochemical Analysis on Cortex-to-Cortex Healing After Mandibular Vertical Ramus Osteotomy: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Sang Yoon; Jung, Han-Sung; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Young-Soo

    2018-02-01

    The present study analyzed the expression of specific cytokines in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily postoperatively after mandibular vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO). Four beagle dogs were enrolled and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively for immunohistochemical analysis using 6 specific antibodies (bone morphogenetic protein [BMP]-2/4, BMP-7, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). The results from the surgical site and control (adjacent area) were compared. Generalized upregulation of BMP-2/4 was observed in all healing periods, and the strongest expression of BMP-7 was observed at 1 week postoperatively. The strongest expression of TGF-β2 was observed at 8 weeks with increasing pattern. The strong expression of TGF-β3 was observed at 1 and 4 weeks, with the strongest expression of VEGF at 1 week, with a decreasing pattern. No notable uptake was detected with the 6 specific antibodies in the adjacent bone (control). The absence of internal fixation after VRO led to dynamic healing with a specific expression pattern of BMP-7 and TGF-β2. The anatomic factors, including sufficient preexisting vascularity, led to the earlier expression pattern of VEGF. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of small intestinal biopsies in adults suspected of celiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, R.; Jamal, S.; Zafar, A.; Saadia, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyse histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis of small intestinal biopsies in adults suspected of celiac disease. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from November 2014 to December 2015. Methodology: Fifty cases of small intestinal mucosal biopsies (duodenal and jejunal) were analysed in adult patients aged above 14 years suspected of celiac disease. Their histomorphological data was recorded using Modified Marsh Criteria. Type of intraepithelial lymphocytes was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were counted both by H and E stain and immunostain CD3 and CD20. Results: Thirty-four percent patients were aged between 21 - 30 years and 22% patients aged between 41 - 50 years. There were 84% (n=42) males. Thirteen (26%) cases showed focal villous atrophy, 32 (64%) cases showed partial villous atrophy and 5 (10%) cases showed complete villous atrophy. Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody was positive in 21 (42%) cases. CD3 immunomarker was positive for intraepithelial lymphocytes in all 50 cases while CD20 immunomarker showed focal positivity in areas with lymphoid follicle formation. The count of intraepithelial lymphocytes was found to be almost equal (with a difference of 3 - 4 lymphocytes) on both H and E stain and immunostain CD3 and CD20. Conclusion: Males aged 21 - 30 years were the most commonly affected group. The most frequent change in histology was partial villous atrophy along with lymphocytic enteritis. All the intraepithelial lymphocytes were present in crescendo-pattern of distribution. (author)

  15. Dynamics of bone healing after osteotomy with piezosurgery or conventional drilling - histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marcantonio, Elcio; de Souza Faloni, Ana Paula; Rocha, Fernanda Regina Godoy; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana; Wilk, Katarzyna; Intini, Giuseppe

    2013-09-23

    Piezosurgery is an osteotomy system used in medical and dental surgery. Many studies have proven clinical advantages of piezosurgery in terms of quality of cut, maneuverability, ease of use, and safety. However, few investigations have tested its superiority over the traditional osteotomy systems in terms of dynamics of bone healing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of bone healing after osteotomies with piezosurgery and to compare them with those associated to traditional bone drilling. One hundred and ten rats were divided into two groups with 55 animals each. The animals were anesthetized and the tibiae were surgically exposed to create defects 2 mm in diameter by using piezosurgery (Piezo group) and conventional drilling (Drill group). Animals were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post-surgery. Bone samples were collected and processed for histological, histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis. The histological analysis was performed at all time points (n = 8) whereas the histomorphometrical analysis was performed at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post-surgery (n = 8). The immunolabeling was performed to detect Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Caspase-3 (CAS-3), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligand (RANKL), and Osteocalcin (OC) at 3, 7, and 14 days (n = 3). For the molecular analysis, animals were sacrificed at 3, 7 and 14 days, total RNA was collected, and quantification of the expression of 21 genes related to BMP signaling, Wnt signaling, inflammation, osteogenenic and apoptotic pathways was performed by qRT-PCR (n = 5). Histologically and histomorphometrically, bone healing was similar in both groups with the exception of a slightly higher amount of newly formed bone observed at 30 days after piezosurgery (p piezosurgery are comparable to those observed with conventional drilling.

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens in different histological types of breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianets Olga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the past decade a plethora of investigations were directed on identification of molecules involved in breast tumorogenesis, which could represent a powerful tool for monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of this disease. In current study we analyzed six previously identified medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens including LGALS3BP, RAD50, FAM50A, RBPJ, PABPC4, LRRFIP1 with cancer restricted serological profile in different histological types of breast cancer. Methods Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 20 tissue samples including medullary breast carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and non-cancerous tissues obtained from patients with fibrocystic disease (each of five was performed using specifically generated polyclonal antibodies. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated considering percent of positively stained cells, insensitivity of staining and subcellular localization in cells of all tissue samples. Results All 6 antigens predominantly expressed in the most cells of all histological types of breast tumors and non-cancerous tissues with slight differences in intensity of staining and subcellular localization. The most significant differences in expression pattern were revealed for RAD50 and LGALS3BP in different histological types of breast cancer and for PABPC4 and FAM50A antigens in immune cells infiltrating breast tumors. Conclusions This pilot study made possible to select 4 antigens LGALS3BP, RAD50, PABPC4, and FAM50A as promising candidates for more comprehensive research as potential molecular markers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1860649350796892

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of FoxP3+ cells in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2012-09-01

    To compare the number of FoxP3(+) cells between periapical granulomas (PGs) and radicular cysts (RCs), and to correlate this number with the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate in these lesions and with epithelial thickness of RCs. Thirty PGs and 30 RCs were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-FoxP3 polyclonal antibody. FoxP3(+) cells were counted under a light microscope (×400 magnification) in five fields and the mean value was calculated for each specimen. Statistical tests were used to evaluate differences in the number of FoxP3(+) cells according to type of lesion (PG vs. RC), intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate (grade I/II vs. grade III), and epithelial thickness of RCs (atrophic vs. hyperplastic). FoxP3(+) cells were detected in most PGs (93.3%) and RCs (93.3%). The median number of FoxP3(+) cells was 2.40 in PGs and 1.00 in RCs, with this difference being statistically significant (P=0.005). No significant differences in the number of FoxP3(+) cells were observed in terms of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate (P=0.465) or epithelial thickness of RCs (P=0.737). The present results suggest a greater participation of regulatory T cells in the modulation of the inflammatory response in PGs. In addition, the presence of a less effective regulatory environment in RCs, together with the high levels of inflammatory mediators as reported in the literature, may contribute to the greater growth potential of these lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete chromogen separation and analysis in double immunohistochemical stains using Photoshop-based image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, H A; van der Loos, C M; Teeling, P; Gown, A M

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of two different antigens on paraffin-embedded and frozen tissues can be accomplished by double immunohistochemistry. However, many double chromogen systems suffer from signal overlap, precluding definite signal quantification. To separate and quantitatively analyze the different chromogens, we imported images into a Macintosh computer using a CCD camera attached to a diagnostic microscope and used Photoshop software for the recognition, selection, and separation of colors. We show here that Photoshop-based image analysis allows complete separation of chromogens not only on the basis of their RGB spectral characteristics, but also on the basis of information concerning saturation, hue, and luminosity intrinsic to the digitized images. We demonstrate that Photoshop-based image analysis provides superior results compared to color separation using bandpass filters. Quantification of the individual chromogens is then provided by Photoshop using the Histogram command, which supplies information on the luminosity (corresponding to gray levels of black-and-white images) and on the number of pixels as a measure of spatial distribution. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:119-125, 1999)

  19. Immunohistochemical quantification of expression of a tight junction protein, claudin-7, in human lung cancer samples using digital image analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhe; Liu, Yi; Xu, Junfeng; Yin, Hongping; Yuan, Haiying; Gu, Jinjing; Chen, Yan-Hua; Shi, Liyun; Chen, Dan; Xie, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Tight junction proteins are correlated with cancer development. As the pivotal proteins in epithelial cells, altered expression and distribution of different claudins have been reported in a wide variety of human malignancies. We have previously reported that claudin-7 was strongly expressed in benign bronchial epithelial cells at the cell-cell junction while expression of claudin-7 was either altered with discontinued weak expression or completely absent in lung cancers. Based on these results, we continued working on the expression pattern of claudin-7 and its relationship with lung cancer development. We herein proposed a new Digital Image Classification, Fragmentation index, Morphological analysis (DICFM) method for differentiating the normal lung tissues and lung cancer tissues based on the claudin-7 immunohistochemical staining. Seventy-seven lung cancer samples were obtained from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University and claudin-7 immunohistochemical staining was performed. Based on C++ and Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV, version 2.4.4), the DICFM processing module was developed. Intensity and fragmentation of claudin-7 expression, as well as the morphological parameters of nuclei were calculated. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Agreement between these computational results and the results obtained by two pathologists was demonstrated. The intensity of claudin-7 expression was significantly decreased while the fragmentation was significantly increased in the lung cancer tissues compared to the normal lung tissues and the intensity was strongly positively associated with the differentiation of lung cancer cells. Moreover, the perimeters of the nuclei of lung cancer cells were significantly greater than that of the normal lung cells, while the parameters of area and circularity revealed no statistical significance. Taken together, our DICFM approach may be applied as an

  20. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Oral Dysplasia: Diagnostic Assessment by Fascin and Podoplanin Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Yumiko; Abe, Takahiro; Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Yoda, Tetsuya; Murata, Shin-ichi; Sugasawa, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fascin and podoplanin expression in oral dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS) immunohistochemically, and to evaluate their relationship to histopathological diagnosis based on architectural and cytological features. Fascin and podoplanin expression patterns were analyzed immunohistologically in 26 specimens of oral lesions, including benign disease (hyperplasia, papilloma, and others), intraepithelial neoplasia/borderline disease (dysplasia), and malignant disease (CIS, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). Fascin expression was scored into four original categories, and podoplanin expression was scored into five previously established categories. The relationship between the immunohistochemically determined scores of fascin and podoplanin expression and the architectural and cytological features in the hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides was analyzed statistically. The immunostaining scores for fascin and podoplanin were significantly higher in dysplasia and CIS than in benign disease (p=0.0011, p=0.00036), and they were significantly higher in dysplasia than in benign disease (p=0.0087, p=0.0032). In all cases of invasive SCC, fascin was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells and fascin expression extended from the destruction of the basal layer of the epithelium to the upper layer of the epithelium and podoplanin was expressed in the cytoplasm and membrane of the tumor cells. This was the first report of up-regulation of fascin in oral dysplasia. Our results suggest that it would be helpful for improving the diagnostic accuracy of oral dysplasia and CIS to assess the expression of fascin and podoplanin immunohistochemically

  1. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  2. Demonstration sensitivity analysis for RADTRAN III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Reardon, P.C.

    1986-10-01

    A demonstration sensitivity analysis was performed to: quantify the relative importance of 37 variables to the total incident free dose; assess the elasticity of seven dose subgroups to those same variables; develop density distributions for accident dose to combinations of accident data under wide-ranging variations; show the relationship between accident consequences and probabilities of occurrence; and develop limits for the variability of probability consequence curves

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of desmoglein 1 and 2 in the skin of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Coli, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria P; Podestà, Adriano; Abramo, Francesca

    2005-11-01

    To compare the distribution of desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 2 in skin specimens obtained from dogs and cats to provide information about the possible role of the density of Dsg 1 and 2 in the localization of lesions attributable to pemphigus foliaceus in these 2 species. Skin biopsy specimens obtained from 4 dogs and 4 cats. Biopsy specimens were collected from the muzzle, bridge of the nose, ear, dorsum, abdomen, area adjacent to the teats, and footpads of each animal. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin samples by use of a biotinylated mouse monoclonal anti-Dsg 1 and 2 antibody raised against bovine muzzle. Color development was performed by use of the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method with a chromogenic substrate. Immunohistochemical staining yielded a positive reaction in skin samples obtained from all anatomic sites. The intensity and distribution of staining were related to the number of layers of the stratum spinosum. No differences were detected between samples obtained from dogs and cats. No differences in intensity of Dsg 1 and 2 antigen were observed in the stratum spinosum between skin samples obtained from dogs and cats. Analysis of this result suggests that factors other than the distribution of Dsg may be responsible for the differences in localization of primary clinical lesions in dogs and cats with pemphigus foliaceus.

  4. Biomechanical and immunohistochemical analysis of high hydrostatic pressure-treated Achilles tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, P.; Steinhauser, E.; Gollwitzer, H.; Heister, C.; Schauwecker, J.; Schmitt, M.; Milz, S.; Mittelmeier, W.

    2006-01-01

    Reconstruction of bone defects caused by malignant tumors is carried out in different ways. At present, tumor-bearing bone segments are devitalized mainly by extracorporeal irradiation or autoclaving, but both methods have substantial disadvantages. In this regard, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of the bone is a new, advancing technology that has been used in preclinical testing to inactivate normal cells and tumor cells without altering the biomechanical properties of the bone. The aim of this study was to examine the biomechanical and immunohistochemical properties of tendons after exposure to HHP and to evaluate whether preservation of the bony attachment of tendons and ligaments is possible. For this, 19 paired Achilles tendons were harvested from both hindlimbs of 4-month-old pigs. After preparation, the cross-sectional area of each tendon was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For each animal, one of the two tendons was taken at random and exposed to a pressure of 300 MPa (n=9) or 600 MPa (n=10). The contralateral tendon served as an untreated control. The biomechanical properties of the tendons remained unchanged with respect to the tested parameters: Young's modulus (MPa) and tensile strength (MPa). This finding is in line with immunohistochemical labeling results, as no difference in the labeling pattern of collagen I and versican was observed when comparing the HHP group (at 600 MPa) to the untreated control group. We anticipate that during orthopedic surgery HHP can serve as a novel, promising methodical approach to inactivate Achilles tendon and bone cells without altering the biomechanical properties of the tendons. This should allow one to preserve the attachment of tendon and ligaments to the devitalized bone and to facilitate functional reconstruction. (author)

  5. Immunohistochemical analysis of Clara cell secretory protein expression in a transgenic model of mouse lung carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Sarah M.; Vassallo, Jeffrey D.; Dieter, Matthew Z.; Lewis, Cindy L.; Whiteley, Laurence O.; Fix, Andrew S.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunohistochemical methods have been widely used to determine the histogenesis of spontaneous and chemically-induced mouse lung tumors. Typically, antigens for either alveolar Type II cells or bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells are studied. In the present work, the morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype of a transgenic mouse designed to develop lung tumors arising from Clara cells was evaluated. In this model, Clara cell-specific transformation is accomplished by directed expression of the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) under the mouse Clara cell secretory protein (CC10) promoter. In heterozygous mice, early lesions at 1 month of age consisted of hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells. These progressed to adenoma by 2 months as proliferating epithelium extended into adjacent alveolar spaces. By 4 months, a large portion of the lung parenchyma was composed of tumor masses. Expression of constitutive CC10 was diminished in transgenic animals at all time points. Only the occasional cell or segment of the bronchiolar epithelium stained positively for CC10 by immunohistochemistry, and all tumors were found to be uniformly negative for staining. These results were corroborated by Western blotting, where CC10 was readily detectable in whole lung homogenate from nontransgenic animals, but not detected in lung from transgenic animals at any time point. Tumors were also examined for expression of surfactant apoprotein C (SPC), an alveolar Type II cell-specific marker, and found to be uniformly negative for staining. These results indicate that, in this transgenic model, expression of CC10, which is widely used to determine whether lung tumors arise from Clara cells, was reduced and subsequently lost during Clara cell tumor progression

  6. Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas: Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of nine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yilmaz Ozguven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPPN of the pancreas is a distinctive tumor of low malignant potential with a predilection for female patients in the second and third decades of life. We studied nine cases of SPPN of the pancreas and reviewed the literature concerning these uncommon tumors. Materials and Methods: A total of 7 cases of SPPN located in the tail of the pancreas and two located in the head of the pancreas were presented. Distal pancreatectomy in three patients and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy in two patients Whipple′s operation in four patients were performed. Histological diagnosis was made by performing hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining, immunohistochemical staining. Follow-up of the patients was between 2 months and 12 years. Results: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were found as equivocal for diagnosis. Mass containing cystic and solid areas were not characteristic but raised suspicion of SPPN. Pathologic examination showed SPPN in all patients. No metastasis or recurrence was detected during follow-up. Conclusions: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm is a relatively rare tumor, and patients tend to survive for a long period. Preoperative imaging is not characteristic. Pathologic examination is the mainstay in the diagnosis. Complete surgical removal is the best choice of treatment.

  7. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, C Pramod; Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Kandagal, V Suresh; Ingaleshwar, Pramod S; Shetty, Sharan J; Vibhute, Nupura

    2014-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP) and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered lichen planus, erosive type (66.86%) showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%). Overall, P value was lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  8. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of infectious agents, T-cell subpopulations and inflammatory adhesion molecules in placentas from HIV-seropositive pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Cristina R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare histomorphometric changes and the results of immunohistochemical tests for VCAM, ICAM-1, CD4 and CD8 in normal placentas from HIV-seropositive pregnant women. Methods Samples of normal placentas were divided into 2 groups: healthy HIV-seronegative pregnant women (control group = C = 60 and HIV-seropositive women (experimental group = E = 57. Conventional histological sections were submitted to morphometric analysis and evaluated in terms of the immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1, VCAM, CD4 and CD8. Results The villi in group E were smaller than those in group C. The median for the CD8+ T cell count was higher in group E than in group C (p = 0.03. Immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1 was observed in 57% of the cases in group E, compared with 21% of those in group C (p = 0.001. There was no difference in VCAM expression or CD4+ cell counts between groups and no correlation between the data for antiretroviral therapy and morphometric or immunohistochemical data. Conclusions The morphometric data showed that placentas of HIV-seropositive pregnant women tend to have smaller villi than those of seronegative women. In addition, immunohistochemical testing for infectious agents helped to identify cases that were positive for microorganisms (6/112 that routine pathological examination had failed to detect. The anti-p24 antibody had a limited ability to detect HIV viral protein in this study (2/57. Correlation of immunohistochemical expression of CD8+ T cells and ICAM-1 with the presence of HIV in the placenta revealed that those expressions can act as biomarkers of inflammatory changes. There was no correlation between the data for antiretroviral therapy and morphometric or immunohistochemical data.

  9. Spatial distribution of "tissue-specific" antigens in the developing human heart and skeletal muscle. I. An immunohistochemical analysis of creatine kinase isoenzyme expression patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Virágh, S.; Kálmán, F.; Morris, G. E.; Man, N. T.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies against the M and B subunit isoforms of creatine kinase (CK) we have investigated their distribution in developing human skeletal and cardiac muscle immunohistochemically. It is demonstrated that in skeletal muscle, a switch from CK-B to CK-M takes place around the week 8

  10. An adult multifocal medulloblastoma with diffuse acute postoperative cerebellar swelling: immunohistochemical and molecular genetics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, Vladimir; Trojanec, Radek; Holzerova, Milena; Tuckova, Lucie; Sulla, Igor; Megova, Magdalena; Vaverka, Miroslav; Hrabalek, Lumir; Ehrmann, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant tumor typically affecting children, occurs only exceptionally in adults. Multifocal presentation of this malignancy in adulthood is even much rarer—only four cases with favorable postoperative course have been reported, so far. The study illustrates a very rare rapid postoperative clinical deterioration due to diffuse cerebellar swelling (DCS) in an adult multifocal MB (MMB). To the best of their knowledge, authors for the first time performed genetic analysis of MMB and demonstrated expression patterns of selected markers that put the patient within the sonic hedgehog (SHH) molecular subgroup and at least partially explain her unsatisfactory clinical course. Herein, authors summarized the relevant literature concerning this issue with the aim to determine features that would facilitate diagnosis and therapy of such a scarce clinical entity.

  11. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Pramod Redder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. Materials and Methods: This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered <0.05. Results: In two types of lichen planus, erosive type (66.86% showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%. Overall, P value was <0.001, which was statistically significant. It indicates that proliferation activity is more in erosive lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. Conclusion: PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  12. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Scarring Trachoma Indicates Infiltration by Natural Killer and Undefined CD45 Negative Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Victor H; Luthert, Philip J; Derrick, Tamsyn; Pullin, James; Weiss, Helen A; Massae, Patrick; Mtuy, Tara; Makupa, William; Essex, David; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin L; Holland, Martin J; Burton, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    The phenotype and function of immune cells infiltrating the conjunctiva in scarring trachoma have yet to be fully characterized. We assessed tissue morphology and immunophenotype of cellular infiltrates found in trachomatous scarring compared to control participants. Clinical assessments and conjunctival biopsy samples were obtained from 34 individuals with trachomatous scarring undergoing trichiasis surgery and 33 control subjects undergoing cataract or retinal detachment surgery. Biopsy samples were fixed in buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed for assessment of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. Immunohistochemical staining of single markers on individual sections was performed to identify cells expressing CD3 (T-cells), CD4 (helper T-cells), CD8 (suppressor/cytotoxic T-cells and Natural Killer, NK, cells), NCR1 (NK cells), CD20 (B-cells), CD45 (nucleated hematopoietic cells), CD56 (NK and T-cells), CD68 (macrophages/monocytes) and CD83 (mature dendritic cells). The degree of scarring was assessed histologically using cross-polarized light to visualize collagen fibres. Scarring, regardless of clinical inflammation, was associated with increased inflammatory cell infiltrates on H&E and CD45 staining. Scarring was also associated with increased CD8+ and CD56+ cells, but not CD3+ cells, suggestive of a NK cell infiltrate. This was supported by the presence of NCR1+ cells. There was some increase in CD20+ cells, but no evidence for increased CD4+, CD68+ or CD83+ cells. Numerous CD45 negative cells were also seen in the population of infiltrating inflammatory cells in scarred conjunctiva. Disorganization of the normal collagen architecture was strongly associated with clinical scarring. These data point to the infiltration of immune cells with a phenotype suggestive of NK cells in conjunctival trachomatous scarring. A large proportion of CD45 negative inflammatory cells were also present. Future work should

  13. Immunohistochemical Markers Distinguishing Cholangiocellular Carcinoma (CCC) from Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) Discovered by Proteomic Analysis of Microdissected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Juliet; Ahrens, Maike; Kälsch, Julia; Bertram, Stefanie; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Eisenacher, Martin; Kocabayoglu, Peri; Meyer, Helmut E; Sipos, Bence; Baba, Hideo A; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are two highly aggressive cancer types that arise from epithelial cells of the pancreatobiliary system. Owing to their histological and morphological similarity, differential diagnosis between CCC and metastasis of PDAC located in the liver frequently proves an unsolvable issue for pathologists. The detection of biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity for the differentiation of these tumor types would therefore be a valuable tool. Here, we address this problem by comparing microdissected CCC and PDAC tumor cells from nine and eleven cancer patients, respectively, in a label-free proteomics approach. The novel biomarker candidates were subsequently verified by immunohistochemical staining of 73 CCC, 78 primary, and 18 metastatic PDAC tissue sections. In the proteome analysis, we found 180 proteins with a significantly differential expression between CCC and PDAC cells (p value 2). Nine candidate proteins were chosen for an immunohistochemical verification out of which three showed very promising results. These were the annexins ANXA1, ANXA10, and ANXA13. For the correct classification of PDAC, ANXA1 showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85% and ANXA10 a sensitivity of 90% at a specificity of 66%. ANXA13 was higher abundant in CCC. It presented a sensitivity of 84% at a specificity of 55%. In metastatic PDAC tissue ANXA1 and ANXA10 showed similar staining behavior as in the primary PDAC tumors (13/18 and 17/18 positive, respectively). ANXA13, however, presented positive staining in eight out of eighteen secondary PDAC tumors and was therefore not suitable for the differentiation of these from CCC. We conclude that ANXA1 and ANXA10 are promising biomarker candidates with high diagnostic values for the differential diagnosis of intrahepatic CCC and metastatic liver tumors deriving from PDAC. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Image analysis as an adjunct to manual HER-2 immunohistochemical review: a diagnostic tool to standardize interpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dobson, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    AIMS: Accurate determination of HER-2 status is critical to identify patients for whom trastuzumab treatment will be of benefit. Although the recommended primary method of evaluation is immunohistochemistry, numerous reports of variability in interpretation have raised uncertainty about the reliability of results. Recent guidelines have suggested that image analysis could be an effective tool for achieving consistent interpretation, and this study aimed to assess whether this technology has potential as a diagnostic support tool. METHODS AND RESULTS: Across a cohort of 275 cases, image analysis could accurately classify HER-2 status, with 91% agreement between computer-aided classification and the pathology review. Assessment of the continuity of membranous immunoreactivity in addition to intensity of reactivity was critical to distinguish between negative and equivocal cases and enabled image analysis to report a lower referral rate of cases for confirmatory fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing. An excellent concordance rate of 95% was observed between FISH and the automated review across 136 informative cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study has validated that image analysis can robustly and accurately evaluate HER-2 status in immunohistochemically stained tissue. Based on these findings, image analysis has great potential as a diagnostic support tool for pathologists and biomedical scientists, and may significantly improve the standardization of HER-2 testing by providing a quantitative reference method for interpretation.

  15. Reliability demonstration test planning using bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Senthil Kumar; Arul, John A.

    2003-01-01

    In Nuclear Power Plants, the reliability of all the safety systems is very critical from the safety viewpoint and it is very essential that the required reliability requirements be met while satisfying the design constraints. From practical experience, it is found that the reliability of complex systems such as Safety Rod Drive Mechanism is of the order of 10 -4 with an uncertainty factor of 10. To demonstrate the reliability of such systems is prohibitive in terms of cost and time as the number of tests needed is very large. The purpose of this paper is to develop a Bayesian reliability demonstrating testing procedure for exponentially distributed failure times with gamma prior distribution on the failure rate which can be easily and effectively used to demonstrate component/subsystem/system reliability conformance to stated requirements. The important questions addressed in this paper are: With zero failures, how long one should perform the tests and how many components are required to conclude with a given degree of confidence, that the component under test, meets the reliability requirement. The procedure is explained with an example. This procedure can also be extended to demonstrate with more number of failures. The approach presented is applicable for deriving test plans for demonstrating component failure rates of nuclear power plants, as the failure data for similar components are becoming available in existing plants elsewhere. The advantages of this procedure are the criterion upon which the procedure is based is simple and pertinent, the fitting of the prior distribution is an integral part of the procedure and is based on the use of information regarding two percentiles of this distribution and finally, the procedure is straightforward and easy to apply in practice. (author)

  16. Genetic and immunohistochemical analysis of HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R; Wang, XiaoFei; Li, Huiling; Lau, Yin H Chan; Williams, Robert W; Jablonski, Monica M

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor degenerative diseases are among the leading causes of vision loss. Although the causative genetic mutations are often known, mechanisms leading to photoreceptor degeneration remain poorly defined. We have previously demonstrated that the photoreceptor membrane-associated protein XAP-1 antigen is a product of the HSPA5 gene. In this study, we used systems genetic methods, statistical modeling, and immunostaining to identify and analyze candidate genes that modulate Hspa5 expression in the retina. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was used to map the genomic region that regulates Hspa5 in the cross between C57BL/6J X DBA/2J mice (BXD) genetic reference panel. The stepwise refinement of candidate genes was based on expression QTL mapping, gene expression correlation analyses (direct and partial), and analysis of regional sequence variants. The subcellular localization of candidate proteins and HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Differences in the localization of extracellular HSPA5 were assessed between healthy human donor and atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donor eyes. In the eyes of healthy mice, extracellular HSPA5 was confined to the area around the cone photoreceptor outer segments. Mapping variation in Hspa5 mRNA expression levels in the retina revealed a statistically significant trans -acting expression QTL (eQTL) on Chromosome 2 (Chr 2) and a suggestive locus on Chr 15. Sulf2 on Chr 2 was the strongest candidate gene based on partial correlation analysis, Pearson correlation with Hspa5 , expression levels in the retina, a missense variant in exon 14, and its reported function in the extracellular matrix and interphotoreceptor matrix. SULF2 is localized to the rod and cone photoreceptors in both human and mouse retinas. In human retinas with no pathology, extracellular HSPA5 was localized around many cones within the macular area. In contrast, fewer HSPA5-immunopositive cones were

  17. Genetic and immunohistochemical analysis of HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R.; Wang, XiaoFei; Li, Huiling; Lau, Yin H. Chan; Williams, Robert W.; Jablonski, Monica M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor degenerative diseases are among the leading causes of vision loss. Although the causative genetic mutations are often known, mechanisms leading to photoreceptor degeneration remain poorly defined. We have previously demonstrated that the photoreceptor membrane-associated protein XAP-1 antigen is a product of the HSPA5 gene. In this study, we used systems genetic methods, statistical modeling, and immunostaining to identify and analyze candidate genes that modulate Hspa5 expression in the retina. Methods Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was used to map the genomic region that regulates Hspa5 in the cross between C57BL/6J X DBA/2J mice (BXD) genetic reference panel. The stepwise refinement of candidate genes was based on expression QTL mapping, gene expression correlation analyses (direct and partial), and analysis of regional sequence variants. The subcellular localization of candidate proteins and HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Differences in the localization of extracellular HSPA5 were assessed between healthy human donor and atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donor eyes. Results In the eyes of healthy mice, extracellular HSPA5 was confined to the area around the cone photoreceptor outer segments. Mapping variation in Hspa5 mRNA expression levels in the retina revealed a statistically significant trans-acting expression QTL (eQTL) on Chromosome 2 (Chr 2) and a suggestive locus on Chr 15. Sulf2 on Chr 2 was the strongest candidate gene based on partial correlation analysis, Pearson correlation with Hspa5, expression levels in the retina, a missense variant in exon 14, and its reported function in the extracellular matrix and interphotoreceptor matrix. SULF2 is localized to the rod and cone photoreceptors in both human and mouse retinas. In human retinas with no pathology, extracellular HSPA5 was localized around many cones within the macular area. In contrast, fewer HSPA5

  18. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planska, Daniela; Burocziova, Monika; Strnadel, Jan; Horak, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma

  19. Really old-palaeoimmunology: immunohistochemical analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in historic and pre-historic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, G; Kalischnig, G; Maurer, H; Mayerl, C; Müller, P U

    2001-09-01

    In this review, we summarize data concerning the respective preservation and deterioration of antigenic determinants of various collagenous and non-collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in palaeontologic material of different ages. ECM proteins are the major quantitative constituents of mammalian organisms and were, therefore, selected as important representative proteins for these analyses. The specimens, studied by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques, included the skin of 500-1500 year-old human mummies from Peru, skin and striated muscle from the 5300-year-old glacier mummy ("Iceman") from Tyrol, Austria, and a 50-million-year-old bat with preserved soft body parts from the fossil excavation site of Messel, Germany. In frozen sections of the former two sources, epitopes recognized by specific antibodies for triple-helical antigenic determinants of different types of collagen resistant against conventional proteases were preserved, while non-helical domains, as well as the non-collagenous ECM proteins, could no longer be demonstrated. The fossil bat, although showing evidence of fibrous, collagen-like structures in conventional histology, revealed no collagenous or non-collagenous ECM proteins by any technique. It later turned out that this was due to the replacement of the original soft parts in these fossils by lawns of bacteria. These studies introduced immunological techniques into palaeontology and opened new approaches for studying physiologically- and pathologically-altered structures in tissues of animals and humans of considerable historical age.

  20. Genetic and immunohistochemical analysis of HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas

    OpenAIRE

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R.; Wang, XiaoFei; Li, Huiling; Lau, Yin H. Chan; Williams, Robert W.; Jablonski, Monica M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor degenerative diseases?are among the leading causes of vision loss. Although the causative genetic mutations are often known, mechanisms leading to photoreceptor degeneration remain poorly defined. We have previously demonstrated that the photoreceptor membrane-associated protein XAP-1 antigen is a product of the HSPA5 gene. In this study, we used systems genetic methods, statistical modeling, and immunostaining to identify and analyze candidate genes that modulate Hspa5 ...

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of Sonic hedgehog signalling in normal human urinary tract development

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Dagan; Winyard, Paul J D; Woolf, Adrian S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of mouse mutants have demonstrated that Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling has a functional role in morphogenesis and differentiation at multiple sites within the forming urinary tract, and urinary tract malformations have been reported in humans with mutations that disrupt SHH signalling. However, there is only strikingly sparse and fragmentary information about the expression of SHH and associated signalling genes in normal human urinary tract development. We used immunohistochemistry ...

  2. Dynamics of bone healing after osteotomy with piezosurgery or conventional drilling – histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Piezosurgery is an osteotomy system used in medical and dental surgery. Many studies have proven clinical advantages of piezosurgery in terms of quality of cut, maneuverability, ease of use, and safety. However, few investigations have tested its superiority over the traditional osteotomy systems in terms of dynamics of bone healing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of bone healing after osteotomies with piezosurgery and to compare them with those associated to traditional bone drilling. Methods One hundred and ten rats were divided into two groups with 55 animals each. The animals were anesthetized and the tibiae were surgically exposed to create defects 2 mm in diameter by using piezosurgery (Piezo group) and conventional drilling (Drill group). Animals were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post-surgery. Bone samples were collected and processed for histological, histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis. The histological analysis was performed at all time points (n = 8) whereas the histomorphometrical analysis was performed at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post-surgery (n = 8). The immunolabeling was performed to detect Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Caspase-3 (CAS-3), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligand (RANKL), and Osteocalcin (OC) at 3, 7, and 14 days (n = 3). For the molecular analysis, animals were sacrificed at 3, 7 and 14 days, total RNA was collected, and quantification of the expression of 21 genes related to BMP signaling, Wnt signaling, inflammation, osteogenenic and apoptotic pathways was performed by qRT-PCR (n = 5). Results Histologically and histomorphometrically, bone healing was similar in both groups with the exception of a slightly higher amount of newly formed bone observed at 30 days after piezosurgery (p piezosurgery are comparable to those observed with conventional drilling. PMID:24053147

  3. Immunohistochemical demonstration of a hitherto undescribed localization of hemoglobin A and F in endodermal cells of normal human yolk sac and endodermal sinus tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U; Wimberley, P D

    1980-01-01

    In this study of 4 human yolk sacs, the presence of hemoglobin A and F (HbA and HbF) is demonstrated for the first time in epithelial cells (type 1) and erythroid-like cells (type 2) in the endodermal layer by immunoperoxidase technique. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis previously...... proposed that the red blood cells formed in the yolk sac are of endodermal origin. Tumor with yolk sac differentiation (8 endodermal sinus tumors and 1 embryonal carcinoma with vitelline areas) similarly showed HbA and HbF localisation in endodermal cells. None of 59 germ cell tumors of other types...

  4. A Microfluidic Immunostaining System Enables Quality Assured and Standardized Immunohistochemical Biomarker Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seyong; Cho, Chang Hyun; Kwon, Youngmee; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Je-Kyun

    2017-04-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) plays an important role in biomarker-driven cancer therapy. Although there has been a high demand for standardized and quality assured IHC, it has rarely been achieved due to the complexity of IHC testing and the subjective validation-based process flow of IHC quality control. We present here a microfluidic immunostaining system for the standardization of IHC by creating a microfluidic linearly graded antibody (Ab)-staining device and a reference cell microarray. Unlike conventional efforts, our system deals primarily with the screening of biomarker staining conditions for quantitative quality assurance testing in IHC. We characterized the microfluidic matching of Ab staining intensity using three HER2 Abs produced by different manufacturers. The quality of HER2 Ab was also validated using tissues of breast cancer patients, demonstrating that our system is an efficient and powerful tool for the standardization and quality assurance of IHC.

  5. Endorsing cellular competitiveness in aberrant epithelium of oral submucous fibrosis progression: neighbourhood analysis of immunohistochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anura, Anji; Kazi, Anees; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2018-04-23

    Epithelial abnormality during the transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) into oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well studied and documented. However, the differential contribution of atrophy and hyperplasia for malignant potentiality of OSF is yet to be resolved. Existing diagnostic conjectures lack precise diagnostic attributes which may be effectively resolved by substantiation of specific molecular pathology signatures. Present study elucidates existence of cellular competitiveness in OSF conditions using computer-assisted neighbourhood analysis in quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) framework. The concept of field cancerization was contributory in finding correspondence among neighbouring cells of epithelial layers with reference to differential expression of cardinal cancer-related genes [c-Myc (oncogene), p53 (tumour suppressor), and HIF-1α (hypoxia regulator)] which are known to be important sensors in recognizing cellular competitive interface. Our analyses indicate that different states of OSF condition may be associated with different forms of competitiveness within epithelial neighbouring cells which might be responsible to shape the present and future of the pre-malignant condition. Analytical findings indicated association of atrophic epithelium with stress-driven competitive environment having low c-Myc, high-p53, and stable HIF-1α (the looser cells) which undergo apoptosis. Whereas, the cells with high c-Myc + (winner cells) give rise to hyperplastic epithelium via possible mutation in p53. The epithelial dysplasia plausibly occurs due to clonal expansion of c-Myc and p53 positive supercompetitor cells. Present study proposes quantitative IHC along with neighbourhood analysis which might help us to dig deeper on to the interaction among epithelial cell population to provide a better understanding of field cancerization and malignant transformation of pre-malignancy.

  6. TEM validation of immunohistochemical staining prior to assessment of tumour angiogenesis by computerised image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingsworth, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Counts of microvessel density (MVD) within solid tumours have been shown to be an independent predictor of outcome with higher counts generally associated with a worse prognosis. These assessments are commonly performed on immunoperoxidase stained (IPX) sections with antibodies to CD34, CD31 and Factor VIII-related antigen routinely used as vascular markers. Tumour vascular density is thought to reflect the demand the growing neoplasm is placing on its feeding blood supply. Vascular density also appears to be associated with spread of invasive cells to distant sites. The present study of tumour angiogenesis in prostate cancer specimens aims to assess new vessel growth in addition to MVD counts. The hypothesis being that an assessment which takes into account vascular migration and proliferation as well as the number of patent vessels present may have improved predictive power over assessments based on MVD counts alone. We are employing anti-CD34 stained IPX sections which are digitally photographed and assessed by a computerised image analysis system. Our aim is to develop parameters whereby tumour angiogenesis may be assessed at the light microscopic level and then correlated with existing histological methods of tumour assessment such as Gleason grading. In order to use IPX stained sections for angiogenic assessment validation and understanding of the anti-CD34 immunostaining pattern was necessary. This involved the following steps: i) Morphological assessment of angiogenic changes present in tumour blood vessels. Morphological changes in endothelial cells and pericytes indicative of angiogenic activation are generally below the level of resolution available with light microscopy. TEM examination revealed endothelial cell budding, pericyte retraction, basement membrane duplication and endothelial sprout formation in capillaries and venules surrounding tumour glands. This information assisted with the development of parameters by which IPX sections

  7. Immunohistochemical demonstration of keratins in the epidermal layers of the Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica, with remarks on the evolution of the integumental scale armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Meyer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using immunohistochemistry, the study demonstrates the distribution of keratins (pan-keratin with CK1-8, 10, 14-16, 19; keratins CK1, 5, 6, 9, 10; hair keratins AE13, AE14 in the epidermis of the Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica. A varying reaction spectrum was observed for pan-keratin, with body region-dependent negative to very strong reaction intensities. The dorsolateral epidermis exhibited positive reactions only in its vital layers, whereas the abdominal epidermis showed strong positive reactions in the soft two outer strata. The single acidic and basic-to-neutral (cytokeratins produced clear variations compared to the pan-keratin tinging. E.g., CK1 appeared in all epidermal layers of both body regions, except for the ventral stratum corneum, whereas CK5, 6, 9, 10 were restricted to the soft ventral epidermis. Here, distinctly positive reactions were confined to the stratum granulosum, except for CK6 that appeared in the soft stratum corneum. A different staining pattern was obvious for the hair keratins, i.e., positive reactions of AE13 concentrated only in the granular layer of the dorsal epidermis. In the abdominal epidermis, remarkable tinging for AE14 was visible in the stratum basale, decreasing toward the corneal layer, but was also found in the outer root sheath cells of the hair follicles in the ventral body part. Our findings are discussed related to the evolution of the horny dorsal scales of the pangolin, which may have started from the tail root, projecting forward to the head

  8. Soft tissue angiofibroma: Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekers, Elise M; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Verdijk, Marian A J; Raaijmakers-van Geloof, Winny L; Roepman, Paul; Vink, Robert; Gilhuijs, Nathalie D B; van Gorp, Joost M; Bovée, Judith V M G; Creytens, David H; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Suurmeijer, Albert J H; Mentzel, Thomas; Arbajian, Elsa; Flucke, Uta

    2017-10-01

    Soft tissue angiofibroma is rare and has characteristic histomorphological and genetic features. For diagnostic purposes, there are no specific antibodies available. Fourteen lesions (6 females, 8 males; age range 7-67 years) of the lower extremities (12) and trunk (2) were investigated by immunohistochemistry, including for the first time NCOA2. NCOA2 was also tested in a control group of other spindle cell lesions. The known fusion-genes (AHRR-NCOA2 and GTF2I-NCOA2) were examined using RT-PCR in order to evaluate their diagnostic value. Cases in which no fusion gene was detected were additionally analysed by RNA sequencing. All cases tested showed nuclear expression of NCOA2. However, this was not specific since other spindle cell neoplasms also expressed this marker in a high percentage of cases. Other variably positive markers were EMA, SMA, desmin and CD34. STAT6 was negative in the cases tested. By RT-PCR for the most frequently observed fusions, an AHRR-NCOA2 fusion transcript was found in 9/14 cases. GTF2I-NCOA2 was not detected in the remaining cases (n = 3). RNA sequencing revealed three additional positive cases; two harbored a AHRR-NCOA2 fusion and one case a novel GAB1-ABL1 fusion. Two cases failed molecular analysis due to poor RNA quality. In conclusion, the AHRR-NCOA2 fusion is a frequent finding in soft tissue angiofibroma, while GTF2I-NCOA2 seems to be a rare genetic event. For the first time, we report a GAB1-ABL1 fusion in a soft tissue angiofibroma of a child. Nuclear expression of NCOA2 is not discriminating when compared with other spindle cell neoplasms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nerve fibre studies in skin biopsies in peripheral neuropathies. I. Immunohistochemical analysis of neuropeptides in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberger, M; Schröder, H D; Schultzberg, M

    1989-01-01

    Standardised skin biopsies followed by immunohistochemical examination for the presence of terminal nerve fibres reacting for neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were evaluated. Healthy subjects regularly displayed free nerve endings of both fibre types in th...... a sensitive tool in evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathies....

  10. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-9 from the purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen’e [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Hongmei [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Yannan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Min, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.min@gmail.com [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Jiangxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The cDNA of caspase-9 in common carp was cloned. •The evolutionary conservation including caspase recruitment domain, large and small subunits was clarified. •The mRNA level of caspase-9 cannot be used as a major marker at an earlier point in the apoptotic cascade. •Caspase-9 cleavage form was detected. •Immunopositive staining was limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells. -- Abstract: Caspase-9, the essential initiator caspase is believed to play a central role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling. In this study, we isolated the caspase-9 gene from common carp, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of caspase-9, composed of 436 amino acids, showed approximately 47.6% identity and 64.7% similarity to human caspase-9. It also possessed a conserved caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD), a large subunit and a small subunit. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that caspase-9 formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-9. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-9 transcripts were not significantly increased in kidney after exposure to cadmium (Cd). Whereas caspase-9 cleaved fragments were detected using Western blot analysis with the same Cd treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed immunoreactivities were predominantly limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and no remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after Cd treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-9 may play an essential role in Cd induced apoptosis.

  11. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  12. High-level expression of podoplanin in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors: immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjun; Ogose, Akira; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Tetsuo; Ariizumi, Takashi; Li, Guidong; Umezu, Hajime; Endo, Naoto

    2011-03-01

    Podoplanin is a 38 kDa mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that was first identified in rat glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes). It is expressed in normal lymphatic endothelium, but is absent from vascular endothelial cells. D2-40 is a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody which binds to an epitope on human podoplanin. D2-40 immunoreactivity is therefore highly sensitive and specific for lymphatic endothelium. Recent investigations have shown widespread applications of immunohistochemical staining with D2-40 in evaluating podoplanin expression as an immunohistochemical marker for diagnosis and prognosis in various tumors. To determine whether the podoplanin (D2-40) antibody may be useful for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, 125 cases, including 4 kinds of benign tumors, 15 kinds of malignant tumors and 3 kinds of tumor-like lesions were immunostained using the D2-40 antibody. Total RNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissue obtained from 41 corresponding soft tissue tumor patients and 12 kinds of soft tissue tumor cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR reactions were performed. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated the expression of the podoplanin protein and mRNA in the majority of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions examined, with the exception of alveolar soft part sarcoma, embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor and lipoma, which were completely negative for podoplanin. Since it is widely and highly expressed in nearly all kinds of soft tissue tumors, especially in spindle cell sarcoma, myxoid type soft tissue tumors and soft tissue tumors of the nervous system, podoplanin is considered to have little value in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

  13. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur by clonal expansion of lymphoid cells and have distinctive morphological and immunophenotypic features. Determination of canine lymphoma immunophenotype is useful for accurate prognosis and further therapy. In the suggested study, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of some cases with canine lymphoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in order to characterize them. The investigation included 39 dogs diagnosed with different anatomical forms of lymphoma, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies. The diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin stain examinations. The collected specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique (automatic method using the following antibodies: CD3, CD20, CD21 and CD79a. The analyzed neoplasms were characterized as follows: about 64.10% of cases were diagnosed as B-cell lymphomas, 33.34% of cases as T-cell lymphomas, whereas 2.56% of cases were null cell type lymphomas (neither B nor T. Most of multicentric (80%, mediastinal (60% and primary central nervous system lymphomas (100% had B immunophenotype, while the majority of cutaneous (80% and digestive (100% lymphomas had T immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical description of canine lymphomas can deliver some major details concerning their behavior and malignancy. Additionally, vital prognosis and efficacy of some therapeutic protocols are relying on the immunohistochemical features of canine lymphoma.

  14. Texture analysis of high-resolution dedicated breast {sup 18}F-FDG PET images correlates with immunohistochemical factors and subtype of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso, Alexis; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Herranz, Michel; Argibay, Sonia; Silva-Rodriguez, Jesus [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ruibal, Alvaro [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fundacion Tejerina, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Ferreiro, Anxo [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Pharmacy Department and Pharmacology Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Albaina, Luis [University Hospital A Coruna (SERGAS), Department of General Surgery, A Coruna (Spain); Pardo-Montero, Juan [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Medical Physics Department, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aguiar, Pablo [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2018-02-15

    This study aims to determine whether PET textural features measured with a new dedicated breast PET scanner reflect biological characteristics of breast tumors. One hundred and thirty-nine breast tumors from 127 consecutive patients were included in this analysis. All of them underwent a {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan before treatment. Well-known PET quantitative parameters such as SUV{sub m} {sub a} {sub x}, SUV{sub m} {sub e} {sub a} {sub n}, metabolically active tumor volume (MATV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were extracted. Together with these parameters, local, regional, and global heterogeneity descriptors, which included five textural features (TF), were computed. Immunohistochemical classification of breast cancer considered five subtypes: luminal A like (LA), luminal B like/HER2 - (LB -), luminal B like/HER2+ (LB+), HER2-positive-non-luminal (HER2pnl), and triple negative (TN). Associations between PET features and tumor characteristics were assessed using non-parametric hypothesis tests. Along with well-established associations, new correlations were found. HER2-positive tumors had significantly higher uptake (p < 0.001, AUCs > 0.70) and presented different global and regional heterogeneity (p = 0.002, p = 0.016, respectively, AUCs < 0.70). Nine out of ten analyzed features were significantly associated with immunohistochemical subtype. Uptake was lower for LA tumors (p < 0.001) with AUCs ranging from 0.71 to 0.88 for each subgroup comparison. Heterogeneity metrics were significantly associated when comparing LA and LB - (p < 0.01), being regional heterogeneity metrics more discriminative than any other parameter (AUC = 0.80 compared to AUC = 0.71 for SUV). LB+ and HER2pnl tumors also showed more regional heterogeneity than LA tumors (AUCs = 0.79 and 0.84, respectively). After comparison with whole-body PET studies, we observed an overall improvement in the classification ability of both non-heterogeneity metrics and textural features. PET parameters

  15. Host inflammatory response to polypropylene implants: insights from a quantitative immunohistochemical and birefringence analysis in a rat subcutaneous model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prudente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To describe acute and sub acute aspects of histological and immunohistochemical response to PP implant in a rat subcutaneous model based on objective methods. Materials and Methods Thirty rats had a PP mesh subcutaneously implanted and the same dissection on the other side of abdomen but without mesh (sham. The animals were euthanized after 4 and 30 days. Six slides were prepared using the tissue removed: one stained with hematoxylin-eosin (inflammation assessment; one unstained (birefringence evaluation and four slides for immunohistochemical processing: IL-1 and TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-2 (collagen metabolism and CD-31 (angiogenesis. The area of inflammation, the birefringence index, the area of immunoreactivity and the number of vessels were objectively measured. Results A larger area of inflammatory reaction was observed in PP compared to sham on the 4th and on the 30th day (p=0.0002. After 4 days, PP presented higher TNF (p=0.0001 immunoreactivity than sham and no differences were observed in MMP-2 (p=0.06 and IL-1 (p=0.08. After 30 days, a reduction of IL-1 (p=0.010 and TNF (p=0.016 for PP and of IL-1 (p=0.010 for sham were observed. Moreover, area of MMP-2 immunoreactivity decreased over time for PP group (p=0.018. Birefringence index and vessel counting showed no differences between PP and sham (p=0.27 and p=0.58, respectively. Conclusions The implantation of monofilament and macroporous polypropylene in the subcutaneous of rats resulted in increased inflammatory activity and higher TNF production in the early post implant phase. After 30 days, PP has similar cytokines immunoreactivity, vessel density and extracellular matrix organization.

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of the mechanistic target of rapamycin and hypoxia signalling pathways in basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjinta Brinkhuizen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Trichoepithelioma (TE is a benign neoplasm that strongly resembles BCC. Both are hair follicle (HF tumours. HFs are hypoxic microenvironments, therefore we hypothesized that hypoxia-induced signalling pathways could be involved in BCC and TE as they are in other human malignancies. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1 and mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR are key players in these pathways. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HIF1/mTOR signalling is involved in BCC and TE. METHODS: We used immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded BCC (n = 45 and TE (n = 35 samples to assess activity of HIF1, mTORC1 and their most important target genes. The percentage positive tumour cells was assessed manually in a semi-quantitative manner and categorized (0%, 80%. RESULTS: Among 45 BCC and 35 TE examined, expression levels were respectively 81% and 57% (BNIP3, 73% and 75% (CAIX, 79% and 86% (GLUT1, 50% and 19% (HIF1α, 89% and 88% (pAKT, 55% and 61% (pS6, 15% and 25% (pMTOR, 44% and 63% (PHD2 and 44% and 49% (VEGF-A. CAIX, Glut1 and PHD2 expression levels were significantly higher in TE when only samples with at least 80% expression were included. CONCLUSIONS: HIF and mTORC1 signalling seems active in both BCC and TE. There are no appreciable differences between the two with respect to pathway activity. At this moment immunohistochemical analyses of HIF, mTORC1 and their target genes does not provide a reliable diagnostic tool for the discrimination of BCC and TE.

  17. AEP Ohio gridSMART Demonstration Project Real-Time Pricing Demonstration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek; Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.

    2014-02-01

    This report contributes initial findings from an analysis of significant aspects of the gridSMART® Real-Time Pricing (RTP) – Double Auction demonstration project. Over the course of four years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) worked with American Electric Power (AEP), Ohio and Battelle Memorial Institute to design, build, and operate an innovative system to engage residential consumers and their end-use resources in a participatory approach to electric system operations, an incentive-based approach that has the promise of providing greater efficiency under normal operating conditions and greater flexibility to react under situations of system stress. The material contained in this report supplements the findings documented by AEP Ohio in the main body of the gridSMART report. It delves into three main areas: impacts on system operations, impacts on households, and observations about the sensitivity of load to price changes.

  18. [Immunohistochemical examination of MSH2, PMS2, MLH1, MSH6 compared with the analysis of microsatellite instability in colon adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, G A; Ianus, G A; Kornilov, A V; Orlova, R V; Petrov, S V; Protasova, A É; Pozharisskiĭ, K M; Imianitov, E N

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the colon in 10-20% is associated with microsatellite instability, which can occur both in sporadic cancers and in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Our analysis of 195 cases of adenocarcinoma of the colon showed that microsatellite instability (MSI-H) was found only in 1.5% of patients. Subsequent choice of patients with suspected hereditary Lynch syndrome led to the identification of additional 17 patients with microsatellite instability. They passed an analysis of genes of repair system of unpaired nucleotides of DNA. The study showed that immunohistochemical staining of MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2 could effectively conduct a preliminary screening of the Lynch syndrome but was unable to divide cases of sporadic and hereditary MSI-H colon cancer.

  19. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuestra, Clara [University of Washington; Rielage, Keith Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Wenqin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goett, John Jerome III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  20. Analysis of Skylab IV fluid mechanic science demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, M. G.; Bourgeois, S. V.

    1975-01-01

    Several science demonstrations performed on Skylab III and IV were concerned with the behavior of fluid drops free floating in microgravity. These demonstrations, with large liquid drops, included the oscillation, rotation, impact and coalescence, and air injection into the drops. Rayleigh's analysis of the oscillation of spherical drops of a liquid predicts accurately the effect of size and surface tension on the frequency of vibrated water globules in the Skylab demonstration. However, damping occurred much faster than predicted by Lamb's or Scriven's analyses of the damping time for spherical drops. The impact demonstrations indicated that a minimum velocity is necessary to overcome surface forces and effect a coalescence, but a precise criterion for the coalescence of liquids in low g could not be determined.

  1. Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid gland and immunohistochemical analysis of expression of p53 protein in papillary microcarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal Ali R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPM is defined according to WHO criteria as a thyroid tumor smaller than 1–1.5 cm. TPMs are encountered in 0.5–35.6 % of autopsies or surgical specimens where carcinoma had been unsuspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients who had TPMs in terms of clinical findings, histopathological features and immunohistochemical evidence of expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Methods A total of 44 patients with TPMs less than 1.0 cm in diameter were included in the study. The patients were evaluated clinically and the tumors were evaluated in terms of their histopathological and immunohistochemical features, including expression of p53. Results The female/male ratio was 2.8/1, and the median age at time of diagnosis was 49 years (range 20–71 years. The maximum diameter of the smallest focus was 0.1 mm, and that of the largest was 10 mm microscopically. The mean diameter of all tumors was 5.7 mm. There was no correlation between tumor size and age or gender. Of the TPMs, 72 % were found in the right lobe, 24 % in the left lobe and 4 % in the isthmus. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 43.2 % of the patients. All patients were treated with surgery, with 20 undergoing conservative surgery, i.e. lobectomy or isthmusectomy, and 24 undergoing total thyroidectomy. Frozen section provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 56.8 % of the patients. We found lymphocytic thyroiditis in 13.6% of patients, follicular variants in 11.9%, capsular invasion in 26.8%, lymph node involvement in 11.9%, soft tissue metastases in the neck in 12.1% and multifocality in 31.7 %, and none of these were related to age or gender (p > 0.05. No distant metastases were observed during approximately 10 years of follow up. We found p53 positivity in 34.5 % of TPM tumors. However, p53 expression was not statistically related to age or gender. Conclusion Our findings imply

  2. Morphologic alterations and immunohistochemical analysis of alpha-fetoprotein and CD34 in chorionic villi of anembryonic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, S.; Yenilmez, E.; Yulug, E.; Arvas, H.; Ozeren, M.; Cobanoglu, U.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the morphology of chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy, especially the expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in trophoblastic cells and the process of maturation and margination vasculogenesis proper using CD34 immunohistochemistry in tissues from the first trimester of pregnancy loss due to anembryonic pregnancy in comparison with embryonic pregnancy. The study consisted of 2 groups: 9 patients with anembryonic pregnancies and 9 patients with embryonic pregnancies between 6 and 10 weeks of gestational age registered at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey, from March 2003 to December 2004. We examined the chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy. For immunohistochemical staining, we used AFP and CD 34. Microscopically, pathologic changes were shown in syncytiotrophoblast cells of anembryonic pregnancies and AFP was strongly expressed by villous trophoblastic cells compared to embryonic pregnancies. We determined the CD34 positivity in both groups. In anembryonic pregnancies, vascular elements were much fewer in number compared with embryonic pregnancies (p<0.001) and were located in the formed of hemangioblastic cords. Placental vasculogenesis is a basic feature in all types of pregnancy and a relationship exists between trophoblast cells and vessels in the chorionic villi with the potential to influence each other's functions. Defective chorionic villus vascularization is associated with embryonic death. This study may support the hypothesis, as suggested by previous studies, that anembryonic pregnancy results from early embryonic death and subsequent reabsorption rather than from the nondevelopment of an embryo. (author)

  3. Lipid-rich histology in a basal-type immunoprofile breast carcinoma: histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Maiello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinicopathological and morphological features of an unusual breast carcinoma classifiable as a lipid-rich variant of ductal invasive carcinoma, with a basal-type immunohistochemical profile. Basal-type breast cancers show no hormonal receptor expression, rarely over-express HER-2 but exhibit molecular high weight cytokeratins, EGFR and c-kit positivity. Special stains and histochemistry tests were used to elucidate the nature of vescicles in the neoplastic cells. Sudan IV was performed on formalin-fixed tissue. Commercially available antibodies tested were: ER, PgR, EGFR, HER2, c-kit, high molecular weight cytokeratins. Cytoplasmic lipids were highlighted as red-orange droplets on Sudan IV staining. As for immunohistochemistry, the tumor showed no reactivity to ER, PgR and HER2 (triple negative, and diffuse and strong positivity to high weight cytokeratins, EGFR and c-kit, such as a basal-type breast carcinoma. A basaloid phenotype in a lipid-rich carcinoma has not been previously reported.

  4. A Peripheral Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 3-Year-Old Girl: Case Report, Immunohistochemical Analysis, and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO predominantly occurs in the jaw bones of children and young adults. Extraosseous AFO is extremely rare. We describe a peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the maxillary gingiva of a 3-year-old girl. The clinical appearance resembled fiery red reactive gingival lesions. The histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed small islands and cords of odontogenic epithelium with cellular myxoid stroma in the subepithelial tissue. The mass contained calcified material and an enamel-like deposit. Many small blood vessels appeared in the connective tissue surrounding the odontogenic epithelium. The immunohistochemical assays showed strong reactivity for amelogenin, β-catenin, CD44, and CD31 in the tissue sections. There was no recurrence after the 1-year follow-up. Because this lesion clinically resembles other nonneoplastic lesions and is very rare in gingiva, establishing a correct diagnosis is achieved only based on specific histological characteristics. Conservative excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice.

  5. Direct comparison of enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to localize an enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2002-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of enzymes is compared directly with localization of enzyme activity with (catalytic) enzyme histochemical methods. The two approaches demonstrate principally different aspects of an enzyme. The immunohistochemical method localizes the enzyme protein whether it is

  6. Performance demonstration program plan for analysis of simulated headspace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for analysis of headspace gases will consist of regular distribution and analyses of test standards to evaluate the capability for analyzing VOCs, hydrogen, and methane in the headspace of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles will provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for TRU waste characterization. Laboratory performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste drum headspace gases according to the criteria set within the text of this Program Plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAPP QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization gas samples. Analyses which are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories which have demonstrated acceptable performance in the PDP

  7. [Primary antisera before and after the expiration date. Comparative immunohistochemical observations and analysis of data sheets and labels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliani, R; Babache, N

    2002-06-01

    By means of positive and negative controls, the immunostaining properties of a series (B) of 78 primary antibodies (PAB) that had expired 7-77 months previously (mean, 26.3 months) were evaluated in comparison those of the same non expired (functioning) PAB. Qualitatively, no significative difference was observed in the specificity and sensitivity. Among all of the PAB (with the exception of one), no immunonegativity was observed. With special reference to immunohistochemical methods, dilution and retrieval procedures, as suggested on data sheets, were additionally considered. Moreover the residual availability of the reagents was checked. In fact 58 PAB were still available for further examination with probable prolongation of the duration of validity. Other observations are analytically reported as far as polyclonal, monoclonal, concentrated and predilluted expired PAB are concerned. In the same way, duration of available validity before the expiration date was examined for the expired PAB and for an additional series of 90 nonexpired PAB. Finally textual information (including intended use) reported on data sheets and labels has been scrutinized in detail. In conclusion, for the diagnostically applied immunohistochemistry on the basis of these findings and the recent American and European rules, the following propositions should be considered: (1) surveillance on methodological technical approach and diagnostic evaluation, with emphasis on accurate standardization and primary responsibility of the pathologist; (2) opportunity of a continuous feed-back between laboratories-customers and producers-traders, in order to render more uniform the information and establish more realistic parameters of utilization; and (3) possibility of cost reduction according to limited financial support from the health care administration.

  8. Prognostic value analysis of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchiocchi, Roberta; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fazioli, Francesca; Rubini, Corrado; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Borghetti, Giulia; Procacci, Pasquale; Nocini, Pier Francesco; Santarelli, Andrea; Rocchetti, Romina; Ciavarella, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most common oral malignancy. Despite recent advances in therapy, up to 50% of the cases have relapse and/or metastasis. There is therefore a strong need for the identification of new biological markers able to predict the clinical behaviour of these lesions in order to improve quality of life and overall survival. Among tumour progression biomarkers, already known for their involvement in other neoplasia, a crucial role is ascribed to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), which plays a multiple role in extracellular proteolysis, cell migration and tissue remodelling not only as a receptor for the zymogen pro-uPA but also as a component for cell adhesion and as a chemoattractant. The purpose of this study was to gain information on the expression of uPAR in OSCC and to verify whether this molecule can have a role as a prognostic/predictive marker for this neoplasia. In a retrospective study, a cohort of 189 OSCC patients was investigated for uPAR expression and its cellular localization by immunohistochemistry. As standard controls, 8 normal oral mucosal tissues free of malignancy, obtained from patients with no evidence or history of oral cavity tumours, were similarly investigated. After grouping for uPAR expression, OSCCs were statistically analyzed for the variables age, gender, histological grading (G), tumour size, recurrence, TNM staging and overall survival rate. In our immunohistochemical study, 74 cases (39.1%) of OSCC showed a mostly cytoplasmic positivity for uPAR, whereas 115 were negative. uPAR expression correlated with tumour differentiation grade and prognosis: percentage of positive cases was the greatest in G3 (70.4%) and patients positives for uPAR expression had an expectation of life lower than those for uPAR negatives. The results obtained in this study suggest a role of uPAR as a potential biomarker useful to identify higher risk subgroups of OSCC patients

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of the gingiva with periodontitis of type I plasminogen deficiency compared to gingiva with gingivitis and periodontitis and healthy gingiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus Waschulewski, Idil; Gökbuget, Aslan Y; Christiansen, Nina M; Ziegler, Maike; Schuster, Volker; Wahl, Gerhard; Götz, Werner

    2016-12-01

    Type I plasminogen deficiency (Plgdef) is an uncommon chronic inflammation of mucous membranes. Gingival enlargements usually proceed with progressive periodontal destruction and tooth-loss. Plasmin(ogen)-independent enzymatic mechanisms for fibrin clearance have already been discussed in the literature. Our primary objective was to verify, immunohistochemically, the occurrence of different enzymatic factors involved in tissue breakdown of inflamed compared to healthy gingiva. Secondly, we tried to find out, if these patients have a similar microbiological profile to the patients with known gingivitis and periodontitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of enzymes elastase, plasminogen (plg), cathepsin G, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-7 and of glycoprotein fibrinogen were performed with gingival tissues from 3 healthy controls, 8 patients with Plgdef and 3 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Furthermore, plaque from 5 patients with plasminogen deficiency were also obtained to determine the microbiological profile. Significantly high numbers of elastase positive leukocytes were detected in all samples. Staining for MMP-3 and MMP-7 was seen in samples with gingivitis and periodontitis with a stronger staining in samples with periodontitis by Plgdef. Fibrinogen was detectable in all samples. Staining for plg was stronger in samples with periodontitis than in other samples. Staining for cathepsin G was weak in gingivitis and periodontitis. Subgingival microbial flora showed elevated colony forming units of Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Fusobacterium spp., Eikenella corrodens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and viridans streptococci. Strong staining of elastase, MMP-3 and MMP-7 and weak staining of plg in Plgdef samples supports the plasmin(ogen) - independent fibrin clearance. Similar subgingival microbiological flora was observed in periodontitis with Plgdef as in other periodontal diseases. Further investigations should determine the exact pathomechanism

  10. Post mitigation impact risk analysis for asteroid deflection demonstration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William; Bancelin, David; Cano, Juan L.; Cichocki, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Even though mankind believes to have the capabilities to avert potentially disastrous asteroid impacts, only the realization of mitigation demonstration missions can validate this claim. Such a deflection demonstration attempt has to be cost effective, easy to validate, and safe in the sense that harmless asteroids must not be turned into potentially hazardous objects. Uncertainties in an asteroid's orbital and physical parameters as well as those additionally introduced during a mitigation attempt necessitate an in depth analysis of deflection mission designs in order to dispel planetary safety concerns. We present a post mitigation impact risk analysis of a list of potential kinetic impactor based deflection demonstration missions proposed in the framework of the NEOShield project. Our results confirm that mitigation induced uncertainties have a significant influence on the deflection outcome. Those cannot be neglected in post deflection impact risk studies. We show, furthermore, that deflection missions have to be assessed on an individual basis in order to ensure that asteroids are not inadvertently transported closer to the Earth at a later date. Finally, we present viable targets and mission designs for a kinetic impactor test to be launched between the years 2025 and 2032.

  11. Cutaneous Clear Cell Sarcoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of 12 cases emphasizing its distinction from dermal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantschke, Markus; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Palmedo, Gabriele; Calonje, Eduardo; Lazar, Alexander J.; Kutzner, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of tendons and aponeuroses / malignant melanoma of soft parts is a rare tumor and in the majority of cases presents a characteristic reciprocal translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) that results in fusion of the EWS and ATF1 genes. Although the melanocytic differentiation of CCS is indisputable, its precise lineage remains unclear. Typically, the slowly growing tumor affects the extremities of adolescents or young adults, especially around the ankle and foot. CCS is classically regarded as a deep soft tissue tumor associated with tendons or aponeuroses. This traditional view is put into perspective by the description of primary CCS of the gastrointestinal tract, which may have a variant fusion gene EWSR1-CREB1. We describe 12 cases of cutaneous CCS and discuss the differential diagnoses. These 12 cases share an identical immunohistochemical profile with malignant melanoma (MM) and thus can easily be confused with a dermal variant of spindle cell MM or metastasis of MM. The patients' ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median: 25 y), and there was a female predominance (10 females, 2 males). Most tumors (n = 9) were located on the extremities, 2 tumors arose on the back, and 1 on the abdomen. The mean tumor size was 0,97 cm (range, 0,4 to 1,7 cm). Six cases showed invasion of the subcutis, the other 6 cases were entirely dermal. Tumor necrosis was evident in 2 cases, melanin pigment in 2 cases, and ulceration in 1 tumor. All cases showed uniform nests and fascicles of pale spindled or slightly epitheloid cells with finely granular eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm. There was fair pleomorphism with plump spindled nuclei and significantly prominent nucleoli. Multinucleated wreath-like tumor giant cells were observed in two-thirds of cases, but were usually present only focally. The dense cellular aggregates were encased by delicate fibrous septa. The stroma showed a sclerotic reticulated pattern. Partly, the nests of spindle cells bordered the epidermis

  12. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility's compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement

  13. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility's compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  14. Photosynthesis energy factory: analysis, synthesis, and demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This quantitative assessment of the potential of a combined dry-land Energy Plantation, wood-fired power plant, and algae wastewater treatment system demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of recycling certain by-products and effluents from one subsystem to another. Designed to produce algae up to the limit of the amount of carbon in municipal wastewater, the algae pond provides a positive cash credit, resulting mainly from the wastewater treatment credit, which may be used to reduce the cost of the Photosynthesis Energy Factory (PEF)-generated electricity. The algae pond also produces fertilizer, which reduces the cost of the biomass produced on the Energy Plantation, and some gas. The cost of electricity was as low as 35 mills per kilowatt-hour for a typical municipally-owned PEF consisting of a 65-MWe power plant, a 144-acre algae pond, and a 33,000-acre Energy Plantation. Using only conventional or near-term technology, the most cost-effective algae pond for a PEF is the carbon-limited secondary treatment system. This system does not recycle CO/sub 2/ from the flue gas. Analysis of the Energy Plantation subsystem at 15 sites revealed that plantations of 24,000 to 36,000 acres produce biomass at the lowest cost per ton. The following sites are recommended for more detailed evaluation as potential demonstration sites: Pensacola, Florida; Jamestown, New York; Knoxville, Tennessee; Martinsville, Virginia, and Greenwood, South Carolina. A major possible extension of the PEF concept is to include the possibility for irrigation.

  15. Variation of amino acid sequences of serum amyloid a (SAA) and immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid a (AA) in Japanese domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Meina; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Tamamoto, Takashi; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-02

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, a fatal systemic amyloid disease, occurs secondary to chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Although persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) levels are required for its pathogenesis, not all individuals with chronic inflammation necessarily develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, many diseases in cats are associated with the elevated production of SAA, whereas only a small number actually develop AA amyloidosis. We hypothesized that a genetic mutation in the SAA gene may strongly contribute to the pathogenesis of feline AA amyloidosis. In the present study, genomic DNA from four Japanese domestic cats (JDCs) with AA amyloidosis and from five without amyloidosis was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and direct sequencing. We identified the novel variation combination of 45R-51A in the deduced amino acid sequences of four JDCs with amyloidosis and five without. However, there was no relationship between amino acid variations and the distribution of AA amyloid deposits, indicating that differences in SAA sequences do not contribute to the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. Immunohistochemical analysis using antisera against the three different parts of the feline SAA protein-i.e., the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions-revealed that feline AA contained the C-terminus, unlike human AA. These results indicate that the cleavage and degradation of the C-terminus are not essential for amyloid fibril formation in JDCs.

  16. G-computation demonstration in causal mediation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Aolin; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has considerably advanced the definition, identification and estimation of controlled direct, and natural direct and indirect effects in causal mediation analysis. Despite the various estimation methods and statistical routines being developed, a unified approach for effect estimation under different effect decomposition scenarios is still needed for epidemiologic research. G-computation offers such unification and has been used for total effect and joint controlled direct effect estimation settings, involving different types of exposure and outcome variables. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of parametric g-computation in estimating various components of the total effect, including (1) natural direct and indirect effects, (2) standard and stochastic controlled direct effects, and (3) reference and mediated interaction effects, using Monte Carlo simulations in standard statistical software. For each study subject, we estimated their nested potential outcomes corresponding to the (mediated) effects of an intervention on the exposure wherein the mediator was allowed to attain the value it would have under a possible counterfactual exposure intervention, under a pre-specified distribution of the mediator independent of any causes, or under a fixed controlled value. A final regression of the potential outcome on the exposure intervention variable was used to compute point estimates and bootstrap was used to obtain confidence intervals. Through contrasting different potential outcomes, this analytical framework provides an intuitive way of estimating effects under the recently introduced 3- and 4-way effect decomposition. This framework can be extended to complex multivariable and longitudinal mediation settings

  17. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of adhesive papillae of Clavelina lepadiformis (Müller, 1776 and Clavelina phlegraea (Salfi, 1929 (Tunicata, Ascidiacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pennati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all ascidian larvae bear three mucus secreting and sensory organs, the adhesive papillae, at the anterior end of the trunk, which play an important role during the settlement phase. The morphology and the cellular composition of these organs varies greatly in the different species. The larvae of the Clavelina genus bear simple bulbous papillae, which are considered to have only a secretory function. We analysed the adhesive papillae of two species belonging to this genus, C. lepadiformis and C. phlegraea, by histological sections and by immunolocalisation of b-tubulin and serotonin, in order to better clarify the cellular composition of these organs.We demonstrated that they contain at least two types of neurons: central neurons, bearing microvilli, and peripheral ciliated neurons. Peripheral neurons of C. lepadiformis contain serotonin. We suggest that these two neurons play different roles during settlement: the central ones may be chemo- or mechanoreceptors that sense the substratum, and the peripheral ones may be involved in the mechanism that triggers metamorphosis.

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of adhesive papillae of Clavelina lepadiformis (Müller, 1776 and Clavelina phlegraea (Salfi, 1929 (Tunicata, Ascidiacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Zega

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost all ascidian larvae bear three mucus secreting and sensory organs, the adhesive papillae, at the anterior end of the trunk, which play an important role during the settlement phase. The morphology and the cellular composition of these organs varies greatly in the different species. The larvae of the Clavelina genus bear simple bulbous papillae, which are considered to have only a secretory function. We analysed the adhesive papillae of two species belonging to this genus, C. lepadiformis and C. phlegraea, by histological sections and by immunolocalisation of b-tubulin and serotonin, in order to better clarify the cellular composition of these organs.We demonstrated that they contain at least two types of neurons: central neurons, bearing microvilli, and peripheral ciliated neurons. Peripheral neurons of C. lepadiformis contain serotonin. We suggest that these two neurons play different roles during settlement: the central ones may be chemo- or mechanoreceptors that sense the substratum, and the peripheral ones may be involved in the mechanism that triggers metamorphosis.

  20. Prognostic significance of Cdx2 immunohistochemical expression in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of published literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Tong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cdx2 is a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor that is important in the development and differentiation of the intestinal cells, and served as a potential biomarker of tumor progression in early intestinal-type gastric cancer. However, its prognostic value and significance in gastric cancer remain controversial. A meta-analysis based on published studies was performed to obtain an accurate evaluation of the association between the presence of Cdx2-positive in clinical samples and clinical outcome. A total of 13 eligible retrospective cohort studies with 1513 patients were included. Cdx2-positive cases were significantly associated with higher male-to-female ratio (RR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38, PPP=0.002 fixed-effect and lymph node metastasis (RR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.33-1.73, PP

  1. Immunohistochemical evaluation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshatha, B K; Karuppiah, Karpagaselvi; Manjunath, G S; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Rao, Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    The three common odontogenic cysts include radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs), and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). Among these 3 cysts, OKC is recently been classified as benign keratocystic odontogenic tumor attributing to its aggressive behavior, recurrence rate, and malignant potential. The present study involved qualitative and quantitative analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in epithelial lining of RCs, DCs, and OKCs, compare iNOS expression in epithelial linings of all the 3 cysts and determined overexpression of iNOS in OKCs which might contribute to its aggressive behavior and malignant potential. The present study is to investigate the role of iNOS in the pathogenesis of OKCs, DCs, and RCs by evaluating the iNOS expression in the epithelial lining of these cysts. Analysis of iNOS expression in epithelial lining cells of 20 RCs, 20 DCs, and 20 OKCs using immunohistochemistry done. The percentage of positive cells and intensity of stain was assessed and compared among all the 3 cysts using contingency coefficient. Kappa statistics for the two observers were computed for finding interobserver agreement. The percentage of iNOS-positive cells was found to be remarkably high in OKCs (12/20) -57.1% as compared to RCs (6/20) - 28.6% and DCs (3/20) - 14.3%. The interobserver agreement for iNOS-positive percentage cells was arrived with kappa values with OKCs → Statistically significant ( P > 0.000), RCs → statistically significant ( P > 0.001) with no significant values for DCs. No statistical difference exists among 3 study samples in regard to the intensity of staining with iNOS. Increased iNOS expression in OKCs may contribute to bone resorption and accumulation of wild-type p53, hence, making OKCs more aggressive.

  2. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of human maxillary sinus-floor augmentation using porous β-tricalcium phosphate for dental implant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shinji; Shinmyouzu, Kouhei; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Takeshita, Kenji; Terada, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2013-08-01

    This study utilized the constitution and expression of Runx2/Cbfa1 to conduct 6-month-post-operation histomorphometrical and histochemical analysis of osteocalcin in bone regeneration following sinus-floor augmentation procedures using β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and autogenous cortical bone. Thirteen sinuses of nine patients were treated with sinus-floor augmentation using 50% β-TCP and 50% autogenous cancellous bone harvested from the ramus of the mandible. Biopsies of augmented sinuses were taken at 6 months for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical measurements. Runx2/Cbfa1- and osteocalcin-positive cells were found around TCP particles and on the bone surface. Approximately 60% of cells found around TCP particles stained positive for Runx2/Cbfa1. Fewer cells stained positive for osteocalcin. These positive cells decreased apically with increasing vertical distance from the maxillary bone surface. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the augmented site close to residual bone and periosteum contained approximately 42% bony tissue and 42% soft connective tissue, and the remaining 16% consisted of TCP particles. On the other hand, the augmented bone far from residual bone and periosteum contained 35% bony tissue and 50% soft connective tissue. Our data suggest that TCP particles attract osteoprogenitor cells that migrate into the interconnecting micropores of the bone-substitute material by 6 months. The augmented site close to residual bone contained a higher proportion of bony tissue and a lower proportion of soft connective tissue than did the augmented site far from residual bone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Elucidating the role of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus - an immunohistochemical study with supportive histochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratyush; Grover, Jasleen; Byatnal, Aditi Amit; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Radhakrishnan, Raghu; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2017-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that affects the oral mucous membrane. During an inflammatory response, several chemokines and cytokines are released by the cells of the immune system. Activation of MMPs, along with mast cell-derived chymase and tryptase, degrades the basement membrane structural proteins, resulting in basement membrane breaks. To investigate the association between the COX-2 expressions, presence of intact or degranulating mast cells within the connective tissue and the extent of basement membrane discontinuity in OLP cases. This study included a total of 50 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens (FFPE) of histologically confirmed cases of idiopathic oral lichen planus. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out by immunohistochemistry to study the epithelial expression of COX-2 and by the use of special stains such as toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to study the mast cell count and basement membrane changes in the oral mucosal tissue, respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.03) association between the COX-2 expressions and mast cell count. As the intensity of COX-2 expression increased from mild to moderate or severe, the number of mast cell count almost doubled. Interaction between upregulation of COX-2, mast cell and basement membrane sets a vicious cycle which relates to the chronic nature of the disease. Inhibitors of COX-2 may reduce the inflammatory process preceding the immune dysregulation in OLP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  5. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Maekawa

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1 is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1 or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  6. Demonstration of innovative techniques for work zone safety data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Based upon the results of the simulator data analysis, additional future research can be : identified to validate the driving simulator in terms of similarities with Ohio work zones. For : instance, the speeds observed in the simulator were greater f...

  7. Global Inventory and Analysis of Smart Grid Demonstration Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, W.; Kumpavat, K.; Faasen, C.; Verheij, F.; Vaessen, P [DNV KEMA Energy and Sustainability, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    As the key enabler of a more sustainable, economical and reliable energy system, the development of smart grids has received a great deal of attention in recent times. In many countries around the world the benefits of such a system have begun to be investigated through a number of demonstration projects. With such a vast array of projects it can be difficult to keep track of changes, and to understand which best practices are currently available with regard to smart grids. This report aims to address these issues through providing a comprehensive outlook on the current status of smart grid projects worldwide.

  8. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, H Kazem

    2011-01-01

    Intrathyroid lymphoid tissue is accrued in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Histologically, this acquired lymphoid tissue bears a close resemblance to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and can evolve to lymphoma. To demonstrate the morphological, and immunohistochemical profiles of Hashimoto thyroiditis and to ascertain the importance of light chain restriction in distinguishing HT with extensive lymphoplasmacytoid infiltrate from MALT lymphoma. We studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically (CD20, CD3, Igk, Igl and cytokeratin) 30 cases of HT for evaluation of the lymphoid infiltrate and the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs). Distinguishing between early thyroid lymphoma and HT was evaluated by light chain restriction. These findings were compared with two cases of primary thyroid lymphoma. The histopathological findings were characteristic of HT. Immunohistochemistry confirmed inconspicuous, rare B-cell LELs as well as a prominent T-lymphocyte population. Testing for light chain restriction showed polyclonal population of plasma cells. The cases of MALT lymphoma had distinct destructive lymphoepithelial lesions, B-cell immunophenotyping and showed kappa light chain restriction in the plasmacytoid population. Hashimoto thyroiditis differs both histopathologically and immunohistochemically from thyroid lymphoma. In suspicious cases, immunohistochemistry could be helpful in reaching a definitive diagnosis.

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis and prognostic significance of PD-L1, PD-1, and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Isidro; López-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Scotlandi, Katia; Picci, Piero; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) are aggressive neoplasms with scant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. We analyzed the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 and their prognostic significance in clinically localized neoplasms in a cohort of 370 ESFT. Slides prepared from tissue microarrays were stained for PD-L1, PD-1, and CD8. Membranous/cytoplasmic staining over 5% of tumor cells was regarded as positive for PD-L1 and PD-1. Prognostic analysis was done considering only clinically localized tumors (n = 217). PD-L1 expression was present in 19% of ESFT, while PD-1 was expressed in 26%. Forty-eight percent of tumors were negative and 12% were positive for both PD-L1 and PD-1. Metastatic tumors displayed higher expression of PD-L1 (p < 0.0001). Histological subtypes were not correlated with PD-L1 or PD-1 positivity. ESFT with elevated proliferation index (Ki-67) were associated with higher PD-L1 expression (p = 0.049). Regarding prognosis, no significant association was found between PD-L1 expression and progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS), whereas lack of PD-1 expression in tumor cells was correlated with both poor PFS (p = 0.02) and poor OS (p = 0.004). Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes were observed in 15.4% of ESFT with informative results (347 tumors). No correlation was found between tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes and ESFT histological subtypes, tumor location, or PD-1 and PD-L1 expression, nor with PFS (p = 0.473) or OS (p = 0.087). PD-L1 expression was not significantly related to prognosis. PD-1 was expressed in 26% of ESFT tumor cells and may have prognostic and therapeutic implications. CD8 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was not related to prognosis.

  10. Demonstration study on shielding safety analysis code (VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Sadashi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-03-01

    Dose evaluation for direct radiation and skyshine from nuclear fuel facilities is one of the environment evaluation items. This evaluation is carried out by using some shielding calculation codes. Because of extremely few benchmark data of skyshine, the calculation has to be performed very conservatively. Therefore, the benchmark data of skyshine and the well-investigated code for skyshine would be necessary to carry out the rational evaluation of nuclear facilities. The purpose of this steady is to obtain the benchmark data of skyshine and to investigate the calculation code for skyshine. In this fiscal year, the followings are investigated; (1) Construction and improvement of a pulsed radiation measurement system due to the gated counting method. (2) Using the system, carried out the radiation monitoring near and in the facility of 45 MeV Linear accelerator installed at Hokkaido University. (3) Simulation analysis of the photo-neutron production and the transport by using the EGS4 and MCNP code. (author)

  11. Geospatial analysis of food environment demonstrates associations with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Maike K; Suter, Melissa A; Ballas, Jerasimos; Ramin, Susan M; Monga, Manju; Lee, Wesley; Hu, Min; Shope, Cindy D; Chesnokova, Arina; Krannich, Laura; Griffin, Emily N; Mastrobattista, Joan; Dildy, Gary A; Strehlow, Stacy L; Ramphul, Ryan; Hamilton, Winifred J; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of most common complications of pregnancy, with incidence rates varying by maternal age, race/ethnicity, obesity, parity, and family history. Given its increasing prevalence in recent decades, covariant environmental and sociodemographic factors may be additional determinants of GDM occurrence. We hypothesized that environmental risk factors, in particular measures of the food environment, may be a diabetes contributor. We employed geospatial modeling in a populous US county to characterize the association of the relative availability of fast food restaurants and supermarkets to GDM. Utilizing a perinatal database with >4900 encoded antenatal and outcome variables inclusive of ZIP code data, 8912 consecutive pregnancies were analyzed for correlations between GDM and food environment based on countywide food permit registration data. Linkage between pregnancies and food environment was achieved on the basis of validated 5-digit ZIP code data. The prevalence of supermarkets and fast food restaurants per 100,000 inhabitants for each ZIP code were gathered from publicly available food permit sources. To independently authenticate our findings with objective data, we measured hemoglobin A1c levels as a function of geospatial distribution of food environment in a matched subset (n = 80). Residence in neighborhoods with a high prevalence of fast food restaurants (fourth quartile) was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing GDM (relative to first quartile: adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.19). In multivariate analysis, this association held true after controlling for potential confounders (P = .002). Measurement of hemoglobin A1c levels in a matched subset were significantly increased in association with residence in a ZIP code with a higher fast food/supermarket ratio (n = 80, r = 0.251 P analysis, a relationship of food environment and risk for gestational diabetes was

  12. Reflex test reminders in required cancer synoptic templates decrease order entry error: An analysis of mismatch repair immunohistochemical orders to screen for Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometrial carcinoma (EC is the most common extracolonic malignant neoplasm associated with Lynch syndrome (LS. LS is caused by autosomal dominant germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Screening for LS in EC is often evaluated by loss of immunohistochemical (IHC expression of DNA MMR enzymes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (MMR IHC. In July 2013, our clinicians asked that we screen all EC in patients ≤60 for loss of MMR IHC expression. Despite this policy, several cases were not screened or screening was delayed. We implemented an informatics-based approach to ensure that all women who met criteria would have timely screening. Subjects and Methods: Reports are created in PowerPath (Sunquest Information Systems, Tucson, AZ with custom synoptic templates. We implemented an algorithm on March 6, 2014 requiring pathologists to address MMR IHC in patients ≤60 with EC before sign out (S/O. Pathologists must answer these questions: is patient ≤60 (yes/no, if yes, follow-up questions (IHC done previously, ordered with addendum to follow, results included in report, N/A, or not ordered, if not ordered, one must explain. We analyzed cases from July 18, 2013 to August 31, 2016 preimplementation (PreImp and postimplementation (PostImp that met criteria. Data analysis was performed using the standard data package included with GraphPad Prism® 7.00 (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA. Results: There were 147 patients who met criteria (29 PreImp and 118 PostImp. IHC was ordered in a more complete and timely fashion PostImp than PreImp. PreImp, 4/29 (13.8% cases did not get any IHC, but PostImp, only 4/118 (3.39% were missed (P = 0.0448. Of cases with IHC ordered, 60.0% (15/25 were ordered before or at S/O PreImp versus 91.2% (104/114 PostImp (P = 0.0004. Relative to day of S/O, the mean days of order delay were longer and more variable PreImp versus PostImp (12.9 ± 40.7 vs. -0.660 ± 1.15; P = 0.0227, with the average

  13. Reflex test reminders in required cancer synoptic templates decrease order entry error: An analysis of mismatch repair immunohistochemical orders to screen for Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Mark R; McIlwain, Carrie A; Schmidt, Rodney A; Norquist, Barbara M; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Garcia, Rochelle L; Rendi, Mara H

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common extracolonic malignant neoplasm associated with Lynch syndrome (LS). LS is caused by autosomal dominant germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Screening for LS in EC is often evaluated by loss of immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of DNA MMR enzymes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (MMR IHC). In July 2013, our clinicians asked that we screen all EC in patients ≤60 for loss of MMR IHC expression. Despite this policy, several cases were not screened or screening was delayed. We implemented an informatics-based approach to ensure that all women who met criteria would have timely screening. Reports are created in PowerPath (Sunquest Information Systems, Tucson, AZ) with custom synoptic templates. We implemented an algorithm on March 6, 2014 requiring pathologists to address MMR IHC in patients ≤60 with EC before sign out (S/O). Pathologists must answer these questions: is patient ≤60 (yes/no), if yes, follow-up questions (IHC done previously, ordered with addendum to follow, results included in report, N/A, or not ordered), if not ordered, one must explain. We analyzed cases from July 18, 2013 to August 31, 2016 preimplementation (PreImp) and postimplementation (PostImp) that met criteria. Data analysis was performed using the standard data package included with GraphPad Prism ® 7.00 (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). There were 147 patients who met criteria (29 PreImp and 118 PostImp). IHC was ordered in a more complete and timely fashion PostImp than PreImp. PreImp, 4/29 (13.8%) cases did not get any IHC, but PostImp, only 4/118 (3.39%) were missed ( P = 0.0448). Of cases with IHC ordered, 60.0% (15/25) were ordered before or at S/O PreImp versus 91.2% (104/114) PostImp ( P = 0.0004). Relative to day of S/O, the mean days of order delay were longer and more variable PreImp versus PostImp (12.9 ± 40.7 vs. -0.660 ± 1.15; P = 0.0227), with the average being before S/O PostImp. This algorithm

  14. Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Gioia, Cira; Carletti, Raffaella; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis. Retrospective study. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined. In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively. High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Computer-assisted assessment of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 immunohistochemical assay in imaged histologic sections using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative analysis of positive controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Bonnie H; Ianosi-Irimie, Monica; Javidian, Parisa; Chen, Wenjin; Ganesan, Shridar; Foran, David J

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are eligible for effective biologically targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. However, accurately determining HER2 overexpression, especially in immunohistochemically equivocal cases, remains a challenge. Manual analysis of HER2 expression is dependent on the assessment of membrane staining as well as comparisons with positive controls. In spite of the strides that have been made to standardize the assessment process, intra- and inter-observer discrepancies in scoring is not uncommon. In this manuscript we describe a pathologist assisted, computer-based continuous scoring approach for increasing the precision and reproducibility of assessing imaged breast tissue specimens. Computer-assisted analysis on HER2 IHC is compared with manual scoring and fluorescence in situ hybridization results on a test set of 99 digitally imaged breast cancer cases enriched with equivocally scored (2+) cases. Image features are generated based on the staining profile of the positive control tissue and pixels delineated by a newly developed Membrane Isolation Algorithm. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. A computer-aided diagnostic approach has been developed using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative use of positive immunostaining controls. By incorporating internal positive controls into feature analysis a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC) in ROC analysis was achieved than feature analysis without positive controls. Evaluation of HER2 immunostaining that utilized membrane pixels, controls, and percent area stained showed significantly greater AUC than manual scoring, and significantly less false positive rate when used to evaluate immunohistochemically equivocal cases. It has been shown that by incorporating both a membrane isolation algorithm and analysis of known positive controls a computer-assisted diagnostic algorithm was

  16. Computer-assisted assessment of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 immunohistochemical assay in imaged histologic sections using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative analysis of positive controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianosi-Irimie Monica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 are eligible for effective biologically targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. However, accurately determining HER2 overexpression, especially in immunohistochemically equivocal cases, remains a challenge. Manual analysis of HER2 expression is dependent on the assessment of membrane staining as well as comparisons with positive controls. In spite of the strides that have been made to standardize the assessment process, intra- and inter-observer discrepancies in scoring is not uncommon. In this manuscript we describe a pathologist assisted, computer-based continuous scoring approach for increasing the precision and reproducibility of assessing imaged breast tissue specimens. Methods Computer-assisted analysis on HER2 IHC is compared with manual scoring and fluorescence in situ hybridization results on a test set of 99 digitally imaged breast cancer cases enriched with equivocally scored (2+ cases. Image features are generated based on the staining profile of the positive control tissue and pixels delineated by a newly developed Membrane Isolation Algorithm. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis. Results A computer-aided diagnostic approach has been developed using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative use of positive immunostaining controls. By incorporating internal positive controls into feature analysis a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC in ROC analysis was achieved than feature analysis without positive controls. Evaluation of HER2 immunostaining that utilized membrane pixels, controls, and percent area stained showed significantly greater AUC than manual scoring, and significantly less false positive rate when used to evaluate immunohistochemically equivocal cases. Conclusion It has been shown that by incorporating both a membrane isolation algorithm and analysis of known

  17. The immunohistochemical demonstration of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, Mark Anthony

    2009-08-01

    The finding of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is rare, with less than 40 reported cases in the literature. A condition of unknown etiology, several hypotheses exist including infectious and congenital. We report a case of ectopic gastric tissue in the rectum of a 47-year-old female, and her subsequent clinical course. Furthermore for the first time, we present immunohistologic evidence of the presence of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopic gastric tissue.

  18. Determination to genotypes of human papillomavirus and analysis with immunohistochemical marker Ki67 in biopsy with cervical dysplasia patients of Hospital Dr. Max Peralta in Cartago during 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Chaves, Ana Lorely

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide, occupying in Costa Rica the fourth place. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is shown that is linked to at least 99.7% of cases, mainly associated with high risk genotypes. A study was conducted of type descriptive where were implemented molecular techniques such as: PCR, reverse hybridization for the determination of different HPV genotypes, and immunohistochemical detection of cell proliferation marker Ki67 in paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies from patients at the Hospital Dr. Max Peralta in Cartago, during the year 2013. The most frequent genotype that was determined among the study population has been 39, which was presented in 53% of cases. In addition, 65% of biopsies studied have showed mixed infections of HPV. (author) [es

  19. Joint Variable Selection and Classification with Immunohistochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine if candidate cancer biomarkers have utility in a clinical setting, validation using immunohistochemical methods is typically done. Most analyses of such data have not incorporated the multivariate nature of the staining profiles. In this article, we consider modelling such data using recently developed ideas from the machine learning community. In particular, we consider the joint goals of feature selection and classification. We develop estimation procedures for the analysis of immunohistochemical profiles using the least absolute selection and shrinkage operator. These lead to novel and flexible models and algorithms for the analysis of compositional data. The techniques are illustrated using data from a cancer biomarker study.

  20. Phenotypic and immunohistochemical characterization of sarcoglycanopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. B. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy presents with heterogeneous clinical and molecular features. The primary characteristic of this disorder is proximal muscular weakness with variable age of onset, speed of progression, and intensity of symptoms. Sarcoglycanopathies, which are a subgroup of the limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, are caused by mutations in sarcoglycan genes. Mutations in these genes cause secondary deficiencies in other proteins, due to the instability of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Therefore, determining the etiology of a given sarcoglycanopathy requires costly and occasionally inaccessible molecular methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify phenotypic differences among limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients who were grouped according to the immunohistochemical phenotypes for the four sarcoglycans. METHODS: To identify phenotypic differences among patients with different types of sarcoglycanopathies, a questionnaire was used and the muscle strength and range of motion of nine joints in 45 patients recruited from the Department of Neurology - HC-FMUSP (Clinics Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo were evaluated. The findings obtained from these analyses were compared with the results of the immunohistochemical findings. RESULTS: The patients were divided into the following groups based on the immunohistochemical findings: a-sarcoglycanopathies (16 patients, b-sarcoglycanopathies (1 patient, y-sarcoglycanopathies (5 patients, and nonsarcoglycanopathies (23 patients. The muscle strength analysis revealed significant differences for both upper and lower limb muscles, particularly the shoulder and hip muscles, as expected. No pattern of joint contractures was found among the four groups analyzed, even within the same family. However, a high frequency of tiptoe gait was observed in patients with a-sarcoglycanopathies, while calf pseudo-hypertrophy was most common in

  1. Prognostic factors for keratocystic odontogenic tumor (odontogenic keratocyst): analysis of clinico-pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in cysts treated by enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Norio; Sakuma, Hidenori; Miyabe, Satoru; Machida, Junichiro; Kaetsu, Atsuo; Yokoi, Motoo; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Nagao, Toru; Shimozato, Kazuo

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors for the recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) following simple enucleation by examining clinico-pathologic and immunohistochemical findings. Following enucleation, the frequency of recurrence among 32 subjects diagnosed with KCOT was analyzed for tumor site, radiographic and histologic features, and immunopositivity for Ki-67 and p53. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors in four out of 32 subjects (12.5%) recurred during the follow-up period (median: 33 months, range: 7-114 months). Three out of four subjects (75.0%) among recurrent group showed high expression of Ki-67 (LI >10%) in basal layer and four (4/28; 14.3%) among non-recurrence group (P = 0.025). Expression of p53 among non-recurrent group was observed in 11 subjects (11/28; 39.3%), and in three subjects (3/4; 75.0%) among the recurrent group (P = 0.295). Hazard risk for the recurrence of KCOT was 4.02 (95% CI 1.42-18.14) for high Ki-67 expression in the basal layer by the Cox proportional hazard model (P = 0.009). In our study, none of the other clinico-pathologic variables were associated with the recurrence of KCOT. The results suggested that the evaluation of Ki-67 expression in KCOT at the time of pathological diagnosis might be helpful for consideration of appropriate adjunctive surgical procedures to avoid a recurrence and may serve as a prognostic marker.

  2. Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)- and Aromatic-L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC)-Immunoreactive Neurons of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Brain: An Immunohistochemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Motoharu; Yamada, Keiki; Nagatsu, Ikuko; Iwasa, Mineo; Takeuchi, Terumi; Uematsu, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    From the perspective of comparative morphology, the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was investigated using an immunohistochemical method with specific antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). TH-immunoreactive (IR) neurons (but not AADC-IR) neurons were observed in the olfactory tubercle, preoptic suprachiasmatic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, medial longitudinal fasciculus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitaris. In contrast, AADC-IR (but not TH-IR), small, oval and spindle-shaped neurons were sparsely distributed in the following areas: the hypothalamus from the anterior nucleus to the lateral nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the dorsomedial area of the medial mammillary nucleus and the arcuate nucleus; the midbrain, including the stria medullaris and substantia nigra; and the medulla oblongata, including the dorsal area of the nucleus solitaris and the medullary reticular nucleus. The distribution of AADC-IR neurons was not as extensive in the marmoset as it is in rats. However, these neurons were located in the marmoset, but not the rat substantia nigra. Furthermore, AADC-IR neurons that are present in the human striatum were absent in that of the marmoset. The present results indicate that the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the brain of the common marmoset is unique and different from that in humans and rodents. PMID:17653300

  3. A Demonstrative Analysis of News Articles Using Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Randy Y. Briones

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to demonstrate Norman Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA framework by conducting internal and external level analyses on two online news articles that report on the Moro Islamic Liberation Front’s (MILF submission of its findings on the “Mamasapano Incident” that happened in the Philippines in 2015. In performing analyses using this framework, the social context and background for these texts, as well as the relationship between the internal discourse features and the external social practices and structures in which the texts were produced are thoroughly examined. As a result, it can be noted that from the texts’ internal discourse features, the news articles portray ideological and social distinctions among social actors such as the Philippine Senate, the SAF troopers, the MILF, the MILF fighters, and the civilians. Moreover, from the viewpoint of the texts as being external social practices, the texts maintain institutional identities as news reports, but they also reveal some evaluative stance as exemplified by the adjectival phrases that the writers employed. Having both the internal and external features examined, it can be said that the way these texts were written seems to portray power relations that exist between the Philippine government and the MILF. Key words: Critical Discourse Analysis, discourse analysis, news articles, social practices, social structures, power relations

  4. Homeostatic Mass Control in Gastric Non-Neoplastic Epithelia under Infection of Helicobacter pylori: An Immunohistochemical Analysis of Cell Growth, Stem Cells and Programmed Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji; Hasui, Kazuhisa; Wang, Jia; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Aikou, Takashi; Murata, Fusayoshi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated homeostatic mass control in non-neoplastic gastric epithelia under Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the macroscopically normal-appearing mucosa resected from the stomach with gastric cancer, immunohistochemically analyzing the proliferation, kinetics of stem cells and programmed cell death occurring in them. Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells were found dominantly in the elongated neck portion, sparsely in the fundic areas and sporadically in the stroma with chronic infiltrates. CD117 could monitor the kinetics of gastric stem cells and showed its expression in two stages of gastric epithelial differentiation, namely, in transient cells from the gastric epithelial stem cells to the foveolar and glandular cells in the neck portion and in what are apparently progenitor cells from the gastric stem cells in the stroma among the infiltrates. Most of the nuclei were positive for ssDNA in the almost normal mucosa, suggesting DNA damage. Cleaved caspase-3-positive foveolar cells were noted under the surface, suggesting the suppression of apoptosis in the surface foveolar cells. Besides such apoptosis of the foveolar cells, in the severely inflamed mucosa apoptotic cells were found in the neck portion where most of the cells were Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells. Beclin-1 was recognized in the cytoplasm and in a few nuclei of the fundic glandular cells, suggesting their autophagic cell death and mutated beclin-1 in the nuclei. Taken together, the direct and indirect effects of HP infection on the gastric epithelial proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death suggested the in-situ occurrence of gastric cancer under HP infection

  5. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and stereological analysis of the effect of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) on the hippocampus of rats exposed to long-term cellphone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevrek, Fikret

    2018-05-01

    Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate. Rats were divided into three groups: Control, EMR, and EMR+Egb761. The EMR and EMR+Egb761 groups were exposed to cellphone EMR for one month. Egb761 was also administered to the EMR+Egb761 group. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of RF exposure on rat hippocampi at harmful EMR levels (0.96 W/kg specific absorption rate [SAR]) for one month and also investigated the possible impact of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) using stereological, TUNEL-staining, and immunohistochemical methods. An increase in apoptotic proteins (Bax, Acas-3) and a decrease in anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) immunoreactivity along with a decrease in the total granule and pyramidal cell count were noted in the EMR group. A decrease in Bax and Acas-3 and an increase in Bcl-2 immunoreactivity were observed in rats treated with Egb761 in addition to a decrease in TUNEL-stained apoptotic cells and a higher total viable cell number. In conclusion, chronic cellphone EMR exposure may affect hippocampal cell viability, and Egb761 may be used to mitigate some of the deleterious effects.

  6. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation - Dallas technical capability analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Technical Capability Analysis for the United States : Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated Corridor : Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ...

  7. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, San Diego technical capability analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Technical Capability Analysis for the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM proje...

  8. Enzymatic solubilisation and degradation of soybean fibre demonstrated by viscosity, fibre analysis and microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen; Martens, Helle Juel; Pettersson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a commercial multienzyme product obtained by fermentation from Aspergillus aculeatus on soybean and soybean meal was investigated using viscosity measurements, dietary fibre component analysis and different microscopy techniques utilizing histochemical dyes and antibody labelling....... The results obtained demonstrated a strong viscosity reducing effect of the enzyme preparation on soluble galactomannan and xyloglucan polysaccharides and in addition non-starch polysaccharide analysis demonstrated a notable solubilisation of all polysaccharide constituents. The degradation...

  9. Immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing analysis on human mismatch repair gene MLH1 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma with LOH of this gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Guo, Z.; Pang, T.; Li, Q.; Afink, G.; Pontén, J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human MLH1 gene (hMLH1) is one of the DNA mismatch repair genes. Defects in these genes are believed to be the underlying cause of microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI has been demonstrated in many human cancers such as colon cancer and some female-specific tumors. The hMLH1 gene

  10. Histopathological Assessment and Immunohistochemical Study of Nasopharyngeal Low Grade MALT Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: MALT lymphoma arises in a variety of body tissues, but most often in the stomach. Though relatively rare, these MALT lymphomas may arise within several sites in the head and neck, and often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Immunohistochemical analysis are helpful in confirming the diagnosis between the MALT-lymphoma and the reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. MALT-type lymphoma demonstrated characteristic negative staining for CD3, CD5 and CD43, positive staining for CD20, and monotypic staining for either kappa or lambda light chain immunoglobulin markers, whereas reactive lymphoid hyperplasia all expressed Band T cell markers. Material and Methods: 41 cases of nasopharyngeal masses were obtained from the files at pathology department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine through the period from 2002 till 2006. 31 cases were corresponded histomorphologically to low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and 10 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the adenoid. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using the labeled streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with DAB as chromogen. The following antibodies were evaluated CD20, CD3, Kappa, lambda and cytokeratin antibodies. Results: All cases of low grade MALT lymphoma show Iymphoepitheliallesion and proliferation of centrocyte like cells. 14 cases (45.1 %) show subepithelial plasma cells. Dutcher bodies were demonstrated in 10 cases (32.2%). Monocytoid B-cells were seen in 12 cases (38.7%). Six (60%) out of the ten cases of adenoids show transmigrating lymphocyte without formation of lymphoepithelial lesion. All cases with MALT-type lymphoma expressed CD20 and not CD3 whereas 10 cases of adenoid, all expressed Band T cell markers. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 31 cases of low grade MALT lymphoma were positive for immunoglobin

  11. Demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis using the health and economic consequence model CRAC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, D.J.; Iman, R.L.; Johnson, J.D.; Helton, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes a demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis performed on the reactor accident consequence model CRAC2. The study was performed with uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques compiled as part of the MELCOR program. The principal objectives of the study were: 1) to demonstrate the use of the uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques on a health and economic consequence model, 2) to test the computer models which implement the techniques, 3) to identify possible difficulties in performing such an analysis, and 4) to explore alternative means of analyzing, displaying, and describing the results. Demonstration of the applicability of the techniques was the motivation for performing this study; thus, the results should not be taken as a definitive uncertainty analysis of health and economic consequences. Nevertheless, significant insights on health and economic consequence analysis can be drawn from the results of this type of study. Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), a modified Monte Carlo technique, was used in this study. LHS generates a multivariate input structure in which all the variables of interest are varied simultaneously and desired correlations between variables are preserved. LHS has been shown to produce estimates of output distribution functions that are comparable with results of larger random samples

  12. Experimental Demonstration and Theoretical Analysis of Slow Light in a Semiconductor Waveguide at GHz Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Kjær, Rasmus; Poel, Mike van der

    2005-01-01

    Experimental demonstration and theoretical analysis of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at GHz frequencies slow-down of light by a factor of two in a semiconductor waveguide at room temperature with a bandwidth of 16.7 GHz using the effect of coherent pulsations of the carrier density...

  13. Using Musical Intervals to Demonstrate Superposition of Waves and Fourier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    What follows is a description of a demonstration of superposition of waves and Fourier analysis using a set of four tuning forks mounted on resonance boxes and oscilloscope software to create, capture and analyze the waveforms and Fourier spectra of musical intervals.

  14. Competing definitions: a public policy analysis of the federal recreational fee demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. E. More

    2003-01-01

    Problem definition theory specifies that however controls the definition of a problem is in a unique position to control debate over the issue, influence others, and determine the problem's place on the agenda. This paper uses a rhetorical analysis and a questionnaire survey of congressional aides to examine the federal Recreational Fee Demonstration Program....

  15. Feasibility and demonstration of a cloud-based RIID analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Michael C., E-mail: wrightmc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Hertz, Kristin L.; Johnson, William C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Sword, Eric D.; Younkin, James R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Sadler, Lorraine E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A significant limitation in the operational utility of handheld and backpack radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs) is the inability of their onboard algorithms to accurately and reliably identify the isotopic sources of the measured gamma-ray energy spectrum. A possible solution is to move the spectral analysis computations to an external device, the cloud, where significantly greater capabilities are available. The implementation and demonstration of a prototype cloud-based RIID analysis system have shown this type of system to be feasible with currently available communication and computational technology. A system study has shown that the potential user community could derive significant benefits from an appropriately implemented cloud-based analysis system and has identified the design and operational characteristics required by the users and stakeholders for such a system. A general description of the hardware and software necessary to implement reliable cloud-based analysis, the value of the cloud expressed by the user community, and the aspects of the cloud implemented in the demonstrations are discussed. - Highlights: • A prototype cloud-based RIID analysis system was implemented and demonstrated. • A cloud-based system was shown to be feasible with currently available technology. • A system study identified the operational characteristics required by the users. • The system study showed that the user community could derive significant benefit. • An architecture was defined for field testing by users in relevant environments.

  16. Feasibility and demonstration of a cloud-based RIID analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Michael C.; Hertz, Kristin L.; Johnson, William C.; Sword, Eric D.; Younkin, James R.; Sadler, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    A significant limitation in the operational utility of handheld and backpack radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs) is the inability of their onboard algorithms to accurately and reliably identify the isotopic sources of the measured gamma-ray energy spectrum. A possible solution is to move the spectral analysis computations to an external device, the cloud, where significantly greater capabilities are available. The implementation and demonstration of a prototype cloud-based RIID analysis system have shown this type of system to be feasible with currently available communication and computational technology. A system study has shown that the potential user community could derive significant benefits from an appropriately implemented cloud-based analysis system and has identified the design and operational characteristics required by the users and stakeholders for such a system. A general description of the hardware and software necessary to implement reliable cloud-based analysis, the value of the cloud expressed by the user community, and the aspects of the cloud implemented in the demonstrations are discussed. - Highlights: • A prototype cloud-based RIID analysis system was implemented and demonstrated. • A cloud-based system was shown to be feasible with currently available technology. • A system study identified the operational characteristics required by the users. • The system study showed that the user community could derive significant benefit. • An architecture was defined for field testing by users in relevant environments

  17. Demonstration Analysis of Relationship Between R&D Investment and GDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bo-tang; LIU Bai-shan; CHEN Keng

    2005-01-01

    To reveal the quantitative relationship between research and development (R&D) investment and gross domestic product (GDP) in China, we have demonstrated and analyzed the relationship between R&D investment and science and technology (S&T) progress, and based on a mount of S&T statistical data, have proceeded demonstration research of the relationship between R&D investment and GDP in China with Solow and vector auto regression (VAR) models. Cubic curve fitting and cross-correlation analysis of them with SPSS have shown that there is a strong synchronic relationship between R&D investment and GDP.

  18. Langerhans cells in lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Devi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate Langerhans cell (LC in lichen planus (LP, lichenoid mucositis (LM and normal mucosa (NM using CD1a monoclonal antibody immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 cases of oral lichen planus and 15 cases of LM were selected based on clinical examination and confirmed by histopathological analysis. The biopsies from the 10 patients were taken from normal buccal mucosa as control. Paraffin blocks of tissue were made, which are used for routine hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining using biotin streptavidin methods (CD1a monoclonal antibody. Analysis of CD1a expression was performed by evaluating the labeling index (LI for each slide. Results: The mean CD1a LI for LP was significantly higher than that of LM and NM in the basal and supra basal layer. The mean CD1a positive cells in the connective tissues for LP were higher than that of LM and NM. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates a statistically significant increase in number of LC in LP than in LM, indicating the possible different immunopathogenic mechanisms.

  19. Automated immunohistochemical method to analyze large areas of the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Mohamad; Trought, Kathleen; Long, David; Semechko, Anton; Wong, Albert H C

    2018-01-15

    There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in large regions of the cerebral cortex in psychiatric patients. This method accurately segments DAPI positive cells that are also stained with CUX2 and FEZF2. Cortical layer thickness, neuron density and neuron size were automatically computed for each cortical layer in numerous Brodmann areas. We did not find pronounced cytoarchitectural abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex or orbitofrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. There were no significant differences in layer thickness measured in immunohistochemically stained slides compared with traditional Nissl stained slides. Automated cell counts were correlated, reliable and consistent with manual counts, while being much less time-consuming. We demonstrate the validity of using a novel automated analysis approach to post-mortem brain tissue. We were able to analyze large cortical areas and quantify specific cell populations using immunohistochemical markers. Future analyses could benefit from efficient automated analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PA activity by using nuclear power plant safety demonstration and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Mitsuo; Kamimae, Rie

    1999-01-01

    INS/NUPEC presents one of Public acceptance (PA) methods for nuclear power in Japan, 'PA activity by using Nuclear Power Plant Safety Demonstration and Analysis', by using one of videos which is explained and analyzed accident events (Loss of Coolant Accident). Safety regulations of The National Government are strictly implemented in licensing at each of basic design and detailed design. To support safety regulation activities conducted by the National Government, INS/NLTPEC continuously implement Safety demonstration and analysis. With safety demonstration and analysis, made by assuming some abnormal conditions, what impacts could be produced by the assumed conditions are forecast based on specific design data on a given nuclear power plants. When analysis results compared with relevant decision criteria, the safety of nuclear power plants is confirmed. The decision criteria are designed to help judge if or not safety design of nuclear power plants is properly made. The decision criteria are set in the safety examination guidelines by taking sufficient safety allowance based on the latest technical knowledge obtained from a wide range of tests and safety studies. Safety demonstration and analysis is made by taking the procedure which are summarized in this presentation. In Japan, various PA (Public Acceptance) pamphlets and videos on nuclear energy have been published. But many of them focused on such topics as necessity or importance of nuclear energy, basic principles of nuclear power generation, etc., and a few described safety evaluation particularly of abnormal and accident events in accordance with the regulatory requirements. In this background, INS/NUPEC has been making efforts to prepare PA pamphlets and videos to explain the safety of nuclear power plants, to be simple and concrete enough, using various analytical computations for abnormal and accident events. In results, PA activity of INS/NUPEC is evaluated highly by the people

  1. Immunohistochemical Ki-67/KL1 double stains increase accuracy of Ki-67 indices in breast cancer and simplify automated image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Patricia S; Bentzer, Nina K; Jensen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    observers and automated image analysis. RESULTS: Indices were predominantly higher for single stains than double stains (P≤0.002), yet the difference between observers was statistically significant (PPearson correlation coefficient for manual and automated indices ranged from 0.......69 to 0.85 (Pcorrelating automated indices with tumor characteristics, for example, tumor size (P... stains, Ki-67 should be quantified on double stains to reach a higher accuracy. Automated indices correlated well with manual estimates and tumor characteristics, and they are thus possibly valuable tools in future exploration of Ki-67 in breast cancer....

  2. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation

  3. Performance demonstration program plan for RCRA constituent analysis of solidified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Performance Demonstration Programs (PDPS) are designed to help ensure compliance with the Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The PDPs are intended for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to assess and approve the laboratories and other measurement facilities supplying services for the characterization of WIPP TRU waste. The PDPs may also be used by CAO in qualifying laboratories proposing to supply additional analytical services that are required for other than waste characterization, such as WIPP site operations. The purpose of this PDP is to test laboratory performance for the analysis of solidified waste samples for TRU waste characterization. This performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated, solidified TRU waste according to the criteria established in this plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will address levels of regulatory concern and will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization samples. Analyses that are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in the PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples for the balance of this document

  4. Data analysis on work activities in dismantling of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Sukegawa, Takenori; Yanagihara, Satoshi

    1998-03-01

    The safe dismantling of a retired nuclear power plant was demonstrated by completion of dismantling activities for the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR), March, 1996, which had been conducted since 1986. This project was a flag ship project for dismantling of nuclear power plants in Japan, aiming at demonstrating an applicability of developed dismantling techniques in actual dismantling work, developing database on work activities as well as dismantling of components and structures. Various data on dismantling activities were therefore systematically collected and these were accumulated on computer files to build the decommissioning database; dismantling activities were characterized by analyzing the data. The data analysis resulted in producing general forms such as unit activity factors, for example, manpower need per unit weight of component to be dismantled, and simple arithmetic forms for forecasting of project management data to be applied to planning another dismantling project through the evaluation for general use of the analyzed data. The results of data analysis could be usefully applied to planning of future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan. This report describes the data collection and analysis on the JPDR dismantling activities. (author)

  5. Worse prognosis in breast cancer patients can be predicted by immunohistochemical analysis of positive MMP-2 and negative estrogen and progesterone receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edneia A. S. Ramos

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Breast cancer is the most cause of death, and approximately 90% of these deaths are due to metastases. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 gelatinase activity is able to degrade a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, type IV collagen. Two well-established proteins used as markers in clinical practice for breast cancer are the receptors for estrogen (ER and progesterone (PR. Although the presence of these receptors has been associated with a better prognosis, loss of these proteins can occur during tumor progression, with subsequent resistance to hormone therapy. Objective: To study the correlation among MMP-2, ER, and PR, as well as the establishment of the metastatic process in primary breast tumors. Method: Breast cancer samples (n=44 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for MMP-2, ER, and PR. Results: We observed that 90% of patients who had metastases and died showed positive staining for MMP-2 (p=0.0082 for both. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that negative ER patients who were also positive for MMP-2 had even worse disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (p= 0.012 and p=0.005, respectively. Similar results were found in PR-negative patients for DFS (a trend p=0.077 and OS (p=0.038. Conclusion: Regardless of our small sample size (n=44, the data obtained strongly suggest that MMP-2 in combination with already well-established markers could help to predict the emergence of metastases and death in patients with breast cancer.

  6. The iron-binding protein lactotransferrin is present in pathologic lesions in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders: a comparative immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveugle, B; Spik, G; Perl, D P; Bouras, C; Fillit, H M; Hof, P R

    1994-07-04

    Lactotransferrin is a glycoprotein that specifically binds and transports iron. This protein is also believed to transport other metals such as aluminum. Several lines of evidence indicate that iron and aluminum are involved in the pathogenesis of many dementing diseases. In this context, the analysis of the iron-binding protein distribution in the brains of patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders is of particular interest. In the present study, the distribution of lactotransferrin was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the cerebral cortex from patients presenting with Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam, sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Pick's disease. The results show that lactotransferrin accumulates in the characteristic lesions of the different pathologic conditions investigated. For instance, in Alzheimer's disease and Guamanian cases, a subpopulation of neurofibrillary tangles was intensely labeled in the hippocampal formation and inferior temporal cortex. Senile plaques and Pick bodies were also consistently labeled. These staining patterns were comparable to those obtained with antibodies to the microtubule-associated protein tau and the amyloid beta A4 protein, although generally fewer neurofibrillary tangles were positive for lactotransferrin than for tau protein. Neuronal cytoplasmic staining with lactotransferrin antibodies, was observed in a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons in normal aging, and was more pronounced in Alzheimer's disease, Guamanian cases, Pick's disease, and particularly in Down syndrome. Lactotransferrin was also strongly associated with Betz cells and other motoneurons in the primary motor cortex of control, Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, Guamanian and Pick's disease cases. These same lactotransferrin-immunoreactive motoneurons were severely affected in the cases with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is possible that in these

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) transuranic performance demonstration program sample packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccoy, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Transuranic Performance Demonstration Program (TPDP) sample packaging is used to transport highway route controlled quantities of weapons grade (WG) plutonium samples from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility and back. The purpose of these shipments is to test the nondestructive assay equipment in the WRAP facility as part of the Nondestructive Waste Assay PDP. The PDP is part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National TRU Program managed by the U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Details of this program are found in CAO-94-1045, Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program (CAO 1994); INEL-96/0129, Design of Benign Matrix Drums for the Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996a); and INEL-96/0245, Design of Phase 1 Radioactive Working Reference Materials for the Nondestructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996b). Other program documentation is maintained by the national TRU program and each DOE site participating in the program. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the TRU PDP sample packaging meets the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for an onsite Transportation Hazard Indicator (THI) 2 packaging. This SARP, however, does not include evaluation of any operations within the PFP or WRAP facilities, including handling, maintenance, storage, or operating requirements, except as they apply directly to transportation between the gate of PFP and the gate of the WRAP facility. All other activities are subject to the requirements of the facility safety analysis reports (FSAR) of the PFP or WRAP facility and requirements of the PDP

  8. Demonstration of a software design and statistical analysis methodology with application to patient outcomes data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard

    2013-11-01

    With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets.

  9. Feasibility and demonstration of a cloud-based RIID analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael C.; Hertz, Kristin L.; Johnson, William C.; Sword, Eric D.; Younkin, James R.; Sadler, Lorraine E.

    2015-06-01

    A significant limitation in the operational utility of handheld and backpack radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs) is the inability of their onboard algorithms to accurately and reliably identify the isotopic sources of the measured gamma-ray energy spectrum. A possible solution is to move the spectral analysis computations to an external device, the cloud, where significantly greater capabilities are available. The implementation and demonstration of a prototype cloud-based RIID analysis system have shown this type of system to be feasible with currently available communication and computational technology. A system study has shown that the potential user community could derive significant benefits from an appropriately implemented cloud-based analysis system and has identified the design and operational characteristics required by the users and stakeholders for such a system. A general description of the hardware and software necessary to implement reliable cloud-based analysis, the value of the cloud expressed by the user community, and the aspects of the cloud implemented in the demonstrations are discussed.

  10. [Pheochromocytoma--pathohistologic and immunohistochemical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatić, Svetislav; Havelka, Marija; Paunović, Ivan; Bozić, Vesna; Diklic, Aleksandar; Brasanac, Dimitrije; Janković, Radovan; Jancić-Zguricas, Marija

    2002-07-01

    , histological and immunohistochemical characteristics, frequent association of bilateral pheochromocytoma and MEN IIA, as well as the occurrence of adrenal medullar hyperplasia as precursor of pheochromocytoma. Immunohistochemical analysis has confirmed the importance of pan-neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, NSE, and synaptophysin) in pheochromocytoma diagnosing, whereas it has been that neurofilament was of less importance. High incidence frequency of S-100 protein positive sustentacular cells in pheochromocytomas related to family syndromes was also noted by other authors. Histomorphological features of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas may be similar. Histologic criteria for aggressive biological behaviour of pheochromocytoma include: insular pattern of growth, 3-5 mytotic figures on 10 microscopic high power fields and invasion of capsular lymphatics and blood vessels. Pan-neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, NSE, synaptophysin) may be useful in diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Incidence frequency of S-100 protein positive sustentacular cells is high in pheochromocytomas related to family syndromes and low in malignant sporadic pheochromocytoma.

  11. Elastofibroma dorsi: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Vito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi (ED is considered a member of a heterogeneous group of benign fibrous (fibroblastic or myofibroblastic soft-tissue tumors, frequently localized in the periscapular region in middle aged or older individuals. However, the pathogenesis of ED is still unclear and many authors believe that ED results from a reactive hyperproliferation of fibroblastic tissue, while others suggest that it may be a consequence of a mechanical friction. In our study, we examined 11 cases of ED using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, in order to extend the knowledge about extracellular matrix composition and histopathogenesis of ED. From the results it appeared that stroma and interspersed spindle cells of ED were positive for both periostin and tenascin-C. Mast cells tryptase-positive were also abundant throughout the lesion. The perivascular distribution of periostin and tenascin-C, associated with the CD34 positivity, suggest that endothelial-mesenchymal transition events can account for neovascularization and production of fibroelastic tissue characteristic of elastofibroma. Our data obtained in endothelial cells cultures demonstrated that elastin production is higher when the status of confluence of the cells is low. So, we can assume that such a phenomenon is a characteristic of mesenchymal/endothelial cells CD34 positive, in which elastin production results to be inversely proportional to the vascular differentiation of cellular elements. In the light of these considerations, we think that a cancerous nature of ED is unlikely. Overall, our study report, for the first time, a detailed description of extracellular matrix composition in ED, suggesting that a mechanical strain-dependent reactivation of periostin and tenascin-C expression, as well as of elastin deposition, could be responsible for development of ED.

  12. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M.; Massmann, J.W.; Freeze, R.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site

  13. Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FIELD, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well

  14. Cutaneous hidradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic study of 14 cases, including Her2/neu gene expression/amplification, TP53 gene mutation analysis, and t(11;19) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Dmitry V; Ivan, Doina; Kutzner, Heinz; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Grossmann, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Sima, Radek; Kacerovska, Denisa; Shelekhova, Ksenia V; Denisjuk, Natalja; Hillen, Uwe; Kuroda, Naoto; Mukensnabl, Petr; Danis, Dusan; Michal, Michal

    2009-05-01

    , in 2 cases, a minority of the neoplastic cells (10%-20%) demonstrated nuclear staining, whereas the remaining 4 cases were negative. Of 9 specimens of hidradenocarcinoma studied for TP53 mutations, 2 harbored mutations, whereas the remaining 7 specimens showed the wild-type sequence. Of 11 specimens studied for translocation t(11;19), 2 cases harbored the translocation. It is concluded that cutaneous hidradenocarcinomas show some microscopic heterogeneity and comprise both low- and high-grade lesions that cytologically are similar to their benign counterpart, the hidradenoma. Within the spectrum of low-grade lesions, there seem to exist tumors almost indistinguishable from hidradenomas but still being capable of regional or distant metastasis. Similar to hidradenomas, hidradenocarcinomas show a t(11;19) translocation, but it is a significantly rarer event. Even rarer is the amplification of the Her2/neu gene. Of note is the relatively low frequency of TP53 mutations despite a high rate of p53 protein expression at the immunohistochemical level.

  15. Determination of HER2 and p53 Mutations by Sequence Analysis Method and EGFR/Chromosome 7 Gene Status by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization for the Predilection of Targeted Therapy Modalities in Immunohistochemically Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas in Turkish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Emel Ebru; Bayol, Umit; Keskin, Elif Usturali; Ozguzer, Alp; Kucuk, Ulku; Ozer, Ozge; Koc, Altug

    2015-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), an agressive subtype accounts nearly 15 % of all breast carcinomas. Conventional chemotherapy is the only treatment modality thus new, effective targeted therapy methods have been investigated. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors give hope according to the recent studies results. Also therapeutic agents have been tried against aberrant p53 signal activity as TNBC show high p53 mutation rates. Our aim was to detect the incidence of mutations/amplifications identified in TNBC in our population. Here we used sequence analysis to detect HER2 (exon 18-23), p53 (exon 5-8) mutations; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method to analyse EGFR/chromosome 7 centromere gene status in 82 immunohistochemically TNBC. Basaloid phenotype was identified in 49 (59.8 %) patients. EGFR amplification was noted in 5 cases (6.1 %). All EGFR amplified cases showed EGFR overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). p53 mutations were identified in 33 (40.2 %) cases. Almost 60 % of the basal like breast cancer cases showed p53 mutation. Only one case showed HER2 mutation (exon 20:g.36830_3). Our results showed that gene amplification is not the unique mechanism in EGFR overexpression. IHC might be used in the decision of anti-EGFR therapy in routine practice. p53 mutation rate was lower than the rates reported in the literature probably due to ethnic differences and low sensitivity of sanger sequences in general mutation screening. We also established the rarity of HER2 mutation in TNBC. In conclusion EGFR and p53 are the major targets in TNBC also for our population.

  16. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Pannus Tissue in Patients with Prosthetic Valve Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoyun, Süleyman; Ozan Gürsoy, Mustafa; Yesin, Mahmut; Kalçık, Macit; Astarcıoğlu, Mehmet Ali; Gündüz, Sabahattin; Emrah Oğuz, Ali; Çoban Kökten, Şermin; Nimet Karadayı, Ayşe; Tuncer, Altuğ; Köksal, Cengiz; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic valve dysfunction due to pannus formation is a rare but serious complication. Currently, limited data are available concerning the pathogenesis and immunohistochemical properties of pannus. The study aim was to investigate the morphological, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of pannus formation in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction. A total of 35 patients (10 males, 25 females; mean age 44 ± 16 years) who had undergone re-do valve surgery due to prosthetic valve obstruction was enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemical studies were aimed at evaluating the expression of alphasmooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin in myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells; epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in epithelial cells; and CD34, Factor VIII and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endothelial cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were used to demonstrate cytokine release from macrophages, leukocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Pannus appeared as a tough and thick tissue hyperplasia which began from outside the suture ring in the periannular region and extended to the inflow and outflow surfaces of the prosthetic valves. Histopathological analysis showed the pannus tissue to consist of chronic inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and foreign body giant cells), spindle cells such as myofibroblasts, capillary blood vessels and endothelial cells laying down the lumens. Calcification was present in the pannus tissue of 19 explanted prostheses. Immunohistochemical studies revealed positive α-SMA expression in all patients, whereas 60.5% of patients were positive for desmin, 50% for EMA, 42.1% for VEGF, 39.5% for TBF-β, 42.1% for MMP-2, 86.8% for CD34, and 97.4% for Factor VIII. MMP-9 was negative in all patients. Pannus tissue appears to be formed as the result of a neointimal response in periannular regions of prosthetic valves that consist

  17. Preliminary analysis of West Valley Waste Removal System equipment development and mock demonstration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    This report defines seven areas requiring further investigation to develop and demonstrate a safe and viable West Valley Waste Removal System. These areas of endeavor are discussed in terms of their minimum facility requirements. It is concluded that utilizing separated specific facilities at different points in time is of a greater advantage than an exact duplication of the West Valley tanks. Savannah River Plant's full-scale, full-circle and half-circle tanks, and their twelfth scale model tank would all be useful to varying degrees but would require modifications. Hanford's proposed full-size mock tank would be useful, but is not seriously considered because its construction may not coincide with West Valley needs. Costs of modifying existing facilities and/or constructing new facilities are assessed in terms of their benefit to the equipment development and mock demonstration. Six facilities were identified for further analysis which would benefit development of waste removal equipment

  18. Design, demonstration and analysis of a modified wavelength-correlating receiver for incoherent OCDMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heng; Qiu, Kun; Wang, Leyang

    2011-03-28

    A novel wavelength-correlating receiver for incoherent Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. Enabled by the wavelength conversion based scheme, the proposed receiver can support various code types including one-dimensional optical codes and time-spreading/wavelength-hopping two dimensional codes. Also, a synchronous detection scheme with time-to- wavelength based code acquisition is proposed, by which code acquisition time can be substantially reduced. Moreover, a novel data-validation methodology based on all-optical pulse-width monitoring is introduced for the wavelength-correlating receiver. Experimental demonstration of the new proposed receiver is presented and low bit error rate data-receiving is achieved without optical hard limiting and electronic power thresholding. For the first time, a detailed theoretical performance analysis specialized for the wavelength-correlating receiver is presented. Numerical results show that the overall performance of the proposed receiver prevails over conventional OCDMA receivers.

  19. Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) demonstration: sample queries and terminal instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-16

    This document contains the input and output for the Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) demonstration. This demonstration is stored on a portable disk at the Environmental Impacts Division. Sample queries presented here include: (1) how to use PASS; (2) estimated 1995 energy consumption from Mid-Range Energy-Forecasting System (MEFS) data base; (3) pollution projections from Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) data base; (4) diesel auto regulations; (5) diesel auto health effects; (6) oil shale health and safety measures; (7) water pollution effects of SRC; (8) acid rainfall from Energy Environmental Statistics (EES) data base; 1990 EIA electric generation by fuel type; sulfate concentrations by Federal region; forecast of 1995 SO/sub 2/ emissions in Region III; and estimated electrical generating capacity in California to 1990. The file name for each query is included.

  20. Advanced reactor passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grelle, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general) for the postulated transient event

  1. Advanced Reactor Passive System Reliability Demonstration Analysis for an External Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bucknor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general for the postulated transient event.

  2. Advanced reactor passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grelle, Austin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general) for the postulated transient event.

  3. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for RCRA Constituent Analysis of Solidified Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents distributes test samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and metals in solid matrices. Each distribution of test samples is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department. The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the RCRA PDP. Participating laboratories demonstrate acceptable performance by successfully analyzing single-blind performance evaluation samples (subsequently referred to as PDP samples) according to the criteria established in this plan. PDP samples are used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). The concentrations of analytes in the PDP samples address levels of regulatory concern and encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in waste characterization samples. The WIPP requires analyses of homogeneous solid wastes to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples. Participating laboratories must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for WIPP samples.

  4. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests Data Management Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOUGLAS, D.G.

    2000-02-22

    This document provides a plan for the analysis of the data collected during the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests. This document was prepared after a review of the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Plan (Revision 4) [1] and other materials. The plan emphasizes a structured and well-ordered approach towards handling and examining the data. This plan presumes that the data will be collected and organized into a unified body of data, well annotated and bearing the date and time of each record. The analysis of this data will follow a methodical series of steps that are focused on well-defined objectives. Section 2 of this plan describes how the data analysis will proceed from the real-time monitoring of some of the key sensor data to the final analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of suspended solids. This section also identifies the various sensors or sensor systems and associates them with the various functions they serve during the test program. Section 3 provides an overview of the objectives of the AZ-101 test program and describes the data that will be analyzed to support that test. The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can be operated within the operating requirements; (2) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can mobilize the sludge in sufficient quantities to provide feed to the private contractor facility, and (3) to determine if the in-tank instrumentation is sufficient to monitor sludge mobilization and mixer pump operation. Section 3 also describes the interim analysis that organizes the data during the test, so the analysis can be more readily accomplished. Section 4 describes the spatial orientation of the various sensors in the tank. This section is useful in visualizing the relationship of the Sensors in terms of their location in the tank and how the data from these sensors may be related to the data from other sensors. Section 5 provides a summary of the various analyses that will be performed on the data during the test

  5. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests: Data Management (Analysis) Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a plan for the analysis of the data collected during the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests. This document was prepared after a review of the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Plan (Revision 4) [1] and other materials. The plan emphasizes a structured and well-ordered approach towards handling and examining the data. This plan presumes that the data will be collected and organized into a unified body of data, well annotated and bearing the date and time of each record. The analysis of this data will follow a methodical series of steps that are focused on well-defined objectives. Section 2 of this plan describes how the data analysis will proceed from the real-time monitoring of some of the key sensor data to the final analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of suspended solids. This section also identifies the various sensors or sensor systems and associates them with the various functions they serve during the test program. Section 3 provides an overview of the objectives of the AZ-101 test program and describes the data that will be analyzed to support that test. The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can be operated within the operating requirements; (2) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can mobilize the sludge in sufficient quantities to provide feed to the private contractor facility, and (3) to determine if the in-tank instrumentation is sufficient to monitor sludge mobilization and mixer pump operation. Section 3 also describes the interim analysis that organizes the data during the test, so the analysis can be more readily accomplished. Section 4 describes the spatial orientation of the various sensors in the tank. This section is useful in visualizing the relationship of the Sensors in terms of their location in the tank and how the data from these sensors may be related to the data from other sensors. Section 5 provides a summary of the various analyses that will be performed on the data during the test

  6. Bayesian analysis of heat pipe life test data for reliability demonstration testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.; Martz, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The demonstration testing duration requirements to establish a quantitative measure of assurance of expected lifetime for heat pipes was determined. The heat pipes are candidate devices for transporting heat generated in a nuclear reactor core to thermoelectric converters for use as a space-based electric power plant. A Bayesian analysis technique is employed, utilizing a limited Delphi survey, and a geometric mean accelerated test criterion involving heat pipe power (P) and temperature (T). Resulting calculations indicate considerable test savings can be achieved by employing the method, but development testing to determine heat pipe failure mechanisms should not be circumvented

  7. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  8. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLCβ2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation of gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastric resections for carcinoma are common, but gastric carcinoma in South Africa, and particularly within the Western Cape province, has not been well documented. Method: The objective of the study was to immunohistochemically evaluate HER2/ neu overexpression, determine aberrations in β-catenin and ...

  10. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  11. Immunohistochemical assessment of oestrogen and progesterone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabau, D A; Thorpe, S M; Knoop, A

    2000-01-01

    Two different methods to determine steroid receptors were analysed with respect to their ability to estimate prognosis in primary breast cancer patients. The immunohistochemical assay (IHA) was compared with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) method of receptor determination. A random sample of 28...... distinction between benign and malignant tissue is possible using the IHAmethod. Thus, IHAresults appear to be more clinically relevant....

  12. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Baglin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis (EFA methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many guidelines have been proposed with the aim to improve application. Unfortunately, implementing recommended EFA practices has been restricted by the range of options available in commercial statistical packages and, perhaps, due to an absence of clear, practical - how-to' demonstrations. Consequently, this article describes the application of methods recommended to get the most out of your EFA. The article focuses on dealing with the common situation of analysing ordinal data as derived from Likert-type scales. These methods are demonstrated using the free, stand-alone, easy-to-use and powerful EFA package FACTOR (http://psico.fcep.urv.es/utilitats/factor/, Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2006. The demonstration applies the recommended techniques using an accompanying dataset, based on the Big 5 personality test. The outcomes obtained by the EFA using the recommended procedures through FACTOR are compared to the default techniques currently available in SPSS.

  13. Analysis of Return and Forward Links from STARS' Flight Demonstration 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Space-based Telemetry And Range Safety (STARS) is a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) led proof-of-concept demonstration, which utilizes NASA's space network of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) as a pathway for launch and mission related information streams. Flight Demonstration 1 concluded on July 15,2003 with the seventh flight of a Low Power Transmitter (LPT) a Command and Data Handler (C&DH), a twelve channel GPS receiver and associated power supplies and amplifiers. The equipment flew on NASA's F-I5 aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in California. During this NASA-ASEE Faculty Fellowship, the author participated in the collection and analysis of data from the seven flights comprising Flight Demonstration 1. Specifically, the author examined the forward and return links bit energy E(sub B) (in Watt-seconds) divided by the ambient radio frequency noise N(sub 0) (in Watts / Hertz). E(sub b)/N(sub 0) is commonly thought of as a signal-to-noise parameter, which characterizes a particular received radio frequency (RF) link. Outputs from the data analysis include the construction of time lines for all flights, production of graphs of range safety values for all seven flights, histograms of range safety E(sub b)/N(sub 0) values in five dB increments, calculation of associated averages and standard deviations, production of graphs of range user E(sub b)/N(sub 0) values for the all flights, production of graphs of AGC's and E(sub b)/N(sub 0) estimates for flight 1, recorded onboard, transmitted directly to the launch head and transmitted through TDRS. The data and graphs are being used to draw conclusions related to a lower than expected signal strength seen in the range safety return link.

  14. Demonstration of Mobile Auto-GPS for Large Scale Human Mobility Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanont, Teerayut; Witayangkurn, Apichon; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2013-04-01

    The greater affordability of digital devices and advancement of positioning and tracking capabilities have presided over today's age of geospatial Big Data. Besides, the emergences of massive mobile location data and rapidly increase in computational capabilities open up new opportunities for modeling of large-scale urban dynamics. In this research, we demonstrate the new type of mobile location data called "Auto-GPS" and its potential use cases for urban applications. More than one million Auto-GPS mobile phone users in Japan have been observed nationwide in a completely anonymous form for over an entire year from August 2010 to July 2011 for this analysis. A spate of natural disasters and other emergencies during the past few years has prompted new interest in how mobile location data can help enhance our security, especially in urban areas which are highly vulnerable to these impacts. New insights gleaned from mining the Auto-GPS data suggest a number of promising directions of modeling human movement during a large-scale crisis. We question how people react under critical situation and how their movement changes during severe disasters. Our results demonstrate a case of major earthquake and explain how people who live in Tokyo Metropolitan and vicinity area behave and return home after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011.

  15. Bayesian probability analysis: a prospective demonstration of its clinical utility in diagnosing coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrano, R.; Yiannikas, J.; Salcedo, E.E.; Rincon, G.; Go, R.T.; Williams, G.; Leatherman, J.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred fifty-four patients referred for coronary arteriography were prospectively studied with stress electrocardiography, stress thallium scintigraphy, cine fluoroscopy (for coronary calcifications), and coronary angiography. Pretest probabilities of coronary disease were determined based on age, sex, and type of chest pain. These and pooled literature values for the conditional probabilities of test results based on disease state were used in Bayes theorem to calculate posttest probabilities of disease. The results of the three noninvasive tests were compared for statistical independence, a necessary condition for their simultaneous use in Bayes theorem. The test results were found to demonstrate pairwise independence in patients with and those without disease. Some dependencies that were observed between the test results and the clinical variables of age and sex were not sufficient to invalidate application of the theorem. Sixty-eight of the study patients had at least one major coronary artery obstruction of greater than 50%. When these patients were divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-probability subgroups according to their pretest probabilities, noninvasive test results analyzed by Bayesian probability analysis appropriately advanced 17 of them by at least one probability subgroup while only seven were moved backward. Of the 76 patients without disease, 34 were appropriately moved into a lower probability subgroup while 10 were incorrectly moved up. We conclude that posttest probabilities calculated from Bayes theorem more accurately classified patients with and without disease than did pretest probabilities, thus demonstrating the utility of the theorem in this application

  16. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF HER2 IN ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Michelon DE CARLI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Worldwide, gastric cancer is the fourth cancer in incidence and the second most common cause of cancer death. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages and very often diagnosed at advanced stages, determining a dismal prognosis. Expression of the HER2 gene has been identified in about 20% of gastric cancer cases, and its hyper-expression is associated with poor prognosis. Objective To investigate HER2 immunohistochemical expression in gastric adenocarcinoma and its relationship to the histological type and anatomic location. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of HER2 in a sample of 48 specimens of gastric cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis were performed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase method with C-erb B2 (clone EP1045Y, as a primary antibody (Biocare Medical, USA. Standardized gastric adenocarcinoma‘s HER2 expression criteria has been used in the analysis of samples. Results There were seven cases with reactivity for HER2. Five were of intestinal-type while two cases were of mixed-type in which the expression occurred in the intestinal component. It was identified a significant association of HER2 expression in the intestinal subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma (P=0.003. Regarding the anatomical site, HER2 was positive in only one (16.6% of the six proximal cases and six (14.28% of the 42 distal cases (P=0.88. Conclusion HER2 immunoexpression was identified in 14.6% of the samples, and the expression was significantly associated to Lauren’s intestinal subtype.

  17. Cell lineage analysis demonstrates an endodermal origin of the distal urethra and perineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ashley W; Harfe, Brian D; Cohn, Martin J

    2008-06-01

    Congenital malformations of anorectal and genitourinary (collectively, anogenital) organs occur at a high frequency in humans, however the lineage of cells that gives rise to anogenital organs remains poorly understood. The penile urethra has been reported to develop from two cell populations, with the proximal urethra developing from endoderm and the distal urethra forming from an apical ectodermal invagination, however this has never been tested by direct analysis of cell lineage. During gut development, endodermal cells express Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is required for normal patterning of digestive and genitourinary organs. We have taken advantage of the properties of Shh expression to genetically label and follow the fate of posterior gut endoderm during anogenital development. We report that the entire urethra, including the distal (glandar) region, is derived from endoderm. Cloacal endoderm also gives rise to the epithelial linings of the bladder, rectum and anterior region of the anus. Surprisingly, the lineage map also revealed an endodermal origin of the perineum, which is the first demonstration that endoderm differentiates into skin. In addition, we fate mapped genital tubercle ectoderm and show that it makes no detectable contribution to the urethra. In males, formation of the urethral tube involves septation of the urethral plate by continued growth of the urorectal septum. Analysis of cell lineage following disruption of androgen signaling revealed that the urethral plate of flutamide-treated males does not undergo this septation event. Instead, urethral plate cells persist to the ventral margin of the tubercle, mimicking the pattern seen in females. Based on these spatial and temporal fate maps, we present a new model for anogenital development and suggest that disruptions at specific developmental time points can account for the association between anorectal and genitourinary defects.

  18. Demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis using the health and economic consequence model CRAC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, D.J.; Iman, R.L.; Johnson, J.D.; Helton, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    The techniques for performing uncertainty/sensitivity analyses compiled as part of the MELCOR program appear to be well suited for use with a health and economic consequence model. Two replicate samples of size 50 gave essentially identical results, indicating that for this case, a Latin hypercube sample of size 50 seems adequate to represent the distribution of results. Though the intent of this study was a demonstration of uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques, a number of insights relevant to health and economic consequence modeling can be gleaned: uncertainties in early deaths are significantly greater than uncertainties in latent cancer deaths; though the magnitude of the source term is the largest source of variation in estimated distributions of early deaths, a number of additional parameters are also important; even with the release fractions for a full SST1, one quarter of the CRAC2 runs gave no early deaths; and comparison of the estimates of mean early deaths for a full SST1 release in this study with those of recent point estimates for similar conditions indicates that the recent estimates may be significant overestimations of early deaths. Estimates of latent cancer deaths, however, are roughly comparable. An analysis of the type described here can provide insights in a number of areas. First, the variability in the results gives an indication of the potential uncertainty associated with the calculations. Second, the sensitivity of the results to assumptions about the input variables can be determined. Research efforts can then be concentrated on reducing the uncertainty in the variables which are the largest contributors to uncertainty in results

  19. Design and analysis of electrical energy storage demonstration projects on UK distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.F.; Wade, N.S.; Jiang, T.; Taylor, P.C.; Hashiesh, F.; Michel, M.; Miller, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Results of an EES system demonstration project carried out in the UK. • Approaches to the design of trials for EES and observation on their application. • A formalised methodology for analysis of smart grids trials. • Validated models of energy storage. • Capability of EES to connect larger quantities of heat pumps and PV is evaluated. - Abstract: The UK government’s CO 2 emissions targets will require electrification of much of the country’s infrastructure with low carbon technologies such as photovoltaic panels, electric vehicles and heat pumps. The large scale proliferation of these technologies will necessitate major changes to the planning and operation of distribution networks. Distribution network operators are trialling electrical energy storage (EES) across their networks to increase their understanding of the contribution that it can make to enable the expected paradigm shift in generation and consumption of electricity. In order to evaluate a range of applications for EES, including voltage control and power flow management, installations have taken place at various distribution network locations and voltage levels. This article reports on trial design approaches and their application to a UK trial of an EES system to ensure broad applicability of the results. Results from these trials of an EES system, low carbon technologies and trial distribution networks are used to develop validated power system models. These models are used to evaluate, using a formalised methodology, the impact that EES could have on the design and operation of future distribution networks

  20. From demonstration to deployment: An economic analysis of support policies for carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahé, Max; Heidug, Wolf; Ward, John; Smale, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that an integrated policy architecture consisting of multiple policy phases and economic instruments is needed to support the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) from its present demonstration phase to full-scale deployment. Building on an analysis of the different types of policy instruments to correct market failures specific to CCS in its various stages of development, we suggest a way to combine these into an integrated policy architecture. This policy architecture adapts to the need of a maturing technology, meets the requirement of policymakers to maintain flexibility to respond to changing circumstances while providing investors with the policy certainty that is needed to encourage private sector investment. This combination of flexibility and predictability is achieved through the use of ‘policy gateways’ which explicitly define rules and criteria for when and how policy settings will change. Our findings extend to bioenergy-based CCS applications (BECCS), which could potentially achieve negative emissions. We argue that within a framework of correcting the carbon externality, the added environmental benefits of BECCS should be reflected in an extra incentive. - Highlights: • Sensible aim of current climate policy: secure option of future CCS deployment. • But policy makers require flexibility while private investors require predictability. • Integrating CCS policy into an overall policy architecture can overcome this antinomy. • We describe the key features of a good policy architecture and give an example

  1. Immunohistochemical and quantitative changes in salivary EGF, amylase and haptocorrin following radiotherapy for oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Hansen, H S; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes in t...... a reduction in the mitogenic peptide EGF both immunohistochemically and quantitatively following irradiation for oral cancer, results which may contribute to the understanding of the clinical signs of mucositis.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes....... The concentration of EGF in saliva before treatment was significantly higher in patients than in the control group (p oral tumors contribute with EGF to the saliva. In conclusion we have demonstrated...

  2. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV earlya nd SUV delayed, respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV delayed- SUV early) x 100/ SUV early. The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and β catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8±15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P earlya nd SUV delayeda nd clinicopathologic parameters in this study. The RIs obtained from preoperative colorectal cancers had a significant relationship to tumor size, T staging, GLUT 1, and p53, in contrast to SUV earlyo r SUV delayed. Compared with previous reports, our results showed that RI can better predict GLUT 1 expression than HK 2 and other immunohistochemical markers. This study demonstrated that the RI might have the potential to be applied as a prognostic marked in preoperative colorectal cancer

  3. Phase 1 Characterization sampling and analysis plan West Valley demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. L. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-06-30

    The Phase 1 Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan (CSAP) provides details about environmental data collection that will be taking place to support Phase 1 decommissioning activities described in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the West Valley Demonstration Project, Revision 2 (Phase I DP; DOE 2009). The four primary purposes of CSAP data collection are: (1) pre-design data collection, (2) remedial support, (3) post-remediation status documentation, and (4) Phase 2 decision-making support. Data collection to support these four main objectives is organized into two distinct data collection efforts. The first is data collection that will take place prior to the initiation of significant Phase 1 decommissioning activities (e.g., the Waste Management Area [WMA] 1 and WMA 2 excavations). The second is data collection that will occur during and immediately after environmental remediation in support of remediation activities. Both data collection efforts have a set of well-defined objectives that encompass the data needs of the four main CSAP data collection purposes detailed in the CSAP. The main body of the CSAP describes the overall data collection strategies that will be used to satisfy data collection objectives. The details of pre-remediation data collection are organized by WMA. The CSAP contains an appendix for each WMA that describes the details of WMA-specific pre-remediation data collection activities. The CSAP is intended to expand upon the data collection requirements identified in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan. The CSAP is intended to tightly integrate with the Phase 1 Final Status Survey Plan (FSSP). Data collection described by the CSAP is consistent with the FSSP where appropriate and to the extent possible.

  4. Regulatory analysis of the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program has been developed to identify, demonstrate, test, and evaluate technologies that will provide alternatives to the current underground storage tank remediation program. The UST-ID Program is a national program that consists of five participating US Department of Energy (DOE) sites where technologies can be developed an ultimately demonstrated. Once these technologies are demonstrated, the UST-ID Program will transfer the developed technology system to industry (governmental or industrial) for application or back to Research and Development for further evaluation and modification, as necessary. In order to ensure that the UST-ID Program proceeds without interruption, it will be necessary to identify regulatory requirements along with associated permitting and notification requirements early in the technology development process. This document serves as a baseline for identifying certain federal and state regulatory requirements that may impact the UST-ID Program and the demonstration of any identified technologies

  5. Immunohistochemical detection of XIAP in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Patrick O M; Phelps, Robert G; Mudgil, Adarsh; Shafir, Michail; Burstein, David E

    2008-03-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the most potent of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of eight proteins. High levels of XIAP have been found in melanoma cell lines and are believed to play a role in therapeutic resistance in a number of malignancies. XIAP expression has not been investigated in clinically obtained melanoma tissue samples, nor have studies attempted to correlate XIAP expression with prognostic variables or clinical aggressiveness of melanomas. Sixty-seven patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma for whom clinical follow up was available were identified from the records of the Mount Sinai Hospital, comprising 37 thin melanomas (Breslow thickness 1.0 mm). Archival paraffin sections from primary lesions and corresponding metastases were stained with monoclonal anti-XIAP antibody using routine immunohistochemical methods. Six benign intradermal nevi and four in situ melanomas were XIAP negative. 9 of 37 thin melanomas (24%) were XIAP positive. In contrast, 21 of 30 (73%) thick melanomas were XIAP positive, including 3 of 4 ulcerated melanomas that were strongly positive. Over a follow-up period ranging from 6 months to 6 years, 23 melanomas metastasized (22 thick, 1 thin). In total, XIAP was immunohistochemically detected in 17 of 23 metastases (74%). Metastasis occurred in 1 of 9 XIAP-positive thin melanomas; 0 of 28 XIAP-negative thin melanomas; 17 of 22 XIAP-positive thick melanomas, and 5 of 8 XIAP-negative thick melanomas (63%). XIAP is immunohistochemically detectable nearly three times more frequently in thick compared with thin melanomas. These results suggest that XIAP elevation may be correlated with increasing melanoma thickness and tumor progression.

  6. Photonically wired spacecraft panels: an economic analysis and demonstrator for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, Philipp; Hurni, Andreas; Ziegler, Bent; Panopoulou, Aikaterini; Lemke, Norbert; Costa, Ivo; Pereira, Celeste

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we present the design of smart satellite panels with integrated optical fibers for sensing and data communication. The project starts with a detailed analysis of the system needs and ends with a demonstrator breadboard showing the full performance during and after environmental tests such as vibrations and temperature. Future science missions will need higher bandwidth in the Gbit/s range for intra-satellite communications, so the step from electrical transmission media towards fiber-optical media is the logical next step to cope with future requirements. In addition, the fibers can be used to monitor temperatures directly underneath satellite payloads which will reduce the integration effort in a later phase. For temperature monitoring so called fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are written in special radiation tolerant fibers, which reflection wavelength allows a direct link to temperature at the grating position. A read-out system for FBGs to use within satellite applications is currently under development at OHB. For this study, first the environmental requirements for the panels are derived and in a second stage the functional requirements are defined. To define the functional requirements a telecommunication satellite platform, in the case here the Small-GEO series from OHB, has been taken as baseline. Based on the configuration of temperature sensors, communication lines and electrical signaling a possible replacement by fiber-optical technology was defined and traded w.r.t. its economic benefit. It has been pointed out that the replacement of temperature sensors will reduce harness mass, but the great benefit is seen here in the reduction of assembly effort. Once the satellite panel is manufactured, the temperature sensors are already implemented at certain positions. Another point for mass savings which has pointed out is the replacement of the high-voltage or high- current high power commands (HPC) by fiber optics. Replacing some of the several

  7. Hemangiopericytoma in a young dog: Evaluation of histopathological and immunohistochemical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Namazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we describe a subcutaneous mass between the left flank and hip in a 2-year-old male Great Dane dog. Histopathologically, cells appeared to be spindle shaped around a central capillary together with a fingerprint pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis presented that the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, but did not stain for S-100 protein. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as canine hemangiopericytoma. Hemangiopericytoma could be considered in differential diagnosis list of any mass in the skin (even in young dogs and must be identified histopathologically.

  8. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  9. Uterine Carcinosarcomas: Clinical, Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Arend, Rebecca; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Tergas, Ana I; Hawver, Melanie; Tong, Guo-Xia; Wright, Thomas C; Wright, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Müllerian tumors or MMMT) are rare malignant tumors in the female genital tract composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components. They comprise 1995 and 2011 were retrieved from the gynecologic pathology files at Columbia University Medical Center. Representative tissue blocks containing both epithelial and mesenchymal components were selected from each case for histologic and immunohistochemical studies. Clinical data from each case were retrieved. The epithelial component was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in the majority (80.7%) of cases; in 17.7%, the carcinoma was moderately differentiated, and in only 1.6% the carcinoma was well differentiated. 53% of the tumors had homologous stromal elements and 47% displayed heterologous stromal elements. Immunohistochemical study revealed almost equal staining in both epithelial and mesenchymal components of carcinosarcomas for p16 and p53. PAX8 positivity was noted in 73% of epithelial components, but only 13% of stromal components, and PAX8 stromal positivity was never seen in the absence of PAX8 epithelial positivity. Expression of p16, p53, and PAX8 in both malignant components lends support to the monoclonal theory of uterine carcinosarcoma tumorigenesis. The roles of these tumor markers in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of this tumor and associations between clinical characteristics, tumor pathologic features, and prognosis are discussed.

  10. SDP_mharwit_1: Demonstration of HIFI Linear Polarization Analysis of Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, M.

    2010-03-01

    We propose to observe the polarization of the 621 GHz water vapor maser in VY Canis Majoris to demonstrate the capability of HIFI to make polarization observations of Far-Infrared/Submillimeter spectral lines. The proposed Demonstration Phase would: - Show that HIFI is capable of interesting linear polarization measurements of spectral lines; - Test out the highest spectral resolving power to sort out closely spaced Doppler components; - Determine whether the relative intensities predicted by Neufeld and Melnick are correct; - Record the degree and direction of linear polarization for the closely-Doppler shifted peaks.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  12. A Cost Analysis Plan for the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Project (NPDDP) delivers school-based preventive dental care to approximately 14,000 children in ten United States cities. The program, begun in 1976, is to be conducted over a six and one-half year period. The costing definitions and allocation rules to be used in the project are the principal…

  13. Dynamic Simulation, Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of a Demonstration Scale Lignocellulosic Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Sin, Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis model considering both model and feed parameters as sources of uncertainty. The dynamic model is parametrized for accommodating various types of biomass, and different enzymatic complexes...

  14. An analysis of the demonstration projects for renewable energy application buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingmin; Ren, Hong; Wu, Yong; Kong, Deping

    2013-01-01

    During the 2006–2008 period, there were 386 demonstration projects for renewable energy application buildings (REAB) organised by Chinese government, with a total area of approximately 40,420,000 m 2 . By the end of 2011, the vast majority of these projects had been completed and had passed the final acceptance. This paper analyses the measures taken by the Chinese government, including economic incentive mechanisms, organising agencies, application and evaluation systems, online monitoring platforms, acceptance inspections, assessment systems, standard criteria and so forth. This paper then evaluates the policy effects. The paper shows that there has been a satisfactory effect in the development of the REAB market, mobilising the enthusiasm of the government, equipment manufacturers and scientific research institutions, and promoting energy conservation. In addition, this paper analyses the suitability of different technological types in different climatic zones, which provides further guidance for the development of the REAB. Finally, based on the analyses of the problems met in the implementation of the demonstration projects, this paper proposes some policy suggestions concerning standard criteria, technological development, project management, incentive mechanisms and so on, to promote the development of the REAB more effectively in the future in China. - Highlights: • The policy measures to promote the development of renewable energy application buildings in China. • Evaluation of the demonstration policy effects in the market development and other aspects. • Analyses of the regional applicability for renewable energy application buildings in China. • Analyses of problems met in the implementation of the demonstration projects. • Put forward some policy suggestions on standard, technology, management, etc

  15. Technology demonstration: geostatistical and hydrologic analysis of salt areas. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.; Oberlander, P.L.; Rice, W.A.; Devary, J.L.; Nelson, R.W.; Tucker, P.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to: (1) use geostatistical analyses to evaluate the adequacy of hydrologic data from three salt regions, each of which contains a potential nuclear waste repository site; and (2) demonstrate a methodology that allows quantification of the value of additional data collection. The three regions examined are the Paradox Basin in Utah, the Permian Basin in Texas, and the Mississippi Study Area. Additional and new data became available to ONWI during and following these analyses; therefore, this report must be considered a methodology demonstration here would apply as illustrated had the complete data sets been available. A combination of geostatistical and hydrologic analyses was used for this demonstration. Geostatistical analyses provided an optimal estimate of the potentiometric surface from the available data, a measure of the uncertainty of that estimate, and a means for selecting and evaluating the location of future data. The hydrologic analyses included the calculation of transmissivities, flow paths, travel times, and ground-water flow rates from hypothetical repository sites. Simulation techniques were used to evaluate the effect of optimally located future data on the potentiometric surface, flow lines, travel times, and flow rates. Data availability, quality, quantity, and conformance with model assumptions differed in each of the salt areas. Report highlights for the three locations are given

  16. Ebola Virus Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; de la Rosa Vázquez, Olimpia; Bausch, Daniel G; Schafer, Ilana J; Paddock, Christopher D; Nyakio, Jean Paul; Lame, Papys; Bergeron, Eric; McCollum, Andrea M; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Bollweg, Brigid C; Prieto, Miriam Alía; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nichol, Stuart T; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs. In the Gulu case, ebolavirus antigen localized to malarial parasite pigment-laden macrophages. These data suggest that trophoblast infection may be a mechanism of transplacental ebolavirus transmission. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Demonstration of uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis for PWR fuel performance with BISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Zou, Ling; Burns, Douglas; Ladd, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    BISON is an advanced fuels performance code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory and is the code of choice for fuels performance by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Program. An approach to uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis with BISON was developed and a new toolkit was created. A PWR fuel rod model was developed and simulated by BISON, and uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis were performed with eighteen uncertain input parameters. The maximum fuel temperature and gap conductance were selected as the figures of merit (FOM). Pearson, Spearman, and partial correlation coefficients were considered for all of the figures of merit in sensitivity analysis. (author)

  18. Demonstration of Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis for PWR Fuel Performance with BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Ladd, Jacob; Zhao, Haihua; Zou, Ling; Burns, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    BISON is an advanced fuels performance code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory and is the code of choice for fuels performance by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Program. An approach to uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis with BISON was developed and a new toolkit was created. A PWR fuel rod model was developed and simulated by BISON, and uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis were performed with eighteen uncertain input parameters. The maximum fuel temperature and gap conductance were selected as the figures of merit (FOM). Pearson, Spearman, and partial correlation coefficients were considered for all of the figures of merit in sensitivity analysis.

  19. Analysis of toroidal vacuum vessels for use in demonstration sized tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbert, M.E.

    1978-07-01

    The vacuum vessel component of the tokamak fusion reactor is the subject of this study. The main objective of this paper was to provide guidance for the structural design of a thin wall externally pressurized toroidal vacuum vessel. The analyses are based on the available state-of-the-art analytical methods. The shortcomings of these analytical methods necessitated approximations and assumptions to be made throughout the study. A principal result of the study has been the identification of a viable vacuum vessel design for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) and The Next Step (TNS) Reactor

  20. Angiomyolipoma of the kidney: Clinico pathological and immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esheba, Gh.E.; Esheba, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Overview: Although angiomyolipoma (AML) is a relatively rare entity, it is the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the kidney. The aim of this study: To highlight the clinicopathological characteristics of AML and to assess the role of Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45), Melan-A, smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100 and cytokeratin in its diagnosis. Materials and methods: The study included 15 cases of AML. Clinical and radiological data were retrieved from the archival files and all cases were subjected to a histopathological evaluation as well as immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45, Melan-A, SMA, S-100, and cytokeratin. Results: AML was more common in females (female:male = 4:1), the mean age was 53.9 ± 6.45 years. 60% of patients were symptomatic while the remaining 40% were asymptomatic. A statistically significant relationship was found between size of the tumor and the presence of the symptoms (P = 0.02). Patients with tumor size less than 4 cm were asymptomatic, while those with tumor size larger than 4 cm had different symptoms. Thirteen cases were classic AML, while 2 cases were epithelioid AML. Classic AML demonstrated admixture of fatty tissue, thick-walled blood vessels, and smooth muscle, while epithelioid AML was composed mainly of epithelioid cells and contained no fat. HMB-45 was positive in all cases of AML (100%), Melan-A was positive in 13/15 (87%) while SMA was positive in 11/15 (73%) of AML with variable staining intensity. All cases of AML were negative for S-100 and cytokeratin. Conclusion: AMLs have characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features and their recognition is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment

  1. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrates a pattern of rare and ancient horizontal gene transfer between plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A; Soanes, Darren M; Foster, Peter G; Leonard, Guy; Thornton, Christopher R; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2009-07-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries and is an important evolutionary phenomenon in the ancestry of many microbes. The role of HGT in plant evolutionary history is, however, largely unexplored. Here, we compare the genomes of six plant species with those of 159 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species and identify 1689 genes that show the highest similarity to corresponding genes from fungi. We constructed a phylogeny for all 1689 genes identified and all homolog groups available from the rice (Oryza sativa) genome (3177 gene families) and used these to define 14 candidate plant-fungi HGT events. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of these 14 data sets, using methods that account for site rate heterogeneity, demonstrated support for nine HGT events, demonstrating an infrequent pattern of HGT between plants and fungi. Five HGTs were fungi-to-plant transfers and four were plant-to-fungi HGTs. None of the fungal-to-plant HGTs involved angiosperm recipients. These results alter the current view of organismal barriers to HGT, suggesting that phagotrophy, the consumption of a whole cell by another, is not necessarily a prerequisite for HGT between eukaryotes. Putative functional annotation of the HGT candidate genes suggests that two fungi-to-plant transfers have added phenotypes important for life in a soil environment. Our study suggests that genetic exchange between plants and fungi is exceedingly rare, particularly among the angiosperms, but has occurred during their evolutionary history and added important metabolic traits to plant lineages.

  2. Core physics analysis in support of the FNR HEU-LEU demonstration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losey, David C.; Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.; Lee, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A core neutronics analysis has been undertaken to assess the impact of low-enrichment fuel on the performance and utilization of the FNR As part of this analytic effort a computer code system has been assembled which will be of general use in analyzing research reactors with MTR-type fuel. The code system has been extensively tested and verified in calculations for the present high enrichment core. The analysis presented here compares the high-and-low enrichment fuels in batch and equilibrium core configurations which model the actual FNR operating conditions. The two fuels are compared for cycle length, fuel burnup, and flux and power distributions, as well as for the reactivity effects which are important in assessing the impact of LEU fuel on reactor shutdown margin. (author)

  3. Core physics analysis in support of the FNR HEU-LEU demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losey, David C; Brown, Forrest B; Martin, William R; Lee, John C [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan (United States)

    1983-08-01

    A core neutronics analysis has been undertaken to assess the impact of low-enrichment fuel on the performance and utilization of the FNR As part of this analytic effort a computer code system has been assembled which will be of general use in analyzing research reactors with MTR-type fuel. The code system has been extensively tested and verified in calculations for the present high enrichment core. The analysis presented here compares the high-and-low enrichment fuels in batch and equilibrium core configurations which model the actual FNR operating conditions. The two fuels are compared for cycle length, fuel burnup, and flux and power distributions, as well as for the reactivity effects which are important in assessing the impact of LEU fuel on reactor shutdown margin. (author)

  4. The Ford Nuclear Reactor demonstration project for the evaluation and analysis of low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, W.; King, J.S.; Lee, J.C.; Martin, W.R.; Wehe, D.K.

    1991-07-01

    The whole-core LEU fuel demonstration project at the University of Michigan was begun in 1979 as part of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program at Argonne National Laboratory. An LEU fuel design was selected which would produce minimum perturbations in the neutronic, operations, and safety characteristics of the 2-MW Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR). Initial criticality with a full LEU core on December 8, 1981, was followed by low- and full-power testing of the fresh LEU core, transitional operation with mixed HEU-LEU configurations, and establishment of full LEU equilibrium core operation. The transition from the HEU to the LEU configurations was achieved with negligible impact on experimental utilization and safe operation of the reactor. 78 refs., 74 figs., 84 tabs

  5. Operating experience, measurements, and analysis of the LEU whole core demonstration at the FNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weha, D.K.; Drumm, C.R.; King, J.S.; Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 2-MW Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan is serving as the demonstration reactor for the MTR-type low enrichment (LEU) fuel for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor program. Operational experience gained through six months of LEU core operation and seven months of mixed HEU-LEU core operation is presented. Subcadmium flux measurements performed with rhodium self-powered neutron detectors and iron wire activations are compared with calculations. Measured reactivity parameters are compared for HEU and LEU cores. Finally, the benchmark calculations for several HEU, LEU, and mixed HEU-LEU FNR cores and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) benchmark problem are presented. (author)

  6. Analysis of occludin trafficking, demonstrating continuous endocytosis, degradation, recycling and biosynthetic secretory trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Fletcher

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes. By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes.

  7. Successful Completion of FY18/Q1 ASC L2 Milestone 6355: Electrical Analysis Calibration Workflow Capability Demonstration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copps, Kevin D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Sandia Analysis Workbench (SAW) project has developed and deployed a production capability for SIERRA computational mechanics analysis workflows. However, the electrical analysis workflow capability requirements have only been demonstrated in early prototype states, with no real capability deployed for analysts’ use. This milestone aims to improve the electrical analysis workflow capability (via SAW and related tools) and deploy it for ongoing use. We propose to focus on a QASPR electrical analysis calibration workflow use case. We will include a number of new capabilities (versus today’s SAW), such as: 1) support for the XYCE code workflow component, 2) data management coupled to electrical workflow, 3) human-in-theloop workflow capability, and 4) electrical analysis workflow capability deployed on the restricted (and possibly classified) network at Sandia. While far from the complete set of capabilities required for electrical analysis workflow over the long term, this is a substantial first step toward full production support for the electrical analysts.

  8. ALOHA—Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis - From experimental demonstrations to a MIR instrument proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, L.; Darré, P.; Szemendera, L.; Gomes, J. T.; Baudoin, R.; Ceus, D.; Brustlein, S.; Delage, L.; Grossard, L.; Reynaud, F.

    2018-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis (ALOHA) project dedicated to investigate a new method for high resolution imaging in mid infrared astronomy. This proposal aims to use a non-linear frequency conversion process to shift the thermal infrared radiation to a shorter wavelength domain compatible with proven technology such as guided optics and detectors. After a description of the principle, we summarise the evolution of our study from the high flux seminal experiments to the latest results in the photon counting regime.

  9. Interfacing Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic and Silicon Photonic Waveguides: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilipakos, O.; Pitilakis, A.; Yioultsis, T. V.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical analysis of end-fire coupling between dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton and rib/wire silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is presented. Simulations are based on the 3-D vector finite element method. The geometrical parameters of the interface are varied...... in order to identify the ones leading to optimum performance, i.e., maximum coupling efficiency. Fabrication tolerances about the optimum parameter values are also assessed. In addition, the effect of a longitudinal metallic stripe gap on coupling efficiency is quantified, since such gaps have been...

  10. Demonstration of Emulator-Based Bayesian Calibration of Safety Analysis Codes: Theory and Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Yurko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available System codes for simulation of safety performance of nuclear plants may contain parameters whose values are not known very accurately. New information from tests or operating experience is incorporated into safety codes by a process known as calibration, which reduces uncertainty in the output of the code and thereby improves its support for decision-making. The work reported here implements several improvements on classic calibration techniques afforded by modern analysis techniques. The key innovation has come from development of code surrogate model (or code emulator construction and prediction algorithms. Use of a fast emulator makes the calibration processes used here with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling feasible. This work uses Gaussian Process (GP based emulators, which have been used previously to emulate computer codes in the nuclear field. The present work describes the formulation of an emulator that incorporates GPs into a factor analysis-type or pattern recognition-type model. This “function factorization” Gaussian Process (FFGP model allows overcoming limitations present in standard GP emulators, thereby improving both accuracy and speed of the emulator-based calibration process. Calibration of a friction-factor example using a Method of Manufactured Solution is performed to illustrate key properties of the FFGP based process.

  11. Analysis of operational records in the bituminization demonstration facility. Investigation of the cause of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, A.; Sano, Y.; Yoneya, M.; Koyama, T.

    1997-12-01

    Operational records in the bituminization demonstration facility in 97-M46-1 campaign were analyzed in order to investigate the cause of fire. Operational records which are different from ordinary level in this campaign are drum weight, temperature at 7th zone and extruder torque. So we investigated past campaign data about these records. The results are as follows. 1) In some campaigns, drum weight was lighter, temperature at 7th zone higher, and torque higher. 2) When drum weight is lighter, temperature at 7th zone becomes relatively higher. 3) In the case that higher temperature was measured at 7th zone, drum weight was sometimes less than the past average. 4) When the extruder's torque increases, it sometimes influences drum weight and temperature at 7th zone. The maximum of salt and bitumen became hotter from 28B. As the heat source, both frictional resistance and exothermic chemical reaction can be considered. Frictional resistance came out with increase of the torque. So we checked some operational parameters to investigate what increases the torque. Feed rate of waste solution is related with the torque increase. The other parameters are not related with it. Now we can not specify any causes of the torque increase from 27B, the feed rate of waste solution is however possible to be one of the causes. (author)

  12. An organisational analysis of the implementation of telecare and telehealth: the whole systems demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate organisational factors influencing the implementation challenges of redesigning services for people with long term conditions in three locations in England, using remote care (telehealth and telecare). Methods Case-studies of three sites forming the UK Department of Health’s Whole Systems Demonstrator (WSD) Programme. Qualitative research techniques were used to obtain data from various sources, including semi-structured interviews, observation of meetings over the course programme and prior to its launch, and document review. Participants were managers and practitioners involved in the implementation of remote care services. Results The implementation of remote care was nested within a large pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT), which formed a core element of the WSD programme. To produce robust benefits evidence, many aspect of the trial design could not be easily adapted to local circumstances. While remote care was successfully rolled-out, wider implementation lessons and levels of organisational learning across the sites were hindered by the requirements of the RCT. Conclusions The implementation of a complex innovation such as remote care requires it to organically evolve, be responsive and adaptable to the local health and social care system, driven by support from front-line staff and management. This need for evolution was not always aligned with the imperative to gather robust benefits evidence. This tension needs to be resolved if government ambitions for the evidence-based scaling-up of remote care are to be realised. PMID:23153014

  13. An organisational analysis of the implementation of telecare and telehealth: the whole systems demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Jane; Chrysanthaki, Theopisti; Barlow, James; Knapp, Martin; Rogers, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Bower, Peter; Bowen, Robert; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Bardsley, Martin; Newman, Stanton

    2012-11-15

    To investigate organisational factors influencing the implementation challenges of redesigning services for people with long term conditions in three locations in England, using remote care (telehealth and telecare). Case-studies of three sites forming the UK Department of Health's Whole Systems Demonstrator (WSD) Programme. Qualitative research techniques were used to obtain data from various sources, including semi-structured interviews, observation of meetings over the course programme and prior to its launch, and document review. Participants were managers and practitioners involved in the implementation of remote care services. The implementation of remote care was nested within a large pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT), which formed a core element of the WSD programme. To produce robust benefits evidence, many aspect of the trial design could not be easily adapted to local circumstances. While remote care was successfully rolled-out, wider implementation lessons and levels of organisational learning across the sites were hindered by the requirements of the RCT. The implementation of a complex innovation such as remote care requires it to organically evolve, be responsive and adaptable to the local health and social care system, driven by support from front-line staff and management. This need for evolution was not always aligned with the imperative to gather robust benefits evidence. This tension needs to be resolved if government ambitions for the evidence-based scaling-up of remote care are to be realised.

  14. Preliminary hazard analysis for the Brayton Isotope Ground Demonstration System (including vacuum test chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the BIPS-GDS is a tabular summary of hazards and undesired events which may lead to system damage or failure and/or hazard to personnel. The PHA reviews the GDS as it is envisioned to operate in the Vacuum Test Chamber (VTC) of the GDS Test Facility. The VTC and other equipment which will comprise the test facility are presently in an early stage of preliminary design and will undoubtedly undergo numerous changes before the design is frozen. The PHA and the FMECA to follow are intended to aid the design effort by identifying areas of concern which are critical to the safety and reliability of the BIPS-GDS and test facility

  15. Functional improvement after carotid endarterectomy: demonstrated by gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. E.; Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Moon, D. H.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific documentation of neurologic improvement following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has not been established. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate whether CEA performed for the internal carotid artery flow lesion improves gait and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status in patients with gait disturbance. We prospectively performed pre- and postCEA gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT (Acz-SPECT) with Tc-99m ECD in 91 patients (M/F: 81/10, mean age: 64.1 y) who had gait disturbance before receiving CEA. Gait performance was assessed using a Vicon 370 motion analyzer. The gait improvement after CEA was correlated to cerebrovascular hemodynamic change as well as symptom duration. 12 hemiparetic stroke patients (M/F=9/3, mean age: 51 y) who did not receive CEA as a control underwent gait analysis twice in a week interval to evaluate whether repeat testing of gait performance shows learning effect. Of 91 patients, 73 (80%) patients showed gait improvement (change of gait speed > 10%) and 42 (46%) showed marked improvement (change of gait speed > 20%), but no improvement was observed in control group at repeat test. Post-operative cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement was noted in 49 (54%) of 91 patients. There was marked gait improvement in patients group with cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement compared to no change group (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement and cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement were noted in 53% and 61% of the patient who had less than 3 month history of symptom compared to 31% and 24% of the patients who had longer than 3 months, respectively (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement was obtained in patients who had improvement of cerebrovascular hemodynamic status on Acz-SPECT after CEA. These results suggest functional improvement such as gait can result from the improved perfusion of misery perfusion area, which is viable for a longer period compared to literatures previously reported

  16. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan

    2017-10-23

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device\\'s top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  17. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device's top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well.

  18. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device's top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  19. The Recreational Fee Demonstration Program on the national forests: and updated analysis of public attitudes and beliefs, 1996-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes trends in favorable and unfavorable attitudes toward the Recreational Fee Demonstration Program (RFDP) in the national forests, updating an earlier study using computer content analysis of the public debate. About 65 percent of the attitudes toward the RFDP were favorable, comparable to the findings of survey research.

  20. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Kim H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P 2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2, where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology.

  1. Analysis of Monolith Cores from an Engineering Scale Demonstration of a Prospective Cast Stone Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C. L.; Cozzi, A. D.; Hill, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary disposition path of Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the DOE Hanford Site is vitrification. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone. This report documents the coring and leach testing of monolithic samples cored from an engineering-scale demonstration (ES Demo) with non-radioactive simulants. The ES Demo was performed at SRNL in October of 2013 using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft. diameter x 3.25 ft. high container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average LAW composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. In 2014 core samples originally obtained approximately six months after filling the ES Demo were tested along with bench scale molded samples that were collected during the original pour. A latter set of core samples were obtained in late March of 2015, eighteen months after completion of the original ES Demo. Core samples were obtained using a 2'' diameter x 11'' long coring bit. The ES Demo was sampled in three different regions consisting of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner core zone. Cores from these three lateral zones were further segregated into upper, middle and lower vertical segments. Monolithic core samples were tested using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1315, which is designed to provide mass

  2. Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Bradley N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic studies of wild Canis species have relied heavily on the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR to infer species relationships and evolutionary lineages. Previous analyses of the CR provided evidence for a North American evolved eastern wolf (C. lycaon, that is more closely related to red wolves (C. rufus and coyotes (C. latrans than grey wolves (C. lupus. Eastern wolf origins, however, continue to be questioned. Therefore, we analyzed mtDNA from 89 wolves and coyotes across North America and Eurasia at 347 base pairs (bp of the CR and 1067 bp that included the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes. Phylogenies and divergence estimates were used to clarify the evolutionary history of eastern wolves, and regional comparisons of nonsynonomous to synonomous substitutions (dN/dS at the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes were used to elucidate the potential role of selection in shaping mtDNA geographic distribution. Results We found high concordance across analyses between the mtDNA regions studied. Both had a high percentage of variable sites (CR = 14.6%; ATP = 9.7% and both phylogenies clustered eastern wolf haplotypes monophyletically within a North American evolved lineage apart from coyotes. Divergence estimates suggest the putative red wolf sequence is more closely related to coyotes (DxyCR = 0.01982 ± 0.00494 SD; DxyATP = 0.00332 ± 0.00097 SD than the eastern wolf sequences (DxyCR = 0.03047 ± 0.00664 SD; DxyATP = 0.00931 ± 0.00205 SD. Neutrality tests on both genes were indicative of the population expansion of coyotes across eastern North America, and dN/dS ratios suggest a possible role for purifying selection in the evolution of North American lineages. dN/dS ratios were higher in European evolved lineages from northern climates compared to North American evolved lineages from temperate regions, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions These results demonstrate high concordance between coding

  3. [Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies on mucous cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, N

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated the histopathology, histochemistry of mucopolysaccharides, and immunohistochemistry of oral mucous cysts. The materials were obtained from ninety cases that were histopathologically diagnosed as oral mucous cysts at the Department of Oral Pathology, Meikai University School of Dentistry. Mucopolysaccharide staining was done with PAS, alcian blue (AB, pH 2.5) and high iron diamine (HID). Immunohistochemical studies were focused on secretory component (SC), lactoferrin (Lf), alpha-amylase (Am), IgA, lysozyme (Ly), and keratin (Kr). The following results were obtained: 1. Histopathological findings. (1) Retention and/or retention-like type cysts occurred in was twenty-six cases and the extravasation type in sixty-four cases. (2) Cases showing epithelial lining of the cystic wall were only eight in number, and many cystic walls were contained granulation tissue (fifty cases). (3) As for inflammation of the cystic wall, the degree was slight, and infiltrated cells were mainly macrophages (so-called mucinophages) and lymphocytes. (4) Regarding adjoining salivary glands, acinar cells showed atrophic changes, and hypertrophy of mucous acinar cells was evident. Many ducts showed dilatation, and stromal connective tissue showed fibrosis and hyalinization. 2. Histochemical findings on mucopolysaccharides. (1) Mucous materials in cystic cavity, mucous acinar cells, and secretory materials in ductal lumens were intensely stained by PAS and AB. But stainability with AB was less than that with PAS staining. Serous acinar cells and ductal epithelium were negative to PAS and AB staining. (2) Stainability of the above with HID was less than at with PAS or AB. Cystic walls were not stained by HID. Mucous acinar cells reactive with HID were intensely stained, but the number of the positive cells was limited when compared with the numbers of PAS-and AB-positive cells. 3. Immunohistochemical findings. (1) As for mucous materials in the cystic cavity

  4. Scenarios for Benefits Analysis of Energy Research, Development,Demonstration and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-09-07

    For at least the last decade, evaluation of the benefits of research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD3) by the U.S. Department of Energy has been conducted using deterministic forecasts that unrealistically presume we can precisely foresee our future 10, 25,or even 50 years hence. This effort tries, in a modest way, to begin a process of recognition that the reality of our energy future is rather one rife with uncertainty. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) and Fossil Energy (FE) for their RD3 benefits evaluation. In order to begin scoping out the uncertainty in these deterministic forecasts, EE and FE designed two futures that differ significantly from the basic NEMS forecast. A High Fuel Price Scenario and a Carbon Cap Scenario were envisioned to forecast alternative futures and the associated benefits. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) implemented these scenarios into its version of NEMS,NEMS-LBNL, in late 2004, and the Energy Information Agency created six scenarios for FE in early 2005. The creation and implementation of the EE-FE scenarios are explained in this report. Both a Carbon Cap Scenario and a High Fuel Price Scenarios were implemented into the NEMS-LBNL. EIA subsequently modeled similar scenarios using NEMS. While the EIA and LBNL implementations were in some ways rather different, their forecasts do not significantly diverge. Compared to the Reference Scenario, the High Fuel Price Scenario reduces energy consumption by 4 percent in 2025, while in the EIA fuel price scenario (known as Scenario 4) reduction from its corresponding reference scenario (known as Scenario 0) in 2025 is marginal. Nonetheless, the 4 percent demand reduction does not lead to other cascading effects that would significantly differentiate the two scenarios. The LBNL and EIA carbon scenarios were mostly identical. The only major

  5. 'Omics analysis of low dose acetaminophen intake demonstrates novel response pathways in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetten, Marlon J.A.; Gaj, Stan [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kok, Theo M. de [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Delft, Joost H.M. van, E-mail: j.vandelft@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Someren, Eugene P. van [Research Group Microbiology and Systems Biology, TNO, PO Box 360 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); Jennen, Danyel G.J.; Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M. [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Stierum, Rob H. [Research Group Microbiology and Systems Biology, TNO, PO Box 360 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); Kleinjans, Jos C.S. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Acetaminophen is the primary cause of acute liver toxicity in Europe/USA, which led the FDA to reconsider recommendations concerning safe acetaminophen dosage/use. Unfortunately, the current tests for liver toxicity are no ideal predictive markers for liver injury, i.e. they only measure acetaminophen exposure after profound liver toxicity has already occurred. Furthermore, these tests do not provide mechanistic information. Here, 'omics techniques (global analysis of metabolomic/gene-expression responses) may provide additional insight. To better understand acetaminophen-induced responses at low doses, we evaluated the effects of (sub-)therapeutic acetaminophen doses on metabolite formation and global gene-expression changes (including, for the first time, full-genome human miRNA expression changes) in blood/urine samples from healthy human volunteers. Many known and several new acetaminophen-metabolites were detected, in particular in relation to hepatotoxicity-linked, oxidative metabolism of acetaminophen. Transcriptomic changes indicated immune-modulating effects (2 g dose) and oxidative stress responses (4 g dose). For the first time, effects of acetaminophen on full-genome human miRNA expression have been considered and confirmed the findings on mRNA level. 'Omics techniques outperformed clinical chemistry tests and revealed novel response pathways to acetaminophen in humans. Although no definitive conclusion about potential immunotoxic effects of acetaminophen can be drawn from this study, there are clear indications that the immune system is triggered even after intake of low doses of acetaminophen. Also, oxidative stress-related gene responses, similar to those seen after high dose acetaminophen exposure, suggest the occurrence of possible pre-toxic effects of therapeutic acetaminophen doses. Possibly, these effects are related to dose-dependent increases in levels of hepatotoxicity-related metabolites. -- Highlights: ► 'Omics techniques

  6. 'Omics analysis of low dose acetaminophen intake demonstrates novel response pathways in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetten, Marlon J.A.; Gaj, Stan; Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa; Kok, Theo M. de; Delft, Joost H.M. van; Lommen, Arjen; Someren, Eugene P. van; Jennen, Danyel G.J.; Claessen, Sandra M.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Stierum, Rob H.; Kleinjans, Jos C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen is the primary cause of acute liver toxicity in Europe/USA, which led the FDA to reconsider recommendations concerning safe acetaminophen dosage/use. Unfortunately, the current tests for liver toxicity are no ideal predictive markers for liver injury, i.e. they only measure acetaminophen exposure after profound liver toxicity has already occurred. Furthermore, these tests do not provide mechanistic information. Here, 'omics techniques (global analysis of metabolomic/gene-expression responses) may provide additional insight. To better understand acetaminophen-induced responses at low doses, we evaluated the effects of (sub-)therapeutic acetaminophen doses on metabolite formation and global gene-expression changes (including, for the first time, full-genome human miRNA expression changes) in blood/urine samples from healthy human volunteers. Many known and several new acetaminophen-metabolites were detected, in particular in relation to hepatotoxicity-linked, oxidative metabolism of acetaminophen. Transcriptomic changes indicated immune-modulating effects (2 g dose) and oxidative stress responses (4 g dose). For the first time, effects of acetaminophen on full-genome human miRNA expression have been considered and confirmed the findings on mRNA level. 'Omics techniques outperformed clinical chemistry tests and revealed novel response pathways to acetaminophen in humans. Although no definitive conclusion about potential immunotoxic effects of acetaminophen can be drawn from this study, there are clear indications that the immune system is triggered even after intake of low doses of acetaminophen. Also, oxidative stress-related gene responses, similar to those seen after high dose acetaminophen exposure, suggest the occurrence of possible pre-toxic effects of therapeutic acetaminophen doses. Possibly, these effects are related to dose-dependent increases in levels of hepatotoxicity-related metabolites. -- Highlights: ► 'Omics techniques outperformed

  7. Hidradenocarcinoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Christine J; Cochran, Alistair J; Eng, William; Binder, Scott W

    2006-11-01

    The diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma is difficult due to a combination of factors including inconsistent nomenclature/ classification, rarity of the neoplasm, and variable morphology of cells composing the neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry has not been previously performed on a series of hidradenocarcinomas. We evaluated six cases of hidradenocarcinoma histologically and immunohistochemically using antibodies to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, keratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 5/6, p53, bcl-1, bcl-2, and Ki67. Histology suggested concurrent eccrine and apocrine differentiation of the cases. Ki67 and p53 staining was strongly positive in five of six tumors. The neoplasms stained with antibodies to CEA, S-100 protein, GCDFP-15, EMA, bcl-1, and bcl-2 in no consistent pattern. All tumors studied stained positively for keratin AE1/3 and cytokeratin 5/6. In making the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma, it may be unnecessary to separate hidradenocarcinoma into eccrine and apocrine categories, and although Ki67 and p53 may be helpful, histological parameters remain paramount.

  8. Immunohistochemical markers of cancerogenesis in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for people of both sexes worldwide. Early diagnosis of precancer lesions may be of crucial significance to lowering lung cancer mortality. The World Health Organization has defined three preneoplastic lesions of the bronchial epithelium: squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. These lesions are believed to progress to squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors, respectively. Apart from WHO classification, two other lesions such as bronchiolization and bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD can be observed and thought to be preneoplastic lesions leading to adenocarcinoma. In this review we summarize the data of morphological and cell cycle related proteins changes in both central and peripheral compartments of lung. Many molecular changes, which accompany the multistep process of the development of invasive types of cancer, may be observed thanks to the application of immunohistochemical markers. A deeper knowledge of molecular and genetic changes accompanying pre-cancer states may show new directions of early diagnostics of cancer development.

  9. Immunohistochemical characterization and evaluation of prognostic factors in canine oral melanomas with osteocartilaginous differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Ramirez, G A; Buendia, A J; Vilafranca, M; Martinez, C M; Altimira, J; Navarro, J A

    2007-09-01

    Melanomas are the most common malignant oral neoplasm in dogs. Osteocartilaginous differentiation in oral melanomas is a rare feature described both in veterinary and human medicine. Here, 10 cases of this type of neoplasm were used to study their immunohistochemical, biological, and clinical characteristics. Reactivity for S100 and melan A antigen was evaluated, and 4 prognosis factors (mitotic index, invasiveness of epithelium, nuclear atypia, and proliferation index) were analyzed and correlated with the clinical course of the neoplasms after diagnosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of the studied neoplasms, including the osteocartilaginous areas, showed positive immunoreaction for S100 and melan A, except in one dog, which was negative for melan A. Analysis of the results showed that oral melamonas with osteocartilaginous differentiation have a clinical course similar to that of other melanomas in the oral cavity. Analysis of the mitotic index and the expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 could be useful tools for predicting the biological behavior of these neoplasms.

  10. [Text mining, a method for computer-assisted analysis of scientific texts, demonstrated by an analysis of author networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, P; Dullweber, F; Unglaub, F; Spies, C K

    2014-06-01

    Searching for relevant publications is becoming more difficult with the increasing number of scientific articles. Text mining as a specific form of computer-based data analysis may be helpful in this context. Highlighting relations between authors and finding relevant publications concerning a specific subject using text analysis programs are illustrated graphically by 2 performed examples. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Demonstration of a modelling-based multi-criteria decision analysis procedure for prioritisation of occupational risks from manufactured nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Alstrup Jensen, Keld; Gottardo, Stefania; Isigonis, Panagiotis; Maccalman, Laura; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Several tools to facilitate the risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) have been developed. Most of them require input data on physicochemical properties, toxicity and scenario-specific exposure information. However, such data are yet not readily available, and tools that can handle data gaps in a structured way to ensure transparent risk analysis for industrial and regulatory decision making are needed. This paper proposes such a quantitative risk prioritisation tool, based on a multi-criteria decision analysis algorithm, which combines advanced exposure and dose-response modelling to calculate margins of exposure (MoE) for a number of MN in order to rank their occupational risks. We demonstrated the tool in a number of workplace exposure scenarios (ES) involving the production and handling of nanoscale titanium dioxide, zinc oxide (ZnO), silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The results of this application demonstrated that bag/bin filling, manual un/loading and dumping of large amounts of dry powders led to high emissions, which resulted in high risk associated with these ES. The ZnO MN revealed considerable hazard potential in vivo, which significantly influenced the risk prioritisation results. In order to study how variations in the input data affect our results, we performed probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, which demonstrated that the performance of the proposed model is stable against changes in the exposure and hazard input variables.

  12. Immunohistochemical and transcriptome analyses indicate complex breakdown of axonal transport mechanisms in canine distemper leukoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzbarth, Ingo; Lempp, Charlotte; Kegler, Kristel; Ulrich, Reiner; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Seehusen, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    CDV-DL (Canine distemper virus-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis) represents a spontaneously occurring animal model for demyelinating disorders. Axonopathy represents a key pathomechanism in this disease; however, its underlying pathogenesis has not been addressed in detail so far. This study aimed at the characterization of axonal cytoskeletal, transport, and potential regenerative changes with a parallel focus upon Schwann cell remyelination. Immunohistochemistry of canine cerebellar tissue as well as a comparative analysis of genes from an independent microarray study were performed. Increased axonal immunoreactivity for nonphosphorylated neurofilament was followed by loss of cytoskeletal and motor proteins. Interestingly, a subset of genes encoding for neurofilament subunits and motor proteins was up-regulated in the chronic stage compared to dogs with subacute CDV-DL. However, immunohistochemically, hints for axonal regeneration were restricted to up-regulated axonal positivity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, while growth-associated protein 43, erythropoietin and its receptor were not or even down-regulated. Periaxin-positive structures, indicative of Schwann cell remyelination, were only detected within few advanced lesions. The present findings demonstrate a complex sequence of axonal cytoskeletal breakdown mechanisms. Moreover, though sparse, this is the first report of Schwann cell remyelination in CDV-DL. Facilitation of these very limited endogenous regenerative responses represents an important topic for future research.

  13. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical detection of brachyury is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhang

    Full Text Available Brachyury is a marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, such as chordoma. However, the prognostic relevance of brachyury expression in chordoma is still unknown. The improvement of tissue microarray technology has provided the opportunity to perform analyses of tumor tissues on a large scale in a uniform and consistent manner. This study was designed with the use of tissue microarray to determine the expression of brachyury. Brachyury expression in chordoma tissues from 78 chordoma patients was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray. The clinicopathologic parameters, including gender, age, location of tumor and metastatic status were evaluated. Fifty-nine of 78 (75.64% tumors showed nuclear staining for brachyury, and among them, 29 tumors (49.15% showed 1+ (<30% positive cells staining, 15 tumors (25.42% had 2+ (31% to 60% positive cells staining, and 15 tumors (25.42% demonstrated 3+ (61% to 100% positive cells staining. Brachyury nuclear staining was detected more frequently in sacral chordomas than in chordomas of the mobile spine. However, there was no significant relationship between brachyury expression and other clinical variables. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, brachyury expression failed to produce any significant relationship with the overall survival rate. In conclusion, brachyury expression is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

  14. Lectin immunohistochemical evaluation of human bladder carcinomas. A comparison of Carnoy's and formalin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, T; Ueda, K; Ohtaguro, K; Inoue, K; Washida, H; Mori, M; Tatemoto, Y; Fukushima, S

    1993-10-01

    A lectin immunohistochemical analysis of 51 human bladder carcinomas, including 44 cases of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (G1, 15 cases; G2, 17 cases; G3, 12 cases) and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), was performed. Tissues were obtained by cold punch biopsies, fixed in Carnoy's or 10% formalin solution, stained for binding of 10 different lectins, and evaluated under the light microscope. The lectins used were concanavalin agglutinin (Con A), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA), Dolichos biflorusa agglutinin (DBA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, II (UEA-I, II), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PEA). TCC prepared with Carnoy's fixation tended to show moderately positive Con A, UEA-I, and WGA reactions for G1, and strongly positive reactions for G2 and G3 lesions. UEA-II was mainly negative in G1, but tended to increase to become moderate in G3. DBA tended to show a moderately positive reaction in G1 and G2, but was mainly negative in G3. With formalin fixation, only RCA1 demonstrated grade specific variation, tendency to react moderately in the G1 and G2 cases, and strongly in G3. There were no further differences among the histopathological grades of TCC for other lectins. Thus, Carnoy's fixation appears superior for distinguishing between grades of lesions. SCC tended to react more strongly than TCC with all the various lectins except PEA, independent of fixation.

  15. DNAJB9 Is a Specific Immunohistochemical Marker for Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samih H. Nasr

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: DNAJB9 immunohistochemistry is sensitive and specific for FGN. Incorporation of this novel immunohistochemical biomarker into clinical practice will now allow more rapid and accurate diagnosis of this disease.

  16. [The possibilities for diagnostics of prescription of death coming based on the changes in the lumbar intervertebral disks (the comparison of the morphological, immunohistochemical and topographical findings)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byval'tsev, V A; Stepanov, I A; Semenov, A V; Perfil'ev, D V; Belykh, E G; Bardonova, L A; Nikiforov, S B; Sudakov, N P; Bespyatykh, I V; Antipina, S L

    The objective of the present study was the comprehensive analysis of the postmortem changes in the lumbar intervertebral disks within different periods after death. A total of seven vertebromotor segments were distinguished in the lumbosacral region of the vertebral column based on the examination of 7 corpses. All these segments were divided into three groups in accordance with the prescription of death coming as follows: up to 12 hours (group 1), between 12 and 24 hours (group 2), and between 24 and 36 hours (group 3) after death. The models of the segments thus obtained were subjected to the study by means of diffusion weighted MRI. The removed intervertebral disks were used for morphological and immunohistochemical investigations. The comparison of the diffusion coefficients (DI) revealed the significant difference between the intervertebral disks assigned to groups 1 and 2 (p<0.01). The number of the cells in the pulpal core, the vertebral end plate, and the fibrous ring in all the above groups of the intervertebral disks was significantly reduced (p<0.01). The analysis of the correlation dependence between cell density and diffusion coefficients has demonstrated the well apparent relationship between these characteristics of the intervertebral disks comprising groups 1 and 2. It is concluded that diffusion weighted MRI in the combination with the calculation of diffusion coefficients for the intervertebral disks provides a tool for diagnostics of prescription of death coming as confirmed by the results of the morphometric studies and immunohistochemical analysis.

  17. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas: an immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dizon, M A; Multhaupt, H A; Paskin, D L

    1996-01-01

    A case of an osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas is presented. Immunohistochemical studies were performed, which showed keratin (CAM, AE1) and epithelial membrane antigen positivity in the tumor cells. The findings support an epithelial origin for this tumor.......A case of an osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas is presented. Immunohistochemical studies were performed, which showed keratin (CAM, AE1) and epithelial membrane antigen positivity in the tumor cells. The findings support an epithelial origin for this tumor....

  18. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%. At PET/CT, 53 (89.8% of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5. A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas.

  19. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; Souza, Juliana Alves de; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to correlate the results of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results: the authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18 F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion: PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. (author)

  20. Immunohistochemical Similarities between Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus and Morphea: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Kakizaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Both morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA are connective tissue diseases that mainly affect the skin. A recent report suggested that a substantial portion of morphea coexists with LSA. In this report, we describe a case of LSA on the abdomen accompanied by morphea; we employed immunohistochemical staining for periostin as well as MMP-7 and MMP-28, both of which are reported to facilitate fibrosis in the development of various organs, including skin. To our knowledge, this is first English language paper that demonstrates the immunohistochemical staining of periostin, MMP-7 and MMP-28 for morphea and LSA. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for the coexistence of two different sclerotic skin disorders.

  1. Mammography image quality and evidence based practice: Analysis of the demonstration of the inframammary angle in the digital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuur, Kelly; Webb, Jodi; Poulos, Ann; Nielsen, Sharon; Robinson, Wayne

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the clinical rates of the demonstration of the inframammary angle (IMA) on the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view of the breast on digital mammograms and to compare the outcomes with current accreditation standards for compliance. Relationships between the IMA, age, the posterior nipple line (PNL) and compressed breast thickness will be identified and the study outcomes validated using appropriate analyses of inter-reader and inter-rater reliability and variability. Differences in left versus right data were also investigated. A quantitative retrospective study of 2270 randomly selected paired digital mammograms performed by BreastScreen NSW was undertaken. Data was collected by direct measurement and visual analysis. Intra-class correlation analyses were used to evaluate inter- and intra-rater reliability. The IMA was demonstrated on 52.4% of individual and 42.6% of paired mammograms. A linear relationship was found between the posterior nipple line (PNL) and age (p-value PNL was predicted to increase by 0.48 mm for every one year increment in age. The odds of demonstrating the IMA reduced by 2% for every one year increase in age (p-value = 0.001); are 0.4% higher for every 1 mm increase in PNL (p-value = 0.001) and 1.6% lower for every 1 mm increase in compressed breast thickness, (p-valuePNL while there was 100% agreement for the demonstration of the IMA. Analysis of the demonstration of the IMA indicates clinically achievable rates (42.6%) well below that required for compliance (50%-75%) to known worldwide accreditation standards for screening mammography. These standards should be aligned to the reported evidence base. Visualisation of the IMA is impacted negatively by increasing age and compressed breast thickness but positively by breast size (PNL). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunohistochemical Assessment of HER3 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Marieh; Saravani, Shirin; Kamyab, Nazanin; Jahantigh, Mehdi; Torabi Parizi, Molouk

    2015-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that HER3 plays an important role in some human cancers and the HER3 expression is associated with worse survival in solid tumors. This study was conducted to compare HER3 expression in epithelial lining of radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). This was a descriptive-analytical study, which assessed all 57 paraffin blocks of RCs, DCs and OKCs (21 RCs, 16 DCs, 20 OKC) from pathological archive of Dentistry College of Zahedan, Iran. The HER3 expression in cytoplasm and membrane was examined by immunohistochemical method. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS16 by ANOVA and Chi-square. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The HER3 expression had positive results in 52.4% of OKC, 50% of DC and only 20% of RC samples. There was a significant difference between HER3 expression in OKCs and RCs. The HER3 expression in developmental odontogenic cysts was higher than that in inflammatory odontogenic cysts. The higher rate of HER3 expression in OKC may justify inherent growth potential, stimulation-independent proliferation capability, invasive growth and high recurrence rate of the cyst accepted today as a tumor.

  3. [Esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma: report of a case with morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regragui, Asmaa; Lakhdar, Hind; Abderrahman Alaoui Belabbas, Moulay; Amrani, Meryem; Gamra, Lamia; Alaoui Belabbas, Mohamed

    2004-05-01

    Sarcomatoïd carcinoma is a rare tumor of the esophagus, characterized macroscopically by a polypoid aspect and histologically by the association of spindle cell carcinoma with sarcomatous pleomorphic component. We report here a case of esophagus sarcomatoïd carcinoma. Diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical analysis of tIssue samples. Human papillomavirus (HVP) detection by PCR amplification of DNA extracted from tumoral tIssue was negative, ruling out the role of HPV infection in this tumor.

  4. Oncocytic carcinoma of parotid gland: a case report with clinical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Giovanna

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncocytic carcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the salivary glands. We report a case of oncocytic carcinoma arising in a parotid gland in a 66-year-old female. Method An excisional biopsy of the parotid tumor was performed. The specimen was submitted for histology and after fixation in formalin solution and inclusion in paraffin, 3–5 μm sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for conventional evaluation and Periodic acid Schiff stain. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies against mitochondrial antigen, keratin, S-100, alpha-actin, vimentin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin as well as an ultrastructural analysis was performed. Results Frozen sections revealed an infiltrative growth pattern and the diagnosis of a malignant epithelial lesion was made. Permanent sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin revealed a neoplasm that had replaced a wide area of the parotid gland and had invaded subcutaneous adipose tissue. Perineural invasion was evident, but vascular invasion was not found. Neoplastic elements were large, round or polyhedral cells and were arranged in solid sheets, islands and cords. The cytoplasm was abundant, eosinophilic and finely granular. The nuclei were large and located centrally or peripherally. The nucleoli were distinct and large. Periodic acid Schiff stain demonstrated a granular cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated mithochondrial antigen, keratin, and chymotrypsin immunoreactivity in the neoplastic cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed numerous mitochondria packed into the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. Thus, the final diagnosis was that of oncocytic carcinoma of parotid gland. Conclusion This neoplasm shows clinical, microscopical, histological and ultrastructural features of oncocytic carcinoma and this must be considered in the differential diagnosis of other proliferations in the parotid gland with abundant granular cytoplasm and metastatic oncocytic

  5. A decision analysis framework to support long-term planning for nuclear fuel cycle technology research, development, demonstration and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowder, A.G.; Machiels, A.J.; Dykes, A.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    To address challenges and gaps in nuclear fuel cycle option assessment and to support research, develop and demonstration programs oriented toward commercial deployment, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) is seeking to develop and maintain an independent analysis and assessment capability by building a suite of assessment tools based on a platform of software, simplified relationships, and explicit decision-making and evaluation guidelines. As a demonstration of the decision-support framework, EPRI examines a relatively near-term fuel cycle option, i.e., use of reactor-grade mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) in U.S. light water reactors. The results appear as a list of significant concerns (like cooling of spent fuels, criticality risk...) that have to be taken into account for the final decision

  6. Demonstration of anticoagulation patient self-testing feasibility at an Indian Health Service facility: A case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupbach RR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anticoagulation patient self-testing (PST represents an alternative approach to warfarin monitoring by enabling patients to use coagulometers to test their international normalized ratio (INR values. PST offers several advantages that potentially improve warfarin management. Objective: To describe implementation and associated performance of a PST demonstration program at an Indian Health Service (IHS facility. Methods: A non-consecutive case series analysis of patients from a pharmacy-managed PST demonstration program was performed at an IHS facility in Oklahoma between July 2008 and February 2009.Results: Mean time in therapeutic range (TTR for the seven patients showed a small, absolute increase during the twelve weeks of PST compared to the twelve weeks prior to PST. Four of the seven patients had an increase in TTR during the twelve week course of PST compared to their baseline TTR. Three of four patients with increased TTR in the final eight week period of PST achieved a TTR of 100%. Of the three patients who experienced a decrease in TTR after initiating self-testing, two initially presented with a TTR of 100% prior to PST and one patient had a TTR of 100% for the final eight weeks of PST. The two patients not achieving a TTR of 100% during the twelve week PST period demonstrated an increase in TTR following the first four weeks of PST. Conclusion: Although anticoagulation guidelines now emphasize patient self-management (PSM only, optimal PST remains an integral process in PSM delivery. In the patients studied, the results of this analysis suggest that PST at the IHS facility provided a convenient, alternative method for management of chronic warfarin therapy for qualified patients. More than half of the patients demonstrated improvement in TTR. Although there is a learning curve immediately following PST initiation, the mean TTR for the entire PST period increased modestly when compared to the time period prior to PST.

  7. Comparative histological and immunohistochemical study of ameloblastomas and ameloblastic carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Carlos-Bregni, Román; Pires, Fabio-Ramoa; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Neves-Silva, Rodrigo; Aldape-Barrios, Beatriz; Paes-de Almeida, Oslei

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of ameloblastomas (AM) and ameloblastic carcinomas (AC). Material and Methods Fifteen cases of AM and 9 AC were submitted to hematoxilin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical analysis with the following antibodies: cytokeratins 5,7,8,14 and 19, Ki-67, p53, p63 and the cellular adhesion molecules CD138 (Syndecan-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. The mean score of the expression of Ki-67 and p53 labelling index (LIs) were compared between the groups using the t test. A value of p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results All cases were positive for CKs 5, 14 and 19, but negative for CKs 7 and 8. CKs 5 and 19 were positive mainly in the central regions of the ameloblastic islands, while the expression in AC was variable in intensity and localization. CK14 was also variably expressed in both AM and AC. Ki-67 (P=.001) and p53 (P=.004) immunoexpression was higher in AC. All cases were positive for p63, but values were higher in AC. CD138 was mainly expressed in peripheral cells of AM, with a weak positivity in the central areas, while it was positive in most areas of ACs, except in less differentiated regions, where expression was decreased or lost. E-cadherin and β-catenin were weakly positive in both AM and AC. Conclusions These results shows that Ki-67, p53 and p63 expression was higher in AC as compared to AM, suggesting that these markers can be useful when considering diagnosis of malignancy, and perhaps could play a role in malignant transformation of AM. Pattern of expression of CKs 5 and 19 in AC were different to those found in AM, suggesting genetic alterations of these proteins in malignant cells. It was confirmed that CK19 is a good marker for benign odontogenic tumors, such as AM, but it is variably expressed in malignant cases. Key words:Ameloblastoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, immunohistochemistry, odontogenic tumors. PMID:28390135

  8. A Methodological Demonstration of Set-theoretical Approach to Social Media Maturity Models Using Necessary Condition Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...... and evaluate some of arguments presented by previous conceptual focused social media maturity models....... by applying the Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) technique to derive maturity stages and stage boundaries conditions. The ontology is to view stages (boundaries) in maturity models as a collection of necessary condition. Using social media maturity data, we demonstrate the strength of our approach...

  9. Single cell analysis demonstrating somatic mosaicism involving 11p in a patient with paternal isodisomy and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, F.Z.; McCaskill, C.; Subramanian, S. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is characterized by numerous growth abnormalities including exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, and hemihypertrophy or hemihyperplasia. The {open_quotes}BWS gene{close_quotes} appears to be maternally repressed and is suspected to function as a growth factor or regulator of somatic growth, since activation of this gene through a variety of mechanisms appears to result in somatic overgrowth and tumor development. Mosaic paternal isodisomy of 11p has been observed previously by others in patients with BWS by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. The interpretation of these results was primarily based on the intensities of the hybridization signals for the different alleles. In our study, we demonstrate somatic mosaicism directly through PCR and single cell analysis. Peripheral blood was obtained from a patient with BWS and initial genomic DNA analysis by PCR was suggestive of somatic mosaicism for paternal isodisomy of 11p. Through micromanipulation, single cells were isolated and subjected to primer extention preamplification. Locus-specific microsatellite marker analyses by PCR were performed to determine the chromosome 11 origins in the preamplified individual cells. Two populations of cells were detected, a population of cells with normal biparental inheritance and a population of cells with paternal isodisomy of 11p and biparental disomy of 11q. Using the powerful approach of single cell analysis, the detected somatic mosaicism provides evidence for a mitotic recombinational event that has resulted in loss of the maternal 11p region and gain of a second copy of paternal 11p in some cells. The direct demonstration of mosaicism may explain the variable phenotypes and hemihypertrophy often observed in BWS.

  10. Magnetic Analysis of a Single-Aperture 11T Nb3Sn Demonstrator Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchmann, B. [CERN; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Kashikhin, V. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas around points 2, 3, and 7. The necessary longitudinal space for the collimators could be provided by replacing some 8.33-T 15-m-long NbTi LHC main dipoles with shorter 11-T Nb3Sn dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. To demonstrate this possibility, in 2011 Fermilab and CERN started a joint R&D program with the goal of building a 5.5-m-long tw in-aperture dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC by 2014. The first step of this program is the development of a 2-m-long single-aperture demonstration dipole with the nominal field of 11 T at the LHC nominal current of ~11.85 kA and 60-m m bore with ~20% margin. This paper presents the results of magnetic analysis of the single-aperture Nb3Sn demonstrator dipole for the LHC collimation system upgrade.

  11. Immunohistochemical investigations of xenotransplanted human adenocarcinomas on nude mice: Correlation to radioimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejkova, E.

    1987-01-01

    Immunohistochemical investigations of xenotransplanted human adenocarcinomas on nude mice; correlation to radioimaging Human carcinomas were subcutanously grafted to nude mice (Balb/c-nu/nu) and were investigated in four passages by immunohistochemical methods and by the fluorochrome bisbenzimid. In this way there could be observed a successful differentiation between the nourishing murine stroma and the human tumor parenchym. Especially the use of a monoclonal antibody (rat/mouse fusion) directed against human tissue turned out to be a suitable method. Four adenocarcinomas were tested: Colon-, mamma-, stomach- and testicle carcinoma. During the first four passages atypical parts of murine connective tissue and some changes in the human parenchyma could be seen. These results demonstrate that also in nude mice variations of the transplanted tumor material could happen. They could be detected in time with a routine immunohistochemical test. The consequences of tumor morphological variations for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic tools were studied with the help of radioimaging by external scintigraphy. Furthermore the biodistribution, tumoruptake and the whole body counting were studied by means of radionuclid marked monoclonal antibodies. The morphological variations of the passages of mammary, testicle and colon carcinomas were not big enough to influence the results in a certain way. Therefore especially the relation between the activity uptake in the tissue, the size of the tumor and the whole body uptake was studied in view of immunoscintigraphy. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Intrinsic bacterial biodegradation of petroleum contamination demonstrated in situ using natural abundance, molecular-level 14C analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.F.; Nelson, R.K.; Kile, B.M.; Reddy, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural abundance, molecular-level C 14 analysis was combined with comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) to investigate, in situ, the role of intrinsic biodegradation in the loss of petroleum hydrocarbons from the rocky, inter-tidal zone impacted by the Bouchard 120 oil spill. GC x GC analysis indicated accelerated losses of n-alkane components of the residual petroleum hydrocarbons between day 40 and day 50 after the spill. 14 C analysis of bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) from the impacted zone on day 44 showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids attributed to the photoautotrophic component of the microbial community had the same ( 14 C as the local dissolved inorganic carbon (DIG), indicating that this DIG was their carbon source. In contrast there was significant (C depletion in the saturated and mono-unsaturated PLFA indicating incorporation of petroleum carbon. This correlation between the observed accelerated n-alkane losses and microbial incorporation of (C-depleted carbon directly demonstrated, in situ, that intrinsic biodegradation was affecting the petroleum. Since the majority of organic contaminants originate from petroleum feed-stocks, in situ molecular-level 14 C analysis of microbial PLFA can provide insights into the occurrence and pathways of biodegradation of a wide range of organic contaminants. (Author)

  13. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas in children: a 15-year experience and the identification of a unique immunohistochemical marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Pablo; Bhatti, Tricia R; Adzick, N Scott

    2013-10-01

    To review our 15-year experience in the management of children with solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPPN) of the pancreas at a single pediatric institution, to delineate a unique immunohistochemical marker for SPPN, and to analyze cumulative data on this rare entity in the literature. We did a retrospective analysis of the demographic data, clinical presentation, immunohistochemical characteristics, surgical approach, and long-term outcomes of all patients diagnosed with SPPN between 1997 and 2012. There were 6 patients in the series, 5 females and 1 male. Median age at presentation and at surgery was 15 years (11-18 years). Abdominal pain was the presenting symptom in 5 cases and jaundice in 1 case. Two patients had a pancreatic head tumor and underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Two patients had the tumor in the pancreatic tail and underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Two patients had the tumor in the pancreatic body and underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy in one case and with preservation of the spleen in the other. All tumors were completely resected with pathologic margins free of disease. The median maximum diameter was 6.8 cm (3 to 15 cm). On immunohistochemistry the tumors exhibited different combinations of non-specific markers like chromogranin, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase, but all tumors showed the highly SPPN-specific paranuclear dot-like immunoreactivity pattern for CD99 in the solid as well as in the pseudopapillary areas. No patient had metastasis at presentation. Median follow-up was 6.5 years (6 months to 15 years). There were no recurrences, no long-term metastasis, and all patients are disease-free. Our series supports the concept that complete resection is necessary to achieve the best possible long-term results. Additionally, we demonstrate that SPPN exhibits a very unique immunostaining pattern for CD99 that is present in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in rat and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands is...... antisera against human urinary EGF worked in rat as well as man. EGF was found only in cells with an exocrine function.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands...... is well documented. The localization of EGF in other tissues is still unclarified. In the present study, the immunohistochemical localization of EGF in tissues from rat, man and a 20 week human fetus were investigated. In man and rat, immunoreaction was found in the submandibular glands, the serous glands...

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of multi-subunit tethering complexes demonstrates an ancient pan-eukaryotic complement and sculpting in Apicomplexa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen M Klinger

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs, factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during

  18. Analysis of Corrosion Residues Collected from the Aluminum Basket Rails of the High-Burnup Demonstration Cask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    On September, 2015, an inspection was performed on the TN-32B cask that will be used for the high-burnup demonstration project. During the survey, wooden cribbing that had been placed within the cask eleven years earlier to prevent shifting of the basket during transport was removed, revealing two areas of residue on the aluminum basket rails, where they had contacted the cribbing. The residue appeared to be a corrosion product, and concerns were raised that similar attack could exist at more difficult-to-inspect locations in the canister. Accordingly, when the canister was reopened, samples of the residue were collected for analysis. This report presents the results of that assessment, which determined that the corrosion was due to the presence of the cribbing. The corrosion was associated with fungal material, and fungal activity likely contributed to an aggressive chemical environment. Once the cask has been cleaned, there will be no risk of further corrosion.

  19. Performance analysis of an optical self-interference cancellation system with a directly modulated laser-based demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinghong; Zhang, Yunhao; Huang, Lin; Xiao, Shilin

    2018-02-20

    In this paper, two main performance indices of the optical self-interference cancellation (OSIC) system are theoretically analyzed: cancellation bandwidth and depth. Delay deviation is investigated to be the determining factor of cancellation bandwidth, based on which the bandwidth advantage of the OSIC system over electrical schemes is also proven theoretically. Cancellation depth in the narrowband is mostly influenced by attenuation and delay-adjusting deviation, while in the broadband case, the performance is mostly limited by frequency-dependent amplitude and phase mismatch. The cancellation performance analysis is suitable for most linear modulation-demodulation OSIC systems, including the directly modulated laser (DML)-based OSIC system verified experimentally in this paper. The cancellation model is well demonstrated by the agreement between experimental cancellation results and predicted performance. For over-the-air demonstration with the employment of antennas, broadband cancellation within 450 MHz bandwidth of 22 dB and 25 dB is achieved at 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz, respectively. In addition, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals are employed to show in-band full-duplex transmission with good performance by the DML-based OSIC system, with successful suppression of self-interference and recovery of the signal of interest.

  20. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  1. Caracterización clínica y molecular de individuos con el síndrome frágil X detectados por análisis inmunohistoquímico Clinical and molecular characterization of individuals with fragile X syndrome detected by immunohistochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández García

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de 50 varones con retraso mental y/o autismo de etiología desconocida a fin de detectar individuos afectados con el síndrome frágil X a través del análisis inmunohistoquímico y caracterizarlos clínica y molecularmente. Entre los casos pesquisados se detectaron 3 individuos con baja expresión de la proteína relacionada con el síndrome, a quienes se les realizó la caracterización molecular. La correlación inmunohistoquímica y molecular en 2 de ellos fue positiva. La no correlación de un tercero sugiere que pudiera tratarse de una mutación puntual o una deleción del gen relacionado con la enfermedad. En otro paciente con el fenotipo neuropsicológico y físico característicos de la enfermedad se observó una expresión promedio normal baja, lo que motivó la indicación de la caracterización molecular, que resultó ser positiva. Se discuten los mecanismos genéticos y fisiopatológicos que pudieran explicar la presencia de la proteína en las células analizadas.50 males with mental retardation and/or autism of unknown etiology were studied aimed at detecting individuals affected with the Fragile X syndrome by the immunohistochemical analysis and at characterizing them from the clinical and molecular point of view. Among the screneed subjects, 3 individuals with low expression of the protein related to the syndrome were detected. Molecular characterization was performed in these cases. The immunohistochemical and molecular correlation was positive in 2 of them. The non correlation of the third suggests that it may be a punctual mutation or a deletion of the gene connected with the disease. In another patient with the neuropsychological and physical phenotype characteristic of the disease, it was observed an average normal low expression that led to the indication of the molecular characterization, which proved to be positive. The genetic and physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the presence of

  2. Shielding design study of the demonstration fast breeder reactor. 2. Shielding design on the basis of the JASPER analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Zenro; Tabayashi, Masao; Handa, Hiroyuki; Iida, Masaaki; Takemura, Morio

    2000-01-01

    Conceptual shielding design has been performed for the Demonstration Fast Breeder Reactor (DFBR) to achieve further optimization and reduction of the plant construction cost. The design took into account its implications in overall plant configuration such as reduction of shields in the core, adoption of fission gas plenum in the lower portion of fuel assemblies, and adoption of gas expansion modules. Shielding criteria applied for the design are to secure fast neutron fluence on in-vessel structures as well as responses of the nuclear instrumentation system and to restrict secondary sodium activation. The design utilized the cross sections and the one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport codes, whose verification had been performed by the JASPER experiment analysis. Correction factors yielded by the JASPER analysis were applied to the design calculations to obtain design values with improved accuracy. Design margins, which are defined by the ratios of the design criteria to the design values, were more than two for all shielding issues of interest, showing the adequacy of the shielding design of the DFBR. (author)

  3. Weaving the native web: using social network analysis to demonstrate the value of a minority career development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Dedra; Dick, Rhonda Wiegman

    2011-06-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native scientists are consistently among the most underrepresented minority groups in health research. The authors used social network analysis (SNA) to evaluate the Native Investigator Development Program (NIDP), a career development program for junior Native researchers established as a collaboration between the University of Washington and the University of Colorado Denver. The study focused on 29 trainees and mentors who participated in the NIDP. Data were collected on manuscripts and grant proposals produced by participants from 1998 to 2007. Information on authorship of manuscripts and collaborations on grant applications was used to conduct social network analyses with three measures of centrality and one measure of network reach. Both visual and quantitative analyses were performed. Participants in the NIDP collaborated on 106 manuscripts and 83 grant applications. Although three highly connected individuals, with critical and central roles in the program, accounted for much of the richness of the network, both current core faculty and "graduates" of the program were heavily involved in collaborations on manuscripts and grants. This study's innovative application of SNA demonstrates that collaborative relationships can be an important outcome of career development programs for minority investigators and that an analysis of these relationships can provide a more complete assessment of the value of such programs.

  4. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma with prominent squamous differentiation: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Kim, Y C; Cinn, Y W

    2000-09-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp. While histopathology of the tumor showed a circumscribed, lobulated intradermal mass with prominent squamous differentiation, the immunohistochemical study with antibodies to cytokeratins, CAM 5.2 and 19, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, S-100 protein and p53 all demonstrated positivity. These findings confirmed that the tumor was of eccrine sweat gland origin and it was thought to be a nodular hidradenocarcinoma differentiating toward the eccrine duct and/or secretory portions. She was treated with a wide local excision and no recurrence was observed 18 months after excision.

  5. Fluoxetine effects on periodontogenesis: histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silva REGUEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Reports have indicated that serotonin plays an important role in cell migration and differentiation during the organogenesis of several tissues, including the oral types. Administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI drugs during pregnancy could affect the delivery of serotonin to embryonic tissues altering its development. Objective This study aimed to assess the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the formation of the periodontal ligament during pregnancy and lactation in rat pups. Material and Methods Twelve pregnant rats of Wistar lineage were divided into four study groups. In the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride solution was administered orally, throughout the entire period of the 21 days of pregnancy (CG group and in the CGL group, it was administrated during pregnancy and lactation (from day 1 of pregnancy to the 21st day after birth. Fluoxetine was administered orally at the dose of 20 mg/kg in a group treated during pregnancy only (FG group, and during pregnancy and lactation (FGL group. Histometrical, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the maxillary first molar periodontium region of the 24 rat pups was made under light microscopy, and periodontal ligament collagen was qualitatively evaluated under a polarizing light microscope. Results The quantity of fibroblasts (p=0.006, osteoblasts (p=0.027 and cementoblasts (p=0.001 was reduced in pups from the rats that received fluoxetine during pregnancy and lactation. No alterations were seen in the collagen fibers. Conclusion These findings suggest that periodontal tissue may be sensitive to fluoxetine, and its interference in reducing periodontal cells depends on exposure time during lactation.

  6. Herpesviruses in asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions: an immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboia-Dantas, C J; Coutrin de Toledo, L F; Sampaio-Filho, H R; Siqueira, J F

    2007-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been recently detected in samples from apical periodontitis lesions by means of molecular biology techniques and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. The present study was designed to survey asymptomatic primary apical periodontitis lesions for the presence of HCMV- and/or EBV-infected cells by means of immunohistochemistry. Apical periodontitis lesions were obtained from 35 patients [26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -seronegative patients and nine HIV-seropositive patients] after tooth extraction and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV and EBV. Fifteen of the 35 apical periodontitis lesions were positive for the target herpesviruses. Overall, EBV was found in 31% of the samples and HCMV in 23%, with 14% of the lesions showing EBV and HCMV dual infection. No association was found between HCMV or EBV with any particular histopathological type of apical periodontitis (P > 0.05). HCMV was significantly more frequent in apical periodontitis lesions from HIV-positive patients (67%) than in lesions from HIV-negative patients (8%) (P = 0.001). EBV was detected in 44% of lesions from HIV-positive patients and in 27% of lesions from HIV-negative patients, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.91). Our results showed that cells infected by HCMV and EBV can be found in apical periodontitis lesions, with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive patients. The specific role that these viruses play in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis remains to be described.

  7. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  8. Activity and immunohistochemical localization of porphobilinogen deaminase in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Erlandsen, E J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    the activity and the immunohistochemical localization of PBGD in the following tissues of wistar female rats: brain, heart, submandibular gland, liver, kidney, pancreas, ovary, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and musculature. The PBGD activity varied considerably among the tissues. It was highest...

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of Her-2/neu overexpression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for Her-2/neu was performed on 10% formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded primary carcinoma of the breast from 83 patients, between 2003 and 2007 using anti-Her-2/neu rabbit polyclonal antibody (DakoCytomation, CA, USA) and reactivity detected by an avidin-biotin ...

  10. Isomyosin expression patterns during rat heart morphogenesis: an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I. J.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of cardiac alpha and beta myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression during rat heart morphogenesis was performed. In tubular hearts (embryonic days, ED10-11) coexpression of both cardiac alpha and beta MHC was found throughout the heart, except for the left free wall of the

  11. CD3 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    and eosin (HE) stainings were available. At the second assessment, a supplementary CD3 immunohistochemical staining was also available. The aim was to evaluate whether a supplementary CD3 would increase the diagnostic agreement among pathologists, and whether a CD3 stain would change the diagnosis based...

  12. Immunohistochemical studies on the effect of Aloe vera on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Address for Correspondence. Immunohistochemical studies on the effect of Aloe vera on the pancreatic β-cells in neonatal streptozotocin-induced type-II diabetic rats. Sema Bolkent 1, Nuriye Akev 2*, Ayşe Can 2, Sehnaz Bolkent 3, Refiye Yanardag 4 &. Alper Okyar 5. 1. Department of Medical Biology, Cerrahpasa Faculty ...

  13. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in breast cancer correlates with immunohistochemically defined subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hye Ryoung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Seo, Mirinae; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Young [Konkuk University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin You [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To determine whether a correlation exists between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and the subtypes of breast cancer. This retrospective study involved 548 patients (mean age 51.6 years, range 21-81 years) with 552 index breast cancers (mean size 2.57 cm, range 1.0-14.5 cm). The correlation between {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PET/CT, expressed as SUV{sub max}, and immunohistochemically defined subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and triple negative) was analyzed. The mean SUV{sub max} value of the 552 tumours was 6.07 ± 4.63 (range 0.9-32.8). The subtypes of the 552 tumours were 334 (60 %) luminal A, 66 (12 %) luminal B, 60 (11 %) HER2 positive and 92 (17 %) triple negative, for which the mean SUV{sub max} values were 4.69 ± 3.45, 6.51 ± 4.18, 7.44 ± 4.73 and 9.83 ± 6.03, respectively. In a multivariate regression analysis, triple-negative and HER2-positive tumours had 1.67-fold (P < 0.001) and 1.27-fold (P = 0.009) higher SUV{sub max} values, respectively, than luminal A tumours after adjustment for invasive tumour size, lymph node involvement status and histologic grade. FDG uptake was independently associated with subtypes of invasive breast cancer. Triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancers showed higher SUV{sub max} values than luminal A tumours. circle {sup 18} F-FDG PET demonstrates increased tissue glucose metabolism, a hallmark of cancers. (orig.)

  14. 18F-FDG uptake in breast cancer correlates with immunohistochemically defined subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hye Ryoung; Park, Jeong Seon; Kang, Keon Wook; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Seo, Mirinae; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin You

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether a correlation exists between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and the subtypes of breast cancer. This retrospective study involved 548 patients (mean age 51.6 years, range 21-81 years) with 552 index breast cancers (mean size 2.57 cm, range 1.0-14.5 cm). The correlation between 18 F-FDG uptake in PET/CT, expressed as SUV max , and immunohistochemically defined subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and triple negative) was analyzed. The mean SUV max value of the 552 tumours was 6.07 ± 4.63 (range 0.9-32.8). The subtypes of the 552 tumours were 334 (60 %) luminal A, 66 (12 %) luminal B, 60 (11 %) HER2 positive and 92 (17 %) triple negative, for which the mean SUV max values were 4.69 ± 3.45, 6.51 ± 4.18, 7.44 ± 4.73 and 9.83 ± 6.03, respectively. In a multivariate regression analysis, triple-negative and HER2-positive tumours had 1.67-fold (P max values, respectively, than luminal A tumours after adjustment for invasive tumour size, lymph node involvement status and histologic grade. FDG uptake was independently associated with subtypes of invasive breast cancer. Triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancers showed higher SUV max values than luminal A tumours. circle 18 F-FDG PET demonstrates increased tissue glucose metabolism, a hallmark of cancers. (orig.)

  15. Immunohistochemical study on gastrointestinal endocrine cells of four reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Gen; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS), glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted. RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates. Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS, SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus; while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells, which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found

  16. Performance analysis for bounded persistent disturbances in PD/PID-controlled robotic systems with its experimental demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Hur, Sung-Moon; Oh, Yonghwan

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with performance analysis of proportional-derivative/proportional-integral-derivative (PD/PID) controller for bounded persistent disturbances in a robotic manipulator. Even though the notion of input-to-state stability (ISS) has been widely used to deal with the effect of disturbances in control of a robotic manipulator, the corresponding studies cannot be directly applied to the treatment of persistent disturbances occurred in robotic manipulators. This is because the conventional studies relevant to ISS consider the H∞ performance for robotic systems, which is confined to the treatment of decaying disturbances, i.e. the disturbances those in the L2 space. To deal with the effect of persistent disturbances in robotic systems, we first provide a new treatment of ISS in the L∞ sense because bounded persistent disturbances should be intrinsically regarded as elements of the L∞ space. We next derive state-space representations of trajectory tracking control in the robotic systems which allow us to define the problem formulations more clearly. We then propose a novel control law that has a PD/PID control form, by which the trajectory tracking system satisfies the reformulated ISS. Furthermore, we can obtain a theoretical argument about the L∞ gain from the disturbance to the regulated output through the proposed control law. Finally, experimental studies for a typical 3-degrees of freedom robotic manipulator are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method introduced in this paper.

  17. Expression of Proteinase-activated Receptor-2 in the Esophageal Mucosa of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patients: A Histomorphologic and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rehim, Dalia M; Fath El-Bab, Hanaa K; Kamal, Enas M

    2015-10-01

    Data are limited regarding the role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in the esophageal mucosa in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. Our aim was to study PAR-2 expression and its relationship with different GERD-related clinical and pathologic parameters. Histomorphologic alterations in eosophageal mucosa in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive reflux disease (ERD) were also, evaluated. Endoscopic biopsies of the esophageal mucosa were obtained from 94 GERD patients and 20 participants for histopathologic analysis and PAR-2 immunohistochemical staining. The present study demonstrated significantly higher PAR-2 expression in GERD patients compared with control, whereas no significant differences were seen between NERD and ERD groups. PAR-2 expression significantly correlated with histologic score (r=0.572, Pstudy provides evidence for the major role of PAR-2 in the pathogenesis of GERD and GERD-associated mucosal alterations.

  18. Preservation of pathological tissue specimens by freeze-drying for immunohistochemical staining and various molecular biological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, S; Sugiyama, T; Okuyama, T; Yoshikawa, K; Honda, K; Takahashi, R; Maeda, S

    1999-05-01

    Conditions of preserving DNA, RNA and protein in pathological specimens are of great importance as degradation of such macromolecules would critically affect results of molecular biological analysis. The feasibility of freeze-drying as a means of preserving pathological tissue samples for molecular analysis has previously been shown. In the present study, further tests on long-term storage conditions and analyses of freeze-dried samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry are reported. Rat chromosomal DNA of freeze-dried samples stored for 4 years showed slight degradation while RNA degradation was more prominently seen at an earlier stage of storage. However, these 4 year DNA and RNA samples were still able to serve as a template for some PCR and RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Overexpression of c-erbB-2 and p53 protein was demonstrated by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining using freeze-dried human breast cancer tissues. Although macromolecules in freeze-dried samples degrade to some extent during the preservation period, they should still be of value for certain molecular biological analyses and morphological examination; hence, providing more convenient and inexpensive ways of pathological tissue storage.

  19. Unbiased proteomics analysis demonstrates significant variability in mucosal immune factor expression depending on the site and method of collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzie M Birse

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions are commonly sampled by lavage of the ectocervix and vaginal vault or via a sponge inserted into the endocervix for evaluating inflammation status and immune factors critical for HIV microbicide and vaccine studies. This study uses a proteomics approach to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these methods, which sample from different compartments of the female genital tract, for the collection of immune factors. Matching sponge and lavage samples were collected from 10 healthy women and were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed by a combination of differential protein expression analysis, hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis. Of the 385 proteins identified, endocervical sponge samples collected nearly twice as many unique proteins as cervicovaginal lavage (111 vs. 61 with 55% of proteins common to both (213. Each method/site identified 73 unique proteins that have roles in host immunity according to their gene ontology. Sponge samples enriched for specific inflammation pathways including acute phase response proteins (p = 3.37×10(-24 and LXR/RXR immune activation pathways (p = 8.82×10(-22 while the role IL-17A in psoriasis pathway (p = 5.98×10(-4 and the complement system pathway (p = 3.91×10(-3 were enriched in lavage samples. Many host defense factors were differentially enriched (p<0.05 between sites including known/potential antimicrobial factors (n = 21, S100 proteins (n = 9, and immune regulatory factors such as serpins (n = 7. Immunoglobulins (n = 6 were collected at comparable levels in abundance in each site although 25% of those identified were unique to sponge samples. This study demonstrates significant differences in types and quantities of immune factors and inflammation pathways collected by each sampling technique. Therefore, clinical studies that measure mucosal immune activation or factors assessing HIV transmission should utilize

  20. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Tan, Xiaoqing; Wu, Ying; Bai, Qunhua; Jia, Yan; Xiao, Hong

    2015-03-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica , which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function.

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    DENG, PENG; TAN, XIAOQING; WU, YING; BAI, QUNHUA; JIA, YAN; XIAO, HONG

    2015-01-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica, which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function. PMID:25667630

  2. Análise imuno-histoquímica de cães naturalmente infectados pelo parvovírus canino Immunohistochemical analysis of dogs infected naturally by canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo C. Oliveira

    2009-02-01

    immunohistochemistry test was performed in tissues of small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, tonsils, tongue, and bone marrow in all the 96 selected cases. Parvovirus antigen was detected in 91.6% (88/96 of the dogs necropsied. The best result of the IHC test was seen in samples of small intestine which was positive in 77% (74/96 of the cases. The statistical analysis (Fisher test showed a weak association between intestinal autolysis and positive result of the IHC test. The chance of the autolysed intestine showing a positive result in the immunohistochemistry test was 0.33 less (OR=0.33, 95% CI:0.10-1.17 when compared with small intestine not autolysed.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of human papilloma virus in conjunctival neoplasias: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjana; Panda, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extent of association of human papilloma virus (HPV) in human conjunctival neoplasias has been debated in studies originating from different parts of the world, but no substantial evidence has been generated on Indian subjects. This prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on conjunctival neoplasias diagnosed over the past 12 years. Materials and Methods: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 65 specimens of ocular neoplasias and 30 normal controls diagnosed between 1991 and 2002 at a tertiary eye care hospital, was undertaken. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed for confirming histopathological diagnosis, presence of koilocytosis and changes related to actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was done using HPV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clinicopathological correlation and the association of HPV antigen with the histopathological features were performed. Results: Out of the 65 cases analyzed, 35 were papillomas and 30 were ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSN). The mean age was 48 years with a male preponderance. Histologically, koilocytosis was observed in 17.1% of papillomas and 36.6% of OSSN. Actinic keratosis was present in 33% of OSSN. Immunohistochemically 17.1% conjunctival papillomas stained positive for HPV antigen, all cases of OSSN were negative for HPV. There was no correlation between koilocytosis or actinic keratosis and the detection of HPV antigen. Conclusions: The association between HPV and conjunctival neoplasias is variable in different geographical areas and also depends on the methods of detection used. This study warrants the need for applying more advanced techniques at a molecular level to determine the possible etiology of HPV in conjunctival neoplasias among Asian-Indians. PMID:17699945

  4. Immunohistochemical Study of Scrub Typhus: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yuan Tseng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is transmitted by chiggers. The target cells of this rickettsia are poorly defined in humans. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections of patients with scrub typhus is helpful in investigating the target cells of this rickettsia in different organs. We studied two autopsy specimens by immunohistochemical staining using a specific antibody against O. tsutsugamushi. Rickettsiae were located in endothelial cells in all of the organs evaluated, namely heart, lung, brain, kidney, appendix and skin, within cardiac muscle cells and renal tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophages located in the lymph node, liver and spleen. In conclusion, O. tsutsugamushi may disseminate into multiple organs through endothelial cells and macrophages, resulting in the development of fatal complications.

  5. Spontaneous cholangiohepatitis in broiler chickens: immunohistochemical study of Ito cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Handharyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of Ito cells is expanding from a fat-storing site to a center of extracellular matrix metabolism and mediator production in the liver. Immunohistochemical reactivities of Ito cells were examined in eight livers of broiler chickens affected with spontaneous cholangiohepatitis and six chicken livers with malformation of extrahepatic biliary tracts. The livers in both groups revealed severe diffuse fibrosis. Ito cells expressing HHF35 muscle actin and desmin actively proliferated in the fibrotic foci of the all livers. The immunoreactivities of Ito cells to antibodies were enhanced compared with those in normal livers. There were no immunohistochemical differences between the Ito cells of two groups. From these findings, it was suggested that Ito cells actively proliferate and show enhanced immunoreactivities in the livers affected with cholangiohepatitis andmalformation of extrahepatic biliary tracts.

  6. Immunohistochemical findings in rectal duplication mimicking rectal prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, M G; Pucci, A; Macchieraldo, R; Sacco Casamassima, M G; Canavese, F

    2008-08-01

    Alimentary tract duplications represent rare anomalies, with only 5 % occurring in the rectum. The variety in clinical presentation may lead to a delay in diagnosis or to incorrect and multiple surgical procedures. We report the clinical, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a rectal duplication occurring in a 3-month-old male with an unusual clinical presentation. Using routine histology and immunohistochemistry, the rectal duplication showed the diffuse presence of gastric mucosa with a characteristic immunophenotype (i.e., diffuse cytokeratin 7 positivity and scattered chromogranin immunoreactivity). As far as we know, this is the first report showing an immunohistochemical differentiation pattern of gastric lining in a rectal duplication. Our results, showing the presence of gastric mucosa, are suggestive of a possible origin from the embryonic foregut.

  7. Immunohistochemically determined total epidermal growth factor receptor levels not of prognostic value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Seiferheld, Wendy; Tu Xiaoyu; Wang Huijun; Zhang Huazhong; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth; Curran, Walter; Mehta, Minesh

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) performed an analysis of patterns of immunohistochemically detected total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression levels and their prognostic significance on archival tissue in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients from prior prospective RTOG clinical trials. Methods and materials: Patients in this study had been treated on previous RTOG GBM trials (RTOG 7401, 7918, 8302, 8409, 9006, 9305, 9602, and 9806). Tissue microarrays were prepared from 155 patients enrolled in these trials. These specimens were stained using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the extracellular binding domain of EGFR to detect total EGFR (including both wild-type phosphorylated and wild-type unphosphorylated isoforms with some cross-reactivity with EGFRvIII). The intensity of total EGFR protein expression was measured by computerized quantitative image analysis using the SAMBA 4000 Cell Image Analysis System. The parameters measured were the mean optical densities over the labeled areas and the staining index, which represents the proportion of stained area relative to the mean stain concentration. Both parameters were correlated with the clinical outcome. Results: No differences in either overall or progression-free survival could be demonstrated by the mean optical density class or mean optical density quartile or the staining index of total EGFR immunostaining among the representative RTOG GBM cases. Conclusion: Total EGFR protein expression levels, as measured immunohistochemically, do not appear to be of prognostic value in newly diagnosed GBM patients. Given the accumulating clinical evidence of the activity of anti-EGFR agents in GBM and the preclinical data suggesting the important role of downstream mediators as effectors of EGFR signaling, the RTOG is conducting additional investigations into the prognostic value of activation patterns of EGFR signaling, both at the level of the receptor

  8. Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify component's ageing by operational data analysis-A case study for the ageing PSA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, Andrei; Atwood, Corwin L.; Kirchsteiger, Christian; Patrik, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents some results of a case study on 'Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis', which was done in the frame of the EC JRC Ageing PSA Network. Several techniques: visual evaluation, nonparametric and parametric hypothesis tests, were proposed and applied in order to demonstrate the capacity, advantages and limitations of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis. Engineering considerations are out of the scope of the present study

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov; Ivica Gjurovski; Trpe Ristoski; Goran Nikolovski; Pandorce Trenkoska; Plamen Trojacanec; Ksenija Ilievska; Toni Dovenski; Gordana Petrushevska

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC) measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of m...

  10. Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Triple Negative/Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Ebru PALA; Ümit BAYOL; Süheyla CUMURCU; Elif KESKİN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers.Material and Method: We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytoke...

  11. Immunohistochemical localisation of d-β-aspartic acid in pingueculae

    OpenAIRE

    Kaji, Y; Oshika, T; Okamoto, F; Fujii, N

    2009-01-01

    Background: D-β-Aspartic acid residues, which are biologically uncommon, have been reported to accumulate in various proteins of the living body with age. In the present study, D-β-aspartic acid-containing proteins were found to be localised in pingueculae, which represent one of the most prominent age-related ocular changes.Methods: Surgical specimens of conjunctivae with or without pingueculae were obtained from eight patients. Immunohistochemical localisation of D-β-aspartic acid-containin...

  12. Immunohistochemical Studies of the Kynurenine Pathway in Morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Noakes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous sclerosis, resembling that seen in subcutaneous morphea, is a feature of eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, two conditions in which the kynurenine pathway is known to be activated. To investigate the possibility of activation of the kynurenine pathway in morphea, skin biopsies were taken from involved and non-involved sites in a series of three patients with morphea. Immunohistochemical stains for quinolinic acid and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO were performed.

  13. Immunohistochemical Studies of the Kynurenine Pathway in Morphea

    OpenAIRE

    Noakes, Rowland; Mellick, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous sclerosis, resembling that seen in subcutaneous morphea, is a feature of eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, two conditions in which the kynurenine pathway is known to be activated. To investigate the possibility of activation of the kynurenine pathway in morphea, skin biopsies were taken from involved and non-involved sites in a series of three patients with morphea. Immunohistochemical stains for quinolinic acid and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) were perf...

  14. A simplified immunohistochemical classification of skeletal muscle fibres in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kammoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of muscle fibres is of particular interest for the study of the skeletal muscle properties in a wide range of scientific fields, especially animal phenotyping. It is therefore important to define a reliable method for classifying fibre types. The aim of this study was to establish a simplified method for the immunohistochemical classification of fibres in mouse. To carry it out, we first tested a combination of several anti myosin heavy chain (MyHC antibodies in order to choose a minimum number of antibodies to implement a semi-automatic classification. Then, we compared the classification of fibres to the MyHC electrophoretic pattern on the same samples. Only two anti MyHC antibodies on serial sections with the fluorescent labeling of the Laminin were necessary to classify properly fibre types in Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles in normal physiological conditions. This classification was virtually identical to the classification realized by the electrophoretic separation of MyHC. This immunohistochemical classification can be applied to the total area of Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles. Thus, we provide here a useful, simple and time-efficient method for immunohistochemical classification of fibres, applicable for research in mouse

  15. Immunohistochemical Expression of COX-2 in Uterine Serous Carcinoma Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Menczer

    2016-03-01

    Material and methods. Cox-2 expression assessment by immunohistochemistry was performed on deparaffinized sections of paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of consecutive available USC uterine specimens of patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2014. Staining of more than 10% of the cells was considered positive. Staining intensity was graded on a 0 and ndash;3 scale. A scoring index was calculated by multiplying the intensity grade by the percentage of stained cells and considered low when it was equal to 1 or less and high when it was more than 1. Clinicopathological data were retrospectively abstracted from the records of the study group patients Results. The study comprised uterine specimens of 31 USC patients. Positive immunohistochemical staining was observed in 25 (80.6% USC specimens and a high score in 6 (19.4% of them. No association between immunohistochemical staining parameters and clinicopathological prognostic factors was observed. Conclusion. Although our findings should be verified in larger series, it seems that in view of the lack of association between immunohistochemical Cox-2 staining parameters in USC tissue and clinicopathological prognostic factors, this aggressive tumor is not a candidate for the use of selective Cox-2 inhibitors. Key words: Cox-2 expression, uterine carcinosarcoma, clinicopathological prognostic factors [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(1.000: 9-12

  16. Histological and Immunohistochemical Revision of Hepatocellular Adenomas: A Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Light has been shed on the genotype/phenotype correlation in hepatocellular adenoma (HCA recognizing HNF1α-inactivated HCA (H-HCA, inflammatory HCA (IHCA, and β-catenin-activated HCA (b-HCA. We reviewed retrospectively our surgical HCA series to learn how to recognize the different subtypes histopathologically and how to interpret adequately their immunohistochemical staining. From January 1992 to January 2012, 37 patients underwent surgical resection for HCA in our institution. Nine had H-HCA (25% characterized by steatosis and loss of L-FABP expression; 20 had IHCA (55.5% showing CRP and/or SAA expression, sinusoidal dilatation, and variable inflammation; and 1 patient had both H-HCA and IHCA. In 5 patients (14%, b-HCA with GS and β-catenin nuclear positivity was diagnosed, two already with hepatocellular carcinoma. Two cases (5.5% remained unclassified. One of the b-HCA showed also the H-HCA histological and immunohistochemical characteristics suggesting a subgroup of β-catenin-activated/HNF1α-inactivated HCA, another b-HCA exhibited the IHCA histological and immunohistochemical characteristics suggesting a subgroup of β-catenin-activated/inflammatory HCA. Interestingly, three patients had underlying vascular abnormalities. Using the recently published criteria enabled us to classify histopathologically our retrospective HCA surgical series with accurate recognition of b-HCA for which we confirm the higher risk of malignant transformation. We also underlined the association between HCA and vascular abnormalities.

  17. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus : histological, immunohistochemical and direct immunofluorescence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Fogagnolo

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: O lúpus eritematoso cutâneo (LEC) é classificado em agudo, subagudo, crônico e túmido. A sequência de eventos que deflagram a autoimunidade é pouco entendida. Neste trabalho foram estudados os aspectos histológicos, de imunofluorescência direta (IFD) e imuno-histoquímicos no LEC discoide (subtipo mais comum da forma crônica),subagudo e túmido, relacionando-os com a presença ou não de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) concomitante, visando compreender melhor a imunopatogênese destes su...

  18. Quantifying mast cells in bladder pain syndrome by immunohistochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.S.; Mortensen, S.; Nordling, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate a simple method for counting mast cells, thought to have a role in the pathophysiology of bladder pain syndrome (BPS, formerly interstitial cystitis, a syndrome of pelvic pain perceived to be related to the urinary bladder and accompanied by other urinary symptoms, e. g....... frequency and nocturia), as > 28 mast cells/mm(2) is defined as mastocytosis and correlated with clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS The current enzymatic staining method (naphtolesterase) on 10 mu m sections for quantifying mast cells is complicated. In the present study, 61 patients had detrusor...... sections between, respectively. Mast cells were counted according to a well-defined procedure. RESULTS The old and the new methods, on 10 and 3 mu m sections, showed a good correlation between mast cell counts. When using tryptase staining and 3 mu m sections, the mast cell number correlated well...

  19. Numerical analysis of the in-well vapor-stripping system demonstration at Edwards Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    Numerical simulations, with the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator, were applied to the field demonstration of an in-well vapor-stripping system at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), near Mojave, California. The demonstration field site on the Edwards AFB was previously contaminated from traversing groundwater that was contained a varied composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which primarily includes trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminant TCE originated from surface basin that had been used to collect runoff during the cleaning of experimental rocket powered planes in the 1960s and 1970s. This report documents those simulations and associated numerical analyses. A companion report documents the in- well vapor-stripping demonstration from a field perspective

  20. DOE FY 2010 Budget Request and Recovery Act Funding for Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment: Analysis and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    short-term. Energy storage may play a crucial role in the future of the power and transportation systems, which together consume two thirds of primary energy in the United States. A recent National Academy of Science report recommended carrying out detailed scenario assessments of the penetration of unconventional fuels from coal and coal and biomass with CCS. And the research plan provided for nuclear fission does not justify spending as many funds as were requested. The proposed funding for FY 2010 and the resources from ARRA, however, do not guarantee that the United States will finally enjoy the predictable and consistent publicly-funded energy technology innovation effort that it needs. The Obama administration must put in place a comprehensive energy technology innovation strategy that will ensure that an expanded ERD3 effort is both sustainable and efficient. This commission would be charged with, inter alia, developing a strategy that optimizes the integration of the various stages of innovation (research, development, demonstration, early deployment), as well as integrates efforts across technology areas. The database upon which this analysis is based may be downloaded in Excel format at: http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/19119/ .

  1. Characterization of atherosclerosis by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Cramer, Kerstin; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize atherosclerotic changes in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.) by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Samples of the aorta ascendens and trunci brachiocephalici from 62 African grey parrots and 35 Amazon parrots were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson for grading of atherosclerosis in these birds. Four different stages were differentiated. The incidence of atherosclerosis in the examined parrots was 91.9% in African grey parrots and 91.4% in Amazon parrots. To evaluate the pathogenesis in birds, immunohistochemical methods were performed to demonstrate lymphocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and chondroitin sulfate. According to the missing lymphocytes and macrophages and the absence of invasion and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in each atherosclerotic stage, "response-to-injury hypothesis" seems inapplicable in parrots. Additionally, we found alterations of vitally important organs (heart, lungs) significantly correlated with atherosclerosis of the aorta ascendens.

  2. Clonal heterogeneity of small-cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung demonstrated by flow-cytometric DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindeløv, L L; Hansen, H H; Christensen, I J

    1980-01-01

    Flow-cytometric DNA analysis yields information on ploidy and proliferative characteristics of a cell population. The analysis was implemented on small-cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung using a rapid detergent technique for the preparation of fine-needle aspirates for DNA determination and a ...

  3. Immunohistochemical features of multifocal melanoacanthoma in the hard palate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    das Chagas e Silva de Carvalho Luis Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoacanthoma (MA has been described in the oral mucosa as a solitary lesion or, occasionally, as multiple lesions. MA mainly affects dark skinned patients and grows rapidly, showing a plane or slightly raised appearance and a brown to black color. The differential diagnosis includes oral nevi, amalgam tattoos, and melanomas. We report here the case of a 58-year-old black woman who presented multiple pigmented lesions on the hard palate. Case presentation Based on the differential diagnosis of melanoma, a punch biopsy (4 mm in diameter was performed. The material was fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin or submitted to immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against protein S-100, melan-A, HMB-45, MCM-2, MCM-5, Ki-67 and geminin was performed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of dendritic melanocytes for proteinS-100, HMB-45 and melan-A.Positive staining for proliferative markers (MCM-2, MCM-5, Ki-67 was only observed in basal and suprabasal epithelial cells, confirming the reactive etiology of the lesion. The diagnosis was oral Melanoacanthoma (MA. Conclusion The patient has been followed up for 30 months and shows no clinical alterations. MA should be included in the differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity.

  4. Barely Started and Already Left behind: A Descriptive Analysis of the Mathematics Ability Demonstrated by Young Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined young deaf children's early informal/formal mathematical knowledge as measured by the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). Findings from this study suggest that prior to the onset of formal schooling, young deaf children might already demonstrate evidence of academic delays. Of these 28 participants (4-6 years of age),…

  5. Microsatellite alteration and immunohistochemical expression profile of chromosome 9p21 in patients with sporadic renal cell carcinoma following surgical resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mokadem, Ismail; Lim, Alison; Kidd, Thomas; Garret, Katherine; Pratt, Norman; Batty, David; Fleming, Stewart; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    Long-term prognostic significance of loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9p21 for localized renal cell carcinoma following surgery remains unreported. The study assessed the frequency of deletions of different loci of chromosome 9p along with immunohistochemical profile of proteins in surgically resected renal cancer tissue and correlated this with long-term outcomes. DNA was extracted from renal tumours and corresponding normal kidney tissues in prospectively collected samples of 108 patients who underwent surgical resection for clinically localized disease between January 2001 and December 2005, providing a minimum of 9 years follow-up for each participant. After checking quality of DNA, amplified by PCR, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 9p was assessed using 6 microsatellite markers in 77 clear cell carcinoma. Only 5 of the markers showed LOH (D9S1814, D9S916, D9S974, D9S942, and D9S171). Protein expression of p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), p14(ARF), CAIX, and adipose related protein (ADFP) were demonstrated by immunostaining in normal and cancer tissues. Loss of heterozygosity for microsatellite analysis was correlated with tumour characteristics, recurrence free, cancer specific, and overall survival, including significance of immunohistochemical profile of protein expressions. The main deletion was found at loci telomeric to CDKN2A region at D9S916. There was a significant correlation between frequency of LOH stage (p = 0.005) and metastases (p = 0.006) suggesting a higher LOH for advanced and aggressive renal cell carcinoma. Most commonly observed LOH in the 3 markers: D9S916, D9S974, and D9S942 were associated with poor survival, and were statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Immunohistochemical expression of p14, p15, and p16 proteins were either low or absent in cancer tissue compared to normal. Loss of heterozygosity of p921 chromosome is associated with aggressive tumours, and predicts cancer specific or recurrence free survival on

  6. Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sawano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have confirmed the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO gas as a signal transmitter. However, CO is considered an intracellular transmitter, as no studies have demonstrated the redistribution of CO from the blood to tissue cells. Tracer analyses of 13 CO 2 production following 13 CO gas inhalation demonstrated that CO is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO 2 in the body and that CO oxidation does not occur in the circulation. However, these results could not clearly demonstrate the redistribution of CO, because oxidation may have occurred in the airway epithelium. The objective of this study, therefore, was to definitively demonstrate and quantify the redistribution and oxidation of CO using time-course analyses of CO and 13 CO 2 production following 13 CO-hemoglobin infusion. The subject was infused with 0.45 L of 13 CO-saturated autologous blood. Exhaled gas was collected intermittently for 36 hours for measurement of minute volumes of CO/CO 2 exhalation and determination of the 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 ratio. 13 CO 2 production significantly increased from 3 to 28 hours, peaking at 8 hours. Of the infused CO, 81% was exhaled as CO and 2.6% as 13 CO 2 . Identical time courses of 13 CO 2 production following 13 CO-hemoglobin infusion and 13 CO inhalation refute the hypothesis that CO is oxidized in the airway epithelium and clearly demonstrate the redistribution of CO from the blood to the tissues. Quantitative analyses have revealed that 19% of CO in the circulating blood is redistributed to tissue cells, whereas 2.6% is oxidized there. Overall, these results suggest that CO functions as a systemic signal transmitter.

  7. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil: Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Pena, Hilda F J; Talebi, Mauricio G; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Diaz-Delgado, Josué; Gennari, Solange M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2018-04-01

    We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor development demonstrates that onset of secondary metabolism coincides with hyphae differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus; Jung, Hye Ryung

    2010-01-01

    mycelial stages: an early compartmentalized vegetative mycelium (first mycelium, MI), and a multinucleated reproductive mycelium (second mycelium, MII), arising after PCD processes. In the present study, we made a detailed proteomic analysis of the distinct developmental stages of solid confluent...... Streptomyces coelicolor cultures using iTRAQ labelling and LC-MS/MS. A new experimental approach was developed to obtain homogeneous samples at each developmental stage (temporal protein analysis) and also to obtain membrane and cytosolic protein fractions (spatial protein analysis). A total of 345 proteins...

  9. Structural analysis of closure cap barriers: A pre-test study for the Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chung; Pelfrey, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project (BMDP) is a field demonstration study to determine the construction/installation requirements, permeability, and subsidence performance characteristics of a composite barrier. The composite barrier will consist of on-site sandy-clay blanketed by a bentonite mat and a flexible High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner (also called flexible membrane liner). Construction of one control test pad and three bentonite test pads are planned. The control test pad will be used to establish baseline data. Underneath the composite clay cap is a four feet thick loose sand layer in which cavities will be created by evacuation of sand. The present work provides a mathematical model for the BMDP. The mathematical model will be used to simulate the mechanical and structural responses of the composite clay cap during the testing processes. Based upon engineering experience and technical references, a set of nominal soil parameters have been selected

  10. Design and Demonstration of Automated Data Analysis Algorithms for Ultrasonic Inspection of Complex Composite Panels with Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    all of the ADA called indications into three groups: true positives (TP), missed calls (MC) and false calls (FC). Note, an indication position error...data review burden and improve the reliability of the ultrasonic inspection of large composite structures, automated data analysis ( ADA ) algorithms...thickness and backwall C-scan images. 15. SUBJECT TERMS automated data analysis ( ADA ) algorithms; time-of-flight indications; backwall amplitude dropout

  11. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sr 90 and Cs 137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovich, B.S.; Vlasov, V.K.; Sak, M.M.; Golushko, R.M.; Afmogenov, A.M.; Kirykhin, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors provided field-proven study of Sr 90 and Cs 137 absorption activity demonstrated by Pinus silvestris L.; Piceae abies (L.) Roth.; Quercus rubra L.; Acer platanoides L.; Betula pendula Roth.; Tilia cordata Mill, under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. (Authors)

  12. Microbiological analysis of common preservatives used in food items and demonstration of their in vitro anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohora Sultana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the microorganisms contaminating the common preservatives used in food as well as to detect their in vitro anti-bacterial traits. Methods: A total of 9 preservatives were subjected to conventional cultural and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Anti-bacterial activities were demonstrated through the agar well diffusion method. Results: All samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria up to 105 CFU/g and with the fungal flora within a range of 1 01-1 02 CFU/g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were demonstrated in most of the samples. Sodium sulfite and citric acid possessed the strongest anti-bacterial trait against all of the test bacteria. Acetic acid exhibited activity against 6 out of 8 test bacteria while vinegar exhibited the activity against 4 bacteria. Activity of salt was demonstrated only against Listeria spp. and Bacillus spp., while activity of sugar and honey was found only against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively. Conclusions: According to the current investigation, sodium sulfite and citric acid samples were found to be satisfactory preservatives both in terms of microbiological criteria and their antibacterial traits.

  13. Proteome analysis demonstrates profound alterations in human dendritic cell nature by TX527, an analogue of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, G. B.; van Etten, E.; Lage, K.

    2009-01-01

    Structural analogues of vitamin D have been put forward as therapeutic agents able to exploit the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D, without its undesired calcemic side effects. We have demonstrated that TX527 affects dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro, resulting in the generation...... of a tolerogenic cell. In the present study, we aimed to explore the global protein changes induced by the analogue in immature DC (iDC) and mature human DC and to correlate them with alterations in DC morphology and function. Human CD14(+) monocytes were differentiated toward iDC or mature DCs, in the presence...

  14. Mediation Analysis Demonstrates That Trans-eQTLs Are Often Explained by Cis-Mediation: A Genome-Wide Analysis among 1,800 South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brandon L.; Tong, Lin; Chen, Lin S.; Rahaman, Ronald; Argos, Maria; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Esko, Tonu; Zaman, Rakibuz; Islam, Tariqul; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Baron, John A.; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    A large fraction of human genes are regulated by genetic variation near the transcribed sequence (cis-eQTL, expression quantitative trait locus), and many cis-eQTLs have implications for human disease. Less is known regarding the effects of genetic variation on expression of distant genes (trans-eQTLs) and their biological mechanisms. In this work, we use genome-wide data on SNPs and array-based expression measures from mononuclear cells obtained from a population-based cohort of 1,799 Bangladeshi individuals to characterize cis- and trans-eQTLs and determine if observed trans-eQTL associations are mediated by expression of transcripts in cis with the SNPs showing trans-association, using Sobel tests of mediation. We observed 434 independent trans-eQTL associations at a false-discovery rate of 0.05, and 189 of these trans-eQTLs were also cis-eQTLs (enrichment Pmediator based on Sobel Pmediation signals in two European cohorts, and while only 7 trans-eQTL associations were present in one or both cohorts, 6 showed evidence of cis-mediation. Analyses of simulated data show that complete mediation will be observed as partial mediation in the presence of mediator measurement error or imperfect LD between measured and causal variants. Our data demonstrates that trans-associations can become significantly stronger or switch directions after adjusting for a potential mediator. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is expected in the presence of strong cis-trans confounding and when the measured cis-transcript is correlated with the true (unmeasured) mediator. In conclusion, by applying mediation analysis to eQTL data, we show that a substantial fraction of observed trans-eQTL associations can be explained by cis-mediation. Future studies should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying widespread cis-mediation and their relevance to disease biology, as well as using mediation analysis to improve eQTL discovery. PMID:25474530

  15. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  16. Improved analysis of long-term monitoring data demonstrates marked regional declines of bat populations in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Ingersoll; Brent J. Sewall; Sybill K. Amelon

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by...

  17. Placental heat shock proteins: no immunohistochemical evidence for a differential stress response in preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, M J; Bulmer, J N; Miller, D; Lilford, R J

    1995-01-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic preterm labour remains obscure. The hypothesis that a stress response induced by low-grade bacterial infection in utero-placental tissues was investigated. Distribution of cognate and inducible isoforms of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 kD, HSP 60 kD and HSP 90 kD were investigated in an immunohistochemical study of placental and decidual tissues before and after labour at varying gestations. Subjects were pregnant women undergoing singleton delivery after idiopathic preterm labour at less than 34 weeks' gestation (n = 23); spontaneous term labour at 37-42 weeks' gestation (n =24); preterm caesarean sections at less than 34 weeks' gestation for preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation (n=14); elective caesarean section at 37-42 weeks' gestation for cephalopelvic disproportion (n = 6). HSP expression was constant throughout the third trimester of pregnancy and did not change following the onset of labour, regardless of gestational age. A stress response in decidual tissues as determined by immunohistochemical analysis is apparently not associated with preterm labour.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of p53 overexpression in radiation-induced colon cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Mokarim, A.; Matsuzaki, Sumihiro; Ito, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro.

    1998-01-01

    The expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied immunohistochemically from paraffin sections of 7 cases (9 lesions) of radiation-induced colon cancer and 42 cases of spontaneous colon cancer. Age distribution of radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancer were 68.1 years (range, 56 to 77 years) and 67.4 years (range, 31 to 85 years), respectively. Among the radiation-induced colon cancers, there were 3 lesions of mucinous carcinoma (33%), a much higher than found for spontaneous mucinous cancer. Immunohistochemically, p53 protein expression was detected in 7/9 (78%) of radiation-induced cancers and in 23/42 (55%) of spontaneous colon cancers. χ 2 analysis found no significant differences between radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancers in age distribution or p53-positive staining for frequency, histopathology, or Dukes'' classification. In radiation colitis around the cancers including aberrant crypts, spotted p53 staining and abnormal and scattered PCNA-positive staining were observed. In histologically normal cells, p53 staining was almost absent and PCNA-positive staining was regularly observed in the lower half of the crypt. In radiation colitis including aberrant glands, cellular proliferation increased and spotted p53 expression was observed. This study suggests that radiation colitis and aberrant glands might possess malignant potential and deeply associate with carcinogenesis of radiation-induced colon cancer. (author)

  19. Succinate Dehydrogenase B Subunit Immunohistochemical Expression Predicts Aggressiveness in Well Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milione, Massimo [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Pusceddu, Sara [Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Gasparini, Patrizia [Molecular Cytogenetics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Melotti, Flavia [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Maisonneuve, Patrick [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan 20141 (Italy); Mazzaferro, Vincenzo [Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Braud, Filippo G. de [Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Pelosi, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.pelosi@unimi.it [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Università degli Studi, Facoltà di Medicina, Milan 20122 (Italy)

    2012-08-16

    Immunohistochemical loss of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) has recently been reported as a surrogate biomarker of malignancy in sporadic and familial pheocromocytomas and paragangliomas through the activation of hypoxia pathways. However, data on the prevalence and the clinical implications of SDHB immunoreactivity in ileal neuroendocrine tumors are still lacking. Thirty-one consecutive, advanced primary midgut neuroendocrine tumors and related lymph node or liver metastases from 24 males and seven females were immunohistochemically assessed for SDHB. All patients were G1 tumors (Ki-67 labeling index ≤2%). SDHB immunohistochemistry results were expressed as immunostaining intensity and scored as low or strong according to the internal control represented by normal intestinal cells. Strong positivity for SDHB, with granular cytoplasmatic reactivity, was found in 77% of primary tumors (T), whilst low SDHB expression was detected in 90% of metastases (M). The combined analysis (T+M) confirmed the loss of SDHB expression in 82% of metastases compared to 18% of primary tumors. SDHB expression was inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, which accounted for 1.54% in metastastic sites and 0.7% in primary tumors. A correlation between SDHB expression loss, increased Ki-67 labeling index and biological aggressiveness was shown in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors, suggesting a role of tumor suppressor gene.

  20. Succinate Dehydrogenase B Subunit Immunohistochemical Expression Predicts Aggressiveness in Well Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milione, Massimo; Pusceddu, Sara; Gasparini, Patrizia; Melotti, Flavia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Braud, Filippo G. de; Pelosi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Immunohistochemical loss of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) has recently been reported as a surrogate biomarker of malignancy in sporadic and familial pheocromocytomas and paragangliomas through the activation of hypoxia pathways. However, data on the prevalence and the clinical implications of SDHB immunoreactivity in ileal neuroendocrine tumors are still lacking. Thirty-one consecutive, advanced primary midgut neuroendocrine tumors and related lymph node or liver metastases from 24 males and seven females were immunohistochemically assessed for SDHB. All patients were G1 tumors (Ki-67 labeling index ≤2%). SDHB immunohistochemistry results were expressed as immunostaining intensity and scored as low or strong according to the internal control represented by normal intestinal cells. Strong positivity for SDHB, with granular cytoplasmatic reactivity, was found in 77% of primary tumors (T), whilst low SDHB expression was detected in 90% of metastases (M). The combined analysis (T+M) confirmed the loss of SDHB expression in 82% of metastases compared to 18% of primary tumors. SDHB expression was inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, which accounted for 1.54% in metastastic sites and 0.7% in primary tumors. A correlation between SDHB expression loss, increased Ki-67 labeling index and biological aggressiveness was shown in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors, suggesting a role of tumor suppressor gene

  1. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro María; Santos-Briz, Angel; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Alegre, Victor; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is a rare histopathologic variant of Sweet syndrome. The nature of the histiocytoid infiltrate has generated considerable controversy in the literature. The main goal of this study was to conduct a comprehensive overview of the immunohistochemical phenotype of the infiltrate in histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. We also analyze whether this variant of Sweet syndrome is more frequently associated with hematologic malignancies than classic Sweet syndrome. This is a retrospective case series study of the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 33 patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was conducted in the dermatology departments of 5 university hospitals and a private laboratory of dermatopathology. The clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and follow-up features of 33 patients with histiocytoid Sweet syndrome were analyzed. In some cases, cytogenetic studies of the dermal infiltrate were also performed. We compare our findings with those of the literature. The dermal infiltrate from the 33 study patients (20 female; median age, 49 years; age range, 5-93 years; and 13 male; median age, 42 years; age range, 4-76 years) was mainly composed of myeloperoxidase-positive immature myelomonocytic cells with histiocytoid morphology. No cytogenetic anomalies were found in the infiltrate except in 1 case in which neoplastic cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia were intermingled with the cells of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. Authentic histiocytes were also found in most cases, with a mature immunoprofile, but they appeared to be a minor component of the infiltrate. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was not more frequently related with hematologic malignancies than classic neutrophilic Sweet syndrome. The dermal infiltrate of cutaneous lesions of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is composed mostly of immature cells of myeloid lineage. This infiltrate should not be interpreted as leukemia cutis.

  2. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst with Complex Odontoma: Histological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mohtasham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a rare odontogenic cyst. Only 2% of all odontogenic cysts and tumors are COC. COC associated with odontoma (COCaO reported in 24% of COCs. COCaO presents a greater incidence in female, with a ratio of 2 to 1. The highest incidence of COCaO occurs during the second decade with a mean age of 16 years, most frequently occurring in the maxilla (61.5%. Here, we describe a classic case of COCaO of the maxillary incisor-canine region in 17-year-old girl, and discuss the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical finding of this tumor.

  3. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst with Complex Odontoma: Histological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Merati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a rare odontogenic cyst. Only 2% of all odontogenic cysts and tumors are COC. COC associated with odontoma (COCaO reported in 24% of COCs. COCaO presents a greater incidence in female, with a ratio of 2 to 1. The highest incidence of COCaO occurs during the second decade with a mean age of 16 years, most frequently occurring in the maxilla (61.5%. Here, we describe a classic case of COCaO of the maxillary incisor-canine region in 17-year-old girl, and discuss the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical finding of this tumor.

  4. P53 expression in prostatic cancer: an immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nuaimy, W.M.; Al-Allaf, L.I.; Alnaimi, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and second leading cause of cancer death in the Western world. P53 alterations are the most frequent genetic changes in human cancers. Mutation of the p53 gene has been implicated in the development of >50% of all human cancer. The current study aims at evaluating the immuno-histochemical expression of p53 protein in patients with cancer of prostate, as prognostic parameter in correlation with other parameters including PSA receptors, and to correlate the results with those of other studies. (authors).

  5. Immunohistochemical studies of the periodontal membrane in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Marie-Louise Bastholm; Nolting, Dorrit; Kjær, Inger

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the periodontal membrane of human primary teeth immunohistochemically, while focusing on the epithelial layer of Malassez, fibers, and peripheral nerves, and to compare the findings with those of a previous study of human permanent teeth. Material and methods. Nineteen human...... could be identical to those in regions with no resorption. Conclusion. In regions without resorption, spatial organization of the periodontal membrane of primary teeth was similar to that of permanent teeth, although the number and distribution of epithelial cells and fibers differed. In regions...

  6. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: immunohistochemical findings and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha JJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jianjun Sha,1,2 Juanjie Bo,1 Jiahua Pan,1 Lianhua Zhang,1 Hanqing Xuan,1 Wei Chen,1 Dong Li,1 Zhaoliang Wang,1 Dongming Liu,1 Yiran Huang1,2 1Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 2School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Introduction: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods: The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of seven patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, bone scan, cystoscopy, and computed tomography (CT scan. The level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA before and after surgery was assessed. Different prostate cancer markers were used for immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mean age of the seven patients diagnosed with prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma in this study was 76.2 years (range 57–88. Five patients presented with intermittent and painless gross hematuria, one patient with progressive dysuria, and one patient with elevated serum PSA on routine health examination. The level of PSA before surgery ranged from 1.3 to 45.0 ng/mL. Immunohistochemical staining results of the prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma confirmed positivity for PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, and alpha-methyacyl co-enzyme A (CoA-reductase markers. Two of the patients underwent bilateral orchiectomy combined with anti-androgen therapy, three underwent transurethral resection of prostate, one received radical prostatectomy, and one received medical castration therapy. The clinical outcomes of all patients were satisfactory, based on follow-up data. The symptoms of hematuria and dysuria were ameliorated well, and the postoperative PSA level decreased below 4.0 ng/mL. Recurrence or metastasis of disease was

  7. Cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue with an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gregório Wrublevski; Pereira, Volnei David; Pereira Junior, José Antonio de Castro; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici

    2012-01-01

    By definition, choristomas are normal tissues found in anomalous topography. The cartilaginous features of these lesions are rare in the soft tissues of the oral cavity. The majority of cartilaginous choristomas of the tongue—the primary site of emergence of the oropharynx—are associated with adipose, fibrous or bone tissues—apart from that, only a few of these were confirmed by an immunohistochemical study. The neoplasm exclusively composed of chondromatous tissue is extremely rare in the tongue. This paper reports the clinical, surgical and pathological characteristics of a cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman. PMID:23220826

  8. Significance Of Immunohistochemical Markers In Diagnostics Of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Medvedeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of surgical and biopsy material 106 patients with diseases of urinary bladder have been under study. They received treatment at Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Uronephrology of Saratov State Medical University. 13 immunohistochemical markers have been evaluated: markers of proliferative activity - Ki-67, PCNA, p63, suppressor of tumor growth - p53, markers of apoptosis - Bcl-2, Bax, receptor of epidermal growth factors - EGFR, cytokeratin profile - (CK7, CK8, CK10/13, CK 17, CK18, CK19, as well as their diagnostic significance for identifying the urinary bladder cancer

  9. Altered expression pattern of molecular factors involved in colonic smooth muscle functions: an immunohistochemical study in patients with diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattii, Letizia; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Battolla, Barbara; Colucci, Rocchina; Dolfi, Amelio; Bassotti, Gabrio; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diverticular disease (DD) is thought to result from complex interactions among dietary habits, genetic factors and coexistence of other bowel abnormalities. These conditions lead to alterations in colonic pressure and motility, facilitating the formation of diverticula. Although electrophysiological studies on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have investigated colonic motor dysfunctions, scarce attention has been paid to their molecular abnormalities, and data on SMCs in DD are lacking. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of molecular factors involved in the contractile functions of SMCs in the tunica muscularis of colonic specimens from patients with DD. By means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we examined the expression of Cx26 and Cx43, which are prominent components of gap junctions in human colonic SMCs, as well as pS368-Cx43, PKCps, RhoA and αSMA, all known to regulate the functions of gap junctions and the contractile activity of SMCs. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant abnormalities in DD samples, concerning both the expression and distribution patterns of most of the investigated molecular factors. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that an altered pattern of factors involved in SMC contractility is present at level of the tunica muscularis of DD patients. Moreover, considering that our analysis was conducted on colonic tissues not directly affected by diverticular lesions or inflammatory reactions, it is conceivable that these molecular alterations may precede and predispose to the formation of diverticula, rather than being mere consequences of the disease.

  10. Optical interconnects for in-plane high-speed signal distribution at 10 Gb/s: Analysis and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    With decreasing transistor size, increasing chip speed, and larger numbers of processors in a system, the performance of a module/system is being limited by the off-chip and off-module bandwidth-distance products. Optical links have moved from fiber-based long distance communications to the cabinet level of 1m--100m, and recently to the backplane-level (10cm--1m). Board-level inter-chip parallel optical interconnects have been demonstrated recently by researchers from Intel, IBM, Fujitsu, NTT and a few research groups in universities. However, the board-level signal/clock distribution function using optical interconnects, the lightwave circuits, the system design, a practically convenient integration scheme committed to the implementation of a system prototype have not been explored or carefully investigated. In this dissertation, the development of a board-level 1 x 4 optical-to-electrical signal distribution at 10Gb/s is presented. In contrast to other prototypes demonstrating board-level parallel optical interconnects that have been drawing much attention for the past decade, the optical link design for the high-speed signal broadcasting is even more complicated and the pitch between receivers could be varying as opposed to fixed-pitch design that has been widely-used in the parallel optical interconnects. New challenges for the board-level high-speed signal broadcasting include, but are not limited to, a new optical link design, a lightwave circuit as a distribution network, and a novel integration scheme that can be a complete radical departure from the traditional assembly method. One of the key building blocks in the lightwave circuit is the distribution network in which a 1 x 4 multimode interference (MMI) splitter is employed. MMI devices operating at high data rates are important in board-level optical interconnects and need to be characterized in the application of board-level signal broadcasting. To determine the speed limitations of MMI devices, the

  11. Expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in leukoplakia and oral cancer: an immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Dutra da SILVA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical correlation of adhesion (E-cadherin and cell differentiation (involucrin molecules in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytological samples and biopsies were obtained from male and female patients aged over 30 years with oral leukoplakia (n = 30 and oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 22. Cell scrapings and the biopsy were performed at the site of the lesion and histological slides were prepared for the immunocytochemical analysis of exfoliated oral mucosal cells and for the immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy tissues using E-cadherin and involucrin. Spearman’s correlation and kappa coefficients were used to assess the correlation and level of agreement between the techniques. Immunostaining for E-cadherin and involucrin by both techniques was similar in the superficial layers of the histological sections compared with cell scrapings. However, there was no statistical correlation and agreement regarding the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in oral leukoplakia (R = 0.01, p = 0.958 (Kappa = 0.017, p = 0.92 or in oral squamous cell carcinoma (R = 0.26, p = 0.206 (Kappa = 0.36, p = 0.07. The immunoexpression of E-cadherin and involucrin in tissues is consistent with the expression patterns observed in exfoliated oral mucosal cells, despite the lack of a statistically significant correlation. There is an association of the histopathological characteristics of leukoplakia with the expression E-cadherin and of the microscopic aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma with immunohistochemical expression of involucrin.

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of interleukin 8 in skin biopsies from patients with inflammatory acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Maged Rabee A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the immunohistochemical (IHC expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8 in skin biopsies of inflammatory acne vulgaris (IAV in an attempt to understand the disease pathogenesis. Materials and methods A total of 58 biopsies, 29 from lesional IAV and 29 normal non lesional sites were immunostained for IL-8. The intensity of staining was evaluated in the epidermis and dermis and was scored as mild, moderate and severe. The expression was correlated with the clinical grade, disease course and histological changes. Results IL-8 immunoreactivity was expressed in lesional IAV compared to non lesional skin biopsies (p Conclusion We were able to demonstrate altered immunoreactivity of IL-8 in IAV compared to normal skin. Targeted therapy to block IL-8 production may hold promise in limiting the deleterious effects of IL-8-mediated inflammatory response and angiogenesis.

  13. Expression of immunohistochemical markers for testicular carcinoma in situ by normal human fetal germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Graem, N

    1995-01-01

    study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Normal human germ cells from 10 first-trimester fetuses and 76 second- and third-trimester testes were investigated for the immunohistochemical expression of the markers of testicular carcinoma in situ. The panel of markers included in the study consisted of placental......-like alkaline phosphatase, the protooncogene c-kit protein product, and the antigens for the monoclonal antibodies TRA-1-60 and M2A. The relative numbers of fetal germ cells that demonstrated positive reaction with the markers were calculated. RESULTS: The vast majority of the germ cells (75-100%) in the first......-trimester gonads were positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase, TRA-1-60, and M2A. The c-kit protein was detected in three out of the ten first-trimester gonads. The relative number of germ cells positive for all the markers studied declined rapidly during the first part of the second trimester...

  14. Morphopathological and immunohistochemical features of a pure mucinous breast carcinoma – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschie Mariana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pure mucinous carcinoma is a rare special type of breast carcinoma with a 2% incidence and it is usualy asociated with a good prognosis. It must distingished from the mixed subtype of mucinos breast carcinoma, which has an invasive non-mucinous component in more than 10% of the tumor and change the favourable outcome of the first subtype. In this report we present a case of a premenopausal woman with a lump in right breast wich histopathologically proved to be a pure mucinous carcinoma associated with high grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Immunohistochemical and ancillary studies demonstrate a great heterogeneity of the neoplastic cells, with different molecular profile for each component of the tumor. The presence of ductal carcinoma in situ with a different imunophenotype from pure mucinous carcinoma rise the ipothesis of a different tumor cell biology which may change clincal evolution.

  15. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenome sequence from high-temperature archaeal habitats demonstrate linkages between metabolic potential and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP provide an unparalled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (~40-45 Mbase Sanger sequencing per site was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G+C content and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH. These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high temperature systems of YNP.

  16. Collagenase-3 expression in periapical lesions: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, G; Astekar, M S; Ramesh, G; Kaur, P; Sowmya, G V

    2014-08-01

    Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) is a metalloproteinase (MMP) that is associated with bone lesions and exhibits variable expression patterns in odontogenic cysts; it may play a role in regulating focal proliferation and maturation of jaw cyst epithelium. We studied the localization, staining intensity and distribution of collagenase-3 in 13 periapical granulomas with epithelium, 16 periapical granulomas without epithelium and 10 radicular cysts using archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues. A monoclonal antibody against human collagenase-3 was used to evaluate its expression. Immunohistochemical staining intensities of collagenase-3 in all periapical lesions were (-), 4 (10%); (+), 1 (3%); (++), 22 (56%) and (+++), 12 (31%); differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical distribution of collagenase-3 in epithelial cells was (-), 17 (44%); (+), 17 (44%); (++), 5 (13%); in fibroblasts it was (-), 8 (20%); (+), 23 (59%); (++), 8 (21%); in plasma cells it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), 22 (56%); (++), 10 (26%); in macrophages it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), and 15 (38%); and (++), 17 (44%). Statistically significant differences were found in epithelial cells (p = 0.00) and fibroblasts (p = 0.02), whereas differences were not statistically significant for plasma cells and macrophages. Collagenase-3 may play a role in the conversion of a periapical granuloma with epithelium to radicular cyst. MMP's influence not only epithelial rest cell migration, but also invasion of various stromal cells into granulomatous tissue.

  17. Neutronic analysis of the European reference design of the water cooled lithium lead blanket for a DEMOnstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrizzi, L.

    1994-01-01

    Water cooled lithium lead blankets, using liquid Pb-17Li eutectic both as breeder and neutron multiplier material, and martensitic steel as structural material, represent one of the four families under development in the European DEMO blanket programme. Two concepts were proposed, both reaching tritium breeding self-sufficiency: the 'box-shaped' and the 'cylindrical modules'. Also to this scope a new concept has been defined: 'the single box'. A neutronic analysis of the 'single box' is presented. A full 3-D model including the whole assembly and many of the reactor details (divertors, holes, gaps) has been defined, together with a 3-D neutron source. A tritium breeding ration (TBR) value of 1.19 confirms the tritium breeding self-sufficiency of the design. Selected power densities, calculated for the different materials and zones, are here presented. Some shielding capability considerations with respect to the toroidal field coil system are presented too. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Specific inhibition of p97/VCP ATPase and kinetic analysis demonstrate interaction between D1 and D2 ATPase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; Bulfer, Stacie L; Weihl, Conrad C; Li, Kelin; Lis, Lev G; Walters, Michael A; Schoenen, Frank J; Lin, Henry J; Deshaies, Raymond J; Arkin, Michelle R

    2014-07-29

    The p97 AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities), also called VCP (valosin-containing protein), is an important therapeutic target for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. p97 forms a hexamer composed of two AAA domains (D1 and D2) that form two stacked rings and an N-terminal domain that binds numerous cofactor proteins. The interplay between the three domains in p97 is complex, and a deeper biochemical understanding is needed in order to design selective p97 inhibitors as therapeutic agents. It is clear that the D2 ATPase domain hydrolyzes ATP in vitro, but whether D1 contributes to ATPase activity is controversial. Here, we use Walker A and B mutants to demonstrate that D1 is capable of hydrolyzing ATP and show for the first time that nucleotide binding in the D2 domain increases the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of D1 ATP hydrolysis 280-fold, by increasing kcat 7-fold and decreasing Km about 40-fold. We further show that an ND1 construct lacking D2 but including the linker between D1 and D2 is catalytically active, resolving a conflict in the literature. Applying enzymatic observations to small-molecule inhibitors, we show that four p97 inhibitors (DBeQ, ML240, ML241, and NMS-873) have differential responses to Walker A and B mutations, to disease-causing IBMPFD mutations, and to the presence of the N domain binding cofactor protein p47. These differential effects provide the first evidence that p97 cofactors and disease mutations can alter p97 inhibitor potency and suggest the possibility of developing context-dependent inhibitors of p97. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL APPROACH REVEALS LOCALIZATION OF CYSTATHIONINE-?-LYASE AND CYSTATHIONINE-ß-SYNTHETASE IN ETHANOL-INDUCED GASTRIC MUCOSA DAMAGE IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jand-Venes Rolim MEDEIROS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Hydrogen sulphide (H2S has been proved to be a neuromodulator and contributes to the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity in damage caused by anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal drugs. Previously, we demonstrated that H2S synthesis is essential to gastric protection against ethanol. Objective To better understanding the role of H2S and the detailed localization of its production in both normal and injured stomach due to ethanol injection, we studied the expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE and cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS isoforms in gastric mucosa of mice treated with saline or 50% ethanol. Methods Mice were treated by gavage with saline or 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g. After 1 hour, mice were sacrificed, and gastric tissue was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis specific for CSE and CBS. Results We have demonstrated a non-specific expression of CBS in the normal gastric mucosa and expression of CSE occurring mainly in the parietal cells of the animals treated with ethanol. Conclusion Thus, we demonstrated that the expression of CBS appears to be constitutive and diffuse across the gastric epithelium, while the expression of CSE appears to be induced in parietal cells by damage agents such as ethanol.

  20. Architectural analysis and intraoperative measurements demonstrate the unique design of the multifidus muscle for lumbar spine stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samuel R; Kim, Choll W; Eng, Carolyn M; Gottschalk, Lionel J; Tomiya, Akihito; Garfin, Steven R; Lieber, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    a low fiber length-to-muscle length ratio) demonstrates that the multifidus muscle is uniquely designed as a stabilizer to produce large forces. Furthermore, multifidus sarcomeres are positioned on the ascending portion of the length-tension curve, allowing the muscle to become stronger as the spine assumes a forward-leaning posture.

  1. Isotopic Analysis of Fingernails as a USGS Open House Demonstration of the Use of Stable Isotopes in Foodweb Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Choy, D.

    2011-12-01

    The USGS Isotope Tracers Project uses stable isotopes and tritium to add a unique dimension of chemical information to a wide range of environmental investigations. The use and application of isotopes is usually an unfamiliar and even esoteric topic to the general public. Therefore during three USGS open house events, as a public outreach effort, we demonstrated the use of stable isotopes by analyzing nitrogen and carbon isotopes from very small fragments of fingernail from willing participants. We titled the exhibit "You Are What You Eat". The results from all participants were plotted on a graph indicating the general influence of different food groups on the composition of body tissues as represented by fingernails. All participants were assigned a number and no personal-identification information was collected. A subset of participants provided us with an estimate of the number of days a week various foods were eaten and if they were vegetarians, vegans or non-vegetarians. Volunteers from our research group were on hand to explain and discuss fundamental concepts such as how foods attain their isotopic composition, the difference between C3 and C4 plants, the effects of assimilation, trophic enrichment, and the various uses of stable isotopes in environmental studies. The results of the fingernail analyses showed the variation of the range of isotopic compositions among about 400 people at each event, the distinct influence of C4 plants (mainly corn and cane sugar) on our carbon isotopic composition, and the isotopic differences between vegetarians and non vegetarians among other details (http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/projects/fingernails/). A poll of visitors attending the open house event in 2006 indicated that "You Are What You Eat" was among the most popular exhibits. Following the first two open house events we were contacted by a group of researchers from Brazil who had completed a very similar study. Our collaboration resulted in a publication in

  2. Chimeric analysis of EGFP and DsRed2 transgenic mice demonstrates polyclonal maintenance of pancreatic acini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Je-Young; Siswanto, Antoni; Harimoto, Kenichi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi

    2013-06-01

    The pancreatic islet is an assembly of specific endocrine cells. There are many conflicting reports regarding whether the acinus develops from single or multiple progenitor cells. This study investigated the development and maintenance clonality of the pancreatic acinus and duct using a chimeric analysis with EGFP and DsRed2 transgenic mice. Chimeric mice (G-R mice) were obtained by the aggregation method, using 8-cell stage embryos from EGFP and DsRed2 transgenic mice. The islets from the G-R mice were chimeric and mosaic, consisting of either EGFP- or DsRed2-positive populations, as in previous reports. On the other hand, most acini developed from either EGFP or DsRed2 origin, but some were chimeric. Interestingly, these chimeric acini were clearly separated into two-color regions and were not mosaic. Some large intralobular pancreatic ducts consisting of more than 10 cells were found to be chimeric, but no small ducts made up of less than 9 cells were chimeric. Our histological observations suggest that the pancreatic acinus polyclonally and directionally is maintained by multiple progenitor cells. Pancreatic large ducts also seem to develop polyclonally and might result from the assembly of small ducts that develop from a single origin. These findings provide useful information for further understanding pancreatic maintenance.

  3. In situ demonstration and characteristic analysis of the protease components from marine bacteria using substrate immersing zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Yang, XingHao; Huang, JiaFeng; Wu, RiBang; Wu, CuiLing; He, HaiLun; Li, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Zymography is a widely used technique for the study of proteolytic activities on the basis of protein substrate degradation. In this study, substrate immersing zymography was used in analyzing proteolysis of extracellular proteases. Instead of being added directly into a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel, the substrates were added into the immersing solution after electrophoresis. Substrate immersing zymography could accurately determine the molecular weight of trypsin, and band intensities were linearly related to the amount of protease. The diversity of extracellular proteases produced by different marine bacteria was analyzed by substrate immersing zymography, and large variations of proteolysis were evidenced. The proteolytic activity of Pseudoalteromonas strains was more complicated than that of other strains. Five Pseudoalteromonas strains and five Vibrio strains were further analyzed by substrate immersing zymography with different substrates (casein and gelatin), and multiple caseinolytic and gelatinolytic profiles were detected. The extracellular proteolytic profiles of Pseudoalteromonas strains exhibited a large intraspecific variation. Molecular weight (Mw) of the main protease secreted by Vibrio was 35 kDa. Additionally, the time-related change trends of the activities of extracellular proteases produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. SJN2 were analyzed by substrate immersing zymography. These results implied the potential application of substrate immersing zymography for the analysis of the diversity of bacterial extracellular proteases.

  4. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System. Report 76-311965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    A Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) has been made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Ground Demonstration System (BIPS-GDS). Details of the analysis are discussed. The BIPS Flight System was recently analyzed in an AIRPHX report. Since the results of the Flight System FMECA are directly applicable to the BIPS to be tested in the GDS mode, the contents of the earlier FMECA have not been repeated in this current analysis. The BIPS-FS FMECA has been reviewed and determined to be essentially current

  5. Making the invisible visible: bioelectrical impedance analysis demonstrates unfavourable body composition in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijn, N P C; van Tuyl, L H D; Bultink, I E M; Lems, W F; Earthman, C P; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M A E

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences between the assessment of body composition by body mass index (BMI) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The body composition of RA patients was assessed during their visit to the outpatient department of a Dutch academic hospital using BMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI). FFMI and FMI were determined by single-frequency BIA. Sixty-five consecutive RA patients (83% women, mean age 58 years, median disease duration 7 years) with moderately active disease [mean Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) = 3.40; mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI) score = 3.49] and moderate disability [mean Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score = 0.87] were included. Based on BMI, 2% of our study population were underweight, 45% had a healthy body composition, and 54% were overweight or obese. Based on BIA, 18% of the patients showed a low FFMI and 74% had a high or very high FMI. Low FFMI was found in 44% of the women with a normal BMI, and high FMI was found in 40% of the women and 75% of the men with a normal BMI. A high frequency of unfavourable body composition, predominantly reduced FFMI and elevated FMI, was found in a cohort of RA patients with moderately active disease, turning BMI into an unreliable method for assessment of body composition in RA. BIA, however, might be the preferred method to assess FFMI and FMI in RA patients in clinical practice, as it is easy to use and relatively inexpensive.

  6. Analysis of hepatic transcriptome demonstrates altered lipid metabolism following Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 prevention in chickens with subclinical necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiaodan; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Lai, Jing; Liu, Lei; Khalique, Abdul; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2018-04-20

    Subclinical necrotic enteritis (SNE) widely outbreaks in chickens which inflicted growth-slowing, causing enormous social and economic burdens. To better understand the molecular underpinnings of SNE on lipid metabolism and explore novel preventative strategies against SNE, we studied the regulatory mechanism of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the lipid metabolism pathways involved in chickens with SNE. One hundred eighty one-day-old chickens were randomly divided into three groups and arranged with basal diet (control and SNE group). Added with BS15 (1 × 10 6  cfu/g) or Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) liquid medium for 28 days. The hepatic gene expression of each group was then measured using high-throughput analysis methods (RNA-Seq). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression changes of the related genes. The results showed that there are eleven lipid metabolic pathways were found during the prevention of BS15 treatment in SNE chickens by RNA-Seq, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and arachidonic acid metabolism. BS15 notably facilitated the expressions of fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2), acyl-CoA synthetase bubblegum family member 1 (ACSBG1), perilipin 1 (PLIN1) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2), which were involved in PPAR signaling pathway of SNE chickens. Besides, suppression of phospholipase A2 group IVA (PLA2G4A) in arachidonic acid metabolism was observed in SNE chickens after BS15 prevention. The expression patterns of FABP2, ACSBG1, PLIN1, PLIN2 and PLA24G in qRT-PCR validation were consistent with RNA-Seq results. These findings indicate that SNE may affect the hepatic lipid metabolism of chickens. Meanwhile, BS15 pretreatment may provide a prospective natural prophylaxis strategy against SNE through improving the PPAR signaling pathway and arachidonic acid metabolism.

  7. Coop-Seq Analysis Demonstrates that Sox2 Evokes Latent Specificities in the DNA Recognition by Pax6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Caizhen; Malik, Vikas; Chang, Yiming Kenny; Veerapandian, Veeramohan; Srivastava, Yogesh; Huang, Yong-Heng; Hou, Linlin; Cojocaru, Vlad; Stormo, Gary D; Jauch, Ralf

    2017-11-24

    Sox2 and Pax6 co-regulate genes in neural lineages and the lens by forming a ternary complex likely facilitated allosterically through DNA. We used the quantitative and scalable cooperativity-by-sequencing (Coop-seq) approach to interrogate Sox2/Pax6 dimerization on a DNA library where five positions of the Pax6 half-site were randomized yielding 1024 cooperativity factors. Consensus positions normally required for the high-affinity DNA binding by Pax6 need to be mutated for effective dimerization with Sox2. Out of the five randomized bases, a 5' thymidine is present in most of the top ranking elements. However, this thymidine maps to a region outside of the Pax half site and is not expected to directly interact with Pax6 in known binding modes suggesting structural reconfigurations. Re-analysis of ChIP-seq data identified several genomic regions where the cooperativity promoting sequence pattern is co-bound by Sox2 and Pax6. A highly conserved Sox2/Pax6 bound site near the Sprouty2 locus was verified to promote cooperative dimerization designating Sprouty2 as a potential target reliant on Sox2/Pax6 cooperativity in several neural cell types. Collectively, the functional interplay of Sox2 and Pax6 demands the relaxation of high-affinity binding sites and is enabled by alternative DNA sequences. We conclude that this binding mode evolved to warrant that a subset of target genes is only regulated in the presence of suitable partner factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative diagnostic strategies for coronary artery disease in women: demonstration of the usefulness and efficiency of probability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.A.; Wijns, W.; Vanbutsele, R.J.; Robert, A.; De Coster, P.; Brasseur, L.A.; Beckers, C.; Detry, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative strategies using conditional probability analysis for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) were examined in 93 infarct-free women presenting with chest pain. Another group of 42 consecutive female patients was prospectively analyzed. For this latter group, the physician had access to the pretest and posttest probability of CAD before coronary angiography. These 135 women all underwent stress electrocardiographic, thallium scintigraphic, and coronary angiographic examination. The pretest and posttest probabilities of coronary disease were derived from a computerized Bayesian algorithm. Probability estimates were calculated by the four following hypothetical strategies: SO, in which history, including risk factors, was considered; S1, in which history and stress electrocardiographic results were considered; S2, in which history and stress electrocardiographic and stress thallium scintigraphic results were considered; and S3, in which history and stress electrocardiographic results were used, but in which stress scintigraphic results were considered only if the poststress probability of CAD was between 10% and 90%, i.e., if a sufficient level of diagnostic certainty could not be obtained with the electrocardiographic results alone. The strategies were compared with respect to accuracy with the coronary angiogram as the standard. For both groups of women, S2 and S3 were found to be the most accurate in predicting the presence or absence of coronary disease (p less than .05). However, it was found with use of S3 that more than one-third of the thallium scintigrams could have been avoided without loss of accuracy. It was also found that diagnostic catheterization performed to exclude CAD as a diagnosis could have been avoided in half of the patients without loss of accuracy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  10. Effectiveness of Vascular Markers (Immunohistochemical Stains) in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Namra; Mushtaq, Sajid; Akhter, Noreen; Hussain, Mudassar; Hassan, Usman

    2018-05-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of IHC markers of vascular origin like CD31, CD34, FLI1 and ERG in vascular soft tissue sarcomas including angiosarcomas, Kaposi sarcomas, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and a non-vascular soft tissue sarcoma (Epithelioid sarcoma). Descriptive study. Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from 2011 to 2017. Diagnosed cases of angiosarcomas (n=48), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (n=9), Kaposi sarcoma (n=9) and epithelioid sarcoma (n=20) were selected. Immunohistochemical staining as performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. The sections were stained for the following markers: CD34 (VENTANA clone Q Bend 10), CD31 (Leica clone 1 A 10), FLI1 (CELL MARQUE clone MRQ-1) and ERG (CELL MARQUE clone EP111). A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 8/48 cases of angiosarcomas with triple positivity in 6 cases. Eight cases showed positivity for only CD31 and ERG and 2 cases showed positivity for only ERG. A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 3/9 cases of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with positivity for all markers in 2 cases. Combined positivity for ERG and CD34 was seen in 2 cases and on 4 cases only CD31 immunohistochemical was solely applied with 100% positivity. FLI1 was not applied on any case. Among 9 cases of Kaposi sarcoma, ERG, CD34 and CD31 in combination were applied on only 1 case with triple positivity. Remaining cases show positivity for either CD34, CD31 or FLI1. Majority of cases of epithelioid sarcomas were diagnosed on the basis of cytokeratin and CD34 positivity with loss of INI1. The other vascular markers showed negativity in all cases. Among these four markers, ERG immunohistochemical stain is highly effective for endothelial differentiation due to its specific nuclear staining pattern in normal blood vessel endothelial cells (internal control) as well as neoplastic cells of vascular tumors and lack of background staining.

  11. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  12. Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

  13. Immunohistochemical study of Metallothionein in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Buentello-García, Masao; Yescas-Gómez, Petra; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Rios, Camilo; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common serious neurological example of acquired and frequent epilepsy. Oxidative stress is recognized as playing a contributing role in several neurological disorders, and most recently have been implicated in acquired epilepsies. The MTs occur in several brain regions and may serve as neuroprotective proteins against reactive oxygen species causing oxidative damage and stress. The main aim of this work was to describe the immunohistochemical localization of MT in the specimens derived from the patients affected by TLE. Histopathological examination showed NeuN, GFAP and MT immunopositive cells that were analyzed for determinate in hippocampal and parietal cortex samples. An increase in the reactive gliosis associated with increased MT expression was observed in patients with TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunohistochemical study of doublecortin and nucleostemin in canine brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Nevi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding a marker of neural stem cells remains a medical research priority. It was reported that the proteins doublecortin and nucleostemin were related with stem/progenitor cells in central nervous system. The aim of the present immunohistochemical study was to evaluate the expression of these proteins and their pattern of distribution in canine brain, including age-related changes, and in non-nervous tissues. We found that doublecortin had a more specific expression pattern, related with neurogenesis and neuronal migration, while nucleostemin was expressed in most cells of almost every tissue studied. The immunolabeling of both proteins decreased with age. We may conclude that nucleostemin is not a specific marker of stem/progenitor cells in the dog. Doublecortin, however, is not an exclusive marker of neural stem cells, but also of neuronal precursors.

  15. Anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical study of testicular development in Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, G B; Aguirre, M V; Lombardo, D M

    2018-07-01

    In this work, testicular ontogeny is analyzed at the anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical levels; the latter through the detection of GnRHR and PCNA in the testicles of embryos, neonates and juveniles of Columba livia. We analyzed 150 embryos, 25 neonates and 5 juveniles by means of observations under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining techniques and the PAS reaction. For the immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of GnRHR and PCNA in embryos corresponding to stages 41, 43 and in neonates of 2, 5, 7 and 75 days post-hatch was revealed in testicular histological preparations. That gonadal outline is evident in stage 18. In stage 29, the testes are constituted of a medulla in which the PGCs are surrounded by the Sertoli cells, constituting the seminiferous tubules. From stage 37 a greater organization of the tubules is visualized and at the time of hatching the testicle is constituted of the closed seminiferous tubules, formed of the PGCs and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cells are evident outside the tubules. In the juvenile stages, the differentiation of germline cells and the organization of small vessels that irrigate the developing testicle begin to be visible. In the analyzed stages, the immunodetection of the GnRHR receptor and PCNA revealed specific marking in the plasma membrane and in the perinuclear zone for GnRHR and in the nucleus of the germline cells in juvenile testicles for PCNA. These results can be used as a basis for further study of endocrine regulation events during testicular ontogeny in avian species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of cell proliferative activity after irradiation using immunohistochemical approach and flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Takashi (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    To evaluate a proliferative activity of post-irradiated malignant cells, we studied the kinetics of HeLa cells using immunohistochemical approach and flow cytometry. HeLa cells were stained with two proliferation-associated monoclonal antibodies, Ki-67 and anti-DNA polymerase {alpha} antibody. Nucleoli of non-irradiated cells were granularly stained with Ki-67. After irradiation, only the center of nuclei was diffusely stained with Ki-67. One hundred forty-four hours after low-dose irradiation, the staining patterns became the same as the control. On the other hand, after high-dose irradiation, the center of nuclei was weakly stained. DNA polymerase {alpha} was diffusely labelled with nuclei of the control. It was located around the border of nuclei of low-dose irradiated cells like a ring. But after high-dose irradiation, it was granularly distributed in the periphery of nuclei. FITC conjugated Ki-67/PI two parameter analysis was done by a single laser flow cytometer. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, DNA-histograms showed the accumulation to G{sub 2}/M phase and the increase of DNA content of G{sub 2}/M cells, as exposure dose was increased. Two parameter analysis showed the increase of FITC uptake of G{sub 2}/M phase as dose increased. These changes of flow cytometry were remarkably observed after 24 hours' incubation. It was shown that the difference of Ki-67 antigen and DNA polymerase {alpha} appearance depended on the irradiation dose. These findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67 or anti-DNA polymerase {alpha} antibody and flow cytometry using Ki-67 are available to evaluate cell damages after irradiation. (author).

  17. Selfish spermatogonial selection: evidence from an immunohistochemical screen in testes of elderly men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Lim

    Full Text Available The dominant congenital disorders Apert syndrome, achondroplasia and multiple endocrine neoplasia-caused by specific missense mutations in the FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET proteins respectively-represent classical examples of paternal age-effect mutation, a class that arises at particularly high frequencies in the sperm of older men. Previous analyses of DNA from randomly selected cadaveric testes showed that the levels of the corresponding FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET mutations exhibit very uneven spatial distributions, with localised hotspots surrounded by large mutation-negative areas. These studies imply that normal testes are mosaic for clusters of mutant cells: these clusters are predicted to have altered growth and signalling properties leading to their clonal expansion (selfish spermatogonial selection, but DNA extraction eliminates the possibility to study such processes at a tissue level. Using a panel of antibodies optimised for the detection of spermatocytic seminoma, a rare tumour of spermatogonial origin, we demonstrate that putative clonal events are frequent within normal testes of elderly men (mean age: 73.3 yrs and can be classed into two broad categories. We found numerous small (less than 200 cells cellular aggregations with distinct immunohistochemical characteristics, localised to a portion of the seminiferous tubule, which are of uncertain significance. However more infrequently we identified additional regions where entire seminiferous tubules had a circumferentially altered immunohistochemical appearance that extended through multiple serial sections that were physically contiguous (up to 1 mm in length, and exhibited enhanced staining for antibodies both to FGFR3 and a marker of downstream signal activation, pAKT. These findings support the concept that populations of spermatogonia in individual seminiferous tubules in the testes of older men are clonal mosaics with regard to their signalling properties and activation, thus fulfilling

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of monoclonal antibodies against nuclear estrogen and progestin receptors. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ER receptors in malignant canine mammary tumors and to identify their association with the clinical course of the tumor. Mammary tumor samples have been obtained by mastectomy from dogs presented at our clinic. Detailed clinical examination, CBC and basic serum biochemical profile were performed in all patients. Surgery was the only treatment. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of estrogen α receptors (ERα was performed on 8 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, using the PT LINK immunoperoxidase technique. Histopathological examination of the mammary tumor samples (n=11 revealed tubular adenocarcinoma (n=6,54.5% and ductal adenocarcinoma (n=3, 27.3%, one patient with benign adenoma and one with mastitis. Patients with positive ER tumors are alive, without remission, while 3 of the patients that were ER negative died due to lung metastases. According to our results, it can be concluded that the appearance and development of canine mammary tumors is highly connected with ovarian steroid hormones and that immunostaining of the tumors may be used as a good prognostic parameter in these patients.

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma with an unusual immunohistochemical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pilloni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and morphological picture of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC may be rather challenging; therefore, the immunohistochemical profile plays a relevant role in confirming the microscopic diagnosis. A panel of antibodies including cytokeratins 20, 7 and epithelial membrane antigen, and neuronspecific enolase is used in confirming the morphological diagnosis of MCC. The majority of MCCs express CK20 and are CK7-negative. Herein, we present a case of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma with an atypical immunohistochemical pattern. A 83-years old woman presented with a painless plaque, red to violaceous in colour, located in the leg. The skin tumor was excided, formalin-fixed and paraffinembedded. Tissue sections were immunostained with a panel of antibodies routinely utilized in complex primary skin tumors for evidencing epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor cells. The neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor cells was evidenced by their immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, chromograninA and neuron-specific enolase. Tumor cells also showed diffuse cytoplasmic staining for CK7. No immunoreactivity was detected for CK20 and thyroid transcription factor-1. Our data, together with previous rare reports of CK20-/CK7+ MCCs, lay stress on the importance of routinely utilizing a panel of antibodies in the differential diagnosis of complex primary carcinomas of the skin and may have important implications in expanding the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. In particular, caution should be taken in excluding the diagnosis of MCC only on the basis of the absence of reactivity of tumor cells for CK20, favouring the wrong diagnosis of less aggressive skin tumors.

  20. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of seminomas in Norwegian dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorvaldsen Tor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seminomas in the dog have traditionally been assumed to resemble human spermatocytic seminomas, based on their low malignancy and high occurrence in old individuals. However, recently published studies indicate that canine seminomas can be classified as classical and spermatocytic seminomas in a similar way as in man, and that classical seminomas comprise a substantial proportion of seminomas in the dog. These two factors both contribute to increasing the potential of canine seminoma as a relevant model for human testicular cancer. The aim of the present study was to characterise seminoma in Norwegian dogs using morphology and immunohistochemistry, and determine whether these tumours are comparable with human classical seminoma. Methods By applying diagnostic criteria from human pathology, 45 seminomas from the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register were examined histologically with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stains. All sections were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP and the transmembrane receptor c-KIT. Results Although two of the seminomas showed immunohistochemical staining characteristics indicative of classical seminoma (PLAP+/c-KIT+, all 45 examined seminomas were morphologically consistent with spermatocytic seminoma. Conclusions The value of canine seminoma as a model for SE in man remains unclear. Among the 45 investigated tumours from Norwegian dogs, none were classified as classical seminoma based on morphological criteria consistent with human seminomas. Regional or breed differences in the occurrence of classical seminoma in the dog, as well as the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria, might explain the discrepancy between the findings in the current study and the results presented by other authors.

  1. Pore pressure measurement plan of near field rock used on three dimensional groundwater flow analysis in demonstration test of cavern type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Kazuhiro; Terada, Kenji; Matsumura, Katsuhide; Koyama, Toshihiro; Yajima, Kazuaki

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration test of underground cavern type disposal facilities is planed though carrying out construction of full scale engineering barrier system which simulated in the underground space in full scale and under actual environment. This test consists of three part, these are construction test, performance test and measurement test. Behavior of near field rock mass is measured about hydrological behavior under and after construction to evaluate effect at test facility. To make plan of pore pressure measurement, three dimensional groundwater flow analysis has been carried out. Based on comparison of analysis before and after test, detail plan has been studied. (author)

  2. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Courbet Christelle; Rivière Agnès; Jeannottat Simon; Rinaldi Sandro; Hunkeler Daniel; Bendjoudi Hocine; De Marsily Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the use of different complementing methods (mass balance polymerase chain reaction assays and compound specific stable isotope analysis) to demonstrate the existence and effectiveness of biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in an alluvial aquifer. The solvent contaminated site is an old chemical factory located in an alluvial plain in France. As most of the chlorinated contaminants currently found in the groundwater at this site were produced by local industries at vario...

  3. Immunohistochemical Localization of an Isoform of TRK-Fused Gene-Like Protein in the Rat Retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Chiaki; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Bisem, Naomi J.; Vincent, Steven R.; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    The TRK-fused gene (TFG) was originally identified in chromosome translocation events, creating a pair of oncogenes in some cancers, and was recently demonstrated as the causal gene of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement. Recently, we cloned an alternative splicing variant of Tfg from a cDNA library of the rat retina, tentatively naming it retinal Tfg (rTfg). Although the common form of Tfg is ubiquitously expressed in most rat tissues, rTfg expression is localized to the central nervous system. In this study, we produced an antibody against an rTFG-specific amino acid sequence and used it to examine the localization of rTFG-like protein in the rat retina by immunohistochemistry and Western blots. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody detected a single band of 24 kDa in the rat retina. When we examined rTFG recombinant protein, the antibody detected two bands of about 42 kDa and 24 kDa. The results suggest that the 24 kDa rTFG-like protein is a fragment of rTFG. In our immunohistochemical studies of the rat retina, rTFG-like immunoreactivity was observed in all calbindin D-28K-positive horizontal cells and in some syntaxin 1-positive amacrine cells (ACs). In addition, the rTFG-like immunopositive ACs were actually glycine transporter 1-positive glycinergic or glutamate decarboxylase-positive GABAergic ACs. Our findings indicate that this novel 24 kDa rTFG-like protein may play a specific role in retinal inhibitory interneurons

  4. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  5. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  6. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  7. Spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of proliferation in immunohistochemical images of solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valous, Nektarios A.; Lahrmann, Bernd; Halama, Niels; Grabe, Niels; Bergmann, Frank; Jäger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The interactions of neoplastic cells with each other and the microenvironment are complex. To understand intratumoral heterogeneity, subtle differences should be quantified. Main factors contributing to heterogeneity include the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, action of microenvironment, mechanisms of intercellular transfer of genetic information, and differential mechanisms of modifications of genetic material/proteins. This may reflect on the expression of biomarkers in the context of prognosis/stratification. Hence, a rigorous approach for assessing the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of histological biomarker expression with accuracy and reproducibility is required, since patterns in immunohistochemical images can be challenging to identify and describe. Methods: A quantitative method that is useful for characterizing complex irregular structures is lacunarity; it is a multiscale technique that exhaustively samples the image, while the decay of its index as a function of window size follows characteristic patterns for different spatial arrangements. In histological images, lacunarity provides a useful measure for the spatial organization of a biomarker when a sampling scheme is employed and relevant features are computed. The proposed approach quantifies the segmented proliferative cells and not the textural content of the histological slide, thus providing a more realistic measure of heterogeneity within the sample space of the tumor region. The aim is to investigate in whole sections of primary pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs), using whole-slide imaging and image analysis, the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of Ki-67 immunostains. Unsupervised learning is employed to verify that the approach can partition the tissue sections according to distributional heterogeneity. Results: The architectural complexity of histological images has shown that single measurements are often insufficient. Inhomogeneity of distribution depends

  8. Spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of proliferation in immunohistochemical images of solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valous, Nektarios A; Lahrmann, Bernd; Halama, Niels; Bergmann, Frank; Jäger, Dirk; Grabe, Niels

    2016-06-01

    The interactions of neoplastic cells with each other and the microenvironment are complex. To understand intratumoral heterogeneity, subtle differences should be quantified. Main factors contributing to heterogeneity include the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, action of microenvironment, mechanisms of intercellular transfer of genetic information, and differential mechanisms of modifications of genetic material/proteins. This may reflect on the expression of biomarkers in the context of prognosis/stratification. Hence, a rigorous approach for assessing the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of histological biomarker expression with accuracy and reproducibility is required, since patterns in immunohistochemical images can be challenging to identify and describe. A quantitative method that is useful for characterizing complex irregular structures is lacunarity; it is a multiscale technique that exhaustively samples the image, while the decay of its index as a function of window size follows characteristic patterns for different spatial arrangements. In histological images, lacunarity provides a useful measure for the spatial organization of a biomarker when a sampling scheme is employed and relevant features are computed. The proposed approach quantifies the segmented proliferative cells and not the textural content of the histological slide, thus providing a more realistic measure of heterogeneity within the sample space of the tumor region. The aim is to investigate in whole sections of primary pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs), using whole-slide imaging and image analysis, the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of Ki-67 immunostains. Unsupervised learning is employed to verify that the approach can partition the tissue sections according to distributional heterogeneity. The architectural complexity of histological images has shown that single measurements are often insufficient. Inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on percentage

  9. Spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of proliferation in immunohistochemical images of solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valous, Nektarios A. [Applied Tumor Immunity Clinical Cooperation Unit, National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Lahrmann, Bernd; Halama, Niels; Grabe, Niels [Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Bergmann, Frank [Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Jäger, Dirk [Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120, Germany and National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The interactions of neoplastic cells with each other and the microenvironment are complex. To understand intratumoral heterogeneity, subtle differences should be quantified. Main factors contributing to heterogeneity include the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, action of microenvironment, mechanisms of intercellular transfer of genetic information, and differential mechanisms of modifications of genetic material/proteins. This may reflect on the expression of biomarkers in the context of prognosis/stratification. Hence, a rigorous approach for assessing the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of histological biomarker expression with accuracy and reproducibility is required, since patterns in immunohistochemical images can be challenging to identify and describe. Methods: A quantitative method that is useful for characterizing complex irregular structures is lacunarity; it is a multiscale technique that exhaustively samples the image, while the decay of its index as a function of window size follows characteristic patterns for different spatial arrangements. In histological images, lacunarity provides a useful measure for the spatial organization of a biomarker when a sampling scheme is employed and relevant features are computed. The proposed approach quantifies the segmented proliferative cells and not the textural content of the histological slide, thus providing a more realistic measure of heterogeneity within the sample space of the tumor region. The aim is to investigate in whole sections of primary pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs), using whole-slide imaging and image analysis, the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of Ki-67 immunostains. Unsupervised learning is employed to verify that the approach can partition the tissue sections according to distributional heterogeneity. Results: The architectural complexity of histological images has shown that single measurements are often insufficient. Inhomogeneity of distribution depends

  10. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK AS ANTI-DIABETIC SUPPLEMENT: BIOCHEMICAL, MOLECULAR AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmed A; Nassan, Mohammed A; Saleh, Osama M; Soliman, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups. Group 1 served as a negative control (C). Group 2 was supplemented with camel milk (CM). Diabetes was induced in the remaining groups (3, 4 and 5). Group 3 served as positive diabetic control (D). Group 4 served as diabetic and administered metformin (D+MET). Group 5 served as diabetes and supplemented with camel milk (D+CM). Camel milk was supplemented for two consecutive months. Serum glucose, leptin, insulin, liver, kidney, antioxidants, MDA and lipid profiles were assayed. Tissues from liver and adipose tissues were examined using RT-PCR analysis for the changes in mRNA expression of genes of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Pancreas and liver were used for immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Camel milk supplementation ameliorated serum biochemical measurements that altered after diabetes induction. CM supplementation up-regulated mRNA expression of IRS-2 , PK , and FASN genes, while down-regulated the expression of CPT-1 to control mRNA expression level. CM did not affect the expression of PEPCK gene. On the other hand, metformin failed to reduce the expression of CPT-1 compared to camel milk administered rats. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that CM administration restored the immunostaining reactivity of insulin and GLUT-4 in the pancreas of diabetic rats. CM administration is of medical importance and helps physicians in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  11. Industry Application ECCS / LOCA Integrated Cladding/Emergency Core Cooling System Performance: Demonstration of LOTUS-Baseline Coupled Analysis of the South Texas Plant Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vaghetto, Rodolfo [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vanni, Alessandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Neptune, Kaleb [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Under the auspices of the DOE LWRS Program RISMC Industry Application ECCS/LOCA, INL has engaged staff from both South Texas Project (STP) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU) to produce a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) model including reactor core, clad/fuel design and systems thermal hydraulics based on the South Texas Project (STP) nuclear power plant, a 4-Loop Westinghouse PWR. A RISMC toolkit, named LOCA Toolkit for the U.S. (LOTUS), has been developed for use in this generic PWR plant model to assess safety margins for the proposed NRC 10 CFR 50.46c rule, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance during LOCA. This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermalhydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results. Within this context, a multi-physics best estimate plus uncertainty (MPBEPU) methodology framework is proposed.

  12. No study left behind: a network meta-analysis in non-small-cell lung cancer demonstrating the importance of considering all relevant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Neil; Scott, David A; Woods, Beth S; Thatcher, Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    To demonstrate the importance of considering all relevant indirect data in a network meta-analysis of treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence appraisal focussed on the indirect comparison of docetaxel with erlotinib in second-line treatment of NSCLC based on trials including a common comparator. We compared the results of this analysis to a network meta-analysis including other trials that formed a network of evidence. We also examined the importance of allowing for the correlations between the estimated treatment effects that can arise when analysing such networks. The analysis of the restricted network including only trials of docetaxel and erlotinib linked via the common placebo comparator produced an estimated mean hazard ratio (HR) for erlotinib compared with docetaxel of 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-2.97). In contrast, the network meta-analysis produced an estimated HR for erlotinib compared with docetaxel of 0.83 (95% CI 0.65-1.06). Analyzing the wider network improved the precision of estimated treatment effects, altered their rankings and also allowed further treatments to be compared. Some of the estimated treatment effects from the wider network were highly correlated. This empirical example shows the importance of considering all potentially relevant data when comparing treatments. Care should therefore be taken to consider all relevant information, including correlations induced by the network of trial data, when comparing treatments.

  13. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  14. Immunohistochemical evaluation of neuroreceptors in healthy and pathological temporo-mandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favia, Gianfranco; Corsalini, Massimo; Di Venere, Daniela; Pettini, Francesco; Favia, Giorgio; Capodiferro, Saverio; Maiorano, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    A study was performed on the articular disk and periarticular tissues of the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) with immunohistochemical techniques to give evidence to the presence of neuroreceptors (NRec) in these sites. The study was carried out on tissue samples obtained from 10 subjects without TMJ disease and from 7 patients with severe TMJ arthritis and arthrosis. We use antibodies directed against following antigens: Gliofibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Leu-7, Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), Neurofilaments 68 kD (NF), Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE), S-100 protein (S-100) and Synaptophysin (SYN). This study revealed that Ruffini's-like, Pacini's-like and Golgi's-like receptors can be demonstrated in TMJ periarticular tissues and that free nervous endings are present in the subsynovial tissues but not within the articular disk. We observed elongated cytoplamic processes of chondrocytes that demonstrated strong S-100 immunoreactivity but they were unreactive with all other antibodies. These cytoplamic processes were more abundant and thicker in the samples obtained from patients with disease TMJ. The results of this study confirm that different Nrec are detectable in TMJ periarticular tissues but they are absent within the articular disk. In the latter site, only condrocytic processes are evident, especially in diseased TMJ, and they might have been confused with nervous endings in previous morphological studies. Nevertheless the absence of immunoreactivity for NF, NSE and SYN proves that they are not of neural origin.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of the digestive tract of Oligosarcus hepsetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Lopes, Danielle A; Pinheiro, Nadja L; Sales, Armando; Ventura, Adriana; Araújo, Francisco G; Gomes, Iracema D; Nascimento, Aparecida A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the histology of the digestive tract and to investigate the occurrence of endocrine cells in Oligosarcus hepsetus (O. hepsetus). METHODS: The digestive tract (DT) of O. hepsetus was divided into esophagus, two stomach regions (glandular and non-glandular) and two intestinal regions (anterior and posterior). These specimens were processed by routine histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori’s trichrome, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB). An immunohistochemical method using avidin-biotin-peroxidase was employed. RESULTS: The esophagus is lined with a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is reactive to PAS and AB. The stomach has a mucosa lined with a simple columnar epithelium with mucus-secreting cells that are reactive only to PAS. The intestine has a simple columnar epithelium with a brush border and goblet cells that are reactive to PAS and AB. Somatostatin, serotonin and cholecystokinin immunoreactive cells were identified throughout the DT. CONCLUSION: This study revealed adaptations for the species’ diet and showed that the distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells are similar to those of other fish. PMID:23569337

  16. Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterisation of Gastric Schwannomas in 29 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Wu, Xiaojiang; Kreis, Martin E.; Yu, Zhen; Feng, Lijin; Chen, Chunqiu; Xu, Bin; Bu, Zhaode; Li, Ziyu; Ji, Jiafu

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas are tumors arising from the nervous system that also occur infrequently in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach. This report characterizes 29 patients with benign or malignant gastric schwannomas. Surgical data and clinical follow-up information were available for 28 cases with a median postoperative duration of 57 months. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of benign and malignant schwannomas were analysed. Four cases (13.7%) were histologically diagnosed with malignant schwannoma. All tumors were positive for S-100 and CD56 proteins, displaying a diffuse staining pattern. Vimentin was expressed in 100% cases and all schwannomas were negative for smooth muscle actin, c-kit, and HMB-45. A significant difference was observed between the group of benign and malignant schwannomas as regards recurrences and metastasis after complete resection (P = 0.015). The survival time of patients with benign schwannomas was longer than the malignant group (P = 0.013), so gastric malignant schwannomas have a potential for recurrence and metastasis, with subsequently short survival. Complete resection with an attempt to remove all tumor tissue with negative margins is of paramount importance in the management of gastric schwannomas, particularly when they turn out to be malignant. PMID:24688535

  17. Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterisation of Gastric Schwannomas in 29 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are tumors arising from the nervous system that also occur infrequently in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach. This report characterizes 29 patients with benign or malignant gastric schwannomas. Surgical data and clinical follow-up information were available for 28 cases with a median postoperative duration of 57 months. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of benign and malignant schwannomas were analysed. Four cases (13.7% were histologically diagnosed with malignant schwannoma. All tumors were positive for S-100 and CD56 proteins, displaying a diffuse staining pattern. Vimentin was expressed in 100% cases and all schwannomas were negative for smooth muscle actin, c-kit, and HMB-45. A significant difference was observed between the group of benign and malignant schwannomas as regards recurrences and metastasis after complete resection (P=0.015. The survival time of patients with benign schwannomas was longer than the malignant group (P=0.013, so gastric malignant schwannomas have a potential for recurrence and metastasis, with subsequently short survival. Complete resection with an attempt to remove all tumor tissue with negative margins is of paramount importance in the management of gastric schwannomas, particularly when they turn out to be malignant.

  18. Meningeal Hemangiopericytomas and Meningomas: a Comparative Immunohistochemical and Genetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Saoussen; Mama, Nadia; Chourabi, Maroua; Mastouri, Maroua Haddaji; Ladib, Mohamed; Popov, Sergey; Burford, Anna; Mokni, Moncef; Tlili, Kalthoum; Krifa, Hedi; Jones, Chris; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Saad, Ali; Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHPC) is a vascular tumor arising from pericytes. Most intracranial MHPCs resemble meningiomas (MNGs) in their clinical presentation and histological features and may therefore be misdiagnosed, despite important differences in prognosis. We report 8 cases of MHPC and 5 cases of MNG collected from 2007 to 2011 from the Neuro-Surgery and Histopathology departments. All 13 samples were re reviewed by two independent pathologists and investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using mesenchymal, epithelial and neuro-glial markers. Additionally, we screened all tumors for a large panel of chromosomal alterations using multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA). Presence of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene was inferred by immunohistochemical staining for STAT6. Compared with MNG, MHPCs showed strong VIM (100% of cases), CD99 (62%), bcl-2 (87%), and p16 (75%) staining but only focal positivity with EMA (33%) and NSE (37%). The p21 antibody was positive in 62% of MHPC and less than 1% in all MNGs. MLPA data did not distinguish HPC from MNG, with PTEN loss and ERBB2 gain found in both. By contrast, STAT6 nuclear staining was observed in 3 MHPC cases and was absent from MNG. MNG and MHPC comprise a spectrum of tumors that cannot be easily differentiated based on histopathology. The presence of STAT6 nuclear positivity may however be a useful diagnostic marker.

  19. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors.

  20. Ulcerative Granular Cell Tumor: A Clinico pathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalawan, M.; Mosbeh, A.; Abd-Al Salam, F.; Abou-Bakr, A.

    2011-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is uncommonly presented with cutaneous ulcer. We examined the clinico pathological and immunohistochemical features of this ulcerative form in fourteen cases that may raise the awareness of this variant. The study included 11 males and 3 females with a mean age 31.5± 7.42 years. All cases were presented with large solitary ulcer with indurated base, elevated border, skin colored margin, and necrotic floor. Twelve lesions were located on the extremities and two lesions on the genital region. Histologically, the lesions showed dermal infiltrate composed of large polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm and characteristic infiltration of the dermal muscles in all cases. Immunostaining showed positive reaction for S100 (14/14), NSE (14/14), CD68 (5/14), and Vimentin (7/14) while HMB45, CK, EMA, and Desmin were negative. We hope that this paper increases the awareness of ulcerative GCT and consider it in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions

  1. Immunohistochemical Expression of MCAM/CD146 in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Asa, S

    2017-07-01

    MCAM/CD146 (melanoma cell adhesion molecule/CD146) is a transmembrane immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule involved in transendothelial migration and signal transduction. It is expressed in melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, prostatic, ovarian, cervical and endometrial cancers and promotes tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Melanoma is the most common malignant oral tumour of dogs and also arises in the skin, nail bed and footpad. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of MCAM/CD146 in 51 canine melanomas, including oral, cutaneous and ocular tumours. Seventeen of the 51 (33.3%) cases were negative, eight (15.7%) were weakly positive, seven (13.7%) were moderately positive and 19 (37.3%) were strongly positive. MCAM/CD146 was expressed by both oral and cutaneous melanomas; however, the intensity and the extent of the immunoreactivity was higher in oral (P = 0.009) than in cutaneous tumours (P = 0.058). Most ocular melanomas did not express MCAM/CD146 (P = 0.256). Expression of MCAM/CD146 by canine melanomas may suggest the molecule as a target for treatment, especially in oral melanomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hirschsprung's disease diagnosis: Comparison of immunohistochemical, hematoxilin and eosin staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Talebi, Ardeshir; Edalaty, Masod; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Vahidi, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is based on the absence of ganglion cells. In hemotoxilin and eosin (H and E) as well as acetylcholine esterase staining there are limitations in the diagnosis of immature ganglion cells in neonates. Methods: In this prospective study, 54 biopsies taken from suspected HD patients (five mucosal specimens and 49 full thickness specimens) were studied. In the laboratory, after preparing sections of paraffin embedded tissues, H and E staining slides were compared with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining including: S100, NSE, CD117, CD56, Cathepsin D, Vimentin, BCL2, GFAP, Synaptophysin and chromogranin. Results: The study revealed 30 negative (absence of ganglion cells) cases (55.5%), 17 positive cases (31.04%) and seven suspected cases (12.9%) of ganglion cells on the H and E staining. On IHC staining with CD56 and Cathepsin D, all of the 17 positive cases detected through H and E, were confirmed for having ganglion cells and out of 30 cases reported negative on H and E staining, 28(93.3%) were reported negative and two (6.7%) positive by IHC staining. Of the seven suspected cases H and E staining), IHC staining detectedganglion cells only in five slides; two remained negative. Conclusions: IHC staining using CD56 and Cathepsin D improved the accuracy of diagnosis in HD when used in addition to H and E staining technique, especially for negative or suspicious slides. PMID:20671847

  3. Leukemia cutis in three children: clinical and immunohistochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Furukawa, S

    1996-01-01

    We report 3 children with leukemia cutis observed at the initial diagnosis of systemic leukemia. Leukemia subtypes in the three children were congenital monocytic, acute undifferentiated, and acute monocytic, respectively. The patients were girls age 10 days, 14 years, and 11 months, respectively, at diagnosis. We describe the clinical features of the cases and the results of immunohistochemical studies on paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens. The skin lesions were tumors and areas of reddish purple erythema in the first child, pigmented erythema in the second, and bright red erythema in the first child, pigmented erythema in the second, and bright red erythema in the third. In the first two patients skin lesion biopsy specimens had dense leukemic infiltrates in the dermis with reactive T lymphocytes scattered among them. In the third patient, the infiltrating cells were almost all reactive T lymphocytes, with a few leukemic cells. A relationship between the leukemic-reactive cell ratio and the prognosis was suggested; dense leukemic cell infiltrates may be associated with a poor prognosis.

  4. Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, Shaukat A.; Shah, Munawar H.; Jamal, Qamar; Meo, Sultan A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the estrogen receptors (ER) status (present in the nucleous of cell) in the thyroid gland tissues. For this purpose 50 previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute,Jinnah Postgraduate. Medical Center,Karachi,Pakistan between March and August 2000.The staining was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embeded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER anti-body (clone1D5).Out of 50 cases,8 were noduler goiter,9 cases of adenoma 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions.Out of 50 cases ,10(20%) and 40(80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 15-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-years-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed the positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone1D5) on formalin- fixed praffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER is not detectable. The effect of Estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one. (author)

  5. HURTLE CELLS IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES IN HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS PARENCHYMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagareli, Z; Kvachadze, T; Melikadze, E; Metreveli, L; Nikobadze, E; Gogiashvili, L

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the participation and utility of Hǘrtle cells morphological requirment and transformation under Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis versus Riedel´s struma. Several markers have been evaluated to detect induced activities of Hǘrtle cells. Study subject - specimens (tissue fragments) collected from TG surgery (thyroidectomy) for mollecular (receptor) diagnosis of Hǘrtle cells activities using routine histological and immunohistochemical samples. 89 cases were selected in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosis with Hǘrtle cells history (adenoma and adenomatous grouth of oncocytes). Markers as: TSH receptors, TTF-1, S-100 protein, also anti-TPO and anti-TG levels in blood plasm were detected. It was shown that solid cell claster-nests like agregation of oncocytes and adenomatous growth foci in parafollicular areas with anti-TPO and anti-TG antibodies levels arising while Riedel´s struma shown only large intra- and extra glandular inflammatory proliferative fibrosing process. Large positive expression of TTF-1 and S-100 protein and the negative reaction of TSH receptor factor suggest that Thyroid parenchyma disorganization and mollecular biological atypia with Hǘrtle cells are proceses due to hypothyreoidismus, as well as neuroectodermal cells prominent activities in 70% of Hashimoto cases.

  6. Implementation of the k0-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k0-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho; Ho, Manh Dung

    2006-03-01

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k o -NAA procedure.The k o -standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k o -NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k o -IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used

  7. Implementation of the k{sub 0}-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k{sub 0}-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Manh Dung [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2006-03-15

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k{sub o}-NAA procedure.The k{sub o}-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k{sub o}-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k{sub o}-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used.

  8. Double-tracer autoradiography with Cu-ATSM/FDG and immunohistochemical interpretation in four different mouse implanted tumor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takeshi [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: wplants@mac.com; Furukawa, Takako [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujieda, Shigeharu [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kasamatsu, Shingo [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: yfuji@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp

    2006-08-15

    Background: We studied the regional characteristics within tumor masses using PET tracers and immunohistochemical methods. Methods: The intratumoral distribution of {sup 64}Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) ([{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ATSM) and [{sup 18}F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F]FDG) in mice with tumors of four different origins (LLC1, Meth-A, B16 and colon26) was compared with the immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cells (Ki67), blood vessels (CD34 or von Willebrand factor), and apoptotic cells (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method). Results: With all cell lines, [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ATSM and [{sup 18}F]FDG were distributed with different gradation in the tumor mass. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the high [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ATSM uptake regions were hypovascular and consisted of tumor cells arrested in the cell cycle, whereas the high [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake regions were hypervascular and consisted of proliferating cells. Conclusion: In our study, it was revealed that one tumor mass contained two regions with different characteristics, which could be distinguished by [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ATSM and [{sup 18}F]FDG. Because hypoxia and cell cycle arrest are critical factors to reduce tumor sensitivity to radiation and conventional chemotherapy, regions with such characteristics should be treated intensively as one of the primary targets. [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ATSM, which can delineate hypoxic and cell cycle-arrested regions in tumors, may provide valuable information for cancer treatment as well as possibly for treating such regions directly as an internal radiotherapy reagent.

  9. Dual-energy CT in vertebral compression fractures: performance of visual and quantitative analysis for bone marrow edema demonstration with comparison to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Venkatasamy, Aina; Kremer, Stephane; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of virtual non-calcium (VNC) dual-energy CT (DECT) images for the demonstration of trauma-related abnormal marrow attenuation in collapsed and non-collapsed vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with MRI as a reference standard. Twenty patients presenting with non-tumoral VCF were consecutively and prospectively included in this IRB-approved study, and underwent MRI and DECT of the spine. MR examination served as a reference standard. Two independent readers visually evaluated all vertebrae for abnormal marrow attenuation (''CT edema'') on VNC DECT images; specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, intra and inter-observer agreements were calculated. A last reader performed a quantitative evaluation of CT numbers; cut-off values were calculated using ROC analysis. In the visual analysis, VNC DECT images had an overall sensitivity of 84 %, specificity of 97 %, and accuracy of 95 %, intra- and inter-observer agreements ranged from k = 0.74 to k = 0.90. CT numbers were significantly different between vertebrae with edema on MR and those without (p < 0.0001). Cut-off values provided sensitivity of 85 % (77 %) and specificity of 82 % (74 %) for ''CT edema'' on thoracic (lumbar) vertebrae. VNC DECT images allowed an accurate demonstration of trauma-related abnormal attenuation in VCF, revealing the acute nature of the fracture, on both visual and quantitative evaluation. (orig.)

  10. Dual-energy CT in vertebral compression fractures: performance of visual and quantitative analysis for bone marrow edema demonstration with comparison to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Venkatasamy, Aina; Kremer, Stephane; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France)

    2014-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of virtual non-calcium (VNC) dual-energy CT (DECT) images for the demonstration of trauma-related abnormal marrow attenuation in collapsed and non-collapsed vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with MRI as a reference standard. Twenty patients presenting with non-tumoral VCF were consecutively and prospectively included in this IRB-approved study, and underwent MRI and DECT of the spine. MR examination served as a reference standard. Two independent readers visually evaluated all vertebrae for abnormal marrow attenuation (''CT edema'') on VNC DECT images; specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, intra and inter-observer agreements were calculated. A last reader performed a quantitative evaluation of CT numbers; cut-off values were calculated using ROC analysis. In the visual analysis, VNC DECT images had an overall sensitivity of 84 %, specificity of 97 %, and accuracy of 95 %, intra- and inter-observer agreements ranged from k = 0.74 to k = 0.90. CT numbers were significantly different between vertebrae with edema on MR and those without (p < 0.0001). Cut-off values provided sensitivity of 85 % (77 %) and specificity of 82 % (74 %) for ''CT edema'' on thoracic (lumbar) vertebrae. VNC DECT images allowed an accurate demonstration of trauma-related abnormal attenuation in VCF, revealing the acute nature of the fracture, on both visual and quantitative evaluation. (orig.)

  11. Dual-energy CT in vertebral compression fractures: performance of visual and quantitative analysis for bone marrow edema demonstration with comparison to MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Venkatasamy, Aïna; Kremer, Stéphane; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of virtual non-calcium (VNC) dual-energy CT (DECT) images for the demonstration of trauma-related abnormal marrow attenuation in collapsed and non-collapsed vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with MRI as a reference standard. Twenty patients presenting with non-tumoral VCF were consecutively and prospectively included in this IRB-approved study, and underwent MRI and DECT of the spine. MR examination served as a reference standard. Two independent readers visually evaluated all vertebrae for abnormal marrow attenuation ("CT edema") on VNC DECT images; specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, intra and inter-observer agreements were calculated. A last reader performed a quantitative evaluation of CT numbers; cut-off values were calculated using ROC analysis. In the visual analysis, VNC DECT images had an overall sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 97%, and accuracy of 95%, intra- and inter-observer agreements ranged from k = 0.74 to k = 0.90. CT numbers were significantly different between vertebrae with edema on MR and those without (p VNC DECT images allowed an accurate demonstration of trauma-related abnormal attenuation in VCF, revealing the acute nature of the fracture, on both visual and quantitative evaluation.

  12. Pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compounds successfully demonstrated a local dielectric difference associated with in vivo anti-prion activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Teruya

    Full Text Available Our previous study on prion-infected rodents revealed that hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compounds (HPMCs with different molecular weights but similar composition and degree of substitution have different levels of long-lasting anti-prion activity. In this study, we searched these HPMCs for a parameter specifically associated with in vivo anti-prion activity by analyzing in vitro chemical properties and in vivo tissue distributions. Infrared spectroscopic and thermal analyses revealed no differences among HPMCs, whereas pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the fluorescence intensity ratio of peak III/peak I correlated with anti-prion activity. This correlation was more clearly demonstrated in the anti-prion activity of the 1-year pre-infection treatment than that of the immediate post-infection treatment. In addition, the intensity ratio of peak III/peak I negatively correlated with the macrophage uptake level of HPMCs in our previous study. However, the in vivo distribution pattern was apparently not associated with anti-prion activity and was different in the representative tissues. These findings suggest that pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis are powerful methods to successfully demonstrate local dielectric differences in HPMCs and provide a feasible parameter denoting the long-lasting anti-prion activity of HPMCs in vivo.

  13. Comparative evaluation of diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation: A clinical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakutra, Gaurav; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Mathur, Lalit; Manohar, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    There are various treatment modalities to remove the black patches of melanin pigmentation. The aim of the study is to clinically compare the diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation and to evaluate their effect on the histological changes in melanocyte activity. A total of 40 sites of 20 patients with bilateral melanin hyperpigmentation were treated with the surgical stripping and diode laser ablation technique. Change in Hedin index score, change in area of pigmentation using image analyzing software, pain perception, patient preference of treatment were recorded. All 40 sites were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using HMB-45 immunohistochemical marker. At 12 months post-operative visit, in all sites, repigmentation was observed with different grades of Hedin index. Paired t -test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Repigmentation in surgical stripping is significantly lesser compared to laser ablation. Lesser numbers of melanocytes were found on immunohistological examination at 12 months postoperatively. Comparison for patient preference and pain indices give statistically significant values for diode laser techniques. Gingival hyperpigmentation is effectively managed by diode laser ablation technique and surgical stripping method. In this study, surgical stripping technique found to be better compared to diode laser ablation.

  14. Segmentation of HER2 protein overexpression in immunohistochemically stained breast cancer images using Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezoa, Raquel; Salinas, Luis; Torres, Claudio; Härtel, Steffen; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Arce, Paola

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. Patient therapy is widely supported by analysis of immunohistochemically (IHC) stained tissue sections. In particular, the analysis of HER2 overexpression by immunohistochemistry helps to determine when patients are suitable to HER2-targeted treatment. Computational HER2 overexpression analysis is still an open problem and a challenging task principally because of the variability of immunohistochemistry tissue samples and the subjectivity of the specialists to assess the samples. In addition, the immunohistochemistry process can produce diverse artifacts that difficult the HER2 overexpression assessment. In this paper we study the segmentation of HER2 overexpression in IHC stained breast cancer tissue images using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We asses the SVM performance using diverse color and texture pixel-level features including the RGB, CMYK, HSV, CIE L*a*b* color spaces, color deconvolution filter and Haralick features. We measure classification performance for three datasets containing a total of 153 IHC images that were previously labeled by a pathologist.

  15. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  16. [Immunohistochemical characteristics of triple negative/basal-like breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Emel Ebru; Bayol, Ümit; Cumurcu, Süheyla; Keskın, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers. We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytokeratine 5/6, p53, Ki67, GCDFP-15 expression profiles, HER2 and Chromosome 17 centromere gene status by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization method. Histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma in 90.2% of the tumors. p53, Ki67, GCDFP-15 mean positivity rates were 55.6%, 51.7%, and 3.2%, respectively. GCDFP-15 positivity was noted in 8 cases of which 6 were Cytokeratine 5/6 negative. The cut-off value for Cytokeratine 5/6 positivity was 5%. EGFR immunoreactivity was grouped into 0, 1+ as negative; 2+, 3+ as positive categories. Cytokeratine 5/6 was positive in 56,1%, EGFR was positive in 51.2% of the patients. The relation between Cytokeratine 5/6 and EGFR expression was statistically significant (p < 0.01). None of the cases showed HER2 amplification by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization method. GCDFP-15 alone is not a useful marker to detect the metastasis of basaloid type breast cancers. Cytokeratine 5/6 and EGFR expressions showed correlation so these markers are reliable to diagnose basaloid type tumors with a 5% cut-off value.

  17. APPLICATION IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICALLY RESEARCH METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pulbere

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The actual problem of modern urology remains differential diagnostics of various diseases of the prostate gland. The purpose of the study. Increasing the effectiveness of differential diagnosis of diseases of the prostate. Materials and methods. In the biopsy specimens of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa, an immunohistochemical study of the production of the Ki-67 proliferation marker, matrix metalloproteinase-9, the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-1, and the distribution of collagen type IV was performed. Results. A moderate positive correlation was found between Gleason gradation and the cell proliferation index for Ki 67 (rs = 0.674 and a moderate negative correlation of Gleason gradation with the level of production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (rs = -0.660. A weak significant negative correlation was established between the level of proliferative cell activity and the production of  MMP-9 tumor cells (rs = -0.369. A significant decrease in the level of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in adenocarcinoma of different grades was revealed. The invasive properties of tumor cells, expressed in the destruction of collagen of the IV type of the basal membrane and connective tissue prostatic stroma, are mediated by the imbalance between MMP-9 and the protein blocking this enzyme - TIMP-1, whose production decreases in adenocarcinomas of different grades compared with BPH. Conclusions: 1. BPH is characterized by high production of MMP-9 type, which destroys the collagen of the basal membranes and stroma, the proteolytic action of which is blocked by the high content of TIMP-1.

  18. Immunohistochemical evaluation of molecular radiotherapy target expression in neuroblastoma tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gains, Jennifer E.; Gaze, Mark N. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); Moroz, Veronica; Wheatley, Keith [University of Birmingham, Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2018-03-15

    Neuroblastoma may be treated with molecular radiotherapy, {sup 131}I meta-Iodobenzylguanidine and {sup 177}Lu Lutetium DOTATATE, directed at distinct molecular targets: Noradrenaline Transporter Molecule (NAT) and Somatostatin Receptor (SSTR2), respectively. This study used immunohistochemistry to evaluate target expression in archival neuroblastoma tissue, to determine whether it might facilitate clinical use of molecular radiotherapy. Tissue bank samples of formalin fixed paraffin embedded neuroblastoma tissue from patients for whom clinical outcome data were available were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and monoclonal antibodies directed against NAT and SSTR2. Sections were examined blinded to clinical information and scored for the percentage and intensity of tumour cells stained. These data were analysed in conjunction with clinical data. Tissue from 75 patients was examined. Target expression scores varied widely between patients: NAT median 45%, inter-quartile range 25% - 65%; and SSTR2 median 55%, interquartile range 30% - 80%; and in some cases heterogeneity of expression between different parts of a tumour was observed. A weak positive correlation was observed between the expression scores of the different targets: correlation coefficient = 0.23, p = 0.05. MYCN amplified tumours had lower SSTR2 scores: mean difference 23% confidence interval 8% - 39%, p < 0.01. Survival did not differ by scores. As expression of both targets is variable and heterogeneous, imaging assessment of both may yield more clinical information than either alone. The clinical value of immunohistochemical assessment of target expression requires prospective evaluation. Variable target expression within a patient may contribute to treatment failure. (orig.)

  19. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked...

  20. A Metastatic Lipid-Rich Carcinoma of the Mammary Gland in a Female Cat: Clinicopathological, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin GAL

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-rich invasive human breast cancer is a rare enigmatic entity among special types of infiltrating duct carcinoma. Our paper reports a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in a female cat with the gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical description of the tumor. A 13-year-old intact adult female, mixed-breed cat was presented by the owner to the Laboratory of Pathologic Anatomy from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A complete necropsy examination was performed in our laboratory. The tissue samples were collected and processed by paraffin technique for further histological, histochemical, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical examination. During the necropsy examination, a subcutaneous mass was discovered on the chest. Several variably sized, well-demarcated neoplasms were noted in the right axillary lymph node, right thoracic wall, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen and kidney. Histologically, the cells frequently formed tubuloacinar structures. The morphology of the described tumor showed features of a poorly differentiated mammary carcinoma. Numerous tumoral cells were large and polygonal, with abundant cytoplasm that showed foam-like cytoplasm. The tumoral cells contained either multiple small or large and solitary vacuoles that pushed the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles of the neoplastic cells were positive for Oil-Red-O and negatively with Periodic Acid–Schiff. As for immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry, nonvacuolated and vacuolated neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin and negative for vimentin. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis support a diagnosis of lipid-rich mammary carcinoma. This is the second reliable record of a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in female cat and the first one with internal metastases.

  1. Immunohistochemical loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine expression in acute myeloid leukaemia: relationship to somatic gene mutations affecting epigenetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magotra, Minoti; Sakhdari, Ali; Lee, Paul J; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Dresser, Karen; Hutchinson, Lloyd M; Woda, Bruce A; Chen, Benjamin J

    2016-12-01

    Genes affecting epigenetic pathways are frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The genes encoding TET2, IDH1 and IDH2 are among the most commonly mutated genes, and cause defective conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), impairing demethylation of DNA, and presumably serving as driver mutations in leukaemogenesis. The aim of this study was to correlate 5hmC immunohistochemical loss with the mutation status of genes involved in epigenetic pathways in AML. Immunohistochemical staining with an anti-5hmC antibody was performed on 41 decalcified, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) bone marrow biopsies from patients with AML. Archived DNA was subjected to next-generation sequencing for analysis of a panel of genes, including TET2, IDH1, IDH2, WT1 and DNMT3A. TET2, IDH1, IDH2, WT1 and DNMT3A mutations were found in 46% (19/41) of the cases. Ten of 15 cases (67%) with TET2, IDH1, IDH2 or WT1 mutations showed deficient 5hmC staining, whereas nine of 26 cases (35%) without a mutation in these genes showed loss of 5hmC. It is of note that all four cases with TET2 mutations showed deficient 5hmC staining. Overall, somatic mutations in TET2, IDH1, IDH2, WT1 and DNMT3A were common in our cohort of AML cases. Immunohistochemical staining for 5hmC was lost in the majority of cases harbouring mutations in these genes, reflecting the proposed relationship between dysfunctional epigenetic pathways and leukaemogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Immunohistochemical study of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in rat liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide

    OpenAIRE

    Y Hori; S Sato; J Yamate; M Kurasaki

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a molecule known to regulate macrophage accumulation at sites of inflammation. To elucidate the role of MIF in progression of liver fibrosis, the immunohistochemical localization of MIF and macrophages in the liver were examined. Male Wistar rats received thioacetamide (TA) injections (200 mg/kg, i.p.) for 1 or 6 weeks. In biochemical and histological tests, it was confirmed that liver fibrosis was induced. In immunohistochemical analyses, the e...

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of tyrosine kinase B (TrkB in the enteric nervous system of the small intestine in pigeon (Columba livia

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    A Germanà

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and cell localization of TrkB, the main receptor for the neurotrophins (NTs, was investigated immunohistochemically in the small intestine of adult pigeons, with special reference to the enteric nervous system (ENS. Several neuronal (neurofilament proteins and PGP 9.5 and glial cell (S100 protein markers were studied in parallel. TrkB immunoreactivity (TrkB-IR was found to be restricted to immunohistochemically-identified glial cells present in the enteric plexuses, and to Schwann cells forming the perivascular plexus. Also, TrkB-IR was detected in enterochromaffin cells and in unidentified dendritic cells within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. The present results demonstrate that as for mammals, TrkB in the ENS is restricted to the glial cells. The possible function of the TrkB ligands, however, remains to be established.

  4. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, MLH1 IN EVALUATION OF DIFFERENTIATION GRADE OF COLON ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Raskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability is associated with dysfunction of the MSH2, MLH1, PMS2 and MSH6 genes, which participate in the repair of unpaired nucleotides of DNA. It is known that microsatellite instability is an independent prognostic factor in determining the differentiation grade of colon cancer. The use of immunohistochemistry to study the repair system of unpaired nucleotides has its own characteristics and limitations. Materials and methods. The study included 39 patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Moderately-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type (72 %. There were 8 % of well-differentiated and 12 % poorly-differentiated carcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis of SH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1 proteins was done according to the standard protocol. Results. Out of 39 cases, 6 (15 % had loss of expression of at least one of the studied proteins. Out of these 6 cases with indirect signs of MSI-H, 3 were poorlydifferentiated, 1 was mucinous and 2 were moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas. Conclusion. Thus, immunohistochemical analysis of DNA repair genes can be used to determine the histological differentiation of colon adenocarcinoma.

  5. Demonstration and uncertainty analysis of synchronised scanning lidar measurements of 2-D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Marijn Floris; Campagnolo, Filippo; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The duallidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling timescales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot-wire probe...... as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of lidar scanning to the measurement of small-scale wind flow effects. An extensive uncertainty analysis was executed to assess the accuracy of the method. The downsides of lidar with respect to the hotwire probes are the larger measurement...... probe volume, which compromises the ability to measure turbulence, and the possible loss of a small part of the measurements due to hard target beam reflection. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning and the fact that remote sensing...

  6. Robust immunohistochemical staining of several classes of proteins in tissues subjected to autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszewski, Joseph; Lu, Jie; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Halushka, Marc K

    2007-06-01

    Despite the common use of immunohistochemistry in autopsy tissues, the stability of most proteins over extended time periods is unknown. The robustness of signal for 16 proteins (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, TIMP3, AGER, MSR, SCARB1, OLR1, CD36, LTF, LGALS3, LYZ, and DDOST) and two measures of advanced glycation end products (AGE, CML) was evaluated. Two formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissue arrays containing 16 tissues each were created to evaluate 48 hr of autolysis in a warm or cold environment. For these classes of proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, scavenger receptors, and advanced glycation end product receptors, we saw no systematic diminution of signal intensity during a period of 24 hr. Analysis was performed by two independent observers and confirmed for a subset of proteins by digital analysis and Western blotting. We conclude that these classes of proteins degrade slowly and faithfully maintain their immunohistochemistry characteristics over at least a 24-hr time interval in devitalized tissues. This study supports the use of autopsy tissues with short postmortem intervals for immunohistochemical studies for diseases such as diabetic vascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, and other pathological states. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.

  7. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Edyta; Kasprzak, Aldona; Blaszczyk, Agata; Biczysko, Maciej; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Ruchala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing ghrelin and obestatin expression in thyroid gland tissue are not unanimous and are mostly related to ghrelin. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in the thyroid gland appears very interesting due to their probable involvement in cell proliferation. Furthermore, since the thyroid gland is associated with the maintenance of energy balance, the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and thyroid function is worthy of consideration. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and obestatin immunocytochemical expression in nodular goiter (NG), papillary cancer (PTC) and medullary cancer (MTC). Analyzed samples included 9 cases of NG, 8 cases of PTC and 11 cases of MTC. The analysis of ghrelin and obestatin expression was performed by use of the immunohistochemical (IHC) EnVision system and evaluated with filter HSV software (quantitative morphometric analysis). Quantitative ghrelin expression in MTC cells was higher than in NG (p = 0.013) and correlated negatively with the size of the tumor (r= -0.829, p thyroid cell proliferation. The differences between ghrelin and obestatin immunoreactivity in benign and malignant thyroid tumors could support the theory of alternative transcription of the preproghrelin gene and independent production of ghrelin and obestatin.

  8. The Histological and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S.; Ramot, Yuval; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous and often annular, cutaneous eruption. While the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 CANDLE syndrome patients by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder as well as further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe, life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  9. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of papillary proliferation of the endometrium: A single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Keun; Yoon, Gun; Cho, Yoon Ah; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-06-28

    Papillary proliferation of the endometrium is an unusual lesion that is composed of papillae with fibrovascular stromal cores covered with benign-appearing glandular epithelium. We studied the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of four cases of endometrial papillary proliferations. All patients were postmenopausal. Two lesions were incidental findings in hysterectomy specimens, and two lesions were detected in endometrial curettage specimens. Based on the degree of architectural complexity and extent of proliferation, we classified papillary proliferations histopathologically into "simple" or "complex" growth patterns. Three cases were classified as simple papillary proliferation, and one case was classified as complex papillary proliferation. Simple papillary proliferations were characterized by slender papillae with delicate stromal cores. In contrast, complex papillary proliferations had intracystic papillary projections and cellular clusters with frequent branching and occasional cytological atypia. All cases showed coexistent metaplastic epithelial changes, including mucinous metaplasia, eosinophilic cell change, and ciliated cell metaplasia. One patient with simple papillary proliferations had coexistent well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma. One patient had subsequent hyperplasia without atypia, and another patient had subsequent atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia; both patients underwent total hysterectomy within four months. Our observations are consistent with previous data demonstrating that endometrial papillary proliferations coexist with or develop into atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia or endometrioid carcinoma. It is very important for pathologists to discriminate papillary proliferations from neoplastic lesions (including atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma) and benign mimickers (including papillary

  10. Immunohistochemical differentiation of atypical hyperplasia vs. carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, S; Sim, S J; Lu, L

    1992-01-01

    The distinction between atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ in breast lesions can be difficult. The identification of myoepithelial cell layers may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis of proliferative breast disease vs. intraepithelial neoplasia. We reviewed pathologic material on 20 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 29 cases of carcinoma in situ. Immunohistochemical stains were employed against muscle-specific actin, S-100 protein, and cytokeratin to identify myoepithelial cells and to recognize different staining patterns. In atypical hyperplasia, muscle-specific actin staining identified myoepithelial cells in fine branching fibrovascular layers or as scattered cells between other proliferating cells. This pattern was absent in carcinoma in situ. S-100 protein showed more positive staining in atypical hyperplasia than in carcinoma in situ with patterns distinct from muscle-specific actin. Immunostaining for cytokeratin demonstrated distinctly different patterns between the two lesions. This study suggests that muscle-specific actin, S-100 protein, and cytokeratin in combination may assist in distinguishing proliferative breast disease with atypia from carcinoma in situ.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David V; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Verduin, Lindsey; Brill, Louis B; Wick, Mark R

    2015-04-01

    Typical cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are morphologically dissimilar. It is well known, however, that poorly differentiated SCC may assume a basaloid phenotype, complicating the histologic distinction between these 2 neoplasms. Selected immunohistochemical stains have been used in the past to aid in that differential diagnosis. In the current study, additional markers were evaluated to determine whether they would be helpful in that regard. Twenty-nine cases of metatypical (squamoid) BCC (MBCC) and 25 examples of basaloid SCC (BSCC) were studied using the antibodies Ber-EP4 and MOC-31 as well as a plant lectin preparation from Ulex europaeus I (UEA-1). The resulting immunostains were interpreted independently by 3 pathologists, and the results showed that MBCCs demonstrated strong and diffuse staining for Ber-EP4 (25/29) and MOC-31 (29/29). In contrast, BSCCs tended to be only sporadically reactive for both markers (4/25 and 1/25 cases, respectively). Labeling for UEA-1 was observed in almost all BSCCs (24/25), but only 6 of 29 cases of MBCC showed limited, focal staining with that lectin. These data suggest that MOC-31 is a useful marker in the specified differential diagnosis, especially when used together with UEA-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sarcoglycans in the normal and pathological breast tissue of humans: an immunohistochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco, Alba; Favaloro, Angelo; Gioffrè, Mara; Santoro, Giuseppe; Speciale, Francesco; Vermiglio, Giovanna; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex, consisting of α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ε-sarcoglycans, is a multimember transmembrane system providing a mechanosignaling connection from the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Whereas the expression of α- and γ-sarcoglycan is restricted to striated muscle, other sarcoglycans are widely expressed. Although many studies have investigated sarcoglycans in all muscle types, insufficient data are available on the distribution of the sarcoglycan complex in nonmuscle tissue. On this basis, we used immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques to study preliminarily the sarcoglycans in normal glandular breast tissue (which has never been studied in the literature on these proteins) to verify the effective wider distribution of this complex. Moreover, to understand the role of sarcoglycans, we also tested samples obtained from patients affected by fibrocystic mastopathy and breast fibroadenoma. Our data showed, for the first time, that all sarcoglycans are always detectable in all normal samples both in epithelial and myoepithelial cells; in pathological breast tissue, all sarcoglycans appeared severely reduced. These data demonstrated that all sarcoglycans, not only β-, δ-, and ε-sarcoglycans, have a wider distribution, implying a new unknown role for these proteins. Moreover, in breast diseases, sarcoglycans containing cadherin domain homologs could provoke a loss of strong adhesion between epithelial cells, permitting and facilitating the degeneration of these benign breast tumors into malignant tumors. Consequently, sarcoglycans could play an important and intriguing role in many breast diseases and in particular in tumor progression from benign to malignant. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Immunohistochemical study of the nervous system of the tunicate Thalia democratica (Forsskal, 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pennati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalia democratica is a cosmopolitan tunicate belonging to the Thaliacea class. To further investigate the anatomy of this species, immunohistochemical labelling was performed using anti-tubulin and anti-serotonin antibodies on specimens collected in the Mediterranean Sea. The anti-tubulin antibody stained the cilia of the endostyle, the pericoronal bands and of the gill bar, enabling a detailed description of these structures. Moreover, immunolabelling of the nervous system showed the presence of eight pairs of nerve fibres emerging from the neural ganglion. Serotonergic cells were observed in the distal tract of the intestine, along the pericoronal bands, and in the placenta of gravid blastozooids, as well as in the neural ganglion. The presence of serotonin in the central nervous system has also been reported in the larvae of ascidians and may be linked to the planktonic life of these animals, a condition shared by adult thaliaceans and ascidian larvae. This work improves our knowledge of the anatomy of T. democratica and demonstrates the presence of a complex serotonergic system.

  14. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Glucose Transporter Type 1 in Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; Feitosa, Sthefane Gomes; Lima, Ana Thayssa Tomaz; Luna, Ealber Carvalho Macedo; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity and some of these have been documented in association or preceded by oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). Aggressive cancers with fast growth have demonstrated overexpression of some glucose transporters (GLUTs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the glucose transporter, GLUT-1, in OEDs and OSCCs, seeking to better elucidate the biological behavior of neoplasias. Fifteen cases were selected this research of both lesions. Five areas were analyzed from each case by counting the percentage of positive cells at 400x magnification. Immunoreactivity of GLUT-1 was observed in 100% of the samples ranging from 54.2% to 86.2% for the OSCC and 73.9% to 97.4% for the OED. Statistical test revealed that there was greater overexpression of GLUT-1 in OED than the OSCC (p=0.01). It is believed the high expression of GLUT-1 may reflect the involvement of GLUT-1 in early stages of oral carcinogenesis.

  15. Overlapping Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Features of Hashimoto Thyroiditis and IgG4-Related Thyroid Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raess, Philipp W; Habashi, Arlette; El Rassi, Edward; Milas, Mira; Sauer, David A; Troxell, Megan L

    2015-05-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an emerging clinicopathologic entity characterized by both IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration and fibrosis in one or more organs, prototypically pancreas or salivary/lacrimal glands. IgG4-RD in the thyroid (IgG4-RTD) is an area of active study, and the relationship between IgG4-RTD and Hashimoto thyroiditis is not fully delineated due to their overlapping histologic features. Retrospective review was performed of all thyroidectomy cases demonstrating lymphocytic inflammation at a single institution over a 4-year period. Approximately half (23/38) of patients had a clinical diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Nine of the 38 patients had increased absolute and relative numbers of IgG4+ plasma cells. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of HT had increased lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, but the relative proportion of IgG4+ plasma cells was not increased compared to patients without HT. There was no correlation between IgG4 levels and the amount of fibrosis in patients with or without HT. Patients identified as having the fibrosing variant of HT were not more likely to have increased levels of IgG4+ plasma cells than those without. There is significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between HT and IgG4-RTD. Future studies to identify specific characteristics of IgG4-RTD involving the thyroid are necessary to accurately define this entity.

  16. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts.

  17. Immunohistochemical Profile of Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, R.; Gulzar, R.; Avesi, L.; Hassan, S.; Danish, F.; Mirza, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the frequencies of histological types of lymphoma, diagnosed with complete immunohistochemical profile in younger and older age group. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Dow Diagnostic Research and Reference Laboratory, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January 2009 to September 2013. Methodology: Consecutive cases of lymphomas, which were diagnosed using immunohistochemistry, were analyzed according to WHO classification. Frequency and percentages for different types of lymphomas were calculated. Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas characteristics in two age groups of less than and more than 40 years were compared, applying chi-square test. Results: Out of the 318 cases, 79 (25 percentage) were Hodgkin Lymphomas (HL) and 239 (75 percentage) were Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma (MCHL) was the commonest (n=48). Amongst the NHL, 215 (89.95 percentage) were B cell lymphomas and 24 (10.05percentage) were T-cell lymphomas. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) was the commonest lymphoma (n=165, 69.95 percentage of NHL). Anaplastic T-Cell Lymphoma (ALCL, n=10) was the commonest T-cell lymphoma. The frequency of HL was significantly higher in the younger age group and that of NHL was higher in the older age group (p < 0.001). Primary lymph node involvement was reported in 175 (55 percentage) and cervical lymph node was the most frequent site. Extra nodal involvement was seen in 93 (29 percentage) of all cases and was reported in 87 (36.4 percentage) of NHL and 6 (7.5 percentage) of HL. The most common extra nodal site was the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: Hodgkin lymphoma comprises 25 percentage and non-Hodgkin lymphoma comprises 75 percentage of all lymphomas. Both occur in younger age groups than reported in the West. B-cell NHL is three times more common than T-cell lymphoma. DLBCL is the most frequent lymphoma. ALCL is the most common T-cell, and mixed

  18. Acidic preparations of lysed platelets upregulate proliferative pathways in osteoblast-like cells as demonstrated by genome-wide microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Ola; Linder, Cecilia Halling; Ansell, Anna; Kalén, Anders; Söderström, Mats; Magnusson, Per

    2011-01-01

    Platelets contain numerous growth factors essential for wound and fracture healing. We investigated the gene expression in human osteoblast-like cells stimulated with lysed platelets prepared in acidic, neutral, or alkaline buffers. Lysed platelets prepared in buffers at pH 5.4, 7.4, and 7.9, were added after neutralization to hFOB 1.19 cells. Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip 7G Scanner. Biometric, cluster, and pathway analyses were performed with GeneSpring GX. Biometric analyses demonstrated that 53 genes were differentially regulated (p ≤ 0.005, ≥2-fold increase). Pathway analysis revealed 10 significant pathways of which eight are common ones regulating bone formation and cancer growth. Eleven genes were selected for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the microarray analysis of the lysed platelets prepared in the pH 5.4 experiments. In conclusion, acidic preparations of lysed platelet concentrates release factors essential for cell proliferation and particularly cell metabolism under hypoxic conditions. The genetic response from these factors was dominated by genes associated with the same pathways observed in bone formation and cancer growth. Activation of TGF-β in the acidic preparation could be a stimulatory key factor of cell proliferation. These results support the hypothesis that acidification of platelets modifies the stimulatory response of mesenchymal cells in vitro, which is analogous with the observed milieu of a low pH present in wound and fracture sites, as well as in growing tumors.

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma With Matrical Differentiation: Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Biological Study of 22 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrpychova, Liubov; Carr, Richard A; Martinek, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Perret, Raul; Chottová-Dvořáková, Magdalena; Zamecnik, Michal; Hadravsky, Ladislav; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2017-06-01

    . Immunohistochemical analysis for BerEP4, EMA, and β-catenin can be helpful in limited biopsy specimens. From a molecular biological prospective, BCC and matrical components appear to share some of the gene mutations but have differences in others, but this observation must be validated in a large series.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in oral submucous fibrosis: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Gauri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a form of pathological fibrosis affecting the oral mucosa. There is compelling evidence to implicate the habitual chewing of areca nut with the development of OSF. Because collagens are the major structural components of connective tissues, including oral submucosa, the composition of collagen within each tissue needs to be precisely regulated to maintain tissue integrity. Arecoline stimulates fibroblasts to increase the production of collagen by 150%. Aim: As the role of collagenase is implicated in cleaving the collagen under physical conditions, this study was carried out to evaluate the role of collagenase-1 (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1 in a pathologic condition like OSF. Settings and Design: A total of 40 patients were included in the study, comprising of 30 OSF as Group 1 and 10 normal buccal mucosa tissue as Group 2. Materials and Methods: Both the groups were stained for MMP-1 by the immunohistochemical method using the streptavidin HRP-biotin labeling technique. MMP-1 expression intensity in the epithelium and connective tissue was decreased in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test of association was used to determine the difference in the expression of MMP-1 between OSF and normal buccal mucosa and among different histological gradings of OSF. Results: The results were statistically significant. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the expression of MMP-1 among different histological grades of OSF in Group 1.

  1. Fat tissue after lipolysis of lipomas: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Falk G; Sand, Michael; Hoffmann, Klaus; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus

    2007-07-01

    Injections with Lipostabil, a phosphatidylcholine (PDC) containing substance, have become a popular technique to treat localized fat accumulation and lipomas for aesthetic reasons. Despite its frequent use, the mechanism of action of PDC and histological changes of treated fat tissue still remain unclear. To investigate the histological changes of lipomas after treatment with PDC. In all, fourteen lipomas (n = 14) in five patients presenting with multiple lipomas were treated with intralesional injections of PDC (Lipostabil, Nettermann, Germany). Histological changes with immunohistochemical analysis of the inflammatory process were evaluated 4, 10, 24, 48 h, 10 days, 30 days and 60 days after lipolysis. Between 4 and 48 h after injection, histology shows a lobular neutrophilic infiltrate with partially destroyed fat cells. At day 10 the inflammatory process is accompanied by an infiltration of T-lymphocytes. After 60 days formation of macrophages with foam cells are visible, accompanied by thickened septa and capsula. Lipolysis with PDC results in a distinct inflammatory reaction of affected fat tissue, similar to factitial panniculitis. Early destruction of fat cells may suggest the involvement of detergent or osmotic mechanisms in the process.

  2. Fas/FasL expression in colorectal cancer. An immunohistochemical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Guzińska-Ustymowicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to assess the expression of Fas ligand (FasL and Fas receptor (FasR as the proteins of the post-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in colorectal carcinoma and to investigate correlations between their expression and chosen clinico-pathological parameters. The protein expression was analyzed in 50 colorectal carcinoma patients, using the immunohistochemical method. Reaction for FasR was weak in 75.5% and strong in 24.5% of the study patients, as compared to normal glandular epithelium where FasR expression was strong in 100% of cases. On the other hand, FasL expression was found to be weak in 30% and strong in 70% of colorectal cancer patients, as compared to its lack in 100% of normal colorectal epithelium. Statistical analysis showed strong expression of FasL was found to correlate statistically significantly with vascular invasion (p = 0.005. No correlations of FasL and FasR expression in the main mass of tumor was found between other clinic-pathological parameters. Fas ligand and Fas receptor appeared to be of little usefulness as prognostic factors for different groups of colorectal carcinoma patients. However, these proteins could become good therapeutic targets for colorectal carcinoma since their expression differs distinctly between normal intestinal epithelium and cancer cells, and known is the mechanism by which cancer cells escape death via apoptosis-inducing Fas/FasL pathway disorders.

  3. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid (Vicugna pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Liguori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpacas (Vicugna pacos are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, neuropeptide Y (NPY, tyrosine hydroxilase (TH, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP was analyzed in the epididymis by using immunohistochemical methods. Specimens of the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis with primary antibodies against PGP 9.5, NPY, TH, CGRP and SP. Immunopositivity to PGP 9.5 and TH and NPY was observed in nerve fibre bundles and in single nerve fibres contained into the peritubular connective tissue. Many TH and NPY immunopositive cells were found to innervate blood vessels. Rare CGRP and SP immunopositive nerves were observed. Several PGP 9,5 and NPY immunopositive epithelial cells were observed in the caput epididymis. The results of the present study suggest a role for the innervations in modulate reproductive functions in the alpaca epididymis.

  4. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical detection of brachyury is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Guo, Shang; Schwab, Joseph H; Nielsen, G Petur; Choy, Edwin; Ye, Shunan; Zhang, Zhan; Mankin, Henry; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2013-01-01

    Brachyury is a marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, such as chordoma. However, the prognostic relevance of brachyury expression in chordoma is still unknown. The improvement of tissue microarray technology has provided the opportunity to perform analyses of tumor tissues on a large scale in a uniform and consistent manner. This study was designed with the use of tissue microarray to determine the expression of brachyury. Brachyury expression in chordoma tissues from 78 chordoma patients was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray. The clinicopathologic parameters, including gender, age, location of tumor and metastatic status were evaluated. Fifty-nine of 78 (75.64%) tumors showed nuclear staining for brachyury, and among them, 29 tumors (49.15%) showed 1+ (mobile spine. However, there was no significant relationship between brachyury expression and other clinical variables. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, brachyury expression failed to produce any significant relationship with the overall survival rate. In conclusion, brachyury expression is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

  5. The immunohistochemical expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) in human gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, L; Kappus, C; McGregor, G P; Bertalanffy, H; Mennel, H D; Hagner, S

    2004-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary tumours of the central nervous system and exhibit rapid growth that is associated with neovascularisation. Adrenomedullin is an important tumour survival factor in human carcinogenesis. It has growth promoting effects on gliomas, and blockade of its actions has been experimentally shown to reduce the growth of glioma tissues and cell lines. There is some evidence that the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) mediates the tumorigenic actions of adrenomedullin. To determine whether CRLR is expressed in human gliomas and the probable cellular targets of adrenomedullin. Biopsies from 95 human gliomas of varying grade were processed for immunohistochemical analysis using a previously developed and characterised antibody to CRLR. All tumour specimens were positive for CRLR. As previously found in normal peripheral tissues, CRLR immunostaining was particularly intense in the endothelial cells. This was evident in all the various vascular conformations that were observed, and which are typical of gliomas. In addition, clear immunostaining of tumour cells with astrocyte morphology was observed. These were preferentially localised around vessels. This study has shown for the first time that the CRLR protein is present in human glioma tissue. The expression of the receptor in endothelial cells and in astrocytic tumour cells is consistent with the evidence that its endogenous ligand, adrenomedullin, may influence glioma growth by means of both direct mitogenic and indirect angiogenic effects. CRLR may be a valuable target for effective therapeutic intervention in these malignant tumours.

  6. Detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis with cathepsin D: An immunohistochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CD has been associated with tumor progression in malignant tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The purpose of this study was to find out any association between the CD and lymph node metastasis and to study the correlation of CD with various clinicopathological parameters to aid in assessment of its role as a prognostic indicator. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 20 OSCC samples with polyclonal antibody against CD. Positive results indicative of the presence of CD were further analyzed to determine any correlation between the CD and other clinicopathological parameters. Pearson Chi-square analyses, Spearsman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test and student t test were used for statistical analysis (P < 0.05. Results: Patients with lymph node metastasis showed statistically significant increase in CD expression (P < 0.01. Increasing tumor size seemed to correlate with increased CD expression (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Based on its association with other clinicopathological variables, CD expression can be used for the assessment of patient survival in cases of OSCC.

  7. Immunohistochemical Characterization of S100A6 in the Murine Ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaue, Mayu; Miwa, Naofumi; Takamatsu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    S100 proteins comprise a large family of Ca 2+ -binding proteins and exhibit a variety of intra- and extracellular functions. Despite our growing knowledge about the biology of S100 proteins in some tissues such as brain and smooth muscle, little is known about S100 proteins in the normal mammalian reproductive tissue. In the present study, we investigated the distribution pattern of S100A6 (alternatively named calcyclin) in the murine ovary by immunohistochemical study using specific antibody. S100A6 was localized substantially in the cytoplasm of luteal cells, with concomitant expression of S100A11, another S100 protein, but not in the other type of cells such as oocytes, follicle epithelial cells (granulosa cells), and cells of stroma including theca interna cells in the murine ovary. S100A6-immunoreactive corpora lutea (CLs) were divided into two types: homogeneously and heterogeneously stained CLs, and possibly they may represent differentiating and mature CL, respectively. Our regression analysis revealed that expression level of S100A6 positively correlated with that of cytochrome P450 11A, a steroidogenic enzyme in the heterogeously stained CL. These results suggested that S100A6 may contribute to differentiation of steroidogenic activity of luteal cells in a synergistic manner with S100A11 by facilitating some shared functions

  8. Expression of Selected Markers in Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Canine and Human Testicular Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaputa Rafał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemical profiles of the most common canine testicular tumours, including the Leydig cell tumours, seminomas, and Sertoli cell tumours were analysed, and the results were compared with those obtained in the corresponding types of human testicular neoplasms. The expressions of vimentin, von Willebrand factor (FVIII, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and MCM3 were quantified. In the case of Sertoli cell tumours, only canine ones were analysed, since this type of tumour is very rarely diagnosed in men. The expression of the analysed proteins in the testicular tumours was similar. The von Willebrand factor exhibited the strongest expression in Leydig cell tumours in dogs and men, while vimentin was expressed more strongly in dogs (96.7% had an intensity at +++ than in men (62.5% had +++ in the Leydigioma. The immunoexpression of MCM3 in seminomas was high in both men and dogs – 90% +++ and 100% +++ respectively. The lack of chromogranin A and synaptophysin was observed in almost 100% of seminomas in men and dogs. This differed from the results obtained for Leydigioma, where chromogranin A was expressed in 70% of dogs at +++ and in 100% of men at ++++. The results may indicate that the antibodies were selected correctly. Their analysis and interpretation provides valuable information concerning the nature of the studied tumours.

  9. [The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of changes in the fallopian tube mucosa in ovarian epithelial tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaturova, A V; Ezhova, L S; Faizullina, N M; Sannikova, M V; Khabas, G N

    2016-01-01

    to study the incidence of fallopian tube lesions (secretory cell proliferations (SCP), p53 signature, serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STIL), and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) in ovarian epithelial tumors and to propose their pathogenetic association with a certain histotype of the ovarian tumor. The investigation enrolled 136 patients with ovarian epithelial tumors, whose fallopian tubes were morphologically and immunohistochemically (IHC) examined using p53, Ki-67, and PAX2. Statistical analysis was carried out applying the Mann-Whitney test and χ(2) test. Lesions meeting the STIC criteria were found in 14.7% of cases (only in ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC)), those suspecting STICs were in 25.7%, and those without signs of STICs were in 59.6%. IFC examination diagnosed STIC in 10% of cases (only in OSC), STIL in 13.3%, p53 signature in 11.7% (only in serous tumors), and the normal/reactively changed tubal epithelium in 65%. The incidence of STILs correlated with the malignant potential of serous tumors significantly (pSTIC and high-grade OSC and revealed significant differences in the incidence of other fallopian tubal intraepithelial lesions in serous cystadenomas, borderline tumors, and OSC, in different ovarian carcinomas. The findings may suggest that the earliest stage in the pathogenesis of OSC is the development of SCP, followed by the formation of p53 signatures that may further give rise to STIL, and finally STC (due to the acquisition of additional mutations).

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of ezrin in oral potentially malignant disorders-A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghini Mohanraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ezrin, also known as cytovillin, is a member of the ERM family of protein. Ezrin cross-links actin filament with the plasma membrane. They are involved in the formation of microvilli, cell–cell adhesion, maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, and membrane trafficking. Recent analysis reveals their involvement in signaling pathways. Ezrin is highly expressed in several types of human cancers, and correlation between its immunoreactivity and histopathological data as well as the patient outcome has previously been studied. Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression pattern of ezrin in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs, namely, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF with different grades and clinically leucoplakia (hyperkeratosis with various degree of dysplasia and its use as a predictive marker for malignant transformation. Subjects and Methods: Sample size n = 43, histopathologically confirmed cases of OPMDs (13 cases of OSMF with different grades and 30 cases of clinically leukoplakia were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Immunohistochemistry was done using anti-ezrin antibody, and the expression was graded in terms of proportion and intensity. Results: There was a significant expression of ezrin in OPMDs, and its cytoplasmic shift can be used as a predictive marker for malignant transformation. Conclusion: The findings of the current study revealed that the expression of ezrin in OPMDs may be related to the progression of the disease.

  11. Immunohistochemical Localization of the Water Channels AQP4 and AQP5 in the Rat Pituitary Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Inahata, Yuki; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Yang, Chun-Ying; Kobayashi, Makito; Takata, Kuniaki; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The pituitary gland is composed of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis contains endocrine cells, folliculo-stellate (FS) cells, and marginal layer cells, whereas the neurohypophysis mainly comprises axons and pituicytes. To understand the molecular nature of water transfer in the pituitary gland, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of the membrane water channels aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and AQP5 in rat tissue. Double immunofluorescence analysis of AQP4 and S100 protein, a known marker for FS cells, marginal layer cells, and pituicytes, clearly revealed that FS cells and marginal layer cells in the adenohypophysis and the pituicytes in pars nervosa are positive for AQP4. AQP5 was found to be localized at the apical membrane in some marginal layer cells surrounding the Rathke’s residual pouch, in which AQP4 was observed to be localized on the basolateral membranes. These results suggest the following possibilities: 1) FS cells especially require water for their functions and 2) transepithelial water transfer could occur between the lumen of Rathke’s residual pouch and the interstitial fluid in the adenohypophysis through the AQP4 and AQP5 channels in the marginal layer cells

  12. Connective tissue growth factor immunohistochemical expression is associated with gallbladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Alvarez, Hector; Brebi, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

    2013-02-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasia associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. Molecular mechanisms involved in GBC pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is thought to play a role in the pathologic processes and is overexpressed in several human cancers, including GBC. No information is available about CTGF expression in early stages of gallbladder carcinogenesis. Objective.- To evaluate the expression level of CTGF in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder and its correlation with clinicopathologic features and GBC prognosis. Connective tissue growth factor protein was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing tissue samples of chronic cholecystitis (n = 51), dysplasia (n = 15), and GBC (n = 169). The samples were scored according to intensity of staining as low/absent and high CTGF expressers. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test or Fisher exact probability test with a significance level of P Connective tissue growth factor expression showed a progressive increase from chronic cholecystitis to dysplasia and then to early and advanced carcinoma. Immunohistochemical expression (score ≥2) was significantly higher in advanced tumors, in comparison with chronic cholecystitis (P < .001) and dysplasia (P = .03). High levels of CTGF expression correlated with better survival (P = .04). Our results suggest a role for CTGF in GBC progression and a positive association with better prognosis. In addition, they underscore the importance of considering the involvement of inflammation on GBC development.

  13. The mammographic correlations of a new immunohistochemical classification of invasive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sheeba_taneja@yahoo.co.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Rakha, E.A.; Green, A.R. [Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ball, G. [Nottingham Trent University, School of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ellis, I.O. [Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Aim: Recent protein expression profiling of breast cancer has identified specific subtypes with clinical, biological, and therapeutic implications. The aim of this study was to identify the mammographic correlates of these novel molecular classes of invasive breast cancer. Materials and methods: The mammographic findings of 415 patients with operable breast cancer were correlated with the previously described protein expression classes identified by our group using immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of a large series of breast cancer cases prepared as tissue microarrays (TMAs). Twenty-five proteins of known relevance in breast cancer were assessed, including hormone receptors, HER-2 status, basal and luminal markers, p53 expression, and E-cadherin. Results: The mammographic background pattern and proportion of lesions that were mammographically occult were similar in all groups. Groups characterized by luminal and hormone receptor positivity had significantly more spiculate lesions at mammography. Groups characterized by HER-2 overexpression, basal characteristics, and E-cadherin positivity had a significantly higher proportion of ill-defined masses. These findings were independent of histological grade. Conclusion: The mammographic features of breast cancer show significant correlation with molecular classes of invasive breast cancer identified by protein expression IHC analysis. The biological reasons for the findings and implications of these regarding imaging protocols require further study and may provide mechanisms for improvement of detection of these lesions.

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of HE4 in benign, borderline, and malignant lesions of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Penelope; Mehmood, Saira; Akalin, Ali; Shroyer, Kenneth R

    2012-11-01

    Despite advances in the development of novel methods to improve treatment, ovarian carcinoma is still the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death in the United States and other industrialized nations. Improvements in the clinical outcome of ovarian cancer will be achieved if methods can be developed to enable the detection of these tumors at the earliest possible stage. Thus, it is critically important to identify and validate new biomarkers of ovarian cancer. HE4 expression was defined by immunohistochemical analysis of a wide range of benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian lesions, including serous, endometrioid, mucinous, and clear cell lesions of the ovary and in primary tubal carcinomas and the normal fallopian tube. At the cellular level, HE4 was highly expressed in malignant ovarian tumors and in a wide range of benign and borderline ovarian lesions. In addition, HE4 was highly expressed in primary fallopian tube carcinomas and benign fallopian tubal epithelial cells. These results support the conclusion that HE4 is widely expressed in most benign, borderline, and malignant lesions of the ovary and the fallopian tube. The detection of HE4 expression at high levels in some benign lesions and normal tissues suggests that HE4 could have limited specificity as a marker of ovarian or tubal carcinoma. Furthermore, the relatively weak expression that was observed in many ovarian carcinomas indicates that HE4 could fail to detect some cases of primary or recurrent disease.

  15. Morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated the potential of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jihong; Li, Yinxin; Li, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a worldwide environmental problem, and remediation of Cd pollution is of great significance for food production as well as human health. Here, the responses of sweet sorghum cv. 'M-81E' to cadmium stress were studied for its potential as an energy plant in restoring soils contaminated by cadmium. In hydroponic experiments, the biomass of 'M-81E' showed no obvious change under 10 μM cadmium treatment. Cadmium concentration was the highest in roots of seedlings as well as mature plants, but in agricultural practice, the valuable and harvested parts of sweet sorghum are shoots, so promoting the translocation of cadmium to shoots is of great importance in order to improve its phytoremediation capacity. Further histochemical assays with dithizone staining revealed that cadmium was mainly concentrated in the stele of roots and scattered in intercellular space of caulicles. Moreover, the correlation analysis showed that Cd had a negative relationship with iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in caulicles and leaves and a positive relationship with Fe in roots. These results implied that cadmium might compete with Fe, Zn, and Mn for the transport binding sites and further prevent their translocation to shoots. In addition, transmission electron microscopic observations showed that under 100 μM cadmium treatment, the structure of chloroplast was impaired and the cell wall of vascular bundle cells in leaves and xylem and phloem cells in roots turned thicker compared to control. In summary, morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated sweet sorghum can absorb cadmium and the growth is not negatively affected by mild level cadmium stress; thus, it is a promising material for the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils considering its economic benefit. This study also points out potential strategies to improve the phytoremediation capacity of sweet sorghum through genetic modification of transporters and cell wall

  16. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: Mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Christelle; Rivière, Agnès; Jeannottat, Simon; Rinaldi, Sandro; Hunkeler, Daniel; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2011-11-01

    This work describes the use of different complementing methods (mass balance, polymerase chain reaction assays and compound-specific stable isotope analysis) to demonstrate the existence and effectiveness of biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in an alluvial aquifer. The solvent-contaminated site is an old chemical factory located in an alluvial plain in France. As most of the chlorinated contaminants currently found in the groundwater at this site were produced by local industries at various times in the past, it is not enough to analyze chlorinated solvent concentrations along a flow path to convincingly demonstrate biodegradation. Moreover, only a few data were initially available to characterize the geochemical conditions at this site, which were apparently complex at the source zone due to (i) the presence of a steady oxygen supply to the groundwater by irrigation canal losses and river infiltration and (ii) an alkaline pH higher than 10 due to former underground lime disposal. A demonstration of the existence of biodegradation processes was however required by the regulatory authority within a timeframe that did not allow a full geochemical characterization of such a complex site. Thus a combination of different fast methods was used to obtain a proof of the biodegradation occurrence. First, a mass balance analysis was performed which revealed the existence of a strong natural attenuation process (biodegradation, volatilization or dilution), despite the huge uncertainty on these calculations. Second, a good agreement was found between carbon isotopic measurements and PCR assays (based on 16S RNA gene sequences and functional genes), which clearly indicated reductive dechlorination of different hydrocarbons (Tetrachloroethene—PCE-, Trichloroethene—TCE-, 1,2- cisDichloroethene— cis-1,2-DCE-, 1,2- transDichloroethene— trans-1,2-DCE-, 1,1-Dichloroethene—1,1-DCE-, and Vinyl Chloride—VC) to ethene. According to these carbon isotope measurements

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) NSs protein demonstrates the isolated emergence of resistance-breaking strains in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almási, Asztéria; Csilléry, Gábor; Csömör, Zsófia; Nemes, Katalin; Palkovics, László; Salánki, Katalin; Tóbiás, István

    2015-02-01

    Resurgence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) worldwide as well as in Hungary causing heavy economic losses directed the attention to the factors contributing to the outbreak of this serious epidemics. The introgression of Tsw resistance gene into various pepper cultivars seemed to solve TSWV control, but widely used resistant pepper cultivars bearing the same, unique resistance locus evoked the rapid emergence of resistance-breaking (RB) TSWV strains. In Hungary, the sporadic appearance of RB strains in pepper-producing region was first observed in 2010-2011, but in 2012 it was detected frequently. Previously, the non-structural protein (NSs) encoded by small RNA (S RNA) of TSWV was verified as the avirulence factor for Tsw resistance, therefore we analyzed the S RNA of the Hungarian RB and wild type (WT) isolates and compared to previously analyzed TSWV strains with RB properties from different geographical origins. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the different RB strains had the closest relationship with the local WT isolates and there is no conserved mutation present in all the NSs genes of RB isolates from different geographical origins. According to these results, we concluded that the RB isolates evolved separately in geographic point of view, and also according to the RB mechanism.

  18. O critério de positividade para a análise imunoistoquímica da p53 na confirmação da displasia do esôfago de Barrett faz diferença? Does positive criterium for p53 immunohistochemical analysis in the confirmation of Barrett's dysplasia make difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Vivian Lopes

    2005-12-01

    biopsy specimens from 42 patients with Barrett's esophagus. Section ectionss of formalinof formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded biopsies were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, PAS-alcian blue and evaluated the p53 immunohistochemical expression. Two p53 immunostaining criteria were utilized: 1. the staining of, at least, half of the nuclei, and 2. the staining of any nucleus. The diagnosis of dysplasia was confirmed by the agreement between three pathologists. RESULTS: The total number of tissue specimens was 229, with an average of 5.4 specimens per patient. Dysplasia, with agreement for all pathologists examining the same set of slides, was detected in six (14.3% cases. According to the two different p53 immunostaining criteria, the protein was detected in non-dysplastic Barrett's metaplasia, respectively, in 5 (13.9% and 14 (38.9% patients. Specificaly in the six dysplastic cases, p53 was detected, according to the immunostaining criteria, in one (16.7% and four (66.7% cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this group, p53 immunohistochemical expression, regardless of positive criteria take into account, was not useful for detecting dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

  19. Variability in Immunohistochemical Detection of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) in Cancer Tissue Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Giosuè; De Chiara, Anna; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Anniciello, Annamaria; De Cecio, Rossella; D’Alterio, Crescenzo; Scala, Stefania; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    In normal cell physiology, programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, play an immunoregulatory role in T-cell activation, tolerance, and immune-mediated tissue damage. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway also plays a critical role in immune escape of tumor cells and has been demonstrated to correlate with a poor prognosis of patients with several types of cancer. However, recent reports have revealed that the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of the PD-L1 in tumor cells is not uniform for the use of different antibodies clones, with variable specificity, often doubtful topographical localization, and with a score not uniquely defined. The purpose of this study was to analyze the IHC expression of PD-L1 on a large series of several human tumors to correctly define its staining in different tumor tissues. PMID:27213372

  20. Analysis of the immunohistochemical expressions of p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and their correlations with the prognostic factors Análise das expressões imunoistoquímicas da p53, bcl-2 e Ki-67 no adenocarcinoma colorretal e suas correlações com os fatores prognósticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunaldo Lima de Menezes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Search of tumors markers that allow treatment with higher survival rates, and indicate the response to treatment and recurrence of cancer OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immunoexpression of the proteins p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and correlate them with the clinical-pathological prognostic factors. METHOD: Tissue microarray paraffin blocks were made from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue resected from 82 patients who had undergone surgery but not chemotherapy or radiotherapy, at "Hospital São Paulo", São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between 2002 and 2005. Thin sections (4 µm were subjected to immunohistochemical reactions, and immunoexpression staining scores were obtained. The scores were correlated with the degree of cell differentiation, staging, disease-free interval, recurrence, survival and specific mortality. The study variables were analyzed using the chi-square and Kaplan-Meier tests to investigate associations with the markers. The significance of the differences between the curves of the disease-free interval and survival was analyzed using the Logrank and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of p53 was positive in 70 tumors (85.4% and negative in 12 (14.6%. The expression of bcl-2 was positive in 26 (31.7% and negative in 56 (68.3%. The expression of Ki-67 was positive in 62 (75.6% and negative in 20 (24.4%. There was no statistically significant correlation between the expressions of these markers separately or in conjunction, in relation to the degree of cell differentiation, staging, disease-free interval, survival and specific mortality. In relation to recurrence, there was a statistically significant correlation with positive expression of Ki-67 (P = 0.035. CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 in colorectal cancer is associated with recurrence of this disease.CONTEXTO: Pesquisa de marcadores tumorais que permitam tratamento com maiores índices de sobrevida, além de

  1. Assessment of Canine Mast Cell Tumor Mortality Risk Based on Clinical, Histologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rodrigo S; Lavalle, Gleidice E; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Souza, Mayara C C; Cassali, Geovanni D; Araújo, Roberto B

    2018-03-01

    Mast cell tumor (MCT) is a frequent cutaneous neoplasm in dogs that is heterogeneous in clinical presentation and biological behavior, with a variable potential for recurrence and metastasis. Accurate prediction of clinical outcomes has been challenging. The study objective was to develop a system for classification of canine MCT according to the mortality risk based on individual assessment of clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. The study included 149 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of cutaneous or subcutaneous MCT. By univariate analysis, MCT metastasis and related death was significantly associated with clinical stage ( P < .0001, r P = -0.610), history of tumor recurrence ( P < .0001, r P = -0.550), Patnaik ( P < .0001, r P = -0.380) and Kiupel grades ( P < .0001, r P = -0.500), predominant organization of neoplastic cells ( P < .0001, r P = -0.452), mitotic count ( P < .0001, r P = -0.325), Ki-67 labeling index ( P < .0001, r P = -0.414), KITr pattern ( P = .02, r P = 0.207), and c-KIT mutational status ( P < .0001, r P = -0.356). By multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazard model, only 2 features were independent predictors of overall survival: an amendment of the World Health Organization clinical staging system (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.824 [1.210-4.481]; P = .01) and a history of tumor recurrence (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 9.250 [2.158-23.268]; P < .001]. From these results, we propose an amendment of the WHO staging system, a method of risk analysis, and a suggested approach to clinical and laboratory evaluation of dogs with cutaneous MCT.

  2. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  3. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  4. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  5. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  6. Proliferative activity in oral pyogenic granuloma: A comparative immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvani Gita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pyogenic granuloma (PG is one of the most common reactive vascular lesions in the oral mucosa, which has been divided into the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH and the non lobular type (non-LCH as two distinct entities, on the basis of some investigations. Aims: This study aims to compare the proliferative and angiogenic activity of two histological types of PG to determine whether they have two distinct types of biological behavior. Settings and Design: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, immunostaining was performed on 10 cases of each type of PG. Materials and Methods: About 4μm sections were cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks and each specimen was stained with both anti-CD31 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies simultaneously. Labeling index (LI was determined for both types by counting Ki-67 and CD31 positive cells separately and simultaneously in 1000 stromal and luminal cells. Micro vessel count (MVC, the mean number of micro vessels in five areas at Χ200 magnification, was also determined for both groups. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ki-67 LI in LCH (5.4 ± 2.4 was higher than non-LCH (3.9 ± 3.9. The percentage of CD31 positive cells in LCH (28.5 ± 22 was lower than non-LCH (37.1 ± 20.8 and simultaneously immunostaining for both markers in LCH type (2.4 ± 2.1 was higher than non-LCH (1.2 ± 1. The MVC was approximately 77.35 ± 34.6 and 82.6 ± 42.7 in the lobular areas of LCH and central areas of non-LCH PG, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a higher proliferation activity in endothelial cells of LCH PG than in non-LCH.

  7. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  8. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  9. Functional importance of conserved domains in the flowering-time gene CONSTANS demonstrated by analysis of mutant alleles and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, F; Costa, M M; Hepworth, S R; Vizir, I; Piñeiro, M; Reeves, P H; Putterill, J; Coupland, G

    2001-12-01

    CONSTANS promotes flowering of Arabidopsis in response to long-day conditions. We show that CONSTANS is a member of an Arabidopsis gene family that comprises 16 other members. The CO-Like proteins encoded by these genes contain two segments of homology: a zinc finger containing region near their amino terminus and a CCT (CO, CO-Like, TOC1) domain near their carboxy terminus. Analysis of seven classical co mutant alleles demonstrated that the mutations all occur within either the zinc finger region or the CCT domain, confirming that the two regions of homology are important for CO function. The zinc fingers are most similar to those of B-boxes, which act as protein-protein interaction domains in several transcription factors described in animals. Segments of CO protein containing the CCT domain localize GFP to the nucleus, but one mutation that affects the CCT domain delays flowering without affecting the nuclear localization function, suggesting that this domain has additional functions. All eight co alleles, including one recovered by pollen irradiation in which DNA encoding both B-boxes is deleted, are shown to be semidominant. This dominance appears to be largely due to a reduction in CO dosage in the heterozygous plants. However, some alleles may also actively delay flowering, because overexpression from the CaMV 35S promoter of the co-3 allele, that has a mutation in the second B-box, delayed flowering of wild-type plants. The significance of these observations for the role of CO in the control of flowering time is discussed.

  10.  Immunohistochemical Expression of ki-67 and p53 in Colorectal Adenomas: A Clinicopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Hasson Ali

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To evaluate the significance of P53 and Ki-67 expression as immunohistochemical markers in early detection of premalignant changes in different types of colorectal adenomas. Also, to correlate immunohistochemical expression of the two markers with different clinicopathological parameters including; age, and sex of the patient, type, site, size and grade of dysplasia of colorectal adenomas.Methods: Forty-seven polypectomy specimens of colorectal adenomas were retrieved from the archival materials of the Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Diseases Teaching Hospital in Baghdad from 2009 - 2010. Four µm section specimens were stained by immunohistochemical technique with Ki-67 and P53 tumor markers. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Immunohistochemical expressions of Ki-67 and P53 had a significant correlation with the size and grade of dysplasia in colorectal adenomas. However, there was no significant correlation among the immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and P53 with the age and gender of the patient, and the type and site of colorectal adenomas. There was no significant correlation between Ki-67 and P53 expressions in colorectal adenomas. Villous adenomas of colorectum showed a significant correlation with the grade of dysplasia, while there was no significant correlation between size and site of colorectal adenoma with the grade of dysplasia.Conclusion: High grade dysplasia with significant positive immunohistochemical markers of Ki-67 and P53 could be valuable parameters for selecting from the total colorectal adenoma population, those most deserving of close surveillance in follow-up cancer prevention programs. It is closely linked with increasing age particularly in patients with a large size adenoma of villous component in their histology.

  11. Lewis x is highly expressed in normal tissues: a comparative immunohistochemical study and literature revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, María V; Isla-Larrain, Marina; Rabassa, Martín E; Demichelis, Sandra; Colussi, Andrea G; Crespo, Marina; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Segal-Eiras, Amada

    2007-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis was employed to determine the expression of carbohydrate antigens associated to mucins in normal epithelia. Tissue samples were obtained as biopsies from normal breast (18), colon (35) and oral cavity mucosa (8). The following carbohydrate epitopes were studied: sialyl-Lewis x, Lewis x, Lewis y, Tn hapten, sialyl-Tn and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen. Mucins were also studied employing antibodies against MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6 and also normal colonic glycolipid. Statistical analysis was performed and Kendall correlations were obtained. Lewis x showed an apical pattern mainly at plasma membrane, although cytoplasmic staining was also found in most samples. TF, Tn and sTn haptens were detected in few specimens, while sLewis x was found in oral mucosa and breast tissue. Also, normal breast expressed MUC1 at a high percentage, whereas MUC4 was observed in a small number of samples. Colon specimens mainly expressed MUC2 and MUC1, while most oral mucosa samples expressed MUC4 and MUC1. A positive correlation between MUC1VNTR and TF epitope (r=0.396) was found in breast samples, while in colon specimens MUC2 and colonic glycolipid versus Lewis x were statistically significantly correlated (r=0.28 and r=0.29, respectively). As a conclusion, a defined carbohydrate epitope expression is not exclusive of normal tissue or a determined localization, and it is possible to assume that different glycoproteins and glycolipids may be carriers of carbohydrate antigens depending on the tissue localization considered.

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of Notch signaling in the lining epithelium of periapical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliou, Eleni; Kerezoudis, Nikolaos; Tosios, Konstantinos; Lafkas, Daniel; Kiaris, Hippokratis

    2011-02-01

    In this study we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the receptors Notch 1 and Notch 2, the ligand Delta 1, and the transcription factors HES 1 and HES 5 in the epithelium of well-defined periapical cysts. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on 55 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, well-defined periapical cysts with minimum inflammation, obtained from the archival tissue database of the Department of Oral Pathology and Surgery. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the specificity of the anti-Notch antibody and the expression of Notch signaling in 5 fresh-frozen periapical cysts. The levels of staining intensity were estimated by the performance of a semiautomated image analysis system. Descriptive statistic of mean values obtained by computerized image analysis method was performed. Immunostaining reaction of all Notch signaling components was observed in the cytoplasm and/or the cytoplasmic membrane in the majority of epithelial cells of periapical cysts. Nuclear staining was observed occasionally in all cases. Notch 2 showed strong staining in 52.83% of the cases, followed by Notch 1 (35.85%), HES 1 and HES 5 moderate staining in 72.73% and 57.69% of the cases, respectively, and Delta 1 weak staining in 58.33% of the cases. No statistical correlation was found between the antibodies and the sex or the age of the study group. Notch is an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism that regulates cell fate decisions during development and postnatal life in organisms as diverse as worms, flies, and humans. The present observations indicate that Notch pathway is active downstream in the lining epithelium of periapical cysts, suggesting an involvement of this pathway in periapical cyst growth and expansion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative immunohistochemical study on amylase localization in the rat and human exocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughsteen, Adib A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective was to localize amylase enzyme immunohistochemically in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using polyclonal sheep anti-human amylase antibody, and to compare between the intensities of their amylase-immunostaining. Indirect immunofluorescence method was applied on formaldehyde-fixed, and paraffin-embedded pancreatic sections obtained from adult male Wistar rats and autopsied human samples. Primary incubation was performed using sheep anti-amylase antibody followed by secondary incubation with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-sheep IgG serum. Control tests of amylase immunospecificity were also undertaken either by incubation with primary antibodies previously pre-adsorbed with an excess of human pancreatic amylase, or only with secondary antibodies. The amylase immunofluorescence was positively and homogenously detected in all acinar cells of both rat and human pancreatic stained sections. The immunostaining was clearly demonstrated in the cell apices and peri-nuclear areas, but it was consistently brighter and more intense in the human acinar cells compared with that of the rat pancreas. Control tests of amylase immunofluorescence revealed the specificity of the antibodies applied for amylase localization in rat and human pancreas. Although many previous immunohisto- and cytochemical reports have successfully localized amylase in the pancreas of different mammalian species, but all of them have used locally prepared anti-amylase antibodies. The present report successfully illustrates immuno-localization of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using commercial polyclonal sheep anti-human pancreatic amylase antibodies, and also suggests their useful application in the immunochemical studies on various mammalian species. Additionally, the results indicate a structural similarity between the human and rat pancreatic amylases, a concept required further exploration. (author)

  14. Immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics with prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Bellas

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB. BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity.

  15. Immunohistochemical characterisation of the hepatic stem cell niche in feline hepatic lipidosis: a preliminary morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Robben, Joris H; Favier, Robert P; Rothuizen, Jan; Grinwis, Guy Cm; Schotanus, Baukje A; Penning, Louis C

    2018-05-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the cellular and stromal components of the hepatic progenitor cell niche in feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Methods Immunohistochemical staining for the progenitor/bile duct marker (K19), activated Kupffer cells (MAC387), myofibroblasts (alpha-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA]) and the extracellular matrix component laminin were used on seven liver biopsies of cats with FHL and three healthy cats. Double immunofluorescence stainings were performed to investigate co-localisation of different cell types in the hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) niche. Results HPCs, Kupffer cells, myofibroblasts and laminin deposition were observed in the liver samples of FHL, although with variability in the expression and positivity of the different immunostainings between different samples. When compared with the unaffected cats where K19 positivity and minimal α-SMA and laminin positivity were seen mainly in the portal area, in the majority of FHL samples K19 and α-SMA-positive cells and laminin positivity were seen also in the periportal and parenchymatous area. MAC387-positive cells were present throughout the parenchyma. Conclusions and relevance This is a preliminary morphological study to describe the activation and co-localisation of components of the HPC niche in FHL. Although the HPC niche in FHL resembles that described in hepatopathies in dogs and in feline lymphocytic cholangitis, the expression of K19, α-SMA, MAC387 and lamin is more variable in FHL, and a common pattern of activation could not be established. Nevertheless, when HPCs were activated, a spatial association between HPCs and their niche could be demonstrated.

  16. Molecular IgV(H) analysis demonstrates highly somatic mutated B cells in synovialitis of osteoarthritis: a degenerative disease is associated with a specific, not locally generated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, V; Hensel, F; Kim, H J; Souto Carneiro, M M; Starostik, P; Ristow, G; König, A; Vollmers, H P; Müller-Hermelink, H K

    1999-11-01

    In osteoarthritis (OA), the synovial tissue exhibits a nonfollicular inflammatory infiltration with a characteristic arrangement of lymphocytes and plasma cells. These arrangements are either small perivascular aggregates with plasma cells surrounding the lymphocytes or small groups of plasma cells, located in the vicinity of small blood vessels. These patterns suggest that B lymphocytes directly differentiate into plasma cells. To understand the B-cell response in OA, we analyzed the V(H) genes from B cells of synovial tissue of nine OA patients (average age, 71.5+/-10.5 years; six female and three male). V(H) gene repertoires were determined from RNA prepared from tissue cryosections and from DNA of single isolated B lymphocytes and plasma cells. The inflammatory infiltrate was analyzed immunohistochemically by detecting CD20, Ki-M4 (follicular dendritic cells), CD4, IgG, IgM, IgA, Ki-67, and by simultaneous demonstration of the plasma-cell-specific antigen CD138 (syndecan-1) and factor VIII. The molecular data demonstrate B cells with a high number of somatic mutations (average, 16.5 to 19.8), and high ratios of replacement to silent mutations in the small lymphocytic/plasmacellular aggregates of OA. In the tissue cryosections, the values of the sigmaR/sigmaS at the complementarity determining regions were 5.3 and 2.0 in the framework regions. For both the isolated B lymphocytes and plasma cells, the value of this ratio in the complementarity determining regions was 3.5. In the framework regions, the values of this ratio were 2.0 for the isolated B cells and 1.8 for the plasma cells. B lymphocytes and plasma cells exhibited a distribution not described thus far. Two patterns of B-cell distribution could be observed: (a) Centrally located CD20+ B and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were surrounded directly by IgG (predominantly) or IgA and IgM plasma cells. No proliferating Ki-67-positive cells and no follicular dendritic cells (germinal centers) could be detected in

  17. Development of murine monoclonal antibodies for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine aspergillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter

    1996-01-01

    ) in immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays. In immunohistochemical assays, all MAbs raised against WSSA cross-reacted heavily with a number of other fungal species. All 4 MAbs (MAb-WF-AF-1-4) raised against the WF reacted strongly with hyphae of Aspergillus spp.; hyphae of Scedosporium apiospermum were also......), the MAb-WF-AF-1 and the polyclonal anti-Aspergillus antibodies reacted in a similar pattern, i.e., positively in 41 aspergillosis lesions and negatively in 92 zygomycotic lesions. Hyphae in 3 of 12 lesions that were not stained by the polyclonal antibodies reacted with the specific MAb-WF-AF-1; i...

  18. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  19. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders Lydik; Pålsson, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different...

  20. Immunohistochemical Expression of Vitamin-D Receptor in Oral and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    positive while 80% of well-differentiated skin SCC was strongly positive for VDR. In a previous study,. Grimm et al [7] demonstrated low VDR expression as an adverse prognostic factor for the survival of patients with OSCC. This may imply a potentially higher response rate of well-differentiated skin SCC to VD therapy than ...

  1. Histology Verification Demonstrates That Biospectroscopy Analysis of Cervical Cytology Identifies Underlying Disease More Accurately than Conventional Screening: Removing the Confounder of Discordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Ketan; Ahmadzai, Abdullah A.; Valasoulis, George; Trevisan, Júlio; Founta, Christina; Nasioutziki, Maria; Loufopoulos, Aristotelis; Kyrgiou, Maria; Stasinou, Sofia Melina; Karakitsos, Petros; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Da Gama-Rose, Bianca; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjective visual assessment of cervical cytology is flawed, and this can manifest itself by inter- and intra-observer variability resulting ultimately in the degree of discordance in the grading categorisation of samples in screening vs. representative histology. Biospectroscopy methods have been suggested as sensor-based tools that can deliver objective assessments of cytology. However, studies to date have been apparently flawed by a corresponding lack of diagnostic efficiency when samples have previously been classed using cytology screening. This raises the question as to whether categorisation of cervical cytology based on imperfect conventional screening reduces the diagnostic accuracy of biospectroscopy approaches; are these latter methods more accurate and diagnose underlying disease? The purpose of this study was to compare the objective accuracy of infrared (IR) spectroscopy of cervical cytology samples using conventional cytology vs. histology-based categorisation. Methods Within a typical clinical setting, a total of n = 322 liquid-based cytology samples were collected immediately before biopsy. Of these, it was possible to acquire subsequent histology for n = 154. Cytology samples were categorised according to conventional screening methods and subsequently interrogated employing attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. IR spectra were pre-processed and analysed using linear discriminant analysis. Dunn’s test was applied to identify the differences in spectra. Within the diagnostic categories, histology allowed us to determine the comparative efficiency of conventional screening vs. biospectroscopy to correctly identify either true atypia or underlying disease. Results Conventional cytology-based screening results in poor sensitivity and specificity. IR spectra derived from cervical cytology do not appear to discriminate in a diagnostic fashion when categories were based on conventional screening

  2. Real-time dynamic MR image reconstruction using compressed sensing and principal component analysis (CS-PCA): Demonstration in lung tumor tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bryson; Yip, Eugene; Yun, Jihyun; Fallone, B Gino; Wachowicz, Keith

    2017-08-01

    This work presents a real-time dynamic image reconstruction technique, which combines compressed sensing and principal component analysis (CS-PCA), to achieve real-time adaptive radiotherapy with the use of a linac-magnetic resonance imaging system. Six retrospective fully sampled dynamic data sets of patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer were used to investigate the CS-PCA algorithm. Using a database of fully sampled k-space, principal components (PC's) were calculated to aid in the reconstruction of undersampled images. Missing k-space data were calculated by projecting the current undersampled k-space data onto the PC's to generate the corresponding PC weights. The weighted PC's were summed together, and the missing k-space was iteratively updated. To gain insight into how the reconstruction might proceed at lower fields, 6× noise was added to the 3T data to investigate how the algorithm handles noisy data. Acceleration factors ranging from 2 to 10× were investigated using CS-PCA and Split Bregman CS for comparison. Metrics to determine the reconstruction quality included the normalized mean square error (NMSE), as well as the dice coefficients (DC) and centroid displacement of the tumor segmentations. Our results demonstrate that CS-PCA performed superior than CS alone. The CS-PCA patient averaged DC for 3T and 6× noise added data remained above 0.9 for acceleration factors up to 10×. The patient averaged NMSE gradually increased with increasing acceleration; however, it remained below 0.06 up to an acceleration factor of 10× for both 3T and 6× noise added data. The CS-PCA reconstruction speed ranged from 5 to 20 ms (Intel i7-4710HQ CPU @ 2.5 GHz), depending on the chosen parameters. A real-time reconstruction technique was developed for adaptive radiotherapy using a Linac-MRI system. Our CS-PCA algorithm can achieve tumor contours with DC greater than 0.9 and NMSE less than 0.06 at acceleration factors of up to, and including, 10×. The

  3. Osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells embedded in the provisional matrix after a 6-week healing period in augmented and non-augmented extraction sockets: an immunohistochemical prospective pilot study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Susanne; Wustlich, Alexander; Lage, Hermann; Nelson, John J; Nelson, Katja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present clinical study was the evaluation of the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells embedded in the provisional matrix of non-augmented and with Bio-Oss collagen-augmented human extraction sockets after 6 weeks of healing time. Twenty-five patients with 47 extraction sites participated in the present study. After tooth removal, the extraction sockets were augmented with Bio-Oss collagen or not augmented. At implant placement, bone biopsies of the extraction sockets were obtained. The immunohistochemical analysis of the osteogenic potential of the mesenchymal cells in the provisional matrix was performed using three monoclonal antibodies: core-binding factor α1 (Cbfa1)/runt-related protein (Runx)2, osteonectin (OSN/secreted protein acidic and rich in cyst [SPARC]) and osteocalcin (OC). The statistical analysis was performed using two-factorial analysis for repeated measures, Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient. Of 47 extraction sockets examined, 17 sockets demonstrated an almost complete ossification. Hence, the provisional matrix of the 30 remaining extraction sockets (21 non-augmented, 9 augmented) was immunohistochemically investigated. No evidence of acute or chronic inflammation was noted in any of the specimens. In the provisional matrix of the non-grafted socket, the median amount of Cbfa1/Runx2-positive cells was 72.3%, of OSN (SPARC) 66.9% and of OC 23.4%, whereas in the grafted sockets the median rate of immunopositive cells staining with Cbfa1/Runx2 was 73.3%, of OSN (SPARC) 61.4% and of OC 20.1%. There was no significant difference in the proportion of positive cells expressed by Cbfa1/Runx2, OSN/SPARC and OC between the grafted and non-grafted socket. Furthermore, the cell density did not correlate to the quantity of stained cells independent of the used proteins. After a 6-week healing period, the provisional matrix was demonstrated to have a high proportion of cells displaying a maturation of

  4. Urinary cystatin C as a renal biomarker and its immunohistochemical localization in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Yuko; Imura, Naoko; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2013-11-01

    The usefulness of urinary cystatin C for the early detection of renal damage in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis rats was investigated and compared to other biomarkers (β2-microglobulin, calbindin, clusterin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), alpha-glutathione S-transferase (GST-α), mu-glutathione S-transferase (GST-μ), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)). Urinary levels of cystatin C increased in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats, whereas the conventional markers, plasma creatinine and UN did not, demonstrating its usefulness for the early detection of renal damage associated with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. As well as cystatin C, urinary β2-microglobulin, clusterin, GST-α, GST-μ, KIM-1, and NGAL also had the potential to detect renal damage associated with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical localization of cystatin C in the kidney was examined. Cystatin C expression was mainly observed in the proximal renal tubules in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats, and its expression barely changed with the progression of glomerulonephritis. Cystatin C expression was also observed in the tubular lumen of the cortex and medulla when glomerulonephritis was marked, which was considered to be characteristic of renal damage. In conclusion, urinary cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, clusterin, GST-α, GST-μ, KIM-1, and NGAL could be useful biomarkers of renal damage in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis rats. Immunohistochemical cystatin C expression in the proximal renal tubules was barely changed by the progression of glomerulonephritis, but it was newly observed in the tubular lumen when renal damage was apparent. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Robust diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma by immunohistochemical detection of super-enhancer-driven EWSR1-ETS targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Aruna; Gerke, Julia S.; Rubio, Rebeca Alba; Kiran, Merve M.; Musa, Julian; Knott, Maximilian M. L.; Ohmura, Shunya; Li, Jing; Akpolat, Nusret; Akatli, Ayse N.; Özen, Özlem; Dirksen, Uta; Hartmann, Wolfgang; de Alava, Enrique; Baumhoer, Daniel; Sannino, Giuseppina; Kirchner, Thomas; Grünewald, Thomas G. P.

    2018-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an undifferentiated small-round-cell sarcoma. Although molecular detection of pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusions such as EWSR1-FLI1 enables definitive diagnosis, substantial confusion can arise if molecular diagnostics are unavailable. Diagnosis based on the conventional immunohistochemical marker CD99 is unreliable due to its abundant expression in morphological mimics. To identify novel diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for Ewing sarcoma, we performed comparative expression analyses in 768 tumors representing 21 entities including Ewing-like sarcomas, which confirmed that CIC-DUX4-, BCOR-CCNB3-, EWSR1-NFATc2-, and EWSR1-ETS-translocated sarcomas are distinct entities, and revealed that ATP1A1, BCL11B, and GLG1 constitute specific markers for Ewing sarcoma. Their high expression was validated by immunohistochemistry and proved to depend on EWSR1-FLI1-binding to highly active proximal super-enhancers. Automated cut-off-finding and combination-testing in a tissue-microarray comprising 174 samples demonstrated that detection of high BCL11B and/or GLG1 expression is sufficient to reach 96% specificity for Ewing sarcoma. While 88% of tested Ewing-like sarcomas displayed strong CD99-immunoreactivity, none displayed combined strong BCL11B- and GLG1-immunoreactivity. Collectively, we show that ATP1A1, BCL11B, and GLG1 are EWSR1-FLI1 targets, of which BCL11B and GLG1 offer a fast, simple, and cost-efficient way to diagnose Ewing sarcoma by immunohistochemistry. These markers may significantly reduce the number of misdiagnosed patients, and thus improve patient care. PMID:29416716

  6. The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maria Folador Mattioli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30 or 60 days (group C60 or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo. The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30 or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30; fluoxetine (group FS60 or venlafaxine (group VS60 with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60 or venlafaxine (group VP60 with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60 induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days.

  7. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Expression of Centromere Protein—A (CENPA) in Human Invasive Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Ashish B.; Hu, Nianping; Varma, Sonal; Chen, Chien-Hung; Ding, Keyue; Park, Paul C.; Chapman, Judy-Anne W.; SenGupta, Sandip K.; Madarnas, Yolanda; Elliott, Bruce E.; Feilotter, Harriet E.

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal cell division leading to the gain or loss of entire chromosomes and consequent genetic instability is a hallmark of cancer. Centromere protein –A (CENPA) is a centromere-specific histone-H3-like variant gene involved in regulating chromosome segregation during cell division. CENPA is one of the genes included in some of the commercially available RNA based prognostic assays for breast cancer (BCa)—the 70 gene signature MammaPrint ® and the five gene Molecular Grade Index (MGI SM ). Our aim was to assess the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of CENPA in normal and malignant breast tissue. Clinically annotated triplicate core tissue microarrays of 63 invasive BCa and 20 normal breast samples were stained with a monoclonal antibody against CENPA and scored for percentage of visibly stained nuclei. Survival analyses with Kaplan–Meier (KM) estimate and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to assess the associations between CENPA expression and disease free survival (DFS). Average percentage of nuclei visibly stained with CENPA antibody was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in BCa than normal tissue. The 3-year DFS in tumors over-expressing CENPA (>50% stained nuclei) was 79% compared to 85% in low expression tumors (<50% stained nuclei). On multivariate analysis, IHC expression of CENPA showed weak association with DFS (HR > 60.07; p = 0.06) within our small cohort. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report evaluating the implications of increased IHC expression of CENPA in paraffin embedded breast tissue samples. Our finding that increased CENPA expression may be associated with shorter DFS in BCa supports its exploration as a potential prognostic biomarker

  8. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Expression of Centromere Protein—A (CENPA) in Human Invasive Breast Cancer

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    Rajput, Ashish B. [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Hu, Nianping [Cancer Research institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Varma, Sonal; Chen, Chien-Hung [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Ding, Keyue [NCIC Clinical Trials Group, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Park, Paul C. [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Chapman, Judy-Anne W. [NCIC Clinical Trials Group, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); SenGupta, Sandip K. [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Madarnas, Yolanda [Cancer Research institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7 (Canada); Elliott, Bruce E.; Feilotter, Harriet E., E-mail: feilotth@kgh.kari.net [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2011-12-06

    Abnormal cell division leading to the gain or loss of entire chromosomes and consequent genetic instability is a hallmark of cancer. Centromere protein –A (CENPA) is a centromere-specific histone-H3-like variant gene involved in regulating chromosome segregation during cell division. CENPA is one of the genes included in some of the commercially available RNA based prognostic assays for breast cancer (BCa)—the 70 gene signature MammaPrint{sup ®} and the five gene Molecular Grade Index (MGI{sup SM}). Our aim was to assess the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of CENPA in normal and malignant breast tissue. Clinically annotated triplicate core tissue microarrays of 63 invasive BCa and 20 normal breast samples were stained with a monoclonal antibody against CENPA and scored for percentage of visibly stained nuclei. Survival analyses with Kaplan–Meier (KM) estimate and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to assess the associations between CENPA expression and disease free survival (DFS). Average percentage of nuclei visibly stained with CENPA antibody was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in BCa than normal tissue. The 3-year DFS in tumors over-expressing CENPA (>50% stained nuclei) was 79% compared to 85% in low expression tumors (<50% stained nuclei). On multivariate analysis, IHC expression of CENPA showed weak association with DFS (HR > 60.07; p = 0.06) within our small cohort. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report evaluating the implications of increased IHC expression of CENPA in paraffin embedded breast tissue samples. Our finding that increased CENPA expression may be associated with shorter DFS in BCa supports its exploration as a potential prognostic biomarker.

  9. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma based on computed tomography findings

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    Shimizu K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Katsuhiko Shimizu, Riki Okita, Shinsuke Saisho, Ai Maeda, Yuji Nojima, Masao Nakata Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan Background: We performed an analysis to clarify differences in clinicopathological and molecular features of lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA based on computed tomography (CT findings and their impact on prognosis.Patients and methods: On the basis of CT findings, we divided lung IMA into three subtypes: solid, bubbling, and pneumonic. We then investigated differences in clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, and the expressions of well-identified biomarkers, including cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1, ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1, class III beta-tubulin, thymidylate synthase (TS, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1, and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, among the three subtypes.Results: A total of 29 patients with resected lung IMA were analyzed. Compared with the solid or bubbling type, the pneumonic type had a higher proportion of symptoms, a larger tumor size, a higher pathological stage, and a significantly worse prognosis. The immunohistochemical findings tended to show high expression of RRM1, class III beta-tubulin, and Cox-2 in the tumor and of SPARC in the stroma, but not of ERCC1, TS, and PD-L1 in the tumor. None of the biomarkers with high expression levels in the tumor were prognostic biomarkers, but the expression of SPARC in the stroma was correlated with a poor outcome.Conclusion: Clinical and pathological features, in conjunction with molecular data, indicate that IMA should be divided into different subgroups. In our results, the pneumonic type was correlated with a significantly worse outcome. Further studies should be performed to confirm our conclusion and to explore its molecular implications. Keywords: non-small cell

  10. Decreased Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study