WorldWideScience

Sample records for immunohaematological reference values

  1. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  2. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  3. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  4. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  5. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  6. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  7. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Reference change values and power functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Canadell, Natàlia; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Jensen, Esther

    2004-01-01

    Repeated samplings and measurements in the monitoring of patients to look for changes are common clinical problems. The "reference change value", calculated as zp x [2 x (CVI2 + CVA2)](1/2), where zp is the z-statistic and CVI and CVA are within-subject and analytical coefficients of variation......, respectively, has been used to detect whether a measured difference between measurements is statistically significant. However, a reference change value only detects the probability of false-positives (type I error), and for this reason, a model to calculate the risk of missing significant changes in serial...... difference is the same as the calculated reference change value, then it will be detected in only 50% of situations....

  9. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  10. Reference values for isometric muscle force among workers for the Netherlands: a comparison of reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Reneman; W.P. Krijnen; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; K.W. Douma; Remko Soer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Muscle force is important for daily life and sports and can be measured with a handheld dynamometer. Reference values are employed to quantify a subject’s muscle force. It is not unambiguous whether reference values can be generalized to other populations. Objectives in this study were;

  11. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  12. New Danish reference values for spirometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis; Mortensen, Jann

    2013-01-01

    years of age or older with adequate lung function. Results:  We used sex-stratified multiple linear regression analysis to find prediction formulas for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1) ), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1) /FVC adjusted for age and height. The cutoff value of normal lung......Introduction:  International recommendations state that reference values for lung function should derive from cross-sectional studies of healthy nonsmokers and be renewed from time to time because of cohort effect and newer, more accurate, technical equipment. In 1986, the Danish Lung Society...

  13. Dietary reference values for vitamin K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin K. In this Opinion, the Panel considers vitamin K to comprise both phylloquinone and menaquinones. The Panel considers that none...... of the biomarkers of vitamin K intake or status is suitable by itself to derive DRVs for vitamin K. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin K intake were also considered but data could not be used to establish DRVs. The Panel considers that average requirements and population reference intakes...... for vitamin K cannot be derived for adults, infants and children, and therefore sets adequate intakes (AIs). The Panel considers that available evidence on occurrence, absorption, function and content in the body or organs of menaquinones is insufficient, and, therefore, sets AIs for phylloquinone only...

  14. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  15. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rufino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%, 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%, and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT. This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index. From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method. Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9. The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5, and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  16. Reference values for methacholine reactivity (SAPALDIA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perruchoud André

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of airway responsiveness in a general population of non-smokers without respiratory symptoms has not been established, limiting its use in clinical and epidemiological practice. We derived reference equations depending on individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, baseline lung function for relevant percentiles of the methacholine two-point dose-response slope. Methods In a reference sample of 1567 adults of the SAPALDIA cross-sectional survey (1991, defined by excluding subjects with respiratory conditions, responsiveness during methacholine challenge was quantified by calculating the two-point dose-response slope (O'Connor. Weighted L1-regression was used to estimate reference equations for the 95th , 90th , 75th and 50th percentiles of the two-point slope. Results Reference equations for the 95th , 90th , 75th and 50th percentiles of the two-point slope were estimated using a model of the form a + b* Age + c* FEV1 + d* (FEV12 , where FEV1 corresponds to the pre-test (or baseline level of FEV1. For the central half of the FEV1 distribution, we used a quadratic model to describe the dependence of methacholine slope on baseline FEV1. For the first and last quartiles of FEV1, a linear relation with FEV1 was assumed (i.e., d was set to 0. Sex was not a predictor term in this model. A negative linear association with slope was found for age. We provide an Excel file allowing calculation of the percentile of methacholine slope of a subject after introducing age – pre-test FEV1 – and results of methacholine challenge of the subject. Conclusion The present study provides equations for four relevant percentiles of methacholine two-point slope depending on age and baseline FEV1 as basic predictors in an adult reference population of non-obstructive and non-atopic persons. These equations may help clinicians and epidemiologists to better characterize individual or population airway responsiveness.

  17. The value of new genome references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Kim C; Richards, Stephen; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2017-09-15

    Genomic information has become a ubiquitous and almost essential aspect of biological research. Over the last 10-15 years, the cost of generating sequence data from DNA or RNA samples has dramatically declined and our ability to interpret those data increased just as remarkably. Although it is still possible for biologists to conduct interesting and valuable research on species for which genomic data are not available, the impact of having access to a high quality whole genome reference assembly for a given species is nothing short of transformational. Research on a species for which we have no DNA or RNA sequence data is restricted in fundamental ways. In contrast, even access to an initial draft quality genome (see below for definitions) opens a wide range of opportunities that are simply not available without that reference genome assembly. Although a complete discussion of the impact of genome sequencing and assembly is beyond the scope of this short paper, the goal of this review is to summarize the most common and highest impact contributions that whole genome sequencing and assembly has had on comparative and evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. EURRECA—Estimating Selenium Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurst, R.; Collings, R.; Harvey, L.J.; King, M.; Hooper, L.; Bouwman, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Current reference values for selenium, an essential micronutrient, are based on the intake of selenium that is required to achieve maximal glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma or erythrocytes. In order to assess the evidence of relevance to setting dietary reference values for selenium, the

  19. Reference values and evaluation of the results of intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, H.; Deron, S.; Kuhn, E.

    1981-01-01

    The need of a reference value for the composition of materials distributed in intercomparisons is generally recognized. A single reference laboratory or a group of reference laboratories may be used to establish this reference value. The respective advantages and limitations of the two approaches are discussed. The reference measurements must be evaluated to provide the confidence limits of the reference value but also an estimate of the possible heterogeneity of the materials and its samples. The results of the intercomparison measurements should themselves be evaluated to test and discuss the significance of the biases of individual and selected groups of laboratories or techniques. The approach taken by the Analytical Quality Control Services of the International Atomic Energy Agency is illustrated by the SR-1 intercomparison on uranium assay in UO 2 powder

  20. Establishing Local Reference Dose Values and Optimisation Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, P.; Moores, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    The revised EC Patient Directive 97/43 EURATOM introduces the concepts of clinical audit, diagnostic reference levels and optimisation of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology. The application of reference dose levels in practice involves the establishment of reference dose values as actual measurable operational quantities. These values should then form part of an ongoing optimisation and audit programme against which routine performance can be compared. The CEC Quality Criteria for Radiographic Images provides guidance reference dose values against which local performance can be compared. In many cases these values can be improved upon quite considerably. This paper presents the results of a local initiative in the North West of the UK aimed at establishing local reference dose values for a number of major hospital sites. The purpose of this initiative is to establish a foundation for both optimisation strategies and clinical audit as an ongoing and routine practice. The paper presents results from an ongoing trial involving patient dose measurements for several radiological examinations upon the sites. The results of an attempt to establish local reference dose values from measured dose values and to employ them in optimisation strategies are presented. In particular emphasis is placed on the routine quality control programmes necessary to underpin this strategy including the effective data management of results from such programmes and how they can be employed to optimisation practices. (author)

  1. WILDLIFE TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND DDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation will provide an overview of the procedures used in deriving mammalian and avian wildlife toxicity reference values to be used in development of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs).

  2. Patient dose reference values for explorations of radiodiagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Moran, P.; Calzado, A.; Delgado, V.; Ruiz, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Among the results of the research programs developed in the European Community dealing with radiological protection, dose estimation and quality control in radiodiagnostics, the preparation of a document on Quality criteria for radiodiagnostic images is worthy of note. This document proposes criteria for image quality and patient dose reference values for explorations of thorax, cranium, lumbar region, pelvis, urinary tract and breast. Said reference values, while indicative, are merely an average approximation, from which the radiodiagnostic services of each area may differ significantly, as can be deduced from a EC-coordinated project. With this in mind, and following a strategy applied in the EC to establish said reference values, in this report, provisional reference values, specific for Spain, are proposed for simple examinations (those analyzed by the group of EC experts, among others) and complex probes (intravenous urography, opaque enema and esophagogastroduodenal enema). (author)

  3. Reference values of electrocardiogram repolarization variables in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Graff, Claus; Andersen, Mads P

    2010-01-01

    Reference values for T-wave morphology analysis and evaluation of the relationship with age, sex, and heart rate are lacking in the literature. In this study, we characterized T-wave morphology in a large sample of healthy individuals....

  4. Reference Values for Plasma Electrolytes and Urea in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference values for plasma electrolytes and urea have been defined for Nigerian children and adolescents residing in Abeokuta and its environs, a location in southern Nigeria, by estimating plasma sodium, potassium bicarbonate and urea concentrations in a reference population. The study group comprised three ...

  5. Reference values of inspiratory spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi L; Vanninen, Esko; Sovijärvi, Anssi R

    2018-03-07

    Inspiratory spirometry is used in evaluation of upper airway disorders e.g. fixed or variable obstruction. There are, however, very few published data on normal values for inspiratory spirometry. The main aim of this study was to produce reference values for inspiratory spirometry for healthy Finnish adults. Inspiratory spirometry was preplanned to a sample of the Finnish spirometry reference values sample. Data was successfully retrieved from 368 healthy nonsmoking adults (132 males) between 19 and 83 years of age. Reference equations were produced for forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV1), FIV1/FIVC, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the ratios of FIV1/forced expiratory volume in one second and PIF/peak expiratory flow. The present values were compared to PIF values from previously used Finnish study of Viljanen et al. (1982) reference values and Norwegian values for FIV1, FIVC and FIV1/FIVC presented by Gulsvik et al. (2001). The predicted values from the Gulsvik et al. (2001), provided a good fit for FIVC, but smaller values for FIV1 with mean 108.3 and 109.1% of predicted values for males and females, respectively. PIF values were 87.4 and 91.2% of Viljanen et al. (1982) predicted values in males and females, respectively. Differences in measurement methods and selection of results may contribute to the observed differences. Inspiratory spirometry is technically more demanding and needs repeatability criteria to improve validity. New reference values are suggested to clinical use in Finland when assessing inspiratory spirometry. Utility of inspiratory to expiratory values indices in assessment of airway collapse need further study.

  6. Reference values of glycosylated haemoglobin and fructosamin in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olair Carlos Beltrame

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated haemoglobin and fructosamin levels are not commonly used to diagnosis Diabetes mellitus in dogs due to a lack of reference values. To estabilish the reference values and determination methods of glycated haemoglobin and frutosamine, both male and females, healthy dogs, 2-8 years old (n=100 were used. The methodologies used were the ionic resin and the kinetic method by the reduction of blue nitrotetrazolium, respectively. Medium values of glycated haemoglobin of 5.3-7.01% and 277.52-387. 30 for fructosamin established by Brazilian Diabetes Society methods can be adopted for dogs, both males and females.

  7. Spirometry reference values in Indigenous Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tamara L; Chang, Anne B; Petsky, Helen L; Rodwell, Leanne T; Brown, Michael G; Hill, Debra C; Thompson, Bruce; McElrea, Margaret S

    2016-07-04

    To evaluate published spirometry data for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples to determine (i) whether their ethnicity influenced spirometry results; and (ii) if any reliable spirometry reference values exist for Indigenous Australians. Systematic review of published and grey literature. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, references of included articles and appropriate grey literature. Last searches were conducted in April 2016. We included any study that performed spirometry on healthy Indigenous Australians and compared their results with those from people of European ancestry. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts and then reviewed potentially relevant full-text articles for possible inclusion. We used PRISMA systematic review reporting methods to collate data. Of a possible 125 studies, 18 full-text articles were reviewed, but only nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria. None specified Torres Strait Islander inclusion. All studies reported lower spirometry values (as much as 30% lower) for Aboriginal people compared with non-Indigenous people. Five studies developed spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians; however, none adhered to all participant inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. Hence, reported results and subsequent reference values may not be a true representation of spirometry values in healthy Indigenous people. The lower spirometry values reported for Indigenous Australians may be due to study limitations. Furthermore, there are currently no reliable spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians that adhere to current guidelines. Developing a set of Indigenous Australian reference values will improve the accuracy of test interpretation and aid in the diagnosis of respiratory disease in this population.

  8. Reference Value Advisor: a new freeware set of macroinstructions to calculate reference intervals with Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    International recommendations for determination of reference intervals have been recently updated, especially for small reference sample groups, and use of the robust method and Box-Cox transformation is now recommended. Unfortunately, these methods are not included in most software programs used for data analysis by clinical laboratories. We have created a set of macroinstructions, named Reference Value Advisor, for use in Microsoft Excel to calculate reference limits applying different methods. For any series of data, Reference Value Advisor calculates reference limits (with 90% confidence intervals [CI]) using a nonparametric method when n≥40 and by parametric and robust methods from native and Box-Cox transformed values; tests normality of distributions using the Anderson-Darling test and outliers using Tukey and Dixon-Reed tests; displays the distribution of values in dot plots and histograms and constructs Q-Q plots for visual inspection of normality; and provides minimal guidelines in the form of comments based on international recommendations. The critical steps in determination of reference intervals are correct selection of as many reference individuals as possible and analysis of specimens in controlled preanalytical and analytical conditions. Computing tools cannot compensate for flaws in selection and size of the reference sample group and handling and analysis of samples. However, if those steps are performed properly, Reference Value Advisor, available as freeware at http://www.biostat.envt.fr/spip/spip.php?article63, permits rapid assessment and comparison of results calculated using different methods, including currently unavailable methods. This allows for selection of the most appropriate method, especially as the program provides the CI of limits. It should be useful in veterinary clinical pathology when only small reference sample groups are available. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Reference value sensitivity of measures of unfair health inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Pilar; Schokkaert, Erik; Van Ourti, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Most politicians and ethical observers are not interested in pure health inequalities, as they want to distinguish between different causes of health differences. Measures of “unfair” inequality - direct unfairness and the fairness gap, but also the popular standardized concentration index - therefore neutralize the effects of what are considered to be “legitimate” causes of inequality. This neutralization is performed by putting a subset of the explanatory variables at reference values, e.g. their means. We analyze how the inequality ranking of different policies depends on the specific choice of reference values. We show with mortality data from the Netherlands that the problem is empirically relevant and we suggest a statistical method for fixing the reference values. PMID:24954998

  10. The magnesium reference value in whole blood using nuclear activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish an indicative interval for reference value for Mg in whole blood, using the Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis Technique. The necessity of this measurement is related to the fact that the conventional clinical analysis for Mg quantification is performed using plasma, so there is no reference values established for Mg in whole blood for Brazilian population. Ours results provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients and permit to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations. (author)

  11. Proposed man-rem reference values of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents a proposal of referent collective dose (man-rem) values for occupational exposure related to operation of French pressurized water reactors. These values, permitting adequate choice of protection both at design and operation level, are dependent on the level of annual individual doses. The man-rem value, originating from annual individual doses less than 0.5 rem are estimated to 1 kf. The proposed value is 20 kf for annual individual exposures between 0.5 and 3 rem, and 90 kf for annual individual exposures between 3 and 5 rem. (author) [fr

  12. Reference values for paediatric pulmonary function testing: The Utrecht dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Marije; Zanen, Pieter; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Arets, Hubertus G M

    2011-01-01

    Since populations evolve, measurement protocols and equipment improve and analysis techniques progress, there is an ongoing need to reassess reference data for pulmonary function tests. Furthermore, reference values for total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity are scarcely available in children. We aimed to provide updated reference equations for most commonly used pulmonary function indices in Caucasian children. In the 'Utrecht Pulmonary Function Reference Data Study' we collected data in Caucasian children aged 2-18 years. We analyzed them using the 'Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape' (GAMLSS) statistical method. Measurements of interrupter resistance (R(int)) (n = 877), spirometry (n = 1042), body plethysmography (n = 723) and carbon monoxide diffusion/helium dilution (n = 543) were obtained in healthy children. Height (or the natural logarithm of height) and age (or the natural logarithm of age) were both significantly related to most outcome measures. Also sex was a significant determinant, except for RV, RV/TLC, FRC(pleth), Raw(0,5), Raw(tot), R(int) and FEF values. The application of previously published reference equations on the study population resulted in misinterpretation of pulmonary function. These new paediatric reference equations provide accurate estimates of the range of normality for most commonly used pulmonary function indices, resulting in less underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Children's Perceived Competence Scale: Reference values in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yukiyo; Nomura, Kayo; Nagata, Masako; Ohgi, Shohei; Iwasa, Mitsuji

    2015-12-01

    To support children with chronic diseases, reference values to measure developmental changes in self-perception and self-esteem are considered a useful yardstick. To develop reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children, the Children's Perceived Competence Scale (CPCS) was administered to 768 children of elementary school grade 1 (6 years) to grade 6 (11 years) at four public schools in Japan, from November to December 2012. After excluding 74 with chronic diseases and/or incomplete responses, 694 children were included. CPCS measures children's self-perceived competence in cognitive, social, physical domains, and general self-worth, namely self-esteem. There was a tendency for scores of cognitive and general self-worth to decrease with increasing grade. Scores among grade 5 respondents were significantly lower than those among grade 4 respondents for both social and physical domains. Scores among boys and girls differed significantly, with boys scoring higher for physical domain in grades 3 and 6 and for general self-worth domain in grade 6. The CPCS reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children were developed in this study. These reference values are useful to inform practitioners supporting children with psychological or psychiatric problems or those with chronic diseases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Creatine and guanidinoacetate reference values in a French population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joncquel-Cheval Curt, M.; Cheillan, D.; Briand, G.; Salomons, G.S.; Mention-Mulliez, K.; Dobbelaere, D.; Cuisset, J.M.; Lion-Francois, L.; Portes, V.D.; Chabli, A.; Valayannopoulos, V.; Benoist, J.F.; Pinard, J.M.; Simard, G.; Douay, O.; Deiva, K.; Tardieu, M.; Afenjar, A.; Heron, D.; Rivier, F.; Chabrol, B.; Prieur, F.; Cartault, F.; Pitelet, G.; Goldenberg, A.; Bekri, S.; Gerard, M.; Delorme, R.; Porchet, N.; Vianey-Saban, C.; Vamecq, J.

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and guanidinoacetate are biomarkers of creatine metabolism. Their assays in body fluids may be used for detecting patients with primary creatine deficiency disorders (PCDD), a class of inherited diseases. Their laboratory values in blood and urine may vary with age, requiring that reference

  15. Reference values for the nickel concentration in human finger nails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Peters, K; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    A reference value for the nickel concentration in finger nails from people who are not occupationally exposed to nickel was determined on the basis of nail samples from 95 healthy individuals. The mean +/- standard deviation was 1.19 +/- 1.61 mg/kg and the median was 0.49 mg/kg (range 0.042-7.50 mg...

  16. Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for copper. Owing to the absence of appropriate biomarkers of copper status and the limitations of available balance studies, the Panel...

  17. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values for vitamin A. The Panel considered that a concentration of 20 µg retinol/g liver can be used as a target for establishing the Average Requirement (AR...

  18. The Value of Chat Reference Services: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, JoAnn; Ward, David; Avery, Susan; Marcyk, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores student, instructor, and librarian perceptions of chat reference in the context of an introductory composition course. Participants in a mixed-method study responded to an anonymized chat transcript. While student respondents valued speed and efficiency, they were willing to receive instruction and open to questions that…

  19. Predictive equations for spirometric reference values in a healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    men and 98 women were selected to the reference value group. ... adult population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and compare these equations to already ... which has proven to be suitable in field work as it operates on batteries and requires no ..... thought to be partly due to difference in body build and that Blacks have ...

  20. Valores de referência para carboxiemoglobina Reference values for carboxyhemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa P. B. de Siqueira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os valores de referência de indicadores biológicos são utilizados como parâmetros para interpretação de resultados de valores obtidos em indivíduos expostos ocupacionalmente aos agentes químicos. O Grupo Brasileiro para Estabelecimento dos Valores de Referência tem se dedicado a estas determinações objetivando estabelecer valores de referência para os diferentes bioindicadores em diversas regiões do País. Determinaram-se os valores de referência para a carboxiemoglobina (COHb no Sul de Minas Gerais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A COHb foi analisada pelo método espectrofométrico, otimizado no laboratório de análises toxicológicas. Em todas as amostras também foram realizadas análises de alguns parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos para atestar o estado de saúde da população, constituída de 200 voluntários não-fumantes e não-expostos, por motivo profissional, ao monóxido de carbono. Cada indivíduo respondeu um questionário para levantamento de dados relevantes à interpretação dos resultados. Os valores de referência foram expressos em termos da média ± desvio-padrão, intervalo de confiança 95% e valor de referência superior. A distribuição estatística dos resultados obtidos foi realizada para possibilitar sua comparação com grupos de trabalhadores, preferentemente à avaliação individual. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O valor médio ± desvio-padrão para a carboxiemoglobina foi de 1,0 % ± 0,75; o intervalo de confiança 95%, entre 0,9 e 1,1 % e o valor de referência superior, de 2,5%. Através do teste t de Student (p INTRODUCTION: The reference values (RV of biological indicators are used in the interpretation of the results of such indicators in individuals occupationally exposed to chemical agents. The Brazilian Group for the Establishment of Reference Values has worked on these definitions for the purpose of establishing RVs for several bioindicators in various regions of the country. In

  1. Serum free light chain reference values: a critical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinier, Sara; Seguso, Mara; Zaninotto, Martina; Varagnolo, Mariacristina; Adami, Fausto; Angeli, Paolo; Plebani, Mario

    2013-05-01

    The clinical usefulness of serum free light chain (FLC) measurement in the management of patients with plasma cell proliferative disorders has been reported in several papers, and most clinical studies use the reference ranges declared by the manufacturer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of FLCs immunoassay and to validate the reference range, before introducing it in routine setting. Internal quality control materials and a pool of fresh serum samples were used to evaluate imprecision; 162 fresh sera from healthy blood donors were analyzed to evaluate the reference range for FLCs. In order to verify the κ/λ FLC ratio, 43 sera from patients with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia were tested. The FLC immunoassay was performed using a nephelometer with the Freelite reagents. The imprecision studies performed using a serum pool tested with two different lots of reagents showed a mean CV of 16.09% for κFLC and of 16.72% for λFLC. Lower CV%s and different mean values were found by calculating the results from each specific lot separately, while different results were obtained using the control materials provided by the manufacturer. In reference subjects, the 2.5-97.5th percentiles were found to be 4.52-22.33 and 4.84-21.88mg/L for κFLC and λFLC, respectively. The range for κ/λ ratio (0.65-2.36) was validated with the values obtained from subjects with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. In retesting 15 samples from blood donor subjects with a different lot of reagents, mean bias percentages of 17.60 for κFLC and 15.26 for λFLC were obtained. These findings confirm the lot-to-lot variability of the FLC assays also in the measurement of polyclonal light chains, as well as the need to carefully validate the reference values. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Determination of thyrotropin reference values in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Moreno-Castañeda, Lidia; Vega-Servín, Norman S; López-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Juvera, Aída

    2015-02-01

    The upper limit of TSH reference level is controversial. The purpose of our study was to determine TSH reference values in a Mexican population in accordance with the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria and in correlation with thyroid ultrasound (US) examination. The study was conducted in volunteers with no known thyroid disease. We recruited 482 subjects, most of them medical or administrative staff from our hospital. They answered a questionnaire on demographic data, family history, co-morbidities, and drug use. Their thyroid hormone levels and thyroid antibodies were determined, and a complete physical examination and thyroid US were performed. The population used to establish the TSH reference intervals was selected according to the NACB criteria and their normal thyroid structural and echogenic characteristics in US examination. Among 482 subjects (209 males) with a median age of 26 years, prevalence rates of TPOAb and TgAb were 9.3% and 10.3% respectively. Mean TSH level in the overall population was 1.90±1.94, with a 97.5th percentile of 6.76 mIU/L. The reference population was limited to 282 subjects (41.5% were excluded) with a mean TSH of 1.86±1.63 and a 97.5th percentile of 4.88 mIU/L. No sex difference was found (p=0.287). Median urinary iodine level in the reference population was 267 μg/L IQR (161.3-482.5). The TSH reference interval in the reference population was 0.71 (CI 0.65-0.77) to 4.88 mIU/L (CI 4.5-5.3); these limits may be influenced by iodine nutritional status in this population. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Consensus values for NIST biological and environmental Standard Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Gladney, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards or NBS) has produced numerous Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for use in biological and environmental analytical chemistry. The value listed on the ''NIST Certificate of Analysis'' is the present best estimate of the ''true'' concentration of that element and is not expected to deviate from that concentration by more than the stated uncertainty. However, NIST does not certify the elemental concentration of every constituent and the number of elements reported in the NIST programs tends to be limited.Numerous analysts have published concentration data on these reference materials. Major journals in analytical chemistry, books, proceedings and ''technical reports'' have been surveyed to collect these available literature values. A standard statistical approach has been employed to evaluate the compiled data. Our methodology has been developed in a series of previous papers. Some subjective criteria are first used to reject aberrant data. Following these eliminations, an initial arithmetic mean and standard deviation (S.D.) are computed from remaining data for each element. All data now outside two S.D. from the initial mean are dropped and a second mean and S.D. recalculated. These final means and associated S.D. are reported as ''consensus values'' in our tables. (orig.)

  4. Sperm count. Do we need a new reference value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Maya, Walter

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the sperm count in fertile men, general population, and infertile men in different regions of the world. Sperm counts were recorded according to their fertility status, proven fertility, men recruited from an andrology/infertility clinic, or healthy men. The average of sperm count in the different studies is lower in infertile men that in fertile men (p>0.001) and in the general population (p>0.001). Based on this analysis the normal sperm count is about 65 million per mL. Using these reference value, only the 25% of the studies in infertile men are above this value, and the 75% studies with fertile men (>65 x 106 sperm/mL).

  5. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  6. Semantic verbal fluency in elderly Mexican adults: Reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Oliveros, M; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Acosta-Castillo, I; García-Ramírez, N; Rojas de la Torre, G; Sosa-Ortiz, A L

    2015-05-01

    The semantic verbal fluency test (SVF) is sensitive to detecting cognitive decline. It is fast and easy to use in any cultural context; therefore, it is included in most of the neuropsychological assessment protocols. To estimate normative values for the SVF test (animals), in an elderly population aged 65 years and over. 1233 subjects who were healthy, cognitively preserved, residents of two areas (rural and urban) of Mexico were assessed. A neurological and neuropsychological exploration battery was applied, including SVF. The age average was 73+6 and schooling was 4.0+3.9 years, with 59% women. The average of the words generated in the SVF test was 14+5, and a correlation of 0.16 of these scores with age, education, and gender was found (pimportant contribution provided by this study was that the data analysis enabled normative values to be obtained for an elderly Mexican population aged 65 years and over. It was also confirmed, as other neuropsychological assessment studies have done, that the SVF test is influenced by socio-demographic variables, such as age and education, aspects to be considered at the time of obtaining normative values. Finally, it was noted that the average scores obtained were lower than other published reference values, due to the low educational level of our sample. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory evoked potential P300 in adults: reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Garcia, Michele Vargas; Oppitz, Sheila Jacques; Silva, Thalisson Francisco Finamôr da; Santos, Sinéia Neujahr Dos; Bruno, Rúbia Soares; Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins Dos Santos; Cóser, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    To establish reference intervals for cognitive potential P300 latency using tone burst stimuli. This study involved 28 participants aged between 18 and 59 years. P300 recordings were performed using a two-channel device (Masbe, Contronic). Electrode placement was as follows: Fpz (ground electrode), Cz (active electrode), M1 and M2 (reference electrodes). Intensity corresponded to 80 dB HL and frequent and rare stimulus frequencies to 1,000Hz and 2,000Hz, respectively. Stimuli were delivered binaurally. Mean age of participants was 35 years. Average P300 latency was 305ms. Maximum acceptable P300 latency values of 362.5ms (305 + 2SD 28.75) were determined for adults aged 18 to 59 years using the protocol described. Estabelecer valores de referência para a latência do potencial cognitivo P300 com estímulos tone burst. Participaram do estudo 28 indivíduos entre 18 e 59 anos. O registro do P300 foi realizado no equipamento Masbe da marca Contronic. Os eletrodos foram fixados nas posições Fpz (eletrodo terra), Cz (eletrodo ativo), M1 e M2 (eletrodos referência). A intensidade foi de 80 dB NA. A frequência do estímulo frequente foi de 1.000Hz e a do estímulo raro de 2.000Hz. Os estímulos foram apresentados na forma binaural. A média de idade dos indivíduos foi de 35 anos. A média de latência para P300 de 305ms. Usando o protocolo descrito, o valor máximo de latência aceitáveis para P300 foram de 362,5ms (305 + 2DP 28,75) na faixa etária do adulto de 18 a 59 anos.

  8. Reference values for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in clinically healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Riond, Barbara; Jud Schefer, Rahel; Kutter, Annette P N

    2017-03-01

    To establish reference intervals for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) using feline blood. Prospective study. University teaching hospital. Twenty-three clinically healthy cats between 1 and 15 years. For each cat, whole blood was collected via jugular or medial saphenous venipuncture, and blood was placed into a serum tube, a tube containing potassium-EDTA, and tubes containing 3.2% sodium citrate. The tubes were maintained at 37°C for a maximum of 30 minutes before coagulation testing. ROTEM tests included the EXTEM, INTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays. In addition, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration (Clauss method) were analyzed for each cat. Reference intervals for ROTEM were calculated using the 2.5-97.5 th percentile for each parameter, and correlation with the standard coagulation profile was performed. Compared to people, clinically healthy cats had similar values for the EXTEM and INTEM assays, but had lower plasma fibrinogen concentrations (0.9-2.2 g/L), resulting in weaker maximum clot firmness (MCF, 3-10 mm) in the FIBTEM test. In 18 cats, maximum lysis (ML) values in the APTEM test were higher than in the EXTEM test, which seems unlikely to have occurred in the presence of aprotinin. It is possible that the observed high maximum lysis values were due to clot retraction rather than true clot lysis. Further studies will be required to test this hypothesis. Cats have a weaker clot in the FIBTEM test, but have a similar clot strength to human blood in the other ROTEM assays, which may be due to a stronger contribution of platelets compared to that found in people. In cats, careful interpretation of the results to diagnose hyperfibrinolysis is advised, especially with the APTEM test, until further data are available. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  9. Utility of Reference Change Values for Delta Check Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Park, Hae-Il; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min-Jeong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2017-10-01

    To assess the utility of reference change values (RCVs) as delta check limits. A total of 1,650,518 paired results for 23 general chemistry test results from June 1, 2014, to October 31, 2016, were analyzed. The RCVs for each analyte were calculated from the analytical imprecision and within-subject biological variation. The percent differences between two consecutive results in one patient were categorized into one of four groups: outpatients, inpatients, emergency care, and general health care. For each, 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values were computed and compared with their RCVs. The distributions were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Most of the estimated limits were larger than the corresponding RCVs and, furthermore, with notable differences across the groups. Patients in the emergency care group usually demonstrated larger delta percent values than those in the other groups. None of the distributions of the percent differences passed tests of normality when subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis. Comparison of estimated RCVs and real-world patient data revealed the pitfalls of applying RCVs in clinical laboratories. Laboratory managers should be aware of the limitations of RCVs and exercise caution when using them. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. The use of reference change values in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdayci, Guler; Oguzman, Hamdi; Arattan, Havva Yasemin; Sasmaz, Guler

    2015-01-01

    The use of Reference Change Values (RCV) has been advocated as very useful for monitoring individuals. Most of these are performed for monitoring individuals in acute situations and for following up the improvement or deterioration of chronic diseases. In our study, we aimed at evaluating the RCV calculation for 24 clinical chemistry analytes widely used in clinical laboratories and the utilization of this data. Twenty-four serum samples were analyzed with Abbott kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA), manufactured for use with the Architect c8000 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) auto-analyzer. We calculated RCV using the following formula: RCV = Z x 2 1/2x (CVA2 + CVw2)1/2. Four reference change values (RCV) were calculated for each analyte using four statistical probabilities (0.95, and 0.99, unidirectional and bidirectional). Moreover, by providing an interval after identifying upper and lower limits with the Reference Change Factor (RCF), serially measured tests were calculated by using two formulas: exp (Z x 2 1/2 x (CV(A)2 + CVw2)½/100) for RCF(UP) and (1/RCF(UP)) for RCF(DOWN). RCVs of these analytes were calculated as 14.63% for glucose, 29.88% for urea, 17.75% for ALP, 53.39% for CK, 46.98% for CK-MB, 21.00% amylase, 8.00% for total protein, 8.70% for albumin, 51.08% for total bilirubin, 86.34% for direct bilirubin, 6.40% for calcium, 15.03% for creatinine, 21.47% for urate, 14.19% for total cholesterol, 46.62% for triglyceride, 20.51% for HDL-cholesterol, 29.59% for AST, 46.31% for ALT, 31.54% for GGT, 20.92% for LDH, 19.75% for inorganic phosphate, 3.05% for sodium, 11.75% for potassium, 4.44% for chloride (RCV, p laboratories. RCV could be available as a tool for making clinical decision, especially when monitoring individuals.

  11. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M

    2000-01-01

    A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents. Ten of these materials (Standard Reference Material [SRM] 1,563 Cholesterol and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Coconut Oil [Natural and Fortified], SRM 1,566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1,570a Spinach Leaves, SRM 1,974a Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), RM 8,415 Whole Egg Powder, RM 8,418 Wheat Gluten, RM 8,432 Corn Starch, RM 8,433 Corn Bran, RM 8,435 Whole Milk Powder, and RM 8,436 Durum Wheat Flour) were recently distributed by NIST to 4 laboratories with expertise in food analysis for the measurement of proximates (solids, fat, protein, etc.), calories, and total dietary fiber, as appropriate. SRM 1846 Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials (Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder) were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper. These materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of nutrients in foods of similar composition (based on AOAC INTERNATIONAL's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle). They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of

  12. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ertan; Elboğa, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Between June 2011 and June 2012,461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level) that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed.Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (pbody surface area of the subjects of both sexes (pcountry.

  13. Derivation of an oral toxicity reference value for nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Bates, Hudson K; Allen, Bruce C; Vincent, Melissa J; Oller, Adriana R

    2017-06-15

    Nickel (Ni) is in the earth's crust and can be found in environmental compartments such as water, soil, and air, as well as food. This paper presents an assessment of the oral nickel toxicity data in support of non-cancer health-based oral exposure limits or toxicity reference values (TRVs). This paper derives TRVs for three populations of interest: adults, toddlers, and people who have been dermally sensitized to nickel. The adult/lifetime TRV of 20 μg Ni/kg-day is based on post-implantation loss/perinatal mortality in a 2-generation reproductive study in rats. Several recent assessments by regulatory agencies have used the same study and endpoint, but the dose-response modeling conducted here was more appropriate for the study design. Toxicokinetic data from rats and humans indicate that the applied uncertainty factors are very conservative. Because the endpoint relates to fetal exposure and is not relevant to toddlers, a toddler TRV was derived based on decreased body weight in young rats; this TRV was also 20 μg Ni/kg-day. A separate TRV of 4 μg Ni/kg in addition to Ni in food was derived for protection of nickel-sensitized populations from flare-up of dermatitis, based on studies of single exposures in humans under conditions that maximize oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health-related physical fitness measures: reference values and reference equations for use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveter, Anne Therese; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Moseng, Tuva; Holm, Inger

    2014-07-01

    To provide reference values and reference equations for frequently used clinical field tests of health-related physical fitness for use in clinical practice. Cross-sectional design. General community. Convenience sample of volunteers (N=370) between 18 and 90 years of age were recruited from a wide range of settings (ie, work sites, schools, community centers for older adults) and different geographic locations (ie, urban, suburban, rural) in southeastern Norway. Not applicable. The participants conducted 5 clinical field tests (6-minute walk test, stair test, 30-second sit-to-stand test, handgrip test, fingertip-to-floor test). The results of the field tests showed that performance remained unchanged until approximately 50 years of age; after that, performance deteriorated with increasing age. Grip strength (79%), meters walked in 6 minutes (60%), and seconds used on the stair test (59%) could be well predicted by age, sex, height, and weight in participants ≥50 years of age, whereas the performance on all tests was less well predicted in participants clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Revised and new national reference values for X-ray diagnostic examinations per 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    NRPA has revised the national reference values given in the Guide 5b and established reference values for 10 new investigations. The revision / creation is based on new national dose distributions obtained in the period 2006-2009. Reference values are effective from 27 April 2010. (AG)

  16. A conventional value for the geoid reference potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sánchez, L.; Čundrlík, R.; Dayoub, N.; Mikula, K.; Minarechová, Z.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 9 (2016), s. 815-835 ISSN 0949-7714 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gobal W-0 value * W-0 best estimate * potential value of the geoid Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.949, year: 2016

  17. Reference Values for Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MB Sclauser Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement.

  18. Reference values for basic human anatomical and physiological characteristics for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    A new publication prepared by the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values, is focused on those human characteristics that are important for dosimetric calculations. Moving from the past emphasis on a Reference Man. the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages - newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 y, and adult. In selecting reference values, the task group has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations. The reference values for height and body mass are higher than those reported for various Asian populations. However, the reported masses of individual organs and tissues, particularly for China and Japan, are similar to the reference values. (author)

  19. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  20. Metabolic profile testing for Jersey cows in Louisiana: reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, J D; Seybt, S H; Toups, G

    1982-06-01

    One hundred twenty-seven Jersey cows (1 to 6 years of age) within a 160.93-km radius of Baton Rouge, La, were selected at random over a 3-year period to determine serum values for total creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, total protein, globulin, urea nitrogen, and glucose. Breed and age were partitioned as possible sources of variation. Seasonal temperature and management influences were taken into account by restricting the sampling area. Seasonal temperature and management influences along with reproductive status and stage of lactation, were randomized by sampling over the 3-year period. All serum values, except aspartate transaminase, urea nitrogen, and glucose were influenced by age. Serum cholesterol, total protein, and glucose were influenced by age. serum cholesterol, total protein, and globulin tended to increase with age, whereas creatine kinase, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase generally decreased with age.

  1. Reference Values for Spirometry Derived Using Lambda, Mu, Sigma (LMS) Method in Korean Adults: in Comparison with Previous References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Bum Seak; Myong, Jun Pyo; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Koo, Jung Wan; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2018-01-15

    The present study aimed to update the prediction equations for spirometry and their lower limits of normal (LLN) by using the lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) method and to compare the outcomes with the values of previous spirometric reference equations. Spirometric data of 10,249 healthy non-smokers (8,776 females) were extracted from the fourth and fifth versions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, 2007-2009; V, 2010-2012). Reference equations were derived using the LMS method which allows modeling skewness (lambda [L]), mean (mu [M]), and coefficient of variation (sigma [S]). The outcome equations were compared with previous reference values. Prediction equations were presented in the following form: predicted value = e{a + b × ln(height) + c × ln(age) + M - spline}. The new predicted values for spirometry and their LLN derived using the LMS method were shown to more accurately reflect transitions in pulmonary function in young adults than previous prediction equations derived using conventional regression analysis in 2013. There were partial discrepancies between the new reference values and the reference values from the Global Lung Function Initiative in 2012. The results should be interpreted with caution for young adults and elderly males, particularly in terms of the LLN for forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity in elderly males. Serial spirometry follow-up, together with correlations with other clinical findings, should be emphasized in evaluating the pulmonary function of individuals. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of reference data and to develop continuous reference values for spirometry across all ages. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. [Reference values of folic acid for the Venezuelan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, María Nieves; Carias, Diamela; Soto de Sanabria, Ingrid; Victoria López, Ana

    2013-12-01

    The review on folic acid requirements for Venezuela comprise the definitions adopted worldwide known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that include Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). In contrast with the situation in some countries, that required adjustments in fortification policies in order to avoid excessive folic acid consumption, in Venezuela several studies show an elevated prevalence of deficiency. National evidence at this point is insufficient to establish the recommendation, and as in the 2000 review of the Venezuelan RDAs, the actual recommendations are based on the reported for the United States population. The Recommended Dietary Allowances for Venezuela are 65-80 microg/day for infants less than 1 year old, 150-300 microg/day for children and 400 microg/day for adolescents and adults, increasing to 600 microg/day during pregnancy and to 500 microg/day during lactation. The estimated average requirement is 120-250 microg/day for children, 330 microg/day for adolescents, 320 microg/day for adults, 520 microg/day for pregnancy and 450 microg/day during lactation. The tolerable upper intake levels for folic acid are 300-600 microg/day for children, 800 microg/day for adolescents and 1000 microg/day for adults. During pregnancy and lactation the UL is 800 microg/day for pregnant and lactating women between 14 and 18 years of age, and 1000 microg/day for older pregnant and lactating women. The continuous evaluation of folic acid status is important to design adequate and efficient policies to control both, the deficiency and the excess of folic acid consumption.

  3. Phytomedicinal value of moringa oleifera with special reference to antiparasitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, T.; Sajid, M.S.; Hassan, M.J.; Iqbal, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are claimed as folk medicine for their therapeutic activity. Moringa (M.) oleifera, known as the 'miracle tree' is greatly esteemed for its unique nutritional and medicinal value. Nutritively, it contains essential, disease-preventing nutrients. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plants have anthelmintic activity through paralysis of helminths. The compounds found responsible so far for their anthelmintic activities include: niazirinin, glycoside, niazirin and three glycosides from mustard oil, niaziminin A, B and 4- (4'-O-acetyl- alpha -L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl) isothiocyanate isolated from leaves; D-glucose, D-mannose, ascorbic acid, protein and polysaccharide isolated from mature flowers; 0-(2'-hydroxy-3'-(2'-heptenyloxy)) propylundecanoate, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, thiocarbanates, isothiocyanate, nitriles, 0-ethyl-4-((alpha-1-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl) carbamate, and beta-sitosterol isolated from whole pods of M. oleifera. Parasites are one of the major causes of diseases in human and animals. Due to parasitic infections livestock industry suffers from huge conomic losses. The parasites which have been treated using different parts of M. oleifera include: Dracunculiasis (guinea worm), schistosomes and trypanosomes. Plant extracts may serve as potential candidates in future to exterminate helminthiasis in human and livestock populations. Hence, isolation, characterization and in vivo and in vitro efficacy trials of M. oleifera derivatives on scientific grounds are direly needed to elucidate it as a noteworthy candidate as neutraceutical and anthelmintic. (author)

  4. CONCEPTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION AND ANIMAL FEEDING New Reference Values for nutrient intake in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DACH-reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Günther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance to their very good collaboration through decades especially at the “3 Countries Meetings” the Nutrition Societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (D, A, CH decided to prepare new Reference Values for nutrient intake as a joint edition in the year 2000. The Reference Values consist of two parts: Part 1, Nutritive aspects of nutrients. Part 2, Preventive aspect of nutrient and food components. The Reference Values presented should protect almost all individuals of the respective group against potential damage to health from their diet and provide a basis for full functional capacity. In detail recommendations, estimates or guideline values are presented for the different nutrients. Total fat should not exceed 30% of energy, saturated fatty acids should not provide more than 10% of energy and polyunsaturated fatty acids 7% of energy with n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 5:1. Preventive aspect concern the prophylaxis of nutrition-related diseases.

  5. Estimation of reference values for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and alpha-naphthol in Danish workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Christensen, J M; Sherson, D

    1995-01-01

    in humans and health effects in occupationally exposed workers. In this context the estimation of the biological level of PAH metabolites in urine from reference populations has become increasingly important in the field of environmental and occupational toxicology. The present study describes...... the calculation of tentative reference values for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene on the basis of two reference populations and for urinary alpha-naphthol on the basis of one reference population in accordance with IFCC recommendations. The study subjects were 115 healthy male workers occupationally exposed to PAH at low...... levels and 121 reference subjects non-occupationally exposed to PAH. Tentative reference values for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene were estimated. In addition, 236 healthy male workers were used to estimate tentative reference values for urinary alpha-naphthol. The reference populations were described...

  6. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  7. Reference values for fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose and fluorine-18-sodium fluoride uptake in human arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn A; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reference values of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) and fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake in human arteries are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine age-specific and sex-specific reference values of arterial F-FDG and F-NaF uptake. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS...

  8. Reference values for 27 clinical chemistry tests in 70-year-old males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Lena; Lind, Lars; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Reference values are usually defined based on blood samples from healthy men or nonpregnant women in the age range of 20-50 years. These values are not optimal for elderly patients, as many biological markers change over time and adequate reference values are important for correct clinical decisions. To validate NORIP (Nordic Reference Interval Project) reference values in a 70-year-old population. We studied 27 frequently used laboratory tests. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles for these markers were calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. Reference values are reported for plasma alanine aminotransferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, pancreas amylase, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, glucose, gamma-glutamyltransferase, HDL-cholesterol, iron, lactate dehydrogenase, LDL-cholesterol, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, transferrin, triglycerides, urate and urea. Reference values calculated from the whole population and a subpopulation without cardiovascular disease showed strong concordance. Several of the reference interval limits were outside the 90% CI of a Scandinavian population (NORIP). 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Environmental Guide Value (VGE) and specific reference values (QS) for uranium. Synthesis and elements for application to French fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report proposes a synthesis of works performed to determine criteria of protection of continental aquatic ecosystems with respect to uranium. These works resulted in the determination of an environmental guide value (VGE) for the assessment of the ecological and chemical condition of waters. Other specific reference values have been determined to be used in risk assessment: average annual concentration, maximum admissible concentration. After a recall of the methodology adopted for the determination of VGE in the case of uranium, the report discusses the specific reference values in the case of uranium for different organisms, for predators, for the protection of human health against a risk of exposure by consumption of fished products or drinkable water. The determination of VGE and its application are reported, and its consistency with the criterion of radiation protection of the environment applied to water and sediments is discussed. The determination of specific reference values is then discussed

  10. The Relationship Between Intracranial Pressure and Age-Chasing Age-Related Reference Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sarah Hornshøj; Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Andresen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Background: No true reference values for intracranial pressure (ICP) in humans exist; current values are estimated from measurements in adults who undergo treatment in order to correct ICP. We report ICP values in a "pseudonormal" group of children and adults to examine if age affects ICP. Method...

  11. Statistical considerations for harmonization of the global multicenter study on reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-15

    The global multicenter study on reference values coordinated by the Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) of the IFCC was launched in December 2011, targeting 45 commonly tested analytes with the following objectives: 1) to derive reference intervals (RIs) country by country using a common protocol, and 2) to explore regionality/ethnicity of reference values by aligning test results among the countries. To achieve these objectives, it is crucial to harmonize 1) the protocol for recruitment and sampling, 2) statistical procedures for deriving the RI, and 3) test results through measurement of a panel of sera in common. For harmonized recruitment, very lenient inclusion/exclusion criteria were adopted in view of differences in interpretation of what constitutes healthiness by different cultures and investigators. This policy may require secondary exclusion of individuals according to the standard of each country at the time of deriving RIs. An iterative optimization procedure, called the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method, can be applied to automate the process of refining the choice of reference individuals. For global comparison of reference values, test results must be harmonized, based on the among-country, pair-wise linear relationships of test values for the panel. Traceability of reference values can be ensured based on values assigned indirectly to the panel through collaborative measurement of certified reference materials. The validity of the adopted strategies is discussed in this article, based on interim results obtained to date from five countries. Special considerations are made for dissociation of RIs by parametric and nonparametric methods and between-country difference in the effect of body mass index on reference values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polynomial estimation of the smoothing splines for the new Finnish reference values for spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi

    2016-07-01

    Background Discontinuity of spirometry reference values from childhood into adulthood has been a problem with traditional reference values, thus modern modelling approaches using smoothing spline functions to better depict the transition during growth and ageing have been recently introduced. Following the publication of the new international Global Lung Initiative (GLI2012) reference values also new national Finnish reference values have been calculated using similar GAMLSS-modelling, with spline estimates for mean (Mspline) and standard deviation (Sspline) provided in tables. The aim of this study was to produce polynomial estimates for these spline functions to use in lieu of lookup tables and to assess their validity in the reference population of healthy non-smokers. Methods Linear regression modelling was used to approximate the estimated values for Mspline and Sspline using similar polynomial functions as in the international GLI2012 reference values. Estimated values were compared to original calculations in absolute values, the derived predicted mean and individually calculated z-scores using both values. Results Polynomial functions were estimated for all 10 spirometry variables. The agreement between original lookup table-produced values and polynomial estimates was very good, with no significant differences found. The variation slightly increased in larger predicted volumes, but a range of -0.018 to +0.022 litres of FEV1 representing ± 0.4% of maximum difference in predicted mean. Conclusions Polynomial approximations were very close to the original lookup tables and are recommended for use in clinical practice to facilitate the use of new reference values.

  13. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  14. A global multicenter study on reference values: 1. Assessment of methods for derivation and comparison of reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Ozarda, Yesim; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George; Qiu, Ling; Erasmus, Rajiv; Borai, Anwar; Evgina, Svetlana; Ashavaid, Tester; Khan, Dilshad; Schreier, Laura; Rolle, Reynan; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Kimura, Shogo; Kawano, Reo; Armbruster, David; Mori, Kazuo; Yadav, Binod K

    2017-04-01

    The IFCC Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits coordinated a global multicenter study on reference values (RVs) to explore rational and harmonizable procedures for derivation of reference intervals (RIs) and investigate the feasibility of sharing RIs through evaluation of sources of variation of RVs on a global scale. For the common protocol, rather lenient criteria for reference individuals were adopted to facilitate harmonized recruitment with planned use of the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method. As of July 2015, 12 countries had completed their study with total recruitment of 13,386 healthy adults. 25 analytes were measured chemically and 25 immunologically. A serum panel with assigned values was measured by all laboratories. RIs were derived by parametric and nonparametric methods. The effect of LAVE methods is prominent in analytes which reflect nutritional status, inflammation and muscular exertion, indicating that inappropriate results are frequent in any country. The validity of the parametric method was confirmed by the presence of analyte-specific distribution patterns and successful Gaussian transformation using the modified Box-Cox formula in all countries. After successful alignment of RVs based on the panel test results, nearly half the analytes showed variable degrees of between-country differences. This finding, however, requires confirmation after adjusting for BMI and other sources of variation. The results are reported in the second part of this paper. The collaborative study enabled us to evaluate rational methods for deriving RIs and comparing the RVs based on real-world datasets obtained in a harmonized manner. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reference values for acoustic rhinometry in decongested school children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune P; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Only a limited reference material for acoustic rhinometry (AR) exists for school children most often calculated as the minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) in the non-decongested nose. We want to establish a set of reference values for MCA and nasal volumes for both adults and childre...

  16. Reference Dependence Effects on WTA and WTP Value Functions and Their Disparity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigate two reference dependence effects in a choice experiment. The first is the effect of the well-known distinction between gains and losses, the second is the effect of changing the reference value on willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA). The latter has

  17. Exercise capacity in Dutch children : New reference values for the Bruce treadmill protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. van der Cammen-van Zijp (Monique); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); H.J. Stam (Henk); D. Tibboel (Dick); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Bruce treadmill protocol is suitable for children 4 years of age and older. Dutch reference values were established in 1987. We considered that children's exercise capacity has deteriorated due to changes in physical activity patterns and eating habits. We determined new reference

  18. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Bots, Michiel L; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J; Westenberg, Jos J M; den Ruijter, Hester M; Hoefer, Imo E; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference

  19. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  20. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2002-12-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  1. Roentgenometric reference values in the long bones of the extermities of newborn children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, I.; Georgieva, P.

    1983-01-01

    Roentgenometric study was performed on 1302 roentgenograms of the long bones of the extremities of newborn children. Maximal lenght and diaphysis lenght of each roentgenographed bone were measured in antero-posterior projection. Careful statistical analysis was made. The referent values were determined. The roentgenometric reference values in the long bones of the extremities of newborn children have gained acceptance in everyday clinical roentgenographic and pediatric practice for differentiation of norm from pathology and in forensic medicine for indentification. (authors)

  2. A systematic review of the angular values obtained by computerized photogrammetry in sagittal plane: a proposal for reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczky, Bruna; Pacheco, Antonio G; Mainenti, Míriam R M

    2014-05-01

    Reference values for postural alignment in the coronal plane, as measured by computerized photogrammetry, have been established but not for the sagittal plane. The objective of this study is to propose reference values for angular measurements used for postural analysis in the sagittal plane for healthy adults. Electronic databases (PubMed, BVS, Cochrane, Scielo, and Science Direct) were searched using the following key words: evaluation, posture, photogrammetry, and software. Articles published between 2006 and 2012 that used the PAS/SAPO (postural assessment software) were selected. Another inclusion criterion was the presentation of, at least, one of the following measurements: head horizontal alignment, pelvic horizontal alignment, hip angle, vertical alignment of the body, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Angle samples of the selected articles were grouped 2 by 2 in relation to an overall average, which made possible total average, variance, and SD calculations. Six articles were included, and the following average angular values were found: 51.42° ± 4.87° (head horizontal alignment), -12.26° ± 5.81° (pelvic horizontal alignment), -6.40° ± 3.86° (hip angle), and 1.73° ± 0.94° (vertical alignment of the body). None of the articles contained the measurements for thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. The reference values can be adopted as reference for postural assessment in future researches if the same anatomical points are considered. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The value of cows in reference populations for genomic selection of new functional traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Today, almost all reference populations consist of progeny tested bulls. However, older progeny tested bulls do not have reliable estimated breeding values (EBV) for new traits. Thus, to be able to select for these new traits, it is necessary to build a reference population. We used a deterministic...... of the direct genomic values (DGV) for a new functional trait, regardless of its heritability. For small-scale recording, we compared two scenarios where the reference population consisted of the 2000 cows with phenotypic records or the 30 sires of these cows in the first year with measurements of the new...... to achieve accuracies of the DGV that enable selection for new functional traits recorded on a large scale within 3 years from commencement of recording; and (iv) a higher heritability benefits a reference population of cows more than a reference population of bulls....

  4. Reference values for peak flow and FEV1 variation in healthy schoolchildren using home spirometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. F. J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Brand, P. L. P.

    2008-01-01

    Current reference values for diurnal peak flow variation in healthy children (median 8.2%; 95th percentile 31%) are so high that considerable overlap exists with those of asthmatic children. These values have been obtained using written peak flow diaries, which are unreliable. The aim of the present

  5. Implications of the Transition From Zapletal to GLI Reference Values for Spirometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, Lena; Zwitserloot, Annelies; Merkus, Peter; Gappa, Monika

    The current standard for monitoring lung function in children with asthma is spirometry. In Europe, results of these lung function tests have been related to Zapletal reference values published in 1977. Recently, the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) published predicted values of spirometry for

  6. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from Hologic...

  7. Reference values and clinical application of magnetic peripheral nerve stimulation in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Soens, Iris; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Bhatti, Sofie F. M.; Van Ham, Luc M. L.

    Magnetic stimulation of radial (RN) and sciatic (SN) nerves was performed bilaterally in 40 healthy cats. Reference values for onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) were obtained and compared with values of electric motor evoked potentials (EMEPs) in

  8. Reference values for anxiety questionnaires: the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; de Waal, Margot W M; Carlier, Ingrid V E

    2013-09-25

    The monitoring of patients with an anxiety disorder can benefit from Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). As anxiety disorders differ in phenomenology, several anxiety questionnaires are included in ROM: Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA), PADUA Inventory Revised (PI-R), Panic Appraisal Inventory (PAI), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ), Social Interaction, Anxiety Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). We aimed to generate reference values for both 'healthy' and 'clinically anxious' populations for these anxiety questionnaires. We included 1295 subjects from the general population (ROM reference-group) and 5066 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with a specific anxiety disorder (ROM patient-group). The MINI was used as diagnostic device in both the ROM reference group and the ROM patient group. To define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentile; P95) the outermost 5% of observations were used. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to yield alternative cut-off values for the anxiety questionnaires. For the ROM reference-group the mean age was 40.3 years (SD=12.6), and for the ROM patient-group it was 36.5 years (SD=11.9). Females constituted 62.8% of the reference-group and 64.4% of the patient-group. P95 ROM reference group cut-off values for reference versus clinically anxious populations were 11 for the BSA, 43 for the PI-R, 37 for the PAI Anticipated Panic, 47 for the PAI Perceived Consequences, 65 for the PAI Perceived Self-efficacy, 66 for the PSWQ, 74 for the WDQ, 32 for the SIAS, 19 for the SPS, and 36 for IES-R. ROC analyses yielded slightly lower reference values. The discriminative power of all eight anxiety questionnaires was very high. Substantial non-response and limited generalizability. For eight anxiety questionnaires a comprehensive set of reference values was provided. Reference values were generally higher in women than in men

  9. Reliability, reference values and predictor variables of the ulnar sensory nerve in disease free adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruediger, T M; Allison, S C; Moore, J M; Wainner, R S

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this descriptive and exploratory study were to examine electrophysiological measures of ulnar sensory nerve function in disease free adults to determine reliability, determine reference values computed with appropriate statistical methods, and examine predictive ability of anthropometric variables. Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve using surface electrodes were performed on 100 volunteers. Reference values were computed from optimally transformed data. Reliability was computed from 30 subjects. Multiple linear regression models were constructed from four predictor variables. Reliability was greater than 0.85 for all paired measures. Responses were elicited in all subjects; reference values for sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude from above elbow stimulation are 3.3 μV and decrement across-elbow less than 46%. No single predictor variable accounted for more than 15% of the variance in the response. Electrophysiologic measures of the ulnar sensory nerve are reliable. Absent SNAP responses are inconsistent with disease free individuals. Reference values recommended in this report are based on appropriate transformations of non-normally distributed data. No strong statistical model of prediction could be derived from the limited set of predictor variables. Reliability analyses combined with relatively low level of measurement error suggest that ulnar sensory reference values may be used with confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Bots, Michiel L; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J; Westenberg, Jos J M; den Ruijter, Hester M; Hoefer, Imo E; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25-30 and 30-35 years) and both sexes were tested. Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all page or sex effect. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing.

  11. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FE NO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  12. Methodology to define biological reference values in the environmental and occupational fields: the contribution of the Italian Society for Reference Values (SIVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Maria Cristina; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Valsania, Maria Carmen; Perico, Andrea; Perbellini, Luigi; Ricossa, Maria Cristina; Pradella, Marco; Negri, Sara; Iavicoli, Ivo; Lovreglio, Piero; Salamon, Fabiola; Bettinelli, Maurizio; Apostoli, Pietro

    2017-04-21

    Biological reference values (RVs) explore the relationships between humans and their environment and habits. RVs are fundamental in the environmental field for assessing illnesses possibly associated with environmental pollution, and also in the occupational field, especially in the absence of established biological or environmental limits. The Italian Society for Reference Values (SIVR) determined to test criteria and procedures for the definition of RVs to be used in the environmental and occupational fields. The paper describes the SIVR methodology for defining RVs of xenobiotics and their metabolites. Aspects regarding the choice of population sample, the quality of analytical data, statistical analysis and control of variability factors are considered. The simultaneous interlaboratory circuits involved can be expected to increasingly improve the quality of the analytical data. Examples of RVs produced by SIVR are presented. In particular, levels of chromium, mercury, ethylenethiourea, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2,5-hexanedione, 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t-muconic acid measured in urine and expressed in micrograms/g creatinine (μg/g creat) or micrograms/L (μg/L) are reported. With the proposed procedure, SIVR intends to make its activities known to the scientific community in order to increase the number of laboratories involved in the definition of RVs for the Italian population. More research is needed to obtain further RVs in different biological matrices, such as hair, nails and exhaled breath. It is also necessary to update and improve the present reference values and broaden the portfolio of chemicals for which RVs are available. In the near future, SIVR intends to expand its scientific activity by using a multivariate approach for xenobiotics that may have a common origin, and to define RVs separately for children who may be exposed more than adults and be more vulnerable.

  13. Analysis of reference X radiations energies adjusted for the same half-value layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Marcus Tadeu Tanuri de; Baptista Neto, Annibal Theotonio; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de

    2011-01-01

    The International Standardization Organization (ISO) defined the reference radiation for calibration and testing in x and gamma fields. The ISO 4037-1 establishes that if the first and the second half value - layers (HVL) agree within 5%, for two x- ray beams, then these two beams shall be considered the same. In this study, reference radiations with the same HVLs that were obtained trough the total filtration or the tube voltage adjustments were compared in terms of spectra and beam parameters. (author)

  14. Reference values for serum ferritin and percentage of transferrin saturation in Korean children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hea Lin; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Jung Sub

    2018-03-01

    Ferritin reference values vary by age, gender, and ethnicity. We aimed to determine reference values of serum ferritin (SF) and the percentage of transferrin saturation (TSAT) for Korean children and adolescents. We analyzed data from 2,487 participants (1,311 males and 1,176 females) aged 10-20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). We calculated age- and gender-stratified means and percentile values for SF and TSAT. We first plotted mean SF and TSAT by gender and according to age. In males, mean SF tended to be relatively constant among participants aged 10 to 14 years, with an upward trend thereafter. Mean SF trended downward among female participants until the age of 15 years and remained constant thereafter. Thus, significant gender differences in ferritin exist from the age of 14 years. High levels of SF were associated with obesity, and lower SF levels were associated with anemia and menarche status. We established reference values of SF and TSAT according to age and gender. The reference values for SF calculated in this study can be used to test the association between SF values and other defined diseases in Korean children and adolescents.

  15. Estimating clinical chemistry reference values based on an existing data set of unselected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimauro, Corrado; Bonelli, Piero; Nicolussi, Paola; Rassu, Salvatore P G; Cappio-Borlino, Aldo; Pulina, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    In an attempt to standardise the determination of biological reference values, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) has published a series of recommendations on developing reference intervals. The IFCC recommends the use of an a priori sampling of at least 120 healthy individuals. However, such a high number of samples and laboratory analysis is expensive, time-consuming and not always feasible, especially in veterinary medicine. In this paper, an alternative (a posteriori) method is described and is used to determine reference intervals for biochemical parameters of farm animals using an existing laboratory data set. The method used was based on the detection and removal of outliers to obtain a large sample of animals likely to be healthy from the existing data set. This allowed the estimation of reliable reference intervals for biochemical parameters in Sarda dairy sheep. This method may also be useful for the determination of reference intervals for different species, ages and gender.

  16. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkrajang, P; Chinswangwatanakul, W; Mokkhamakkun, C; Chuangsuwanich, N; Wesarachkitti, B; Thaowto, B; Laiwejpithaya, S; Komkhum, O

    2018-04-28

    Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples were taken from healthy adults aged 18-60 years that attended a health check-up program at our hospital during February 2015 to July 2015. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population. The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K

    2007-01-01

    -energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) equipment. METHODS: The aim of the present study was 1) to establish population-based reference values for BMD in young men and 2) to study subgroups based on variables with suspected impact on bone metabolism. We included 783 young Caucasian men aged 20 to 30 years...... in the Odense Androgen Study (OAS). RESULTS: Peak BMD was attained within the third decade. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was associated with higher BMD. Abuse of anabolic steroids as well as chronic illness was associated with lower BMD. Our population-based reference values for BMD of the total hip (1.078 +/- 0...

  18. Equipment-independent reference values for dopamine transporter imaging with 123I-FP-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Hornung, J.; Poepperl, G.; Tatsch, K.; Hamann, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Reliable reference values are helpful to interpret and compare the results of dopamine transporter imaging with SPECT. Since semi-quantitative reference values cannot be easily transferred between imaging equipments, this study aimed to establish equipment independent normal values for the true striatal binding of 123 I-FP-CIT. Patients, methods: Specific striatal FP-CIT binding of 6 healthy volunteers and 26 patients with essential tremor were used to generate a reference range by applying an equipment specific resolution dependent factor to compensate for recovery effects. This factor has been determined previously by a series of standardized phantom measurements of an anthropomorphic basal ganglia phantom. Herewith, the resulting DAT binding values represent the expected true specific binding in the striatum. Results: On average, true specific striatal binding was 5.83 ± 0.96 in healthy controls, 5.25 ± 0.67 in patients with essential tremor and 5.36 ± 0.75 in the entire study cohort. Conclusion: These preliminary results may serve as a basis for the generation of a generally accepted equipment independent reference range for dopamine transporter imaging with 123 I-FP-CIT. By a simple phantom measurement that can be accomplished within one day factors related to specific imaging equipment and processing can be corrected for, resulting in specific binding values which may enable a more standardized interpretation of dopamine transporter scans. (orig.)

  19. Haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the middle belt of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Dosoo

    Full Text Available Reference values are very important in clinical management of patients, screening participants for enrollment into clinical trials and for monitoring the onset of adverse events during these trials. The aim of this was to establish gender-specific haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the central part of Ghana.A total of 691 adults between 18 and 59 years resident in the Kintampo North Municipality and South District in the central part of Ghana were randomly selected using the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System and enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. Out of these, 625 adults made up of 316 males and 309 females were assessed by a clinician to be healthy. Median values and nonparametric 95% reference values for 16 haematology and 22 biochemistry parameters were determined for this population based on the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute guidelines. Values established in this study were compared with the Caucasian values being used currently by our laboratory as reference values and also with data from other African and western countries.REFERENCE VALUES ESTABLISHED INCLUDE: haemoglobin 113-164 g/L for males and 88-144 g/L for females; total white blood cell count 3.4-9.2 × 10(9/L; platelet count 88-352 × 10(9/L for males and 89-403 × 10(9/L for females; alanine aminotransferase 8-54 U/L for males and 6-51 U/L for females; creatinine 56-119 µmol/L for males and 53-106 µmol/L for females. Using the haematological reference values based on the package inserts would have screened out up to 53% of potential trial participants and up to 25% of the population using the biochemical parameters.We have established a panel of locally relevant reference parameters for commonly used haematological and biochemical tests. This is important as it will help in the interpretation of laboratory results both for clinical management of patients and safety monitoring during a trial.

  20. Reference values and their application to the monitoring of occupational exposure to natural uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    Natural uranium compounds, which enter the oxide fuel cycle offer physico-chemical characteristics dependent on their structure and their production process. These characteristics govern their biological behaviour and the degree of their radioactive and chemical toxicity. The monitoring of workers occupationnally exposed to these compounds is carried out by bioassays; in order to get the best interpretation, the resulting data must be compared to reference values. These values must be closely related to the type of contaminant and the real exposure conditions. In this report, the occupational medicine services working group has examined the possibilities of obtaining such reference values and suggests recommendations and operational values covering most situations found in routine monitoring [fr

  1. Determination of reference values of elements in kidney of the wistar rats using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish Reference Value for elements in kidney of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The quantitative knowledge of these elements in this biological material allows researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time, selecting the species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference, as well as the realization of biochemical investigation in kidney. In this study, the reference values (mg/kg) for kidney were determined for: Cr (0.0276 - 0.0384), Fe (110.23 - 212.87), Rb (2.8 - 6.8) and Zn (78.40 - 84.56). (author)

  2. Reference Growth Values for Adolescents Aged 12-18 Years in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Their body weight, height, BMI, triceps and abdominal skinfolds were assessed. ... The growth reference values in this study may provide a useful tool to assess body fat and nutrition ..... Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 13(3): 231-235.

  3. The nutritional requirements of infants. Towards EU alignment of reference values: the EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermoso, M.; Tabacchi, G.; Iglesia-Altaba, I.; Bel-Serrat, S.; Moreno-Aznar, L.A.; Garcia-Santos, Y.; Rosario Garcia-Luzardo, Del M.; Santana-Salguero, B.; Pena-Quintana, L.; Serra-Majem, L.; Hall Moran, V.; Dykes, F.; Decsi, T.; Benetou, V.; Plada, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Raats, M.M.; Doets, E.L.; Berti, C.; Cetin, I.; Koletzko, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the current knowledge regarding the macro- and micronutrient requirements of infants and discusses issues related to these requirements during the first year of life. The paper also reviews the current reference values used in European countries and the methodological

  4. Re-evaluation of the haptoglobin reference values with the radial immunodiffusion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, H.J.M. van; Schreurs, W.H.P.; Schrijver, J.

    1984-01-01

    The reference values of the three main types of serum haptoglobin Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1, and Hp 2-2, as determined by radial immunodiffusion and with phenotype determination on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been re-evaluated for both sexes. For that purpose about 500 serum samples were collected

  5. Reference Values for Human Posture Measurements Based on Computerized Photogrammetry: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo Ribeiro, Ana Freire; Bergmann, Anke; Lemos, Thiago; Pacheco, Antônio Guilherme; Mello Russo, Maitê; Santos de Oliveira, Laura Alice; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Erika

    The main objective of this study was to review the literature to identify reference values for angles and distances of body segments related to upright posture in healthy adult women with the Postural Assessment Software (PAS/SAPO). Electronic databases (BVS, PubMed, SciELO and Scopus) were assessed using the following descriptors: evaluation, posture, photogrammetry, physical therapy, postural alignment, postural assessment, and physiotherapy. Studies that performed postural evaluation in healthy adult women with PAS/SAPO and were published in English, Portuguese and Spanish, between the years 2005 and 2014 were included. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. Data from the included studies were grouped to establish the statistical descriptors (mean, variance, and standard deviation) of the body angles and distances. A total of 29 variables were assessed (10 in the anterior views, 16 in the lateral right and left views, and 3 in the posterior views), and its respective mean and standard deviation were calculated. Reference values for the anterior and posterior views showed no symmetry between the right and left sides of the body in the frontal plane. There were also small differences in the calculated reference values for the lateral view. The proposed reference values for quantitative evaluation of the upright posture in healthy adult women estimated in the present study using PAS/SAPO could guide future studies and help clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Reference values of fetal peak systolic blood flow Velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this prospective cross sectional study are (i) to establish new reference values of peak systolic blood flow velocity measurement in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA-PSV) following validated methodological guidelines (ii) to correlate peak systolic velocity with gestational age and (iii) to ...

  7. Exercise testing of pre-school children using the Bruce treadmill protocol: new reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. van der Cammen-van Zijp (Monique); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); T. Takken (Tim); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); D. Tibboel (Dick); H.J. Stam (Henk); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Bruce treadmill protocol is an often-used exercise test for children and adults. Few and mainly old normative data are available for young children. In this cross-sectional observational study we determined new reference values for the original Bruce protocol in children aged 4 and 5

  8. Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry body composition reference values from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Kelly

    Full Text Available In 2008 the National Center for Health Statistics released a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA whole body dataset from the NHANES population-based sample acquired with modern fan beam scanners in 15 counties across the United States from 1999 through 2004. The NHANES dataset was partitioned by gender and ethnicity and DXA whole body measures of %fat, fat mass/height(2, lean mass/height(2, appendicular lean mass/height(2, %fat trunk/%fat legs ratio, trunk/limb fat mass ratio of fat, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD were analyzed to provide reference values for subjects 8 to 85 years old. DXA reference values for adults were normalized to age; reference values for children included total and sub-total whole body results and were normalized to age, height, or lean mass. We developed an obesity classification scheme by using estabbody mass index (BMI classification thresholds and prevalences in young adults to generate matching classification thresholds for Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass/height(2. These reference values should be helpful in the evaluation of a variety of adult and childhood abnormalities involving fat, lean, and bone, for establishing entry criteria into clinical trials, and for other medical, research, and epidemiological uses.

  9. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I adult reference values for an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the importance of IGF-I local normal range, the aim of this study was to determine reference values for IGF-I (Immulite 2000) in a Brazilian adult population from the city of Rio de Janeiro. This study included samples of blood taken from 484 healthy subjects (251 men, 233 women) aged 18 to 70. The subjects ...

  10. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 ° C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 ° C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 ° C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 ° C, 0 ° C, 6 ° C and 24 ° C upon storage for one year.

  11. [Complete blood count reference values of donated cord blood from Korean neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Byoung Jae; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Kim, Jin Ju; Roh, Eun Youn

    2009-06-01

    In the public cord blood (CB) banks, only safe CB units with adequate cell doses are processed and stored. Complete blood count (CBC) of CB is crucial for estimating total nucleated cells (TNC) and screening suitable CB units without hematologic abnormalities. We analyzed CBC parameters of the donated CB from healthy Korean neonates to establish CBC reference values. A total of 2,129 Korean CB units, donated and processed during the period from August 2007 to December 2007, were enrolled. We measured hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) count, differential count of WBC, platelets and nucleated red blood cell (nRBC) count by XE-2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex, Japan), and estimated reference value of each parameter by using parametric (Mean+/-2SD) and/or non-parametric methods (2.5-97.5 percentile). And also, we compared the result of each parameter in relation to sex of neonates and delivery method. Because the differences of CBC values among different subgroups were not remarkable, we established the reference intervals as follows without subgroup division: Hb, 9.0-14.4 g/dL; WBC count, 5.6-18.5 x 10(3)/microL; differential count of WBC (neutrophils, 40.8-72.4%; lymphocytes, 17.2-46.7%; monocytes, 4.9-12.8%; eosinophils, 0.7-7.0%; basophils, 0.0-1.6%); platelet, 130-287 x 10(3)/microL; nRBCs, 0.0-13.1/100 WBC. We established cord blood CBC reference values of healthy Korean neonates using a large-scale CB units. The established CBC reference values from our study will be useful as basic data for CBC interpretation and assessment of transplant suitability of donated CB.

  12. Commonly used reference values underestimate oxygen uptake in healthy, 50-year-old Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, M; Andrén, B; Lind, L; Hedenström, H; Malinovschi, A

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard among clinical exercise tests. It combines a conventional stress test with measurement of oxygen uptake (V O 2 ) and CO 2 production. No validated Swedish reference values exist, and reference values in women are generally understudied. Moreover, the importance of achieved respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and the significance of breathing reserve (BR) at peak exercise in healthy individuals are poorly understood. We compared V O 2 at maximal load (peakV O 2 ) and anaerobic threshold (V O 2@ AT ) in healthy Swedish individuals with commonly used reference values, taking gender into account. Further, we analysed maximal workload and peakV O 2 with regard to peak RER and BR. In all, 181 healthy, 50-year-old individuals (91 women) performed CPET. PeakV O 2 was best predicted using Jones et al. (100·5%), while SHIP reference values underestimated peakV O 2 most: 112·5%. Furthermore, underestimation of peakV O 2 in women was found for all studied reference values (P 1·1 (2 328·7 versus 2 176·7 ml min -1 , P = 0·11). Lower BR (≤30%) related to significantly higher peakV O 2 (Pvalues underestimated oxygen uptake in women. No evidence for demanding RER > 1·1 in healthy individuals was found. A lowered BR is probably a normal response to higher workloads in healthy individuals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Determination of the value of the occupational man-Sievert: research on reference values in the asbestos industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assign relative reference values to the cost of the man-Sievert, the implicit costs are calculated for preventing the occupational health risks associated with the asbestos industry in France and the United Kingdom. The results for the cost of the man-Sievert were (0.4 to 1.2) 10 5 F and (3.4 to 9.2) 10 5 F respectively compared to the equivalent workbench cost of 30.10 5 F for PWR reactors in France. (author)

  14. Reassessment of pH reference values with improved methodology for the evaluation of ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lito, M.J. Guiomar H.M.; Camoes, M. Filomena G.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The conflict between pH as empirical number in routine control and the pH value regarded as conveying some information concerning the effective concentration or activity of hydrogen ions, a H , has caused much confusion. There are, however, reasons to conclude that the overwhelming amount of thermodynamic data is not sufficiently accurate--either due to ignorance of metrological concepts or due to insufficiently specified measurement processes of fundamental chemical quantities pH. The commonly used seven reference buffer solutions to which primary pH values have been conventional assigned, represent a selection out of a more extensive list, recommended by NBS (now NIST) in 1962. From then onwards conventions concerning the Debye-Hueckel model of electrolyte solutions and ionic strength have been revised and the pH(S) values reassessed in conformity but only for these seven reference buffer solutions. The others have, so far remained unchanged, locking harmonisation of the conventionally assigned pH(S) values. In this work, ionic strength is calculated through complete equations derived from the acidity constants. Concentrations of the various species involved in the conventional assignment of pH and their corresponding activity coefficients are therefore, more rigorously known. The process proves particularly useful for poliprotic acids with overlapping acidity constants, where the ratio is less than 10 3 . As a consequence, conventionally assigned pH values of reference buffer solutions are recalculated and corrections are introduced as appropriate

  15. Reference values for muscle strength: a systematic review with a descriptive meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfica, Poliana do Amaral; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Brito, Sherindan Ayessa Ferreira de; Bernardino, Luane Helena Nunes; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2018-05-03

    Muscle strength is an important component of health. To describe and evaluate the studies which have established the reference values for muscle strength on healthy individuals and to synthesize these values with a descriptive meta-analysis approach. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Studies that investigated the reference values for muscle strength of two or more appendicular/axial muscle groups of health individuals were included. Methodological quality, including risk of bias was assessed by the QUADAS-2. Data extracted included: country of the study, sample size, population characteristics, equipment/method used, and muscle groups evaluated. Of the 414 studies identified, 46 were included. Most of the studies had adequate methodological quality. Included studies evaluated: appendicular (80.4%) and axial (36.9%) muscles; adults (78.3%), elderly (58.7%), adolescents (43.5%), children (23.9%); isometric (91.3%) and isokinetic (17.4%) strength. Six studies (13%) with similar procedures were synthesized with meta-analysis. Generally, the coefficient of variation values that resulted from the meta-analysis ranged from 20.1% to 30% and were similar to those reported by the original studies. The meta-analysis synthesized the reference values of isometric strength of 14 muscle groups of the dominant/non-dominant sides of the upper/lower limbs of adults/elderly from developed countries, using dynamometers/myometer. Most of the included studies had adequate methodological quality. The meta-analysis provided reference values for the isometric strength of 14 appendicular muscle groups of the dominant/non-dominant sides, measured with dynamometers/myometers, of men/women, of adults/elderly. These data may be used to interpret the results of the evaluations and establish appropriate treatment goals. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  16. Reference Values of Grip Strength, Prevalence of Low Grip Strength, and Factors Affecting Grip Strength Values in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Ong, Sherlin; Cheung, Osbert; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to update the reference values of grip strength, to estimate the prevalence of low grip strength, and to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol on grip strength values in Chinese adults. A cross-sectional survey of Chinese men (n = 714) and women (n = 4014) aged 18-102 years was undertaken in different community settings in Hong Kong. Grip strength was measured with a digital dynamometer (TKK 5401 Grip-D; Takei, Niigata, Japan). Low grip strength was defined as grip strength 2 standard deviations or more below the mean for young adults. The effects of measurement protocol on grip strength values were examined in a subsample of 45 men and women with repeated measures of grip strength taken with a hydraulic dynamometer (Baseline; Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY), using pair t-tests, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman plots. Grip strength was greater among men than among women (P values than the Baseline hydraulic dynamometer (P values were also observed when the measurement was performed with the elbow extended in a standing position, compared with that with the elbow flexed at 90° in a sitting position, using the same dynamometer (P values of grip strength and estimated the prevalence of low grip strength among Chinese adults spanning a wide age range. These findings might be useful for risk estimation and evaluation of interventions. However, grip strength measurements should be interpreted with caution, as grip strength values can be affected by type of dynamometer used, assessment posture, and elbow position. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reference values for generic instruments used in routine outcome monitoring: the leiden routine outcome monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte-van Maaren Yvonne WM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, Mood & Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire −30 (MASQ-D30, Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36, and Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF are generic instruments that can be used in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM of patients with common mental disorders. We aimed to generate reference values usually encountered in 'healthy' and ‘psychiatrically ill’ populations to facilitate correct interpretation of ROM results. Methods We included the following specific reference populations: 1294 subjects from the general population (ROM reference group recruited through general practitioners, and 5269 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with mood, anxiety, or somatoform (MAS disorders (ROM patient group. The outermost 5% of observations were used to define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentiles for BSI, MASQ-D30 and DAPP-SF, and 5th percentiles for SF-36 subscales. Internal consistency and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analyses were performed. Results Mean age for the ROM reference group was 40.3 years (SD=12.6 and 37.7 years (SD=12.0 for the ROM patient group. The proportion of females was 62.8% and 64.6%, respectively. The mean for cut-off values of healthy individuals was 0.82 for the BSI subscales, 23 for the three MASQ-D30 subscales, 45 for the SF-36 subscales, and 3.1 for the DAPP-SF subscales. Discriminative power of the BSI, MASQ-D30 and SF-36 was good, but it was poor for the DAPP-SF. For all instruments, the internal consistency of the subscales ranged from adequate to excellent. Discussion and conclusion Reference values for the clinical interpretation were provided for the BSI, MASQ-D30, SF-36, and DAPP-SF. Clinical information aided by ROM data may represent the best means to appraise the clinical state of psychiatric outpatients.

  18. Establishment of reference values for complete blood count and blood gases in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAYAMA, Shunya; KOIE, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; KATAKAI, Yuko; ITO-FUJISHIRO, Yasuyo; SANKAI, Tadashi; YASUTOMI, Yasuhiro; AGEYAMA, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are closely related to humans phylogenetically, and this has resulted in their widespread use as a preclinical model. Hematological data with regard to these monkeys are thus important. Although reference values for blood components and sex hormones have been established for cynomolgus monkeys, those for arterial blood gases have not. The arterial blood gases quickly reflect respiratory and circulatory dynamics, and are thus useful for animal management and safe general anesthesia and surgical operations. Furthermore, since O2 is transported by RBC, CBC and blood gases are closely related. The present study aimed to establish reference values for arterial blood gases and CBC in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range. Blood gases and CBC of arterial blood, collected from 41 female and 21 male anesthetized monkeys, were measured. Age correlated with RBC, HGB and HCT in the CBC. Values differed significantly between males and females in pCO2, CO2 concentration, MCV and MCH. The pH of blood was equivalent to that of humans and pCO2 was more stable, whereas MCV and MCH were lower than those in humans. Erythrocytes were smaller and less pigmented than in other Macaca species. Several relationships between gender and age, and blood gases and CBC were identified in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these reference values will be useful as markers for veterinary applications and in the care and maintenance of these animals. PMID:28381665

  19. New parameters and reference values for monitoring iron status in Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C

    2014-04-01

    Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.

  20. Blood pressure reference values for European non-overweight school children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, G; Buck, C; Bammann, K; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Hebestreit, A; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Vyncke, K; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    To provide oscillometric blood pressure (BP) reference values in European non-overweight school children. Cross-sectional analysis from the IDEFICS study (www.ideficsstudy.eu) database. Standardised BP and anthropometric measures were obtained from children aged 2 to 10.9 years, participating in the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 IDEFICS surveys. Age- and height-specific systolic and diastolic pressure percentiles were calculated by GAMLSS, separately for boys and girls, in both the entire population (n=16,937) and the non-overweight children only (n=13,547). The robustness of the models was tested by sensitivity analyses carried out in both population samples. Percentiles of BP distribution in non-overweight children were provided by age and height strata, separately for boys and girls. Diastolic BP norms were slightly higher in girls than in boys for similar age and height, while systolic BP values tended to be higher in boys starting from age 5 years. Sensitivity analysis, comparing BP distributions obtained in all children with those of non-overweight children, showed that the inclusion of overweight/obese individuals shifted the references values upward, in particular systolic BP in girls at the extreme percentiles. The present analysis provides updated and timely information about reference values for BP in children aged 2 to <11 years that may be useful for monitoring and planning population strategies for disease prevention.

  1. Estimated ventricle size using Evans index: reference values from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraj, D; Rabiei, K; Marlow, T; Jensen, C; Skoog, I; Wikkelsø, C

    2017-03-01

    Evans index is an estimate of ventricular size used in the diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Values >0.3 are considered pathological and are required by guidelines for the diagnosis of iNPH. However, there are no previous epidemiological studies on Evans index, and normal values in adults are thus not precisely known. We examined a representative sample to obtain reference values and descriptive data on Evans index. A population-based sample (n = 1235) of men and women aged ≥70 years was examined. The sample comprised people living in private households and residential care, systematically selected from the Swedish population register. Neuropsychiatric examinations, including head computed tomography, were performed between 1986 and 2000. Evans index ranged from 0.11 to 0.46. The mean value in the total sample was 0.28 (SD, 0.04) and 20.6% (n = 255) had values >0.3. Among men aged ≥80 years, the mean value of Evans index was 0.3 (SD, 0.03). Individuals with dementia had a mean value of Evans index of 0.31 (SD, 0.05) and those with radiological signs of iNPH had a mean value of 0.36 (SD, 0.04). A substantial number of subjects had ventricular enlargement according to current criteria. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the range of values among older individuals. © 2017 EAN.

  2. [The reference of normal values of the sacroiliac joint index in bone scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastjanowicz, Przemysław; Iwanowski, Jacek; Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Elbl, Bogumiła; Birkenfeld, Bożena

    Scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints as functional imaging provides unique information on the existing disease process. By using radiopharmaceuticals that allow imaging of the metabolic activity within the joint, it is possible to assess the stage of the disease, even when there are no lesions in radiological images. Quantitative analysis of scintigrams of sacroiliac joints is performed by comparing the uptake in both of them in relation to the uptake in the sacral bone area. The values of sacroiliac (SI/S) indices are influenced by the age of the patient, sex, state of health, and a range of individual biological features. Therefore, reference values of SI/S ratios are very important for medical specialists who describe and diagnose locomotor system diseases. The aim of this paper is to develop a reference range of sacroiliac ratios. The innovativeness of this paper involves examining sacroiliac ratios for various age groups, in children and adult patients, taking their sex into consideration. The study comprised a group of 335 people with proper bone scintigraphy. These people were divided into children and patients aged ≥21. Children were divided into 4 age groups (1–5; 6–10; 11–15; 16–20) and adults into 6 age groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; 61–70; ≥71). Sacroiliac ratios were calculated using the method of three rectangular region of interests located on the left and right sacroiliac joint and on the sacral bone. The sacroiliac ratio was calculated for both joints by dividing the average number of counts within a selected sacroiliac joint by the average number of counts within the sacral bone. SI/S borderline reference values covered the range of 1.18÷2.28 that was obtained for children aged ≤5 and for the group of 11–15-year-olds. Considerable discrepancies in the values of the coefficient for women and men were seen among 31–50-year-olds. Borderline reference results for the entire control group cover the range of 1.18 ±2

  3. How the reference values for serum parathyroid hormone concentration are (or should be) established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souberbielle, J-C; Brazier, F; Piketty, M-L; Cormier, C; Minisola, S; Cavalier, E

    2017-03-01

    Well-validated reference values are necessary for a correct interpretation of a serum PTH concentration. Establishing PTH reference values needs recruiting a large reference population. Exclusion criteria for this population can be defined as any situation possibly inducing an increase or a decrease in PTH concentration. As recommended in the recent guidelines on the diagnosis and management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, PTH reference values should be established in vitamin D-replete subjects with a normal renal function with possible stratification according to various factors such as age, gender, menopausal status, body mass index, and race. A consensus about analytical/pre-analytical aspects of PTH measurement is also needed with special emphasis on the nature of the sample (plasma or serum), the time and the fasting/non-fasting status of the blood sample. Our opinion is that blood sample for PTH measurement should be obtained in the morning after an overnight fast. Furthermore, despite longer stability of the PTH molecule in EDTA plasma, we prefer serum as it allows to measure calcium, a prerequisite for a correct interpretation of a PTH concentration, on the same sample. Once a consensus is reached, we believe an important international multicentre work should be performed to recruit a very extensive reference population of apparently healthy vitamin D-replete subjects with a normal renal function in order to establish the PTH normative data. Due to the huge inter-method variability in PTH measurement, a sufficient quantity of blood sample should be obtained to allow measurement with as many PTH kits as possible.

  4. Reference values of bone stiffness index and C-terminal telopeptide in healthy European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, D; Intemann, T; Lauria, F; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Sioen, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound measurements and bone metabolic markers can help to monitor bone health and to detect impaired skeletal development. Population-based reference values for children may serve as a basis for preventive measures to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in later life. This is the first paper providing age-, sex- and height-specific reference values for bone stiffness index (SI) and serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in healthy, apparently prepubertal children. In the population-based IDEFICS baseline survey (2007-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010), 18,745 children from eight European countries were newly recruited. A total of 10,791 2-10.9-year-old and 1646 3-8.9-year-old healthy children provided data on SI of the right and left calcaneus and serum CTX, respectively. Furthermore, height and weight were measured. Percentile curves were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to model the distribution of SI and CTX depending on multiple covariates while accounting for dispersion, skewness, and the kurtosis of this distribution. SI was negatively associated with age and height in children aged 2-5 years, whereas a positive association was observed in children aged 6-10 years. The dip in SI occurred at older age for higher SI percentiles and was observed earlier in taller children than in smaller children. The CTX reference curves showed a linear-positive association with age and height. No major sex differences were observed for the SI and CTX reference values. These reference data lay the ground to evaluate bone growth and metabolism in prepubertal children in epidemiological and clinical settings. They may also inform clinical practice to monitor skeletal development and to assess adverse drug reactions during medical treatments.

  5. Bone densitometry in normal women of reproductive age: Correlation with reference values and anthropometric variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Ladron de Guevara, D.

    2002-01-01

    Bone mass density measurements using X rays is considered to be the non-invasive reference method to measure bone mineral density. Even though the technology has reached a high level of development, precision and reproducibility must be optimised to assure that the observed variations are due solely to the variations in bone mineral content, and not to other associated variables, either technical or biological. The main factors affecting bone density measurements are those that depend on the technique used and those which depend on characteristics of the individuals. The variability associated with the technique can be minimised by an adequate standardisation and quality control. Among those characteristics of the individuals, which have been mentioned as a source of variability, the most important are related to the anthropomorphic characteristics such as size and depth of osseous structures, and thickness and characteristics of soft tissues. These factors may be especially important because the interpretation of bone mass density measurements depends on values obtained for reference normal populations, which are incorporated into the bone mass densitometers as reference value databases. Usually the anthropomorphic characteristics of this reference population are unknown and can be different from those of the local population, independently of genetic or ethnic factors. This situation leads to error both in the definition of basic concepts such as osteopenia and osteoporosis, and in the interpretation of individual results for population studies. The purpose of this study is to correlate bone density measurements of normal Chilean women with reference value databases and with parameters, which depend on body size

  6. Reference values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Younan; Qin, Shengfang; Ding, Yang; Wei, Lingling; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hongxia; Bu, Hong; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus monkey models are valuable to the studies of human biology. Reference values for clinical chemistry and hematology parameters of rhesus monkeys are required for proper data interpretation. Whole blood was collected from 36 healthy Chinese rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of either sex, 3 to 5 yr old. Routine chemistry and hematology parameters, and some special coagulation parameters including thromboelastograph and activities of coagulation factors were tested. We presented here the baseline values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in normal Chinese rhesus monkeys. These data may provide valuable information for veterinarians and investigators using rhesus monkeys in experimental studies.

  7. Reference Values for Assessment of Unilateral Limb Lymphedema with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Hendel, Helle W; Klausen, Tobias W

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The clinical assessment of unilateral limb lymphedema is commonly based on measurements of interlimb volume differences. Reference values for interlimb percentage differences of the volume, fat mass, and lean mass measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan are, however...... is calculated as follows: ("Limb-of-interest"-contralateral)/contralateral × 100. The interlimb percentage differences for the limb-of-interest were stratified to upper (according to handedness) and lower limbs and categorized as none/mild, moderate, or severe, respectively, based on whether the value is below...

  8. Reference Values for Umbilical Cord Blood Gases of Newborns Delivered by Elective Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomayangkul, Kattiya; Siriussawakul, Arunotai; Nimmannit, Akarin; Yuyen, Thassayu; Ngerncham, Sopapan; Reesukumal, Kanit

    2016-05-01

    Umbilical cord blood gas values are better indicators of perinatal asphyxia than Apgar scores. Many studies have reported normal ranges of umbilical cord blood gases, which vary greatly due to many factors. This study aimed to establish the reference values of umbilical cord blood gases of normal cesarean newborns in a university hospital setting. Blood samples from the umbilical artery and vein were collected from 160 newborns delivered by elective cesarean section. The indications for caesarean section were not due to fetal distress, intrauterine growth retardation, or non-reassuring fetal heart rate. The blood samples were collected immediately after birth in the operating room and then sent for blood-gas analysis. The blood-gas values were statistically analyzed and reported. The cord blood collected from 160 newborns was analyzed in this study. Seventy-eight percent (115) of the parturients were hypotensive before delivery. All Apgar scores at one and five minutes after delivery were at least 7. The calculated reference range of the umbilical arterial pH was 7.18-7.42, of pO₂was 6.43-29.43 mmHg, of pCO₂was 33.44-66.56 mmHg, and of HCO₃was 15.60-30.70 mEq/L. The reference range obtained for the umbilical venous pH was 7.28-7.44,for pO₂was 13.97-37.13 mmHg, for pCO₂was 30.70-57.0 mmHg, and for HCO₃was 18.50-29.90 mEq/L. The study determined normal reference values as a result of umbilical cord blood gas analyses.

  9. Calculation of climatic reference values and its use for automatic outlier detection in meteorological datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Téllez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The climatic reference values for monthly and annual average air temperature and total precipitation in Catalonia – northeast of Spain – are calculated using a combination of statistical methods and geostatistical techniques of interpolation. In order to estimate the uncertainty of the method, the initial dataset is split into two parts that are, respectively, used for estimation and validation. The resulting maps are then used in the automatic outlier detection in meteorological datasets.

  10. Reference values for venous and capillary S100B in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrand, Ramona; Romner, Bertil; Lanke, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The current management guidelines for pediatric mild head injury (MHI) liberally recommend computed tomography (CT) and frequent admission. Serum protein S100B, currently used in management of adult head injury, has recently shown potential for reducing unnecessary CT scans after pediatric mild h...... head injury. Capillary sampling in children is commonly used when venous sampling fails or is inappropriate. We present reference values for both venous and capillary samples of protein S100B in children....

  11. Reference values of reticulocyte counts in five age groups of healthy infants at rawalpindi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, K.T.; Zafar, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the reference range values of reticulocyte counts among various infantile age groups at tertiary care hospitals. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the Haematology Department of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from March 2010 to March 2011. The sample size was 2000 which was equally distributed between males and females across five age groups. <27 days Group I; 03 months Group II; 06 months Group III; 09 months Group IV; and 1 year Group V. Each group had 400 patients. Reticulocyte staining was used to calculate the percentage of reticulocyte in all the groups. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Gender had no effect on reticulocyte count in all the five groups. The average range of reticulocyte count was 5.1 to 7.5 in Group I, observed in 272 (68%) infants, with a mean value of 1.58+-0.65. For all the remaining groups, 7.6 to 10 was the average range. The mean reticulocyte count value in Group II was 0.73+-0.37, while the values were 0.83+-0.44, 0.82+-0.44 and 0.80+-0.43 in Group III, Group IV and Group V respectively. A significant difference was seen between Group I and the remaining four (p <0.05). Conclusion: Reference values of reticulocyte counts currently used in our region were somewhat different from those currently used. (author)

  12. Haematological reference values for full-term, healthy, newborns of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Danish Hasan; Sandila, Mohammad Perwaiz; Ahmed, Syed Tousif; Kazmi, Tahseen

    2009-09-01

    To establish reference haematological values (complete blood count) in healthy full-term newborns of Karachi. This is a cross sectional study design based on cord blood sample of 404 newborns and their mothers recruited from Sindh Government Qatar Hospital, Ziauddin University Hospital gole market campus, Sindh Government hospital, Liaquatabad and Chinniot maternity and child hospital. Karachi from July 2006 to April 2008. Both mother's and the new born baby's blood was collected in EDTA containing tubes and analyzed for different haematological parameters. The data entry and analysis was done on computer package SPSS (Statistical Packages of Social Sciences) version 12.0. The results were given in the text as mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals of haematological values (complete blood count). The mean haemoglobin was found to be (14.99 +/- 1.47 gm), which is lower than the standard value described in literature. However the total WBCs count and platelet count were found to be (13.61 +/- 4.23) and (256. 25 +/- 76.54) respectively, which were similar to the other studies. Our values provide reference range for haematological values in healthy newborns of Karachi, for clinical use by our physicians.

  13. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of –20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year.

  14. Valued Components of a Consultant Letter from Referring Physicians' Perspective: a Systematic Literature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Arjun H; Sheldon, Robert; Donald, Maoliosa; Eronmwon, Cindy; Kuriachan, Vikas P

    2018-03-05

    Effective communication between the consultants and physicians form an integral foundation of effective and expert patient care. A broad review of the literature has not been undertaken to determine the components of a consultant's letter of most value to the referring physician. We aimed to identify the components of a consultant's letter preferred by referring physicians. We searched Embase and MEDLINE (OVID) Medicine (EBM) Reviews and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for English articles with no restriction on initial date to January 6, 2017. Articles containing letters from specialists to referring physicians regarding outpatient assessments with either an observational or experimental design were included. Studies were excluded if they pertained to communications from referring physicians to consultant specialists, or pertained to allied health professionals, inpatient documents, or opinion articles. We enumerated the frequencies with which three common themes were addressed, and the positive or negative nature of the comments. The three themes were the structure of consultant letters, their contents, and whether referring physicians and consultants shared a common opinion about the items. Eighteen articles were included in our synthesis. In 11 reports, 91% of respondents preferred structured formats. Other preferred structural features were problem lists and brevity (four reports each). The most preferred contents were oriented to insight: diagnosis, prognosis, and management plan (16/21 mentions in the top tertile). Data items such as history, physical examination, and medication lists were less important (1/23 mentions in the top tertile). Reports varied as to whether referring physicians and consultants shared common opinions about letter features. Referring physicians prefer brief, structured letters from consultants that feature diagnostic and prognostic opinions and management plans over unstructured letters that emphasize data elements such as

  15. Reference haematological values for full term healthy newborns from rural sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, W.

    2015-01-01

    Normal values of complete blood counts show variation from region to region and between different ethnic groups. It is important to establish reference range for these values in our population for clinical use by our physicians. This descriptive cross sectional study aimed at establishing the normal reference values of complete blood counts in physically normal full term new borns of Panu Aqil, Rural Sind, Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Panu Aqil Cantonment, from January 2010 to March 2011, on 316 term normal neonates selected on the basis of gestational age of 37 weeks or more with uneventful antenatal period. During the initial 12 hours of delivery, 2 ml Cord blood was collected in bottle containing tripotassium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (K3EDTA) as the anticoagulant and Complete blood counts were performed by Sysmex KX-21 automated haematology analyser. Blood films were prepared and stained by Leishman stain. Results: The haemoglobin was mean ± SD 15.4 ± 1.9 g/dL. The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) was 103.4 ± 4.6 fL, while Mean Corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) was 33.8 ± 1.6 pg. The Red cell Distribution Width-CV (RDW-CV) was 18.5 ± 1.8%. The total leukocyte count (TLC) was mean ± SD 13.7 ± 4.0*109 /L. The Absolute Neutrophil count (ANC) was mean+-SD 7.7 ± 3.0x109 /L. The Absolute Lymphocyte count (ALC) was mean+-SD 5.1 ± 1.8*109 /L. Platelet count was mean ± SD 285 ± 62x109 /L. Conclusion: Our values provide reference range for haematological values in healthy newborns of Panu Aqil, Rural Sindh, for clinical use by our physicians. (author)

  16. Clinical chemistry reference values for 75-year-old apparently healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Klaus Roland; Mostafaie, Nazanin; Stangl, Gerhard; Worofka, Brigitte; Kittl, Eva; Hofmann, Jörg; Hejtman, Milos; Michael, Rainer; Weissgram, Silvia; Leitha, Thomas; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz; Bauer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Clinical chemistry reference values for elderly persons are sparse and mostly intermixed with those for younger subjects. To understand the links between metabolism and aging, it is paramount to differentiate between "normal" physiological processes in apparently healthy elderly subjects and metabolic changes due to long-lasting diseases. The Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study, which began in 2000 and is continuing, will allow us to do just that, because more than 600 male and female volunteers aged exactly 75 years (to exclude any influence of the "aging" factor in this cohort) are participating in this study. Extensive clinical, neurological, biochemical, psychological, genetic, and radiological analyses, with a special emphasis on consumption of medication and abuse of drugs, were performed on each of the probands. The multitude of data and questionnaires obtained made possible an a posteriori approach to select individuals fulfilling criteria for a reference sample group of apparently healthy 75-year-old subjects for our study. Specific analytes were quantified on automated clinical analyzers, while manual methods were used for hormonal analytes. All clinical chemistry analytes were evaluated using in-depth statistical analyses with SPSS for Windows. In all, reference intervals for 45 analytes could be established. These include routine parameters for the assessment of organ functions, as well as hormone concentrations and hematological appraisals. Because all patients were reevaluated after exactly 30 months in the course of this study, we had the opportunity to reassess their health status at the age of 77.5 years. This was very useful for validation of the first round data set. Data of the second round evaluation corroborate the reference limits of the baseline analysis and further confirm our inclusion and exclusion criteria. In summary, we have established a reliable set of reference data for hormonal, hematological, and clinical chemistry analytes for

  17. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center asse...

  18. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  20. Reference values for physical performance measures in the aging working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Mark P; Kenny, Anne; Dussetschleger, Jeffrey; Farr, Dana; Chaurasia, Ashok; Cherniack, Martin

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine reference physical performance values in older aging workers. Cross-sectional physical performance measures were collected for 736 manufacturing workers to assess effects of work and nonwork factors on age-related changes in musculoskeletal function and health. Participants underwent surveys and physical testing that included bioelectrical impedance analysis, range-of-motion measures, exercise testing, and dynamic assessment. Physical characteristics, such as blood pressure and body fat percentage, were comparable to published values. Dynamic and range-of-motion measurements differed from published normative results. Women had age-related decreases in cervical extension and lateral rotation. Older men had better spinal flexion than expected. Predicted age-related decline in lower-extremity strength and shoulder strength in women was not seen. Men declined in handgrip, lower-extremity strength, and knee extension strength, but not trunk strength, across age groups. There was no appreciable decline in muscle fatigue at the trunk, shoulder, and knee with aging for either gender, except for the youngest age group of women. Normative values may underestimate physical performance in "healthy" older workers, thereby underappreciating declines in less healthy older workers. Work may be preservative of function for a large group of selected individuals. A "healthy worker effect" may be greater for musculoskeletal disease and function than for heart disease and mortality. Clinicians and researchers studying musculoskeletal function in older workers can use a more specific set of reference values.

  1. Establishment of reference CD4+ T cell values for adult Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Krishnangshu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte counts are the most important indicator of disease progression and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV infection in resource limited settings. The nationwide reference range of CD4+ T lymphocytes was not available in India. This study was conducted to determine reference values of absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages for adult Indian population. Methods A multicentric study was conducted involving eight sites across the country. A total of 1206 (approximately 150 per/centre healthy participants were enrolled in the study. The ratio of male (N = 645 to female (N = 561 of 1.14:1. The healthy status of the participants was assessed by a pre-decided questionnaire. At all centers the CD4+ T cell count, percentages and absolute CD3+ T cell count and percentages were estimated using a single platform strategy and lyse no wash technique. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Scientist (SPSS, version 15 and Prism software version 5. Results The absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages in female participants were significantly higher than the values obtained in male participants indicating the true difference in the CD4+ T cell subsets. The reference range for absolute CD4 count for Indian male population was 381-1565 cells/μL and for female population was 447-1846 cells/μL. The reference range for CD4% was 25-49% for male and 27-54% for female population. The reference values for CD3 counts were 776-2785 cells/μL for Indian male population and 826-2997 cells/μL for female population. Conclusion The study used stringent procedures for controlling the technical variation in the CD4 counts across the sites and thus could establish the robust national reference ranges for CD4 counts and percentages. These ranges will be helpful in staging the disease progression and monitoring antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection in India.

  2. Value assignment and uncertainty evaluation for single-element reference solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Bodnar, Olha; Butler, Therese A.; Molloy, John L.; Winchester, Michael R.

    2018-06-01

    A Bayesian statistical procedure is proposed for value assignment and uncertainty evaluation for the mass fraction of the elemental analytes in single-element solutions distributed as NIST standard reference materials. The principal novelty that we describe is the use of information about relative differences observed historically between the measured values obtained via gravimetry and via high-performance inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, to quantify the uncertainty component attributable to between-method differences. This information is encapsulated in a prior probability distribution for the between-method uncertainty component, and it is then used, together with the information provided by current measurement data, to produce a probability distribution for the value of the measurand from which an estimate and evaluation of uncertainty are extracted using established statistical procedures.

  3. Exhaled nitric oxide levels in asthma: Personal best versus reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D; Cowan, Jan O; Taylor, D Robin

    2009-10-01

    Factors affecting the fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FE(NO)) are multiple. Interpreting values when assessing airways disease may be problematic. Clinically optimum levels have not been defined. We aimed to establish the relationship between predicted values for FE(NO) obtained from equations by Olin et al, Travers et al, and Dressel et al, and normalized levels after oral prednisone. We also compared postprednisone FE(NO) levels with those obtained during optimized treatment with inhaled fluticasone. Data were obtained before and after a trial of oral prednisone (30mg/d for 14 days), and also from a previously published study in which patients had their dose of inhaled corticosteroid adjusted using either FE(NO) or symptoms/lung function to optimize treatment. Seventy-three patients completed the study. The geometric mean FE(NO) after prednisone (17.7 parts per billion [ppb]; 95% CI, 15.5-20.2) was significantly lower than mean FE(NO) at the optimized fluticasone dose (20.2 ppb; 95% CI, 17.1-23.8; P=.04) and at loss of control (27.6 ppb; 95% CI, 22.8-33.4; P values of Olin et al (16.8 ppb, 95% CI, 16.0-17.5; P=.44), but were significantly lower than values of Travers et al (predicted, 21.5 ppb; 95% CI, 20.9-22.2; P=.005) and Dressel et al (predicted, 27.8 ppb; 95% CI, 26.7-28.9; P values from the reference equation by Olin et al. However, at optimized doses of inhaled corticosteroid, although FE(NO) levels were higher than predicted, asthma was well controlled. Targeting FE(NO) on reference values is not justified.

  4. Determination of reference values of thyroid hormones in newborn children (Riobamba Hospitals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Silvio.

    1989-09-01

    'Reference values of thyroid hormones in newborn children' was determined by this research. The work was carried out in two hospitals: Policlinic and Social Security at Riobamba city. The data was compared with international values and healthy adults. It was used 248 samples of umbilical cord blood and 38 samples of vessel blood from adults. The thyroid perfil (T3, T4, TSH and T3, RU) was determined through radioimmunoassay, RIAPC, LOTUS 123 and CHARTMASTER. The following values were obtained in newborn children: T4(ug/dl) = 10,8 + - 3,1 ; T3(ng/dl) = 41,8 + - 26,9; TSH(uUI/ml) 7,2 + - 6,5; <<<<< T3RU() = 22,6 + - 7,9. The data obtained were no significantly different from the international values. If we compare newborns with adults there is a high significant difference; so the values are quite distinct. Since the referencial values found were trusty it was recommended to use them in medical diagnosis

  5. Influence of population selection on the 99th percentile reference value for cardiac troponin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Paul O; Heung, Yen Ming; Gaze, David; Boa, Frances; Senior, Roxy; Christenson, Robert; Apple, Fred S

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of patient selection on the 99th reference percentile of 2 sensitive and 1 high-sensitivity (hs) cardiac troponin assays in a well-defined reference population. Individuals>45 years old were randomly selected from 7 representative local community practices. Detailed information regarding the participants was collected via questionnaires. The healthy reference population was defined as individuals who had no history of vascular disease, hypertension, or heavy alcohol intake; were not receiving cardiac medication; and had blood pressure60 mL·min(-1)·(1.73 m2)(-1), and normal cardiac function according to results of echocardiography. Samples were stored at -70 °C until analysis for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Application of progressively more stringent population selection strategies to the initial baseline population of 545 participants until the only individuals who remained were completely healthy according to the study criteria reduced the number of outliers seen and led to a progressive decrease in the 99th-percentile value obtained for the Roche hs-cTnT assay and the sensitive Beckman cTnI assay but not for the sensitive Siemens Ultra cTnI assay. Furthermore, a sex difference found in the baseline population for the hs-cTnT (P=0.0018) and Beckman cTnI assays (Pstrategy significantly influenced the 99th percentile reference values determined for troponin assays and the observed sex differences in troponin concentrations.

  6. Serum chemistry reference values for the common genet (Genetta genetta): variations associated with Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Chirife, Andrea D; Altet, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis in under debate, and determining whether infection with Leishmania infantum causes illness in wild carnivores is important to determine its potential role as a reservoir. To provide for the first time serum biochemistry reference values for the common genet (Genetta genetta), and to determine variations associated with L. infantum infection. Twenty-five serum biochemistry parameters were determined in 22 wild-caught genets. Blood samples were analyzed for L. infantum DNA by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two female genets were positive for L. infantum DNA but did not show any external clinical sign upon physical examination. Among other variations in the biochemistry values of these genets, one presented a higher concentration of gamma-globulins and cholesterol, whereas the other genet presented increased creatinine, bilirubin, and chloride levels when compared to uninfected females. Sex-related differences in some parameters were also reported. Infection with L. infantum may sometimes be accompanied by abnormal serum biochemistry in wild carnivores. Clinical disease may occur in L. infantum-infected wild carnivores. This has implications in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis. In addition, the data provided here would also be useful as reference values for researchers or rehabilitators working with the common genet.

  7. Hand bone mineral density reference values in a Turkish healthy female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioglu, Kenan; Dogu, Beril; Sirzai, Hulya; Yilmaz, Figen; Kuran, Banu

    2017-12-01

    In this study we aimed at identifying the bone mineral density (BMD) reference values of hands, according to age, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and assessing the correlation of these values with lumbar and femoral BMD values. A total of 403 healthy women aged between 20 and 70 participated in our study. All BMD measurements are performed by DEXA method on both hands, anteroposterior lumbar spine (L2-L4) and right femur (femoral neck, total femur) regions. BMD results of all the patients were divided to 10-year age categories and evaluated in five subgroups in total (20-30 to 61-70). Among the 10-year age categories we found both dominant and non-dominant hand peak bone mass values in the 31-40 years age group (0.423 ± 0.039 g/cm², 0.410 ± 0.043 g/cm², respectively). Statistically significant positive correlation was defined between dominant and non-dominant hand BMD values and L2-L4 spine, femur neck and total femur values (for dominant hand r = 0.636, P = 0.0001; r = 0.645, P = 0.0001; r = 0.623; P = 0.0001; for non-dominant hand r = 0.624, P = 0.0001; r = 0.637, P = 0.0001, r = 0.623, P = 0.0001, respectively). Regarding the relationship of age and menopause with BMD results, a negative statistical relationship was observed among dominant and non-dominant hand, L2-L4 spine, femoral neck and total femur BMD values (P = 0.0001). Our study has provided hand BMD reference values in women aged between 20-70 years; further studies are needed to investigate the role of these values in identifying diseases causing osteoporosis in the hand and in evaluating treatment. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Sickle cell disease: reference values and interhemispheric differences of nonimaging transcranial Doppler blood flow parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkuszewski, M; Krejza, J; Chen, R; Kwiatkowski, J L; Ichord, R; Zimmerman, R; Ohene-Frempong, K; Desiderio, L; Melhem, E R

    2011-09-01

    TCD screening is widely used to identify children with SCD at high risk of stroke. Those with high mean flow velocities in major brain arteries have increased risk of stroke. Thus, our aim was to establish reference values of interhemispheric differences and ratios of blood flow Doppler parameters in the tICA, MCA, and ACA as determined by conventional TCD in children with sickle cell anemia. Reference limits of blood flow parameters were established on the basis of a consecutive cohort of 56 children (mean age, 100 ± 40 months; range, 29-180 months; 30 females) free of neurologic deficits and intracranial stenosis detectable by MRA, with blood flow velocities <170 cm/s by conventional TCD. Reference limits were estimated by using tolerance intervals, within which are included with a probability of .90 of all possible data values from 95% of a population. Average peak systolic velocities were significantly higher in the right hemisphere in the MCA and ACA (185 ± 28 cm/s versus 179 ± 27 and 152 ± 30 cm/s versus 143 ± 34 cm/s respectively). Reference limits for left-to-right differences in the mean flow velocities were the following: -43 to 33 cm/s for the MCA; -49 to 38 cm/s for the ACA, and -38 to 34 cm/s for the tICA, respectively. Respective reference limits for left-to-right velocity ratios were the following: 0.72 to 1.25 cm/s for the MCA; 0.62 to 1.39 cm/s for the ACA, and 0.69 to 1.27 cm/s for the tICA. Flow velocities in major arteries were inversely related to age and Hct or Hgb. The study provides reference intervals of TCD flow velocities and their interhemispheric differences and ratios that may be helpful in identification of intracranial arterial stenosis in children with SCD undergoing sonographic screening for stroke prevention.

  9. Evaluation of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 Reference Values for Spirometry in African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigliani, Michele; Canciani, Mario C; Mottini, Giovanni; Altomare, Michele; Magnolato, Andrea; Loa Clemente, Sofia Vanda; Tshilolo, Leon; Cogo, Paola; Quanjer, Philip H

    2017-01-15

    Despite the high burden of respiratory disease, no spirometry reference values for African children are available. Investigate whether the Global Lung Initiative (GLI-2012) reference values for spirometry are appropriate for children in sub-Saharan Africa and assess the impact of malnutrition on lung function. Anthropometry and spirometry were obtained in children aged 6 to 12 years from urban and semiurban schools in three African countries. Spirometry z-scores were derived using the GLI-2012 prediction equations for African Americans. Thinness (body mass index z-score Spirometry outcomes were compared with those of African American children from the third National Health and Nutrition Survey. Spirometry data were analyzed from 1,082 schoolchildren (51% boys) aged 6.0 to 12.8 years in Angola (n = 306), Democratic Republic of the Congo (n = 377), and Madagascar (n = 399). GLI-2012 provided a good fit with mean (SD) z-scores of -0.11 (0.83) for FEV 1 , -0.08 (0.86) for FVC, and -0.07 (0.83) for FEV 1 /FVC. Because of low scatter, the fifth centile corresponded to -1.3 z-scores in boys and -1.5 z-scores in girls. Malnourished African children had a normal FEV 1 /FVC ratio but significant reductions of ∼0.5 z-scores (∼5%) in FEV 1 and FVC compared with African American peers from the third National Health and Nutrition Survey. Children in Angola had the lowest, and those in Madagascar had the highest, zFEV 1 and zFVC. The results of this study support the use of GLI-2012 reference values for schoolchildren in sub-Saharan Africa. Malnutrition affects body growth, leading to a proportionately smaller FEV 1 and FVC without respiratory impairment, as shown by the normal FEV 1 /FVC ratio.

  10. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu

    1989-01-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author)

  11. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author).

  12. Complete Blood Count Reference Values of Cord Blood in Taiwan and the Influence of Gender and Delivery Route on Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Chang

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: We successfully obtained the normal CBC and WBC DC reference values of the cord blood in Taiwan. Gender and delivery routes were important confounding factors that influenced the cord blood CBC and WBC DC values.

  13. [South American camelids in Switzerland. II. Reference values for blood parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengrave Burri, I; Tschudi, P; Martig, J; Liesegang, A; Meylan, M

    2005-08-01

    In order to establish reference values for blood parameters of South American camelids in Switzerland, 273 blood samples were collected from 141 llamas and 132 alpacas. These animals were classified in three categories (young animals blood cell count, white blood cell count, electrolytes, metabolites and enzymes). Significant differences between llamas and alpacas were evident for 26 parameters. This study also showed that differences between young animals, females and males must be taken into consideration. A comparison of blood values with the results of fecal analysis for parasite eggs showed that an infestation with Dicrocoelium dendriticum was associated with elevated activity of two liver enzymes (GLDH and gamma-GT) in the serum. In contrast, no differences were found in the results of blood analyses between animals shedding eggs of gastrointestinal strongyles or not.

  14. Determination of a reference value and its uncertainty through a power-moderated mean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.; Keightley, J.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating a key comparison reference value (KCRV) and its associated standard uncertainty. The method allows for technical scrutiny of data, correction or exclusion of extreme data, but above all uses a power-moderated mean that can calculate an efficient and robust mean from any data set. For mutually consistent data, the method approaches a weighted mean, the weights being the reciprocals of the variances (squared standard uncertainties) associated with the measured values. For data sets suspected of inconsistency, the weighting is moderated by increasing the laboratory variances by a common amount and/or decreasing the power of the weighting factors. By using computer simulations, it is shown that the PMM is a good compromise between efficiency and robustness, while also providing a realistic uncertainty. The method is of particular interest to data evaluators and organizers of proficiency tests. (authors)

  15. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L

    1994-01-01

    , which allows direct measurement of U-GH in untreated urine specimens. We established a reference range for the geometric mean of 3 morning urine samples in 446 healthy children and 71 adults. U-GH could be determined in all but 9 of 1526 samples (99.4%). U-GH excretion was significantly dependent...... on pubertal maturation (P 0.3). Peak values occurred in Tanner stages 3 and 4 (369 and 391 pg/h in females; 503 and 882 pg/h in males), corresponding to an age interval of 11-18 yr in boys and 9-15 yr in girls...... of the pubertal peak, and lower values in adults than in prepubertal children (P

  16. Arterial blood gas reference values for sea level and an altitude of 1,400 meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapo, R O; Jensen, R L; Hegewald, M; Tashkin, D P

    1999-11-01

    Blood gas measurements were collected on healthy lifetime nonsmokers at sea level (n = 96) and at an altitude of 1,400 meters (n = 243) to establish reference equations. At each study site, arterial blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on two separate blood gas analyzers and CO-oximeters. Arterial blood gas variables included Pa(O(2)), Pa(CO(2)), pH, and calculated alveolar-arterial PO(2) difference (AaPO(2)). CO-oximeter variables were Hb, COHb, MetHb, and Sa(O(2)). Subjects were 18 to 81 yr of age with 166 male and 173 female. Outlier data were excluded from multiple regression analysis, and reference equations were fitted to the data in two ways: (1) best fit using linear, squared, and cross-product terms; (2) simple equations, including only the variables that explained at least 3% of the variance. Two sets of equations were created: (1) using only the sea level data and (2) using the combined data with barometric pressure as an independent variable. Comparisons with earlier studies revealed small but significant differences; the decline in Pa(O(2)) with age at each altitude was consistent with most previous studies. At sea level, the equation that included barometric pressure predicted Pa(O(2)) slightly better than the sea level specific equation. The inclusion of barometric pressure in the equations allows better prediction of blood gas reference values at sea level and at altitudes as high as 1,400 meters.

  17. Norwegian reference values for the Short-Form Health Survey 36: development over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ellisiv L; Bye, Asta; Aass, Nina; Fosså, Sophie D; Grotmol, Kjersti S; Kaasa, Stein; Loge, Jon Håvard; Moum, Torbjørn; Hjermstad, Marianne J

    2018-05-01

    Reference values for patient-reported outcome measures are useful for interpretation of results from clinical trials. The study aims were to collect Norwegian SF-36 reference values and compare with data from 1996 to 2002. In 2015, SF-36 was sent by mail to a representative sample of the population (N = 6165). Time trends and associations between background variables and SF-36 scale scores were compared by linear regression models. The 2015 response rate was 36% (N = 2118) versus 67% (N = 2323) in 1996 and 56% (N = 5241) in 2002. Only 5% of the youngest (18-29 years) and 27% of the oldest (>70 years) responded in 2015. Age and educational level were significantly higher in 2015 relative to 1996/2002 (p 36 scores were relatively stable across surveys, controlled for background variables. In general, the most pronounced changes in 2015 were better scores on the role limitations emotional scale (7.4 points, p 70 years. Despite societal changes in Norway the past two decades, HRQoL has remained relatively stable.

  18. Preliminary reference values for electrocardiography, echocardiography and myocardial morphometry in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawuta Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study aimed at defining reference values for electrocardiographic (ECG and echocardiographic parameters as well as macroscopic dimensions of the heart and microscopic dimensions of cardiomyocytes in the European brown hare. The studies were conducted on 30 adult, clinically healthy hares of either sex caught in Poland. ECG and echocardiography were performed supravitally on anaesthetized hares. After euthanasia, gross and microscopic myocardial and cardiomyocyte dimensions were determined. Heart rate amounted to 140 ± 37.5 beats/min, the leading rhythm involved the sinus rhythm. P wave time was 26 ± 5 ms, PQ time was 80 ms, QRS time was 29 ± 3.5 ms, and ST was 97.5 ± 7 ms. Echocardiography determined a left ventricular wall end-diastolic diameter of 8.6 ± 2.0 mm and an intraventricular septum end-diastolic diameter of 5.75 ± 1.0 mm. The thickness of the interventricular septum corresponded to that of the free wall of the left ventricle, a finding consistent with physiological hypertrophy. Preliminary reference values were established for echocardiography. The findings were similar to those obtained at necropsy. The ECG and echocardiographic studies represent the first supravital examination of cardiac function in the hare. The obtained results illustrate adaptation of hare's myocardium to its mode of life. The cardiac findings resemble the athlete's heart syndrome described in humans. The findings may prove useful in further studies on the physiology of the cardio-vascular system in the hare.

  19. Reference values in ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation throughout the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Milani, Silvano; Plebani, Maddalena; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The age-related decline in ovarian response to gonadotropins has been well known since the beginning of ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles and has been considered secondary to the age-related decline in ovarian reserve. The objective of this study was to establish reference values and to construct nomograms of ovarian response for any specific age to gonadotropins in IVF/ICSI cycles. We analyzed our database containing information on IVF cycles. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 703 patients were selected. Among inclusion criteria, there were regular menstrual cycle, treatment with a long GnRH agonist protocol and starting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose of at least 200 IU per day. To estimate the reference values of ovarian response, the CG-LMS method was used. A linear decline in the parameters of ovarian response with age was observed: the median number of oocytes decreases approximately by one every three years, and the median number of follicles >16 mm by one every eight years. The number of oocytes and growing follicles corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th centiles has been calculated. This study confirmed the well known negative relationship between ovarian response to FSH and female ageing and permitted the construction of nomograms of ovarian response.

  20. The economic value of one ton CO2: what system of reference for public action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    Given the convergence of scientific analyses of global warming and its consequences for the planet - evaluated for years by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - it is no longer possible to postpone the efforts required to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. However, the choice of actions to take and the calendar of priorities are proving complex to define: the social and economic consequences are great, and neither France (which represents 2% of global emissions) nor Europe (15%) are up to treating the problem independently of the rest of the world. Faced with this challenge, and with budgetary constraints imposing a rationalisation of expenditure, public action must have measuring instruments at its disposal: the value of one ton of carbon is one such instrument. This Strategic Newswatch has a twofold objective: to recall the usefulness of this reference value which, though it cannot guarantee the validity of different public policies, may contribute to ensuring their consistency; and to present the different approaches and difficulties that producing such a reference system introduces. (author)

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the general principles for development and application of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). These quantitative reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy individuals and populations are based...

  2. Pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentration reference values in swine from commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Carlos; Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Andrés, Marta; Lorenzo, Elia; Pozo, Mateo Del; Alava, María A; Lampreave, Fermín

    2009-01-01

    Pig-MAP (Major Acute-phase Protein) and haptoglobin concentrations were determined in pigs from commercial farms, and reference intervals obtained for different productive stages. Pig-MAP serum concentrations were lower in sows than in adult boars (mean values 0.81 vs. 1.23 mg/mL) and the opposite was observed for haptoglobin (1.47 vs. 0.94 mg/mL). No differences were found between parities, except for a minor decrease in haptoglobin concentration in the 4th parity. A linear correlation between pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentration was observed. In the period 4-12 weeks of life, pig-MAP mean concentrations were around 1mg/mL, being lower in the finishing period (0.7-0.8 mg/mL). Haptoglobin concentrations increased with time, from around 0.6 mg/mL at 4 weeks of age to 1.4 mg/mL at 12 weeks. Mean values of around 0.9 mg/mL were observed in the finishing period. A wider distribution of values was observed for haptoglobin than for pig-MAP concentrations. Differences between herds were observed, with the highest values obtained in a herd with signs of respiratory disease.

  3. The reference model of supply chain operational controlling in value management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The systemic approach of the controlling function to supporting the operations management results from its complex analysis of the supply chain business and operating results and from influencing the operations management factors - products, processes and resources that determine the achieved result (revenues, costs, profitability and assets turnover as well as the return on invested capital. All product features which stand for customer value and its competitiveness are the basis for designing, planning and controlling the interconnected processes responsible for manufacturing and delivery of products. The effectiveness of methods applied in developing products, processes and resources depends on the precise analysis and appraisal of the operating conditions that justify their application. Supporting the operations management, focused on the product value and improving the company's financial result, apart from financial, technical and economic analyses requires transferring the product value to activities control methods and to developing the resources in the product supply chain already at the stage of planning. As a result of an analysis of requirements supporting the development of processes and resources in the supply chain, a reference model of operational controlling in product value management was developed. The multicriterion selection and appropriate application of material flow management methods in the supply chain is each time preceded by an operating and financial analysis as well as by an appraisal of operating conditions that influence the choice of control methods.

  4. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Horak, Katherine E; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Schultz, Sandra L; Knowles, Susan; Abbo, Benjamin G; Volker, Steven F

    2015-05-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol(®) bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated

  5. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Schultz, Sandra; Knowles, Susan N.; Abbo, Benjamin G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol® bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell’s viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated

  6. [Reference values of neonatal erythrocyte and leukocyte count in Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Dapa Aly; Diawara, Faoumata; Guindo, Aldiouma; Touré, Moustaph; Traoré, Mamadou; Fofana, Aïssata Traoré; Dembélé, Albdoul K; Guindo, Agnès; Diallo, Yacouba Lazare; Diallo, Oumahane; Baraika, Ag Mohamed; Dolo, Amadou Ingré

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for blood cell count are not established at birth in Mali. This study aimed to determine reference values for erythrocyte and leukocyte at birth in Bamako. Blood was collected from the umbilical cord immediately following its clamping and studied for complete blood cell count in 481 newborns with a birth weight > 2500g, Apgar score ≤ 7 at 5 or 10 minutes, without abnormal hemoglobin mutations and whose mothers were willing in Bamako, Mali. Other than the median and mean values, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were calculated. The findings suggest that the normal reference values following a timely clamping of the umbilical cord were (mean ± 1SD and range): RBC = 4,00 ± 0,46.1012/L (3,13 - 4,89), Hb = 14,12 ± 1,49 g/dL (11,20 - 17,00), Hct = 40,27 ± 4,71% (31,62 - 50,18), MCV = 101 ± 5 fl (91 - 112), MCHC = 35,37 ± 2,16 pg/cellule (30,70 - 39,59), MCH = 35,06 ± 0,93 g/dL (33,40 - 36,90), RDW = 17,79 ± 7,33% (15,50 - 20,39), Reticulocytes (109/L) = 133,081 ± 29,95 (66,62 - 200,86), GB (109/L) = 13,24 ± 7,23 (7,20 - 23,70), PMN (109/L) = 7,16 ± 4,70 (3,07 - 14,22), PME (109/L) = 0,28 ± 0,26 (0 - 0,98), PMB(109/L) = 0,05 ± 0,09 (0 - 0,31), Lymphocytes (109/L) = 4,49 ± 2,45 (1,96 - 9,42), Monocytes (10 9 /L) = 1,06 ± 0,73 (0,21 - 2,54), myelocytes = 1.43 ± 1.51%, erythroblasts = 4.52 ± 7.83%. It should be noted that male babies had a lower neutrophil count than female newborns. By taking into account these results when interpreting the blood cell count in Malian newborn infants, costly misdiagnoses should be considerably decreased in a population struggling with low incomes. Le comitée de rédaction se réserve le droit de revoyer aux auteurs avant toute soumission à l'avis des lecteurs les manuscrits qui ne seraient pas conformes à ces modalités de présentation. En outre il leur conseille de sonserver un examplaire du manuscrit, des figures et des tableaux.

  7. The neck shaft angle: CT reference values of 800 adult hips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Jostmeier, Janine; Oppermann, Johannes; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Cologne (Germany); Lechler, Philipp [University of Giessen and Marburg, Center of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    A precise understanding of the radiological anatomy and biomechanics as well as reliable reference values of the hip are essential. The primary goal of this study was to provide reference values of the neck-shaft angle (NSA) for adult patients based on the analysis of rotation corrected computed tomography (CT) scans of 800 hips. The secondary aim was to compare these measurements with simulated anteroposterior roentgenograms of the pelvis. Pelvic CT scans of 400 patients (54.3 years, range 18-100 years; 200 female) were reconstructed in the derotated coronal plane of the proximal femur and as CT-based simulated anteroposterior roentgenograms of the pelvis in the anterior pelvic plane. Femora were categorized as coxa vara (<120 ), physiologic (≥120 to <135 ), and coxa valga (≥135 ). Intra- and inter-rater reliability were analyzed. Primary research question: Mean NSA for male adults was 129.6 (range 113.2 -148.2 ; SD 5.9 ) and 131.9 (range 107.1 -151.9 ; SD 6.8 ) for females in derotated coronal reconstructions. Age (p < 0.001 in both views) and sex influenced the NSA significantly (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001); no significant differences were found between sides (p = 0.722 and p = 0.955). Overall, an excellent reliability of repeated measurements of one or two observers was found (ICC 0.891-0.995). Secondary research question: NSA values measured in the simulated anteroposterior roentgenogram and the rotation corrected coronal reconstruction differed significantly (p < 0.001). While anteroposterior pelvis radiographs are susceptible to rotational errors, the coronal reconstruction of the proximal femur in the femoral neck plane allows the correct measurement of the NSA. (orig.)

  8. The neck shaft angle: CT reference values of 800 adult hips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Jostmeier, Janine; Oppermann, Johannes; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer; Chang, De-Hua; Lechler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    A precise understanding of the radiological anatomy and biomechanics as well as reliable reference values of the hip are essential. The primary goal of this study was to provide reference values of the neck-shaft angle (NSA) for adult patients based on the analysis of rotation corrected computed tomography (CT) scans of 800 hips. The secondary aim was to compare these measurements with simulated anteroposterior roentgenograms of the pelvis. Pelvic CT scans of 400 patients (54.3 years, range 18-100 years; 200 female) were reconstructed in the derotated coronal plane of the proximal femur and as CT-based simulated anteroposterior roentgenograms of the pelvis in the anterior pelvic plane. Femora were categorized as coxa vara (<120 ), physiologic (≥120 to <135 ), and coxa valga (≥135 ). Intra- and inter-rater reliability were analyzed. Primary research question: Mean NSA for male adults was 129.6 (range 113.2 -148.2 ; SD 5.9 ) and 131.9 (range 107.1 -151.9 ; SD 6.8 ) for females in derotated coronal reconstructions. Age (p < 0.001 in both views) and sex influenced the NSA significantly (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001); no significant differences were found between sides (p = 0.722 and p = 0.955). Overall, an excellent reliability of repeated measurements of one or two observers was found (ICC 0.891-0.995). Secondary research question: NSA values measured in the simulated anteroposterior roentgenogram and the rotation corrected coronal reconstruction differed significantly (p < 0.001). While anteroposterior pelvis radiographs are susceptible to rotational errors, the coronal reconstruction of the proximal femur in the femoral neck plane allows the correct measurement of the NSA. (orig.)

  9. Reference values of arterial oxygen tension in the middle-aged and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, I; Zoia, M C; Fanfulla, F; Spagnolatti, L; Berrayah, L; Grassi, M; Tinelli, C

    1995-09-01

    The lack of available reference values of arterial PO2, particularly for elderly persons, led us to study a sample of 194 normal nonsmoking subjects, equally distributed over all age ranges from 40 to 90 yr. The radial artery was punctured and blood samples were taken and analyzed on an automated, computerized gas-analyzer. The trend of the mean values of PaO2 in the 5-yr class intervals of age showed a clear decline up to the 70- to 74-yr class, and then an inversion. The two regression lines intersecting at this point provided a better fit to the data than did a single regression line (R22 - R12 = 0.918 - 0.678 = 0.24; F = 20.49, p = 0.0027). The relationship of PaO2 with age was thus subsequently considered for the two subgroups (40 to 74 yr; > or = 75 yr) identified on the basis of this cutoff. Because of the significant influence on Pao2 of age, body-mass index (BMI), and PaCO2 in the group 40 to 74 yr of age, the following reference equation was constructed: Pao2 (mm Hg) = 143.6 - (0.39 . age) - (0.56 . BMI) - (0.57 . PaCO2); R2 = 0.28; SEE = 7.48; p or = 75 yr old, for whom there was no correlation with age, BMI, or PaCO2, only the mean +/- SD and 5th percentile of PaO2 were reported (83.4 +/- 9.15 mm Hg and 68.4 mm Hg, respectively). PaCO2 values were not correlated with either age or BMI; the mean +/- SD was 35.79 +/- 3.87 mm Hg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Contrast reference values in panoramic radiographic images using an arch-form phantom stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Myung; Lee, Che Na; Kim, Jo Eun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate appropriate contrast reference values (CRVs) by comparing the contrast in phantom and clinical images. Phantom contrast was measured using two methods: (1) counting the number of visible pits of different depths in an aluminum plate, and (2) obtaining the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for 5 tissue-equivalent materials (porcelain, aluminum, polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE], polyoxymethylene [POM], and polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]). Four panoramic radiographs of the contrast phantom, embedded in the 4 different regions of the arch-form stand, and 1 real skull phantom image were obtained, post-processed, and compared. The clinical image quality evaluation chart was used to obtain the cut-off values of the phantom CRV corresponding to the criterion of being adequate for diagnosis. The CRVs were obtained using 4 aluminum pits in the incisor and premolar region, 5 aluminum pits in the molar region, and 2 aluminum pits in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The CRVs obtained based on the CNR measured in the anterior region were: porcelain, 13.95; aluminum, 9.68; PTFE, 6.71; and POM, 1.79. The corresponding values in the premolar region were: porcelain, 14.22; aluminum, 8.82; PTFE, 5.95; and POM, 2.30. In the molar region, the following values were obtained: porcelain, 7.40; aluminum, 3.68; PTFE, 1.27; and POM, - 0.18. The CRVs for the TMJ region were: porcelain, 3.60; aluminum, 2.04; PTFE, 0.48; and POM, - 0.43. CRVs were determined for each part of the jaw using the CNR value and the number of pits observed in phantom images

  11. Contrast reference values in panoramic radiographic images using an arch-form phantom stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Myung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Che Na; Kim, Jo Eun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate appropriate contrast reference values (CRVs) by comparing the contrast in phantom and clinical images. Phantom contrast was measured using two methods: (1) counting the number of visible pits of different depths in an aluminum plate, and (2) obtaining the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for 5 tissue-equivalent materials (porcelain, aluminum, polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE], polyoxymethylene [POM], and polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]). Four panoramic radiographs of the contrast phantom, embedded in the 4 different regions of the arch-form stand, and 1 real skull phantom image were obtained, post-processed, and compared. The clinical image quality evaluation chart was used to obtain the cut-off values of the phantom CRV corresponding to the criterion of being adequate for diagnosis. The CRVs were obtained using 4 aluminum pits in the incisor and premolar region, 5 aluminum pits in the molar region, and 2 aluminum pits in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The CRVs obtained based on the CNR measured in the anterior region were: porcelain, 13.95; aluminum, 9.68; PTFE, 6.71; and POM, 1.79. The corresponding values in the premolar region were: porcelain, 14.22; aluminum, 8.82; PTFE, 5.95; and POM, 2.30. In the molar region, the following values were obtained: porcelain, 7.40; aluminum, 3.68; PTFE, 1.27; and POM, - 0.18. The CRVs for the TMJ region were: porcelain, 3.60; aluminum, 2.04; PTFE, 0.48; and POM, - 0.43. CRVs were determined for each part of the jaw using the CNR value and the number of pits observed in phantom images.

  12. Reference values of thirty-one frequently used laboratory markers for 75-year-old males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryden, Ingvar; Lind, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background We have previously reported reference values for common clinical chemistry tests in healthy 70-year-old males and females. We have now repeated this study 5 years later to establish reference values also at the age of 75. It is important to have adequate reference values for elderly patients as biological markers may change over time, and adequate reference values are essential for correct clinical decisions. Methods We have investigated 31 frequently used laboratory markers in 75-year-old males (n = 354) and females (n = 373) without diabetes. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for these markers were calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Results Reference values are reported for 75-year-old males and females for 31 frequently used laboratory markers. Conclusion There were minor differences between reference intervals calculated with and without individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Several of the reference intervals differed from Scandinavian reference intervals based on younger individuals (Nordic Reference Interval Project). PMID:22300333

  13. Value determination of ZrO2 in-house reference material (RM) candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna Tuning Sunanti; Samin; Supriyanto C

    2013-01-01

    The value determination of zirconium oxide in-house reference materials (RM) candidate has been done by referring to ISO:35-2006 standard. The raw material of RM was 4 kg of ZrO 2 , Merck, that was dried at 90°C for 2×6 hours in a closed room. The samples were crushed with stainless steel (SS) pestle to pass ≤ 200 mesh sieve, homogenized in a homogenizer for 3×6 hours to obtain the powdered, dried and homogenous samples. The gravimetric method was performed to test the moisture content, while XRF and AAS methods were used to test the homogeneity and stability of samples candidates. Reference material (RM) candidates of ZrO 2 powder were put into polyethylene bottles, each weighing 100 g. Samples were distributed to 10 testing laboratories that have been accredited for testing the composition of the oxide contents and loss of ignition (LOI) using variety of analytical methods that have been validated such as AAS, XRF, NAA, and UV-Vis. The testing results of oxide content and loss of ignition parameters from various laboratories were analyzed using statistical methods. The testing data of oxide concentration in zirconium oxide RM candidates obtained from various laboratories were ZrO 2 : 97.7334 ± 0.0016%, HfO 2 : 1.7329 ± 0.0024%, SiO 2 : 30.1224 ± 0.0053%, Al 2 O 3 : 0.0245 ± 0.0015%, TiO 2 : 0.0153 ± 0.0006%, Fe 2 O 3 : 0.0068 ± 0.0005%, CdO: 3.1798 ± 0.00006 ppm, and the LOI results was = 0.0217 ± 0.00022%. (author)

  14. Validation of equations and proposed reference values to estimate fat mass in Chilean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; Pacheco Carrillo, Jaime; Almonacid Fierro, Alejandro; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Cossío-Bolaños, Marco

    2018-03-01

    (i) To propose regression equations based on anthropometric measures to estimate fat mass (FM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method, and (ii)to establish population reference standards for equation-derived FM. A cross-sectional study on 6,713 university students (3,354 males and 3,359 females) from Chile aged 17.0 to 27.0years. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist circumference) were taken in all participants. Whole body DXA was performed in 683 subjects. A total of 478 subjects were selected to develop regression equations, and 205 for their cross-validation. Data from 6,030 participants were used to develop reference standards for FM. Equations were generated using stepwise multiple regression analysis. Percentiles were developed using the LMS method. Equations for men were: (i) FM=-35,997.486 +232.285 *Weight +432.216 *CC (R 2 =0.73, SEE=4.1); (ii)FM=-37,671.303 +309.539 *Weight +66,028.109 *ICE (R2=0.76, SEE=3.8), while equations for women were: (iii)FM=-13,216.917 +461,302 *Weight+91.898 *CC (R 2 =0.70, SEE=4.6), and (iv) FM=-14,144.220 +464.061 *Weight +16,189.297 *ICE (R 2 =0.70, SEE=4.6). Percentiles proposed included p10, p50, p85, and p95. The developed equations provide valid and accurate estimation of FM in both sexes. The values obtained using the equations may be analyzed from percentiles that allow for categorizing body fat levels by age and sex. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic value of different adherence measures using electronic monitoring and virologic failure as reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Ann E; De Geest, Sabina; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Bobbaers, Herman; Peetermans, Willy E; Van Wijngaerden, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy is a substantial problem in HIV and jeopardizes the success of treatment. Accurate measurement of nonadherence is therefore imperative for good clinical management but no gold standard has been agreed on yet. In a single-center prospective study nonadherence was assessed by electronic monitoring: percentage of doses missed and drug holidays and by three self reports: (1) a visual analogue scale (VAS): percentage of overall doses taken; (2) the Swiss HIV Cohort Study Adherence Questionnaire (SHCS-AQ): percentage of overall doses missed and drug holidays and (3) the European HIV Treatment Questionnaire (EHTQ): percentage of doses missed and drug holidays for each antiretroviral drug separately. Virologic failure prospectively assessed during 1 year, and electronic monitoring were used as reference standards. Using virologic failure as reference standard, the best results were for (1) the SHCS-AQ after electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 78.6%); (2) electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 85.6%), and (3) the VAS combined with the SHCS-AQ before electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 58.6%). The sensitivity of the complex EHTQ was less than 50%. Asking simple questions about doses taken or missed is more sensitive than complex questioning about each drug separately. Combining the VAS with the SHCS-AQ seems a feasible nonadherence measure for daily clinical practice. Self-reports perform better after electronic monitoring: their diagnostic value could be lower when given independently.

  16. Reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid: Italian Multicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, C; Sciarra, G; Bozzi, N; Pagliantini, M; Perico, A; Bavazzano, P; Leandri, A; Carrieri, M; Scapellato, M L; Bettinelli, M; Bartolucci, G B

    2008-08-01

    This article reports the results of a study, conducted in the framework of the scientific activities of the Italian Society for Reference Values, aimed at defining reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in the general population not occupationally exposed to benzene. t,t-MA concentrations detected in 376 subjects of the resident population in three areas of Italy, two in central (Florence and southern Tuscany) and one in northern Italy (Padua), by three laboratories, compared by repeated interlaboratory controls, showed an interval of 14.4-225.0 microg/L (5th-95th percentile) and a geometric mean of 52.5 microg/L. The concentrations measured were influenced by tobacco smoking in a statistically significant way: Geometric mean concentrations were 44.8 microg/L and 76.1 microg/Ll in nonsmokers (264 subjects) and smokers (112 subjects), respectively. In the nonsmoking population, a significant influence of gender was found when concentrations were corrected for urinary creatinine, geometric mean concentrations being 36.7 microg/g creatinine in males (128 subjects) and 44.7 microg/g creatinine in females (136 subjects). The place of residence of subjects did not seem to influence urinary excretion of the metabolite, although personal inhalation exposure to benzene over a 24-h period showed slightly higher concentrations in Padua and Florence (geometric means of 6.5 microg/m(3) and 6.6 microg/m(3), respectively) than in southern Tuscany (geometric mean of 3.9 microg/m(3)). Concentration of t,t-MA in urine samples collected at the end of personal air sampling showed little relationship to personal inhalation exposure to benzene, confirming the importance of other factors in determining excretion of t,t-MA when concentrations in personal air samples are very low.

  17. Monoclonal protein reference change value as determined by gel-based serum protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamatmanesh, Mina; McCudden, Christopher R; McCurdy, Arleigh; Booth, Ronald A

    2018-01-01

    The International Myeloma Working Group recommendations for monitoring disease progression or response include quantitation of the involved monoclonal immunoglobulin. They have defined the minimum change criteria of ≧25% with an absolute change of no gel-based serum protein electrophoresis. Sixteen clinically stable MGUS patients were identified from our clinical hematology database. Individual biological variability (CVi) was determined and used to calculate a monoclonal protein reference change value (RCV). Analytical variability of the normal protein fractions (albumin, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, total gamma) ranged from 1.3% for albumin to 5.8% for the alpha-1 globulins. CVa of low (5.6g/L) and high (32.2g/L) concentration monoclonal proteins were 3.1% and 22.2%, respectively. Individual CVi of stable patients ranged from 3.5% to 24.5% with a CVi of 12.9%. The reference change value (RCV) at a 95% probability was determined to be 36.7% (low) 39.6% (high) using our CVa and CVi. Serial monitoring of monoclonal protein concentration is important for MGUS and multiple myeloma patients. Accurate criteria for interpreting a change in monoclonal protein concentration are required for appropriate decision making. We used QC results and real-world conditions to assess imprecision of serum protein fractions including low and high monoclonal protein fractions and clinically stable MGUS patients to determine CVi and RCV. The calculated RCVs of 36.7% (low) and 39.6% (high) in this study were greater that reported previously and greater than the established criteria for relapse. Response criteria may be reassessed to increase sensitivity and specificity for detection of response. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and the prediction of fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwha; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yu, Jaemyung; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Kim, Doo-Man; Hong, Eun-Gyung; Park, Kyutae; Choi, Myungjin; Choi, Hyunhee

    2015-03-27

    Since the reference value is the core factor of the T-score calculation, it has a significant impact on the prevalence of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the prediction of fracture risk. We used femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. The Korean reference was identified by the mean and standard deviation of men and women aged 20-29 years. We compared the prevalence and the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX™) probability obtained from the Korean reference and the NHANES III reference. In men, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased when using the Korean men's reference, and the difference increased up to 9% for those in their 80s. In women, the prevalence increased when using the NHANES III reference, and the difference increased up to 17% for those in their 80s. The reference value also affected the fracture risk probability, and the difference from changing the reference value increased in women and in subjects with more clinical fracture risk factors. In major osteoporotic fractures, the difference of the risk probability was up to 6% in women aged 70-79 years with two clinical risk factors. For femoral neck fractures, the difference was up to 7% in women aged 50-59 years with two clinical risk factors. We confirmed that the reference value had significant effects on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the fracture risk probability. The KNHANES 2008-2011 BMD data reflected the characteristics of the Korean BMD status well with regard to data size and study design; therefore, these data can be used as reference values.

  19. Clinical reference value of retinal microvascular changes in patients with cerebral microbleeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study clinical reference value of retinal microvascular changes in patients with cerebral microbleeds(CMBsand discuss its clinical significance. METHODS:From January 2012 to December 2013, 125 hospitalized patients were collected, including 81 cases were male, 44 cases were female, mean age 76.3±11.2 years old. For all patients, functions of liver and kidney, blood-lipoids, blood sugar and blood biochemical examination were tested, and fundus photography and cerebral MR was done. According to the fundus camera eyes, retinal arteriolar equivalent(RAE, retinal venular equivalent(RVE, retinal vein diameter ratio(AVRand arteriovenous crossing sign(AVNwere identified, CMBs were classified with cerebral MRI. All the data were processed by SPSS statistical software. RESULTS: The central retinal arteriolar equivalent(CRAE, central retinal venular equivalent(CRVEand AVR values in the eyes were found no statistical difference(PPCOCLUSION: The results show that retinal microvascular changes, especially small retinal vein arteriovenous cross width, and arteriovenous crossing phenomenon, in which CMBs will happen more likely. After sex, age, hypertension and hyperglycemia in patients with traditional cardiovascular risk factors being ruled out, the retinal microvascular changes are still relatively factors of CMB's occurrence.

  20. Percentile reference values for anthropometric body composition indices in European children from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Kovacs, E; Moreno, L A; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Kourides, Y; Siani, A; Lauria, F; Sioen, I; Claessens, M; Mårild, S; Lissner, L; Bammann, K; Intemann, T; Buck, C; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D

    2014-09-01

    To characterise the nutritional status in children with obesity or wasting conditions, European anthropometric reference values for body composition measures beyond the body mass index (BMI) are needed. Differentiated assessment of body composition in children has long been hampered by the lack of appropriate references. The aim of our study is to provide percentiles for body composition indices in normal weight European children, based on the IDEFICS cohort (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS). Overall 18,745 2.0-10.9-year-old children from eight countries participated in the study. Children classified as overweight/obese or underweight according to IOTF (N=5915) were excluded from the analysis. Anthropometric measurements (BMI (N=12 830); triceps, subscapular, fat mass and fat mass index (N=11,845-11,901); biceps, suprailiac skinfolds, sum of skinfolds calculated from skinfold thicknesses (N=8129-8205), neck circumference (N=12,241); waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (N=12,381)) were analysed stratified by sex and smoothed 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentile curves were calculated using GAMLSS. Percentile values of the most important anthropometric measures related to the degree of adiposity are depicted for European girls and boys. Age- and sex-specific differences were investigated for all measures. As an example, the 50th and 99th percentile values of waist circumference ranged from 50.7-59.2 cm and from 51.3-58.7 cm in 4.5- to <5.0-year-old girls and boys, respectively, to 60.6-74.5 cm in girls and to 59.9-76.7 cm in boys at the age of 10.5-10.9 years. The presented percentile curves may aid a differentiated assessment of total and abdominal adiposity in European children.

  1. Measurement of susceptibility artifacts with histogram-based reference value on magnetic resonance images according to standard ASTM F2119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Teichgräber, Ulf K; Güttler, Felix V

    2015-12-01

    The standard ASTM F2119 describes a test method for measuring the size of a susceptibility artifact based on the example of a passive implant. A pixel in an image is considered to be a part of an image artifact if the intensity is changed by at least 30% in the presence of a test object, compared to a reference image in which the test object is absent (reference value). The aim of this paper is to simplify and accelerate the test method using a histogram-based reference value. Four test objects were scanned parallel and perpendicular to the main magnetic field, and the largest susceptibility artifacts were measured using two methods of reference value determination (reference image-based and histogram-based reference value). The results between both methods were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The difference between both reference values was 42.35 ± 23.66. The difference of artifact size was 0.64 ± 0.69 mm. The artifact sizes of both methods did not show significant differences; the p-value of the Mann-Whitney U-test was between 0.710 and 0.521. A standard-conform method for a rapid, objective, and reproducible evaluation of susceptibility artifacts could be implemented. The result of the histogram-based method does not significantly differ from the ASTM-conform method.

  2. Reference values for respiratory rate in the first 3 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, F; Castagneto, M; Gagliardi, L; Leo, G; Pellegatta, A; Porta, N; Razon, S; Braga, M

    1994-09-01

    Raised respiratory rate is a useful sign to diagnose lower respiratory infections in childhood. However, the normal range for respiratory rate has not been defined in a proper, large sample. To assess the respiratory rate in a large number of infants and young children in order to construct percentile curves by age; to determine the repeatability to the assessment using a stethoscope and compare it with observation. Respiratory rate was recorded for 1 minute with a stethoscope in 618 infants and children, aged 15 days to 3 years old, without respiratory infections or any other severe disease when awake and calm and when asleep. In 50 subjects we compared respiratory rate taken 30 to 60 minutes apart to assess repeatability, and in 50 others we compared simultaneous counts obtained by stethoscope versus observation. Repeatability was good as the standard deviation of differences was 2.5 breaths/minute in awake and 1.7 breaths/minute in asleep children. Respiratory rate obtained with a stethoscope was systematically higher than that obtained by observation (mean difference 2.6 breaths/minute in awake and 1.8 breaths/minute in asleep children; P = .015 and P respiratory rate with age was seen for both states, and it was faster in the first few months of life when also a greater dispersion of values was observed. A second degree polynomial curve accurately fitted the data. Reference percentile values were developed from these data. The repeatability of respiratory rate measured with a stethoscope was good. Percentile curves would be particularly helpful in the first months of life when the decline in respiratory rate is very rapid and prevents to use cut off values for defining "normality."

  3. Calculating a Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Score Using Nationally Representative Reference Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, Emily Hill; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; Cook, Stephen R; Stratbucker, William

    2018-02-26

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in youth varies on the basis of the classification system used, prompting implementation of continuous scores; however, the use of these scores is limited to the sample from which they were derived. We sought to describe the derivation of the continuous metabolic syndrome score using nationally representative reference values in a sample of obese adolescents and a national sample obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. Clinical data were collected from 50 adolescents seeking obesity treatment at a stage 3 weight management center. A second analysis relied on data from adolescents included in NHANES 2011-2012, performed for illustrative purposes. The continuous metabolic syndrome score was calculated by regressing individual values onto nationally representative age- and sex-specific standards (NHANES III). Resultant z scores were summed to create a total score. The final sample included 42 obese adolescents (15 male and 35 female subjects; mean age, 14.8 ± 1.9 years) and an additional 445 participants from NHANES 2011-2012. Among the clinical sample, the mean continuous metabolic syndrome score was 4.16 ± 4.30, while the NHANES sample mean was quite a bit lower, at -0.24 ± 2.8. We provide a method to calculate the continuous metabolic syndrome by comparing individual risk factor values to age- and sex-specific percentiles from a nationally representative sample. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oscillating red giants in eclipsing binary systems: empirical reference value for asteroseismic scaling relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themeßl, N.; Hekker, S.; Southworth, J.; Beck, P. G.; Pavlovski, K.; Tkachenko, A.; Angelou, G. C.; Ball, W. H.; Barban, C.; Corsaro, E.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R.; Kallinger, T.

    2018-05-01

    The internal structures and properties of oscillating red-giant stars can be accurately inferred through their global oscillation modes (asteroseismology). Based on 1460 days of Kepler observations we perform a thorough asteroseismic study to probe the stellar parameters and evolutionary stages of three red giants in eclipsing binary systems. We present the first detailed analysis of individual oscillation modes of the red-giant components of KIC 8410637, KIC 5640750 and KIC 9540226. We obtain estimates of their asteroseismic masses, radii, mean densities and logarithmic surface gravities by using the asteroseismic scaling relations as well as grid-based modelling. As these red giants are in double-lined eclipsing binaries, it is possible to derive their independent dynamical masses and radii from the orbital solution and compare it with the seismically inferred values. For KIC 5640750 we compute the first spectroscopic orbit based on both components of this system. We use high-resolution spectroscopic data and light curves of the three systems to determine up-to-date values of the dynamical stellar parameters. With our comprehensive set of stellar parameters we explore consistencies between binary analysis and asteroseismic methods, and test the reliability of the well-known scaling relations. For the three red giants under study, we find agreement between dynamical and asteroseismic stellar parameters in cases where the asteroseismic methods account for metallicity, temperature and mass dependence as well as surface effects. We are able to attain agreement from the scaling laws in all three systems if we use Δνref, emp = 130.8 ± 0.9 μHz instead of the usual solar reference value.

  5. Early detection of lung function decrements in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis using new reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharasiewicz, Angela; Renner, Sabine; Haderer, Flora; Weber, Michael; Dehlink, Eleonore; Szepfalusi, Zsolt; Frischer, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Interpretation of lung function values in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) depends on the applied reference values. We hypothesize that differences between the new global lung function initiative (GLI) values and the formerly used Zapletal et al. values produce significantly different clinical results. We analyzed 3719 lung function measurements of 108 children and adolescents (n = 54 male; aged 6-18 years) with CF treated between September 1991 and July 2009. Data were analyzed in milliliters (ml) and % predicted (pred.) and interpreted using Zapletal and GLI reference values. Applying GLI compared to Zapletal resulted in significantly lower mean forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1)% pred. Zapletal 86.6% (SD 20.6), GLI 79.9% (SD 20.3) and 32% (n = 497/1543) were misclassified as normal when using Zapletal. Despite showing no overall differences in FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) between concomitant Pseudomonas detection (PA+) in n = 938 and Pseudomonas negative (PA-) (n = 2781) using either reference PA+ resulted in lower FEV1 and FVC values with increasing age; however, measurement of small airway obstruction with forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75) values - available for Zapletal -showed significant differences. Reassurance regarding lung function when using old reference values may occur with potential clinical significance. Discrepancies in lung function interpretation underline the importance of using uniform and best available reference values.

  6. Normative Reference Values for Handgrip Strength in Colombian Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Morales, Olimpo; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel H; Vivas, Andrés; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Morales, O, Peña-Ibagon, JC, Palacios-López, A, Prieto-Benavides, DH, Vivas, A, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Alonso-Martínez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Normative reference values for handgrip strength in Colombian schoolchildren: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 217-226, 2017-The primary aim of this study was to generate normative handgrip (HG) strength data for 10 to 17.9 year olds. The secondary aim was to determine the relative proportion of Colombian children and adolescents that fall into established Health Benefit Zones (HBZ). This cross-sectional study enrolled 7,268 schoolchildren (boys n = 3,129 and girls n = 4,139, age 12.7 [2.4] years). Handgrip was measured using a hand dynamometer with an adjustable grip. Five HBZs (Needs Improvement, Fair, Good, Very Good, and Excellent) have been established that correspond to combined HG. Centile smoothed curves, percentile, and tables for the third, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile were calculated using Cole's LMS method. Handgrip peaked in the sample at 22.2 (8.9) kg in boys and 18.5 (5.5) kg in girls. The increase in HG was greater for boys than for girls, but the peak HG was lower in girls than in boys. The HBZ data indicated that a higher overall percentage of boys than girls at each age group fell into the "Needs Improvement" zone, with differences particularly pronounced during adolescence. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific HG reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  7. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Louise Hedley, Paula; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius; Stjernholm, Theresa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-11-01

    Adipokines are biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides, which play a major role in metabolic homeostasis in humans. Leptin has gained increasing attention in pediatrics as a biomarker for various metabolic pathologies. Yet, its usefulness is hampered by the relative lack of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups. A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18 years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by immunoassay. Percentile curves of leptin, sOB-R, and free leptin index were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Significant age and sex-dependent differences in circulating leptin levels were found. In boys, the median leptin concentration for all ages combined was 3.35 μg/L (95%-interval: 0.71-22.47) and in girls, it was 9.89 ng/L (95%-interval: 2.06-41.49). For SOB-R, no sex-specific difference was found, and the median sOB-R concentration was 8.24 μg/L (IQR: 3.58-23.74; range: < 1.56-744.15). We demonstrated an age-dependent correlation with both serum leptin concentration and free leptin index with a gradual and significant increase in girls throughout childhood and adolescence and a significantly higher leptin concentration and free leptin index bell-shaped peak in early adolescence in boys.

  8. Official ERS technical standards: Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for the carbon monoxide transfer factor for Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Sanja; Graham, Brian L; Cooper, Brendan G; Thompson, Bruce R; Carter, Kim W; Francis, Richard W; Hall, Graham L

    2017-09-01

    There are numerous reference equations available for the single-breath transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide ( T  LCO ); however, it is not always clear which reference set should be used in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to develop the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) all-age reference values for T  LCO Data from 19 centres in 14 countries were collected to define T  LCO reference values. Similar to the GLI spirometry project, reference values were derived using the LMS (lambda, mu, sigma) method and the GAMLSS (generalised additive models for location, scale and shape) programme in R.12 660 T  LCO measurements from asymptomatic, lifetime nonsmokers were submitted; 85% of the submitted data were from Caucasians. All data were uncorrected for haemoglobin concentration. Following adjustments for elevation above sea level, gas concentration and assumptions used for calculating the anatomic dead space volume, there was a high degree of overlap between the datasets. Reference values for Caucasians aged 5-85 years were derived for T  LCO , transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide and alveolar volume.This is the largest collection of normative T  LCO data, and the first global reference values available for T  LCO . Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  9. Reference values for the creatine kinase response to professional Australian football match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Luke A G; Rennie, Michael J; Watsford, Mark L; Gibbs, Nathan J; Green, James; Spurrs, Robert W

    2018-08-01

    Due to the importance of monitoring markers of muscle damage in high-level sport from a medical and athlete recovery perspective, this study aimed to determine the upper limits of normal (ULN) for post-match plasma creatine kinase (CK) in professional Australian footballers. Raw CK values were considered, along with intra-individual deviations from the season-mean. Case series. CK was collected between 36-48h following professional Australian football match-play. A total of 1565 samples from 62 players were assessed over three consecutive seasons. The ULN were determined for raw scores and as a percentage of each player's season-mean response. The ULN for raw CK, as determined by the 97.5th, 95th and 90th percentiles were 1715 (90%CI: 1605-1890), 1380 (90%CI: 1325-1475) and 1110 (90%CI: 1050-1170) UL -1 respectively. The ULN intra-individual response (97.5th percentile) was defined as a player's score being greater than 94% (90%CI: 84-102%) above their season-mean. Professional Australian football elicits a profound effect on the CK response. The values provide a reference tool for athletes competing at this level of competition. The novel method of representing the CK response as a percentage difference from an individuals' season-mean enables a superior comparative ability between CK responses and reduces the high CK responder bias that occurs when using raw scores alone. The data will assist medical and conditioning staff in excluding medical emergencies and also aid in individualising the prescription of training loads and recovery to optimise athlete performance and minimise further muscle damage. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reference values comparisons between DMD and C57B whole blood mice using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele Bugno; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Sant'Anna, Oswaldo A.; Carvalho, Maria Denise F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In health area animal models are used to perform clinical investigations, for example, to test new medicines for medical diagnostic and treatment investigations before to be applied in human being. Currently, the conventional bio chemistries analyses are performed using serum, but when small size animal model is involved the biological material can be scarce restricting its collection. In the last years the NAA has been successfully applied at LEER at IPEN for investigation of several elements in blood of small sized animals, resulting in an efficiency procedure for clinical practice. The advantage in using whole blood is relate to the fact that this nuclear procedure needs small quantity of biological material (10 to 100 ?L of whole blood ) when compared with the conventional analyses (0.5 to 1.0 ml of serum). But, to use whole blood to perform these biochemistry investigations it is essential to establish the reference value in blood for the species or animal models. In this study we intend to evaluate a normal range of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood using NAA in samples of DMDmdx and C57B/6J mice model used for muscular dystrophy investigations. Thirty whole blood samples were analyzed in the IEA R1- nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood. (author)

  11. Isometric Shoulder Strength Reference Values for Physically Active Collegiate Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Richard B.; Duffey, Michele L.; Cameron, Kenneth L.; Gerber, J. Parry; Owens, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is common clinical practice to assess muscle strength during examination of patients following shoulder injury or surgery. Strength comparisons are often made between the patient’s injured and uninjured shoulders, with the uninjured side used as a reference without regard to upper extremity dominance. Despite the importance of strength measurements, little is known about expected normal baselines of the uninjured shoulder. The purpose of this study was to report normative values for isometric shoulder strength for physically active college-age men and women without history of shoulder injury. Methods: University students—546 males (18.8 ± 1.0 years, 75.3 ± 12.2 kg) and 73 females (18.7 ± 0.9 years, 62.6 ± 7.0 kg)—underwent thorough shoulder evaluations by an orthopaedic surgeon and completed bilateral isometric strength measurements with a handheld dynamometer. Variables measured included internal rotation, external rotation, abduction, supine internal rotation and external rotation at 45°, and lower trapezius in prone flexion. Results: Significant differences were found between the dominant and nondominant shoulder for internal rotation, internal rotation at 45°, abduction, and prone flexion in males and in internal rotation at 45° and prone flexion for females (P ≤ 0.01). PMID:24381696

  12. Reference values in blood elements in crioula breed horses by nuclear methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana Spinosa

    2010-01-01

    In this study the reference value for Br (0,0008 - 0,0056 gL -1 ), Ca (0,089 - 0,369 gL -1 ), Cl (2,10 - 3,26 gL -1 ), Fe (0,381 - 0,689 gL -1 ), I (0,00018 - 0,00266 gL -1 ), K (1,14 - 2,74 gL -1 ), Mg (0,030 - 0,074 gL -1 ), Na (1,36 - 2,80 gL -1 ), P ( -1 ), S (0,99 - 2,79 gL -1 ) and Zn (0,0012 - 0,0048 gL -1 ) as well as the correlation matrix in blood of Crioulo breed horses were determined using nuclear methodology (Neutron Activation Analysis Technique). These data allowed to identifying physiological alterations related to the sex and regime of exercise (hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, Brasil). To perform these analyses was used 20 adult horses (8 males and 12 females), with average mass 350 kg, without clinical signs of disease, 1-3 years old, kept on pasture in Sao Joaquim Farm at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city). Other group just immunized, composed by 6 equines males (same age and weight), were also analyzed. These data are an important support to understand the physiological functions of these elements in blood during the process of sera production. (author)

  13. Estimation of ultrasound reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedewi, Mohamed Abdelmohsen; Abodonya, Ahmed; Kotb, Mamdouh; Kamal, Sanaa; Mahmoud, Gehan; Aldossari, Khaled; Alqabbani, Abdullah; Swify, Sherine

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves in adults.The demographics and physical characteristics of 69 adult healthy volunteers were evaluated and recorded. The estimated reference values and their correlations with the age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) were evaluated.The cross sectional area reference values were obtained at 5 predetermined sites for 3 important lower limb peripheral nerves. Our CSA values correlated significantly with age, weight, and BMI. The normal reference values for each nerve were as follows: Tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa 19 mm ± 6.9, tibial nerve at the level of the medial malleolus 12.7 mm ± 4.5, common peroneal nerve at the popliteal fossa 9.5 mm ± 4, common peroneal nerve fibular head 8.9 mm ± 3.2, sural nerve 3.5 mm ± 1.4.The reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves were identified. These values could be used for future management of peripheral nerve disorders.

  14. Haematological and serum biochemical reference values in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Rosef

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of haematological and biochemical constituents were carried out on the Norwegian subspecies of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. All animals were captured from January to March by using a mixture of xylazine and tiletamin-zolazepam. Immobilisation was performed with plastic projectile syringes fired from a dart gun. Fourteen haematological parameters were analysed. There were no differences in the values between hinds and stags and between adults and calves (P > 0.01. Of the 22 biochemical compounds investigated there was a significant difference (P < 0.01 between calves and adults for lactate dehydrogenase (LD, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin, and the minerals Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca, and P. Differences (P < 0.01 between hinds and stags were found in cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin and Cu. The blood values determined in this study can be used as reference values for this red deer subspecies immobilised with a mixture of xylazine-tiletamin-zolazepam for health control and diagnosis of diseases.Abstract in Norwegian /Sammendrag:Hematologiske og biokjemiske parametere er analysert på norsk frittlevende hjort (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. Hjorten ble immobilisert i tidsrommet januar til mars ved hjelp av et spesialgevær ladet med plast kanyler som inneholdt en blanding av xylazin og tiletamin-zolazepam. Det var ingen forskjeller i de14 undersøkte hematologiske verdiene mellom hinder, kalver og bukker (P>0,01. Av de 22 biokjemiske parametrene som ble undersøkt var det en signifikant forskjell mellom kalver og voksne (P<0,01 når det gjelder laktat dehydrogenase, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin og mineralene Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca og P. Det var en signifikant forskjell mellom hinder og bukker (P<0.01 på parametrene kolesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, alfa-1 globulin, alfa-2 globulin og Cu. Blodverdiene som ble målt i dette studiet kan bli brukt som referanseverdier

  15. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three very accurate (definitive) methods by RNAA for the determination of Se, As and Fe respectively, which were recently elaborated in our laboratory, are reviewed and their use in certification of reference materials and in checking the assigned values in proficiency tests is demonstrated on several examples. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMPs with their expanded uncertainties of 2.7-3.6 % are comparable to ID-MS methods and are the only methods of such high metrological quality which can be used for the determination of trace amounts of monoisotopic elements. (author)

  16. Reference values for heavy metals in soils of the Brazilian agricultural frontier in Southwestern Amazônia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2013-07-01

    Guideline values are used to identify polluted or contaminated areas based on background values. Brazilian law establishes three guideline values for pollutants: a quality reference value (QRV), a prevention value, and an intervention value. Reference values refer to the natural concentration of an element or a substance in soils that have not been modified by anthropogenic impacts. These values inform assessments of soil quality and are used to establish maximum permissible limits. The objective of this study was to determine the natural levels and reference values for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of 19 representative soils of the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia, on Brazil's agricultural frontier. Pseudo-total metal concentrations were obtained following microwave-assisted digestion using the aqua regia and EPA3051 methods. QRVs were calculated for each element as the 75th and 90th percentiles of the frequency distribution of the data. Natural levels of heavy metals in the soil samples followed the order: Cr > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > and Cd (aqua regia) and Cr > Co > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cd (EPA3051). These values are generally lower than those reported in the Brazilian and international literature, which highlights the importance of establishing reference values for each state or for each soil type, taking into account the geomorphological, pedological, and geological diversity of the region under study.

  17. Analytical performance, reference values and decision limits. A need to differentiate between reference intervals and decision limits and to define analytical quality specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Jensen, Esther A; Brandslund, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    of the values of analytical components measured on reference samples from reference individuals. Decision limits are based on guidelines from national and international expert groups defining specific concentrations of certain components as limits for decision about diagnosis or well-defined specific actions....... Analytical quality specifications for reference intervals have been defined for bias since the 1990s, but in the recommendations specified in the clinical guidelines analytical quality specifications are only scarcely defined. The demands for negligible biases are, however, even more essential for decision...... limits, as the choice is no longer left to the clinician, but emerge directly from the concentration. Even a small bias will change the number of diseased individuals, so the demands for negligible biases are obvious. A view over the analytical quality as published gives a variable picture of bias...

  18. A global multicenter study on reference values: 2. Exploration of sources of variation across the countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Ozarda, Yesim; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Xia, Liangyu; Hoffmann, Mariza; Shah, Swarup; Matsha, Tandi; Wassung, Janette; Smit, Francois; Ruzhanskaya, Anna; Straseski, Joely; Bustos, Daniel N; Kimura, Shogo; Takahashi, Aki

    2017-04-01

    The intent of this study, based on a global multicenter study of reference values (RVs) for serum analytes was to explore biological sources of variation (SVs) of the RVs among 12 countries around the world. As described in the first part of this paper, RVs of 50 major serum analytes from 13,396 healthy individuals living in 12 countries were obtained. Analyzed in this study were 23 clinical chemistry analytes and 8 analytes measured by immunoturbidimetry. Multiple regression analysis was performed for each gender, country by country, analyte by analyte, by setting four major SVs (age, BMI, and levels of drinking and smoking) as a fixed set of explanatory variables. For analytes with skewed distributions, log-transformation was applied. The association of each source of variation with RVs was expressed as the partial correlation coefficient (r p ). Obvious gender and age-related changes in the RVs were observed in many analytes, almost consistently between countries. Compilation of age-related variations of RVs after adjusting for between-country differences revealed peculiar patterns specific to each analyte. Judged fromthe r p , BMI related changes were observed for many nutritional and inflammatory markers in almost all countries. However, the slope of linear regression of BMI vs. RV differed greatly among countries for some analytes. Alcohol and smoking-related changes were observed less conspicuously in a limited number of analytes. The features of sex, age, alcohol, and smoking-related changes in RVs of the analytes were largely comparable worldwide. The finding of differences in BMI-related changes among countries in some analytes is quite relevant to understanding ethnic differences in susceptibility to nutritionally related diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hematologic reference values for clinically healthy captive golden conures (Guaruba guarouba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioste, Fabíola Eloisa Setim; Zwarg, Ticiana; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Rocha, Arnaldo; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2012-12-01

    Golden conures or ararajubas (Guaruba guarouba) are endangered parrots endemic to the Brazilian Amazon forest. Body mass, blood cell counts, and total plasma protein were determined for 70 clinically healthy golden conures captive at zoologic parks and private breeder facilities in Brazil. Hematologic results (mean +/- SD) were: Erythrocytes 3.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(6) cells/mm3, hemoglobin 12.8 +/- 1.4 g/dl, packed cell volume 46 +/- 3.8%, mean corpuscular volume 132 +/- 20 fl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 36 +/- 5.7 pg, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 28 +/- 3.5%, thrombocytes 26.3 +/- 9.3 x 10(3) cells/mm3, leukocytes 11.9 +/- 4.5 x 10(3) cells/mm3, heterophils 6284 +/- 2715 cells/mm3, lymphocytes 5473 +/- 2408 cells/ mm3, monocytes 113 +/- 162 cells/mm3, eosinophils 10 +/- 42 cells/mm3, basophils 27 +/- 64 cells/mm3. Body mass was 254 +/- 24.9 g and total plasma protein (TPP) was 3.54 +/- 0.58 g/dl. No statistical differences were observed between genders within age groups. Differences between juveniles (J) and adults (A) were identified for TPP (J A), and MCHC (J > A). These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic results for the species. Hematology may be an important tool for population health investigations on free-ranging golden conure populations and will also be essential to survey the health of release candidates in future reintroduction programs.

  20. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 +- 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 +- 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 +- 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 +- 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 +- 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  1. Toxicity reference values for methylmercury effects on avian reproduction: Critical review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Brown, Lauren E; Henning, Miranda H; Bock, Michael J; Magar, Victor S

    2017-02-01

    Effects of mercury (Hg) on birds have been studied extensively and with increasing frequency in recent years. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of methylmercury (MeHg) effects on bird reproduction, evaluating laboratory and field studies in which observed effects could be attributed primarily to Hg. The review focuses on exposures via diet and maternal transfer in which observed effects (or lack thereof) were reported relative to Hg concentrations in diet, eggs, or adult blood. Applicable data were identified for 23 species. From this data set, the authors identified ranges of toxicity reference values suitable for risk-assessment applications. Typical ranges of Hg effect thresholds are approximately 0.2 mg/kg to >1.4 mg/kg in diet, 0.05 mg/kg/d to 0.5 mg/kg/d on a dose basis, 0.6 mg/kg to 2.7 mg/kg in eggs, and 2.1 mg/kg to >6.7 mg/kg in parental blood (all concentrations on a wet wt basis). For Hg in avian blood, the review represents the first broad compilation of relevant toxicity data. For dietary exposures, the current data support TRVs that are greater than older, commonly used TRVs. The older diet-based TRVs incorporate conservative assumptions and uncertainty factors that are no longer justified, although they generally were appropriate when originally derived, because of past data limitations. The egg-based TRVs identified from the review are more similar to other previously derived TRVs but have been updated to incorporate new information from recent studies. While important research needs remain, a key recommendation is that species not yet tested for MeHg toxicity should be evaluated using toxicity data from tested species with similar body weights. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:294-319. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. The effect of time from last food intake on arterial blood gases: Implication on reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedpour Anaraki M

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial blood gas parameters were analyzed in forty-nine healthy persons (31 males, 18 females to detemine reference values fo these parameters and their relation to the time from last food intake to arterial puncture (T. The mean ± standard deviation of arterial oxygen pressure, arterial carbon dioxide pressure and pH at core body temperature were 84.4±7.0 mmHg (Male: 83.0±6.5, Female: 86.7±73, 37.7±2.8 mmHg (Male: 38.5±2.7, Female: 36.2±2.4 respectively 7.41±0.02 (Male: 7.41±0.02 Female: 7.42±0.03. the mean PCO2 was lower in comparison with most of the studies at sea level. The difference between males and females was significant in PCO2 and PH (P=0.004, P=0.02 respectively but in was not significant in PO2 (P=0.07. The PCO2 and pH had no statistically significant relatioship with age (P=0.42, P=0.25 respectively. The relationship between Po2 with age, PCO2 and T was significant (P=0.02, P=0.017, and P=0.019 respectively. The best linear predictive equation was: Po2= 1.28 AO2-29.4 for T10hours Þ AO2 = 0.21(Baro-47 – (1.2PCO2

  3. Reference Values for Inspiratory Muscle Endurance in Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiele Taís Woszezenki

    Full Text Available To generate reference values for two inspiratory muscle endurance (IME protocols in healthy children and adolescents.This is an observational, cross-sectional study, in healthy children and adolescents from 4 to 18 years of age. Weight, height, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and IME were measured using two protocols. A fixed load of 30% of MIP with a 10% increment every 2 minutes was used in the incremental threshold loading protocol. As for the maximal loading protocol, a fixed load of 70% of MIP was used and the time limit (Tlim achieved until fatigue was measured.A total of 462 participants were included, 281 corresponding to the incremental loading protocol and 181 to maximal loading. There were moderate and positive correlations between IME and age, MIP, weight and height in the incremental threshold loading. However, the regression model demonstrated that MIP and age were the best variables to predict the IME. Otherwise, weak and positive correlations with age, weight and height were found in the maximal loading. Only age and height influenced endurance in the regression model. The predictive power (r2 of the incremental threshold loading protocol was 0.65, while the maximal loading was 0.15. The reproducibility measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was higher in the incremental loading (0.96 compared to the maximal loading test (0.69.IME in healthy children and adolescents can be explained by age, height and MIP. The incremental threshold loading protocol showed more reliable results and should be the model of choice to evaluate IME in the pediatric age group.

  4. Background concentrations and reference values for heavy metals in soils of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mirelys Rodríguez; Montero, Alfredo; Ugarte, Olegario Muñiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; de Aguiar Accioly, Adriana Maria; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    The potential threat of heavy metals to human health has led to many studies on permissible levels of these elements in soils. The objective of this study was to establish quality reference values (QRVs) for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, As, Hg, V, Ba, Sb, Ag, Co, and Mo in soils of Cuba. Geochemical associations between trace elements and Fe were also studied, aiming to provide an index for establishing background concentrations of metals in soils. Surface samples of 33 soil profiles from areas of native forest or minimal anthropic influence were collected. Samples were digested (USEPA method 3051A), and the metals were determined by ICP-OES. The natural concentrations of metals in soils of Cuba followed the order Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Ba > V > Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > As > Sb > Ag > Cd > Mo > Hg. The QRVs found for Cuban soils were as follows (mg kg(-1)): Ag (1), Ba (111), Cd (0.6), Co (25), Cr (153), Cu (83), Fe (54,055), Mn (1947), Ni (170), Pb (50), Sb (6), V (137), Zn (86), Mo (0.1), As (19), and Hg (0.1). The average natural levels of heavy metals are above the global average, especially for Ni and Cr. The chemical fractionation of soil samples presenting anomalous concentrations of metals showed that Cu, Ni, Cr, Sb, and As have low bioavailability. This suggests that the risk of contamination of agricultural products via plant uptake is low. However, the final decision on the establishment of soil QRVs in Cuba depends on political, economic, and social issues and in-depth risk analyses considering all routes of exposure to these elements.

  5. [Establishment of Reference Value of Hs-cTnT in Sichuan Region and Its Diagnostic Value in Patients with Chest Pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Du, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Hua-Lan; Wang, Wei-Qing; Nie, Xin; Li, Gui-Xing

    2017-11-01

    To establish the reference value of high sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and the efficiency of reference value in the diagnosis of chest pain. Volunteers from eight independent communities in Chengdu,Sichuan were selected with detailed records of physical examination,electrocardiogram,ultrasound examination. The level of hs-cTnT for healthy volunteers was tested to determine ninety-ninth percentile references according to sex and ages. 2 249 patients with chest pain in the emergency department of Western China Hospital from July 2009 to July 2014 were enrolled to measure the efficiency of reference value for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There were 1 305 volunteers included finally. Among them,the mean hs-cTnT level of male was 4.3 (3.2-5.9) ng/L,which was significantly higher than that of female 3.0 (3.0-3.1) ng/L ( P value was less than 0.01. The 99th percentile values of male were 10.8 ng/L,15.4 ng/L and 19.7 ng/L for values of female were 4.6 ng/L,8.9 ng/L,18.8 ng/L,respectively. There was no difference in sensitivity and specificity between the value we figured out and manufactures provided (14.0 ng/L) for thosevalue did not show diversity ( P >0.05) but the specificity and positive predictive value showed significant difference (male: 0.67 vs. 0.56 and 0.83 vs. 0.79, P value of patients<60 yr. should be 14.0 ng/L,while 20.0 ng/L for those patients≥60 yr.

  6. Enhance the Value of a Research Paper: Choosing the Right References and Writing them Accurately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdekar, Sandeep B

    2016-03-01

    References help readers identify and locate sources used for justifying the need for conducting the research study, verify methods employed in the study and for discussing the interpretation of results and implications of the study. It is extremely essential that references are accurate and complete. This article provides suggestions regarding choosing references and writing reference list. References are a list of sources that are selected by authors to represent the best documents concerning the research study.1 They constitute the foundation of any research paper. Although generally written towards the end of the article-writing process, they are nevertheless extremely important. They provide the context for the hypothesis and help justify the need for conducting the research study. Authors use references to inform readers about the techniques used for conducting the study and convince them about the appropriateness of methodology used. References help provide appropriate perspective in which the research findings should be seen and interpreted. This communication will discuss the purpose of citations, how to select quality sources for citing and the importance of accuracy while writing the reference list. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  7. Reference line-pair values of panoramic radiographs using an arch-form phantom stand to assess clinical image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Da Hye; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Jin Woo; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to suggest reference line-pair values of panoramic images with clinically desirable qualities using an arch-form phantom stand. The line-pair test phantom was chosen. A real skull model was selected for setting the arch-form model of the phantom stand. The phantom stand had slits in four regions (incisor, premolar, molar, TMJ). Four raw images of the test phantom in each region and one raw image of the real skull were converted into 50 test phantom images and 50 skull phantom images with various line-pair values. 50 post-processed real skull phantom images were divided into 4 groups and were randomly submitted to 14 evaluators. Image quality was graded on a 4 point scale (1. good, 2. normal, 3. poor but interpretable, and 4. not interpretable). The reference line pair was determined as the first line-pair value scored less than 2 points. The mean scores tended to decrease as the line-pair values increased. The reference line-pair values were 3.19 LP/mm in the incisor, 2.32 LP/mm in the premolar and TMJ, and 1.88 LP/mm in the molar region. Image quality evaluation methods and criteria should be able to assess various regions considering the characteristics of panoramic systems. This study suggested overall and regional reference line-pair values and established a set of standard values for them.

  8. Reference line-pair values of panoramic radiographs using an arch-form phantom stand to assess clinical image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Da Hye; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, BK21 Craniomaxillofacial Life Science, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    This study was performed to suggest reference line-pair values of panoramic images with clinically desirable qualities using an arch-form phantom stand. The line-pair test phantom was chosen. A real skull model was selected for setting the arch-form model of the phantom stand. The phantom stand had slits in four regions (incisor, premolar, molar, TMJ). Four raw images of the test phantom in each region and one raw image of the real skull were converted into 50 test phantom images and 50 skull phantom images with various line-pair values. 50 post-processed real skull phantom images were divided into 4 groups and were randomly submitted to 14 evaluators. Image quality was graded on a 4 point scale (1. good, 2. normal, 3. poor but interpretable, and 4. not interpretable). The reference line pair was determined as the first line-pair value scored less than 2 points. The mean scores tended to decrease as the line-pair values increased. The reference line-pair values were 3.19 LP/mm in the incisor, 2.32 LP/mm in the premolar and TMJ, and 1.88 LP/mm in the molar region. Image quality evaluation methods and criteria should be able to assess various regions considering the characteristics of panoramic systems. This study suggested overall and regional reference line-pair values and established a set of standard values for them.

  9. Development of Head Injury Assessment Reference Values Based on NASA Injury Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Melvin, John W.; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Granderson, Bradley; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Patalak, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a new capsule-based, crewed vehicle that will land in the ocean, and the space agency desires to reduce the risk of injury from impact during these landings. Because landing impact occurs for each flight and the crew might need to perform egress tasks, current injury assessment reference values (IARV) were deemed insufficient. Because NASCAR occupant restraint systems are more effective than the systems used to determine the current IARVs and are similar to NASA s proposed restraint system, an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new IARVs that may be more relevant to NASA s context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by completing a detailed analysis of all of the 2002-2008 NASCAR impact data. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select 4071 impacts from the 4015 recorder files provided (each file could contain multiple impact events). Of the 4071 accepted impacts, 274 were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Humanetics Hybrid-III 50th percentile numerical dummy model in LS-DYNA. Injury had occurred in 32 of the 274 selected impacts, and 27 of those injuries involved the head. A majority of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 242 non-injury impacts were randomly selected and representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of 4071 impacts. Head dynamics data (head translational acceleration, translational change in velocity, rotational acceleration, rotational velocity, HIC-15, HIC-36, and the Head 3ms clip) were filtered according to SAE J211 specifications and then transformed to a log scale. The probability of head injury was estimated using a separate logistic regression analysis for each log-transformed predictor candidate. Using the log transformation constrains the estimated probability of injury to become negligible as IARVs approach

  10. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol

    2003-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 ± 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 ± 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 ± 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 ± 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 ± 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  11. Automatic and improved radiometric correction of Landsat imagery using reference values from MODIS surface reflectance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, X.; Pesquer, L.; Cristóbal, J.; González-Guerrero, O.

    2014-12-01

    Radiometric correction is a prerequisite for generating high-quality scientific data, making it possible to discriminate between product artefacts and real changes in Earth processes as well as accurately produce land cover maps and detect changes. This work contributes to the automatic generation of surface reflectance products for Landsat satellite series. Surface reflectances are generated by a new approach developed from a previous simplified radiometric (atmospheric + topographic) correction model. The proposed model keeps the core of the old model (incidence angles and cast-shadows through a digital elevation model [DEM], Earth-Sun distance, etc.) and adds new characteristics to enhance and automatize ground reflectance retrieval. The new model includes the following new features: (1) A fitting model based on reference values from pseudoinvariant areas that have been automatically extracted from existing reflectance products (Terra MODIS MOD09GA) that were selected also automatically by applying quality criteria that include a geostatistical pattern model. This guarantees the consistency of the internal and external series, making it unnecessary to provide extra atmospheric data for the acquisition date and time, dark objects or dense vegetation. (2) A spatial model for atmospheric optical depth that uses detailed DEM and MODTRAN simulations. (3) It is designed so that large time-series of images can be processed automatically to produce consistent Landsat surface reflectance time-series. (4) The approach can handle most images, acquired now or in the past, regardless of the processing system, with the exception of those with extremely high cloud coverage. The new methodology has been successfully applied to a series of near 300 images of the same area including MSS, TM and ETM+ imagery as well as to different formats and processing systems (LPGS and NLAPS from the USGS; CEOS from ESA) for different degrees of cloud coverage (up to 60%) and SLC

  12. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Semova, R.; Lichev, A.; Delov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K 2 HPO 4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values for zinc, using a two-stage factorial approach and reference values for body weight. The first stage of estimating physiological requirements used studies...... from 2.4 to 11.8 mg/day. PRIs for infants and children were derived by assuming a coefficient of variation of 10 %, and range from 2.9 to 14.2 mg/day. For pregnancy and lactation, additional zinc requirements related to fetal and maternal tissues and transfer of zinc into breast milk, respectively...

  14. Intersubjective model of value transmission: parents using perceived norms as reference when socializing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kim-Pong; Lee, Sau-Lai; Kim, Young-Hoon; Li, Yanmei; Chao, Melody Manchi

    2012-08-01

    What values do parents want to transmit to children? The intersubjective model of value transmission posits that parents want to transmit not only the values they personally endorse but also the values they perceive to be normatively important in the society. The present research shows support to this premise. Furthermore, Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the use of perceived norms is moderated by families' social contexts and parents' personality: It was particularly pronounced among parents who were immigrants, who had a stronger need for closure, and who were more conforming. In addition, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that parents' perceived norms can explain actual value transmission: Values parents perceived to be normatively important were to some extent internalized by children. The intersubjective model paves some new directions for value transmission research, contributes to the understanding of cultural transmission and cultural change, and extends the intersubjective approach to culture.

  15. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The values underlying the Draft Common Frame of Reference: what role for fairness and 'social justice'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of the provisions of the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), in order to assess if the DCFR perceives contract law only as a tool for regulating private law relations between equally strong parties or if it contains elements of 'social justice' in favour

  17. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L

    1994-01-01

    for specific laboratories or require time-intensive pretreatments of the specimens. This limits the possibility for many centers to compare their patients' data with others or to establish their own reference ranges for U-GH excretion. Therefore, we investigated the performance of a commercially available kit...

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid glucose and lactate: age-specific reference values and implications for clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, W.G.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Wevers, R.A.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is an important tool in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological disorders, but reference ranges for CSF glucose, CSF/plasma glucose ratio and CSF lactate based on studies with large numbers of CSF samples are not available. Our aim was to define age-specific

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values for energy, which are provided as average requirements (ARs) of specified age and sex groups. For children and adults, total energy expenditure (TEE...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary reference values for water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of dietary reference values for water for specific age groups. Adequate Intakes (AI) have been defined derived from a combination of observed intakes in population groups with desirable...

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates...

  2. Reference values of maximum walking speed among independent community-dwelling Danish adults aged 60 to 79 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, S; Holmestad-Bechmann, N; Pedersen, Trine B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for maximum walking speed over 10m for independent community-dwelling Danish adults, aged 60 to 79 years, and to evaluate the effects of gender and age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Danish companies and senior citizens clubs. PARTICIPANTS: Two ...

  3. Measuring frailty in Dutch community-dwelling older people : Reference values of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Pallast, Esther; El Fakiri, Fatima; Gobbens, R.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to provide reference values of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) for community-dwelling older people by age, sex, marital status, ethnicity, education, income, and residence, and examine the effects of these seven socio-demographic variables on

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for biotin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for biotin. Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin which serves as a co-factor for several carboxylases that play critical roles in the synthesis...

  5. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  6. CMR reference values for left ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction using computer-aided analysis : The Framingham Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Michael L.; Gona, Philimon; Hautvast, Gilion L.T.F.; Salton, Carol J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Manning, Warren J.

    Purpose To determine sex-specific reference values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (EF) in healthy adults using computer-aided analysis and to examine the effect of age on LV parameters. Materials and Methods We examined data from 1494 members of the Framingham Heart

  7. Application of RF correction in thin-layer chromatography by means of two reference RF values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.H.; Vinkenborg, C.; Compaan, H.; Ritter, F.J.; Labadie, R.P.; Verweij, A.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1972-01-01

    Results of the inter-laboratory experiment described in this paper show that the GALANOS AND KAPOULAS equation can be applied satisfactorily to correct RF values obtained on thin-layer chromatograms in a polar multi-component solvent. Addition of Kieselguhr to the silica gel gives RFc values

  8. Forage accumulation and nutritive value of reduced lignin and reference alfalfa cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars have the potential to increase the feeding value of alfalfa for livestock by improving the forage fiber digestibility and to increase harvest management flexibility. The objectives were to compare the yield and forage nutritive value of reduced ...

  9. Frame of Reference Effects on Values in Mathematics: Evidence from German Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambria, Jenna; Brandt, Holger; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation identifies two classes of beliefs that are important predictors of educational choices and achievement: expectancies and values. It is well known that high achieving peers can have a negative impact on self-concept and other measures of expected success: holding individual achievement constant,…

  10. Blood glucose measurement in patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis: a comparison of Abbott MediSense PCx point-of-care meter values to reference laboratory values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Fidela S J; Miller, Moses; Nichols, James; Smithline, Howard; Crabb, Gillian; Pekow, Penelope

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare blood glucose levels measured by a point of care (POC) device to laboratory measurement using the same sample venous blood from patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A descriptive correlational design was used for this IRB-approved quality assurance project. The study site was the 50-bed BMC emergency department (ED) which has an annual census of over 100,000 patient visits. The convenience sample consisted of 54 blood samples from suspected DKA patients with orders for hourly blood draws for glucose measurement. Spearman correlations of the glucose POC values, reference lab values, and differences between the two, were evaluated. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between the acidosis status and FDA acceptability of POC values. Patient age range was 10-86 years; 63% were females; 46% had a final diagnosis of DKA. POC values underestimated glucose levels 93% of the time. There was a high correlation between the lab value and the magnitude of the difference, (lab minus POC value) indicating that the higher the true glucose value, the greater the difference between the lab and the POC value. A chi-square test showed no overall association between acidosis and FDA-acceptability. The POC values underestimated lab reported glucose levels in 50 of 54 cases even with the use of same venous sample sent to the lab, which make it highly unreliable for use in monitoring suspected DKA patients.

  11. Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass Reference Values and the Peak Muscle Mass to Identify Sarcopenia among Iranian Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Gita; Ostovar, Afshin; Heshmat, Ramin; Keshtkar, Abbas Ali; Sharifi, Farshad; Shadman, Zhaleh; Nabipour, Iraj; Soltani, Akbar; Larijani, Bagher

    2018-01-01

    Sacopenia is a common problem in elderly with the adverse outcomes. The objective of this study was to estimate the peak appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and age of its attainment by sex among the Iranian population. A total of 691 men and women aged 18-94 years participated in this cross-sectional, population-based study in Bushehr, Iran. ASM was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Cutoff points for men and women were established considering two standard deviations (SDs) below the mean values of the skeletal muscle index (SMI) for young reference groups. The relationship between ASM and age was described by the second-degree regression models. Two SDs below the mean SMIs of reference groups were as cutoff values of low muscle mass in Iranian population. The peak ASM values were 21.35 ± 0.12 Kg and 13.68 ± 0.10 Kg, and the age at peak ASM were 26 (24-28) years and 34 (33-35) years for men and women, respectively. Mean and SD of SMI in those ages were 7.01 ± 0.02 Kg/m 2 and 5.44 ± 0.02 Kg/m 2 among men and women, respectively. Calculated cutoff values of low muscle mass among the Iranian population were 7.0 Kg/m 2 and 5.4 Kg/m 2 among men and women, respectively. Iranian reference values of SMI for both genders were similar to Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia recommendation and lower than the United States and European values. Further studies from different nations and the Middle East countries are needed to obtain reference values for populations, enabling the researchers for comparison and also more valid reports on sarcopenia prevalence.

  12. Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in patients with cardiovascular disease entering exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando M F; Almodhy, Meshal; Pepera, Garyfalia; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios M; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2017-01-01

    The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is used to assess functional capacity of patients entering cardiac rehabilitation. Factors such as age and sex account for a proportion of the variance in test performance in healthy individuals but there are no reference values for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to produce reference values for the ISWT. Participants were n = 548 patients referred to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation who underwent a clinical examination and performed the ISWT. We used regression to identify predictors of performance and produced centile values using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape model. Men walked significantly further than women (395 ± 165 vs. 269 ± 118 m; t = 9.5, P < 0.001) so data were analysed separately by sex. Age (years) was the strongest predictor of performance in men (β = -5.9; 95% CI: -7.1 to -4.6 m) and women (β = -4.8; 95% CI: -6.3 to 3.3). Centile curves demonstrated a broadly linear decrease in expected ISWT values in males (25-85 years) and a more curvilinear trend in females. Patients entering cardiac rehabilitation present with highly heterogeneous ISWT values. Much of the variance in performance can be explained by patients' age and sex. Comparing absolute values with age-and sex-specific reference values may aid interpretation of ISWT performance during initial patient assessment at entry to cardiac rehabilitation.

  13. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, Anders H.; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward

    2016-01-01

    blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were...... analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20–84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The “ONE Study” panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional...... cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy....

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for phosphorus. The Panel considered data from balance studies, losses of phosphorus from the body and intestinal absorption for possible use in a fact......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for phosphorus. The Panel considered data from balance studies, losses of phosphorus from the body and intestinal absorption for possible use...... countries, which are considerably higher than the values calculated. The AI is 160 mg/day for infants (7–11 months) and between 250 and 640 mg/day for children. For adults, the AI is 550 mg/day. Taking into consideration adaptive changes in phosphorus metabolism that occur during pregnancy and lactation...

  15. Clay stabilization by using gypsum and paddy husk ash with reference to UCT and CBR value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesyanto; Iskandar, R.; Hastuty, I. P.; Dianty, W. O.

    2018-02-01

    Clays that have low shear strength need to be stabilized in order to meet the technical requirements to serve as a subgrade material. One of the usual soil stabilization methods is by adding chemicals such as Portland cement, lime, and bitumen. The clay stabilization research was done by adding gypsum and paddy husk ash. The research goals were to find out the value of engineering properties of clay due to the addition of 2% gypsum and 2% - 15% paddy husk ash. The soil was classified as Clay - Low Plasticity (CL) based on USCS and was classified as A-7-6 (10) based on AASHTO classification system. The UCT value of original soil was 1.41 kg/cm2. While the CBR soaked and unsoaked values of original soil were 4.41% and 6.23% respectively. The research results showed the addition of paddy husk ash decreased the value of unconfined compressive strength as well as CBR. The stabilized soil by 2% gypsum and 0% paddy husk ash gave maximum UCT value of 1.67 kg/cm2, while the maximum value of CBR were found 6.71% for CBR soaked and 8.00% for CBR unsoaked. The addition of paddy husk ash did not alter the soil classification according to AASHTO or USCS, even degrade the engineering properties of original soil.

  16. Complete blood count reference values of cord blood in Taiwan and the influence of gender and delivery route on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Wang, Tso-Fu; Lin, Teng-Yi; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Shu-Huey

    2011-06-01

    Cord blood banking has become more popular in recent years. Checking cord blood complete blood count (CBC) and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts (DCs) is essential before cryopreserving the cord blood units. Therefore, establishing the normal reference values of cord blood CBC and WBC DC is important in clinical practice and research. To obtain a large-scale population-based normal CBC and WBC DC reference values of healthy neonates' cord blood from a public cord blood bank and to investigate the influence of the gender and delivery route. From September 2001 to November 2006, the cord blood of healthy Taiwanese neonates with gestational age 36 weeks and more were collected by Tzu Chi Cord Blood Bank with written informed consents. All cord blood samples were analyzed by Sysmex XE2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) to obtain the CBC. The WBC DC was calculated by manual method. We used Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test for investigating the influences of gender and delivery route on the CBC and WBC DC reference values. The results were presented by mean±standard deviation or 2.5-97.5th percentiles. In the study period, totally 5602 cord blood samples were collected eligibly for analysis. The cord blood CBC and WBC DC normal reference values were calculated. The female neonates had significantly higher mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, and WBC count, but lower red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, and mean corpuscular Hb concentration values (pTaiwan. Gender and delivery routes were important confounding factors that influenced the cord blood CBC and WBC DC values. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Myocardial sestamibi single-photon emission tomography: variations in reference values with gender, age and rest versus stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, J.; Hesse, B.; Raboel, A.; Carstensen, S.; Ali, S.

    1997-01-01

    Reference data files support the evaluation of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to create a large reference data base for technetium-99m sestamibi SPET, age and gender matched to the general patient population. One hundred and twenty-eight healthy volunteers (76 males and 52 females) with a likelihood of coronary artery disease of less than 5% underwent rest and maximal exercise 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET with a 2-day protocol and 180 elliptical rotation. The normalized activity values of 99m Tc-sestamibi in the inferior wall differed significantly between men and women. Age variations were found for men in the anterior wall. Normalized activity values in all four walls were strikingly similar during rest and stress. Our results suggest that the use of reference files in 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET requires a gender- and, for males, possibly an age-matched reference population. Different reference files at rest and during stress might not be necessary. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Comparison between dose values specified at the ICRU reference point and the mean dose to the planning target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoowicz, Pawel F.; Mijnheer, Bernard J.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare dose values specified at the reference point, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, and the mean dose to the planning target volume, PTV. Material and methods: CT-based dose calculations were performed with a 3-D treatment planning system for 6 series of patients treated for bladder, brain, breast, lung, oropharynx and parotid gland tumour. All patients were arbitrarily chosen from a set of previously treated patients irradiated with a two- or three-field technique using customised blocks. Appropriate wedge angles and beam weights were chosen to make the dose distribution as homogeneous as possible. Results: The dose at the ICRU reference point was generally higher than the mean dose to the PTV. The difference between the ICRU reference dose and the mean dose to the PTV for an individual patient was less than 3% in 88% of cases and less than 2% in 72% of the cases. The differences were larger in those patients where the dose distribution is significantly influenced by the presence of lungs or air gaps. For each series of patients the mean difference between the ICRU reference dose and the mean dose to the PTV was calculated. The difference between these two values never exceeded 2%. Because not all planning systems are able to calculate the mean dose to the PTV, the concept of the mean central dose, the mean of the dose values at the centre of the PTV in each CT slice, has been introduced. The mean central dose was also calculated for the same patients and was closer to the mean dose to the PTV than the ICRU reference dose. Conclusion: The mean dose to the PTV is well estimated by either the ICRU reference dose or the mean central dose for a variety of treatment techniques for common types of cancer

  19. The influence of television on cultural values -- with special reference to Third World countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonasekera, A

    1987-01-01

    In focusing on the influence of television on cultural values, particularly in third world countries, the discussion covers the impact of the technology of communication on cultural values, the impact of existing, that is traditional, cultural values on television, and the impact of television programs on cultural values. It is not a problem to set up a television transmitting station in any third world country; the hardware is manufactured in developed countries and assembled in a third world country by technicians of the television manufacturing company. The key question is whether the third world country that has acquired this modern piece of technology can put it into operation run it. The operation of a modern television station calls for 3 types of professionals: engineers and technicians, television journalists and producers, and managers and administrators. Consequently, if the host country is to benefit from this transfer of technology it needs to have a community of modern professionals. Also, for a culture to successfully utilize television, it is helpful if the other media of communication are developed. In sum, at the time of the introduction of television in third world countries, such countries should possess an advanced sector of education and mass media which could form the basis for initiating the multiplier effect for which television has the potential. When introducing television to a third world country, one further needs to be aware of the impact that traditional values may have on the utilization of this medium. It can work to entrench traditional inequities in social relationships in the name of cultural uniqueness, and from the perspective of disadvantaged minority groups it could be a form of "cultural imperialism." Thus, when introducing television, the governments of these countries need to consider fostering a set of values and norms that could assist in the modernization of these countries. These should be values that promote human

  20. Reference values for acoustic rhinometry in children from 4 to 13 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Moeller, Alexander; Hall, Graham L

    2008-01-01

    a reference range for nasal volumes and minimum cross-sectional areas (MCA) in healthy non-decongested children aged 4 to 13 years. Methods: 256 primary school children (mean 7.95 years, range 3.8 - 13.1 ys, 123m/133f) were measured by acoustic rhinometry. Variables were MCA (first, second and absolute......: In multiple linear regression models height was the main predictor for all AR variables although weight was also a significant predictor of MCA's. There was no association between any AR variables with sex, atopy or hayfever but children with current wheeze (within last 12 months) and asthma had decreased...

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for protein. The Panel concludes that a Population Reference Intake (PRI) can be derived from nitrogen balance studies. Several health outcomes possibly...... for growth and maintenance. For pregnancy, an intake of 1, 9 and 28 g/d in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively, is proposed in addition to the PRI for non-pregnant women. For lactation, a protein intake of 19 g/d during the first six months, and of 13 g/d after six months, is proposed...

  2. Computed tomography of the optic nerve with special reference to the attenuation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Osamu; Shimooku, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Taeko

    1980-01-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) for ophthalmology needs no longer to be emphasized. Everything, however, has its limitations. In this article, the limitations of CT for the diagnosis of the optic nerve diameter were studied in an orbit-optic nerve model. The difference of 15 Hounsfield units between two scans which demonstrated the optic nerve having almost the same diameter, as a result of the partial volume effect, was obtained. This suggested that the attenuation values of the optic nerve are markedly influenced by the partial volume effect, and that they require further investigation for clinical use. (author)

  3. Value of percutaneous needle biopsy of small renal tumors in patients referred for cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Matsui, Yusuke; Araki, Motoo; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety and diagnostic yield of needle biopsy of small renal tumors, and the clinical consequences of performing needle biopsy in patients referred for percutaneous cryoablation before their treatment. Biopsy was performed for 120 tumors (mean diameter, 2.2 cm) in 119 patients. All procedures were divided into diagnostic and non-diagnostic biopsies. Various variables were compared between the two groups. All cryoablation procedures were divided into two groups: procedures with or without simultaneous biopsy. The rates of benign or non-diagnostic tumors in each group were compared. After performing 120 initial and eight repeat biopsies, Grade 1 bleedings occurred in 44 cases. Six tumors were non-diagnostic and 114 were pathologically diagnosed. There were no significant variables between the diagnostic and non-diagnostic biopsies. Unnecessary cryoablation was avoided in nine benign lesions by performing biopsy in advance. Cryoablation performed simultaneously with biopsy included significantly more benign or non-diagnostic tumors than cryoablation performed after biopsy (15.2% vs. 1.4%; p = .01). Percutaneous biopsy of small renal tumors referred for cryoablation was a safe procedure with high diagnostic yield. The confirmation of pathological diagnosis prior to cryoablation is necessary because patients with benign tumors can avoid unnecessary treatment.

  4. A cross-sectional study of sarcopenia in Japanese men and women: reference values and association with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, K; Miyachi, M; Tanimoto, M; Yamamoto, K; Murakami, H; Okumura, S; Gando, Y; Suzuki, K; Tabata, I; Higuchi, M

    2010-09-01

    In this study of Japanese men and women, we determine reference values for sarcopenia and test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, independent of waist circumference. A total of 1,488 Japanese men and women aged 18-85 years participated in this study. Appendicular muscle mass (AMM) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reference values for classes 1 and 2 sarcopenia (skeletal muscle index: AMM/height2, kg m-2) in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of reference values obtained in this study from young adults aged 18-40 years. The reference values for class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were 7.77 and 6.87 kg m-2 in men and 6.12 and 5.46 kg m-2 in women. In subjects both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia, body mass index and % body fat were significantly lower than in normal subjects. Despite whole-blood glycohaemoglobin A1c in men with class 1 sarcopenia was significantly higher than in normal subjects, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in women both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were significantly higher than in normal subjects, using one-way ANCOVA with adjustment for the covariate of waist circumference. Although sarcopenia is associated with thin body mass, it is associated with more glycation of serum proteins in men and with greater arterial stiffness in women, independent of waist circumference.

  5. Plasma biochemical reference values in clinically healthy captive bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and the effects of sex and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Takami, Yoshinori; Akabane, Yoshihito; Kanazawa, Yuko; Une, Yumi

    2011-09-01

    Bearded dragons are one of the most popular pet lizard species, and biochemical reference values are useful for health management of these reptiles. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma biochemical values in healthy captive bearded dragons, determine reference values, and evaluate the effects of sex and season on the results. Blood samples were collected from 100 captive healthy bearded dragons in Tokyo during the summer and winter. Plasma biochemical measurements were performed using a dry-slide automated biochemical analyzer. The data were then compared based on sex and season using 2-way ANOVA. Globulin, cholesterol, and calcium concentrations of females were higher in both summer and winter compared with the values obtained for males. Both males and females had higher uric acid concentrations in winter than in summer. When compared with males, females had a higher chloride concentration in summer and a higher total protein concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity in winter. Potassium concentration in males was lower in winter than in summer, whereas in females cholesterol concentration was lower in winter than in summer. Biochemical values that differed based on sex and season in bearded dragons were similar to those in other lizards. These differences reflect physiologic differences in reproductive status in females and seasonal changes in temperature and hydration status. Plasma biochemical values established for bearded dragons in this study will be useful in the diagnostic assessment of captive animals. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Cephalometric analysis for the diagnosis of sleep apnea: a comparative study between reference values and measurements obtained for Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Superbi Lemos Maschtakow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the reference values of Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis of North American individuals are similar to the ones of Brazilian individuals presenting no craniofacial anomalies. The study also aimed to identify craniofacial alterations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS patients in relation to individuals without clinical characteristics of the disease through this cephalometric analysis. METHOD: It were used 55 lateral cephalograms consisting of 29 for the control group of adult individuals without clinical characteristics of OSAHS and 26 apneic adults. All radiographs were submitted to Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis through Radiocef Studio 2.0. The standard values of this analysis were compared, by means of z test, to the ones obtained from the control group and these were compared to values from apneic group through Student's t test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between values obtained from control group and standard values. On the group of OSAHS patients it was observed a decrease on the dimensions of upper airways and an increase on the soft palate length. CONCLUSIONS: The standard values of Sleep Apnea analysis can be used as reference in Brazilian individuals. Besides, through lateral cephalograms it was possible to identify craniofacial alterations in OSAHS patients.

  7. Reference equations for handgrip strength: Normative values in young adult and middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Jordão; Grams, Samantha Torres; da Silva, Edy Floriano; de Medeiros, Luana Adriano; de Brito, Christina May Moran; Yamaguti, Wellington Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Handgrip strength (HS) has been widely used as a functionality parameter of the upper limbs (UL) and general health. The measurement of HS by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability, widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation and in critical care units. However, there are no reports in the literature of reference equations for the Brazilian population involving young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to establish reference equations to predict normal HS for young and middle-aged adults through demographic and anthropometric data. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 80 healthy subjects (40 men and 40 women), aged 20-60 years. Inclusion criteria were: 1) BMI between 18.5 and 30 kg/m 2 ; 2) presence of dominant hand; 3) no cardiac, pulmonary, metabolic, or neurologic diseases; 4) lack of musculoskeletal disorders; 5) no history of fractures or trauma of the UL. Anthropometric measurements of the UL were obtained by a tape (hand length and width, forearm circumference and length). The dominance of hands was defined by the Dutch Handedness Questionnaire. HS measures were obtained by a manual hydraulic dynamometer, according to the recommendations of the American Association of Hand Therapists. Data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows, version 17.0, and treated with descriptive and inferential analysis. Normality was evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Pearson or Spearman coefficients and multiple regression analysis were also used. HS was significantly higher for men compared to women, and also higher for the dominant hand (HSD) compared to the non-dominant hand (HSND) (p  0.05). No correlation was found between HS and age. A weak correlation was found between HS and BMI. A moderate correlation of HS was observed with weight and height. Finally, moderate and high correlations were found between HS and anthropometric variables of UL. The best reference equations with R 2 , adjusted to 0.71 and 0.70, were

  8. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Standing Broad Jump among Hungarian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex trends in anaerobic power assessed by a standing broad jump and to determine norm-referenced values for youth in Hungary. Method: A sample of 2,427 Hungarian youth (1,360 boys and 1,067 girls) completed the standing broad jump twice, and the highest distance score was recorded. Quantile…

  9. Chronic intestinal ischemia and splanchnic blood-flow: Reference values and correlation with body-composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Abrahamsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    -induced increase in SBF was equal to 282 mL/min + 5.4 mL/min × bodyweight, (P = 0.025). The SO₂U in healthy volunteers and patients was 50.7 mL/min and 48.0 mL/min, respectively, and these values increased to 77.5 mL/min and 75 mL/min postprandially, respectively. Both baseline and postprandial SO₂U were directly...

  10. Reference values for radiological evaluation of cervical vertebral body shape and spinal canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, V.M. [Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Heinaenen, M.T.; Marttinen, E.J. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kinnunen, J.S. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, HYKS (Finland)

    2000-03-01

    Background. Defining normal values is essential for reliable evaluation of growth disturbances. Previous studies of the cervical spine have mainly focused on the sagittal canal diameter and interpedicular distances. Values for vertebral body height and depth have been published only in adult men and cadavers.Objectives. To define normal values for vertebral body height (H)/vertebral body depth (D) ratio (H/D ratio) and sagittal canal diameter (S)/vertebral body depth ratio (S/D ratio) in C2-7.Materials and methods. Lateral cervical spine radiographs were available from 441 children and 192 adults. Subjects' ages varied from newborn to 39 years. Vertebral body height and depth and sagittal canal diameter were measured and ratios were calculated. This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study.Results. Vertebral bodies grow relatively more in height than in depth, most actively at puberty. At all levels, the H/D ratio remains below 1, indicating that vertebral body depth is greater than height. The SD ratio is quite stable until 7-8 years of age and then it starts to decline slowly.Conclusions. When estimating platyspondyly, the age of the patient must be taken into consideration because vertebral body height is lower in children. Growth of the spinal canal declines after 7-8 years of age. (orig.)

  11. Reference values for radiological evaluation of cervical vertebral body shape and spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remes, V.M.; Heinaenen, M.T.; Marttinen, E.J.; Kinnunen, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Defining normal values is essential for reliable evaluation of growth disturbances. Previous studies of the cervical spine have mainly focused on the sagittal canal diameter and interpedicular distances. Values for vertebral body height and depth have been published only in adult men and cadavers.Objectives. To define normal values for vertebral body height (H)/vertebral body depth (D) ratio (H/D ratio) and sagittal canal diameter (S)/vertebral body depth ratio (S/D ratio) in C2-7.Materials and methods. Lateral cervical spine radiographs were available from 441 children and 192 adults. Subjects' ages varied from newborn to 39 years. Vertebral body height and depth and sagittal canal diameter were measured and ratios were calculated. This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study.Results. Vertebral bodies grow relatively more in height than in depth, most actively at puberty. At all levels, the H/D ratio remains below 1, indicating that vertebral body depth is greater than height. The SD ratio is quite stable until 7-8 years of age and then it starts to decline slowly.Conclusions. When estimating platyspondyly, the age of the patient must be taken into consideration because vertebral body height is lower in children. Growth of the spinal canal declines after 7-8 years of age. (orig.)

  12. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczyñski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of definitive methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), consists in combination of neutron activation with the highly selective and quantitative post-irradiation isolation of the desired radionuclide by column chromatography followed by γ-ray spectrometric measurement. The principles of construction of such methods, which were devised in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, are reminded and the significance of these methods for analytical quality assurance is emphasized. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMP for the determination of Se is briefly presented and its use for checking the accuracy of 'assigned values' established by expert laboratories in some proficiency tests, is demonstrated

  13. The perceived value of mandatory qualifications held by Johannesburg Emergency Services personnel with reference to vocational applicability and promotability

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and describe perceptions Fire Fighters and Platoon Commanders from Johannesburg Emergency Services have of educational offerings offered by and / or deemed applicable to the emergency service, with specific reference to their vocational applicability and value in relation to promotion. It is argued in this report that such perceptions may affect the motivation experienced by adult learners to engage in further study and thus may influence the learning process a...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates digested and absorbed in the human small intestine, and „dietary fibre‟, non-digestible carbohydrates passing to the large intestine. In this Opinion, dietary fibre is defined as non-digestible car...

  15. A cutoff value based on analysis of a reference population decreases overestimation of the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haarst, Ernst P; Bosch, J L H Ruud

    2012-09-01

    We sought criteria for nocturnal polyuria in asymptomatic, nonurological adults of all ages by reporting reference values of the ratio of daytime and nighttime urine volumes, and finding nocturia predictors. Data from a database of frequency-volume charts from a reference population of 894 nonurological, asymptomatic volunteers of all age groups were analyzed. The nocturnal polyuria index and the nocturia index were calculated and factors influencing these values were determined by multivariate analysis. The nocturnal polyuria index had wide variation but a normal distribution with a mean ± SD of 30% ± 12%. The 95th percentile of the values was 53%. Above this cutoff a patient had nocturnal polyuria. This value contrasts with the International Continence Society definition of 33% but agrees with several other reports. On multivariate regression analysis with the nocturnal polyuria index as the dependent variable sleeping time, maximum voided volume and age were the covariates. However, the increase in the nocturnal polyuria index by age was small. Excluding polyuria and nocturia from analysis did not alter the results in a relevant way. The nocturnal voiding frequency depended on sleeping time and maximum voided volume but most of all on the nocturia index. The prevalence of nocturnal polyuria is overestimated. We suggest a new cutoff value for the nocturnal polyuria index, that is nocturnal polyuria exists when the nocturnal polyuria index exceeds 53%. The nocturia index is the best predictor of nocturia. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New reference values for body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the general population: results from the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits M E; Rutten, Erica P A; Groenen, Miriam T J; Vanfleteren, Lowie E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Low fat-free mass (FFM) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in elderly and patient populations. Therefore, measurement of FFM is important in nutritional assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient method to assess FFM and FFM index (FFMI; FFM/height(2)). Although reference values have been established for individuals with normal body weight, no specific cutoff values are available for overweight and obese populations. Also, limited studies accounted for the age-related decline in FFM. To determine BMI- and age-specific reference values for abnormal low FFM(I) in white-ethnic men and women free of self-reported disease from the general population. The UK Biobank is a prospective epidemiological study of the general population from the United Kingdom. Individuals in the age category 45 to 69 years were analyzed. In addition to body weight, FFM and FFMI were measured using a Tanita BC-418MA. Also, self-reported chronic conditions and ethnic background were registered, and lung function was assessed using spirometry. After exclusion of all individuals with missing data, nonwhite ethnicity, self-reported disease, body mass index (BMI) less than 14 or 36 kg/m(2) or higher, and/or an obstructive lung function, reference values for FFM and FFMI were derived from 186,975 individuals (45.9% men; age: 56.9 ± 6.8 years; BMI: 26.5 ± 3.6 kg/m(2); FFMI 18.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)). FFM and FFMI were significantly associated with BMI and decreased with age. Percentiles 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95 were calculated for FFM, FFMI, and fat mass (index), after stratification for gender, age, and BMI. Using the UK Biobank dataset, new reference values for body composition assessed with BIA were determined in white-ethnic men and women aged 45 to 69 years. Because these reference values are BMI specific, they are of broad interest for overweight and obese populations. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. 3D dentofacial photogrammetry reference values: a novel approach to orthodontic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mohamed I; Bansal, Neetu; C Castillo, Jose; Manosudprasit, Amornrut; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Haghi, Arshan; Hawkins, Hannah C; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Orthodontic diagnostic standards generally use the cranial base as a reference and rely on samples selected by orthodontists. The purpose of this study was to provide male and female standards for a novel non-radiographic approach for orthodontic diagnosis that utilizes 3D dentofacial photogrammetry using the eyes and natural head orientation as references instead of the cranial base. One hundred and eighty females and 200 males between the ages of 18 and 35 years from 2 modeling agencies were orthodontically screened for near ideal occlusion. Subjects that met the inclusion criteria were rated by a sample of 40 lay people for attractiveness on a visual analogue scale. The final sample that had 3D facial and dental imaging included 49 subjects 25 males and 24 females with near ideal occlusion and considered attractive by the public. Inter and Intra-examiner ICC were greater than 0.8 for both landmarking and indexing. Relative to a coronal plane contacting the pupils (MC), the mean sagittal position of the alar curvature (representing the nasomaxillary complex) was 14.36 ± 3.08 mm in males and 12.4 ± 3.58 mm in females. The sagittal position of soft tissue pogonion relative to the pupils was 14.84 ± 3.63 mm in males and 12.78 ± 5.68 mm in females. The angle between the alar curvature and pogonion relative to the pupils was 9° in males and 10° in females. With the exception of the occlusal plane which was steeper in females, no ratios or angular facial measurements showed a significant gender difference. Relative to MC, males had more proclined upper incisors (20° vs 16°) and more retroclined Lower incisors (27° vs 31°; P > 0.05). A Procrustes ANOVA and permutation test showed that the shapes of males and females are different enough to be considered two distinct populations. 1. When using the proposed method for orthodontic diagnosis, male and female patients should be compared to their respective dentofacial standards. 2. Validation of the proposed method

  18. Blood Chemistry Reference Values for Free-Ranging Asiatic Black Bears ( Ursus thibetanus) by Season, Age, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Jin; Jeong, Dong-Hyuk; Lim, Yoon-Kyu

    2018-04-19

    Physiological characteristics, such as blood chemistry values, are valuable for evaluating the health of the animals. To our knowledge, these values have never been reported for the free-ranging Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus; ABB). Thus, 28 blood chemistry values from 50 free-ranging ABBs captured in Jirisan National Park, Republic of Korea, from 2005 to 2016 were evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish blood chemistry reference values for the free-ranging ABBs during both the hibernating and nonhibernating seasons. During hibernation, mean values of creatinine (CRE), total cholesterol, total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglycerides, and Mg were significantly higher than those during nonhibernation; however, mean values of blood urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen to creatinine (U/C) ratio, inorganic phosphorous (IP), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly lower. Age differences (young vs. adult) were found in IP, LDH, TP, and ALB values during hibernation and in the U/C ratio, Ca, IP, ALP, creatine kinase myocardial band, CRE, total bilirubin, and uric acid values during nonhibernation. However, there were no sex differences (male vs. female).

  19. Sustainable Spaces with Psychological Values: Historical Architecture as Reference Book for Biomimetic Models with Biophilic Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nely Ramzy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomimicry is a growing area of interest in architecture due to the potentials it offers for innovative architectural solutions and for more sustainable, regenerative built environment. Yet, a growing body of research identified various deficiencies to the employment of this approach in architecture. Of particular note are that: first, some biomimetic technologies are not inherently more sustainable or Nature-friendly than conventional equivalents; second, they lack any spatial expression of Nature and are visually ill-integrated into it. In a trial to redeem these deficiencies, this paper suggests a frame-work for more sustainable strategy that combines this approach with the relative approach of "Biophilia", with reference to examples from historical architecture. Using pioneering strategies and applications from different historical styles, the paper shows that the combination of these two approaches may lead to enhanced outcomes in terms of sustainability as well as human psychology and well-being. In doing so, architects may go beyond simply mimicking Nature to synthesizing architecture in tune with it and bringing in bio-inspired solutions that is more responsive to human needs and well-being.

  20. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madonna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of the integrated water vapour (IWV and water vapour mixing ratio profiles provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS, Global Climate Observing System, Reference Upper-Air Network stations in 2010–2012. Results show that the random uncertainties on the IWV measured with radiosondes, global positioning system, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of IWV content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy with the IWV time series measured by radiosondes and therefore the highest potential to reduce the random uncertainty of the radiosondes time series. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument can be reduced by ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty is achieved by conditioning Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapour measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  1. Sport concussion assessment tool-Third edition normative reference values for professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G W; Govind, O; Tucker, R; Raftery, M

    2018-04-01

    To establish normative reference data for the SCAT3 in professional Rugby Union players. A cross sectional study in professional Rugby Union players competing in national and international professional competitions between 2015 and 2016. The SCAT3 was administered pre-season or prior to tournaments. Data was collected electronically using a custom tablet application. SCAT3 subcomponents distributions were described and normative ranges determined using percentile cut-offs for average, unusually low/high, and extremely low/high scores. The association between player characteristics and performance in SCAT3 subcomponents was also investigated in exploratory analyses. A total of 3611 professional Rugby Union players were included. The most common baseline symptom was fatigue (14%). The symptom score median (md) was 0 (interquartile range (IQR)=0-1). Symptom severity md was 0 (IQR=0-1). The md of the SAC score was 28 (IQR=26-29). The md of the MBESS was 2 (IQR=0-4). The Tandem gait md was 11.1s (IQR=10.0-12.7s). Upper limb coordination was normal in 98.4%. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with worse performance on delayed recall and reverse month sub-components of the SCAT3 (pRugby Union players are provided. Baseline performance on concentration and delayed recall tests may be lower in younger athletes or in those with lower educational level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Development of an evidence-based approach to external quality assurance for breast cancer hormone receptor immunohistochemistry: comparison of reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makretsov, Nikita; Gilks, C Blake; Alaghehbandan, Reza; Garratt, John; Quenneville, Louise; Mercer, Joel; Palavdzic, Dragana; Torlakovic, Emina E

    2011-07-01

    External quality assurance and proficiency testing programs for breast cancer predictive biomarkers are based largely on traditional ad hoc design; at present there is no universal consensus on definition of a standard reference value for samples used in external quality assurance programs. To explore reference values for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor immunohistochemistry in order to develop an evidence-based analytic platform for external quality assurance. There were 31 participating laboratories, 4 of which were previously designated as "expert" laboratories. Each participant tested a tissue microarray slide with 44 breast carcinomas for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and submitted it to the Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control Program for analysis. Nuclear staining in 1% or more of the tumor cells was a positive score. Five methods for determining reference values were compared. All reference values showed 100% agreement for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor scores, when indeterminate results were excluded. Individual laboratory performance (agreement rates, test sensitivity, test specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and κ value) was very similar for all reference values. Identification of suboptimal performance by all methods was identical for 30 of 31 laboratories. Estrogen receptor assessment of 1 laboratory was discordant: agreement was less than 90% for 3 of 5 reference values and greater than 90% with the use of 2 other reference values. Various reference values provide equivalent laboratory rating. In addition to descriptive feedback, our approach allows calculation of technical test sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, agreement rates, and κ values to guide corrective actions.

  3. Reference Values of Aortic Root in Male and Female White Elite Athletes According to Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraita, Araceli; Heras, Maria-Eugenia; Morales, Francisco; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Canda, Alicia; Rabadan, Manuel; Barriopedro, Maria-Isabel; Varela, Amai; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Tuñón, José

    2016-10-01

    There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m 2 and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Age, left ventricular mass, and body surface area were the main predictors of aortic dimensions. Raw values were greater in males than in females (Pvalues >40 mm and 34 mm, respectively. Raw and corrected aortic measures at all levels were significantly greater in sports, with a high dynamic component in both sexes, except for corrected values of the sinotubular junction in women. Aortic root dimensions in healthy elite athletes are within the established limits for the general population. This study describes the normal dimensions for healthy elite athletes classified according to sex and dynamic and static components of their sports. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Myocardial 201Tl washout after combined dipyridamole submaximal exercise stress: Reference values from different patient groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrich, L.

    1989-01-01

    Dipyridamole stress is favorable in patients unable to exercise maximally for 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Aside from an analysis of uptake defects, proper washout analysis can be limited by heart rate variations when isolated dipyridamole stress is used. Heart rate standardized 201 Tl washout kinetics after a combined dipyridamole and submaximal exercise stress protocol (CDSE), feasible in elderly patients as well as in patients with peripheral artery disease, were therefore studied to investigate the 201 Tl washout after CDSE in differently defined patient groups: Group I comprised 19 patients with documented heart disease and angiographically excluded coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 17 patients with a very low likelihood of CAD determined by both normal exercise radionuclide ventriculography and normal 201 Tl uptake. Group III comprised 56 patients with a 50% pretest likelihood of CAD but normal 201 Tl uptake. Mean washout values were nearly identical in all groups. Despite similar uptake patterns, however, washout standardized by CDSE was significantly lower than the normal washout values after maximal treadmill exercise. Thus an obviously lower 201 Tl washout after CDSE than after maximal treadmill exercise must be considered if washout analysis criteria after dipyridamole are applied to evaluate ischemic heart disease. Nevertheless, heart rate elevation achieved by additional submaximal exercise stress seems necessary, adequate and clinically safe for standardisation of washout analysis in dipyridamole 201 Tl scintigraphy. (orig.)

  5. Nutrition issues in Codex: health claims, nutrient reference values and WTO agreements: a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J; Hathcock, John; Jukes, David; Richardson, David P; Calder, Philip C; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike; Nicklas, Theresa; Mühlebach, Stefan; Kwon, Oran; Lewis, Janine; Lugard, Maurits J F; Prock, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Codex documents may be used as educational and consensus materials for member governments. Also, the WTO SPS Agreement recognizes Codex as the presumptive international authority on food issues. Nutrient bioavailability is a critical factor in determining the ability of nutrients to provide beneficial effects. Bioavailability also influences the quantitative dietary requirements that are the basis of nutrient intake recommendations and NRVs. Codex, EFSA and some national regulatory authorities have established guidelines or regulations that will permit several types of health claims. The scientific basis for claims has been established by the US FDA and EFSA, but not yet by Codex. Evidence-based nutrition differs from evidence-based medicine, but the differences are only recently gaining recognition. Health claims on foods may provide useful information to consumers, but many will interpret the information to mean that they can rely upon the food or nutrient to eliminate a disease risk. NRVs are designed to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the nutritive values of foods, helping to illustrate how specific foods fit into the overall diet. The INL-98 and the mean of adult male and female values provide NRVs that are sufficient when used as targets for individual intakes by most adults. WTO recognizes Codex as the primary international authority on food issues. Current regulatory schemes based on recommended dietary allowances are trade restrictive. A substantial number of decisions by the EFSA could lead to violation of WTO agreements.

  6. Examining the value of global seasonal reference evapotranspiration forecasts tosupport FEWS NET's food insecurity outlooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; McEvoy, D.; Hobbins, M.; Husak, G. J.; Huntington, J. L.; Funk, C.; Verdin, J.; Macharia, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) team provides food insecurity outlooks for several developing countries in Africa, Central Asia, and Central America. Thus far in terms of agroclimatic conditions that influence food insecurity, FEWS NET's primary focus has been on the seasonal precipitation forecasts while not adequately accounting for the atmospheric evaporative demand, which is also directly related to agricultural production and hence food insecurity, and is most often estimated by reference evapotranspiration (ETo). This presentation reports on the development of a new global ETo seasonal reforecast and skill evaluation with a particular emphasis on the potential use of this dataset by the FEWS NET to support food insecurity early warning. The ETo reforecasts span the 1982-2009 period and are calculated following ASCE's formulation of Penman-Monteith method driven by seasonal climate forecasts of monthly mean temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation from NCEP's CFSv2 and NASA's GEOS-5 models. The skill evaluation using deterministic and probabilistic scores focuses on the December-February (DJF), March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) and September-November (SON) seasons. The results indicate that ETo forecasts are a promising tool for early warning of drought and food insecurity. The FEWS NET regions with promising level of skill (correlation >0.35 at lead times of 3 months) include Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (DJF, dry season), Central America (DJF, dry season), parts of East Africa (JJA, wet Season), Southern Africa (JJA, dry season), and Central Asia (MAM, wet season). A case study over parts of East Africa for the JJA season shows that, in combination with the precipitation forecasts, ETo forecasts could have provided early warning of recent severe drought events (e.g., 2002, 2004, 2009) that contributed to substantial food insecurity in the region.

  7. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus).

  8. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  9. Reference Values for the Ophthalmic Schirmer Tear Test and the Intraocular Pressure in Healthy Chinchillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP and tear production before and after topical anaesthesia in healthy chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera. Thirteen healthy non-sedated chinchillas (eight males and five females were used in this study. The tear production was measured by the novel endodontic paper point tear test (PPTT using Roeko Colour No. 30 Paper points. Following the PPTT, one drop of 0.4 % oxybuprokainium chloride was added to the eye to anaesthetise the cornea and the IOP was measured using the Tono-Pen Avia®Vet. Excess anaesthetic was removed from the conjunctival fornix using a sterile cotton tipped applicator and the PPTT II was performed. The PPTT I and II were measured in 26 eyes, mean ± standard deviations (SD were 7.98 ± 1.95 mm.min−1, and 9.71 ± 3.52 mm.min−1 respectively. The IOP was measured in 20 eyes, and the mean ± SD was 28.52 ± 12.48 mmHg (35.50 ± 9.31 mmHg in males and 21.53 ± 11.57 mmHg in females. There was no significant difference in the PPTT results between the left and right eyes or between the male and female groups. The males were found to have a significantly higher IOP than females and the PPTT II was significantly greater than the PPTT I. The PPTT test proved to be effective, easy to use, and reliable, causing little apparent discomfort to the chinchillas and could prove to be a much more effective tool than the Schirmer tear test for the evaluation of the tear production in animals with small eyes and/or low aqueous tear production. The mean intraocular pressure proved to be much higher in this population of chinchillas than those previously studied and so further investigation is warranted before a reliable reference range may be produced.

  10. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rambhatla, Siri J. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); Sreedharan, Ram R. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  11. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Rambhatla, Siri J.; Sreedharan, Ram R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  12. Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance: reference values for infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofer, O. [Department of Pediatrics, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Koenig, G. [Department of Pediatrics, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Bartels, U. [Department of Pediatrics, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Bockisch, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Piepenburg, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Beetz, R. [Department of Pediatrics, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Meyer, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Hahn, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Six hundred and thirty-nine clearance studies performed in children aged 7 days to 19 years utilizing technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3) were retrospectively analysed. Standardized conditions for the investigation included: parenteral hydration (60 ml/hxm{sup 2} body surface) in addition to normal oral fluid intake, weight-related dose of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG 3 (1 MBq/kg body weight, minimum 15 MBq) and calculation of clearance according to Bubeck et al. Of the 513 children, 169 included in this analysis could be classified as ``normal`` with regard to their renal function. Normal kidney function was judged by the following criteria: normal GFR for age, normal tubular function (absence of proteinuria and glucosuria), normal renal parenchyma (on ultrasonography, MAG 3 scan and intravenous pyelography), absence of significant obstruction and gross reflux (> grade I) no single kidney and no difference in split renal function > 20%. Results showed increasing MAG 3 clearance values for infants during the first months of life, reaching the normal range for older children and adults between 7 and 12 months. (orig.)

  13. Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance: reference values for infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofer, O.; Koenig, G.; Bartels, U.; Bockisch, A.; Piepenburg, R.; Beetz, R.; Meyer, G.; Hahn, K.

    1995-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty-nine clearance studies performed in children aged 7 days to 19 years utilizing technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3) were retrospectively analysed. Standardized conditions for the investigation included: parenteral hydration (60 ml/hxm 2 body surface) in addition to normal oral fluid intake, weight-related dose of 99m Tc-MAG 3 (1 MBq/kg body weight, minimum 15 MBq) and calculation of clearance according to Bubeck et al. Of the 513 children, 169 included in this analysis could be classified as ''normal'' with regard to their renal function. Normal kidney function was judged by the following criteria: normal GFR for age, normal tubular function (absence of proteinuria and glucosuria), normal renal parenchyma (on ultrasonography, MAG 3 scan and intravenous pyelography), absence of significant obstruction and gross reflux (> grade I) no single kidney and no difference in split renal function > 20%. Results showed increasing MAG 3 clearance values for infants during the first months of life, reaching the normal range for older children and adults between 7 and 12 months. (orig.)

  14. [Reference values of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride for the Venezuelan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Tomei, Coromoto; Palacios, Cristina; Mariño Elizondo, Mariana; Carías, Diamela; Noguera, Dalmacia; Chávez Pérez, José Félix

    2013-12-01

    The following micronutrients were considered together for their role in bone health: calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride. Calcium: not enough is known to change current recommendations. In adolescents and adults, limited data suggest that consuming the recommended level is associated with normal bone mass. In older adults, the limited data reported low consumption and a high rate of fractures but there is no information on whether the current values are adequate. Vitamin D: the limited data reported high deficiency in older adults, which was related to osteoporosis. Given the recent increase in North American recommendation for their contribution to bone health, we proposed to increase the recommendation to 400-600 IU/d for Venezuela. Phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride: the lack of local data does not support changing the latest recommendations. Therefore, it highlights the lack of local studies to assess current recommendations. Studies are needed to estimate the intake of these micronutrients in the population and evaluate their interaction and their relation to bone and overall health. Information of the adequacy of these nutrients in human milk for infants is needed. Alto, it is necessary to implement an effective nutrition surveillance system and implement interventions that maximize bone health from an early stage, including the design and implementation of a dairy policy that leads to an increase in production and consumption by the population.

  15. Establishment of a reference value for chromium in the blood for biological monitoring among occupational chromium workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Shan-Fa; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Jia, Guang

    2016-10-01

    The concentration of chromium in the blood (CrB) has been confirmed as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure, but its biological exposure indices (BEIs) are still unclear, so we collected data from the years 2006 and 2008 (Shandong Province, China) to analyze the relationship between the concentration of chromium in the air (CrA) of the workplaces and CrB to establish a reference value of CrB for biological monitoring of occupational workers. The levels of the indicators for nasal injury, kidney (β2 microglobulin (β2-MG)), and genetic damages (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN)) were measured in all subjects of the year 2011 (Henan Province, China) to verify the protective effect in this reference value of CrB. Compared with the control groups, the concentrations of CrA and CrB in chromium exposed groups were significantly higher (P value of CrB was recommended to 20 μg/L. The levels of nasal injury, β2-MG, 8-OhdG, and MN were not significantly different between the low chromium exposed group (CrB ≤ 20 μg/L) and the control group, while the levels of β2-MG, 8-OHdG, and MN were statistically different in the high chromium exposed group than that in the control group. This research proved that only in occupational workers, CrB could be used as a biomarker to show chromium exposure in the environment. The recommended reference value of CrB was 20 μg/L. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2011-01-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL -1 ), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL -1 ), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL -1 ), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL -1 ), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL -1 ), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL -1 ) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL -1 ). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few μL) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  17. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  18. Comparing The Effects Of Reference Pricing And Centers-Of-Excellence Approaches To Value-Based Benefit Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Cowling, David W; Facer, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Various health insurance benefit designs based on value-based purchasing have been promoted to steer patients to high-value providers, but little is known about the designs' relative effectiveness and underlying mechanisms. We compared the impact of two designs implemented by the California Public Employees' Retirement System on inpatient hospital total hip or knee replacement: a reference-based pricing design for preferred provider organizations (PPOs) and a centers-of-excellence design for health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Payment and utilization data for the procedures in the period 2008-13 were evaluated using pre-post and quasi-experimental designs at the system and health plan levels, adjusting for demographic characteristics, case-mix, and other confounders. We found that both designs prompted higher use of designated low-price high-quality facilities and reduced average replacement expenses per member at the plan and system levels. However, the designs used different routes: The reference-based pricing design reduced average replacement payments per case in PPOs by 26.7 percent in the first year, compared to HMOs, but did not lower PPO members' utilization rates. In contrast, the centers-of-excellence design lowered HMO members' utilization rates by 29.2 percent in the first year, compared to PPOs, but did not reduce HMO average replacement payments per case. The reference-based pricing design appears more suitable for reducing price variation, and the centers-of-excellence design for addressing variation in use.

  19. Normal left ventricular mechanics by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Reference values in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabay, Gonenc; Muraru, Denisa; Peluso, Diletta; Cucchini, Umberto; Mihaila, Sorina; Padayattil-Jose, Seena; Gentian, Denas; Iliceto, Sabino; Vinereanu, Dragos; Badano, Luigi P

    2014-08-01

    Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is a novel tool to assess myocardial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular myocardial strain and rotation parameters by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in a large group of healthy adults across a wide age range to establish their reference values and to assess the influence of age, sex, and hemodynamic factors. Transthoracic echocardiograms were acquired in 247 healthy volunteers (139 women, 44 years [standard deviation, 16 years old] (range, 18-80 years). We measured longitudinal, circumferential, and radial peak systolic strain values, and left ventricular rotation and twist. Average values of global longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain were -21.5% (standard deviation, 2.0%), 40.1% (standard deviation, 11.8%) and -22.2% (standard deviation, 3.4%), respectively. Longitudinal strain was significantly more negative in women, whereas radial and circumferential strain and rotational parameters were similar in both sexes. Accordingly, lower limits of normality for the strain components were -16.9% in men and -18.5% in women for longitudinal strain, and -15.4% for circumferential and 24.6% for radial strain, irrespective of sex. Longitudinal strain values were more negative at the base than at apical segments. Mean rotational values were -6.9° (standard deviation, 3.5°) for the base, 13.0° (standard deviation, 6.5°) for apical rotation, and 20.0° (standard deviation, 7.3°) for net twist. We report the comprehensive assessment of normal myocardial deformation and rotational mechanics in a large cohort of healthy volunteers. We found that women have more negative longitudinal strain, accounting for their higher left ventricular ejection fraction. Availability of reference values for these parameters may foster their implementation in the clinical routine. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-01

    To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were obtained at the largest pediatric hospital in Chile, with an active optimization program, and could be used by other hospitals in the Latin America region to compare their current patient dose values and determine whether corrective action is appropriate. © 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Differentiation strategies in coffee global value chains through reference to territorial origin in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marescotti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years coffee has been regarded as a commodity. Recently, new trends both at consumption and production level created new opportunities for de-commodifying the coffee market, by a differentiation based on social, environmental and territorial resources, and consequently for strengthening local agro-food systems and improving the position of farmers in the value chain. In this perspective, territorial origin is one promising lever of differentiation, and there is a growing number of initiatives trying to develop protected Geographical Indications in coffee value chains. This work aims at identifying the different logics surrounding the construction of protected Geographical Indications (GIs in the coffee industry in Latin America, and to discuss the role of history and tradition in relation to the link to specific local resources. Our analysis highlights a variety of typologies of GI initiatives, which follow different logics and strategies, and interpret the concept of “origin” in different ways, especially when compared to the European Union one. However the role that history and traditions play in American coffee GIs is not yet relevant.Durante mucho tiempo, el café ha sido considerado como un producto commodity, de carácter indiferenciado. Recientemente, nuevas tendencias en la producción y el consumo de café han creado nuevas oportunidades para emprender estrategias de diferenciación (de-commodify en el mercado del café, basadas en los recursos locales de carácter social, medioambiental y territorial y, consecuentemente, con una finalidad de impulsar los sistemas agroalimentarios locales y de mejorar la situación de los agricultores en la cadena de valor. Desde esta perspectiva, el origen territorial se convierte en una herramienta prometedora de diferenciación del producto. Existe un número creciente de iniciativas cuyo propósito es desarrollar Indicaciones Geográficas (IGs en el ámbito de las cadenas de valor del

  2. Determination of reference values for intraocular pressure and Schirmer tear test results in clinically normal domestic donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selk Ghaffari, Masoud; Sabzevari, Amin; Ghamsari, SeyedMehdi; Shad, Hussein

    2017-11-25

    This study was conducted to establish normal reference range for the Schirmer tear test (STT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal donkeys for use in clinical practice. Sixteen adult Ethiopian domestic donkeys were used in this study. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. STT values were evaluated in both eyes of all donkeys using a commercial STT strip. IOP was measured in both eyes with a Tono-Pen Vet (Reichert. USA) without using regional nerve blocks. STT values for all eyes (n=32) were 22.1±6.9 mm/minute with a range of 13-35 mm/minute. Comparison of mean STT values between right (n=16) and left eyes (n=16) showed no differences (P=0.6). Mean ±sd IOP values by applanation tonometry were 17.8±3.7 mmHg (range 13.5-24.5 mmHg). Comparison of mean IOP values between right (n=16) and left eyes (n=16) showed no differences (P=0.7). This initial survey provides means and ranges for IOP and STT values in donkeys. These data will assist veterinary ophthalmologists in more accurate diagnosis and management of ophthalmic diseases in donkeys, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca and glaucoma. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Normal references of right ventricular strain values by two-dimensional strain echocardiography according to the age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyeong; Choi, Jin-Oh; Park, Seung Woo; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Oh, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Seong, In-Whan

    2018-02-01

    Right ventricular (RV) strain values by 2-dimensional strain echocardiography (STE) can be used as objective markers of RV systolic function. However, there is little data about normal reference RV strain values according to age and gender. We measured normal RV strain values by STE. RV strain values were analyzed from the digitally stored echocardiographic images from NORMAL (Normal echOcardiogRaphic diMensions and functions in KoreAn popuLation) study for the measurement of normal echocardiographic values performed in 23 Korean university hospitals. We enrolled total 1003 healthy persons in the NORMAL study. Of them, we analyzed 2-dimensional RV strain values in 493 subjects (261 females, mean 47 ± 15 years old) only with echocardiographic images by GE machines. Their LV systolic and diastolic functions were normal. RV fractional area change was 48 ± 6% and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 23 ± 3 mm. Total RV global longitudinal peak systolic strain (RVGLS total ) was -21.5 ± 3.2%. Females had higher absolute RVGLS total (-22.3 ± 3.3 vs -20.7 ± 2.9%, p value to that of older males (age ≥50 years, -20.5 ± 2.8 vs -20.9 ± 3.1%, p = 0.224). We calculated normal RVGLS values in normal population. Females have higher absolute strain values than males, especially in younger age groups (<50 years old).

  4. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altzitzoglou, T.; Bohnstedt, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, and 90 Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented

  5. Spirometric reference values in urban children in Madagascar: poverty is a risk factor for low lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peter Th; Arison, Lala; Rahajamiakatra, Abel; Raserijaona, Francis; Niggemann, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    Studies about children with respiratory diseases in Africa are impeded by the dearth of reliable data for the vast majority of countries on the continent. This study was conducted to establish representative reference values, therefore allowing a more accurate evaluation of lung function in Malagasy children. One thousand two hundred thirty-six students from three public and five private schools aged 8-12 years were recruited. A total of 1,093 children were healthy, had a valid lung function measurement and were thus deemed evaluable for this study. Lung function data were collected on consecutive days in Antananarivo, Madagascar's capital, using spirometry and a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The lung volumes found were substantially lower compared to Caucasian and African equations. The mean Z-score (Stanojevic) for the forced vital capacity (FVC) found was -1.45 and -0.93 for the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) with significant differences between private and public schools (FVC: P = 0.0023, FEV1: P = 0.0004). The equations established for school children in Madagascar's capital Antananarivo showed lung function values were lower than reference values for the same age group seen not only in European, but also in African American and African children. The unique ethnicity of the Malagasy people, which combines Southeast-Asian with substantial African influences, the heavy burden of pollution and poverty may explain these differences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fat mass to fat-free mass ratio reference values from NHANES III using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J; Purcell, S A; Prado, C M; Gonzalez, M C

    2017-10-06

    Low fat-free mass (FFM) or high fat mass (FM) are abnormal body composition phenotypes associated with morbidity. These conditions in combination lead to worse health outcomes, and can be identified by a high FM/FFM ratio. Here, we developed sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) stratified, population-based FM/FFM reference values using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. White, non-Hispanic individuals aged 18-90 years old with data for weight, stature and BIA resistance measures from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III were included. Previously validated and sex-specific BIA prediction equations were used to calculate FM and FFM. FM/FFM values were generated at 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles for each sex, age (18-39.9, 40-59.9, 60-69.9 and 70-90 years), and BMI category (underweight, normal weight, overweight, class I/II and class III obesity). A total of 6372 individuals who had estimated FM and FFM values were identified (3366 females, 3006 males). Median values of FM/FFM were 0.24 and 0.40 for young (≤39.9 years) males and females with normal BMI, and 0.34 for males and 0.59 for females who were overweight. For elderly individuals aged >70 years, median FM/FFM for males and females were respectively 0.28 and 0.45 for those with normal BMI, and 0.37 and 0.61 for those in the overweight category. These FM/FFM reference values provide information on body composition characteristics that account for age, sex and BMI, which can be useful to identify individuals at risk for body composition abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (Ppaper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter.

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . Scientific opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fluoride, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI) from all sources, including non-dietary sources. Fluoride is not an essential nutrient...... and adults, including pregnant and lactating women. For pregnant and lactating women, the AI is based on the body weight before pregnancy and lactation. Reliable and representative data on the total fluoride intake of the European population are not available. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  9. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubeda, Carlos, E-mail: cubeda@uta.cl [Medical Technology Department, Radiological Sciences Center, Health Sciences Faculty, Tarapaca University, Arica 1000000 (Chile); Miranda, Patricia [Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Santiago 7500539 (Chile); Vano, Eliseo [Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University and IdIS, San Carlos Hospital, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  10. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm 2 for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm 2 for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm 2 for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm 2 for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm 2 /kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences

  11. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-01-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m 2 ) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65±9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24±11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74±11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37±10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0±9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99±9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34±6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64±11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78±11.5%, 99.22±8.88%, 96.64±12.73%, 98.5±9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  12. [Reference values for erythrocyte cholinesterase activity in the working population of Antioquia, Colombia, according to the Michel and EQM techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-11-01

    To establish reference values for erythrocyte cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) activity for the active working population of two regions of the department of Antioquia, Colombia, that are located at different altitudes above sea level. We took representative samples from populations of active working persons 18 to 59 years old from two regions in the department of Antioquia: (1) the Aburrá Valley (1 540 m above sea level) and (2) the near east of the department (2 150 m above sea level). We excluded workers who were using cholinesterase-inhibiting substances in their work or at home, those who had a disease that altered their cholinesterase levels, and those who said they were not in good health. We measured the erythrocyte cholinesterase activity using two methods: (1) the Michel method and (2) the EQM method (EQM Research, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America). We carried out the measurements with 827 people, 415 from the Aburrá Valley and 412 from the near east region. We compared proportions using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. We utilized the Student's t test for independent samples to compare two averages. To simultaneously compare three or more averages, analysis of variance was used, followed by the Newman-Keuls multiple-range test. When the variables were not normally distributed or when the variances were not homogeneous, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance was used to compare the medians. Three computer software programs were used in the statistical analysis: SPSS 9.0, SGPlus 7.1, and Epi Info 6.04. In all the statistical tests the level of significance was set at P EQM method was 35.21 U/g hemoglobin (95% CI: 34.82 to 35.60). With the Michel method: (1) the enzymatic activity differed significantly between the two regions, according to the Newman-Keuls test; (2) within each region, the enzymatic activity was significantly higher among males than among females, according to the Newman-Keuls test; and (3) in none of the

  13. Differences in body composition and physical functions associated with sarcopenia in Chinese elderly: reference values and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Wu, Sinan; Han, Yiwen; Liu, Jingmin; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Enyi; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Huan; Pang, Jing; Tang, Zhili; Liu, Hongxing; Zheng, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the age-related differences in skeletal muscle mass (SM), muscle strength and physical performance in mainland Chinese. Based on available data, the reference values (criteria) for the definition of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese were explored. Body composition measurements were obtained using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA); muscle strength was determined by handgrip strength (HS); and physical function was evaluated by the subjects' 6-m gait speed (GS). In this study, HS and GS declined significantly after 55 years and very dramatically after 75 years. Appendicular SM index of elderly males and females, respectively. Utilizing Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria in our population results in a very low prevalence of low SM and low GS. If Western criteria for sarcopenia were adopted, the prevalence of low GS and low HS would be 2-4 times higher in the studied population, also exhibiting significant gender differences. These findings indicate that it is necessary to establish an outcomes-based and ethnic-specific set of reference values for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nationwide standardisation and evaluation of scintigraphic gastric emptying: reference values and comparisons between subgroups in a multicentre trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grybaeck, P.; Hermansson, G.; Lyrenaes, E.; Beckman, K.-W.; Jacobsson, H.; Hellstroem, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    By means of a standardised procedure, reference values for scintigraphic gastric emptying were established. The influence of gender, age, menstrual cycle, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits was also evaluated. Eight centres recruited 20 healthy subjects each. The meal consisted of a technetium-99m labelled omelet (1300 kJ) and of 150 ml unlabelled soft drink. Geometric means of frontal and dorsal acquisitions were utilised in a linear fit model for determination of the linear emptying rate, and by using the intercepts of the regression line with the 90% and 50% levels, the lag phase and half-emptying time, respectively, were defined. All individuals showed an initial lag phase and subsequent linear emptying. Because of a longer lag phase and a slower linear emptying rate, premenopausal women had a slower gastric emptying than postmenopausal women and men of all ages. The gastric emptying rate increased with age in the women, mainly due to a shortened lag phase, while the emptying rate remained almost unchanged with age in the males. There were no significant differences in results between the centres. The menstrual cycle, BMI and smoking habits did not affect emptying. In conclusion, the fact that the results showed a slower gastric emptying rate in younger women compared with older women and men indicates that it is necessary to use separate reference values for fertile females. (orig.)

  15. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  16. Reference values for acetyl and butyrylcholinesterases in cattle under actual management conditions, hepatic and renal function by application of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Daniela M; Lentini, Valeria R; Romano, R Raquel; Ludueña, Hector R; Jotallán, Paola J; Gorla, Nora B M

    2018-03-04

    Chlorpyrifos is an anticholinesterase organophosphate insecticide widely used in Argentina in the production of food derived from animal, fruit and horticultural origin and is reported as a residue within these products. Local reference values for acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase were determined in Aberdeen Angus bovine and cross bred cattle (n = 25), a requirement to be able to evaluate toxicity of commercial organophosphate and carbamate formulations. The activity of cholinesterase enzymes presented an overall mean of 2,183.00 ± 485.6 IU L -1 for erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and 203.1 ± 42.06 IU L -1 for plasma butyrylcholinesterase, which are used as reference values for meat steers within a system of intensive production in a semi-arid region. The toxic potential of chlorpyrifos in steers of the same breeds (n = 12) was assessed applying chlorpyrifos 15.00% Tipertox® in a single therapeutic dose of 7.50 mg kg -1 by topical route. Prior to application and then on day 1 and day 21 post-application, both blood cholinesterases, serum chlorpyrifos concentration by ultra-high resolution liquid chromatography with mass detector, analysis of blood counts, total proteins, liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were evaluated. The mean plasma concentration of chlorpyrifos was 27.90 ug L -1 at 24 h. The findings indicate that the therapeutic treatment of castrated male bovines treated with chlorpyrifos, applied by pour-on according to the manufacturer's instructions, does not cause changes in the variables evaluated.

  17. Reliability and reference values of two clinical measurements of dynamic and static knee position in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortqvist, Maria; Moström, Eva B; Roos, Ewa M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate reliability of the Single-limb mini squat test (a dynamic measure of medio-lateral knee position) and the Quadriceps-angle (Q-angle) (a static measure of medio-lateral knee position), present paediatric reference values of the Q......-angle measurements was found. Reference values for the Q-angle (mean 13.5° (1.9)-15.3° (2.8)) varies with age and gender. No associations were found between dynamic and static measures. CONCLUSIONS: The Single-limb mini squat test showed a moderate reliability and the Q-angle showed a fair to moderate reliability......-angle, and evaluate the association between the tests. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six healthy children (9-16 years) were included (intra/inter-rater reliability for Q-angle (n = 37/85) and for Single-limb mini squat test (n = 33/28)). Dynamic medio-lateral knee position was assessed by the Single-limb mini squat...

  18. Biological Variation and Reference Change Value Data for Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase in a Turkish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyar, Selcuk; Goruroglu Ozturk, Ozlem; Ziyanoglu Karacor, Esin; Yuzbasioglu Ariyurek, Sedefgul; Sahin, Gulhan; Kibar, Filiz; Yaman, Akgun; Inal, Tamer

    2016-11-01

    Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a recognized biomarker for the assessment of cerebral injury in neurological disorders. This study aims to report a definitive assessment of the biological variation (BV) components of this biomarker, including within-subject BV (CVI), between-subject BV (CVG), index of individuality (II), and reference change value (RCV), in a cohort of Turkish participants using an experimental protocol. Six blood specimens were collected from each of the 13 apparently healthy volunteers (seven women, six men; ranging in age from 23 to 36) on the same day, every 2 weeks for 2 months. Serum specimens were stored at -20°C until analysis. Neuron-specific enolase levels were evaluated in serum samples using an electrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) immunoassay kit with a Roche Cobas e 411 auto-analyser. ANOVA test was used to calculate the variations. The CVI and CVG for NSE were 21.5% and 28.8%, respectively. Analytical variation (CVA) was calculated as 10.2%. Additionally, II and RCV were calculated as 0.74 and 66% (95% confident interval, CI), respectively. As the performance index (PI) was found to be less than 2 (PI = 0.95), it is concluded that the NSE measurements have a desirable performance for analytical imprecision. Since the II was found to be less than 1 (II: 0.74), the reference values will be of little use. Thus, RCV would provide better information for deciding whether a significant change has occurred. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of growth and aging on the reference values of pulmonary nitric oxide dynamics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högman, M; Thornadtsson, A; Liv, P; Hua-Huy, T; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Tufvesson, E; Dressel, H; Janson, C; Koskela, K; Oksa, P; Sauni, R; Uitti, J; Moilanen, E; Lehtimäki, L

    2017-09-13

    The lung just like all other organs is affected by age. The lung matures by the age of 20 and age-related changes start around middle age, at 40-50 years. Exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO) has been shown to be age, height and gender dependent. We hypothesize that the nitric oxide (NO) parameters alveolar NO (C A NO), airway flux (J aw NO), airway diffusing capacity (D aw NO) and airway wall content (C aw NO) will also demonstrate this dependence. Data from healthy subjects were gathered by the current authors from their earlier publications in which healthy individuals were included as control subjects. Healthy subjects (n = 433) ranged in age from 7 to 78 years. Age-stratified reference values of the NO parameters were significantly different. Gender differences were only observed in the 20-49 age group. The results from the multiple regression models in subjects older than 20 years revealed that age, height and gender interaction together explained 6% of variation in F E NO at 50 ml s -1 (F E NO 50 ), 4% in J aw NO, 16% in C aw NO, 8% in D aw NO and 12% in C A NO. In conclusion, in this study we have generated reference values for NO parameters from an extended NO analysis of healthy subjects. This is important in order to be able to use these parameters in clinical practice.

  20. An Exponential Regression Model Reveals the Continuous Development of B Cell Subpopulations Used as Reference Values in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Königs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available B lymphocytes are key players in humoral immunity, expressing diverse surface immunoglobulin receptors directed against specific antigenic epitopes. The development and profile of distinct subpopulations have gained awareness in the setting of primary immunodeficiency disorders, primary or secondary autoimmunity and as therapeutic targets of specific antibodies in various diseases. The major B cell subpopulations in peripheral blood include naïve (CD19+ or CD20+IgD+CD27−, non-switched memory (CD19+ or CD20+IgD+CD27+ and switched memory B cells (CD19+ or CD20+IgD−CD27+. Furthermore, less common B cell subpopulations have also been described as having a role in the suppressive capacity of B cells to maintain self-tolerance. Data on reference values for B cell subpopulations are limited and only available for older age groups, neglecting the continuous process of human B cell development in children and adolescents. This study was designed to establish an exponential regression model to produce continuous reference values for main B cell subpopulations to reflect the dynamic maturation of the human immune system in healthy children.

  1. Reference Values of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content and Their Relation With Other Indicators of Iron Status in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruzafa, Encarnación; Vázquez-López, Maria A; Lendinez-Molinos, Francisco; Poveda-González, Juan; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio; Martín-González, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered an indicator of functional iron deficiency, but is understudied in children. The goals of this study are to determine the reference intervals for CHr in healthy children, and their relation with iron parameters, erythropoiesis, and individual conditions. A total of 902 children without iron deficiency, aged 1 to 11 years were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Besides a physical examination of the subjects and a questionnaire completed by their parents, the complete blood count, serum transferrin receptor, ferritin, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum erythropoietin, C-reactive protein, and CHr levels were measured. Changes in CHr, iron status, and erythropoiesis at different age intervals were analyzed and linear multiple regression was used to identify the factors that determine CHr variability. Mean value obtained for CHr was 30.9±1.8 pg (P2.5-P97.5: 26.9 to 34.3 pg), but the influence of age on CHr (the values increased with age) and on the iron parameters justified the establishment of different reference ranges. In addition to age, nutritional status, hematologic measurements, reticulocytes, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin accounted for 39% of CHr variability.

  2. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood. The objec......BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood....... The objective of this cross-sectional study was to generate fasting plasma lipid references for a Danish/North-European White population-based cohort of children and adolescents, and investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this cohort as well as in a cohort with overweight/obesity. METHODS: A population......, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were measured on all participants. Smoothed reference curves and percentiles were generated using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape package in the statistical software R. RESULTS: In the population-based cohort, plasma concentrations of total...

  4. Nationwide standardisation and evaluation of scintigraphic gastric emptying: reference values and comparisons between subgroups in a multicentre trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermansson, G. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Oestra Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Lyrenaes, E. [Department of Medicine, Blekinge Hospital, Karlskrona (Sweden); Beckman, K.-W. [Hospital Physics, Oerebro Hospital (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    By means of a standardised procedure, reference values for scintigraphic gastric emptying were established. The influence of gender, age, menstrual cycle, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits was also evaluated. Eight centres recruited 20 healthy subjects each. The meal consisted of a technetium-99m labelled omelet (1300 kJ) and of 150 ml unlabelled soft drink. Geometric means of frontal and dorsal acquisitions were utilised in a linear fit model for determination of the linear emptying rate, and by using the intercepts of the regression line with the 90% and 50% levels, the lag phase and half-emptying time, respectively, were defined. All individuals showed an initial lag phase and subsequent linear emptying. Because of a longer lag phase and a slower linear emptying rate, premenopausal women had a slower gastric emptying than postmenopausal women and men of all ages. The gastric emptying rate increased with age in the women, mainly due to a shortened lag phase, while the emptying rate remained almost unchanged with age in the males. There were no significant differences in results between the centres. The menstrual cycle, BMI and smoking habits did not affect emptying. In conclusion, the fact that the results showed a slower gastric emptying rate in younger women compared with older women and men indicates that it is necessary to use separate reference values for fertile females. (orig.)

  5. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  6. Development of dietary-based toxic reference values to assess the risk of chlorophacinone to non-target raptorial birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Shultz, S. L.; Horak, Katherine E.; Abbo, Benjamin G.; Volker, Steven F.; Timms, R. M.; O'Brien, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory changes in the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in parts of North America may result in expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs). Recent toxicological studies with captive raptors have demonstrated that these species are considerably more sensitive to the FGAR diphacinone than traditional avian wildlife test species (mallard, bobwhite). We have now examined the toxicity of the FGAR chlorophacinone (CPN) to American kestrels fed rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, or rat tissue containing biologically-incorporated CPN, for 7 days. Nominal CPN concentrations in these diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and actual CPN concentration in diets were analytically verified as being close to target values. Food intake was consistent among groups, body weight fluctuated by less than 6%, exposure and adverse effects were generally dose-dependent, and there were no dramatic differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diets. Using benchmark dose statistical methods, toxic reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50% of the kestrels was estimated to be about 80 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for prothrombin time and 40 µg CPN/kg body weight-day for Russell's viper venom time. Based upon carcass CPN residues reported in rodents from field baiting studies, empirical measures of food consumption in kestrels, and dietary-based toxic reference values derived from the 7-day exposure scenario, some free-ranging raptors consuming CPN exposed prey might exhibit coagulopathy and hemorrhage. These sublethal responses associated with exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of CPN could compromise survival of exposed birds.

  7. Vertebral heights and ratios are not only race-specific, but also gender- and region-specific: establishment of reference values for mainland Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lei; Song, Li-Jiang; Fan, Shun-Wu; Zhao, Xing; Chen, Yi-Lei; Li, Zhao-Zhi; Hu, Zi-Ang

    2017-10-11

    This study established gender-specific reference values in mainland Chinese (MC) and is important for quantitative morphometry for diagnosis and epidemiological study of osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture. Comparisons of reference values among different racial populations are then performed to demonstrate the MC-specific characteristic. Osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture (OVCF) is a common complication of osteoporosis in the elder population. Clinical diagnosis and epidemiological study of OVCF often employ quantitative morphometry, which relies heavily on the comparison of patients' vertebral parameters to existing reference values derived from the normal population. Thus, reference values are crucial in clinical diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish reference values of the mainland Chinese (MC) for quantitative morphometry. Vertebral heights including anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), posterior (Hp) heights, and predicted posterior height (pp) from T4 to L5 were obtained; and ratios of Ha/Hp, Hm/Hp and Hp/pp. were calculated from 585 MC (both female and male) for establishing reference values and subsequent comparisons with other studies. Vertebral heights increased progressively from T4 to L3 but then decreased in L4 and L5. Both genders showed similar ratios of vertebral dimensions, but male vertebrae were statistically larger than those of female (P values for MC. Our results also indicated the necessity of establishing reference values that are not only race- and gender-specific, but also population- or region-specific for accurate quantitative morphometric assessment of OVCF.

  8. Use of INAA in the preparation of a set soil Reference Materials with certified values of total element contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Horakova, J.; Soukal, L.

    1997-01-01

    A set of certified Reference Materials was prepared consisting of four natural agricultural soils with normal (n) and elevated (e) levels of element contents: CRM 7001 Light Sandy Soil (n), CRM 7002 Light Sandy Soil (e), CRM 7003 Silty Clay Loam (n), and CRM 7004 Loam (e). In these materials, certified and/or information values of the total contents of the elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and their fractions extractable by aqua regia, boiling and cold 2M nitric acid were derived from an interlaboratory comparison in which 28 laboratories participated. Highly precise and accurate procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were employed for homogeneity testing and also for certification of the total element contents. For comparation purposes, NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment was analyzed by INAA, as well. The INAA results obtained compared very well with the certified and/or information values for four soil CRMs and also with NIST values for SRM-2704. From this agreement, a very high reliability of the new soil CRMs can be inferred. (author)

  9. Breed-Specific Haematologic Reference Values in Adult Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in the Humid Tropics of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Igwe G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One hundred (50 males and 50 females B-not strain indigenous turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo, were used to determine the reference values for their haematological parameters. The turkeys were housed in the poultry unit and jugular venepunctures were used to collect their blood. The haematological parameters were determined using standard procedures. The mean values of: the packed cell volume (PCV; 37.29 ± 0.37 %, red blood cell (RBC counts (2.50 ± 0.44 × 106.µl−1, haemoglobin concentration (Hbc; 10.89 ± 0.34 g.dl−1, mean corpuscular volume (MCV; 150.63 ± 0.73 fl, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH; 44.29 ± 1.78 pg, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC; 29.10 ± 0.73 g.dl−1, and white blood cell (WBC counts (12.41 ± 0.83 × 103 µl−1 were determined. No significant differences were found between the male and female B-not strain turkeys in this study. The results will help in the interpretation of cases of disease when there are variations in the values and serve as baseline data for B-not strain of turkeys in the humid tropics.

  10. Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is reported in 27-43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood. The objective...... of this cross-sectional study was to generate fasting plasma lipid references for a Danish/North-European White population-based cohort of children and adolescents, and investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this cohort as well as in a cohort with overweight/obesity. Methods: A population-based cohort...... of 2141 (1275 girls) children and adolescents aged 6-19 (median 11.5) years was recruited from 11 municipalities in Denmark. Additionally, a cohort of children and adolescents of 1421 (774 girls) with overweight/obesity aged 6-19years (median 11.8) was recruited for the study. Height, weight, and fasting...

  11. Local diagnostic reference levels, approaches and compare the values in the South Bohemia Region in view of radiation protection inspector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemanova, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the value of local diagnostic reference levels(the LDRL)in health facilities of the South Bohemia Region. The work is motivated by questions of licensees, who would like to know their position in terms of the LDRL compared to other workplaces. Also by the activity of the inspector who can identify the problematic workplaces, where is necessary to increase attention to optimization, exposure, or justification. In connection with the ongoing internal audits in licensee workplaces the information about the status of the LDRL among others is current, motivating licensee to changes, optimization and verification of compliance with the recommendation of the National radiological standard of Ministry of Health (author)

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for chromium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    parenteral nutrition was considered to be the most convincing, but overall data do not provide sufficient information on the reversibility of the possible deficiencies and the nature of any dose–response curve in order to identify a dietary requirement for humans. The Panel concludes that no Average......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) considered the evidence for setting Dietary Reference Values for chromium. Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) has been postulated to be necessary for the efficacy of insulin in regulating...... models have not produced consistent results, and that there is no evidence of essentiality of Cr(III) in animal nutrition. Evaluating the possibility of Cr(III) as an essential element for humans, the evidence from reported improvements associated with chromium supplementation in patients on total...

  13. Impact of age, sex, and indexation method on MR left ventricular reference values in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Susan B; Salton, Carol J; Gona, Philimon; Chuang, Michael L; Blease, Susan J; Han, Yuchi; Tsao, Connie W; Danias, Peter G; Levy, Daniel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J

    2015-04-01

    To determine normative values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, concentricity, and ejection fraction (EF) and investigate associations between sex, age, and body size with LV parameters in community-dwelling adults. In all, 1794 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort members underwent LV short-axis oriented, contiguous multislice cine steady-state free precession MR of the left ventricle; from these a healthy referent group (n = 852, 61 ± 9 years, 40% men) free of clinical cardiac disease and hypertension (SBP 65 years); LV parameters were indexed to measures of body size. Men have greater LV volumes and mass than women both before and after indexation to height, powers of height, and body surface area (P J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1038-1045. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Reference values of amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone by tandem mass spectrometry for use in newborn screening in southwest Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Nora; Valencia, Angela; Echeverry, Carlos Alberto; Arce-Plata, Maria Isabel; Colón, Cristóbal; Castiñeiras, Daisy E; Hurtado, Paula Margarita; Cocho, Jose Angel; Herrera, Sócrates; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2017-09-30

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) represent an important public health problem due to current diagnosis and treatment limitations, poor life quality of affected patients, and consequent untimely child death. In contrast to classical methods, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed simultaneous evaluation of multiple metabolites associated with IEM offering higher sensitivity, low false positive rates and high throughput. Determine concentration levels for amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood of newborns from Colombia, to establish reference values for further use in diagnosis of IEM. Implementation of a method to determine amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone in newborn dried blood spots using MS/MS, and its application in a cross-sectional study conducted in 891 healthy neonates from Cali and Quibdo cities is described. fifty-seven analytes that allow the diagnosis of more than 40 different pathologies were tested. The method showed to be linear, precise and accurate. Healthy neonates 1-18 days of age were included, 523 from Cali and 368 from Quibdo; 52% male and 48% female. Age-related differences on the concentration levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines were observed whereas no significant differences by gender were found. The study has contributed to reveal the usual concentration levels of amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone that could be used as reference for the establishment of a newborn metabolic screening program in Colombia.

  15. Standardization of glycohemoglobin results and reference values in whole blood studied in 103 laboratories using 20 methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, C W; Penders, T J; Miedema, K; Muskiet, F A; van der Slik, W

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of calibration with lyophilized calibrators on whole-blood glycohemoglobin (glyHb) results. One hundred three laboratories, using 20 different methods, determined glyHb in two lyophilized calibrators and two whole-blood samples. For whole-blood samples with low (5%) and high (9%) glyHb percentages, respectively, calibration decreased overall interlaboratory variation (CV) from 16% to 9% and from 11% to 6% and decreased intermethod variation from 14% to 6% and from 12% to 5%. Forty-seven laboratories, using 14 different methods, determined mean glyHb percentages in self-selected groups of 10 nondiabetic volunteers each. With calibration their overall mean (2SD) was 5.0% (0.5%), very close to the 5.0% (0.3%) derived from the reference method used in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. In both experiments the Abbott IMx and Vision showed deviating results. We conclude that, irrespective of the analytical method used, calibration enables standardization of glyHb results, reference values, and interpretation criteria.

  16. MAJOR AND LYMPHOCYTE POPULATIONS OF HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES AND THEIR REFERENCE VALUES, AS ASSAYED BY MULTI-COLOUR CYTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaidukov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Determination of lymphocyte subpopulations and their phenotypes is an important diagnostic feature, in order to elucidate some disturbances connected with immune system functioning. However, insufficient data are obtained when analyzing only major populations of peripheral lymphocytes. In order to perform clinical diagnostics, the data about minor lymphocytic populations and activated cellular pools seem to be more pertinent.Studies of peripheral blood cell subpopulations of healthy donors performed in different Russian regions allowed to assess quantitative distribution intervals for both major and minor immune cell subpopulations in humans. The results obtained, as compared with data from literature, provide an evidence for similar reference intervals for main immune cell subpopulations in healthy donors, independent on their habitation area.Present work has resulted into development of algorithms for cytometric studies and generation of certain panels of monoclonal antibodies enabling evaluation of all main lymphocyte subpopulations, as well as their minor subsets participating in emerging immune response. The distribution intervals have been estimated for such minor subpopulations, as B1- and B2-lymphocytes, memory B-cells, γδ- and αβT-cells, regulatory and naїve T-cells, cytotoxic and secretory NK-cell polupations.The results of present study, while been performed with peripheral blood of healthy donors, may provide a basis of reference values when studying subpopulation profile of immune cells.

  17. Height, weight, body mass index and pubertal development reference values for children of Turkish origin in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, A.M.; Buuren, S. van; Jeurissen, S.E.R.; Dekker, F.W.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide growth and sexual maturation reference data for Turkish children living in The Netherlands. We also compared these references with the reference data of children of Dutch origin and with Turkish reference data collected in Turkey and elsewhere in Europe.

  18. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables.METHODS:this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%.RESULTS:40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051.CONCLUSIONS:asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  19. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  20. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  1. Predictive value of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG antibody levels in patients referred to a tertiary Lyme centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerink, M; Zomer, T P; van Kooten, B; Blaauw, G; van Bemmel, T; van Hees, B C; Vermeeren, Y M; Landman, G W

    2018-03-01

    A two-step testing strategy is recommended in serological testing for Lyme borreliosis; positive and indeterminate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results are confirmed with immunoblots. Several ELISAs quantify the concentration of antibodies tested, however, no recommendation exists for an upper cut-off value at which an IgG ELISA is sufficient and the immunoblot can be omitted. The study objective was to determine at which IgG antibody level an immunoblot does not have any additional predictive value compared to ELISA results. Data of adult patients who visited a tertiary Lyme centre between 2008 and 2014 were analysed. Both an ELISA (Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE IgG) and immunoblot (recomLine blot Borrelia) were performed. Clinical data were extracted from the patient's digital medical record. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for either previous or active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were calculated for different cut-off ELISA IgG antibody levels where the immunoblot was regarded as reference test. In total, 1454 patients were included. According to the two-step test strategy, 486 (33%), 69 (5%) and 899 (62%) patients had positive, indeterminate and negative Borrelia IgG serology, respectively. At IgG levels of 500 IU/ml and higher, all immunoblots were positive, resulting in a 100% PPV (95% CI: 97.0-100). At IgG levels of 200 IU/ml and higher, the PPV was 99.3% (95% CI: 97.4-99.8). In conclusion, at IgG levels of 200 IU/ml and higher, an ELISA was sufficient to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. At those IgG levels, a confirmatory immunoblot may be omitted in patients referred to a tertiary Lyme centre. Before these results can be implemented in routine diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, confirmation of the results is necessary in other patient populations and using other quantitative ELISAs and immunoblots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

    2014-10-01

    Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight-normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. © 2014 The Authors

  3. Radioactive isotopes in soils of Rio de Janeiro state: reference values, spatial distribution and correlation with environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Carlos Araujo

    2016-01-01

    In the Rio de Janeiro State is located most of the Brazilian facilities for nuclear power generation and in the north region of the State is located a facility for concentration of heavy metals containing in monazite sand, which contain thorium and uranium associated. In addition, phosphate fertilizers, which contain natural radionuclides, are intensively used for agricultural purposes. A regional scale study was carried out in the state of Rio de Janeiro aimed to determine the levels of "4"0K, "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "1"3"7Cs in surface soils, their geographic distribution, quality reference values (QRV) and the external dose which the population is potentially exposed. With this aim, 263 samples of surface soil were collected in the overall State, representing all soil and geology types, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The "4"0K, "2"2"6Ra and "2"2"8Ra concentrations were within the world average values for soils. The activity concentration varied from 12 to 1029 Bq kg"-"1 to "4"0K (geometric mean 111 Bq kg"-"1), from 3.5 to 100 Bq kg"-"1 for "2"2"6Ra (geometric mean 30 Bq kg"-"1) and from 5.4 to 314 Bq kg"-"1 for "2"2"8Ra (geometric mean 67 Bq kg"-"1). Higher concentrations were found in soils with igneous and metamorphic origin (Leptosol and Cambisol), while the lowest concentration were observed to the Podzol, of sedimentary origin. The lowest concentrations of "2"2"6Ra were observed in soils occurring on a rock with a high grade of metamorphism (granulite). The QRV values were calculated, according to Brazilian law in the 75"t"h and 90"t"h percentiles. However, due to the large dispersion of concentration data, when values of VRQs for each soil class are compared, significant differences among them are found. The results put in the view the restriction of using the 75"t"h percentile and a unique QRV by radionuclide to all soil classes. Therefore, values of QRVs are suggested based on the 90"t"h percentile and for each individual soil class. The activity

  4. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Andrade, Armèle Dornelas de; Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. Determinar os pontos de corte de resposta ao broncodilatador do VEF1, VEF0,75, VEF0,5 e FEF25-75% em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis e gerar valores de referência para o VEF0,75. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base comunitária em crianças de 3-5 anos de idade. Pré-escolares saudáveis foram selecionados por um questionário padronizado. Foi realizada espirometria antes e depois do uso de broncodilatador. Foram definidos os pontos de corte dessa resposta como o percentil 95 de variação em cada parâmetro. Foram recrutadas 266 crianças, e 160 (60,0%) foram capazes de gerar manobras expiratórias aceitáveis e reprodut

  5. Establishing the reference value for “timed up-and-go” test in healthy adults of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khant, Nency; Dani, Vyoma Bharat; Patel, Purvi; Rathod, Rachana

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Timed up-and-go (TUG) test is a valid, reliable, and an objective test for quantifying functional mobility and assessing the fall risk in all age groups. The analysis of patient scores on TUG test is limited by lack of data, having a wide range of performance scores among people without disabilities. AIM: The objective of the study was to provide the reference value for TUG test in healthy individuals of Gujarat, India. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred and twenty healthy individuals, aged 40–70 years, were recruited from various regions of Gujarat based on convenient sampling. All the participants were made to perform TUG test in a controlled environment in community. Three readings of the actual test were obtained and averaged. RESULTS: Data were analyzed with mean, standard deviation, confidence intervals (CIs 95%) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) with α = 0.05 by age groups (40–50, 51–60, and 61–70 years) and gender. The mean (CI 95%) TUG time for healthy adults of Gujarat was 8.46 (8.35–8.57) s and demonstrated age-related decline for both male and female participants. TUG time also demonstrated strong correlation with the height of individuals. CONCLUSION: This preliminary data can be used as a reference only for specific population with specific age groups due to variability in test results among the different population due to age, gender, anthropometric measures such as height, weight, and body mass index, geographical variation, nutritional support, and cognitive status.

  6. Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine; Pedersen, Lise; Bratholm, Palle Skov; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-04-28

    Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to generate fasting plasma lipid references for a Danish/North-European White population-based cohort of children and adolescents, and investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this cohort as well as in a cohort with overweight/obesity. A population-based cohort of 2141 (1275 girls) children and adolescents aged 6 - 19 (median 11.5) years was recruited from 11 municipalities in Denmark. Additionally, a cohort of children and adolescents of 1421 (774 girls) with overweight/obesity aged 6 - 19 years (median 11.8) was recruited for the study. Height, weight, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were measured on all participants. Smoothed reference curves and percentiles were generated using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape package in the statistical software R. In the population-based cohort, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) (P dyslipidemia was 6.4% in the population-based cohort and 28.0% in the cohort with overweight/obesity. The odds ratio for exhibiting dyslipidemia in the cohort with overweight/obesity compared with the population-based cohort was 6.2 (95% CI: 4.9 - 8.1, P dyslipidemia. The study is part of The Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank; ClinicalTrials.gov ID-no.: NCT00928473 retrospectively registered on June 25th 2009.

  7. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT® analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A.; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2017-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system...

  8. Electrocardiographic reference values and configuration of electrocardiogram waves recorded in Black Bengal goats of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ranjeeta Rashmee; Mahapatra, Ambika Prasad Khadanga; Mohapatra, Swagat; Jyotiranjan, Tushar; Kundu, Akshaya Kumar

    2017-09-01

    A study on age-related electrocardiographic (ECG) changes was conducted on 20 apparently healthy Black Bengal goats with no history of cardiac disorders during 2015-2016. The goats selected for the study belonged to four different age groups; Group 1: Goats up to 6 months of age, Group 2: Above 6 months and below 1 year of age, Group 3: Above 1 year and below 2 years of age, and Group 4: Above 2 years of age. The ECG was recorded with the animals in standing position using a 12-lead standard ECG recorder (Model-Cardiart-108 MK VII, manufactured by BPL, India). The paper speed was set to 25 mm/s with the sensitivity of the machine was adjusted at 1 (1 cm=mV). The ECG parameters were compared within different age groups, and the data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 taking a significant level of 95% (page groups. In bipolar limb lead-II, the amplitude of T-wave, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate was a significant difference among some age groups. Lead-III presented significant difference among age groups in different parameters such as QRS complex duration, T-wave duration, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate. The study concluded that there is a significant variation in the ECG parameters both in terms of values and configuration of ECG waves when age is taken into consideration. The results of the study might be used as a reference value for field veterinarians.

  9. Comparison of two different segmentation methods on planar lung perfusion scan with reference to quantitative value on SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Min Seok; Kang, Yeon Koo; Ha, Seung Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-15

    Until now, there was no single standardized regional segmentation method of planar lung perfusion scan. We compared planar scan based two segmentation methods, which are frequently used in the Society of Nuclear Medicine, with reference to the lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) derived values in lung cancer patients. Fifty-five lung cancer patients (male:female, 37:18; age, 67.8 ± 10.7 years) were evaluated. The patients underwent planar scan and SPECT/CT after injection of technetium-99 m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99 m-MAA). The % uptake and predicted postoperative percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV1%) derived from both posterior oblique (PO) and anterior posterior (AP) methods were compared with SPECT/CT derived parameters. Concordance analysis, paired comparison, reproducibility analysis and spearman correlation analysis were conducted. The % uptake derived from PO method showed higher concordance with SPECT/CT derived % uptake in every lobe compared to AP method. Both methods showed significantly different lobar distribution of % uptake compared to SPECT/CT. For the target region, ppoFEV1% measured from PO method showed higher concordance with SPECT/CT, but lower reproducibility compared to AP method. Preliminary data revealed that every method significantly correlated with actual postoperative FEV1%, with SPECT/CT showing the best correlation. The PO method derived values showed better concordance with SPECT/CT compared to the AP method. Both PO and AP methods showed significantly different lobar distribution compared to SPECT/CT. In clinical practice such difference according to different methods and lobes should be considered for more accurate postoperative lung function prediction.

  10. The Modified Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle: Age- and Sex-Dependent Reference Values and Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kolja Boese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip. However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. This study introduces a novel method to measure the femoral NSA: the modified NSA (mNSA, possibly being less susceptible against rotational effects compared to the conventional NSA. Patients and Methods. The method of measurement is described and its applicability was tested in 400 pelvis computed tomography scans (800 hips. Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. Results. The mean age of all 400 patients (800 hips was 54.32 years (18–100, SD 22.05 years. The mean mNSA was 147.0° and the 95% confidence interval was 146.7°–147.4°. Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant. The absolute difference between NSA and mNSA was 16.3° (range 3–31°; SD 4.4°; the correlation was high (0.738; p<0.001. Overall, the intra- and interrater reliability were excellent for the mNSA. Interpretation. We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated.

  11. Pediatric reference value distributions and covariate-stratified reference intervals for 29 endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers on the Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems: a CALIPER study of healthy community children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasy, Kimiya; Lin, Danny C C; Stoianov, Alexandra; Chan, Man Khun; Bevilacqua, Victoria; Chen, Yunqi; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-04-01

    The CALIPER program is a national research initiative aimed at closing the gaps in pediatric reference intervals. CALIPER previously reported reference intervals for endocrine and special chemistry markers on Abbott immunoassays. We now report new pediatric reference intervals for immunoassays on the Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems and assess platform-specific differences in reference values. A total of 711 healthy children and adolescents from birth to reference intervals calculated in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP28-A3c guidelines. Complex profiles were observed for all 29 analytes, necessitating unique age and/or sex-specific partitions. Overall, changes in analyte concentrations observed over the course of development were similar to trends previously reported, and are consistent with biochemical and physiological changes that occur during childhood. Marked differences were observed for some assays including progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone where reference intervals were higher than those reported on Abbott immunoassays and parathyroid hormone where intervals were lower. This study highlights the importance of determining reference intervals specific for each analytical platform. The CALIPER Pediatric Reference Interval database will enable accurate diagnosis and laboratory assessment of children monitored by Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems in health care institutions worldwide. These reference intervals must however be validated by individual labs for the local pediatric population as recommended by CLSI.

  12. Complex reference values for endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers across pediatric, adult, and geriatric ages: establishment of robust pediatric and adult reference intervals on the basis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Khosrow; Higgins, Victoria; Nieuwesteeg, Michelle; Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yunqi; Wong, Suzy L; Blais, David

    2015-08-01

    Defining laboratory biomarker reference values in a healthy population and understanding the fluctuations in biomarker concentrations throughout life and between sexes are critical to clinical interpretation of laboratory test results in different disease states. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) has collected blood samples and health information from the Canadian household population. In collaboration with the Canadian Laboratory Initiative on Pediatric Reference Intervals (CALIPER), the data have been analyzed to determine reference value distributions and reference intervals for several endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers in pediatric, adult, and geriatric age groups. CHMS collected data and blood samples from thousands of community participants aged 3 to 79 years. We used serum samples to measure 13 immunoassay-based special chemistry and endocrine markers. We assessed reference value distributions and, after excluding outliers, calculated age- and sex-specific reference intervals, along with corresponding 90% CIs, according to CLSI C28-A3 guidelines. We observed fluctuations in biomarker reference values across the pediatric, adult, and geriatric age range, with stratification required on the basis of age for all analytes. Additional sex partitions were required for apolipoprotein AI, homocysteine, ferritin, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. The unique collaboration between CALIPER and CHMS has enabled, for the first time, a detailed examination of the changes in various immunochemical markers that occur in healthy individuals of different ages. The robust age- and sex-specific reference intervals established in this study provide insight into the complex biological changes that take place throughout development and aging and will contribute to improved clinical test interpretation. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  13. Reference intervals and physiologic alterations in hematologic and biochemical values of free-ranging desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M.; Berry, Kristin H.; Wallis, I.R.; Nagy, K.A.; Henen, B.T.; Peterson, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations have experienced precipitous declines resulting from the cumulative impact of habitat loss, and human and disease-related mortality. Evaluation of hematologic and biochemical responses of desert tortoises to physiologic and environmental factors can facilitate the assessment of stress and disease in tortoises and contribute to management decisions and population recovery. The goal of this study was to obtain and analyze clinical laboratory data from free-ranging desert tortoises at three sites in the Mojave Desert (California, USA) between October 1990 and October 1995, to establish reference intervals, and to develop guidelines for the interpretation of laboratory data under a variety of environmental and physiologic conditions. Body weight, carapace length, and venous blood samples for a complete blood count and clinical chemistry profile were obtained from 98 clinically healthy adult desert tortoises of both sexes at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural area (western Mojave), Goffs (eastern Mojave) and Ivanpah Valley (northeastern Mojave). Samples were obtained four times per year, in winter (February/March), spring (May/June), summer (July/August), and fall (October). Years of near-, above- and below-average rainfall were represented in the 5 yr period. Minimum, maximum and median values, and central 95 percentiles were used as reference intervals and measures of central tendency for tortoises at each site and/or season. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance for significant (P < 0.01) variation on the basis of sex, site, season, and interactions between these variables. Significant sex differences were observed for packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, aspartate transaminase activity, and cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations. Marked seasonal variation was observed in most parameters in conjunction with reproductive cycle, hibernation, or seasonal

  14. THE REFERENCE VALUES OF THE MAIN BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE HEMOLYMPH OF APIS MELLIFERA CARPATHICA IN SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGRIPINA SAPCALIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although biochemical analyses of the blood were and are still used for the routinediagnosis and especially for the metabolic survey in farm animals, such analyses, maybe applied for the honeybee hemolymph (as a paraclinic examination. The aim of thisexperimental study was to investigate and to determine the reference values of themain biochemical parameters in the hemolymph of the healthy honeybees of Apismellifera carpathica. The honeybee samples were collected in order to analyze thehealth condition of the respective colony. All the samples coming from sick colonieswere removed, only healthy adult honeybees coming from strong colonies were keptand used for hemolymph collection. By special methods, samples of hemolymph (300μl/sample collected from about 50 individuals, were analyzed both during the activeseason (spring/summer and the inactive season (autumn/winter. The study wascarried out on 50 samples of undiluted hemolymph taken from a total number of about2,500 honeybees. The following 21 biochemical parameters were analyzed: GLU(mg/dl, HDL-c (mg/dl, ALP (UI/l, T-cho (mg/dl, Tprot (mg/dl, Alb. (g/dl, BUN(mg/dl, LDH (UI/l, CPK (UI/l, Mg (mg/dl, FRA (μm/l, IP (mg/dl, GGT (UI/l,GOT (UI/l, GPT (UI/l, Ca (mg/dl, Cre (mg/dl, Amy (UI/l, T–BIL (mg/dl, TG(mg/dl, UA (mg/dl. The test was carried out after the collection and processing of thesamples using the SPOTCHEM EZSP4430, equipment with dry kits, the slides technique,respectively.

  15. Electrocardiographic reference values for healthy Netherland Dwarf rabbits and the influence of body position, age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chapel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide reference values for a single, popular breed of pet rabbit. Moreover, additional objectives were to determine whether sex, body position or age alter Netherland Dwarf rabbit electrocardiographic variables and whether the use of electrocardiographic filters affects those variables. Forty Netherland Dwarf rabbits were examined clinically and standard six-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded in sternal and then dorsal recumbency. At first power-line and anti-drift filters were used and then they were disabled. The following variables were measured in lead II: heart rate; P wave duration and amplitude; P-R interval; QRS duration; R wave amplitude (with and without filters; Q-T interval; T wave duration and amplitude; S-T segment; J-T duration; and mean electrical axis (MEA (with and without filters. MEA was determined by 3 different methods. After statistical processing of the data, our results showed that there were no significant differences between both recumbencies, with the exception of the J-T duration, which was higher in dorsal recumbency. The R wave amplitude using electrocardiographic filters showed significant differences between males (0.083 mV and females (0.115 mV; P<0.05; and between younger rabbits (0.108 mV and older rabbits (0.097 mV; P<0.05. These differences were not shown between R waves with filters disabled. Moreover, the strongest correlation was between 2 MEA methods without filters. MEA was more leftward in the pet rabbit than in other species (dog or cats. In conclusion, electrocardiography recording without electrocardiographic filters should be assessed when it is possible, and the specific ECGs characteristics for Netherland Dwarf rabbit should be taken into account.

  16. Reference values for blood pressure response to cycle ergometry in the first two decades of life: comparison with patients with a repaired coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaafarani, Mirna; Schroer, Christian; Takken, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Hemodynamic responses to exercise are used as markers of diagnosis for cardiac diseases, systolic blood pressure (SBP) especially. However, the reference values for SBP in children at peak exertion level are outdated. This study aimed to establish current reference values for SBP, rate pressure product (RPP), and circulatory power (CircP). Data from children who previously underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing were categorized as healthy (N = 184; age 12.6 ± 2.9 years), and CoA patients (N = 25; age 13.0 ± 3.2 years). With the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method, percentile curves were made for SBP, CircP, and RPP in function of peak work rate (Wpeak). Data of CoA patients were used to validate the reference values. Wpeak was the best predictor of peak SBP during exercise. The prediction equations for SBP, CircP and RPP were: (0.2853 x Wpeak) + 111.46; (10.56 x Wpeak) + 2550.2 and (61.879 x Wpeak) + 19.887, respectively. CoA patients showed significantly increased values for peak SBP (Z-score 1.063 ± 1.347). This study provides reference values for SBP, RPP, and CircP at peak exercise. These values can be used for objective evaluation of participants 6-18 years of age in a Dutch population.

  17. The importance of information on relatives for the prediction of genomic breeding values and the implications for the makeup of reference data sets in livestock breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Samuel A; Hickey, John M; Daetwyler, Hans D; van der Werf, Julius H J

    2012-02-09

    The theory of genomic selection is based on the prediction of the effects of genetic markers in linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci. However, genomic selection also relies on relationships between individuals to accurately predict genetic value. This study aimed to examine the importance of information on relatives versus that of unrelated or more distantly related individuals on the estimation of genomic breeding values. Simulated and real data were used to examine the effects of various degrees of relationship on the accuracy of genomic selection. Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (gBLUP) was compared to two pedigree based BLUP methods, one with a shallow one generation pedigree and the other with a deep ten generation pedigree. The accuracy of estimated breeding values for different groups of selection candidates that had varying degrees of relationships to a reference data set of 1750 animals was investigated. The gBLUP method predicted breeding values more accurately than BLUP. The most accurate breeding values were estimated using gBLUP for closely related animals. Similarly, the pedigree based BLUP methods were also accurate for closely related animals, however when the pedigree based BLUP methods were used to predict unrelated animals, the accuracy was close to zero. In contrast, gBLUP breeding values, for animals that had no pedigree relationship with animals in the reference data set, allowed substantial accuracy. An animal's relationship to the reference data set is an important factor for the accuracy of genomic predictions. Animals that share a close relationship to the reference data set had the highest accuracy from genomic predictions. However a baseline accuracy that is driven by the reference data set size and the overall population effective population size enables gBLUP to estimate a breeding value for unrelated animals within a population (breed), using information previously ignored by pedigree based BLUP methods.

  18. An estimate of the recreational value of the Agulhas Plain, South Africa, with special reference to the value of plant biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Conradie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Agulhas Plain is a remarkable recreational site which combines the attraction of a pristine marine environment with exceptional plant biodiversity, rural tranquillity and the novelty of being at the southernmost tip of Africa. The resource is a public good to which the market cannot assign a full value. This paper presents an estimated recreational value based on individual travel cost models and a sample of 370 visitors surveyed in 2010. Trip demands were estimated with zero truncated negative binomial models to account for over-dispersion. The study established a recreational value of R2.167 billion in 2010 prices for the site as a whole. By partitioning the sample into visitors who indicated having been attracted or not to the area by its nature and biodiversity, a net biodiversity value of R2 866 per trip was calculated. Allocated between marine and terrestrial resources based on the proportion of activities related to each type of resource, the value of plant biodiversity was estimated to be R2 268 per hectare in 2010to 2010 prices.

  19. A multicenter study on PIVKA reference interval of healthy population and establishment of PIVKA cutoff value for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Tang, G; Gao, R; Guo, Z; Liu, Z; Yu, S; Chen, M; Tao, Z; Li, S; Liu, M; Wang, L; Hou, L; Xia, L; Cheng, X; Han, J; Qiu, L

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reference interval of protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) in China population and to evaluate its medical decision level for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. To determine the reference range for Chinese individuals, a total of 855 healthy subjects in five typical regions of China were enrolled in this study to obtain a 95% reference interval. In a case-control study which recruited the subjects diagnosed with HCC, metastatic liver cancer, bile duct cancer, hepatitis, cirrhosis, other benign liver diseases and the subjects administrated anticoagulant, receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine PIVKA-II cutoff value for a medical decision. The concentration of PIVKA-II had no relationship with age or gender and that region was a significant factor associated with the level of PIVKA-II. The 95% reference interval determined in this study for PIVKA-II in Chinese healthy individuals was 28 mAU/mL, and the cutoff value which to distinguish patients with HCC from disease control groups is 36.5 mAU/mL. In clinical applications, it is recommended that each laboratory chooses their own reference interval based on the regional population study or cutoff value for disease diagnosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Study of Water Quality Value in Sub of the Stream Area of Cisadane Rivers Upstream as Reference Area Based on Macro invertebrate Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Unon-Purwati

    2001-01-01

    Specific structure of biota community condition can used as indicator for the ecosystem stability value or the waters pollution level where the aquatic biota exist. the macro invertebrates as bio indicator organism can used to assess the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin water quality. The grouping and calculation result from family number, Ept presences (sensitive macro invertebrate), Diversity index (H ' ), DO value and TOC value showed 5 criteria of water quality as reference site. This criteria is used to determine water quality level from ten branches of rivers in the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin, Cijeruk districts. The biotic index calculation for ASPT (Average Score Per Taxon) and T and T (index Trihadiningrum and Tjindronegoro) is used to asses water quality based on macro invertebrate composition indicator. Both biotic index system support and give the similar evaluation to water quality level from ten branches of river on the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin. The water quality level is described as fellows: station number 4 is assumed as the true reference site, station number 3, 5, 8 are the first alternative reference site, station number 2, 7, 9 are the second alternative reference site and station 1, 6, 10 are the sites which relatively good water quality, but it is not recommended as reference site. The grouping result bases on the cluster system with macro invertebrate similarity composition are described as fellows: 9=10>3=7>1=6>2=8>>5>>4. (author)

  1. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'establishing normal and reference values'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum

    2010-01-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has become increasingly important for total cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation. Its application as a routine tool for clinical patient evaluation has been hampered by the absence of reference values. The aim of the ...

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for pantothenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic...

  3. Grip strength is strongly associated with height, weight and gender in childhood : a cross sectional study of 2241 children and adolescents providing reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, Joris J. W.; Hepping, Ann M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Question: What are reference values for grip strength in children and adolescents based on a large and heterogeneous study population? What is the association of grip strength with age, gender, weight, and height in this population? Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Participants were

  4. The recent multi-ethnic global lung initiative 2012 (GLI2012) reference values don't reflect contemporary adult's North African spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Helmi; El Attar, Mohamed Nour; Hadj Mabrouk, Khaoula; Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Abdelghani, Ahmed; Bousarssar, Mohamed; Limam, Khélifa; Maatoug, Chiraz; Bouslah, Hmida; Charrada, Ameur; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-12-01

    The applicability of the recent multi-ethnic reference equations derived by the ERS Global Lung Initiative (ERS/GLI) in interpreting spirometry data in North African adult subjects has not been studied. To ascertain how well the recent ERS/GLI reference equations fit contemporary adult Tunisian spirometric data. Spirometric data were recorded from 1192 consecutive spirometry procedures in adults aged 18-60 years. Reference values and lower limits of normality (LLN) were calculated using the local and the ERS/GLI reference equations. Applied definitions: large airway obstructive ventilatory defect (LAOVD): FEV1/FVC contemporary Tunisian spirometry. Using Tunisian reference equations, 71.31%, 6.71% and 19.04% of spirometry records were interpreted as normal, and as having, LAOVD and TRVD, respectively. Using the ERS/GLI reference equations, these figures were respectively, 85.82%, 4.19% and 8.39%. The mean ± SD Z-scores for the contemporary healthy North African subject's data were -0.55 ± 0.87 for FEV1, -0.62 ± 0.86 for FVC and 0.10 ± 0.73 for FEV1/FVC. The present study don't recommend the use of the recent ERS/GLI reference equations to interpret spirometry in North African adult population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Valores de referência para plumbemia em uma população urbana do Sul do Brasil Reference values for lead in blood in an urban population in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M. B. Paoliello

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Descrever os valores de referência para chumbo em sangue em uma população urbana do Município de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Métodos. A população de referência foi constituída por 520 voluntários adultos avaliados de novembro de 1994 a dezembro de 1996. Os critérios de exclusão foram: exposição ocupacional ao chumbo, exposição através de hábitos, fumar mais de 10 cigarros por dia e morar perto de indústrias ou de locais que utilizam o chumbo em seus processos produtivos. Também foram excluídos indivíduos com valores de exames clínicos e laboratoriais fora da normalidade, doenças crônicas e distúrbios cardiovasculares. Os teores de chumbo em sangue foram determinados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com chama de ar-acetileno. O limite de detecção obtido foi 1,23 mig/dL. Após as análises de chumbo em sangue, foram determinados valor mínimo, primeiro quartil, mediana, terceiro quartil e valor máximo; média geométrica; intervalo de confiança de 95%; intervalo experimental; e valor de referência. Resultados. Os valores de referência para plumbemia variaram de 1,20 a 13,72 mig/dL. A média geométrica foi igual a 5,5 mig/dL. Conclusões. Em geral, os valores obtidos no presente estudo são mais baixos do que aqueles obtidos em outros países. Estudos adicionais deveriam enfocar a obtenção de valores de referência em outras populações brasileiras que vivem em regiões mais industrializadas.Objective. To describe the reference values for lead in blood in an urban population in the city of Londrina, in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Materials and methods. The reference population was composed of 520 adult volunteers who were assessed from November 1994 to December 1996. Exclusion criteria were: occupational exposure to lead, exposure through personal habits or practices, smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day, and living near industrial plants or other places that use lead in their

  6. Characterize and Homogeneity Test of Phthalate and Phosphate Buffer as Reference Materials Candidate for Determination Ofacidic Value

    OpenAIRE

    Sujarwo, Sujarwo; Nuryatini, Nuryatini

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of pH is closely related to everyday life, such as in the area of environment, food and beverage, pharmaceuticals, and even metabolism process in human body. To ensure the quality of pH measurement, pH metershould be calibrated regularly and checked each time before used. Calibration and performance checking of pH meter requires traceable standard. The standard should be linked to CRM (Certified Reference Materials). Research Center for Chemistry - Indonesian Institute of Sciences...

  7. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  8. The validity and reliability of value-added and target-setting procedures with special reference to Key Stage 3

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Ian Robin

    2003-01-01

    The validity of value-added systems of measurement is crucially dependent upon there being a demonstrably unambiguous relationship between the so-called baseline, or intake measures, and any subsequent measure of performance at a later stage. The reliability of such procedures is dependent on the relationships between these two measures being relatively stable over time. A number of questions arise with regard to both the validity and reliability of value-added procedures at any level in educ...

  9. [Full blood count reference values in children of 8 to 12 years old residing at 2,760 m above sea level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando García-Miranda, L; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A

    2014-04-01

    To determine reference values for full blood count parameters in a population of children 8 to 12 years old, living at an altitude of 2760 m above sea level. Our sample consisted of 102 individuals on whom a full blood count was performed. The parameters included: total number of red blood cells, platelets, white cells, and a differential count (millions/μl and %) of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Additionally, we obtained values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin and red blood cell distribution width. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric test, to divide the sample in quartiles and obtain the lower and upper limits for our intervals. Moreover, the values for the intervals obtained from this analysis were compared to intervals obtained estimating+- 2 standard deviations above and below from our mean values. Our results showed significant differences compared to normal interval values reported for the adult Mexican population in most of the parameters studied. The full blood count is an important laboratory test used routinely for the initial assessment of a patient. Values of full blood counts in healthy individuals vary according to gender, age and geographic location; therefore, each population should have its own reference values. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Reference values for spirometry and their use in test interpretation: A Position Statement from the Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzale, Danny; Hall, Graham; Swanney, Maureen P

    2016-10-01

    Traditionally, spirometry testing tended to be confined to the realm of hospital-based laboratories but is now performed in a variety of health care settings. Regardless of the setting in which the test is conducted, the fundamental basis of spirometry is that the test is both performed and interpreted according to the international standards. The purpose of this Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science (ANZSRS) statement is to provide the background and recommendations for the interpretation of spirometry results in clinical practice. This includes the benchmarking of an individual's results to population reference data, as well as providing the platform for a statistically and conceptually based approach to the interpretation of spirometry results. Given the many limitations of older reference equations, it is imperative that the most up-to-date and relevant reference equations are used for test interpretation. Given this, the ANZSRS recommends the adoption of the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) 2012 spirometry reference values throughout Australia and New Zealand. The ANZSRS also recommends that interpretation of spirometry results is based on the lower limit of normal from the reference values and the use of Z-scores where available. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Reference values for the geometric centre analysis of colonic transit measurements with 111indium-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    after oral administration of 111In-DTPA. Overall, the men had a higher geometric centre value than women after both 24 and 48 h indicating a faster progress of colonic contents in men at these time points. At each time point the geometric centre value was higher in both the young and middle......The geometric centre analysis is often used for evaluating colonic transit data obtained by scintigraphy after oral intake of 111indium-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (111In-DTPA). The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for the geometric centre analysis in adult......-aged subjects than in the elderly subjects, whereas we did not find any difference between young and middle-aged subjects. Furthermore, the smokers had a higher geometric centre value than non-smokers at each time point. The geometric centre value was not influenced by body mass index at any time point....

  12. Clinical evaluation of the Byk LIA-mat CA125 II assay: discussion of a reference value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrer, J M; Korse, C M; Verstraeten, R A; van Kamp, G J; Hart, G A; Kenemans, P

    1997-03-01

    The Byk LIA-mat CA125 II assay was compared with the Centocor IRMA CA125 II. Serum samples studied (n = 1012) were obtained from 652 apparently healthy females, 61 pregnant women, and 299 patients with benign and malignant gynecological tumors. The CA125 II assay value at the 95th percentile of the total healthy group was 29 kU/L for the LIA-mat and 32 kU/L for the Centocor assay. For the LIA-mat assay the 95th percentile was 31 kU/L (Centocor 36 kU/L) for the group 55 years of age. By using ROC curves we found the optimal pretreatment Byk LIA-mat CA125 II value differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors to be 95 kU/L. Pretreatment CA125 values > 1000 kU/L were detected in serum samples of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  13. Reference values of amino acids and of common clinical chemistry in plasma of healthy infants aged 1 and 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kainz, Alexander; Bachmann, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To compare plasma levels of amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters in healthy infants at 1 and 4 months of age and to establish corresponding reference limits. Data of three multicenter studies assessing the safety of new infant formulas were used. During these studies infants of both age-groups were either breast-fed or received formulas of low or high protein content. All samples were analyzed centrally in the same accredited laboratory. Plasma was collected from 521 infants in total, 157 boys and 135 girls aged 1 month and 121 boys and 108 girls aged 4 months. At the age of 1 month, 62 infants had received exclusively breast milk, 198 exclusively formula, and 27 both; in the 4-months age group corresponding numbers were 49, 158 and 18, respectively; for 9 infants, diet was unknown. Concentrations of most amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters differed significantly between both ages. Regardless of age, most plasma amino acid levels were comparable or lower in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants whereas at 1 month of age most clinical chemistry parameters were higher. While in breast-fed infants the plasma urea concentration decreased over 4 months of age, it increased in formula-fed infants. There were significant differences between infants fed a low and high protein formula. At both ages, high protein formulas resulted in significantly higher threonine, 2-aminobutyrate, and urea concentrations. For clinical use, age- and diet specific reference limits in infants are warranted.

  14. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood-ratio' and 'odds' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' (RCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre; Iglesias, Natàlia

    2007-01-01

    and odds used for diagnostic test evaluations is applied to monitoring by substituting measured concentrations with measured differences. Thus, two frequency distributions of differences are assumed, one for a stable, steady-state, situation and one for a certain change. Values exceeding a measured...

  15. A regional benthic fauna assessment method for the Southern North Sea using Margalef diversity and reference value modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Willem M.G.M.; Walvoort, Dennis J.J.; Hoey, van Gert; Vina-Herbon, Christina; Blandon, Abigayil; Pesch, Roland; Schmitt, Petra; Scholle, Jörg; Heyer, Karin; Lavaleye, Marc; Phillips, Graham; Duineveld, Gerard C.A.; Blomqvist, Mats

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study are to develop an optimized method for regional benthic fauna assessment of the Southern North Sea which (a) is sensitive and precise (quantified as the slope and the R2 value of the pressure-impact relationships, respectively) for the anthropogenic pressures bottom fishing

  16. Discrepancy of sodium mass fraction determined by INAA in the NIST SRM1547 and SRM1515 reference materials and their certified values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenik, Jan; Kucera, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Determination of sodium content in NIST standard reference materials (SRM) SRM 1547 and SRM 1515 in recent years yielded values higher than NIST certified values. Similarly, increased values were published for SRM 1547 by several laboratories, however, published sodium values SRM 1515 are in general in agreement with the certified value. Additional analysis of SRM 1547 and SRM 1515 using NIST SRM 3152a Sodium Standard Solution as a calibrator confirmed increased Na values. Inhomogeneity indicating external contamination of the stock material was not found. Moreover, increased Na value was also determined for freshly opened bottle of SRM 1547 material. Analysis of the historical material A-2 from our archive, which is identical with SRM 1515 and was distributed by NIST prior to the SRM 1515 certification and stored in a polyethylene vial, yielded a value in agreement with the certified value. A hypothesis was formulated that sodium in SRM 1547 and SRM 1515 materials could have been increasing after certification, perhaps due to the release of sodium from the glass bottle. (author)

  17. Two new organic reference materials for δ13C and δ15N measurements and a new value for the δ13C of NBS 22 oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Geilmann, Heike; Brand, Willi A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Analytical grade L-glutamic acid is chemically stable and has a C/N mole ratio of 5, which is close to that of many of natural biological materials, such as blood and animal tissue. Two L-glutamic acid reference materials with substantially different 13C and 15N abundances have been prepared for use as organic reference materials for C and N isotopic measurements. USGS40 is analytical grade L-glutamic acid and has a δ13C value of −26.24‰ relative to VPDB and a δ15N value of −4.52‰ relative to N2 in air. USGS41 was prepared by dissolving analytical grade L-glutamic acid with L-glutamic acid enriched in 13C and 15N. USGS41 has a δ13C value of +37.76‰ and a δ15N value of +47.57‰. The δ13C and δ15N values of both materials were measured against the international reference materials NBS 19 calcium carbonate (δ13C = +1.95‰), L-SVEC lithium carbonate (δ13C = −46.48‰), IAEA-N-1 ammonium sulfate (δ15N = 0.43‰), and USGS32 potassium nitrate (δ15N = 180‰) by on-line combustion continuous-flow and off-line dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Both USGS40 and USGS41 are isotopically homogeneous; reproducibility of δ13C is better than 0.13‰, and that of δ15N is better than 0.13‰ in 100-μg amounts. These two isotopic reference materials can be used for (i) calibrating local laboratory reference materials, and (ii) quantifying drift with time, mass-dependent fractionations, and isotope-ratio-scale contraction in the isotopic analysis of various biological materials. Isotopic results presented in this paper yield a δ13C value for NBS 22 oil of −29.91‰, in contrast to the commonly accepted value of −29.78‰ for which off-line blank corrections probably have not been quantified satisfactorily.

  18. Informative value of radiological findings recorded from cervical spine with reference to clinical symptoms in patients with cervical syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreck, D.; Kuehn, A.; Conradi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Static X-rays recorded at two planes from the cervical spine of 286 patients were evaluated and were compared to findings obtained from 50 probands without complaints. The patients complained about problems relating to vertebrogenic pain syndrome of the cervical spine, including vertigo of cervical origin. They were grouped by four sets of clinical symptoms (cephalgia, vertigo, locally delimited complaints and cervicobrachial syndrome). No statistically significant differences were found to exist among the groups of probands with regard to radiographic morphology, static condition nor impairment of relations. Particular reference is made in this paper to reversible function disorders and their major role among the multifactorial causes of the cervical syndrome. Indications are derived from these observations for primary X-ray examination of the cervical spine. (orig.) [de

  19. Development of a concept for radiation patients exposure assessment during dental X-ray examinations and statistical data acquisition for the determination of a diagnostic reference value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.; Sering, M.; Poppe, B.; Poplawski, A.; Looe, H.K.; Beyer, D.; Pfaffenberger, A.; Chofor, N.; Eenboom, F.

    2012-01-01

    The research project on the development a concept for radiation patients exposure assessment during dental X-ray examinations and statistical data acquisition for the determination of a diagnostic reference value includes the following issues: Fundamental facts: dental X-ray examination techniques, dose relevant factors and characteristics during X-ray examinations, radiation exposed organs during dental X-ray examinations, dose assessment based on phantoms. Materials and methodologies of the project: TLD measurements using the phantom, calculation of the effective dose during dental X-ray examinations, properties and settings of the reference facilities for the determination of radiation exposure, selection of dental offices, dosimetric measurements, data acquisition and statistical evaluation. Results of dosimetric examinations: results of dosimetric measurements at reference facilities, results of dosimetric measurements in dental offices. Discussion of the concept for the determination of the radiation exposure during dental X-ray examinations.

  20. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin C. The Panel concludes that an Average Requirement (AR) can be derived from indicators of vitamin C status, as well as a Population...... Reference Intake (PRI) assuming a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10 %. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin C intake were also considered but data were found to be insufficient to establish DRVs. For healthy adults, the AR is determined from the quantity of vitamin C that balances...... metabolic vitamin C losses and allows the maintenance of an adequate body pool characterised by fasting plasma ascorbate concentrations at around 50 µmol/L. In men, an AR of 90 mg/day of vitamin C and a PRI of 110 mg/day are proposed. As no value for metabolic losses is available in women, the AR for women...

  2. Reference value standards and primary standards for pH measurements in D2O and aqueous-organic solvent mixtures: new accessions and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussini, P.R.; Mussini, T.; Rondinini, S.

    1997-01-01

    Recommended Reference Value Standards based on the potassium hydro-genphthalate buffer at various temperatures are reported for pH measurements in various binary solvent mixtures of water with eight organic solvents: methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1,2-ethanediol, 2-methoxyethanol (''methylcellosolve''), acetonitrile, 1,4-dioxane, and dimethyl sulfoxide, together with Reference Value Standard based on the potassium deuterium phthalate buffer for pD measurements in D 2 O. In addition are reported Primary Standards for pH based on numerous buffers in various binary solvent mixtures of water with methanol, ethanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, together with Primary Standards for pD in D 2 O based on the citrate, phosphate and carbonate buffers. (author)

  3. Measuring negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity in the German population - psychometric properties and reference values for the German short version of the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Ruzanska, Ulrike; Sikorski, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Obese individuals are often stigmatized and the psychosocial consequences of overweight and obesity are the subject of current research. To detect stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people, the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS) was developed in the USA in the early nineties. In addition, the 14-item short form of the FPS was constructed. The FPS belongs to the most commonly used instruments for measuring negative attitudes towards obese people because of its good psychometric properties. For the recently developed German short form of the FPS, however, the comprehensive investigation of the psychometric properties and the determination of reference values are still pending. Thus, the main objectives of this study were the evaluation of the psychometric quality of the scale as well as the calculation of reference values. The study was based on a representative survey in the German general population. A sample of 1,657 subjects (18-94 years) was assessed via structured telephone interviews including the 14-item German version of the FPS. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were conducted. Reference values in terms of percentage ranks were calculated. Substantial evidence for the reliability and validity of the German short version of the FPS was found. This study, for the first time in Germany, provides age-specific reference values for the German short form of the FPS allowing the interpretation of individual test scores. Facing the far-reaching consequences of experienced stigmatization of obese individuals, these study results provide an important basis for further studies aiming at the investigation of negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity.

  4. Measuring Negative Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity in the German Population – Psychometric Properties and Reference Values for the German Short Version of the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Ruzanska, Ulrike; Sikorski, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Obese individuals are often stigmatized and the psychosocial consequences of overweight and obesity are the subject of current research. To detect stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people, the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS) was developed in the USA in the early nineties. In addition, the 14-item short form of the FPS was constructed. The FPS belongs to the most commonly used instruments for measuring negative attitudes towards obese people because of its good psychometric properties. For the recently developed German short form of the FPS, however, the comprehensive investigation of the psychometric properties and the determination of reference values are still pending. Thus, the main objectives of this study were the evaluation of the psychometric quality of the scale as well as the calculation of reference values. Methods The study was based on a representative survey in the German general population. A sample of 1,657 subjects (18–94 years) was assessed via structured telephone interviews including the 14-item German version of the FPS. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were conducted. Reference values in terms of percentage ranks were calculated. Results Substantial evidence for the reliability and validity of the German short version of the FPS was found. This study, for the first time in Germany, provides age-specific reference values for the German short form of the FPS allowing the interpretation of individual test scores. Conclusion Facing the far-reaching consequences of experienced stigmatization of obese individuals, these study results provide an important basis for further studies aiming at the investigation of negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity. PMID:25474195

  5. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sobreiro,Bernardo Passos; Lucon,Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto,Fábio Firmbach; Hallak,Jorge; Athayde,Kelly Silveira; Arap,Sami

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and Aug...

  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for iodine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for iodine, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI). Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Through these hormones, iodine...... stores in conditions of adequate iodine status before pregnancy and considers that a full compensation for the iodine secreted in breast milk is not justified for the derivation of an AI for iodine for lactating women....

  7. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; Pyoung adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents from Mérida city, Venezuela: Comparison of results using local and international reference values (CREDEFAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Reyes, Marjorie; Mederico, Maracelly; Paoli de Valeri, Mariela; Briceño, Yajaira; Zerpa, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Camacho, Nolis; Martínez, José Luis; Valeri, Lenín; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela

    2014-11-01

    To obtain local reference values for blood lipids and blood pressure (BP), and to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela, and to compare results using local and international cut-off values. The study enrolled 916 participants of both sexes aged 9-18 years of age from educational institutions. Demographic, anthropometric, and BP data were collected. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Percentile distribution of lipid and BP values was done by age group and sex. Prevalence of MS was estimated based on the NCEP-ATPIII classification (as modified by Cook et al.) and the classification of the International Diabetes Federation, using percentiles of Mérida and the USA as cut-off points. Agreement between both classifications was estimated using the kappa test (κ). Prevalence of MS was 2.2% by Cook-Merida percentiles, as compared to 1.8% by Cook-USA percentiles, a moderate agreement (κ=0.54). Agreement between Cook et al. and IDF using Merida percentiles was weak (κ=0.28). There was a higher frequency of abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension, and a lower frequency of low HDL-C using Mérida percentiles. The risk (odds ratio) of having MS is greater if abdominal obesity exists (OR: 98.63, CI: 22.45-433.35, p=0.0001). MS was significantly more common in obese subjects (18.3%, p=0.0001). Prevalence of MS in this sample of children and adolescents was 2.2%. Lipid and BP values were lower in Venezuelan as compared to US, European, and Asian children and adolescents, and similar to those in Latin-American references. Own reference values are required for accurate diagnosis of MS, as well as a worldwide consensus on its diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of effective dose rate reference values in São José do Sabugi, PB, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Nilson V. da S.; Santos Júnior, José A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Santos, Josineide M. do N.; Araújo, Eduardo E.N. de; Santos Junior, Otávio P. dos; Correia, Filipe L. de B.; Silveira, Patrícia B.

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has some areas with elevated concentration of uranium and/or thorium, such as Guarapari in the State of Espírito Santo, Poços de Caldas in Minas Gerais and regions between the States of Pernambuco and Paraíba.The Seridó region, in the State of Paraiba, consists of rocks classified as pegmatites, gneisses and feldspars, with high level of uranium ores. The high levels of primordial radionuclides have been the focus of the studies performed in the area, specifically in the uranium deposit of Espinharas and some adjacent municipalities. The aim of this work was to carry out 'in situ' measurements in the city of São José do Sabugi, Paraíba. Measurements were done using a portable gamma discriminator with combined NaI (Tl) and BGO probe, coupled to a motor vehicle that allowed to monitor 520 points in the urban and rural areas of said municipality, obtaining effective dose rates ranging from 0.7 to 1.56 mSv.y -1 and averages of 0.26 mSv.y -1 and 0.87 mSv.y -1 , respectively. The results obtained for radiometry of this municipality allow to conclude that the urban and rural areas meet the criteria established by UNSCEAR for areas considered as low background radiation. With this work, reference parameters were established for radiometric characterization of the surrounding municipalities to the uranium deposit of Espinharas. (author)

  10. Determination of effective dose rate reference values in São José do Sabugi, PB, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Nilson V. da S.; Santos Júnior, José A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Santos, Josineide M. do N.; Araújo, Eduardo E.N. de; Santos Junior, Otávio P. dos; Correia, Filipe L. de B., E-mail: nilson.medeiros@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Grupo de Radioecologia; Rojas, Lino A.V., E-mail: linomarvic@gmail.com [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Silveira, Patrícia B., E-mail: pbrandao@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has some areas with elevated concentration of uranium and/or thorium, such as Guarapari in the State of Espírito Santo, Poços de Caldas in Minas Gerais and regions between the States of Pernambuco and Paraíba.The Seridó region, in the State of Paraiba, consists of rocks classified as pegmatites, gneisses and feldspars, with high level of uranium ores. The high levels of primordial radionuclides have been the focus of the studies performed in the area, specifically in the uranium deposit of Espinharas and some adjacent municipalities. The aim of this work was to carry out 'in situ' measurements in the city of São José do Sabugi, Paraíba. Measurements were done using a portable gamma discriminator with combined NaI (Tl) and BGO probe, coupled to a motor vehicle that allowed to monitor 520 points in the urban and rural areas of said municipality, obtaining effective dose rates ranging from 0.7 to 1.56 mSv.y{sup -1} and averages of 0.26 mSv.y{sup -1}and 0.87 mSv.y{sup -1}, respectively. The results obtained for radiometry of this municipality allow to conclude that the urban and rural areas meet the criteria established by UNSCEAR for areas considered as low background radiation. With this work, reference parameters were established for radiometric characterization of the surrounding municipalities to the uranium deposit of Espinharas. (author)

  11. Reference Values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale in Adolescent Athletes by Sport and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder Valier, Alison R; Welch Bacon, Cailee E; Bay, R Curtis; Molzen, Eileen; Lam, Kenneth C; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2017-10-01

    Effective use of patient-rated outcome measures to facilitate optimal patient care requires an understanding of the reference values of these measures within the population of interest. Little is known about reference values for commonly used patient-rated outcome measures in adolescent athletes. To determine reference values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (MFS) in adolescent athletes by sport and sex. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A convenience sample of interscholastic adolescent athletes from 9 sports was used. Participants completed the PedsQL and MFS during one testing session at the start of their sport season. Data were stratified by sport and sex. Dependent variables included the total PedsQL score and the 5 PedsQL subscale scores: physical functioning, psychosocial functioning, emotional functioning, social functioning, and school functioning. Dependent variables for the MFS included 3 subscale scores: general functioning, sleep functioning, and cognitive functioning. Summary statistics were reported for total and subscale scores by sport and sex. Among 3574 males and 1329 female adolescent athletes, the PedsQL scores (100 possible points) generally indicated high levels of health regardless of sport played. Mean PedsQL total and subscales scores ranged from 82.6 to 95.7 for males and 83.9 to 95.2 for females. Mean MFS subscale scores (100 possible points) ranged from 74.2 to 90.9 for males and 72.8 to 87.4 for females. Healthy male and female adolescent athletes reported relatively high levels of health on the PedsQL subscales and total scores regardless of sport; no mean scores were lower than 82.6 points for males or 83.9 points for females. On the MFS, males and females tended to report low effect of general and cognitive fatigue regardless of sport; mean scores were higher than 83.5 points for males and 83.8 points for females. Clinically, athletes who score below the

  12. Eccentric and isometric shoulder rotator cuff strength testing using a hand-held dynamometer: reference values for overhead athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Ann M J; Vanderstukken, Fran; Vereecken, Frédéric; Duprez, Mattias; Heyman, Karel; Goethals, Nick; Johansson, Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    In order to provide science-based guidelines for injury prevention or return to play, regular measurement of isometric and eccentric internal (IR) and external (ER) rotator strength is warranted in overhead athletes. However, up to date, no normative database exists regarding these values, when measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a normative database on isometric and eccentric rotator cuff (RC) strength values in a sample of overhead athletes, and to discuss gender, age and sports differences. A HHD was used to measure RC strength in 201 overhead athletes between 18 and 50 years old from three different sports disciplines: tennis, volleyball and handball. Isometric as well as eccentric strength was measured in different shoulder positions. Outcome variables of interest were isometric ER and IR strength, eccentric ER strength, and intermuscular strength ratios ER/IR. Our results show significant side, gender and sports discipline differences in the isometric and eccentric RC strength. However, when normalized to body weight, gender differences often are absent. In general, strength differences are in favour of the dominant side, the male athletes and handball. Intermuscular ER/IR ratios showed gender, sports, and side differences. This normative database is necessary to help the clinician in the evaluation of RC strength in healthy and injured overhead athletes. In view of the preventive screening and return-to-play decisions in overhead athletes, normalization to body weight and calculating intermuscular ratios are key points in this evaluation. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  13. Novos valores de referência para espirometria forçada em brasileiros adultos de raça branca New reference values for forced spirometry in white adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever novas equações de referência para a espirometria em adultos brasileiros saudáveis que nunca fumaram, e comparar os valores previstos atuais com os valores derivados em 1992. MÉTODOS: Equações e limites de referência foram derivados em 270 homens e 373 mulheres, habitantes de oito cidades brasileiras, por espirômetro. A idade variou de 20 a 85 anos nas mulheres e 26 a 86 anos nos homens. Os exames seguiram as normas recomendadas pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia. Os limites inferiores foram derivados pela análise do 5º percentil dos resíduos. RESULTADOS: Os valores previstos para capacidade vital forçada (CVF, volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 e para as relações VEF1/CVF e VEF1/volume expiratório forçado nos primeiros seis segundos (VEF6 se ajustaram melhor em regressões lineares. Os fluxos ajustaram-se melhor em equações logarítmicas. Em ambos os sexos, maiores estaturas resultaram em menores valores para as relações VEF1/CVF, VEF1/VEF6 e fluxos/CVF. Os valores de referência do VEF1 e da CVF, no presente estudo, foram maiores do que aqueles derivados para adultos brasileiros em 1992. CONCLUSÃO: Novos valores previstos para a espirometria forçada foram obtidos em uma amostra da população brasileira de raça branca. Os valores são maiores do que os obtidos em 1992, provavelmente em decorrência de fatores técnicos.OBJECTIVE: To describe spirometric reference equations for healthy Brazilian adults who have never smoked and to compare the predicted values with those derived in 1992. METHODS: Reference equations for spirometry were derived in 270 men and 373 women living in eight cities in Brazil. Ages ranged from 20 to 85 years in women and from 26 to 86 years in men. Spirometry examinations followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Thoracic Society. Lower limits were derived by the analysis of the fifth percentiles of the residuals. RESULTS: Forced vital

  14. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Reference values for the CAVIPRES-30 questionnaire, a global questionnaire on the health-related quality of life of patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Veiga, F; Silmi-Moyano, A; Günthner, S; Puyol-Pallas, M; Cózar-Olmo, J M

    2014-06-01

    Define and establish the reference values of the CAVIPRES-30 Questionnaire, a health related quality of life questionnaire specific for prostate cancer patients. The CAVIPRES-30 was administered to 2,630 males with prostate cancer included by 238 Urologist belonging to the Spanish National Healthcare System. Descriptive analysis on socio-demographic and clinical data were performed, and multivariate analyses were used to corroborate that stratification variables were statistically significantly and independently associated to the overall score of the questionnaire. The variables Time since diagnosis of the illness, whether the patient had a Stable partner or not, if he was, or not, undergoing Symptomatic treatment were statistically significantly and independently associated (P < .001) to the overall score of the questionnaire. The reference values table of the CAVIPRES-30 questionnaire is made up of different kinds of information of each patient profile: sample size, descriptive statistics with regard to the overall score, Cronbach's alpha value (between .791 and .875) and the questionnaire's values are reported by deciles. The results of this study contribute new proof as to the suitability and usefulness of the CAVIPRES-30 questionnaire as an instrument for assessing individually the quality of life of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Added value of coronal reformations for duty radiologists and for referring physicians or surgeons in the CT diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Young Hoon; Hahn, Seo Kyung; Lee, Kyung Won; Lee, Hak Jong; Kim, Tae Jung; Kang, Sung Bum; Shin, Joong Ho; Park, Byung Joo

    2006-01-01

    To assess the added value of coronal reformation for radiologists and for referring physicians or surgeons in the CT diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed using 16-detector-row scanners in 110 patients, 46 of whom had appendicitis. Transverse (5-mm thickness, 4-mm increment), coronal (5-mm thickness, 4-mm increment), and combined transverse and coronal sections were interpreted by four radiologists, two surgeons and two emergency physicians. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az value), sensitivity, specificity, (McNemar test), diagnostic confidence and appendiceal visualization (Wilcoxon signed rank test) were compared. For radiologists, the additional coronal sections tended to increase the Az value (0.972 vs 0.986, ρ=0.076) and pooled sensitivity (92% [95% CI: 88,96] vs. 96% [93,99]), and enhanced appendiceal visualization in true-positive cases (ρ= 0.031). For non-radiologists, no such enhancement was observed, and the confidence for excluding acute appendicitis declined (ρ=0.013). Coronal sections alone were inferior to transverse sections for diagnostic confidence as well as appendiceal visualization for each reader group studied (ρ<0.05). The added value of coronal reformation is more apparent for radiologists compared to referring physicians or surgeons in the CT diagnosis of acute appendicitis

  17. Serum reference value of two potential doping candidates-myostatin and insulin-like growth factor-I in the healthy young male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Der-Sheng; Huang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2017-01-01

    Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth, and its inhibition by suitable proteins can increase muscle bulk and exercise performance. However, the reference values of serum myostatin in athletes performing strength training are still lacking. A cross-sectional study recruiting28 male collegiate athletes performing strength training and 29 age-matched normal controls was conducted. The serum concentration of myostatin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), grip strength, and body composition were the main outcome measures. We used regression models to analyze the correlation between serum markers and the physiological parameters. The athlete group had greater height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage, fat-free mass, muscle mass, waist girth, grip strength, and estimated daily energy expenditure. The IGF-1 concentration was higher in the athlete group (324 ± 80 vs. 263 ± 134 ng/ml), but the myostatin levels did not differ (12.1 ± 3.7 vs. 12.4 ± 3.5 ng/ml). The reference value for IGF-1 among the healthy young males was 293 ± 114 ng/ml, correlated with age and height; the value for myostatin was 12.3 ± 3.6 ng/ml, correlated negatively with BMI, fat mass percentage, and waist girth after adjustment for age. Myostatin level is negatively related to fat percentage, and serum IGF-1 is positively related to height. The reference values could provide a basis for future doping-related study.

  18. Reference values for urinary oxalate, calcium, citrate, uric acid, phosphate, magnesium, sulphate and sodium in biochemistry students at Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Fernández

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urolithiasis (UL is a common disease whose incidence increased in the last quarter of the twentieth century. Metabolic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis, which requires the establishment of reference values (RV for the population in question. Objective: To determine the RV for calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, phosphate, magnesium, sulphate and sodium in 24-hour urine belonging to students from the School of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences at Universidad Nacional del Litoral, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Once RV were established, a frequency of alterations was determined and then compared with literature data. Methods: The NCCLSC28-A3 guideline (2008 was used. The study group included 69 students. The enzymatic colorimetric method, a Metrolab 1600 plus spectrophotometer and a DIESTRO ionselective electrode were also employed. Results: The RV found (95 % CI were the following: oxalate, 1.96-45.08; calcium, 20.65-250.74; citrate, 112.78-666.01; uric acid, 58.73-782.17; phosphate, 238.37-1051.44; magnesium, 28.7-146.67, all these values expressed as mg/24h; sulphate, 3.15-25.18 mmol/24h, and sodium, 42.81-285.3 mEq/24h. These findings emerged as well: hyperoxaluria, 3 %; hypercalciuria 12 %; hypocitraturia, 3 %; hyperuricosuria, 6 %; hyperphosphaturia, 6 %; hypomagnesuria, 6 %; hypernatriuria, 7 %, and hypersulphaturia, 0 %. When RV were compared, some analyte levels were similar and others showed a considerable difference. Conclusions: The diagnosis of UL through the study of metabolic changes is different according to the reference value used. Applying reference values established for other populations, including those of commercial kits manufacturers, may lead to a diagnosis which does not match the clinical condition of the patient.

  19. Establishment of reference intervals of clinical chemistry analytes for the adult population in Saudi Arabia: a study conducted as a part of the IFCC global study on reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borai, Anwar; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Al Masaud, Abdulaziz; Tamimi, Waleed; Bahijri, Suhad; Armbuster, David; Bawazeer, Ali; Nawajha, Mustafa; Otaibi, Nawaf; Khalil, Haitham; Kawano, Reo; Kaddam, Ibrahim; Abdelaal, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    This study is a part of the IFCC-global study to derive reference intervals (RIs) for 28 chemistry analytes in Saudis. Healthy individuals (n=826) aged ≥18 years were recruited using the global study protocol. All specimens were measured using an Architect analyzer. RIs were derived by both parametric and non-parametric methods for comparative purpose. The need for secondary exclusion of reference values based on latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method was examined. The magnitude of variation attributable to gender, ages and regions was calculated by the standard deviation ratio (SDR). Sources of variations: age, BMI, physical exercise and smoking levels were investigated by using the multiple regression analysis. SDRs for gender, age and regional differences were significant for 14, 8 and 2 analytes, respectively. BMI-related changes in test results were noted conspicuously for CRP. For some metabolic related parameters the ranges of RIs by non-parametric method were wider than by the parametric method and RIs derived using the LAVE method were significantly different than those without it. RIs were derived with and without gender partition (BMI, drugs and supplements were considered). RIs applicable to Saudis were established for the majority of chemistry analytes, whereas gender, regional and age RI partitioning was required for some analytes. The elevated upper limits of metabolic analytes reflects the existence of high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi population.

  20. Diagnostic value of frozen section study for thyroid nodules in patients referred to Shariati Hospital 1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Shirzad M

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section is a useful method in the diagnosis of different malignancies including those of thyroid origin. However, there are still controversies about its application, sensitivity and specificity for thyroid neoplasm. In this study, diagnostic value of frozen section (FS was compared with permanent histopathologic and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA. In this study, which was conducted in process research method, permanent sample, FNA, and frozen section results in 214 patients was compared. All of these 214 patients had been seeking medical evaluation for thyroid nodules between years 1997 and 1999 in Shariati hospital. All pathologic evaluations were performed by pathology staff of this hospital. Permanent pathology was considered as the gold standard; so the specificity, sensitivity and diagnostic precision of FNA and FS were evaluated on the basis of its results. We use Macnemar test for this purpose. The number of patients during this period were 214 (160 women and 54 men. Mean age of our patients was 42.3±5.4 and their age ranged between 12 to 84 years. Pathologic results revealed that 163 of the patients (76 percent had benign lesions, and 51 of them (24 percent had malignant lesions. Thyroid malignancies comparised papillary carcinoma (70 percent, follicular carcinoma (13.5 percent, papilofollicular carcinoma (6 percent, medulary carcinoma (6 percent, Hurtle cell carcinoma (4 percent and anaplastic carcinoma (5 percent. FNA was done in all of the patients before surgery and was able to determine the status of nodules in 150 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and precision of FNA in these 150 patients were 72, 96 and 90 percents respectively. When FNA was unable to determine the status of a nodule (64 remaining patients, FS was applied to do the job. A sensitivity of 36 percent, specificity of 85 percent and precision of 73 percent was found in this group of patients. Macnemar test showed that there is no significant difference between

  1. Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults: The Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortiums Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gait disorders, a highly prevalent condition in older adults, are associated with several adverse health consequences. Gait analysis allows qualitative and quantitative assessments of gait that improves the understanding of mechanisms of gait disorders and the choice of interventions. This manuscript aims (1 to give consensus guidance for clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls in older adults aged 65 years and over, and (2 to provide reference values for spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls in healthy older adults free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities.Methods: International experts working in a network of two different consortiums (i.e., Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortium participated in this initiative. First, they identified items of standardized information following the usual procedure of formulation of consensus findings. Second, they merged databases including spatiotemporal gait assessments with GAITRite® system and clinical information from the “Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline” (GOOD initiative and the Generation 100 (Gen 100 study. Only healthy—free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities (i.e., ≤ 3 therapeutics taken daily—participants aged 65 and older were selected. Age, sex, body mass index, mean values, and coefficients of variation (CoV of gait parameters were used for the analyses.Results: Standardized systematic assessment of three categories of items, which were demographics and clinical information, and gait characteristics (clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls, were selected for the proposed guidelines. Two complementary sets of items were distinguished: a minimal data set and a full data set. In addition, a total of 954 participants (mean age 72.8 ± 4.8 years, 45.8% women were recruited to establish the reference values. Performance of spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded

  2. Finnish version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia: Reference values in the Finnish general population and associations with leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Petteri; Borodulin, Katja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kujala, Urho; Pohjolainen, Timo; Hurri, Heikki

    2015-03-01

    To create reference values for the general Finnish population using the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-FIN), to study gender differences in the TSK-FIN, to assess the internal consistency of the TSK-FIN, to estimate the prevalence of high levels of kinesiophobia in Finnish men and women, and to examine the association between kinesiophobia and leisure-time physical activity and the impact of co-morbidities on kinesiophobia. The study population comprised 455 men and 579 women. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their socio-demographic factors, leisure-time physical activity, co-morbidities and kinesiophobia. The mean TSK-FIN score was significantly higher for men (mean 34.2, standard deviation (SD) 6.9) compared with women (mean 32.9, SD 6.5), with an age-adjusted p = 0.004 for the difference between men and women. Cronbach's alpha was 0.72, indicating substantial internal consistency. Men over 55 years of age and women over 65 years of age had a higher (p physical activity among both sexes. The presence of cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disease or a mental disorder was associated with a higher TSK-FIN score compared with the absence of the aforementioned disorders. We present here the reference values for the TSK-FIN. The reference values and prevalence among the general population may help clinicians to define the level of kinesiophobia among patients. Disorders other than musculoskeletal diseases were associated with kinesiophobia, which should be noted in daily practice.

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for cobalamin (vitamin B12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for cobalamin (vitamin B12). The Panel considers that the approach based on a combination of biomarkers of cobalamin status, i.e. serum....... For pregnancy and lactation, additional cobalamin intakes related to the accumulation of cobalamin in fetal tissues and transfer of cobalamin into breast milk are considered and AIs of 4.5 and 5 μg/day, respectively, are proposed....

  4. The calculated reference value of the tubular extraction rate in infants and children. An attempt to use a new regression equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Nami; Sugai Yukio; Komatani, Akio; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Takahashi, Kazuei

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the empirical tubular extraction rate (TER) of the normal renal function in childhood and then propose a new equation to obtain TER theoretically. The empirical TER was calculated using Russell's method for determination of single-sample plasma clearance and 99m Tc-MAG 3 in 40 patients with renal disease younger than 10 years of age who were classified as having normal renal function using diagnostic criteria defined by the Paediatric Task Group of EANM. First, we investigated the relationships of the empirical value of absolute TER to age, body weight, body surface area (BSA) and distribution volume. Next we investigated the relationships of the empirical value of BSA corrected TER to age, body weight, BSA and distribution volume. Linear relationship was indicated between the absolute TER and each body dimensional factors, especially regarding to BSA, its correlation coefficient was 0.90 (p value). The BSA-corrected TER showed a logarithmic relationship with BSA, but linear regression did not show any significant correlation. Therefore, it was thought that the normal value of TER could be calculated theoretically using the body surface area, and here we proposed the following linear regression equation; Theoretical TER (ml/min/1.73 m 2 )=(-39.8+257.2 x BSA)/BSA/1.73. The theoretical TER could be one of the reference values of the renal function in the period of the renal maturation. (author)

  5. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cidón B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences

  6. Added value of cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of mechanical aortic valve: Emphasis on evaluation of pannus with surgical findings as standard reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joo; Lee, Sak; Im, Dong Jin; Chang, Suyon; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kim, Young Jin

    2016-07-01

    The added value of cardiac computed tomography (CT) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for evaluating mechanical aortic valve (AV) dysfunction has not yet been investigated. The purposes of this study were to investigate the added value of cardiac CT for evaluation of mechanical AVs and diagnoses of pannus compared to TEE, with surgical findings of redo-aortic valve replacement (AVR) used as a standard reference. 25 patients who underwent redo-AVR due to mechanical AV dysfunction and cardiac CT before redo-AVR were included. The presence of pannus, encroachment ratio by pannus, and limitation of motion (LOM) were evaluated on CT. The diagnostic performance of pannus detection was compared using TEE, CT, and CT+TEE, with surgical findings as a standard reference. The added value of CT for diagnosing the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction was assessed compared to TTE+TEE. In two patients, CT analysis was not feasible due to severe metallic artifacts. On CT, pannus and LOM were found in 100% (23/23) and 60.9% (14/23). TEE identified pannus in 48.0% of patients (12/25). CT, TEE, and CT+TEE correctly identified pannus with sensitivity of 92.0%, 48.0%, and 92.0%, respectively (P=0.002 for CT vs. TEE). In 11 of 13 cases (84.6%) with inconclusive or negative TEE results for pannus, CT detected the pannus. Among 13 inconclusive cases of TTE+TEE for the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction, CT suggested 6 prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) by pannus, 4 low-flow low-gradient PVO, and one LOM without significant PVO. Cardiac CT showed added diagnostic value with TEE in the detection of pannus as the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Reference values of apolipoproteins A1 and B. Contribution of international standardization. Travail collaboratif entre la SFBC, l'Arcol et le SFRL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, J; Caces, E; Couderc, R; Beucler, I; Legrand, A; Henny, J

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of two WHO reference materials, liquid and lyophilized, permitted international standardization of apolipoprotein measurements. We report here the results of a collaborative study between Arcol, SFBC and SFRL in order to establish reference ranges for apo A1 and B on nine standardized systems. A population of 1027 men and women supposed healthy, 4 to 60 year old, have been selected in two Centers for Preventive Medicine. The serum samples were aliquoted frozen at -20 degrees C the day of sampling and analysed by the manufacturers with IFCC standardized calibrants. A specific quality control was performed using a frozen pool of sera. For apo A1, the centile 2.5 of the reference population varies from 1.04 to 1.16 g/l. The range values for the centile 97.5 varies from 1.87 to 2.24 g/l. For apoB, the centile 2.5 varies from 0.43 to 0.57 g/l, and the centile 97.5 from 1.30 to 1.39 g/l. Only one system has a problem of dispersion with an upper limit equal to 1.20 g/l. These results improve that international standardization allowed actually a good comparability of the results, especially for apoB.

  8. Thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in a general population: MRI-based reference values and association with age and cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensel, Birger; Hesselbarth, Lydia; Wenzel, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Hegenscheid, Katrin [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Doerr, Marcus [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Internal Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Lieb, Wolfgang [Christian Albrechts University, Institute of Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Lorbeer, Roberto [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To generate reference values for thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyse their association with cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. Data from participants (n = 1759) of the Study of Health in Pomerania were used for analysis in this study. MRI measurement of thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters was performed. Parameters for calculation of reference values according to age and sex analysis were provided. Multivariable linear regression models were used for determination of aortic diameter-related risk factors, including smoking, blood pressure (BP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For the ascending aorta (β = -0.049, p < 0.001), the aortic arch (β = -0.061, p < 0.001) and the subphrenic aorta (β = -0.018, p = 0.004), the body surface area (BSA)-adjusted diameters were lower in men. Multivariable-adjusted models revealed significant increases in BSA-adjusted diameters with age for all six aortic segments (p < 0.001). Consistent results for all segments were observed for the positive associations of diastolic BP (β = 0.001; 0.004) and HDL (β = 0.035; 0.087) with BSA-adjusted aortic diameters and for an inverse association of systolic BP (β = -0.001). Some BSA-adjusted median aortic diameters are smaller in men than in women. All diameters increase with age, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C and decrease as systolic BP increases. (orig.)

  9. Increased Incidence and Altered Risk Demographics of Childhood Lead Poisoning: Predicting the Impacts of the CDC’s 5 µg/dL Reference Value in Massachusetts (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Phoebe; Brabander, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the CDC adopted a new sliding scale reference value for childhood lead poisoning, reducing the former 10 µg/dL benchmark by half. Using Massachusetts (MA) as a model state, we estimated the change in the population of 9–47 month-olds at risk for lead poisoning. We then examined the impact of the 5 µg/dL reference value on the demographic characteristics of lead risk in MA communities. We find that the new CDC benchmark will lead to a 1470% increase in childhood lead poisoning cases among 9–47 month-olds in MA, with nearly 50% of the examined communities experiencing an increased prevalence of lead poisoning. Further, the top 10 MA communities with BLLs ≥5 µg/dL have significantly fewer foreign-born residents and significantly larger white populations than the highest risk communities formerly identified by the MA Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program. The CDC’s new 5 µg/dL lead poisoning benchmark will drastically increase the number of children with elevated BLLs and alter the distribution and demographics high-risk communities in MA. PMID:23202824

  10. Value-Based Assessment of Radiology Reporting Using Radiologist-Referring Physician Two-Way Feedback System-a Design Thinking-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Faiq; Hendrata, Kenneth; Kolowitz, Brian; Awan, Omer; Shrestha, Rasu; Deible, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    In the era of value-based healthcare, many aspects of medical care are being measured and assessed to improve quality and reduce costs. Radiology adds enormously to health care costs and is under pressure to adopt a more efficient system that incorporates essential metrics to assess its value and impact on outcomes. Most current systems tie radiologists' incentives and evaluations to RVU-based productivity metrics and peer-review-based quality metrics. In a new potential model, a radiologist's performance will have to increasingly depend on a number of parameters that define "value," beginning with peer review metrics that include referrer satisfaction and feedback from radiologists to the referring physician that evaluates the potency and validity of clinical information provided for a given study. These new dimensions of value measurement will directly impact the cascade of further medical management. We share our continued experience with this project that had two components: RESP (Referrer Evaluation System Pilot) and FRACI (Feedback from Radiologist Addressing Confounding Issues), which were introduced to the clinical radiology workflow in order to capture referrer-based and radiologist-based feedback on radiology reporting. We also share our insight into the principles of design thinking as applied in its planning and execution.

  11. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value......-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. METHODS: The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. RESULTS: One method performed...... best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally...

  12. Reference values for maternal total and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanci, Muzaffer; Töz, Emrah; Ince, Onur; Özcan, Aykut; Polater, Kevser; Inan, Abdurrahman Hamdi; Beyan, Emrah; Akkaya, Emrah

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in the leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. The study population consisted of 40,325 pregnant women. A full blood count and automated differential leukocyte count were performed and all the haemogram results in the different trimesters of pregnancy were recorded. Percentiles were calculated using statistical software. A total of 82,786 complete blood count evaluations were performed in 40,325 subjects from the 6th to 41st week of pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period. The leukocyte counts increased from the 1st to the 3rd trimester and peaked in the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts may assist clinicians in distinguishing between leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood cell count during pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Impact statement Pregnancy requires profound adaptation by multiple systems to accommodate the demands of the developing foetus. Similar to all other systems, many haematological changes occur during pregnancy. Studies of normal variation in leukocyte counts were insufficient to distinguish normal from abnormal leukocyte counts during pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period, due to small numbers of patients and a lack of differential leukocyte counts. Without reference leukocyte levels, infections may be more difficult to assess during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In this study, we report the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 50th, 95th and 99th percentile values for the total and differential leukocyte counts according to trimester in normal pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts in each trimester and the initial postpartum period may assist clinicians in distinguishing between normal leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood

  13. Limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças no ruído, em campo livre: valores de referência para adultos normo-ouvintes Speech recognition thresholds in noisy areas: reference values for normal hearing adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oliveira Henriques

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas clínicas de audiologia, as queixas de dificuldade de compreensão da fala em ambientes ruidosos são freqüentes, mesmo para indivíduos normo-ouvintes. Assim, o audiologista deve não só identificar uma perda auditiva, mas também analisar a compreensão da fala, em condições de comunicação próximas às encontradas no cotidiano. OBJETIVO: Determinar o valor de referência para os limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças no ruído, em campo livre, para indivíduos adultos normo-ouvintes. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O experimento foi realizado nos anos de 2005 e 2006. Participaram da pesquisa 150 indivíduos adultos normo-ouvintes, com idade entre 18 e 64 anos, avaliados em cabine acusticamente tratada. Realizou-se a avaliação a partir da aplicação do teste Listas de Sentenças em Português. As listas de sentenças foram apresentadas em campo livre, na presença de um ruído competitivo, na intensidade fixa de 65 dB A. O ângulo de incidência de ambos os estímulos foi de 0º- 0º azimute. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Os limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças em campo-livre foram obtidos na relação sinal-ruído de -8,14 dB A, sendo este o valor de referência para indivíduos normo-ouvintes.In audiology clinics, complaints about difficulties in speech recognition in noise environments are frequent, even for normal-hearing individuals. Thus, the audiologist must not only identify a hearing loss, but also analyze speech recognition, under noisy conditions similar to those found in our daily lives. AIM: Determine the reference value for the recognition of phrases under noisy conditions, in the free field, for adult normal hearing patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out in 2005 and 2006. We had 150 adult normal hearing individuals participating, with ages between 18 and 64 years, assessed in a sound-proof booth. We evaluation was based on lists of phrases in Portuguese. The phrases lists were presented in the free field

  14. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Passos Sobreiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  15. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreiro, Bernardo Passos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Hallak, Jorge; Athayde, Kelly Silveira; Arap, Sami

    2005-07-07

    Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals' semen characteristics. Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  16. Protocolo de Observação Comportamental - PROC: valores de referência para uma análise quantitativa Behavioral Observation Protocol: reference values for a quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos Hage

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: obter valores de referência para protocolo de observação comportamental (PROC sobre o desenvolvimento de habilidades comunicativas e de esquemas simbólicos em crianças com desenvolvimento típico de linguagem. MÉTODO: foram avaliadas 44 crianças entre 24 e 47 meses de ambos os gêneros, selecionadas em escolas de educação infantil, por meio de triagem do desenvolvimento global Denver II e questionário com os pais. Todas as crianças foram filmadas durante 30 minutos em interação com um adulto em atividade envolvendo brinquedos. As gravações foram analisadas por meio do PROC. A análise estatística descreveu valores de média, mediana, valores mínimos e máximos. Foi utilizado o teste T de Student para comparação das idades. RESULTADOS: nas habilidades comunicativas, as crianças do estudo mostraram evolução com a idade (média para três e dois anos, respectivamente: 58,12 e 51,44, apesar de não ter sido encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante para as faixas etárias comparadas (p=0,486. Quanto ao item compreensão verbal, as crianças de três anos obtiveram melhor desempenho que as de dois (respectivas médias: 59,41 e 50,70, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,0000020. Em relação ao item aspectos do desenvolvimento cognitivo, as crianças de três anos apresentaram melhor desempenho em comparação com as de dois (respectivas médias: 44,53 e 31,96, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante entre as pontuações obtidas (p=0,00364, mostrando que as crianças evoluem na hierarquia do simbolismo. CONCLUSÃO: a obtenção de valores de referência para o PROC veio combinar análise qualitativa e quantitativa, contribuindo, além do diagnóstico, para o acompanhamento objetivo de processos terapêuticos.PURPOSE: to obtain reference values for behavioral observation protocol on the development of communicative and symbolic schemes of children with typical language development

  17. Analytical performance specifications for changes in assay bias (Δbias) for data with logarithmic distributions as assessed by effects on reference change values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The distributions of within-subject biological variation are usually described as coefficients of variation, as are analytical performance specifications for bias, imprecision and other characteristics. Estimation of specifications required for reference change values is traditionally...... done using relationship between the batch-related changes during routine performance, described as Δbias, and the coefficients of variation for analytical imprecision (CVA): the original theory is based on standard deviations or coefficients of variation calculated as if distributions were Gaussian....... METHODS: The distribution of between-subject biological variation can generally be described as log-Gaussian. Moreover, recent analyses of within-subject biological variation suggest that many measurands have log-Gaussian distributions. In consequence, we generated a model for the estimation of analytical...

  18. Vitamins A and E in liver, kidney, and whole blood of East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2008: reference values and temporal trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshoft, T.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    on this health issue in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of this study was thus to provide reference values for concentrations of vitamin A in liver, kidney cortex, and whole blood and vitamin E in kidney cortex and whole blood from 166 East Greenland polar bears, as well as to assess the relationship...... that POPs could be disrupting polar bear vitamin status. However, while the observed temporal increases in vitamin concentrations were likely POP related, the question remains as to whether they stem from influence of contaminants only or also, e.g., changes in prey species. Further studies are needed...... between POPs and vitamin concentrations. In addition, vitamin concentrations were analyzed for temporal trends (1994–2008). Results showed vitamin A in liver to be higher in adult bears and the concentrations of vitamin E in kidney and blood to likewise be generally higher in adult bears. In addition, all...

  19. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  20. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Das, Sangita

    2009-01-01

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC 50 ) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC 50 values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC 50 s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK sp ), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC 50 s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC 50 s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  1. Motor Unit Number Estimate and Isometric Hand Grip Strength in Military Veterans with or Without Muscular Complaints: Reference Values for Longitudinal Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Yao, Wenguo; Sundahl, Cynthia

    2018-03-26

    It remains unclear if Gulf War (GW) veterans have a higher risk of developing motor neuron disorder. We intended to establish baseline neurophysiological values, including thenar motor unit number estimate (MUNE) and isometric hand grip (IHG) strength, to compare future follow-ups of deployed GW veterans with or without muscular complaints. We evaluated 19 GW veterans with self-reported weakness, cramps, or excessive muscle fatigue (Ill-19) and compared them with 18 controls without such muscular complaints (C-18). We performed MUNE on hand thenar muscles using adapted multipoint stimulation method for Ill-19 and 15 controls (C-15). We measured IHG strength (maximum force, endurance, and fatigue level) on Ill-19 and C-18 with a hand dynamometer. We performed nerve conduction studies on all study participants to determine which subjects had mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We compared the MUNE and IHG strength measures between Ill group and controls and between those with CTS and those without CTS. We obtained thenar MUNE of Ill-19 (95% CI of mean: 143-215; mean age: 46 yr) and compared it with that of C-15 (95% CI of mean: 161-230; mean age: 45 yr), and 95% of CI of mean among IHG strength variables (maximum force: 324-381 Newton; endurance: 32-42 s; fatigue level: 24%-33%) compared with C-18 (maximum force: 349-408 Newton; endurance: 35-46 s; fatigue level: 21%-27%). There was no significant difference in either MUNE or IHG strength between Ill-19 group and controls. The MUNE and IHG maximum forces were significantly lower in those with CTS compared with those without CTS. As a surrogate of mild CTS, the median versus ulnar distal sensory latency on nerve conduction study was only weakly associated with MUNE, maximum force, and fatigue level, respectively. To our knowledge, no published study on MUNE reference values of military veteran population has been available. The quantifiable values of both thenar MUNE and IHG strength of military veterans serve as

  2. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population: History of Knee Ligament Injury Is Associated With Higher Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Peck, Karen Y; Thompson, Brandon S; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Marshall, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 2. All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ(2) = 13.22, df = 1, P MARS scores between men and women (χ(2) = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ(2) = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle‐run test in a population‐based sample of school‐aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios‐López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto‐Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa‐Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso‐Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk. Methods A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health‐related FITNESSGRAM cut‐points for low CRF. Results Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). Conclusions Our results provide sex‐ and age‐specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle‐run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population‐based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin‐American city at high altitude. PMID:27500986

  4. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Steiber

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17-90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006-2014 and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations. Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men's and women's 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a 'weak grip'. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65-69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80-90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a 'critically weak grip' that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

  5. The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia: Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and biometric observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Fornazari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ocular anatomy and establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia. Aoudad eyes are large and laterally positioned in the head with several specialized anatomic features attributed to evolutionary adaptations for grazing. Normal values for commonly used ophthalmic tests were established, Schirmer tear test (STT - 27.22 ± 3.6 mm/min; Predominant ocular surface bacterial microbiota - Staphylococcus sp.; Corneal esthesiometry- 1.3 ± 0.4 cm; Intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry- 19.47 ± 3.9 mmHg; Corneal thickness- 630.07 ± 20.67 μm, B-mode ultrasonography of the globe- axial eye globe length 29.94 ± 0.96 mm, anterior chamber depth 5.03 ± 0.17 mm, lens thickness 9.4 ± 0.33 mm, vitreous chamber depth 14.1 ± 0.53 mm; Corneal diameter- horizontal corneal diameter 25.05 ± 2.18 mm, vertical corneal diameter 17.95 ± 1.68 mm; Horizontal palpebral fissure length- 34.8 ± 3.12 mm. Knowledge of these normal anatomic variations, biometric findings and normal parameters for ocular diagnostic tests may assist veterinary ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in this and other similar species.

  6. Estimation of biological variation and reference change value of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) when two analytical methods are used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Fatma; Erden, Gonul; Ginis, Zeynep; Ozturk, Gulfer; Sezer, Sevilay; Gurler, Mukaddes; Guneyk, Ahmet

    2013-10-01

    Available data on biological variation of HbA1c revealed marked heterogeneity. We therefore investigated and estimated the components of biological variation for HbA1c in a group of healthy individuals by applying a recommended and strictly designed study protocol using two different assay methods. Each month, samples were derived on the same day, for three months. Four EDTA whole blood samples were collected from each individual (20 women, 9 men; 20-45 years of age) and stored at -80°C until analysis. HbA1c values were measured by both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Shimadzu, Prominence, Japan) and boronate affinity chromatography methods (Trinity Biotech, Premier Hb9210, Ireland). All samples were assayed in duplicate in a single batch for each assay method. Estimations were calculated according to the formulas described by Fraser and Harris. The within subject (CV(I))-between subject (CV(G)) biological variations were 1.17% and 5.58%, respectively for HPLC. The calculated CV(I) and CV(G) were 2.15% and 4.03%, respectively for boronate affinity chromatography. Reference change value (RCV) for HPLC and boronate affinity chromatography was 5.4% and 10.4% respectively and individuality index of HbA(1c) was 0.35 and 0.93 respectively. This study for the first time described the components of biological variation for HbA1c in healthy individuals by two different assay methods. Obtained findings showed that the difference between CV(A) values of the methods might considerably affect RCV. These data regarding biological variation of HbA(1c) could be useful for a better evaluation of HbA(1c) test results in clinical interpretation. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound analysis of gray-scale median value of carotid plaques is a useful reference index for cerebro-cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Kyoko; Okuya, Shigeru; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Kimie; Nagao, Yuko; Nomiyama, Ryuta; Takeda, Komei; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of plaque echogenicity, the gray-scale median (GSM), were shown to correlate inversely with risk factors for cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a potential predictor of CVD risk. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of carotid plaque GSM values and EPA/AA ratios in atherosclerotic diabetics. A total of 84 type 2 diabetics with carotid artery plaques were enrolled. On admission, platelet aggregation and lipid profiles, including EPA and AA, were examined. Using ultrasound, mean intima media thickness and plaque score were measured in carotid arteries. Plaque echogenicity was evaluated using computer-assisted quantification of GSM. The patients were then further observed for approximately 3 years. Gray-scale median was found to be a good marker of CVD events. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, GSM <32 and plaque score ≥5 were significantly associated with past history and onset of CVD during the follow-up period, the odds ratios being 7.730 (P = 0.014) and 4.601 (P = 0.046), respectively. EPA/AA showed a significant correlation with GSM (P = 0.012) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.039), and an inverse correlation with platelet aggregation (P = 0.046) and triglyceride (P = 0.020). Although most patients with CVD had both low GSM and low EPA/AA values, an association of EPA/AA with CVD events could not be statistically confirmed. The present results suggest the GSM value to be useful as a reference index for CVD events in high-risk atherosclerotic diabetics. Associations of the EPA/AA ratio with known CVD risk factors warrant a larger and more extensive study to show the usefulness of this parameter.

  8. Reference values and age and sex differences in physical performance measures for community-dwelling older Japanese: a pooled analysis of six cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine age- and sex-specific reference values for six physical performance measures, i.e. hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, and gait speed and step length at both usual and maximum paces, and to investigate age and sex differences in these measures among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six cohort studies collected between 2002 and 2011 as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4683 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older (2168 men, 2515 women; mean age: 74.0 years in men and 73.9 years in women. RESULTS: Unweighted simple mean (standard deviation hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, usual gait speed, usual gait step length, maximum gait speed, and maximum gait step length were 31.7 (6.7 kg, 39.3 (23.0 s, 1.29 (0.25 m/s, 67.7 (10.0 cm, 1.94 (0.38 m/s, and 82.3 (11.6 cm, respectively, in men and 20.4 (5.0 kg, 36.8 (23.4 s, 1.25 (0.27 m/s, 60.8 (10.0 cm, 1.73 (0.36 m/s, and 69.7 (10.8 cm, respectively, in women. All physical performance measures showed significant decreasing trends with advancing age in both sexes (all P<0.001 for trend. We also constructed age- and sex-specific appraisal standards according to quintiles. With increasing age, the sex difference in hand-grip strength decreased significantly (P<0.001 for age and sex interaction. In contrast, sex differences significantly increased in all other measures (all P<0.05 for interactions except step length at maximum pace. CONCLUSION: Our pooled analysis yielded inclusive age- and sex-specific reference values and appraisal standards for major physical performance measures in nondisabled, community-dwelling, older Japanese adults. The characteristics of age-related decline in physical performance measures differed between sexes.

  9. Reference values of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being: a report from the American Cancer Society's studies of cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Alexis R; Salsman, John M; Stein, Kevin D; Cella, David

    2015-06-01

    Health-related quality of life measures are common in oncology research, trials, and practice. Spiritual well-being has emerged as an important aspect of health-related quality of life and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being; The 12-item Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12) is the most widely used measure of spiritual well-being among those with cancer. However, there is an absence of reference values with which to facilitate the interpretation of scores in research and clinical practice. The objective of the current study was to provide FACIT-Sp-12 reference values from a representative sample of adult cancer survivors. As part of the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-II, a national cross-sectional study of cancer survivors (8864 survivors) completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics, clinical information, and the FACIT-Sp-12. Scores were calculated and summarized by FACIT-Sp-12 subscale and total scores across age, sex, race/ethnicity, time after treatment, and cancer type. Student t tests for independent samples found that women reported significantly higher FACIT-Sp-12 scores (P<.001). Analyses of variance found significant main effects for FACIT-Sp-12 scores by age (P<.01), race/ethnicity (P<.05), and cancer type (P<.001). Post hoc comparisons revealed that older adults (those aged 60-69 years and 70-79 years) and black non-Hispanic individuals reported the highest FACIT-Sp-12 scores compared with those aged 18 to 39 years (P<.05; Cohen d [an effect size used to indicate the standardized difference between 2 means], 0.20-0.50) and white non-Hispanic individuals (P<.05; Cohen d, 0.02-0.62), respectively. All other significant main effects were small in magnitude (effect size range, 0.001-0.032). These data will aid in the interpretation of the magnitude and meaning of FACIT-Sp-12 scores, and allow for comparisons of scores across studies. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  10. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  11. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia, E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); Sakuma, Alice Momoyo [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); De Capitani, Eduardo Mello [Universidade Estadual de Campinas — UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Centro de Controle de Intoxicações (Brazil); Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde/SP, Coordenadoria de Controle de Doenças (Brazil); Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia (Brazil); Gouveia, Nelson [Universidade de São Paulo — USP, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  12. Reference values for vastus lateralis fiber size and type in healthy subjects over 40 years old: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzi, Fares; Maury, Jonathan; Molinari, Nicolas; Pomiès, Pascal; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

    2013-08-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a major systemic impairment in chronic diseases. Yet its determinants have been hard to identify because a clear research definition has not been agreed upon. The reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) is a widely acknowledged marker of muscle atrophy, but no reference values for the muscle fiber CSA at the age of the onset of chronic disease have ever been published. Thus, we aimed to systematically review the studies providing data on fiber CSA and fiber type proportion in the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps of healthy subjects (age >40 yr) and then to pool and analyze the data from the selected studies to determine reference values for fiber CSA. We followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and identified 19 studies, including 423 subjects that matched the inclusion criteria. On the basis of fiber type and gender, the mean fiber CSA and the lower limits of normal (LLNs) were (%type I*60) + 1,743 μm(2) and (%type I*60) - 718 μm(2), respectively, for men; and (%type I*70) + 139 μm(2) and (%type I*70) - 1,485 μm(2), respectively, for women. There was no significant heterogeneity among subgroups of fiber type and gender. The pooled type I fiber proportion was 50.3% (LLN = 32.9%). In multivariate analysis, fiber CSA was significantly correlated with Vo2 peak (r = 190.92; P = 0.03), and type I fiber proportion was correlated with age (r = -0.024; P = 0.005), body mass index (r = 0.096; P = 0.005), and Vo2 peak (r = -0.053; P = 0.005). Our metaanalysis of a homogeneous set of studies is the first to provide valuable LLNs for fiber CSA according to fiber type and gender. This analysis will be improved by prospective assessment in well-characterized healthy subjects.

  13. Biological variation, reference change value (RCV) and minimal important difference (MID) of inspiratory muscle strength (PImax) in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täger, Tobias; Schell, Miriam; Cebola, Rita; Fröhlich, Hanna; Dösch, Andreas; Franke, Jennifer; Katus, Hugo A; Wians, Frank H; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Despite the widespread application of measurements of respiratory muscle force (PImax) in clinical trials there is no data on biological variation, reference change value (RCV), or the minimal important difference (MID) for PImax irrespective of the target cohort. We addressed this issue for patients with chronic stable heart failure. From the outpatients' clinic of the University of Heidelberg we retrospectively selected three groups of patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure (CHF). Each group had two measurements of PImax: 90 days apart in Group A (n = 25), 180 days apart in Group B (n = 93), and 365 days apart in Group C (n = 184). Stability was defined as (a) no change in NYHA class between visits and (b) absence of cardiac decompensation 3 months prior, during, and 3 months after measurements. For each group, we determined within-subject (CVI), between-subject (CVG), and total (CVT) coefficient of variation (CV), the index of individuality (II), RCV, reliability coefficient, and MID of PImax. CVT was 8.7, 7.5, and 6.9 % for groups A, B, and C, respectively. The II and RCV were 0.21, 0.20, 0.16 and 13.6, 11.6, 10.8 %, respectively. The reliability coefficient and MID were 0.83, 0.87, 0.88 and 1.44, 1.06, 1.12 kPa, respectively. Results were similar between age, gender, and aetiology subgroups. In patients with stable CHF, measurements of PImax are highly stable for intervals up to 1 year. The low values for II suggest that evaluation of change in PImax should be performed on an individual (per patient) basis. Individually significant change can be assumed beyond 14 % (RCV) or 1.12 kPa (MID).

  14. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang

    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  15. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Woodall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM, ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement.

  16. Reference values on safety regulation of land disposal of low level radioactive solid waste (the second interim report) and its incorporation into legal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Terumi

    1994-01-01

    Safety regulation of land disposal of low level radioactive solid waste in Japan is based on 'the basic philosophy on the safety regulation of land disposal of low level radioactive solid waste' determined by the Nuclear safety Committee (October 1985). The basic philosophy on the upper limit of radioactivity of disposed wastes was published as the reference values in the interim report (February 1987) and in the second interim report (June 1992). In the second interim report, the upper limits of radioactivity are established for three types of solid radioactive wastes: 1) metals, incombustible or flame resistant wastes generated nuclear reactor facilities and solidified in vessels, 2) large metallic structures generated from decommissioning of reactor facilities and difficult to solidify in vessels, and 3) radioactive concrete waste generated from decommissioning of reactor facilities. The upper limits of radioactivity are presented for C-14, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Cs-137, alfa-emmitters, Ca-41 (for concrete) and Eu-152 (for concrete). Related laws and regulations in Japan on safe disposal of low level wastes are explained. (T.H.)

  17. Nickel quantification in serum by a validated sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method: Assessment of tentative reference values for an Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Ronchi, Anna; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Alimonti, Alessandro; Minoia, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The daily exposure to Ni from food, industrial processes, jewellery and coins makes the determination of Ni in human serum an important way to monitor the health status in non-occupationally exposed subjects. To this end, a method based on sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The limits of detection (LoD) and quantification (LoQ), sensitivity, linearity range, trueness, repeatability, within-laboratory reproducibility and robustness were the considered issues of the validation process. The uncertainty associated with the measurements was also calculated, according to the Eurachem/Citac Guide. The method LoD and LoQ were 0.03 and 0.09 ng mL(-1), linearity was over two order of magnitude, trueness was -3.57%, and the repeatability and reproducibility showed relative standard deviations equal to 4.56% and 6.52%, respectively. The relative expanded uncertainty was 21.8% at the Ni levels found in the general population. The tentative reference value for serum Ni was 0.466 +/- 0.160 ng mL(-1) with a related interval between 0.226 and 1.026 ng mL(-1). Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Value of Plasma Galectin-3 Levels in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis: A Single-Center Prospective Study of Patients Referred for Invasive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bobrowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, has been implicated in myocardial fibrosis, development of left ventricular (LV dysfunction and transition from compensated LV hypertrophy to overt heart failure (HF, being a novel prognostic marker in HF. Risk stratification is crucial for the choice of the optimal therapy in degenerative aortic stenosis (AS, affecting elderly subjects with coexistent diseases. Our aim was to assess correlates and prognostic value of circulating Gal-3 in real-world patients with degenerative AS referred for invasive treatment. Gal-3 levels were measured at admission in 80 consecutive patients with symptomatic degenerative AS (mean age: 79 ± 8 years; aortic valve area (AVA index: 0.4 ± 0.1 cm2/m2. The therapeutic strategy was chosen following a dedicated multidisciplinary team-oriented approach, including surgical valve replacement (n = 11, transcatheter valve implantation (n = 19, balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV (n = 25 and optimal medical therapy (n = 25. Besides routine echocardiographic indices, valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva, an index of global LV afterload, was computed. There were 22 deaths over a median follow-up of 523 days. Baseline Gal-3 correlated negatively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR (r = −0.61, p < 0.001 and was unrelated to age, symptomatic status, AVA index, LV ejection fraction, LV mass index or Zva. For the study group as a whole, Gal-3 tended to predict mortality (Gal-3 >17.8 vs. Gal-3 <17.8 ng/mL; hazard ratio (HR: 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.88–4.69, p = 0.09, which was abolished upon adjustment for eGFR (HR: 1.70 (0.61–4.73, p = 0.3. However, in post-BAV patients multivariate-adjusted pre-procedural Gal-3 was associated with worse survival (HR: 7.41 (1.52–36.1, p = 0.01 regardless of eGFR. In conclusion, the inverse eGFR–Gal-3 relationship underlies a weak association between Gal-3 and adverse outcome in patients with degenerative AS referred for

  19. Serum Inhibin B and follicle-stimulating hormone levels as tools in the evaluation of infertile men: significance of adequate reference values from proven fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A.-M.; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Jørgensen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Inhibin B and FSH levels in 289 idiopathic infertile men were compared with reference materials consisting of 303 proven fertile men (reference group 1) and 307 healthy men from the general population with unknown fertility status (reference group 2). The diagnostic power of these two serum markers...... of spermatogenesis was evaluated by the use of receiver operating characteristic plot analysis, and an example of how both markers can be used simultaneously in a bivariate reference chart is presented. Inhibin B levels were significantly lower and FSH levels were significantly higher in the infertile men, compared...

  20. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women. Body weight, fat mass (FM, percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI, FM index (FMI, FFM index (FFMI, and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI.Simple means (standard deviation of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9 kg/m(2, 24.9 (6.3%, 5.96 (2.09 kg/m(2, 17.4 (1.5 kg/m(2, and 7.29 (0.76 kg/m(2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3 kg/m(2, 31.7 (7.1%, 7.40 (2.61 kg/m(2, 15.3 (1.2 kg/m(2, and 5.86 (0.67 kg/m(2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends, but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends, but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends.The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition

  1. Reference values in blood elements in crioula breed horses by nuclear methodology; Valores de referencia de elementos em sangue de cavalos da raca crioula via metodologia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana Spinosa

    2010-07-01

    In this study the reference value for Br (0,0008 - 0,0056 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0,089 - 0,369 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2,10 - 3,26 gL{sup -1}), Fe (0,381 - 0,689 gL{sup -1}), I (0,00018 - 0,00266 gL{sup -1}), K (1,14 - 2,74 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0,030 - 0,074 gL{sup -1}), Na (1,36 - 2,80 gL{sup -1}), P (<1,99 gL{sup -1}), S (0,99 - 2,79 gL{sup -1}) and Zn (0,0012 - 0,0048 gL{sup -1}) as well as the correlation matrix in blood of Crioulo breed horses were determined using nuclear methodology (Neutron Activation Analysis Technique). These data allowed to identifying physiological alterations related to the sex and regime of exercise (hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, Brasil). To perform these analyses was used 20 adult horses (8 males and 12 females), with average mass 350 kg, without clinical signs of disease, 1-3 years old, kept on pasture in Sao Joaquim Farm at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city). Other group just immunized, composed by 6 equines males (same age and weight), were also analyzed. These data are an important support to understand the physiological functions of these elements in blood during the process of sera production. (author)

  2. Use of In Vivo and In Vitro Data to Derive a Chronic Reference Value for Crotonaldehyde Based on Relative Potency to Acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Roberta L; Jenkins, Allison F

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) conducted a chronic inhalation noncancer toxicity assessment for crotonaldehyde (CRO). Since there were limited toxicity data for CRO, a reference value (ReV) was derived using a relative potency factor (RPF) approach with acrolein as the index chemical. Both CRO and acrolein are α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and share common steps in their mode of action (MOA). Only studies that investigated the effects of CRO and acrolein in the same study were used to calculate a CRO:acrolein RPF. In vivo findings measuring both 50% respiratory depression in rats and two species of mice and subcutaneous 50% lethality in rats and mice were used to calculate an RPF of 3 (rounded to one significant figure). In vitro data were useful to compare the MOA of CRO and acrolein and to support the RPF determined using in vivo data. In vitro cell culture studies investigating cytotoxicity in normal human lung fibroblast cultures using the propidium iodide cytotoxicity assay and in mouse lymphocyte cultures using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay were used to calculate an in vitro RPF of 3, which supports the in vivo RPF. The chronic ReV for acrolein of 1.2 ppb derived by TCEQ was multiplied by the RPF of 3 to calculate the ReV for CRO of 3.6 ppb (10 μg/m(3)). The ReV for CRO was developed to protect the general public from adverse health effects from chronic exposure to CRO in ambient air.

  3. Selenio en suero y plasma: epidemiología y valores de referencia Selenium in serum and plasma: epidemiology and reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2010-11-01

    suero/plasma.OBJECTIVE: To review and analyze the literature on selenium (Se levels in human serum and plasma; to describe some variations; to obtain reference values for the countries of Europe and Latin America, and to provide an information framework for future studies on the subject. METHODS: Scientific literature was reviewed to gather information on selenium serum or plasma levels in people identified as "healthy." The LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed Medline databases were consulted. The search for information could be from any date (up to January 2010 and in any language. Weighted arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated. RESULTS: For Europe, 161 reports published between 1972 and 2009 were found, covering 49 869 healthy adults, 28 countries, and 8 regions. Serum/plasma Se levels ranged from 48.2 to 124.00 µg/L. Weighted values for Europe were 85.19 ± 14.58 (CI 95% for the weighted average, 85.124-85.256. The averages by country, region, and measurement technique were statistically different, with significant differences associated with sex and age. Twenty-three of the studies involved individuals under 19 years of age in 10 European countries. The weighted values for this population were 74.21 ± 9.50 µg/L (CI 95%, 73.95-74.46. Only 11 studies from Latin America were available. Serum/plasma Se was 91.51 ± 18.78 Ìg/L in adults; 93.25 ± 39.20 in children under 15; and 130 ± 30 in newborns less than 25 hours old. CONCLUSIONS: Se serum/plasma levels in Europe showed statistically significant differences by sex and age. Se levels were higher in Latin American adults and children than in Europeans, but the Latin American data are based on few people. The technique for measuring Se in serum/plasma appears to have a significant influence. Properly planned and designed population studies should be conducted in Latin America in order to establish regional reference values for Se in serum and plasma.

  4. Analysis of reference X radiations energies adjusted for the same half-value layer; Analise do espectro de energias de radiacoes X de referencia ajustadas para a mesma camada semirredutora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Marcus Tadeu Tanuri de; Baptista Neto, Annibal Theotonio; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The International Standardization Organization (ISO) defined the reference radiation for calibration and testing in x and gamma fields. The ISO 4037-1 establishes that if the first and the second half value - layers (HVL) agree within 5%, for two x- ray beams, then these two beams shall be considered the same. In this study, reference radiations with the same HVLs that were obtained trough the total filtration or the tube voltage adjustments were compared in terms of spectra and beam parameters. (author)

  5. The contribution of total and free iodothyronines to welfare maintenance and management stress coping in Ruminants and Equines: Physiological ranges and reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Adriana; Cravana, Cristina; Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro

    2018-06-01

    In order to acquire a pattern of thyroid involvement in welfare maintenance in Ruminants and Equines, this review summarizes data concerning the reference values of total and free iodothyronines and their modifications in physiological conditions and in different management conditions (pregnancy, lactation, weaning, growth, isolation, restraint, shearing, confinement and transportation). Thyroidal and extrathyroidal tissues efficiently respond to management practices, giving a differentiated contribution to circulating iodothyronine changes. The hormonal response could be mainly attributed to the intracellular deiodination of T 4 to T 3. Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and free iodothyronines (fT 3 and fT 4 ) result more responsive to management stress, showing different pattern with species and to various conditions, as to environmental conditions in which activities are performed. Intrinsic seasonal changes of iodothyronines and a significant pregnancy effect for T 3 were recorded in mares. Higher, although not significant, T 3 and T 4 concentrations in barren than pregnant mares were observed in donkeys. A positive significant correlation between T 3 and T 4 was described only in pregnant donkeys. Moreover, a significant effect of season on T 3 and fT 3 changes was observed both in pregnant and barren donkeys. A significant lactating effect compared with nonlactating stage for T 3 and T 4 was recorded in mares. In growing foals, body weight (BW) and age were positively correlated with T 3 and negatively correlated with T 4 , fT 4 and fT 3 . Weaning effects were shown for T 3 and fT 4 concentrations, indicating that weaning represents a severe stress and the presence of conspecific does not reduce psychological stress in this phase. Lambs showed significant decreased T 3 and elevated T 4 concentrations two weeks after weaning, with higher concentrations in both males and females compared to 24 h. Significant positive correlations were observed between BW and T 4 , fT 3

  6. Deriving the reference value from the circadian motor active patterns in the "non-dementia" population, compared to the "dementia" population: What is the amount of physical activity conducive to the good circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Ayuto; Kume, Yu; Tsugaruya, Megumi; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The circadian rhythm in older adults is commonly known to change with a decrease in physical activity. However, the association between circadian rhythm metrics and physical activity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine circadian activity patterns in older people with and without dementia and to determine the amount of physical activity conducive to a good circadian measurement. Circadian parameters were collected from 117 older community-dwelling people (66 subjects without dementia and 52 subjects with dementia); the parameters were measured continuously using actigraphy for 7 days. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to determine reference values for the circadian rhythm parameters, consisting of interdaily stability (IS), intradaily variability (IV), and relative amplitude (RA), in older subjects. The ROC curve revealed reference values of 0.55 for IS, 1.10 for IV, and 0.82 for RA. In addition, as a result of the ROC curve in the moderate-to-vigorous physical Activity (MVPA) conducive to the reference value of the Non-parametric Circadian Rhythm Analysis per day, the optimal reference values were 51 minutes for IV and 55 minutes for RA. However, the IS had no classification accuracy. Our results demonstrated the reference values derived from the circadian parameters of older Japanese population with or without dementia. Also, we determined the MVPA conducive to a good circadian rest-active pattern. This reference value for physical activity conducive to a good circadian rhythm might be useful for developing a new index for health promotion in the older community-dwelling population.

  7. Estimation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of two serologic tests for the detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a reference test (gold standard)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enøe, Claes; Andersen, Søren; Sørensen, Vibeke

    2001-01-01

    Latent-class models were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a polyclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a modified complement-fixation test (CFT) when there was no reference test. The tests were used for detection of antibodies against ...

  8. Analysis of the criteria used by the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) to justify the setting of numerical reference values. Report No. 277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Lochard, J.; Crouail, P.

    2005-05-01

    Following its Publication 60, ICRP has proposed nine reports specifying quantified values for dose constraints, action levels, etc. Some 25 values have been identified in all these publications. Since a few years, ICRP is preparing new recommendations in order to provide 'a more coherent and comprehensible system'. The objective of ICRP is to propose to select among the existing quantified values, a few values that could encompass all the other ones. These values are not intended to replace the currently recommended values which remain valid. In this perspective, IRSN has asked CEPN to make a review of all the values introduced in the ICRP publications in order to obtain a broad view of the rationalities proposed by ICRP in the determination of these values. The following Publications of ICRP have been reviewed: - ICRP 60 - 1990 - 1990 Recommendations of ICRP, - ICRP 62 - 1992 - Radiological protection in biomedical research, - ICRP 63 - 1992 - Principles for intervention for protection of the public in a radiological emergency, - ICRP 64 - 1993 - Protection from potential exposure: a conceptual framework, - ICRP 65 - 1993 - Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, - ICRP 68 - 1994 - Dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers, - ICRP 75 - 1997 - General principles for the radiation protection of workers, - ICRP 77 - 1997 - Radiological protection policy for the disposal of radioactive waste, - ICRP 81 - 2000 - Radiation protection recommendations as applied to the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste, - ICRP 82 - 2000 - Protection of the public in situations of prolonged radiation exposure. The different quantitative values found in these publications are presented in this report, grouped by type of value: individual dose limits, 'maximum' individual dose, dose constraints, exemption, action and intervention levels. The rationalities proposed by ICRP for setting these values are presented, mainly based on the quotation of ICRP

  9. Native T-1 reference values for nonischemic cardiomyopathies and populations with increased cardiovascular risk : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, Maaike; Slart, Riemer H J A; Hulleman, Enzo V; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Harst, Pim; Sosnovik, David E; Borra, Ronald J H; Prakken, Niek H J

    BACKGROUND: Although cardiac MR and T1 mapping are increasingly used to diagnose diffuse fibrosis based cardiac diseases, studies reporting T1 values in healthy and diseased myocardium, particular in nonischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) and populations with increased cardiovascular risk, seem

  10. Regional Distribution of Cerebral Blood Flow in childhood Measured by '99mTc-HMPAO SPECT: Reference Values of Semiquantitative Indices and Effect of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated in 12 children ranging in age from 2.7 to 10.0 yr using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. For quantitative analysis, 13 pairs of homologous regions of interest (ROIs) were created on three attenuation-corrected 18,8 mm thick transverse slices matching the cerebral cortical regions, deep gray matter, cerebellar hemisphere, and vascular territories, and the semiquantitative indices including 'right to left ratio [(mean count/voxel of homologous right ROI) /(mean count/voxel of homologous left ROI)] and regional index '(RI) [(mean count/voxel of a ROI)/(mean count/voxel of all ROIs of each hemisphere)] were calculated. Mean values of right to left ratios of homologous regions ranged from 0.984 to 1.028 in children under 5 yr (group 1) and from 0.982 to 1.012 in children between 5 and 10 yr (group 2), and the mean value ±2 S.D. for each region did not exceed 11%. and 12% in group 1 and group 2, respective]y. There were no statistically significant differences between the RIs of the homologous right and left regions. Significant differences of RIs were found both between vascular regions (p<0,0005 for group 1, and p=0,0001 for group 2) and between regions of cerebral cortices (p<0,0005 for group 1, and p<0,005 for group 2) with a relatively high value in the occipital cortex and the lower values in the cerebellum and deep gray matter among the regions of cerebral cortices in both groups. There were no significant differences between the Rls of corresponding regions of group 1 and group 2, except a significantly higher value of right deep gray matter in group 2 than in group 1 (p=0.0301). The RIs of the superior frontal cortex and deep gray matter showed to be positively correlated with age (superior frontal cortex; right: rs=0.5254, p=0.0814, left: rs=0.5919, p=0.0496/deep gray matter; right: rs=0.8246, p=0.0062, left: rs=0.6266, p=0,0377). The results suggest that the rCBF pattern of children approaches that of adults in an occipito

  11. Comparison of beverage consumption in adult populations from three different countries: do the international reference values allow establishing the adequacy of water and beverage intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-07-13

    Recommendations of adequate total water intake (aTWI) have been proposed by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)of the United States of America. However, there are differences in the approach used to support them: IOM recommendation is based on average intakes observed in NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and EFSA recommendation on a combination of observed intakes from 13 different European countries. Despite these recommendations of aTWI, the currently available scientifi c evidence is not sufficient to establish a cut-off value that would prevent disease, reduce the risk for chronic diseases or improve health status. To compare the average daily consumption of fluids (water and other beverages) in selective samples of population from Mexico, US and Spain, evaluating the quantity of fluid intake and understanding the contribution of each fluid type to the total fl uid intake. We also aim to determine if they reached adequate intake (AI) values, as defi ned by three different criteria: IOM, EFSA and water density. Three studies were compared: from Mexico, the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2012 (NHNS 2012); from US, the NHANES III 2005-2010 and from Spain the ANIBES study leaded in 2013. Different categories of beverages were used to establish the pattern of energy intake for each country. Only adult population was selected. TWI of each study was compared with EFSA and IOM AI recommendations, as well as applying the criterion of water density (mL/kcal). The American study obtained the higher value of total kcal/day from food and beverages (2,437 ± 13). Furthermore, the percentage of daily energy intake coming from beverages was, for American adults, 21%. Mexico was slightly behind with 19% and Spain ANIBES study registered only 12%. ANIBES showed signifi cantly low AI values for the overall population, but even more alarming in the case of males. Only 12% of men, in

  12. Optimization algorithm that generates the lowest ΔEab values to a reference standard based on spectral measurements of solid inks in offset lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Tapdrup

    2014-01-01

    ISO 12647-2 specifies CIELAB values for primary and secondary colors, but only tolerances for the primary solid colors. Press operators in lithography still favor density measurements for process control to assure quality and reproducibility during a production run. Since there is no direct...... relationship between density and CIELAB measurements, there is a gap between what the standard specifies and what the industry is actually doing. This research investigates the possibility of using the tolerances specified for the primary colors to achieve a better conformance of the secondary colors...

  13. [Reference values of iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols for the Venezuelan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Landaeta, Maritza; Adrianza de Baptista, Gertrudis; Murillo, Carolain; Rincón, Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Bilbao, Arantza; Anderson, Hazel; García, Doris; Franquiz, Julia; Puche, Rafael; Garcia, Omar; Quintero, Yurimay; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The review on iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols recommendations for Venezuela comprise the definitions adopted worldwide known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that include Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA for iron: 11 mg/day for infants Vitamin C: 40-50 mg/day for infants, 15-45 mg/ day for children, 75 mg/day for male adolescents, 65 mg/day for female adolescents, 90 mg/day for adult males, 75 mg/day for adult females, 80-85 mg/day during pregnancy and 115-120 mg/day during lactation. Recommendations for copper, selenium, molybdenum, vitamins E, K, carotenoids and polyphenols are also presented. These recommendations will help to design adequate and efficient policies that could help to avoid or to treat the consequences derived from the deficiency or the excess of these nutrients.

  14. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  15. [Reference values for cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in a population of Hispanic children from 6 to 11 y, in the northern border of Mexico and the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Berumen, Ever; Gómez Miranda, Luis Mario; Torres Balcázar, Elías; Padilla Alvarado, Victor Hugo; Renteria, Ivan

    2014-10-31

    Overweight and obesity in children in the Mexico-USA border have evolved differently to the rest of their respective countries. New reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose are required to treatment. To determine the reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years in the Mexico-USA border. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study. A population of Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years of both boys and girls, belonging to three public institutions in the cities of Ensenada and Chihuahua, randomly selected, were studied. The study variables were the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (G). From 300 subjects studied just 54 children completed the study. Higher average values of TC (168.7 ± 27.2 mg / dl), TG (80.6 ± 48.4 mg / dl) and G (88.3 ± 8.9 mg / dl) were observed. An additional behavior was founded, never reported previously to the limit of the knowledge of the authors; glucose levels of the children studied decreased with increased of cholesterol and triglycerides. To discard a random relationship between the variables, the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined between waist circumference and BMI, verifying an inverse association with G and direct with the TG. The reference values for Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years living on the northern border of Mexico-USA differ with respect to the national average values of the countries studied. Further studies are needed in larger populations to confirm the trend ob served in glucose levels of normal children, overweight and obese. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. DETERMINATION OF REFERENCE VALUES FOR TREC AND KREC IN DRY BLOOD SPOTS OF NEWBORNS FROM DIFFERENT GESTATION AGES IN SVERDLOVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Deryabina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a preparatory stage for implementation of genetic testing for severe combined immunodeficiency under a neonatal screening program, a study was performed in Sverdlovsk Region which concerned quantitative determination of T and B cell neogenesis markers (TREC and KREC, respectively in blood of conditionally healthy newborns. Archived samples of dry blood spots collected in test-forms for routine neonatal screening were used as biological material for the study of full-term 26 girls and 26 boys who did not exhibit serious illnesses during first year of their life. In addition, we investigated potential effects of foetal gestational age upon the number of TREC and KREC in preterm infants. Blood samples from 55 preterm infants (23 to 36 gestational weeks were also examined. It was shown that the levels of TREC and KREC increased sequentially with the increased gestation terms, but the quantitative changes of markers showed different dynamics. In this respect, the recommended terms of blood sample collection for SCID screening is entirely consistent with timing of blood sampling for routine newborn screening. An alternative result was obtained with a complete absence of TREC or KREC in blood sample of a newborn, irrespectively of prematurity degree (at valid copy numbers of a control gene which should serve as an indication for immediate consulting of the child by immunologist and in-depth immunological examination, because it may be a first prognostic sign of a fatal disease. In order to obtain correct cut-off levels for TREC/KREC, additional studies are needed on a larger sample of newborns (1.000 to 5.000, followed by validation of the obtained reference boundaries in studies involving patients with different forms of primary immunodeficiencies. 

  17. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  18. A gluten-free vegan meal for gastric emptying scintigraphy: establishment of reference values and its utilization in the evaluation of diabetic gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Vijay Harish; Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the preparation of radiolabeled idli (savory cake) meal for use as an alternate to the egg white sandwich (EWS) meal in gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES). Furthermore, the aim of this study was to establish normal emptying rates for this meal and present our experience in using it in the evaluation of diabetic gastroparesis. The meal was prepared using a universally available packaged mix labeled with 1 mCi 99mTc sulfur colloid, and the stability of labeling was tested up to 4 hours in simulated gastric fluid. One hundred thirteen healthy volunteers (aged 20-78 years; 54 women, 59 men) underwent GES study using the idli meal. Gastric retention at one-half, 1, 2, and 4 hours after ingestion of the meal was estimated, and the normal limits were set using the fifth and 95th percentile values at each period. Having established its normal emptying rates, the idli meal was further used to evaluate 70 patients suspected with diabetic gastroparesis. The idli meal, with a calorific value ≈282 kcal, has a relatively higher fat content (8% of total mass) than EWS. More than 96% of 99mTc sulfur colloid remained bound to the meal after 4 hours suspension in simulated gastric fluid. Gastric retention greater than 30% and greater than 6% at 2 hours and 4 hours, respectively, indicated delayed gastric emptying, whereas retention less than 30% at 1 hour suggested rapid emptying. Among patients suspected with diabetic gastroparesis, delayed gastric emptying was identified in 76%, and rapid emptying was seen in 4.2%. Radiolabeled idli meal is a good alternative to EWS meal for routine GES, especially among patients with specific dietary restrictions.

  19. The clinical value and limitation of exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, with special reference to single vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Tatsuo; Shibata, Nitaro; Shimizu, Yoichi; Itoh, Yukiyoshi; Abe, Mitsuki; Tanaka, Toshihide; Matsuda, Mitsukazu; Obunai, Yoshio

    1984-01-01

    The clinical value and limitation of exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were studied in 40 patients with no previous history of myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography was performed on all the patients. Compared with thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, treadmill exercise electrocardiography showed greater sensitivity (84% versus 63%) in diagnosing coronary stenosis of more than 50%. In patients with single vessel discase, the results of sensitivities were similar (75% to 65%). However, the specificity of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was higher than that of exercise electrocardiography (100% compared to 63%). Nine patients with evidence of significant lesions using coronary angiography, showed normal conditions using exercise electrocardiography and thallium myocardial scintigraphy examinations as well. All these patients had a history of chest pain, and 4 of them experienced chest pain during exercise. In cases with false negative exercise tests, the clinical symptoms and exercise-induced chest pain seem to be important diagnostic signs when evaluating patients with coronary artery disease. In 15 patients with isolated single vessel coronary artery disease (more than 75% stenosis of luminal diameter in only one vessel), the site of ST segment depression did not coincide with the stenotic lesion. The site of reversible perfusion defect on thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy did, however, coincide with the site of myocardial ishemia and the stenotic lesion in most cases. (author)

  20. [Body condition and metabolic stability as the basis for high milk yield and undisturbed fertility in dairy cows--a contribution for deduction of reference values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, R; Arndt, G; Schröder, U; Gelfert, C C

    2004-05-01

    The target of this study was to describe the interactions between body condition and various descriptors of yield and fertility. It was aimed to identify an optimal conditional range to be used in herd management which combines high milk yield with acceptable fertility traits and general health. For this purpose, backfat thickness was measured by ultrasound at 46111 dairy cows on 78 different farms and was subsequently related to production variables. Negative energy balance is getting more intense and prolonged with increasing milk yield. However a conditional nadir below 10 mm leads to decreased milk production. To reach a high production level without an increasing incidence of health disorders, conditional nadir should not decline below 13 mm backfat thickness on herd average. Lower value only lead to negligibly higher milk yield but cause a distinctively higher risk of fertility problems and culling. High herd yields do not have to be at expense of reproduction performance and can be achieved without extreme body condition losses. An efficient herd management can offset depression in fertility, which commonly is combined with increasing milk yield. A standard curve for backfat thickness throughout lactation is suggested to be used in dairy herd management.

  1. Ocular findings and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Cassandra D; Aquino, Susette; Woodhouse, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To describe ophthalmic examination findings and standard diagnostic test results in 2 penguin species. Macaroni & Southern Rockhopper Penguins. Complete ophthalmic examinations including Schirmer tear test (STT), modified phenol red thread test (PTT), tonometry, and echobiometry were performed on penguins housed at the Detroit Zoo. Mean and standard deviation of ophthalmic tests are reported and compared for significance using two sample t-tests with significance set at P Penguins, and 68% of Rockhopper Penguins. There were anterior segment anomalies in all eyes with cataracts consistent with lens-induced uveitis. The mean modified PTT for the Macaronis was 24.7 ± 6.37 mm/15 s and 25.1 ± 7.07 mm/15 s in the Rockhoppers. The mean STT value for the Macaronis was 12.1 ± 5.43 mm/min and 11.0 ± 3.96 mm/min in the Rockhoppers. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) for the Macaronis was 21.9 ± 7.05 mmHg measured by applanation tonometry and 29.1 ± 7.16 mmHg using rebound tonometry. The Rockhoppers had a mean IOP of 20.0 ± 5.77 mmHg and 24.1 ± 5.09 mmHg for applanation and rebound tonometry, respectively. In both populations, there was a significant difference in IOP measurement between the two instruments. In the Macaroni penguins, the presence of cataracts correlated significantly with increased age and lower IOP readings. Anterior chamber distance and axial globe length were significantly greater in males than in females in both penguin species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  3. Economic Radar of the Sustainable Energy Sector in the Netherlands. Employment, production, investments, innovation, value added, trade. Trends and references 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuik, J.; Zult, D.; Van Rossum, M.

    2012-06-15

    This monitor of the sustainable energy sector published by Statistics Netherlands (CBS) in 2012 is a follow-up to the study conducted in 2011. This 2012 study was commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI). Detailed economic indicators for the sustainable energy sector are presented for 2008 and 2009. Efforts for the compilation of more recent economic indicators are discussed, and the results for these more up-to-date figures are presented. The relevance of monitoring the sustainable energy sector lies in evaluating economic opportunities of the Netherlands in the global transformation towards a renewable energy supply and demand system and more attention for energy conservation. Several geopolitical, economic and environmental developments motivate policies focused on promoting the energy transformation in the Netherlands. Renewable energy contributes to securing supplies, diversification of energy supply, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and creation of green jobs. The sustainable energy sector - which cuts across all industries of the Standard Industrial Classification (NACE) - consists of companies and institutions that physically produce renewable energy, as well as those active in the value chains that precede this physical production. Apart from renewable energy, the sustainable energy sector also includes companies and institutions that focus on energy conservation activities. As this monitor contains only figures on the recent past, it is not a tool for identifying future opportunities. It is more a tool for evaluating policies aimed at promoting economic opportunities in the sustainable energy sector. The physical data on the production of renewable energy (Protocol monitoring renewable energy) and the data derived from the 'Economic radar for the sustainable energy sector' can be very valuable in supplementing each other. Between 1990 and 2011, the share of renewable energy in total energy

  4. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G.; Haras, G.; Mann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  5. Five-class height-weight mean and SD system applying Estonian reference values of height-weight mean and SD for systematization of seventeen-year-old conscripts' anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintsi, Mart; Kaarma, Helje; Aunapuu, Marina; Arend, Andres

    2007-03-01

    A study of 739 conscripts aged 17 years from the town of Tartu and from the Tartu county was performed. Height, weight, 33 anthropometric measurements and 12 skinfolds were measured. The data were classified into five height-weight mean and SD-classes applying the Estonian reference values for this age and sex (Grünberg et al. 1998). There were 3 classes with conformity between height and weight class: 1--small (small height and small weight), 2--medium (medium height and medium weight), 3--large (large height and large weight), 4--weight class dominating (pyknomorphic) and 5--height class dominating (leptomorphic). It was found, that in classes 1, 2 and 3 the height and weight increase was in accordance with the increase in all heights, breadths and depths, circumferences, skinfolds, body fat, muscle and bone mass. In class 4 circumferences, skinfolds, body fat and muscle mass were bigger. In class 5 all heights and the relative bone mass were bigger. The present investigation confirms the assumption that the five height-weight mean and SD five-class system applying the Estonian reference values for classifying the anthropometric variables is suitable for seventeen-year-old conscripts. As well the border values of 5%, 50% and 95% for every anthropometrical variable in the five-classes were calculated, which may be helpful for practical classifying.

  6. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  7. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  8. Dietary reference values for vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    synthesis and dietary sources, can be used as a biomarker of vitamin D status in adult and children populations. The Panel notes that the evidence on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and musculoskeletal health outcomes in adults, infants and children, and adverse pregnancy-related health...

  9. Biochemical reference values in elderly black subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... were those included in the Sequential Multiple Analyser. Computer profile because it includes the 20 ... (AST, EC 2.6.1.1), lactate dehydrogenase (LD, EC 1.1.1.27) and l'-gluramyl transferase (GGT, EC 2.3.2.2). ... cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides and uric acid. Commercial quality control (QC) sera were ...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  11. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  12. Valores de referência de alguns parâmetros fisiológicos de ratos do Biotério Central da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Reference values of some physiological parameters in the rats of the Central Biotery at the State University of Maringá, State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Araújo Dantas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer valores de referência de alguns parâmetros fisiológicos (bioquímicos, hematológicos e urinários de ratos provenientes do Biotério Central da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados ratos machos, normais e saudáveis da linhagem Wistar, com peso de 200 a 220 g. Foiavaliado o perfil hematológico (leucócitos: totais, mononucleares e polimorfonucleares e a determinação bioquímica de vários constituintes plasmáticos (aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase, glicose, creatinina, fosfatase alcalina, fosfatase ácida, uréia, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, triglicerídeos, teste de tolerância à glicose GTT e urinários (glicose, creatinina. É imprescindível que cada laboratório estabeleça seu conjunto devalores de referência dos animais normais, de acordo com a dieta, a linhagem, o sexo e a idade de cada espécie utilizada. Assim, através deste trabalho, o pesquisador pode identificar desvios dos parâmetros, facilitando a escolha dos animais para o estudo.The present work was carried out to establish reference values for some physiological parameters (biochemical, hematological and urinary in rats proceeding from the Central Biotery at the State University of Maringá, State of Paraná. Normal male Wistar rats weighing 200-220 g were used. The hematological profile (total leukocytes, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells count, theclinic chemistry (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, urea, cholesterol, HDL-c, triglycerides, glucose tolerance and urinary parameters (glucose and creatinine were determined. Each laboratory should establish a database of reference values for their animals, according to diet, strain, sex and age foreach species used. Thus, in this work, a database is provided regarding reference values of some physiological parameters in rats for use

  13. [Substance monograph on bisphenol A (BPA) - reference and human biomonitoring (HBM) values for BPA in urine. Opinion of the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used for the production of polycarbonates and synthetic resins. Many of the items that contain BPA, for example polycarbonate bottles and coated cans, are commodities from which BPA can migrate into food and drinks, resulting in ubiquitous exposure of the population. Numerous animal studies and in vitro tests have shown that BPA acts as an "endocrine disruptor". Because of the still incomplete understanding of the complex and contradictory effects of BPA at doses below the NOAEL, the toxicological significance of recent findings is uncertain. The German HBM Commission takes notice that the risk assessment is currently in flux and that in the EU and other countries precautionary bans on BPA have been introduced. In the light of the extensive and growing body of literature, the Commission does not see itself in a position to resolve this controversy, nor to answer the question of the relevance of observed effects of low BPA doses on human health. The Commission has derived reference values (RV95) and TDI-based HBM I values for total BPA in urine. The RV95 values are 30 μg/l for 3-5 year olds, 15 μg/l for 6-14 year olds, and 7 μg/l for 20-29 year olds. The HBM I value for children is 1.5 mg/l and 2.5 mg/l for adults, respectively. The Commission emphasizes that the HBM values will require immediate adjustment should the current TDI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day be changed. For the practical application of HBM, the Commission recommends an assessment based on the RV95. Confirmed exceedance of the RV95 by repeat measurements should prompt a search for the possible source(s), following the ALARA principle.

  14. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  15. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  16. Establishment of reference values in a healthy population and interpretation of serum PTH concentrations in hemodialyzed patients according to the KDIGO Guidelines using the Lumipulse® G whole PTH (3rd generation) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, Etienne; Salsé, Margot; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Watar, Florence; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Delanaye, Pierre; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2018-04-01

    3rd generation PTH assays only detect the bioactive 1-84 fragment. Since standardization is still lacking, each new PTH assay requires to establish reference values and to assess the impact in the medical care of the mineral and bone disorders in hemodialyzed patients. Using Fujirebio Lumipulse G wPTH assay, serum PTH levels were measured in a population of 439 healthy subjects from France and Belgium PTH levels were also determined in 119 hemodialyzed patients. These patients were classified according to the KDIGO recommendation. Reference range was found to be 6.5 (90%CI: 6.0-7.0) - 41.8 (90% CI: 38.1-43.7). In hemodialysis patients, Passing-Bablock regression between 3rd generation PTH from Fujirebio and DiaSorin was DiaSorin = 1.01 xFujirebio-2.4 with a slope not different from 1.0(95%CI: 0.96-1.04) and a non-significant intercept, ranging from -6.0 to 0.1. Hemodialysis patients with a PTH concentration below 2-fold the Upper Limit of Normality (ULN), within the KDIGO range and upper 9-fold upper limit were respectively 33.6%, 54.6%, 11.8% (Fujirebio Lumipulse) and 36.1%, 51.3% and 12.6% (Diasorin Liaison). We determined a reference range with the 3rd generation PTH assay from Fujirebio. In a hemodialysis population, 3rd generation assays from Fujirebio and DiaSorin provide similar results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that we can show similar PTH results obtained by 2 different 3rd generation PTH assays in healthy subjects and hemodialyzed patients without mathematically processing them. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Which are the cut-off values of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) liver stiffness measurements predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Taşcău, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com; Şirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Jurchiş, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis.

  18. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ganji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569. Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L. Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001 and age (p < 0.001 but not with sex (p = 0.057. In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status.

  19. Reference values for chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger blood cells and serum biochemical parameters Valores de referência para os parâmetros das células e bioquímica sangüínea da chinchila (Chinchilla laniger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tális de Oliveira Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Raising chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger for commercial purpose has increased significantly; however, hematological and serum biochemical reference values have not yet been determined for chinchillas raised in south Brazil. Establishing blood cells and serum biochemistry reference values might be helpful to evaluate health status of chinchillas and might be used as a tool by clinicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the reference values for blood cells and serum biochemistry of Chinchilla laniger. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture from 16 adult males, at the time they were killed to remove the fur coat, and from 8 adult males anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. Blood cell counts and serum biochemistry analysis were performed using standard techniques and the results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Analysis of blood parameters from post-mortem cardiac punctured and from anesthetized chinchillas indicated that blood samples from anesthetized chinchillas had higher PCV, Hemoglobin, MCHC and WBC (P A criação de chinchila (Chinchilla laniger com objetivos comerciais tem crescido muito nos últimos anos. No entanto, os valores de referência para os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos não foram ainda determinados para chinchilas criados no sul do Brasil. O estabelecimento dos valores de referência para esses parâmetros pode servir de auxílio para a avaliação da saúde das chinchilas e servir de auxílio diagnóstico para o clínico. Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar os valores de referência das células e da bioquímica sangüínea da Chinchilla laniger. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas por meio de punção cardíaca de 16 machos adultos no momento em que os animais foram mortos para remoção da pele, e de 8 machos adultos após anestesia com xylazina e ketamina. A contagem das células sangüíneas e a análise dos parâmetros bioquímicos foram feitas utilizando-se métodos padronizados em

  20. Valores de referência para o teste de caminhada com carga progressiva em indivíduos saudáveis: da distância percorrida às respostas fisiológicas Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in healthy subjects: from the walk distance to physiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zuniga Dourado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar valores de referência para a distância caminhada (DC e para respostas fisiológicas durante o teste de caminhada com carga progressiva (TCCP e desenvolver equações preditivas para essas variáveis em adultos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 103 participantes saudáveis com idade > 40 anos (54 mulheres e 49 homens. Os participantes usaram um sistema de análise de gases durante o TCCP. Consumo de oxigênio (VO2, liberação de gás carbônico, ventilação minuto, FC, DC e velocidade máxima da caminhada (VMC foram obtidos como desfechos primários. Avaliamos também a força de preensão manual (FPM e a massa magra corporal (MMC. RESULTADOS: Os modelos de regressão utilizando variáveis fisiológicas, DC e VMC ajustados por idade, massa corporal, estatura e sexo apresentaram valores de R² entre 0,40 e 0,65 (para FC e pico de VO2, respectivamente. Os modelos incluindo MMC e FPM não aumentaram consideravelmente os valores de R² na previsão do pico de VO2, embora esses modelos tenham aumentado discretamente os valores do R² para DC e VMC (8% e 12%, respectivamente. As variáveis DC, VMC e DC × massa corporal, respectivamente, explicaram 76,7%, 73,3% e 81,2% da variabilidade do pico de VO2. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados originaram valores de referência para a DC e respostas fisiológicas ao TCCP, que podem ser estimados adequadamente por características demográficas e antropométricas simples em adultos saudáveis com idade > 40 anos. O TCCP poderia ser utilizado na avaliação da capacidade física na população geral de adultos e no desenvolvimento de programas de caminhada individualizados.OBJECTIVE: To determine reference values for incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD and peak physiological responses during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT, as well as to develop a series of predictive equations for those variables in healthy adults. METHODS: We evaluated 103 healthy participants > 40 years of

  1. Radioactive isotopes in soils of Rio de Janeiro state: reference values, spatial distribution and correlation with environmental factors; Isotopos radioativos em solos do Estado do Rio de Janeiro: valores de referencia, distribuicao espacial e correlacao com fatores ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Carlos Araujo

    2016-07-01

    In the Rio de Janeiro State is located most of the Brazilian facilities for nuclear power generation and in the north region of the State is located a facility for concentration of heavy metals containing in monazite sand, which contain thorium and uranium associated. In addition, phosphate fertilizers, which contain natural radionuclides, are intensively used for agricultural purposes. A regional scale study was carried out in the state of Rio de Janeiro aimed to determine the levels of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 137}Cs in surface soils, their geographic distribution, quality reference values (QRV) and the external dose which the population is potentially exposed. With this aim, 263 samples of surface soil were collected in the overall State, representing all soil and geology types, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentrations were within the world average values for soils. The activity concentration varied from 12 to 1029 Bq kg{sup -1} to {sup 40}K (geometric mean 111 Bq kg{sup -1}), from 3.5 to 100 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra (geometric mean 30 Bq kg{sup -1}) and from 5.4 to 314 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra (geometric mean 67 Bq kg{sup -1}). Higher concentrations were found in soils with igneous and metamorphic origin (Leptosol and Cambisol), while the lowest concentration were observed to the Podzol, of sedimentary origin. The lowest concentrations of {sup 226}Ra were observed in soils occurring on a rock with a high grade of metamorphism (granulite). The QRV values were calculated, according to Brazilian law in the 75{sup th} and 90{sup th} percentiles. However, due to the large dispersion of concentration data, when values of VRQs for each soil class are compared, significant differences among them are found. The results put in the view the restriction of using the 75{sup th} percentile and a unique QRV by radionuclide to all soil classes. Therefore, values of QRVs are suggested based on

  2. TECHNIQUE OF ESTIMATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. Part 2. Dependence on the characteristics of collimator, optical sourse-distance indicator, treatment field, lasers and treatment couch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Tsitovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linac, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error (difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value in determining this value, depending on the characteristics of the collimator, the source to surface distance pointer, lasers, radiation field and treatment table. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the collimator, the deviation of the collimator rotation isocenter, the sourcesurface distance pointer accuracy, field size accuracy, the accuracy of lasers and treatment table positioning were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has the error in the optical SSD indication and the error in the lasers position in the plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3.64 % for the energy of 6 MV. Dose errors caused by error in the field size were different for two photon energies, and reached 2.54 % for 6 MeV and 1.33% for 18 MeV. Errors caused by the rest of the characteristic do not exceed 1 %. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of these devices integrated in linac in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation on the basis of the calibration of radiation output in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence dosimetric

  3. Valores de referência e influência da idade no eritrograma de fêmeas bovinas d