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Sample records for immuno gold nanocages

  1. Antibacterial properties and mechanisms of gold-silver nanocages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulan; Wan, Jiangshan; Miron, Richard J.; Zhao, Yanbin; Zhang, Yufeng

    2016-05-01

    Despite the number of antibiotics used in routine clinical practice, bacterial infections continue to be one of the most important challenges faced in humans. The main concerns arise from the continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the difficulties faced with the pharmaceutical development of new antibiotics. Thus, advancements in the avenue of novel antibacterial agents are essential. In this study, gold (Au) was combined with silver (Ag), a well-known antibacterial material, to form silver nanoparticles producing a gold-silver alloy structure with hollow interiors and porous walls (gold-silver nanocage). This novel material was promising in antibacterial applications due to its better biocompatibility than Ag nanoparticles, potential in photothermal effects and drug delivery ability. The gold-silver nanocage was then tested for its antibacterial properties and the mechanism involved leading to its antibacterial properties. This study confirms that this novel gold-silver nanocage has broad-spectrum antibacterial properties exerting its effects through the destruction of the cell membrane, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of cell apoptosis. Therefore, we introduce a novel gold-silver nanocage that serves as a potential nanocarrier for the future delivery of antibiotics.

  2. Gold nanocages for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Laura; Avvakumova, Svetlana; Galbiati, Elisabetta; Locarno, Silvia A.; Macchi, Chiara; D'Alfonso, Laura; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Magni, Paolo; Collini, Maddalena; Romeo, Sergio; Chirico, Giuseppe; Prosperi, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanocages (AuNCs) have been shown to be a useful tool both for imaging and hyperthermia therapy of cancer, thanks to their outstanding optical properties, low toxicity and facile functionalization with targeting molecules, including peptides and antibodies. In particular, hyperthermia is a minimally invasive therapy which takes advantage of the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles to efficiently convert the absorbed light into heat. Here, we use AuNCs for the selective targeting and imaging of prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we report the hyperthermic effect characterization of the AuNCs both in solution and internalized in cells. Prostate cancer cells were irradiated at different exposure times, with a pulsed near infrared laser, and the cellular viability was evaluated by confocal microscopy.

  3. Gold Nanocage-Photosensitizer Conjugates for Dual-Modal Image-Guided Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Avinash; Jenkins, Samir V.; Jeon, Mansik; Wu, Zhijin; Kim, Chulhong; Chen, Jingyi; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that gold nanocage-photosensitizer conjugates can enable dual image-guided delivery of photosensitizer and significantly improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in a murine model. The photosensitizer, 3-devinyl-3-(1'-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide (HPPH), was noncovalently entrapped in the poly(ethylene glycol) monolayer coated on the surface of gold nanocages. The conjugate is stable in saline solutions, while incubation in protein rich solutions leads to gradual unloading of the HPPH, which can be monitored optically by fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. The slow nature of the release in turn results in an increase in accumulation of the drug within implanted tumors due to the passive delivery of gold nanocages. Furthermore, the conjugate is found to generate more therapeutic singlet oxygen and have a lower IC50 value than the free drug alone. Thus the conjugate shows significant suppression of tumor growth as compared to the free drug in vivo. Short-term study showed neither toxicity nor phenotypical changes in mice at therapeutic dose of the conjugates or even at 100-fold higher than therapeutic dose of gold nanocages. PMID:24465274

  4. Gold nanocage assemblies for selective second harmonic generation imaging of cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeritte, Teresa; Fan, Zhen; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Duan, Jinsong; Pachter, Ruth; Ray, Paresh C

    2014-01-20

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging using near infrared laser light is the key to improving penetration depths, leading to biological understanding. Unfortunately, currently SHG imaging techniques have limited capability due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio, resulting from the low SHG efficiency of available dyes. Targeted tumor imaging over nontargeted tissues is also a challenge that needs to be overcome. Driven by this need, in this study, the development of two-photon SHG imaging of live cancer cell lines selectively by enhancement of the nonlinear optical response of gold nanocage assemblies is reported. Experimental results show that two-photon scattering intensity can be increased by few orders of magnitude by just developing nanoparticle self-assembly. Theoretical modeling indicates that the field enhancement values for the nanocage assemblies can explain, in part, the enhanced nonlinear optical properties. Our experimental data also show that A9 RNA aptamer conjugated gold nanocage assemblies can be used for targeted SHG imaging of the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Experimental results with the HaCaT normal skin cell lines show that bioconjugated nanocage-based assemblies demonstrate SHG imaging that is highly selective and will be able to distinguish targeted cancer cell lines from other nontargeted cell types. After optimization, this reported SHG imaging assay could have considerable application for biology. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Interstitial diffuse radiance spectroscopy of gold nanocages and nanorods in bulk muscle tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabtchak S

    2015-02-01

    converted to the relative density of photons incident on the inclusion. Finally, the experimentally measured quantities were expressed via the relative perturbation and arranged into the classical Beer–Lambert law that allowed one to extract the extinction coefficients of various types of Au nanoparticles in both the transmission and back reflection geometries. It was shown that the spatial variation of perturbation could be described as 1/r dependence, where r is the distance between the inclusion and the detector. Due to a larger absorption cross section, Au nanocages produced greater perturbations than Au nanorods of equal particle concentration, indicating a better suitability of Au nanocages as contrast agents for optical measurements in turbid media. Individual measurements from different inclusions were combined into detectability maps.Keywords: gold nanocages, gold nanorods, turbid media, porcine muscles, diffuse radiance spectroscopy, Beer–Lambert law, perturbation

  6. Formation of substrate-based gold nanocage chains through dealloying with nitric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziren Yan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanocages have raised great interest because of their new properties and wide applications. Here, we report on the use of galvanic replacement reactions to synthesize substrate-supported Ag–Au nanocages from silver templates electrodeposited on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO film coated glass. The residual Ag in the composition was dealloyed with 10% nitric acid. It was found that chains of Au nanocages were formed on the substrate surface during dealloying. When the concentration of HNO3 increased to 20%, the structures of nanocages were damaged and formed crescent or semi-circular shapes. The transfer process on the substrate surface was discussed.

  7. Development of silver/gold nanocages onto indium tin oxide glass as a reagentless plasmonic mercury sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Daodan; Hu, Tingting; Chen, Na [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangwei@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Multi-scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Di, Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A reagentless, sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of Hg(II) was developed. • Silver–gold nanocages were prepared on the transparent indium tin oxide coated glass surface. • The nanomaterials could act as optical sensing probe as well as reducing agent. • The plasmonic sensor could be used to detect mercury ions in field analysis. Abstract: We demonstrate the utilization of silver/gold nanocages (Ag/Au NCs) deposited onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) film glass as the basis of a reagentless, simple and inexpensive mercury probe. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak wavelength was located at ~800 nm. By utilizing the redox reaction between Hg²⁺ ions and Ag atoms that existed in Ag/Au NCs, the LSPR peak of Ag/Au NCs was blue-shifted. Thus, we develop an optical sensing probe for the detection of Hg²⁺ ions. The LSPR peak changes were lineally proportional to the concentration of Hg²⁺ ions over the range from 10 ppb to 0.5 ppm. The detection limit was ~5 ppb. This plasmonic probe shows good selectivity and high sensitivity. The proposed optical probe is successfully applied to the sensing of Hg²⁺ in real samples.

  8. Fine-tuned h-ferritin nanocage with multiple gold clusters as near-infrared kidney specific targeting nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cuiji; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Zhonghe; Ji, Tianjiao; Tian, Yanhua; Wu, Shan; Lei, Jianlin; Li, Jingyuan; Gao, Ning; Nie, Guangjun

    2015-02-18

    When stabilized and functionalized by biomolecules, noble metal (such as gold and silver) cluster-based hybrid nanocomposites have shown great promise for biomedical applications, due to their unique physiochemical properties originating from the inorganic elements and specific functionality and biocompatibility from their biological components. Although certain promise for bioimaging, biosensing, and biomimetic catalysis has been demonstrated, it is still a great challenge to integrate the defined functionality of the biomolecules with enhanced or novel physiochemical properties of the metal clusters, under control at the molecular level. Herein, based on molecular dynamics simulation of a gold (Au) cluster assembly, we designed near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent hybrid nanocomposites with multiple Au clusters within an apo H-ferritin (HFt) nanocage. The fluorescence quantum yield of near-infrared (NIR) Au-HFt is about 63.4% and the emission peak is 810 nm. The NIR Au-HFt is one of the first native protein-guided Au cluster-based nanomaterials for in vivo biowindow imaging. In vivo fluorescent imaging and quantification of Au element confirmed that Au-HFt not only retained the kidney targeting properties of HFt well (about 10 times higher Au concentration in kidney than in liver and spleen, the most common organs for nanoparticle accumulation), but also gained strong NIR imaging capability for live animals. The NIR Au-HFt showed powerful tissue penetrating ability, strong fluorescent efficiency, and excellent kidney targeting specificity. These results thus open new opportunities for kidney disease imaging and theranostic applications.

  9. Erythrocyte membrane is an alternative coating to polyethylene glycol for prolonging the circulation lifetime of gold nanocages for photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Ji-Gang; Wang, Limin; Gao, Feng; You, Ye-Zi; Xiong, Yujie; Yang, Lihua

    2014-10-28

    Gold nanocages (AuNCs), which have tunable near-infrared (NIR) absorption and intrinsically high photothermal conversion efficiency, have been actively investigated as photothermal conversion agents for photothermal therapy (PTT). The short blood circulation lifetime of AuNCs, however, limits their tumor uptake and thus in vivo applications. Here we show that such a limitation can be overcome by cloaking AuNCs with red blood cell (RBC) membranes, a natural stealth coating. The fusion of RBC membranes over AuNC surface does not alter the unique porous and hollow structures of AuNCs, and the resulting RBC-membrane-coated AuNCs (RBC-AuNCs) exhibit good colloidal stability. Upon NIR laser irradiation, the RBC-AuNCs demonstrate in vitro photothermal effects and selectively ablate cancerous cells within the irradiation zone as do the pristine biopolymer-stealth-coated AuNCs. Moreover, the RBC-AuNCs exhibit significantly enhanced in vivo blood retention and circulation lifetime compared to the biopolymer-stealth-coated counterparts, as demonstrated using a mouse model. With integrated advantages of photothermal effects from AuNCs and long blood circulation lifetime from RBCs, the RBC-AuNCs demonstrate drastically enhanced tumor uptake when administered systematically, and mice that received PPT cancer treatment modulated by RBC-AuNCs achieve 100% survival over a span of 45 days. Taken together, our results indicate that the long circulating RBC-AuNCs may facilitate the in vivo applications of AuNCs, and the RBC-membrane stealth coating technique may pave the way to improved efficacy of PPT modulated by noble metal nanoparticles.

  10. Observations of immuno-gold conjugates on influenza viruses using waveguide-mode sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C B Gopinath

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles were conjugated to an antibody (immuno-AuNP against A/Udorn/307/1972 (H3N2 influenza virus to detect viruses on a sensing plate designed for an evanescent field-coupled waveguide-mode sensor. Experiments were conducted using human influenza A/H3N2 strains, and immuno-AuNP could detect 8×10(5 PFU/ml (40 pg/µl intact A/Udorn/307/1972 and 120 pg/µl A/Brisbane/10/2007. Furthermore, increased signal magnitude was achieved in the presence of non-ionic detergent, as the virtual detection level was increased to 8×10(4 PFU/ml A/Udorn/307/1972. Immuno-AuNPs were then complexed with viruses to permit direct observation, and they formed a ring of confined nanodots on the membrane of both intact and detergent-treated viruses as directly visualized by scanning electron microscopy. With this complex the detection limit was improved further to 8×10(3 PFU/ml on anti-rabbit IgG immobilized sensing plate. These strategies introduce methods for observing trapped intact viruses on the sensing plates generated for optical systems.

  11. Near-infrared triggered co-delivery of doxorubicin and quercetin by using gold nanocages with tetradecanol to maximize anti-tumor effects on MCF-7/ADR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhipeng; Xu, Shaohui; Wang, Yun; Yu, Yanna; Li, Fangzhou; Zhu, Hao; Shen, Yuanyuan; Huang, Shengtang; Guo, Shengrong

    2017-09-01

    Previously, combination chemotherapy of doxorubicin (DOX) and quercetin (QUR) was developed to improve antitumor effects and reverse multidrug resistance and several biocompatible nanocarriers, such as liposomes and micelles, were validated for their targeted delivery. In this study, we report a near-infrared (NIR)-responsive drug delivery system based on DOX and QUR co-loaded gold nanocages (AuNCs) with biotin modification. The system was simply fabricated by filling the hollow interiors of AuNCs with tetradecanol (TD), a phase-change material with a melting point of 39°C, to control the drug release. The main cause of multidrug resistance (MDR) of DOX is the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which can be inhibited by QUR. Thus the combination chemotherapy of DOX and QUR may provide a promising strategy for MDR. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX and QUR at several fixed mass ratios was carried out and showed that the combination index (CI) was the smallest at the ratio of 1:0.2, indicating that the best synergistic effect was achieved. The resultant nanocomplex (abbreviated as BPQD-AuNCs) exhibited fast release (80% released in 20min) and strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7/ADR cells (IC50, 1.5μg/mL) under NIR irradiation. Additionally, BPQD-AuNCs were found to generate a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), to inhibit P-gp expression and ATP activity. Taken together, the results show that BPQD-AuNC is a prospective nano-delivery system for overcoming multidrug-resistant cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Controlling the loading of protein nanocages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the use of natural protein building blocks to assemble nanocages. Most common strategies for the loading of different protein nanocages suffer from a lack of numerical control over cargo loading. The aim of this thesis was to create a controllable method

  13. Porous graphene nanocages for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun; Du, Peng; Wen, Jianguo; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2017-03-07

    An active material composition includes a porous graphene nanocage and a source material. The source material may be a sulfur material. The source material may be an anodic material. A lithium-sulfur battery is provided that includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte, where the cathode of the lithium-sulfur battery includes a porous graphene nanocage and a sulfur material and at least a portion of the sulfur material is entrapped within the porous graphene nanocage. Also provided is a lithium-air battery that includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte, where the cathode includes a porous graphene nanocage and where the cathode may be free of a cathodic metal catalyst.

  14. Porous graphene nanocages for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun; Du, Peng; Wen, Jianguo; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2017-03-07

    An active material composition includes a porous graphene nanocage and a source material. The source material may be a sulfur material. The source material may be an anodic material. A lithium-sulfur battery is provided that includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte, where the cathode of the lithium-sulfur battery includes a porous graphene nanocage and a sulfur material and at least a portion of the sulfur material is entrapped within the porous graphene nanocage. Also provided is a lithium-air battery that includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte, where the cathode includes a porous graphene nanocage and where the cathode may be free of a cathodic metal catalyst.

  15. Ferritin Protein Nanocage Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, Takehiko; Behera, Rabindra K.; Ng, Ho-Leung; Bhattasali, Onita; Alber, Tom; Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Ferritin protein nanocages, self-assembled from four-α-helix bundle subunits, use Fe2+ and oxygen to synthesize encapsulated, ferric oxide minerals. Ferritin minerals are iron concentrates stored for cell growth. Ferritins are also antioxidants, scavenging Fenton chemistry reactants. Channels for iron entry and exit consist of helical hairpin segments surrounding the 3-fold symmetry axes of the ferritin nanocages. We now report structural differences caused by amino acid substitutions in the Fe2+ ion entry and exit channels and at the cytoplasmic pores, from high resolution (1.3–1.8 Å) protein crystal structures of the eukaryotic model ferritin, frog M. Mutations that eliminate conserved ionic or hydrophobic interactions between Arg-72 and Asp-122 and between Leu-110 and Leu-134 increase flexibility in the ion channels, cytoplasmic pores, and/or the N-terminal extensions of the helix bundles. Decreased ion binding in the channels and changes in ordered water are also observed. Protein structural changes coincide with increased Fe2+ exit from dissolved, ferric minerals inside ferritin protein cages; Fe2+ exit from ferritin cages depends on a complex, surface-limited process to reduce and dissolve the ferric mineral. High concentrations of bovine serum albumin or lysozyme (protein crowders) to mimic the cytoplasm restored Fe2+ exit in the variants to wild type. The data suggest that fluctuations in pore structure control gating. The newly identified role of the ferritin subunit N-terminal extensions in gating Fe2+ exit from the cytoplasmic pores strengthens the structural and functional analogies between ferritin ion channels in the water-soluble protein assembly and membrane protein ion channels gated by cytoplasmic N-terminal peptides. PMID:22362775

  16. Preparation of hollow spherical carbon nanocages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.-K.; Kang, H. Y.; Hong, C.-I; Huang, C.-H.; Chang, F.-C.; Wang, H. Paul, E-mail: wanghp@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    This study presents a new and simple method for the synthesis of hollow carbon spheres possessing nanocage sizes of 7.1, 14, and 20 nm in diameter. The core-shell (i.e., Cu-C) nanoparticles prepared by carbonization of the Cu{sup 2+}-cyclodextrin (CD) complexes at 573 K for 2 h was etched with HCl (6N) to yield the hollow carbon spheres. The carbon-shell of the hollow carbon nanospheres, which consisted of mainly diamond-like and graphite carbons, is not perturbed during etching. In addition to the nanocages, the hollow carbon nanospheres also possess micropores with an opening of 0.45 nm, allowing small molecules to diffuse in and out through the carbon-shell. Many elements (such as Zn{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+}) can therefore be filled into the nanocages of the hollow carbon nanospheres. With these unique properties, for instance, designable active species such as Cu and ZnO encapsulated in the carbon-shell can act as Cu-ZnO-C yolk-shell nanoreactors which are found very effective in the catalytic decomposition of methanol.

  17. Immuno-gold Localization of Recognition Prorein in the Self-Pollination Style of Shatinyu%沙田柚自交花柱中识别蛋白的免疫金定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛妙男; 李义平; 等

    2001-01-01

    应用免疫金标记抗体技术检测了沙田柚自花授粉后1~3 d花柱1/2 处通道细胞中识别蛋白定位分布,表明金颗粒依次定位于内质网,高尔基体、纤维壁,证实 沙田柚花柱1/2处通道细胞中金颗粒分布的变化与花粉管在花柱中生长受阻位点和时间一致 。1/2花柱通道细胞纤维壁上的糖蛋白是沙田柚不亲和反应的识别位点。%By immuno-gold,the recognition protein in the stylar passage cell of shatinyu(Citrus grandis var.Shatinyu Hort.)1-3 day s after self-pollination was examined.The gold-grains were located on the endo plasm reticulum,golgiosome and cellulose wall successively.The change of the go ld-grains distribution in the 1/2 stylar passage cell of shatinyu was identical to that of pollen tube stopping glycoprotein on the cellulose wall of 1/2 styla r passage cell which was the recognition site of self-incompatibility of shatin yu.

  18. Observation of immuno-labeled cells at high resolution using soft X-ray microscope at Ritsumeikan University SR Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, A [Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266, Tamura-cho, Nagahama, Shiga, 526-0829 (Japan); Takemoto, K; Kihara, H [Department of Physics, Kansai Medical University, 18-89 Uyamahigashi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1136 (Japan); Fukui, T; Yoshimura, Y; Namba, H [Department of Physical Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan); Okuno, K, E-mail: takemoto@makino.kmu.ac.j [SR Center, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-Higashi Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    Mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 cells were labeled with the heavy metal (silver and gold) and observed intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope. Microtubules, Golgi apparatus and early endosomes of NIH3T3 cells were stained with immuno-gold nanoparticles, and immuno-staining was intensified by silver or gold enhancement procedure. Using a transmission soft X-ray microscope beamline (BL12) at Ritsumeikan University SR center, we observed immuno-stained NIH3T3 cells with several wavelengths just below and above oxygen edge ({lambda} = 2.32 nm). Using this method, cytoskeleton (microtubules) and organelles (Golgi apparatus and early endosomes) were successfully imaged with high resolution. Thus, immuno-gold silver and gold enhancement technique is useful for specific labeling of intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope.

  19. Observation of immuno-labeled cells at high resolution using soft X-ray microscope at Ritsumeikan University SR Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A.; Takemoto, K.; Fukui, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Okuno, K.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

    2009-09-01

    Mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 cells were labeled with the heavy metal (silver and gold) and observed intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope. Microtubules, Golgi apparatus and early endosomes of NIH3T3 cells were stained with immuno-gold nanoparticles, and immuno-staining was intensified by silver or gold enhancement procedure. Using a transmission soft X-ray microscope beamline (BL12) at Ritsumeikan University SR center, we observed immuno-stained NIH3T3 cells with several wavelengths just below and above oxygen edge (λ = 2.32 nm). Using this method, cytoskeleton (microtubules) and organelles (Golgi apparatus and early endosomes) were successfully imaged with high resolution. Thus, immuno-gold silver and gold enhancement technique is useful for specific labeling of intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope.

  20. Combined time-lapse cinematography and immuno-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, B M; Goscicka, T; MacKenzie, J L; Gautam, A; Tate, M; Clark, J

    1990-04-01

    A method was developed to record interactions between mobile non-adherent immunocytes by time-lapse cinematography and then to study the same cells by immuno-electron microscopy, using monoclonal antibodies against surface components. For this purpose a modified stage was designed to fit an inverted microscope. The attachment included a device to cool the culture chamber with N2 gas, a micro-injector for monoclonal antibody and immuno-gold treatment, and two pairs of washing needles to change the medium without disturbance. The technique was first employed to study the formation of aggregates around the antigen-presenting cells in cultures containing cells from hyper-immunized animals. Recently peripheral blood cells from normal subjects and patients with immune deficiency syndromes were stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, cluster formation was recorded, and the cells were processed for immuno-electron microscopy.

  1. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G; Yan, Hao

    2016-02-10

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

  2. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology. PMID:26861509

  3. Sensitivity of BN nano-cages to caffeine and nicotine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Alireza; Baei, Mohammad T.; Tazikeh Lemeski, E.; Shahini, Malihe

    2014-12-01

    Adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules over B12N12 and B16N16 nano-cages were investigated by using first-principles calculations to define whether BN nano-cages are applicable for filtering or sensing caffeine and nicotine molecules. The chemisorption energy of nicotine molecule on BN nano-cages is very stronger than caffeine molecule. Upon the adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules, the electronic properties of the BN nano-cages can be significantly changed, being too much sensitized on the caffeine and nicotine adsorptions.

  4. Double-walled Au nanocage/SiO2 nanorattles: integrating SERS imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Guangcun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Qiangbin

    2015-02-25

    In this work, a novel type of nanomedical platform, the double-walled Au nanocage/SiO(2) nanorattle, is successfully fabricated by combining two "hollow-excavated strategies"--galvanic replacement and "surface-protected etching". The rational design of double-walled nanostructure based on gold nanocages (AuNCs) and hollow SiO(2) shells functionalized respectively with p-aminothiophenol (pATP) and Tat peptide simultaneously renders the nanoplatforms three functionalities: 1) the whole nanorattle serves as a high efficient drug carrier thanks to the structural characteristics of AuNC and SiO(2) shell with hollow interiors and porous walls; 2) the AuNC with large electromagnetic enhancement acts as a sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to track the internalization process of the nanorattles by human MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as well as an efficient photothermal transducer for localized hyperthermia cancer therapy due to the strong near-infrared absorption; 3) Tat-functionalized SiO(2) shell not only improves biocompatibility and cell uptake efficiency resulting in enhanced anticancer efficacy but also prevents the AuNCs from aggregation and provides the stability of AuNCs so that the SERS signals can be used for cell tracking in high fidelity. The reported chemistry and the designed nanostructures should inspire more interesting nanostructures and applications.

  5. Constructing Black Titania with Unique Nanocage Structure for Solar Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guilian; Xu, Jijian; Zhao, Wenli; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-11-23

    Solar desalination driven by solar radiation as heat source is freely available, however, hindered by low efficiency. Herein, we first design and synthesize black titania with a unique nanocage structure simultaneously with light trapping effect to enhance light harvesting, well-crystallized interconnected nanograins to accelerate the heat transfer from titania to water and with opening mesopores (4-10 nm) to facilitate the permeation of water vapor. Furthermore, the coated self-floating black titania nanocages film localizes the temperature increase at the water-air interface rather than uniformly heating the bulk of the water, which ultimately results in a solar-thermal conversion efficiency as high as 70.9% under a simulated solar light with an intensity of 1 kW m(-2) (1 sun). This finding should inspire new black materials with rationally designed structure for superior solar desalination performance.

  6. Receptor-Mediated Entry of Pristine Octahedral DNA Nanocages in Mammalian Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindigni, Giulia; Raniolo, Sofia; Ottaviani, Alessio;

    2016-01-01

    , more recently, identified as a tumor marker. For this purpose a truncated octahedral DNA nanocage functionalized with a single biotin molecule, which allows DNA cage detection through the biotin–streptavidin assays, was constructed. The results indicate that DNA nanocages are stable in biological...

  7. Preparation and preliminary use of a gold immuno-chromatography assay to detect the rabies virus%狂犬病毒胶体金检测试纸的制备及初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁成; 杨松涛; 王承宇; 高玉伟; 侯小强; 邹啸环; 黄耕; 夏咸柱

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop a rapid, convenient, and specific method of immunochromatography assay (ICA) to detect the rabies virus(RV) in clinical specimens from naturally infected dogs. Methods Colloidal gold was prepared through deoxidization of trisodium citrate, and anti-RV monoclonal antibody labeled with colloidal gold was used as a detector. Anti-RV polyclonal antibody and sheep anti-mouse IgG were blotted on a nitrocellulose membrane for test and control lines, respectively. Results Colloidal gold test strips revealed a positive reaction to 15 mouse brains infected with RV, and results of FAT were the same. Reactions to CDV, CPV, CCV and healthy mouse brains were negative. Conclusion Colloidal gold test strips rapidly, conveniently and specifically detect RV, so these strips are suited to clinical diagnosis of RV.%目的 利用胶体金免疫层析技术建立一种快速、简便、特异的狂犬病毒检测方法. 方法 采用柠檬酸三钠还原法制备胶体金标记鼠抗狂犬病毒单克隆抗体,包被于结合释放垫处,分别利用纯化的兔抗狂犬病毒多克隆抗体和羊抗鼠IgG包被检测线及质控线,组装胶体金检测试纸. 结果 制备的狂犬病毒胶体金试纸对15个接种狂犬病毒乳鼠脑组织的检测均为阳性,与FAT结果一致;对犬瘟热病毒、犬细小病毒及犬冠状病毒细胞培养液及9个狂犬病毒阴性乳鼠脑处理液的检测均为阴性. 结论 用制备的狂犬病毒胶体金试纸检测狂犬病毒快速、简便、特异,具有良好的临床应用前景.

  8. Hollow mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanocages as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoming; Zhu, Yihua; Jiang, Hongliang; Yang, Xiaoling; Liu, Yanyan; Su, Yunhe; Huang, Jianfei; Yao, Yifan; Li, Chunzhong

    2015-03-07

    The design and fabrication of efficient and inexpensive electrodes for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for energy-conversion technologies. Herein, high OER activity is achieved using hollow mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanocages synthesized via a Cu2O-templated strategy combined with coordination reaction. The NiCo2O4 nanostructures with a hollow cavity, large roughness and high porosity show only a small overpotential of ∼0.34 V at the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and a Tafel slope of 75 mV per decade, which is comparable with the performance of the best reported transition metal oxide based OER catalysts in the literature. Meanwhile, the positive impacts of the nanocage structure and the Ni incorporation on the electrocatalytic performance are also demonstrated by comparing the OER activities of NiCo2O4 nanocages with Co3O4 nanocages, NiCo2O4 nanoparticles and 20 wt% Pt/C. Moreover, the NiCo2O4 nanocages also manifest superior stability to other materials. All these merits indicate that the hollow mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanocages are promising electrocatalysts for water oxidation.

  9. Encapsulation of Gold Nanoparticles in a DNA Origami Cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhao; Jacovetty, Erica L.; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2011-01-21

    A critical challenge in nanoparticle (NP) surface functionalization is to label the NP surface with a single copy of a functional group or to display multiple, unique molecules on the NP surface with control of the orientation and intermolecular distance. This challenge was addressed with the construction of a spatially addressable, self-assembling DNA origami nanocage that encapsulates gold nanoparticles and interrupts its surface symmetry

  10. Placing and shaping liposomes with reconfigurable DNA nanocages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Yang, Yang; Pincet, Frederic; C. Llaguno, Marc; Lin, Chenxiang

    2017-07-01

    The diverse structure and regulated deformation of lipid bilayer membranes are among a cell's most fascinating features. Artificial membrane-bound vesicles, known as liposomes, are versatile tools for modelling biological membranes and delivering foreign objects to cells. To fully mimic the complexity of cell membranes and optimize the efficiency of delivery vesicles, controlling liposome shape (both statically and dynamically) is of utmost importance. Here we report the assembly, arrangement and remodelling of liposomes with designer geometry: all of which are exquisitely controlled by a set of modular, reconfigurable DNA nanocages. Tubular and toroid shapes, among others, are transcribed from DNA cages to liposomes with high fidelity, giving rise to membrane curvatures present in cells yet previously difficult to construct in vitro. Moreover, the conformational changes of DNA cages drive membrane fusion and bending with predictable outcomes, opening up opportunities for the systematic study of membrane mechanics.

  11. Studies on nano-colloidal gold dot immuno-filtration assay for detection of antibodies of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis%牛传染性鼻气管炎抗体的纳米胶体金斑点免疫渗滤法检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武军; 徐淑菲; 孔繁德; 唐泰山; 黄一帆; 白泉阳; 郑腾

    2012-01-01

    The infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus(IBRV) antigen from the virus culture without serum was coated on nitrocellulose(NC)membrane,then the test serum was added to NC membrane,and the color reaction was done with nano-colloidal gold-conjugated goat-anti-bovine IgG.The nano-colloidal gold dot immuno-filtration assay(DIFA) of detecting antibody of IBR was developed by this procedure.The whole procedure could be finished in 5 minutes.It was specific and had no cross-reaction with positive sera infected with bluetongue virus,bovine akabane virus,bovine leukaemia virus,bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal virus,hog cholera virus,swine pseudorabies virus or porcine parvovirus.The coincidence rate of the results of simultaneous determination of 300 sera with ELISA and DIFA was 94.4% for antibody of IBR.The results showed that DIFA is a specific,sensitive,visual,rapid and simple detecting method,which can be applied for earlier diagnosis and epidemiological investigation of IBR.%将无血清细胞培养的牛传染性鼻气管炎病毒(IBRV)抗原包被于硝酸纤维素膜,加入待检血清样品后,利用纳米胶体金标记的山羊抗牛IgG显色,建立了检测IBR抗体的纳米胶体金斑点免疫渗滤法检测试纸盒。整个试验过程仅需5min即可判断结果,与蓝舌病、牛赤羽病、牛地方流行性白血病、牛病毒性腹泻黏膜病、猪瘟、猪伪狂犬病和猪细小病毒病的阳性血清不发生交叉反应。将该法与用于IBR抗体检测的ELISA方法同时对300份临床牛血清样品进行IBR抗体检测,结果二者的阳性符合率达94.4%。结果表明,该法具有特异、敏感、快速可靠、效果直观、结果容易判断的特点,非常适用于IBR的早期诊断和流行病学调查。

  12. Preparation of gold tetrananocages and their photothermal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Nai-Qiang; Liu, Ling; Lei, Jie-Mei; Jiang, Tong-Tong; Zhu, Li-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Liang

    2013-09-01

    A gold tetrahedral nanocage, i.e., a tetrananocage, that converts near-infrared (NIR) light into heat was fabricated by using a simple method. Silver tetrahedra with good homogeneity and dispersity were synthesized by a hydrothermal route. Gold tetrananocages were obtained using a galvanic replacement reaction between Ag tetrahedra and HAuCl4 solution. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold tetrananocages was tuned from 412 nm to 850 nm through controlling the volume of HAuCl4 solution added. This Au tetrananocage can effectively convert NIR light into heat when the SPR couples with the exciting light. When cancer cells are cultured with the gold tetrananocages for several hours and irradiated, the gold tetrananocages destroy the cancer cells effectively and demonstrate themselves to be a good candidate for combating cancer.

  13. Azeotropic distillation assisted fabrication of silver nanocages and their catalytic property for reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jianzhong; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yunliang; Liang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenwei; Jiang, Xingmao

    2015-01-14

    Monodisperse silver nanocages (AgNCs) with specific interiors were successfully synthesized by an azeotropic distillation (AD) assisted method and exhibited excellent catalytic activities for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) due to the unique hollow morphology and small thickness of the silver shell.

  14. Synthesis of copper hydroxide branched nanocages and their transformation to copper oxide

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.

    2014-08-21

    Copper oxide nanostructures have been explored in the literature for their great promise in the areas of energy storage and catalysis, which can be controlled based on their shape. Herein we describe the synthesis of complex branched nanocages of copper hydroxide with an alternating stacked morphology. The size of the nanocages\\' core and the length of the branches can be controlled by the temperature and ratio of surfactant used, varying the length from 85 to 232 nm long, and varying the core size from 240 to 19 nm. The nanostructures\\' unique morphology forms by controlling the growth of an initial spherical seed, and the crystallization of the anisotropic arms. The Cu(OH)2 nanostructures can be converted to polycrystalline CuO branched nanocages and Cu2O nanoframes. We show that the branched nanocage morphology of CuO has markedly superior catalytic properties to previous reports with CuO nanomaterials, resulting in a rapid and efficient catalyst for C-S coupling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Maxi- and mini-ferritins: minerals and protein nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Loes E; Theil, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    Ferritins synthesize ferric oxide biominerals and are central to all life for concentrating iron and protection against oxidative stress from the ferrous and oxidant chemistry. The ferritin protein nanocages and biomineral synthesis are discussed in terms of wide biological distribution of the maxi-ferritins (24 subunit ± heme) and mini-ferritins (Dps) (12 subunit), conservations of the iron/oxygen catalytic sites in the protein cages, mineral formation (step i. Fe(II) entry and binding, step ii. O(2) or H(2)O(2) binding and formation of transition intermediates, step iii. release of differric oxo mineral precursors from active sites, step iv. nucleation and mineralization) properties of the minerals, and protein control of mineral dissolution and release of Fe(II). Pores in ferritin protein cages control iron entry for mineralization and iron exit after mineral dissolution. The relationship between phosphate or the presence of catalytically inactive subunits (animal L subunits) and ferritin iron mineral disorder is developed based on new information about contributions of ferritin protein cage structure to nucleation in protein cage subunit channels that exit close enough to those of other subunits and exiting mineral nuclei to facilitate bulk mineral formation. How and where protons move in and out of the protein during mineral synthesis and dissolution, how ferritin cage assembly with 12 or 24 subunits is encoded in the widely divergent ferritin amino acid sequences, and what is the role of the protein in synthesis of the bulk mineral are all described as problems requiring new approaches in future investigations of ferritin biominerals.

  16. Gold nanostructures as photothermal therapy agent for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Yang, Jaemoon; Jang, Eunji; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Lee, Kwangyeol; Haam, Seungjoo

    2011-12-01

    Well-designed photothermal nanostructures have attracted many scientists pursuing a better means to accurately diagnose cancer and assess the efficacy of treatment. Recently, gold-based nanostructures (nanoshells, nanorods and nanocages) have enabled photothermal ablation of cancer cells with near-infrared (NIR) light without damaging normal human tissues and in particular, animal studies and early clinical testing showed the great promise for these materials. In this review article, we first discuss the mechanism of the cellular death signaling by thermal stress and introduce the intrinsic properties of gold nanostructures as photothermal agent for cancer treatment. Then the overview follows for evolving researches for the synthesis of various types of gold nanostructures and for their biomedical applications. Finally we introduce the optimized therapeutic strategies involving nanoparticle surface modification and laser operation method for an enhanced accumulation of gold nanostructures to the target cancer as well as for an effective cancer cell ablation.

  17. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  18. Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Rokicki, Dariusz [Department of Metabolic Diseases, The Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04730, Warsaw (Poland); Pyrkosz, Antoni [Department of Genetics, Silesian Medical Academy, Katowice (Poland); Krajewska-Walasek, Malgorzata [Department of Genetics, The Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (Poland); Michalkiewicz, Jacek [Department of Immunology, The Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (Poland); Kowalska, Aleksandra [Department of Radiology, The Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (Poland)

    2003-03-01

    We report two patients with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD). SIOD is characterised by growth retardation, renal failure, spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia, specific phenotype and defective cellular immunity. These two children demonstrated a bone dysplasia with characteristic radiographic appearances. We postulate that SIOD should be considered in all cases of growth failure with an unclassifiable bone dysplasia. Repeated urine tests for proteinuria could be helpful in reaching the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Solving Biology's Iron Chemistry Problem with Ferritin Protein Nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Elizabeth C; Tosha, Takehiko; Behera, Rabindra K

    2016-05-17

    Ferritins reversibly synthesize iron-oxy(ferrihydrite) biominerals inside large, hollow protein nanocages (10-12 nm, ∼480 000 g/mol); the iron biominerals are metabolic iron concentrates for iron protein biosyntheses. Protein cages of 12- or 24-folded ferritin subunits (4-α-helix polypeptide bundles) self-assemble, experimentally. Ferritin biomineral structures differ among animals and plants or bacteria. The basic ferritin mineral structure is ferrihydrite (Fe2O3·H2O) with either low phosphate in the highly ordered animal ferritin biominerals, Fe/PO4 ∼ 8:1, or Fe/PO4 ∼ 1:1 in the more amorphous ferritin biominerals of plants and bacteria. While different ferritin environments, plant bacterial-like plastid organelles and animal cytoplasm, might explain ferritin biomineral differences, investigation is required. Currently, the physiological significance of plant-specific and animal-specific ferritin iron minerals is unknown. The iron content of ferritin in living tissues ranges from zero in "apoferritin" to as high as ∼4500 iron atoms. Ferritin biomineralization begins with the reaction of Fe(2+) with O2 at ferritin enzyme (Fe(2+)/O oxidoreductase) sites. The product of ferritin enzyme activity, diferric oxy complexes, is also the precursor of ferritin biomineral. Concentrations of Fe(3+) equivalent to 2.0 × 10(-1) M are maintained in ferritin solutions, contrasting with the Fe(3+) Ks ∼ 10(-18) M. Iron ions move into, through, and out of ferritin protein cages in structural subdomains containing conserved amino acids. Cage subdomains include (1) ion channels for Fe(2+) entry/exit, (2) enzyme (oxidoreductase) site for coupling Fe(2+) and O yielding diferric oxy biomineral precursors, and (3) ferric oxy nucleation channels, where diferric oxy products from up to three enzyme sites interact while moving toward the central, biomineral growth cavity (12 nm diameter) where ferric oxy species, now 48-mers, grow in ferric oxy biomineral. High ferritin protein

  20. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724–9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin...... forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening–closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation...

  1. Direct Observation of Hydrogen Adsorption Sites and Nanocage Formation in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, T.; Hartman, M. R.

    2005-11-01

    The hydrogen adsorption sites in MOF5 were determined using neutron powder diffraction along with first-principles calculations. The metal-oxide cluster is primarily responsible for the adsorption while the organic linker plays only a secondary role. Equally important, at low temperatures and high-concentration, H2 molecules form unique interlinked high-symmetry nanoclusters with intermolecular distances as small as 3.0 Å and H2 uptake as high as 11 wt %. These results hold the key to optimizing metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for hydrogen storage applications and also suggest that MOFs can be used as templates to create artificial interlinked hydrogen nanocages with novel properties.

  2. First-principles study of hydrogen storage on Li12F12 nano-cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafei; Cheng, Xinlu

    2017-03-01

    We use the first-principles calculation based on density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the hydrogen storage on Li12F12 nano-cage. Our result indicates the largest hydrogen gravimetric density is 7.14 wt% and this is higher than the 2017 target from the US department of energy (DOE). Meanwhile, the average adsorption energy is -0.161 eV/H2, which is desirable for absorbing and desorbing H2 molecules at near ambient conditions. These findings will have important implications on designing hydrogen storage materials in the future.

  3. Polyoxometalate-based 3D porous framework with inorganic molecular nanocage units

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHAOBIN LI; ZIHAO LI; JINGYU ZHANG; ZHENGNAN SU; SHIYING QI; SHIHONG GUO; XIAOGUO TAN

    2017-05-01

    A new polyoxometalate-based 3D porous framework with inorganic molecular nanocage unit, (H₂dap)[K(H₂O)₂ (V₁₀O₂₈)₀.₅] (1) (dap = 1,2-diaminopropane), has been synthesized and characterized by routine methods. In 1, the decavanadate clusters, as twelve-dentate connectors, link eight potassium ions to form a 3D porous framework with inorganic molecular cage units. There are two dap ligand molecules occupying in each inorganic molecular cage. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of 1 were studied, which indicate that 1 has a good electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of iodate (IO⁻ ₃ ) ascribed to the V-center.

  4. Immuno-inspired robotic applications: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Artificial immune systems primarily mimic the adaptive nature of biological immune functions. Their ability to adapt to varying pathogens makes such systems a suitable choice for various robotic applications. Generally, AIS-based robotic applications map local instantaneous sensory information into either an antigen or a co-stimulatory signal, according to the choice of representation schema. Algorithms then use relevant immune functions to output either evolved antibodies or maturity of dendritic cells, in terms of actuation signals. It is observed that researchers, in an attempt to solve the problem in hand, do not try to replicate the biological immunity but select necessary immune functions instead, resulting in an ad-hoc manner these applications are reported. Authors, therefore, present a comprehensive review of immuno-inspired robotic applications in an attempt to categorize them according to underlying immune definitions. Implementation details are tabulated in terms of corresponding mathematical expr...

  5. Purification and assembly of thermostable Cy5 labeled γ-PNAs into a 3D DNA nanocage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Justin D; Johnson, Trey; Simmons, Chad D; Lin, Su; Ghirlanda, Giovanna; Fromme, Petra

    2014-12-15

    PNA is hybrid molecule ideally suited for bridging the functional landscape of polypeptides with the structural diversity that can be engineered with DNA nanostructures. However, PNA can be more challenging to work with in aqueous solvents due to its hydrophobic nature. A solution phase method using strain promoted, copper free click chemistry was developed to conjugate the fluorescent dye Cy5 to 2 bifunctional PNA strands as a first step toward building cyclic PNA-polypeptides that can be arranged within 3D DNA nanoscaffolds. A 3D DNA nanocage was designed with binding sites for the 2 fluorescently labeled PNA strands in close proximity to mimic protein active sites. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is introduced as an efficient method for purifying charged, dye-labeled NA conjugates from large excesses of unreacted dye and unreacted, neutral PNA. Elution from the gel in water was monitored by fluorescence and found to be more efficient for the more soluble PNA strand. Native PAGE shows that both PNA strands hybridize to their intended binding sites within the DNA nanocage. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a Cy3 labeled DNA nanocage was used to determine the dissociation temperature of one PNA-Cy5 conjugate to be near 50C. Steady-state and time resolved fluorescence was used to investigate the dye orientation and interactions within the various complexes. Bifunctional, thermostable PNA molecules are intriguing candidates for controlling the assembly and orientation of peptides within small DNA nanocages for mimicking protein catalytic sites.

  6. Silver and Gold Nanostructures: Engineering their Optical Properties for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Younan

    2006-03-01

    We have focused on shape-controlled synthesis of silver and gold nanostructures. While the synthetic methodology mainly involves solution-phase redox chemistry, we have been working diligently to understand the complex physics behind the simple chemistry -- that is, the nucleation and growth mechanisms leading to the formation of nanostructures with a specific shape. Polyol synthesis of silver nanostructures provides a good example to illustrate this concept. We discovered that the shape of silver nanostructures were dictated by both the crystallinity and shape of nanocrystallite seeds, which were, in turn, controlled by factors such as reduction rate, oxidative etching, and surface capping. We also exploited the galvanic replacement reaction between silver and chloroauric acid to transform silver nanocubes into gold nanocages with controlled void size, wall thickness, and wall porosity. We were able to engineer the optical properties of resulting gold nanocages with optical resonance peaks ranging from the blue (400 nm) to the near infrared (1200 nm) simply by controlling the molar ratio of silver to chloroauric acid. Thanks to their exceptionally large scattering and absorption coefficients in the transparent window for soft tissues, this novel class of gold nanostructures has great potential emerging as both a contrast agent for optical imaging in early-stage tumor detection, and a therapeutic agent for photothermal cancer treatment.

  7. Detailed surface study of adsorbed nickel on Al{sub 12}N{sub 12} nano-cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rad, Ali Shokuhi, E-mail: a.shokuhi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ayub, Khurshid [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, University Road, Tobe Camp, 22060 Abbottabad (Pakistan)

    2016-08-01

    The geometries and electronic structures of Ni-adsorbed Al{sub 12}N{sub 12} (AlN) nano-cage are studied by density functional theory. A number of different structures varying in the position and orientation of nickel on the surface of the nano-cage are studied. Binding energies, band structures, total density of states, natural bond orbital charges, and electron density differences of Ni-adsorbed Al{sub 12}N{sub 12} nano-cage were calculated, and analyzed in comparison with pure AlN nano-cage. The adsorption energies are in the range of (− 110)–(− 113) kcal mol{sup −1} for three adsorption sites (P1–P3), and about − 86 kcal mol{sup −1} for P4. High binding energies for these geometries suggest strong chemisorption of nickel on AlN nano-cage. Moreover, dissociation of Al−N bond is observed concurrent with the formation of Ni−Al and Ni−N bonds when the Ni atom is adsorbed on the nano-cage. Results from the calculations also reveal that there is significant charge transfer from the nano-cage to the metal atom which changes the location of HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) resulting in reductions in the E{sub gap} (E{sub HOMO}-E{sub LUMO}). The HOMO-LUMO gap for P4 geometry is 1.79 eV which is much lower than the band gap for pure AlN nano-cage (3.93 eV). The band gap for P1, P2 and P3 geometries is 2.90, 2.79 and 3.18 eV, respectively. The decrease in band gap is attributed to the push of outer d electrons of the transition metals to become more diffuse like. The HOMOs in all geometries have densities on Ni atom whereas the densities in LUMO are distributed on the entire skeleton. The results revealed that Ni adsorption provides N-type conduction which makes it an ideal adsorbent for practical applications in magnetism, catalysis and other areas. Reactivity descriptors indicate an increase in electrophilic character of Ni-adsorbed nano-cages compared to pure AlN nano-cage. The electron affinity

  8. Double-shell CuS nanocages as advanced supercapacitor electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinxue; Zhang, Xinqun; Sun, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-07-01

    Metal sulfides hollow structures are advanced materials for energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. However, constructing hollow metal sulfides with specific features, such as multi-shell and non-spherical shape, still remains great challenge. In this work, we firstly demonstrate the synthesis of CuS double-shell hollow nanocages using Cu2O nanocubes as precursors. The synthesis processes involve the repeated anion exchange reaction with Na2S and the controllable etching using hydrochloric acid. The whole synthesis processes are well revealed and the obtained double-shell CuS is tested as pseudocapacitive electrode material for supercapacitors. As expected, the CuS double-shell hollow nanocages deliver high specific capacitance, good rate performance and excellent cycling stability due to their unique nano-architecture. The present work contributes greatly to the exploration of hollow metal sulfides with complex architecture and non-spherical shape, as well as their promising application in high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  9. Gold Rush!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahier, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a mathematical investigation of gold--how it is weighed, stored, used, and valued. For grades 3-4, children estimate the value of treasure chests filled with gold coins and explore the size and weight of gold bars. Children in grades 5-6 explore how gold is mined and used, and how the value of gold changes over time. (PVD)

  10. Facile synthesis of Pd-Pt alloy nanocages and their enhanced performance for preferential oxidation of CO in excess hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jin, Mingshang; Liu, Hongyang; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J; Yang, Deren; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Liu, Jingyue; Xia, Younan

    2011-10-25

    This article describes a new method for the facile synthesis of Pd-Pt alloy nanocages with hollow interiors and porous walls by using Pd nanocubes as sacrificial templates. Differing from our previous work (Zhang, H.; Jin, M. S.; Wang, J. G.; Li, W. Y.; Camargo, P. H. C.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, D. R.; Xie, Z. X.; Xia, Y. Synthesis of Pd-Pt Bimetallic Nanocrystals with a Concave Structure through a Bromide-Induced Galvanic Replacement Reaction. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 6078-6079), we complemented the galvanic replacement (between Pd nanocubes and PtCl(4)(2-)) with a coreduction process (for PdCl(4)(2-) from the galvanic reaction and PtCl(4)(2-) from the feeding) to generate Pd-Pt alloy nanocages in one step. We found that the rate of galvanic replacement (as determined by the concentrations of Br(-) and PtCl(4)(2-) and temperature) and the rates of coreduction (as determined by the type of reductant and temperature) played important roles in controlling the morphology of resultant Pd-Pt alloy nanocages. The Pd-Pt nanocages exhibited both enhanced activity and selectivity for the preferential oxidation (PROX) of CO in excess hydrogen than those of Pd nanocubes and the commercial Pt/C thanks to the alloy composition and hollow structure. In addition, as the sizes of the Pd-Pt nanocages decreased, they exhibited higher CO conversion rates and lower maximum conversion temperatures due to the increase in specific surface area.

  11. Construction of magnetic-carbon-quantum-dots-probe-labeled apoferritin nanocages for bioimaging and targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao HC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanchun Yao,1,2 Li Su,1 Man Zeng,1 Li Cao,1 Weiwei Zhao,1 Chengqun Chen,3 Bin Du,1,2 Jie Zhou1,2 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, 2Collaborative Innovation Center of Drug Research and Safety Evaluation, Henan Province, 3Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Carbon dots (CDs are one of the most highlighted carbon-based materials for biological applications, such as optical imaging nanoprobes, which are used for labeling cells in cancer treatment mainly due to their biocompatibility and unique optical properties. In this study, gadolinium (Gd-complex-containing CDs were obtained through a one-step microwave method to develop multimodal nanoprobes integrating the advantages of optical and magnetic imaging. The obtained Gd-CDs exhibited highly fluorescent properties with excellent water solubility and biological compatibility. Natural apoferritin (AFn nanocages, an excellent drug delivery carrier, are hollow in structure, with their pH-dependent, unfolding–refolding process at pH 2.0 and 7.4. The chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX can be highly effective and encapsulated into AFn cavity. A widely used tumor-targeting molecule, folic acid (FA, functionalized the surface of AFn to obtain an active tumor targeting effect on MCF-7 cells and malignant tumors in mice models. In this study, an AFn nanocarrier encapsulating high concentration of DOX labeled with magnetic and fluorescent Gd-CDs probe was developed. Gd-CDs exhibited a unique green photoluminescence and almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Furthermore, Gd-doped CDs significantly increased the circulation time and decreased the toxicity of Gd3+ in in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated that the AFn nanocages labeled with Gd-CD compounds could serve as an excellent T1 contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. The self

  12. Scale-Activity Relationship of MnOx-FeOy Nanocage Catalysts Derived from Prussian Blue Analogues for Low-Temperature NO Reduction: Experimental and DFT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijun; Liu, Yangyang; Zha, Kaiwen; Li, Hongrui; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2017-01-25

    Size effects have been recognized to promote the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal oxide particles. So far, limited works and studies are conducted to investigate the size effect of metal oxide with the tailored shape in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR). Herein, the MnOx-FeOy nanocage catalysts with varied scales (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 μm) were synthesized via a Prussian blue analogue (PBA)-derived method and used for NH3-SCR of NO. By preforming a series of the activity tests over the nanocages with different scales, the NH3-SCR activity of 0.5 μm MnOx-FeOy nanocage catalysts exhibits the highest deNOx activity in the temperature range of 80-200 °C owing to more preferable physical and chemical properties. It has been demonstrated that there is a strong interaction among Mn and Fe cations in the 0.5 μm MnOx-FeOy nanocages. Moreover, the H2-TPR and XPS analysis prove 0.5 μm nanocages exhibit excellent redox properties, which contribute to the higher conservation of NOx. Through the DFT studies, it is also demonstrated that the 0.5 μm MnOx-FeOy nanocage catalysts could provide more preferable electronic charge, which gives rise to the varied adsorption behavior of the NH3 species and NOx species compared to the nanocages with other scales. The in situ DRIFTs were also employed to evaluate the adsorption status of NH3 with NOx species over MnOx-FeOy nanocage catalysts with varied scales. Finally, the scale-activity relationship of the MnOx-FeOy nanocage catalysts and their corresponding activities are also established. The deep insight into the scale-activity relationship of the PBA-derived MnOx-FeOy nanocage catalyst paves the way for developing and designing highly efficient Mn-based catalyst at lower temperature.

  13. Interaction of Nucleobases with Semiconducting Nanotubes and Nanocages: Does the Solvent Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhoufei; Slough, William; He, Haiying; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi

    2013-03-01

    The tremendous advancement in nanotechnology has brought great promise in the area of bio-applications. Nanoscale materials and structures have attracted a lot of interest for their potential applications in biosensing, biorecognition, luminescent probes for DNA, biomedical labeling, drug delivery etc. Gaining fundamental understanding of the interaction of bio-systems with nanomaterials is critical in putting all these applications into full play. Despite the fact that most of these interactions appear in aqueous environment, the solvent effect has often been neglected in previous computational studies. In this talk, we will report our comparison study of nucleobases interacting with BN nanotubes and chalcogenide nanocages with/without considering the aqueous solution, based on first-principles calculations. The results reveal a significant effect from the water solution, which may largely reduce the interaction energy due to the polarization of the dielectric solvent medium.

  14. Self-assembly of molecule-like nanoparticle clusters directed by DNA nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulin; Liu, Zhiyu; Yu, Guimei; Jiang, Wen; Mao, Chengde

    2015-04-01

    Analogous to the atom-molecule relationship, nanoparticle (NP) clusters (or NP-molecules) with defined compositions and directional bonds could potentially integrate the properties of the component individual NPs, leading to emergent properties. Despite extensive efforts in this direction, no general approach is available for assembly of such NP-molecules. Here we report a general method for building this type of structures by encapsulating NPs into self-assembled DNA polyhedral wireframe nanocages, which serve as guiding agents for further assembly. As a demonstration, a series of NP-molecules have been assembled and validated. Such NP-molecules will, we believe, pave a way to explore new nanomaterials with emergent functions/properties that are related to, but do not belong to the individual component nanoparticles.

  15. Carbon nanocages: a new support material for Pt catalyst with remarkably high durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Tan, Zhe Hua; Zeng, Min; Wang, Jian Nong

    2014-03-24

    Low durability is the major challenge hindering the large-scale implementation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, and corrosion of carbon support materials of current catalysts is the main cause. Here, we describe the finding of remarkably high durability with the use of a novel support material. This material is based on hollow carbon nanocages developed with a high degree of graphitization and concurrent nitrogen doping for oxidation resistance enhancement, uniform deposition of fine Pt particles, and strong Pt-support interaction. Accelerated degradation testing shows that such designed catalyst possesses a superior electrochemical activity and long-term stability for both hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction relative to industry benchmarks of current catalysts. Further testing under conditions of practical fuel cell operation reveals almost no degradation over long-term cycling. Such a catalyst of high activity, particularly, high durability, opens the door for the next-generation PEMFC for "real world" application.

  16. From Carbon-Based Nanotubes to Nanocages for Advanced Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2017-02-21

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have been the focus of research interests in the past 30 years due to their abundant microstructures and morphologies, excellent properties, and wide potential applications, as landmarked by 0D fullerene, 1D nanotubes, and 2D graphene. With the availability of high specific surface area (SSA), well-balanced pore distribution, high conductivity, and tunable wettability, carbon-based nanomaterials are highly expected as advanced materials for energy conversion and storage to meet the increasing demands for clean and renewable energies. In this context, attention is usually attracted by the star material of graphene in recent years. In this Account, we overview our studies on carbon-based nanotubes to nanocages for energy conversion and storage, including their synthesis, performances, and related mechanisms. The two carbon nanostructures have the common features of interior cavity, high conductivity, and easy doping but much different SSAs and pore distributions, leading to different performances. We demonstrated a six-membered-ring-based growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with benzene precursor based on the structural similarity of the benzene ring to the building unit of CNTs. By this mechanism, nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) with homogeneous N distribution and predominant pyridinic N were obtained with pyridine precursor, providing a new kind of support for convenient surface functionalization via N-participation. Accordingly, various transition-metal nanoparticles were directly immobilized onto NCNTs without premodification. The so-constructed catalysts featured high dispersion, narrow size distribution and tunable composition, which presented superior catalytic performances for energy conversions, for example, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol oxidation in fuel cells. With the advent of the new field of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts, we first extended ORR catalysts from the electron-rich N-doped to the

  17. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia; Juul, Sissel; Ottaviani, Alessio; Benvenuti, Claudia; Biocca, Silvia; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Desideri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous demonstration of temperature controlled reversible encapsulation of the cargo enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, in the cage with four hairpin forming strands. However, in this previous study the mechanism of cargo uptake was not directly addressed (Juul, et al., Temperature-Controlled Encapsulation and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724-9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening-closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation and showed that the two hairpin forming strands facilitated extension of at least one of the face surfaces of the cage scaffold, allowing entrance of the cargo protein into the cavity of the structure. Hence, the presented data demonstrate that cargo uptake does not involve a full opening of the structure. Rather, the uptake mechanism represents a feature of increased flexibility integrated in this nanocage structure upon the addition of at least two hairpin-forming strands.In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous

  18. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D.; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M.; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal

    2017-07-01

    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  19. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J Anibal

    2017-07-17

    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  20. Gold Nanostructures as a Platform for Combinational Therapy in Future Cancer Therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelveh, Salomeh [Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chithrani, Devika B., E-mail: devika.chithrani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); STTARR Innovation Centre, Toronto Medical Discovery Tower, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-03-04

    The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

  1. Gold Nanostructures as a Platform for Combinational Therapy in Future Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomeh Jelveh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs, gold nanorods (GNRs, gold nanoshells (GNSs and gold nanocages (GNCs in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

  2. Gold nanostructures as a platform for combinational therapy in future cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelveh, Salomeh; Chithrani, Devika B

    2011-03-04

    The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

  3. [Evaluation of the new ImmunoCard STAT!® CGE test for the diagnosis of Amebiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, F; Perandin, F; Bonafini, S; Degani, M; Bisoffi, Z

    2015-08-01

    For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis of intestinal parasites although the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis is increasingly utilized due to its high accuracy. Recently, PCR has been approved by the World Health Organization as the current method of choice for the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection. In this study we evaluated a novel immunochromatographic antigen detection rapid test, ImmunoCardSTAT CGE (Meridian Bioscence, Milan, Italy), which has been proposed for the diagnosis of infections caused by Cryptosporidium parvum-Giardia intestinalis-Entamoeba histolytica. There is another rapid test with a similar name, the ImmunoCard STAT! Crypto/Giardia, but it is just for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. We aimed to compare E. histolytica results obtained from the rapid test with those of a rt-PCR for the detection of E. histolytica / E. dispar DNA. The new ImmunoCard rapid antigen detection test exhibited 88% sensitivity and 92% specificity (if assessed on rt-PCR negative samples) but showed a high proportion of cross-reaction between the pathogenic E. histolytica and the non pathogenic E. dispar.

  4. Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Cai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Weibo Cai1,2, Ting Gao3, Hao Hong1, Jiangtao Sun11Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 2University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 3Tyco Electronics Corporation, 306 Constitution Drive, Menlo Park, California, USAAbstract: It has been almost 4 decades since the “war on cancer” was declared. It is now generally believed that personalized medicine is the future for cancer patient management. Possessing unprecedented potential for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and personalized treatment of cancer, nanoparticles have been extensively studied over the last decade. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications targeting cancer. Gold nanospheres, nanorods, nanoshells, nanocages, and surface enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles will be discussed in detail regarding their uses in in vitro assays, ex vivo and in vivo imaging, cancer therapy, and drug delivery. Multifunctionality is the key feature of nanoparticle-based agents. Targeting ligands, imaging labels, therapeutic drugs, and other functionalities can all be integrated to allow for targeted molecular imaging and molecular therapy of cancer. Big strides have been made and many proof-of-principle studies have been successfully performed. The future looks brighter than ever yet many hurdles remain to be conquered. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanoparticles, with multiple receptor targeting, multimodality imaging, and multiple therapeutic entities, holds the promise for a “magic gold bullet” against cancer.Keywords: gold nanoparticles, cancer, nanotechnology, optical imaging, nanomedicine, molecular therapy

  5. [Use of gold implants as a treatment of pain related to canine hip dysplasia--a review. Part 1: Background and current state of research regarding the effects of implanting gold in tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisenroth, A; Nolte, I; Wefstaedt, P

    2013-01-01

    Gold-bead implantation as a method of pain treatment in dogs suffering from osteoarthritic disease is receiving increasing attention in veterinary medicine. For the present article, publications from veterinary books and journals were collected and evaluated, together with related articles in human medicine. After providing an overview of the historical use of gold and gold compounds, the technique of implanting this noble metal is introduced. The reasons for establishing the terms gold acupuncture and gold (bead) implantation are described, considering the question whether and what kind of methodological differences exist behind these terms. Next, previous publications concerning the effects of gold implantation in tissue are summarised. In 2002 it was proven that gold ions are released from the surface of gold implants by a process termed dissolucytosis. Subsequent publications further investigated details about the interaction between gold ions and tissue as well as the distribution pattern of bio-released ions. Gold compounds were previously used for chrysotherapy in human medicine until medication with fewer side effects became established. The anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties of gold compounds were used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Current research aims to ascertain whether the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating effects of gold compounds are imitated by gold ions released from gold implants at a local level. In conclusion, the present review summarises important findings about the effects of gold implanted in tissue. However, further research is necessary to estimate the limitations and benefits of this auromedication.

  6. Sulfur Encapsulated in Graphitic Carbon Nanocages for High-Rate and Long-Cycle Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Yang, Chun-Peng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid sp(2) carbon with a graphene backbone and graphitic carbon nanocages (G-GCNs) is demonstrated as an ideal host for sulfur in Li-S batteries, because it serves as highly efficient electrochemical nanoreactors as well as polysulfides reservoirs. The as-obtained S/(G-GCNs) with high S content exhibits superior high-rate capability (765 mA h g(-1) at 5 C) and long-cycle life over 1000 cycles.

  7. Etching approach to hybrid structures of PtPd nanocages and graphene for efficient oxygen reduction reaction catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Bai[1; Chengming Wang[1; Wenya Jiang[1; Nana Du[1; Jing Li[1; Junteng Du[1; Ran Long[1; Zhengquan Li[2; Yujie Xiong[1

    2015-01-01

    Cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a highly important electrochemical reaction in renewable-energy technologies. In general, the surface area, exposed facets and electrical conductivity of catalysts all play important roles in determining their electrocatalytic activities, while their performance durability can be improved by integration with supporting materials. In this work we have developed a method to synthesize hybrid structures between PtPd bimetallic nanocages and graphene by employing selective epitaxial growth of single-crystal Pt shells on Pd nanocubes supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO), followed by Pd etching. The hollow nature, {100} surface facets and bimetallic composition of PtPd nanocages, together with the good conductivity and stability of graphene, enable high electrocatalytic performance in ORR. The obtained PtPd nanocage-rGO structures exhibit mass activity (0.534 A.m-1) and which are 4.4 times and 3.9 times greater than the specific activity (0.482 mA-cm-2) corresponding values for Pt/C.

  8. NanoCAGE analysis of the mouse olfactory epithelium identifies the expression of vomeronasal receptors and of proximal LINE elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni ePascarella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By coupling laser capture microdissection to nanoCAGE technology and next-generation sequencing we have identified the genome-wide collection of active promoters in the mouse Main Olfactory Epithelium (MOE. Transcription start sites (TSSs for the large majority of Olfactory Receptors (ORs have been previously mapped increasing our understanding of their promoter architecture.Here we show that in our nanoCAGE libraries of the mouse MOE we detect a large number of tags mapped in loci hosting Type-1 and Type-2 Vomeronasal Receptors genes (V1Rs and V2Rs. These loci also show a massive expression of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs. We have validated the expression of selected receptors detected by nanoCAGE with in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. This work extends the repertory of receptors capable of sensing chemical signals in the MOE, suggesting intriguing interplays between MOE and VNO for pheromone processing. It positions transcribed LINEs as candidate regulatory RNAs for VRs expression.

  9. Fabrication based on the Kirkendall effect of Co3O4 porous nanocages with extraordinarily high capacity for lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin; Yan, Nan; Chen, Qianwang; Zhang, Ping; Zhong, Hao; Zheng, Xinrui; Li, Yan; Hu, Xianyi

    2012-07-16

    Herein we report a novel facile strategy for the fabrication of Co(3)O(4) porous nanocages based on the Kirkendall effect, which involves the thermal decomposition of Prussian blue analogue (PBA) Co(3)[Co(CN)(6)](2) truncated nanocubes at 400 °C. Owing to the volume loss and release of internally generated CO(2) and N(x) O(y) in the process of interdiffusion, Co(3)O(4) nanocages with porous shells and containing nanoparticles were finally obtained. When evaluated as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Co(3)O(4) porous nanocages displayed superior battery performance. Most importantly, capacities of up to 1465 mA h g(-1) are attained after 50 cycles at a current density of 300 mA g(-1). Moreover, this simple synthetic strategy is potentially competitive for scaling-up industrial production. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  11. Synaptic innervation to rat hippocampus by vasopressin-immuno-positive fibres from the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Hernández, V S

    2013-01-03

    The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) exerts a modulatory role on hippocampal excitability through vasopressin V(1A) and V(1B) receptors. However, the origin and mode of termination of the AVP innervation of the hippocampus remain unknown. We have used light and electron microscopy to trace the origin, distribution and synaptic relationships of AVP-immuno-positive fibres and nerve terminals in the rat hippocampus. Immuno-positive fibres were present in all areas (CA1-3, dentate gyrus) of the whole septo-temporal extent of the hippocampus; they had the highest density in the CA2 region, strongly increasing in density towards the ventral hippocampus. Two types of fibres were identified, both establishing synaptic junctions. Type A had large varicosities packed with immuno-positive large-granulated peptidergic vesicles and few small clear vesicles forming type I synaptic junctions with pyramidal neuron dendrites, dendritic spines and with axonal spines. Type B had smaller varicosities containing mostly small clear vesicles and only a few large-granulated vesicles and established type II synaptic junctions mainly with interneuron dendrites. The AVP-positive axons in stratum oriens appeared to follow and contact metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α (mGluR1α)-immuno-positive interneuron dendrites. Fluoro-Gold injection into the hippocampus revealed retrogradely labelled AVP-positive somata in hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Hypothalamo-hippocampal AVP-positive axons entered the hippocampus mostly through a ventral route, also innervating the amygdala and to a lesser extent through the dorsal fimbria fornix, in continuation of the septal AVP innervation. Thus, it appears the AVP-containing neurons of the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei serve as important sources for hippocampal AVP innervation, although the AVP-expressing neurons located in amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis reported previously may also contribute.

  12. 检测囊虫循环抗原胶体金试条的研制与初步应用%Development and primary application of gold immuno-chromatographic assay trips for detecting the circulating antigen of Taenia solium cysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉; 唐雨德; 王永山; 王长军; 王平; 冷欣彦

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop a new simple and rapid method to detect the circulating antigen (CA) of Tacnia solium cysticerco-sis. Methods Five hybridoma strains which secret monoclonul antibodies (McAbs) against CA were established and used for screen-ing the optimal composition of gold immunochromatographic (GICA) trips. Two McAbs were purified and applied for preparation GICA trips by labeling one McAb with colloidal gold and coating another on nitrocellulose membrane. The sensitivity and specificity of GICA were evaluated by comparison with sandwich ELISA. Results The optimal composition was McAbs 1 A5 and 186. The optimal amount of McAb 1A5 marked with I ml colloidal gold was 10 μg/ml ,and the optimal coating concentration of MeAb 1 B6 was 1 mg/ml. Concord-mace between GICA and the ELISA for detecting the CA in sera of sick pigs, the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients, and cyst fluid was 97.03%. No positive results were detected in the negative control sera. Threshold value of GICA was 10 ng of CA,and the detec-tion time was about 5 minutes. The GICA strips that were stored at 4℃ and at room temperature for 105 days or at 37℃ for45 days had same performance in the detection. Conclusions The GICA method may efficiently detect CA of Taenia solium cysticercosis, and is suitable for field surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis.%目的 研制快速检测囊虫循环抗原(CA)的胶体金试纸法.方法 以部分纯化囊虫抗原免疫BALB/c小鼠制备抗CA单克隆抗体(McAb),经筛选获得5株能稳定分泌McAb的杂交瘤细胞株.用制备的McAb两两配对,制备了囊虫CA免疫胶体金快速诊断试条.结果 以1A5和1B6配对的试条对人体囊虫CA、囊虫CA标准抗原以及63份囊虫病患者血清、9份脑囊虫痛患者脑脊液的检测结果均为阳性,时弓形虫病感染者、包虫病患者及非疫区献血员血清的检测结果均为阴性;与酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)的平行对比试验表明,试条检测敏感

  13. Use of fractional laser microablation and ultrasound to facilitate the delivery of gold nanoparticles into skin in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentyuk, G S; Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Ryzhova, M V; Tsyganova, N A; Chumakov, D S; Khlebtsov, B N; Sazonov, A A; Dolotov, L E; Tuchin, Valerii V; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G; Inozemtseva, O A

    2012-06-30

    The delivery of gold nanoparticles (nanocages coated with a layer of silicon dioxide (40/20 nm)) dispersed in the solution (glycerol + polyethylene glycol-400, 1 : 1) into the skin tissue is studied experimentally in vivo. From the data of optical coherence tomography and histochemical analysis it follows that simple application of suspension of nanoparticles is not efficient enough for delivery of the particles into the skin as a result of passive diffusion. It is shown that fractional laser microablation of skin before the application of the suspension, followed by the topical treatment by ultrasound allows penetration through the epidermis layer and delivery of nanoparticles into dermis and hypodermis.

  14. General synthesis of carbon nanocages and their adsorption of toxic compounds from cigarette smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangda; Yu, Hongxiao; Xu, Liqiang; Ma, Qiang; Chen, Chao; Hao, Qin; Qian, Yitai

    2011-08-01

    Carbon nanocages (CNCs) have been synthesized through a simple approach using different alcohols and ferrous oxalate as reactants at 550 °C for 12 h in a sealed autoclave. The lengths of the sides of the CNCs are about 200-350 nm and the wall thicknesses are about 10-15 nm. The formation mechanism of the CNCs is also discussed, based on the experimental results. These CNCs show excellent removal efficiency for phenolic compounds, ammonia, and total particulate matter from cigarette smoke. The adsorption capability of CNCs prepared from ethanol is much higher than that of other samples. For example, the efficiency of 5 mg CNCs (ethanol) for removing the six phenolic compounds p-dihydroxybenzene, m-dihydroxybenzene, o-dihydroxybenzene, phenol, m-cresol, and o-cresol can reach 57.31%, 62.25%, 65.58%, 75.95%, 54.34% and 59.43%, respectively, while that of the commercial activated carbon (5 mg) can only reach 29.02%, 33.93%, 35.00%, 36.00%, 20.33% and 36.19%, respectively, under the same conditions.Carbon nanocages (CNCs) have been synthesized through a simple approach using different alcohols and ferrous oxalate as reactants at 550 °C for 12 h in a sealed autoclave. The lengths of the sides of the CNCs are about 200-350 nm and the wall thicknesses are about 10-15 nm. The formation mechanism of the CNCs is also discussed, based on the experimental results. These CNCs show excellent removal efficiency for phenolic compounds, ammonia, and total particulate matter from cigarette smoke. The adsorption capability of CNCs prepared from ethanol is much higher than that of other samples. For example, the efficiency of 5 mg CNCs (ethanol) for removing the six phenolic compounds p-dihydroxybenzene, m-dihydroxybenzene, o-dihydroxybenzene, phenol, m-cresol, and o-cresol can reach 57.31%, 62.25%, 65.58%, 75.95%, 54.34% and 59.43%, respectively, while that of the commercial activated carbon (5 mg) can only reach 29.02%, 33.93%, 35.00%, 36.00%, 20.33% and 36.19%, respectively, under

  15. Study on the distribution of callose and β-1,3-D-glucanase in Chenopodium quinoa by immuno-gold labeling%免疫胶体金标记定位昆诺藜中的胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云琴; 王华; 谢礼; 洪健

    2014-01-01

    运用免疫胶体金技术研究了感染蚕豆萎蔫病毒2号以及健康昆诺藜细胞中胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶的分布情况。电镜观察发现胶体金特异性标记在含有VP37小管的胞间运动通道周围,其余区域感病和健康细胞的胼胝质及胼胝质降解酶分布差别不大,胼胝质主要分布于细胞间隙的大块电子致密物质以及细胞壁结构发生较大变化的区域,胼胝质降解酶主要分布于筛板、维管束细胞紧贴细胞壁区域的大块电子致密物质上,在细胞壁结构发生较大改变的区域也有胼胝质降解酶的分布。推测胼胝质在昆诺藜细胞中的积累和降解可能与细胞壁结构成分改变有关。%The distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase in the Broad bean wilt virus 2 ( BBWV 2 ) infected and the healthy Chenopodium quinoa was investigated by using immuno⁃gold labeling with the antibody against callose and β⁃1, 3⁃D⁃glucanase, respectively. The results show that, except for the VP37 intercellular moving cell wall pathways, there is no obvious difference on the distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase between the infected and healthy cells. Callose is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the electron condensed material which located in the intercellular space, the structural altered region of cell wall and the cell wall broken region. Glucanase is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the sieve plate, the electron condensed material attached to cell wall in the vascular bundle and the structural altered region of cell wall. From these results, it can be deduced that the accumulation and degradation of callose in C. quinoa is related to the cell wall structural and component alteration.

  16. Dye-sensitization of CdS nano-cage - A density functional theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kalpna; Singh, Kh. S. [Department of Physics, D. J. College, Baraut, U.P.-250611 (India); Kishor, Shyam [Department of Chemistry, J. V. College, Baraut, U.P.-250611 (India); Josefsson, Ida; Odelius, Michael [Fysikum, Albanova University Center, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ramaniah, Lavanya M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Quantum dots a few nanometer in size exhibit unique properties in comparison to bulk due to quantum confinement. Their properties can be tuned according to their sizes. Dye sensitized quantum dot (DSQD) solar cells are based on the same principle with surface dangling bonds as a challenge. Researches have shown the existence and stability of nano-cages which are assembled such as to minimize the surface dangling bonds and hence maximize stability. Here, we report a first principles DFT study of optical and electronic properties of CdS-cage (Cd{sub 34}S{sub 34}) sensitized with nkx-2388 dye in three different geometric configurations of dye attachment. A significant distortion is found to occur in the geometric structure of the cage when it interacts strongly with the dye. The relative positioning of dye and cage energy levels is found to be different in different configurations. The absorption spectrum has been analyzed with the help of natural transition orbitals (NTO).

  17. Be12O12 Nano-cage as a Promising Catalyst for CO2 Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Li, Yawei; Zhu, Guizhi; Su, Haibin; Chan, Siew Hwa; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    An efficient conversion of CO2 into valuable fuels and chemicals has been hotly pursued recently. Here, for the first time, we have explored a series of M12x12 nano-cages (M = B, Al, Be, Mg; X = N, P, O) for catalysis of CO2 to HCOOH. Two steps are identified in the hydrogenation process, namely, H2 activation to 2H*, and then 2H* transfer to CO2 forming HCOOH, where the barriers of two H* transfer are lower than that of the H2 activation reaction. Among the studied cages, Be12O12 is found to have the lowest barrier in the whole reaction process, showing two kinds of reaction mechanisms for 2H* (simultaneous transfer and a step-wise transfer with a quite low barrier). Moreover, the H2 activation energy barrier can be further reduced by introducing Al, Ga, Li, and Na to B12N12 cage. This study would provide some new ideas for the design of efficient cluster catalysts for CO2 reduction.

  18. A super intramolecular self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on polymer chains grafted on palladium nanocages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijun; He, Ying; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-08-01

    An intramolecular self-enhanced electrochemiluminescent derivative is prepared by grafting polystyrene (PS)-based polymer chains with pendant Ru(ii) luminophore from poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) on the surface of palladium nanocages (PdNCs). In this way, the Ru(ii) luminophore and its co-reactive group (amine groups in PEI) exist in the same polymer molecule, which shortens the electronic transmission distance between them and enhances the luminous stability. Meanwhile, through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), the loading amount of Ru(ii) luminophore is greatly increased. Therefore, the obtained electrochemiluminescent derivative (PdNC-PEI-PSRu) has high luminous efficiency and stability. Furthermore, due to their special nanostructures of porous walls and hollow interiors, PdNCs have great advantages in high specific surface areas and good electrocatalytic ability, which make them act as an excellent immobilized platform for PEI and detection antibody. Based on the sandwiched immunoreactions, a sensitive ``signal on'' electrochemiluminescence immunosensor is constructed for the detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3). As a result, a wide linear range from 0.01 U mL-1 to 120 U mL-1 is acquired with a relatively low detection limit of 0.003 U mL-1.

  19. Pd nanoparticles encapsulated in magnetic carbon nanocages: an efficient nanoenzyme for the selective detection and multicolor imaging of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gaosong; Song, Jingjing; Zhang, Haoli; Jiang, Yuntian; Liu, Weisheng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Baodui

    2015-08-01

    Rapid and simple molecular recognition based techniques for the identification of the subtypes of cancer cells are essential in molecular medicine. However, improving the sensitivity and accuracy of the early diagnosis of this disease remains a major challenge. Herein, we develop a novel approach for the in situ growth of palladium nanoparticles in magnetic carbon nanocages (PdNPs/MCNCs). The confined Pd NPs, which have excellent dispersion in magnetic carbon nanocages, show superior catalytic performance for the cleavage reaction of N-butyl-4-NHAlloc-1,8-naphthalimide (NNPH), thereby producing significant changes in both color (from colorless to jade-green) and fluorescence (from blue to green) through the ICT process. Based on the abovementioned results, a novel sensing platform utilizing the PdNPs/MCNC nanocatalyst as an artificial enzyme and NNPH as a fluorescent and color change reporter molecule for the multicolor imaging and colorimetric detection of cancer cells was developed. We envision that this nanomaterial can be used as a power tool for a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology and medicine.Rapid and simple molecular recognition based techniques for the identification of the subtypes of cancer cells are essential in molecular medicine. However, improving the sensitivity and accuracy of the early diagnosis of this disease remains a major challenge. Herein, we develop a novel approach for the in situ growth of palladium nanoparticles in magnetic carbon nanocages (PdNPs/MCNCs). The confined Pd NPs, which have excellent dispersion in magnetic carbon nanocages, show superior catalytic performance for the cleavage reaction of N-butyl-4-NHAlloc-1,8-naphthalimide (NNPH), thereby producing significant changes in both color (from colorless to jade-green) and fluorescence (from blue to green) through the ICT process. Based on the abovementioned results, a novel sensing platform utilizing the PdNPs/MCNC nanocatalyst as an artificial enzyme and NNPH

  20. Structural features of the GroEL-GroES nano-cage required for rapid folding of encapsulated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Chang, HC; Roeben, A

    2006-01-01

    GroEL and GroES form a chaperonin nano-cage for proteins up to similar to 60 kDa to fold in isolation. Here we explored the structural features of the chaperonin cage critical for rapid folding of encapsulated substrates. Modulating the volume of the GroEL central cavity affected folding speed....... Additionally, interactions with the C-terminal, mildly hydrophobic Gly-Gly-Met repeat sequences of GroEL protruding into the cavity, and repulsion effects from the negatively charged cavity wall were required for rapid folding of some proteins. We suggest that by combining these features, the chaperonin cage...

  1. Encapsulation of a metal complex within a self-assembled nanocage: synergy effects, molecular structures, and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarets, Christophe; Gontard, Geoffrey; Cooksy, Andrew L; Rager, Marie Noelle; Amouri, Hani

    2014-05-05

    A novel palladium-based metallacage was self-assembled. This nanocage displayed two complementary effects that operate in synergy for guest encapsulation. Indeed, a metal complex, [Pt(NO2)4](2-), was hosted inside the cavity, as demonstrated by solution NMR studies. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that the guest adopts two different orientations, depending on the nature of the host-guest interactions involved. A density functional theory computational study is included to rationalize this type of host-guest interaction. These studies pave the way to a better comprehension of chemical interaction and transformation within confined nanospaces.

  2. A first-principles study on the adsorption behavior of amphetamine on pristine, P- and Al-doped B12N12 nano-cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Aidin; Seidi, Shahram; Baheri, Tahmineh; Aghamohammadi, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    The first-principles computations using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the M062X/6-311++G** level have been applied to scrutinize the adsorption behavior of amphetamine (AMP) molecule on the external surface of pristine, P- and Al-doped B12N12 nano-cages. In order to gain insight into the binding features of pristine and doped B12N12 complexes as adsorbent with AMP, the structural and electronic parameters as well as the Atoms in Molecules (AIM) properties were examined. The results showed that AMP prefers to adsorb via its nitrogen atom on the Lewis acid sites of B and Al atoms of the nano-cages. On the basis of calculated density of states, the interaction of AMP with the external wall of B12N12 leads to the remarkable differences in their conductivities. Presence of polar solvent increases the AMP adsorption on the nano-cage. In addition, AIM based analyses indicated an electrostatic nature for N-B interaction in Amph-B12N12 and partial covalent for N-Al in AMP-B11AlN12. Based on calculated results, the B12N12 and B11AlN12 nano-cages are expected to be a potential efficient adsorbent as well as sensors for adsorption of AMP in environmental systems.

  3. Extremely stable platinum nanoparticles encapsulated in a zirconia nanocage by area-selective atomic layer deposition for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Niancai; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Liu, Jian; Riese, Adam; Li, Xia; Li, Ruying; Ye, Siyu; Knights, Shanna; Sun, Xueliang

    2015-01-14

    Encapsulation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) in a zirconia nanocage by area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) can significantly enhance both the Pt stability and activity. Such encapsulated Pt NPs show 10 times more stability than commercial Pt/C catalysts and an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity 6.4 times greater than that of Pt/C.

  4. IMMUNO-INFLAMATORY RESPONSES IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Oganov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the role of immuno-inflammatory responses in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS.Material and methods. 93 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, including 60 patients with unstable angina (UA and 33 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI were involved in the study. Comparison group included 83 patients with stable angina and control group - 25 healthy persons. The diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD was verified on the basis of clinical and instrumental data. For assessment of immuno-inflammatory responses levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, pro-inflammatory (interleukins [IL-1β, IL-6], tumor necrosis factor [TNF-α] and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines we determined by ELISA method.Results. There were high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, high CRP level and low levels of anti-inflammatory IL-4, IL-10 cytokines in UA and AMI patients. Insignificant immunological shifts were found in stable angina patients.Conclusion. Destabilization in the IHD course is characterized with more active immuno-inflammatory responses. Activity of these reactions is associated with ACS severity.

  5. IMMUNO-INFLAMATORY RESPONSES IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Oganov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the role of immuno-inflammatory responses in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS.Material and methods. 93 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, including 60 patients with unstable angina (UA and 33 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI were involved in the study. Comparison group included 83 patients with stable angina and control group - 25 healthy persons. The diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD was verified on the basis of clinical and instrumental data. For assessment of immuno-inflammatory responses levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, pro-inflammatory (interleukins [IL-1β, IL-6], tumor necrosis factor [TNF-α] and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines we determined by ELISA method.Results. There were high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, high CRP level and low levels of anti-inflammatory IL-4, IL-10 cytokines in UA and AMI patients. Insignificant immunological shifts were found in stable angina patients.Conclusion. Destabilization in the IHD course is characterized with more active immuno-inflammatory responses. Activity of these reactions is associated with ACS severity.

  6. Iron Oxide Biominerals in Protein Nanocages, the Ferritins: Easing Into Life With Oxygen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    Organisms with ferritins could represent the progenitors of organisms that successfully made the transition to aerobic life. Ferritins are protein nanocages (8 or 12 nm diameter) that catalyze reactions between Fe(II) and O2 or H2O2 to synthesize ferrihydrite-like biominerals of Fe2O3(H2 O)n; phosphate is sometimes incorporated during mineralization. All groups of organisms, archea, bacteria, plants and animals have ferritins. Catalytic reactions between Fe and O occur in the protein cage with the products moving into the central protein cavity (5 or 8 nm diameter) where mineralization occurs; mineral sizes reach 4500 Fe with more than 7000 O atoms in the large cavities of maxi-ferritins and 500 Fe with more than 800 O atoms in the smaller, mini-ferritins, also called Dps proteins. H2O2 is preferentially used by mini-ferritins in archea and bacteria, contrasting with O2, preferentially used by maxi-ferritins in bacteria plants and animals, and some bacterial mini-ferritins that use either H2O2 or O2, to oxidize Fe(II) during biomineralization. The study of ferritins in contemporary organisms can illuminate mechanisms for oxygen and oxidant responses in changing environments now and in the past. Multiple genes encoding ferritins are often regulated by different environmental stimuli and in multi-cellular organisms, by tissue-specific, differentiation programs. The single celled E.coli has four ferritin genes, encoding three maxi-ferritins, one with a heme cofactor (bacterioferritin), and one mini-ferritin (Dps), expressed at different points in the culture cycle and/or in response to different stresses. Environmental iron, oxygen and peroxide all change the amounts of ferritin. When iron is plentiful, mineralized ferritin accumulates. Ferritin iron is recovered during periods of iron deficiency, apparently by selective unfolding of gated pores in ferritin protein nanocage that expose the mineral to reductants. Gene (DNA) transcription is the genetic target for iron

  7. MOF-Derived Hollow Co9 S8 Nanoparticles Embedded in Graphitic Carbon Nanocages with Superior Li-Ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Dongdong; Kopold, Peter; Gu, Lin; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Novel electrode materials consisting of hollow cobalt sulfide nanoparticles embedded in graphitic carbon nanocages (HCSP⊂GCC) are facilely synthesized by a top-down route applying room-temperature synthesized Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) as the template. Owing to the good mechanical flexibility and pronounced structure stability of carbon nanocages-encapsulated Co9 S8 , the as-obtained HCSP⊂GCC exhibit superior Li-ion storage. Working in the voltage of 1.0-3.0 V, they display a very high energy density (707 Wh kg(-1) ), superior rate capability (reversible capabilities of 536, 489, 438, 393, 345, and 278 mA h g(-1) at 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10C, respectively), and stable cycling performance (≈26% capacity loss after long 150 cycles at 1C with a capacity retention of 365 mA h g(-1) ). When the work voltage is extended into 0.01-3.0 V, a higher stable capacity of 1600 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) is still achieved.

  8. Designed Formation of Co₃O₄/NiCo₂O₄ Double-Shelled Nanocages with Enhanced Pseudocapacitive and Electrocatalytic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Han; Guan, Buyuan; Xia, Baoyu; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-04-29

    Hollow structures with high complexity in shell architecture and composition have attracted tremendous interest because of their great importance for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Herein we report the designed synthesis of novel box-in-box nanocages (NCs) with different shell compositions, namely, Co3O4/NiCo2O4 double-shelled nanocages (DSNCs). Uniform zeolitic imidazolate framework-67/Ni-Co layered double hydroxides yolk-shelled structures are first synthesized and then transformed into Co3O4/NiCo2O4 DSNCs by thermal annealing in air. Importantly, this strategy can be easily extended to prepare other complex DSNCs. When evaluated as electrodes for pseudocapacitors, the Co3O4/NiCo2O4 DSNCs show a high specific capacitance of 972 F g(-1) at a current density of 5 A g(-1) and excellent stability with 92.5% capacitance retention after 12 000 cycles, superior to that of Co3O4 NCs with simple configuration and Co3O4/Co3O4 DSNCs. Besides, the Co3O4/NiCo2O4 DSNCs also exhibit much better electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction than Co3O4 NCs. The greatly improved electrochemical performance of Co3O4/NiCo2O4 DSNCs demonstrates the importance of rational design and synthesis of hollow structures with higher complexity.

  9. A micro-immuno supported liquid membrane assay (mu-ISLMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorache, Madalina; Emnéus, Jenny

    2006-02-15

    A chemiluminescent (CL) based micro-immuno supported liquid membrane assay (mu-ISLMA) has been developed that enables clean up, enrichment and detection of simazine in a single miniaturised cartridge system. The mu-ISLM cartridge contains a supported liquid membrane (SLM) sandwiched between a donor and an acceptor plate (channel volumes 1.65 microL), the latter being covered by a thin layer of gold on to which anti-simazine antibodies were covalently immobilised via a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of either dithiobis(11-aminoundecane, hydrochloride) (DTAU) or beta-mercaptoethylamine (beta-MEA). The mu-ISLMA based on DTAU was characterised by both a high apparent extraction efficiency (E(app) = 136%) and high apparent enrichment factor (E(e)(app) = 544), which resulted in a very high sensitivity for simazine (LOD = 0.1 ng L(-1)). The paper discusses the influence of the different SAMs and three different anti-simazine-antibody preparations (polyclonal, affinity purified polyclonal and monoclonal) on the extraction parameters and assay sensitivity. The influence of the sample matrix (e.g. mineral water, orange juice and milk) on the simazine mu-ISLMA was also investigated.

  10. Immuno-PCR for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming Jun; Ji, Xin Cheng; Xiao, Xi Zhi; Sun, Tao; Wu, Zhen Xing; Zheng, Xiao Long; Wang, Qun; Zhu, Lai Hua

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia cysts at low concentrations were detected in water samples using a highly sensitive immunological-PCR (IPCR) method. Magnetic gold particles were precoated with monoclonal anti-Giardia antibodies, and Giardia lamblia cysts ranging from 1 to 100 cysts were diluted in 500 microL of water. A biotinylated detection antibody bound to the G. lamblia cysts was then linked by a streptavidin bridge to biotinylated Giardia-reporter DNA. After extensive washing, reporter DNA was released by denaturation, transferred to PCR tubes, amplified, electrophoresed, and visualized. An optimized immuno-PCR method detected as little as five G. lamblia cysts. To further evaluate the specificity and the clinical application of this IPCR assay for G. lamblia cysts, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum were also collected and detected by IPCR. The data demonstrated that this monoclonal antibody-based IPCR method is particularly useful for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of G. lamblia cysts is very low, and provides a platform capable of rapid screening of samples from drinking water, wells, rivers, lakes, and recreational swimming pools for trace levels of G. lamblia cysts.

  11. An overview of synthetic strategies and current applications of gold nanorods in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish Lakhani, Prit; Vishnu Kiran Rompicharla, Sri; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2015-10-01

    Photothermal therapy, also referred to as optical hyperthermia or photothermal ablation, is an emerging strategy for treating solid tumours. Colloidal gold converts the absorbed light into localized heat via a non-radiative mechanism, surface plasmon resonance, which ablates the solid tumours. Several plasmon resonating nanostructures, including gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), gold nanorods (AuNRs), gold nanoshells, gold nanocages, copper sulphide and carbon nanotubes, have shown potential for photo-activated cancer therapy. Generally, spherical AuNPs display absorption maxima between 500-550 nm, making them inefficient due to low tissue penetration. On the other hand, AuNRs absorb light in the near-infrared (NIR) region that penetrates deeper with higher spatial precision, and causes no damage to the surrounding healthy tissues due to the low energy absorption of NIR light by normal tissue. Moreover, the absorption range of light can be fine-tuned to the NIR region by adjusting the aspect ratios of AuNRs. However, large-scale synthesis and stability of this colloidal system still poses challenges for clinical translation. In this review, we discuss various strategies applied up to now for the synthesis of AuNRs. Current trends in the pre-clinical development of multifunctional AuNRs with emphasis on preparation and application strategies in cancer therapy have been delineated.

  12. Metal-organic framework derived Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Limin

    2014-04-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high surface areas and uniform microporous structures have shown potential application in many fields. Here we report a facial strategy to synthesize Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages by annealing core-shell Co3[Fe(CN)6]2@Ni3[Co(CN)6]2 nanocubes in air. The obtained samples have been systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The results show that the Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages have an average diameter of 213 nm and a shell thickness of about 30 nm. As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages exhibit a high initial discharge capacity of 1311.4 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 (about 0.1 C). The capacity is retained at 1079.6 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles. The synergistic effect of the different components and the porous hollow structure contributes to the outstanding performance of the composite electrode.Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high surface areas and uniform microporous structures have shown potential application in many fields. Here we report a facial strategy to synthesize Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages by annealing core-shell Co3[Fe(CN)6]2@Ni3[Co(CN)6]2 nanocubes in air. The obtained samples have been systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The results show that the Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages have an average diameter of 213 nm and a shell thickness of about 30 nm. As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages exhibit a high initial discharge capacity of 1311.4 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 (about 0.1 C). The capacity is retained at 1079.6 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles. The synergistic effect of the different components and the porous hollow structure contributes to the outstanding performance of the composite electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06041a

  13. IMMUNO-INFLAMATORY RESPONSE IN ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Zakirova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the role of immuno-inflammatory response in developing of angina pectoris in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD.Material and methods: The study included 83 patients with IHD and angina pectoris of functional class (FC II (30 patients, III (27 patients and IV (26 patients. The control group included 25 healthy persons. Bicycle burden test, daily ECG monitoring and echocardiography were used to verify of IHD. Levels of С-reactive protein (CRP, pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α were examined by immunoenzyme method. Levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were also defined: interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 (IL-4, IL-10.Results. Increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10 with normal CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were observed in patients with angina of FC-II. Angina of FC-III was associated with a moderate increase in CRP level and normal levels of IL-4 and IL-10. The maximal levels of CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as minimal levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed in patients with FC-IV angina pectoris.Conclusion. The immuno-inflammatory response depends on angina pectoris severity in patients with IHD. Severe angina pectoris is accompanied by raised expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  14. IMMUNO-INFLAMATORY RESPONSE IN ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Zakirova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the role of immuno-inflammatory response in developing of angina pectoris in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD.Material and methods: The study included 83 patients with IHD and angina pectoris of functional class (FC II (30 patients, III (27 patients and IV (26 patients. The control group included 25 healthy persons. Bicycle burden test, daily ECG monitoring and echocardiography were used to verify of IHD. Levels of С-reactive protein (CRP, pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α were examined by immunoenzyme method. Levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were also defined: interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 (IL-4, IL-10.Results. Increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10 with normal CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were observed in patients with angina of FC-II. Angina of FC-III was associated with a moderate increase in CRP level and normal levels of IL-4 and IL-10. The maximal levels of CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as minimal levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed in patients with FC-IV angina pectoris.Conclusion. The immuno-inflammatory response depends on angina pectoris severity in patients with IHD. Severe angina pectoris is accompanied by raised expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Novel phenol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on reduced graphene oxide supported palladium-copper alloyed nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Li-Ping; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Jia-Ying; Chen, Jian-Rong; Wang, Ai-Jun

    2015-12-15

    Developing new nanomaterials is of key importance to improve the analytical performances of electrochemical biosensors. In this work, palladium-copper alloyed nanocages supported on reduced graphene oxide (RGO-PdCu NCs) were facilely prepared by a simple one-pot solvothermal method. A novel phenol biosensor based on laccase has been constructed for rapid detection of catachol, using RGO-PdCu NCs as electrode material. The as-developed phenol biosensor greatly enhanced the electrochemical signals for catechol. Under the optimal conditions, the biosensor has two linear ranges from 0.005 to 1.155 mM and 1.655 to 5.155 mM for catachol detection at 0.6 V, the sensitivity of 12.65 µA mM(-1) and 5.51 µA mM(-1), respectively. This biosensor showed high selectivity, low detection limit, good reproducibility, and high anti-interference ability.

  16. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  17. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  18. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of alpha-1...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5400 Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. ...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866.5270 Section 866.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5270 C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A C-reactive...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5330 - Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system. 866.5330 Section 866.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5330 Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A factor XIII, A,...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. 866.5380 Section 866.5380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5380 Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5350 - Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. 866.5350 Section 866.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5350 Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A fibrinopeptide A...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5775 - Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. 866.5775 Section 866.5775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5775 Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A rheumatoid...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5360 - Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. 866.5360 Section 866.5360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5360 Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A Cohn fraction IV...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866.5860 Section 866.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5860 Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A total spinal...

  7. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas

  8. Novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages by direct sulfurizing metal-organic frameworks for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaodan; Xie, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its excellent electrocatalytic properties, cobalt disulfide (CoS2) is regarded as a promising counter electrode (CE) material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, hindered by its relatively poor electrical conductivity and chemical instability, it remains a challenge to apply it into high-performance DSSCs. In this work, we have developed novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages as a CE in DSSCs, using ZIF-67 (zeolitic imidazolate framework 67, Co(mim)2, mim = 2-methylimidolate) as a template. The CoS2 samples sulfurized for different time lengths are prepared through a facile solution process. It is found that the sulfurization time can be optimized to maximize the DSSC efficiency and the DSSC based on the CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages sulfurized for 4 hours exhibits the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.20%, higher than those of DSSCs consisting of other CoS2 CEs and Pt-based DSSC (7.88%). The significantly improved DSSC PCE is contributed by the synergic effect of inner CoS2 nanoparticles and an amorphous carbon matrix, leading to a CE with high catalytic activity, good electrical conductivity and excellent durability. This study demonstrates that the CE based on inexpensive CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages is a prospective substitute to expensive platinum and provides a new approach for commercializing high-efficiency DSSCs.

  9. Immuno-assay techniques for detecting yeasts in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; Notermans, S

    1993-06-25

    A brief literature review on immuno-assay of yeast cell wall antigens is given. Special attention is paid to extracellular, thermostable yeast antigens (EPS), which are released to the growth medium by many yeast species. The EPS of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Stephanoascus ciferrii (syn. Candida ciferrii) could be specifically and sensitively detected by a sandwich ELISA, using an IgG raised in rabbits immunized with the EPS of these yeasts. The EPS ELISA of three basidiomycetous yeasts tested was not specific, that of Geotrichum candidum was genus-specific but was not sensitive. The EPS of Zygosaccharomyces bailii could be detected in a highly specific competitive ELISA but not in a sandwich ELISA or in a latex agglutination test.

  10. Food irradiation: Special solutions for the immuno-compromised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla

    2016-12-01

    Safety of food is particularly important for immuno-compromised patients, because these people are vulnerable to all sorts of infectious complications and foodborne pathogens as well, and even organisms normally considered non-pathogenic may cause problems. According to the guidelines published by the FDA, immunocompromised patients have to avoid high-risk foods, and advised to consume only pasteurized juice, milk or cheese, and well-cooked eggs, poultry, meat and fish. In the frame of an IAEA CRP the objective was to develop, in collaborations with the healthcare community, the use of irradiation to increase the variety, availability and acceptability of foods for immunocompromised, for example irradiated fresh produce (fruits, vegetables, salads) and ready-to-eat meals. Further aim was to widen the acceptance of irradiated foods by the healthcare and regulatory communities.

  11. Gold nanoshells-mediated bimodal photodynamic and photothermal cancer treatment using ultra-low doses of near infra-red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Lin, Chun-Chih; Kalluru, Poliraju; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-07-01

    Previously, gold nanoshells were shown to be able to effectively convert photon energy to heat, leading to hyperthermia and suppression of tumor growths in mice. Herein, we show that in addition to the nanomaterial-mediated photothermal effects (NmPTT), gold nanoshells (including, nanocages, nanorod-in-shell and nanoparticle-in-shell) not only are able to absorb NIR light, but can also emit fluorescence, sensitize formation of singlet oxygen and exert nanomaterial-mediated photodynamic therapeutic (NmPDT) complete destruction of solid tumors in mice. The modes of NmPDT and NmPTT can be controlled and switched from one to the other by changing the excitation wavelength. In the in vitro experiments, gold nanocages and nanorod-in-shell show larger percentage of cellular deaths originating from NmPDT along with the minor fraction of NmPTT effects. In contrast, nanoparticle-in-shell exhibits larger fraction of NmPTT-induced cellular deaths together with minor fraction of NmPDT-induced apoptosis. Fluorescence emission spectra and DPBF quenching studies confirm the generation of singlet O2 upon NIR photoirradiation. Both NmPDT and NmPTT effects were confirmed by measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent sodium azide quenching, heat shock protein expression (HSP 70), singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) sensing, changes in mitochondria membrane potential and apoptosis in the cellular experiments. In vivo experiments further demonstrate that upon irradiation at 980 nm under ultra-low doses (∼150 mW/cm(2)), gold nanocages mostly exert NmPDT effect to effectively suppress the B16F0 melanoma tumor growth. The combination of NmPDT and NmPTT effects on destruction of solid tumors is far better than pure NmPTT effect by 808 nm irradiation and also doxorubicin. Overall, our study demonstrates that gold nanoshells can serve as excellent multi-functional theranostic agents (fluorescence imaging + NmPDT + NmPTT) upon single photon NIR light excitation under

  12. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  13. [Computational medical imaging (radiomics) and potential for immuno-oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Limkin, E J; Dercle, L; Reuzé, S; Zacharaki, E I; Chargari, C; Schernberg, A; Dirand, A S; Alexis, A; Paragios, N; Deutsch, É; Ferté, C; Robert, C

    2017-10-01

    The arrival of immunotherapy has profoundly changed the management of multiple cancers, obtaining unexpected tumour responses. However, until now, the majority of patients do not respond to these new treatments. The identification of biomarkers to determine precociously responding patients is a major challenge. Computational medical imaging (also known as radiomics) is a promising and rapidly growing discipline. This new approach consists in the analysis of high-dimensional data extracted from medical imaging, to further describe tumour phenotypes. This approach has the advantages of being non-invasive, capable of evaluating the tumour and its microenvironment in their entirety, thus characterising spatial heterogeneity, and being easily repeatable over time. The end goal of radiomics is to determine imaging biomarkers as decision support tools for clinical practice and to facilitate better understanding of cancer biology, allowing the assessment of the changes throughout the evolution of the disease and the therapeutic sequence. This review will develop the process of computational imaging analysis and present its potential in immuno-oncology. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The immuno-dynamics of conflict intervention in social systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Krakauer

    Full Text Available We present statistical evidence and dynamical models for the management of conflict and a division of labor (task specialization in a primate society. Two broad intervention strategy classes are observed--a dyadic strategy--pacifying interventions, and a triadic strategy--policing interventions. These strategies, their respective degrees of specialization, and their consequences for conflict dynamics can be captured through empirically-grounded mathematical models inspired by immuno-dynamics. The spread of aggression, analogous to the proliferation of pathogens, is an epidemiological problem. We show analytically and computationally that policing is an efficient strategy as it requires only a small proportion of a population to police to reduce conflict contagion. Policing, but not pacifying, is capable of effectively eliminating conflict. These results suggest that despite implementation differences there might be universal features of conflict management mechanisms for reducing contagion-like dynamics that apply across biological and social levels. Our analyses further suggest that it can be profitable to conceive of conflict management strategies at the behavioral level as mechanisms of social immunity.

  15. Cytokine and Immuno-Gene Therapy for Solid Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Yuan Li; Qian Huang; Hsiang-Fu Kung

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent progress in our understanding of cancer biology and in many areas of cancer treatment, the success rate for cancer therapy remains dismal. Immunotherapy for cancer has long been an exciting field for many cancer researchers due to the possibility to mobilize the body's own immune system to eradicate cancer not only locally but also systemically. Since its initial discovery, cytokine-based immunotherapy has been vigorously and extensively investigated for cancer treatment due to the perception of it as a relatively easily purifiable, injectable form of cancer treatment agent. However, so far most cytokine-based therapy trials have fallen short of expectations. One of main obstacles is the difficulty to achieve therapeutically relevant dosage in patients without generating excessive normal tissue toxicity. The emergence of novel gene therapy approach to deliver therapeutic cytokine to tumors locally generated great excitement since it has the potential of generating sustained high local concentration of immunostimulatory cytokine without raising the systemic levels of the cytokines, which is responsible for most of the observed toxicity. In this review, we will attempt to provide an overview of the field and discuss some of the problems associated with cytokine-based immuno-gene therapy and potential solutions.Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):81-91.

  16. Cytokine and Immuno-Gene Therapy for Solid Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-YuanLi; QianHuang; Hsiang-FuKung

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent progress in our understanding of cancer biology and in many areas of cancer treatment, the success rate for cancer therapy remains dismal. Immunotherapy for cancer has long been an exciting field for many cancer researchers due to the possibility to mobilize the body's own immune system to eradicate cancer not only locally but also systemically. Since its initial discovery, cytokine-based immunotherapy has been vigorously and extensively investigated for cancer treatment due to the perception of it as a relatively easily purifiable, injectable form of cancer treatment agent. However, so far most cytokine-based therapy trials have fallen short ofexpectations. One of main obstacles is the difficulty to achieve therapeutically relevant dosage in patients without generating excessive normal tissue toxicity. The emergence of novel gene therapy approach to deliver therapeutic cytokine to tumors locally generated great excitement since it has the potential of generating sustained high local concentration of immunostimulatory cytokine without raising the systemic levels of the cytokines, which is responsible for most of the observed toxicity. In this review, we will attempt to provide an overview of the field and discuss some of the problems associated with cytokine-based immuno-gene therapy and potential solutions. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):81-91.

  17. [Immuno-histochemical study of medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, T

    1987-07-01

    Five peptide hormones including calcitonin (CT) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), serotonin (5HT), CEA, nervous tissue specific proteins and monoclonal antibody Leu-7 were immuno-histochemically studied on 60 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In addition, localization of varied products in the tumor cells and its relations with the clinical features in some cases were evaluated. MTC contains a variety of products in many cases, and CT and CEA were positive in all cases. In 50 of the 57 cases (87.7%), GRP was positive, which suggested that GRP could be a novel tumor marker for this tumor. Furthermore, in tumor cells and C-cell hyperplastic foci, identical cells were sometimes revealed to possess both CT and GRP. Existence of somatostatin (SS), substance-P (SP), beta-MSH, 5 HT, Leu-7 and NSE in the tumor cells were confirmed. NSE was positive in 32 of the 47 cases (61.8%) which could confirm that MTC possesses neuroendocrine nature. In two cases of autopsy in which the tumors were highly malignant in clinical course and undifferentiated in histology, most tumor cells showed poor stainability for peptide hormones, suggesting that specific qualities as neuroendocrine tumor had been lost. In familial cases, the tumor tended to contain multiple substances.

  18. Going for Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    While the international gold price in February hit the highest point in 25 years at $541.20 per ounce for futures delivery, a new gold rush is sweeping across China. According to the World Gold Council, the London-based gold marketing organization funded by leading global gold mining firms, the purchase of gold products in China grew by 9 percent in the first nine

  19. A new tool in the field of in-vitro diagnosis of allergy: preliminary results in the comparison of ImmunoCAP© 250 with the ImmunoCAP© ISAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisseur, Romy; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne

    2011-02-01

    The ImmunoCAP© ISAC allows for the determination of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against 103 recombinant or purified allergen components in a single analytical step. The aim of our study was to perform a comparison of the specific IgE results measured with the microarray method to those obtained using the traditional method of ImmunoCAP©. We selected 86 clinically relevant patients on the basis of their specific IgE for recombinant allergens (ImmunoCAP© 250, Phadia). Also, we selected two patients with a high total IgE to evaluate the non-specific binding of IgE. All samples were screened with the ImmunoCAP© ISAC. Then, we compared the 555 specific IgE antibodies results provided by ImmunoCAP© ISAC with the specific IgE levels obtained with ImmunoCAP© 250. We observed that 82 of the 384 results found to be positive with ImmunoCAP© were negative with ISAC© (concordance 78.65%). Of 171 negative results obtained with ImmunoCAP©, 11 were positive with ISAC© (concordance 93.57%). No non-specific binding was observed. Our results show that the ImmunoCAP© ISAC has good analytical performance when compared with the ImmunoCAP© 250 method. We did not observe any non-specific binding. However, better sensitivity for some clinically relevant allergen components, such as rPru p 3 is needed.

  20. Different distribution of in-situ thin carbon layer in hollow cobalt sulfide nanocages and their application for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meng; Lu, Shi-Yu; Ma, Li; Gan, Meng-Yu; Lei, Yao; Zhang, Xiu-Ling; Fu, Gang; Yang, Pei-Shu; Yan, Mao-Fa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, cobalt sulfides emerge as a candidate for energy reserve and conversation. However, the problem of poor stability and low rate capability for cobalt sulfides restrict its practical application. Thin carbon layer (TCL) coated has been regarded as a promising constructing strategy for high performance supercapacitors, because TCL can promote the tremendous properties of bare materials. In this literature, we report a very interesting phenomenon that different distribution of in-situ carbon coated hollow CoS2 nanocages (external and both external and interior) can be synthesized only by adjusting sulfuration time, followed by calcination. Moreover, it is clearly observed that CoS2-C@TCL exhibits significant improvement for specific capacitance and good stability (better than CoS2@TCL and CoS2). These results compel us to design a series of experiments to figure out the reason and the more detailed mechanism is discussed in paper. More importantly, it will provide a new strategy for synthesis of special structure with in-situ carbon coated sulfide for energy conversion.

  1. Gold in Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryshkevych Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the role of gold in modern economy. It analyses dynamics and modern state of the gold market. It studies volumes of contracts in exchange and off-exchange markets. In order to reveal changes of key features of the gold market, it focuses on the study of gold demand volumes, studies volumes and geographical changes in the world gold mining, and analyses volumes of monetary gold of central banks and its share in gold and currency reserves. It analyses price fluctuations in the gold market during 1968 – 2013 and identifies main factors that determine the gold price. It identifies interconnection between the state of the gold market and financial markets of countries. The study showed that namely geopolitical and economic instability restricts the spectrum of financial assets for investing and gold is not only a safe investment object but also a profitable one.

  2. Bonding the superalkali M3O (M = Li and K): An effective strategy to improve the electronic and nonlinear optical properties of the inorganic B40 nanocage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Yu, Guangtao; Zhang, Xueying; Huang, Xuri; Chen, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by the fascinating finding of all-boron fullerene B40 (Nat Chem, 2014, 6, 727), we propose a new and effective strategy to construct a series of typical Donor-Acceptor (D-A) frameworks via linking the superalkali M3O (M = Li and K) unit with the low ionization potential to the B40 nanocage with large electron affinity. By means of the density functional theory computations, we have systematically investigated the structures, electronic properties, the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of these modified B40 nanocage systems. Owing to the formation of a B-O chemical bond, these composite systems (M3O)n-B40 (M = Li and K, n = 1 and 2) can possess the considerably large binding energy ranging from 57.0 to 99.8 kcal/mol, indicating their high structure stabilities. Compared with the pristine B40 nanocage, linking the superalkali M3O can effectively narrow the wide energy gap from the original 2.86 eV to 0.61-1.11 eV, and significantly increase the first and second hyperpolarizabilities to as large as 5.00 × 104-2.46 × 105 au and 1.48 × 107-4.85 × 108 au, respectively, owing to the occurrence of evident electron transfer process in this kind of typical D-A framework. These fascinating findings will be advantageous for promoting the potential applications of the inorganic boron-based nanosystems in the new type of electronic nanodevices and high-performance nonlinear optical materials.

  3. Combination radioimmunotherapy approaches and quantification of immuno-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which play a prominent role in cancer therapy, can interact with specific antigens on cancer cells, thereby enhancing the patient' immune response via various mechanisms, or mAbs can act against cell growth factors and, thereby, arrest the proliferation of tumor cells. Radionuclide-labeled mAbs, which are used in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), are effective for cancer treatment because tumor associated-mAbs linked to cytotoxic radionuclides can selectively bind to tumor antigens and release targeted cytotoxic radiation. Immunological positron emission tomography (immuno-PET), which is the combination of PET with mAb, is an attractive option for improving tumor detection and mAb quantification. However, RIT remains a challenge because of the limited delivery of mAb into tumors. The transport and uptake of mAb into tumors is slow and heterogeneous. The tumor microenvironment contributed to the limited delivery of the mAb. During the delivery process of mAb to tumor, mechanical drug resistance such as collagen distribution or physiological drug resistance such as high intestinal pressure or absence of lymphatic vessel would be the limited factor of mAb delivery to the tumor at a potentially lethal mAb concentration. When α-emitter-labeled mAbs were used, deeper penetration of α-emitter-labeled mAb inside tumors was more important because of the short range of the α emitter. Therefore, combination therapy strategies aimed at improving mAb tumor penetration and accumulation would be beneficial for maximizing their therapeutic efficacy against solid tumors.

  4. Impact of treatment variability on survival in immuno-competent and immuno-compromised patients with primary central nervous lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Reem; Nabhan, Chadi; Petrich, Adam M; Raizer, Jeffrey; Peace, David; Lukas, Rimas; Gordon, Leo I; Basu, Sanjib; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Venugopal, Parameswaran

    2017-04-01

    Patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) treated in the 'real-world' setting do not represent those treated on clinical trials and might not be treated similarly. We studied characteristics and variability in care for 113 newly diagnosed PCNSL patients treated at 5 institutions in the Chicago area between 2000 and 2012. In 111 patients, single modality therapy with a high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) regimen +/- rituximab, was most commonly employed (n = 65), and 34 underwent radiotherapy (+/- systemic therapy). Fifty-eight of 108 patients received rituximab. Twenty-nine of 110 patients (26%) received intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC). Overall response rate was 80% (47% complete responses). With a median follow-up of 18·7 months, median overall survival (OS) was 65·2 months. In univariate analysis, HD-MTX (median OS 72·7 vs. 2·7 months, P < 0·001) and rituximab (median not reached versus 28·4 months, P = 0·005) impacted OS favourably. This significance was sustained regardless of immune status and in multivariate analysis. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) resulted in a trend for improved OS as compared with systemic therapy alone (P = 0·09), while ITC did not impact survival. Clinical practice has evolved to exclude WBRT and ITC while incorporating rituximab with clinical outcomes comparable in immuno-competent/compromised patients and similar to those achieved in recent clinical trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Immuno-PCR--a new tool for paleomicrobiology: the plague paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Malou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cause of past plague pandemics was controversial but several research teams used PCR techniques and dental pulp as the primary material to reveal that they were caused by Yersinia pestis. However, the degradation of DNA limits the ability to detect ancient infections. METHODS: We used for the first time immuno-PCR to detect Yersinia pestis antigens; it can detect protein concentrations 70 times lower than the standard ELISA. After determining the cut-off value, we tested 34 teeth that were obtained from mass graves of plague, and compared previous PCR results with ELISA and immuno-PCR results. RESULTS: The immuno-PCR technique was the most sensitive (14 out of 34 followed by the PCR technique (10 out of 34 and ELISA (3 out of 34. The combination of these three methods identified 18 out of 34 (53% teeth as presumably being from people with the plague. CONCLUSION: Immuno-PCR is specific (no false-positive samples were found and more sensitive than the currently used method to detect antigens of ancient infections in dental pulp. The combination of three methods, ELISA, PCR and immuno-PCR, increased the capacity to identify ancient pathogens in dental pulp.

  6. Immuno-PCR - A New Tool for Paleomicrobiology: The Plague Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappez, Claude; Signoli, Michel; Le Forestier, Cyrille; Castex, Dominique; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background The cause of past plague pandemics was controversial but several research teams used PCR techniques and dental pulp as the primary material to reveal that they were caused by Yersinia pestis. However, the degradation of DNA limits the ability to detect ancient infections. Methods We used for the first time immuno-PCR to detect Yersinia pestis antigens; it can detect protein concentrations 70 times lower than the standard ELISA. After determining the cut-off value, we tested 34 teeth that were obtained from mass graves of plague, and compared previous PCR results with ELISA and immuno-PCR results. Results The immuno-PCR technique was the most sensitive (14 out of 34) followed by the PCR technique (10 out of 34) and ELISA (3 out of 34). The combination of these three methods identified 18 out of 34 (53%) teeth as presumably being from people with the plague. Conclusion Immuno-PCR is specific (no false-positive samples were found) and more sensitive than the currently used method to detect antigens of ancient infections in dental pulp. The combination of three methods, ELISA, PCR and immuno-PCR, increased the capacity to identify ancient pathogens in dental pulp. PMID:22347507

  7. Influence of alkali metal superoxides on structure, electronic, and optical properties of Be12O12 nanocage: Density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof Toosi, Ali; Shamlouei, Hamid Reza; Hesari, Asghar Mohammadi

    2016-09-01

    The effect of alkali metal superoxides M3O (M = Li, Na, K) on the electronic and optical properties of a Be12O12 nanocage was studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The energy gaps (Eg) of all configurations were calculated. Generally, the adsorption of alkali metal superoxides on the Be12O12 nanocage causes a decrease of Eg. Electric dipole moment μ, polarizability α, and static first hyperpolarizability β were calculated and it was shown that the adsorption of alkali metal superoxides on Be12O12 increases its polarizability. It was found that the absorption of M3O on Be12O12 nanocluster improves its nonlinear optical properties. The highest first hyperpolarizability (β ≈ 214000 a.u.) is obtained in the K3O-Be12O12 nanocluster. The TD-DFT calculations were performed to investigate the origin of the first hyperpolarizabilities and it was shown that a higher first hyperpolarizability belongs to the structure that has a lower transition energy.

  8. Fabrication of Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er Core-Shell Hybrid and its Tunable Upconversion Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Zhou, Donglei; Xu, Wen; Zhu, Jinyang; Pan, Gencai; Yin, Ze; Wang, He; Zhu, Yongsheng; Shaobo, Cui; Song, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Localized electric filed enhancement by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of noble metal nanoparticles is an effective method to amplify the upconversion luminescence (UCL) strength of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), whereas the highly effective UCL enhancement of UCNPs in colloids has not been realized until now. Here, we designed and fabricated the colloidal Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er core-shell hybrid with different intermediate thickness (NaYF4) and tunable SPR peaks from visible wavelength region to NIR region. After the optimization of the intermediate spacer thickness (~7.5 nm) of NaYF4 NPs and the SPR peak (~950 nm) of noble metal nanoparticles, an optimum enhancement as high as ~25 folds was obtained. Systematic investigation indicates that UCL enhancement mainly originates from the influence of the intermediate spacer and the coupling of Au-Ag nanocages with the excitation electromagnetic field of the UCNPs. Our findings may provide a new thinking on designing highly effective metal@UCNPs core-shell hybrid in colloids.

  9. Large-area one-step assembly of three-dimensional porous metal micro/nanocages by ethanol-assisted femtosecond laser irradiation for enhanced antireflection and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Li, Jiawen; Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei; Li, Xiaohong; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Wu, Dong

    2015-01-14

    The capability to realize 2D-3D controllable metallic micro/nanostructures is of key importance for various fields such as plasmonics, electronics, bioscience, and chemistry due to unique properties such as electromagnetic field enhancement, catalysis, photoemission, and conductivity. However, most of the present techniques are limited to low-dimension (1D-2D), small area, or single function. Here we report the assembly of self-organized three-dimensional (3D) porous metal micro/nanocages arrays on nickel surface by ethanol-assisted femtosecond laser irradiation. The underlying formation mechanism was investigated by a series of femtosecond laser irradiation under exposure time from 5 to 30 ms. We also demonstrate the ability to control the size of micro/nanocage arrays from 0.8 to 2 μm by different laser pulse energy. This method features rapidness (∼10 min), simplicity (one-step process), and ease of large-area (4 cm(2) or more) fabrication. The 3D cagelike micro/nanostructures exhibit not only improved antireflection from 80% to 7% but also enhanced hydrophobicity from 98.5° to 142° without surface modification. This simple technique for 3D large-area controllable metal microstructures will find great potential applications in optoelectronics, physics, and chemistry.

  10. Fabrication of Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er Core-Shell Hybrid and its Tunable Upconversion Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Zhou, Donglei; Xu, Wen; Zhu, Jinyang; Pan, Gencai; Yin, Ze; Wang, He; Zhu, Yongsheng; Shaobo, Cui; Song, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Localized electric filed enhancement by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of noble metal nanoparticles is an effective method to amplify the upconversion luminescence (UCL) strength of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), whereas the highly effective UCL enhancement of UCNPs in colloids has not been realized until now. Here, we designed and fabricated the colloidal Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er core-shell hybrid with different intermediate thickness (NaYF4) and tunable SPR peaks from visible wavelength region to NIR region. After the optimization of the intermediate spacer thickness (~7.5 nm) of NaYF4 NPs and the SPR peak (~950 nm) of noble metal nanoparticles, an optimum enhancement as high as ~25 folds was obtained. Systematic investigation indicates that UCL enhancement mainly originates from the influence of the intermediate spacer and the coupling of Au-Ag nanocages with the excitation electromagnetic field of the UCNPs. Our findings may provide a new thinking on designing highly effective metal@UCNPs core-shell hybrid in colloids. PMID:28106128

  11. Gold nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sekyu; Nam, Jutaek; Jung, Sungwook; Song, Jaejung; Doh, Hyunmi; Kim, Sungjee

    2014-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attractive photothermal agents for cancer therapy because they show efficient local heating upon excitation of surface plasmon oscillations. The strong absorption, efficient heat conversion, high photostability, inherent low toxicity and well-defined surface chemistry of AuNPs contribute to the growing interest in their photothermal therapy (PTT) applications. The facile tunability of gold nanostructures enables engineering of AuNPs for superior near-infrared photothermal efficacy and target selectivity, which guarantee efficient and deep tissue-penetrating PTT with mitigated concerns regarding side effects by nonspecific distributions. This article discusses the current research findings with representative near-infrared-active AuNPs, which include nanoshell, nanorod, nanocage, nanostar, nanopopcorn and nanoparticle assembly systems. AuNPs successfully demonstrate potential for use in PTT, but several hurdles to clinical applications remain, including long-term toxicity and a need for sophisticated control over biodistribution and clearance. Future research directions are discussed, especially regarding the clinical translation of AuNP photosensitizers.

  12. Doping the alkali atom: an effective strategy to improve the electronic and nonlinear optical properties of the inorganic Al12N12 nanocage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Min; Yu, Guangtao; Yang, Guanghui; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Xingang; Huang, Xuri

    2014-01-06

    Under ab initio computations, several new inorganic electride compounds with high stability, M@x-Al12N12 (M = Li, Na, and K; x = b66, b64, and r6), were achieved for the first time by doping the alkali metal atom M on the fullerene-like Al12N12 nanocage, where the alkali atom is located over the Al-N bond (b66/b64 site) or six-membered ring (r6 site). It is revealed that independent of the doping position and atomic number, doping the alkali atom can significantly narrow the wide gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) (EH-L = 6.12 eV) of the pure Al12N12 nanocage in the range of 0.49-0.71 eV, and these doped AlN nanocages can exhibit the intriguing n-type characteristic, where a high energy level containing the excess electron is introduced as the new HOMO orbital in the original gap of pure Al12N12. Further, the diffuse excess electron also brings these doped AlN nanostructures the considerable first hyperpolarizabilities (β0), which are 1.09 × 10(4) au for Li@b66-Al12N12, 1.10 × 10(4), 1.62 × 10(4), 7.58 × 10(4) au for M@b64-Al12N12 (M = Li, Na, and K), and 8.89 × 10(5), 1.36 × 10(5), 5.48 × 10(4) au for M@r6-Al12N12 (M = Li, Na, and K), respectively. Clearly, doping the heavier Na/K atom over the Al-N bond can get the larger β0 value, while the reverse trend can be observed for the series with the alkali atom over the six-membered ring, where doping the lighter Li atom can achieve the larger β0 value. These fascinating findings will be advantageous for promoting the potential applications of the inorganic AlN-based nanosystems in the new type of electronic nanodevices and high-performance nonlinear optical (NLO) materials.

  13. Immuno-miRs : critical regulators of T-cell development, function and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Teteloshvili, Nato; Smigielska, Katarzyna; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are instrumental to many aspects of immunity, including various levels of T-cell immunity. Over the last decade, crucial immune functions were shown to be regulated by specific miRNAs. These immuno-miRs' regulate generic cell biological processes in T cells, such as proliferation

  14. Competitive adsorption of albumin and monoclonal immuno upsilon globulin molecules on polystyrene surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, F.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is proteins at interfaces. The main purpose of the work was to acquire more insight into the mechanism of adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and monoclonal Immuno gamma Globulins (IgG's). both individually and in competition. Another aim was to achieve optim

  15. Immuno-PCR assay for sensitive detection of proteins in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immuno-PCR (IPCR) assay combines the versatility and robustness of immunoassays with the exponential signal amplification power of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Typically, IPCR allows a 10–1,000-fold increase in sensitivity over the analogous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thi...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5320 - Properdin factor B immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus), as well as several skin diseases, e.g., dermititis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Properdin factor B immuno-logical test system. 866.5320 Section 866.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  17. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food an

  18. Een onderzoek over de waarde van de Schultz-Dale techniek in de immuno-pathologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansz, Anton

    1960-01-01

    Dit proefschrift geeft in hoofdstuk I een overzicht over problemen in de immuno-pathologie. waarbij vooral aandacht wordt geschonken aan de auto-immunologische ziekteprocessen. Een beter inzicht hierin kan verkregen worden door dierexperimenteel en door serologisch onderzoek. Het laatste vooral heef

  19. Een onderzoek over de waarde van de Schultz-Dale techniek in de immuno-pathologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansz, Anton

    1960-01-01

    Dit proefschrift geeft in hoofdstuk I een overzicht over problemen in de immuno-pathologie. waarbij vooral aandacht wordt geschonken aan de auto-immunologische ziekteprocessen. Een beter inzicht hierin kan verkregen worden door dierexperimenteel en door serologisch onderzoek. Het laatste vooral

  20. Lateral flow (immuno) assay : its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    Lateral flow (immuno) assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food

  1. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food

  2. An effective immuno-PET imaging method to monitor CD8-dependent responses to immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaré, Richard; Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Mok, Stephen; McCracken, Melissa N.; Zettlitz, Kirstin A.; Salazar, Felix B.; Witte, Owen N.; Ribas, Antoni; Wu, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly advancing field of cancer immunotherapy is currently limited by the scarcity of noninvasive and quantitative technologies capable of monitoring the presence and abundance of CD8+ T cells and other immune cell subsets. In this study, we describe the generation of 89Zr-desferrioxamine-labeled anti-CD8 cys-diabody (89Zr-malDFO-169 cDb) for noninvasive immuno-positron emission tomography (immuno-PET) tracking of endogenous CD8+ T cells. We demonstrate that anti-CD8 immuno-PET is a sensitive tool for detecting changes in systemic and tumor-infiltrating CD8 expression in preclinical syngeneic tumor immunotherapy models including antigen-specific adoptive T cell transfer, agonistic antibody therapy (anti-CD137/4-1BB), and checkpoint blockade antibody therapy (anti-PD-L1). The ability of anti-CD8 immuno-PET to provide whole body information regarding therapy-induced alterations of this dynamic T cell population provides new opportunities to evaluate antitumor immune responses of immunotherapies currently being evaluated in the clinic. PMID:26573799

  3. Lateral flow (immuno) assay : its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno) assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food a

  4. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  5. Ricin toxicokinetics and its sensitive detection in mouse sera or feces using immuno-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin (also called RCA-II or RCA60), one of the most potent toxins and documented bioweapons, is derived from castor beans of Ricinus communis. Several in vitro methods have been designed for ricin detection in complex food matrices in the event of intentional contamination. Recently, a novel Immuno...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5370 - Cohn fraction V immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5370 Cohn fraction V immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A Cohn fraction V immunological... (disease of the stomach and small intestine), rheumatoid arthritis, and viral hepatitis. (b)...

  7. Tunable SERS-Tags-Hidden Gold Nanorattles for Theranosis of Cancer Cells with Single Laser Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaolong; Yu, Dexin; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Zhengjun; Liu, Ting; Zhan, Jinhua

    2014-10-01

    With the use of gold nanostructures, photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer has great advantages compared to conventional methods, such as noninvasive targeted destruction and easily operation. Generally speaking, respective diagnosis and therapy of tumor require at least two instruments, leading to incongruence of tumor borders between diagnosis and therapy. To tackle this problem, tunable SERS-tags-hidden gold nanorattles (STHGNRs) have been designed and developed here for theranosis of cancer with single laser beam. The surface plasma resonance peak of STHGNRs can be tuned from visible region to near-infrared region by controlling the cavity size and shell thickness. The outer shells not only improve the stability of the SERS reporters but also enhance the brightness by more than two order magnitude compared to gold nanoparticles. In vitro study, immuno STHGNRs can serve as theranosis agents simultaneously for sensitive and efficient theranosis of cancer cells.

  8. Prussian Blue Analogues Derived Penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 Nanocages Anchored on 3D Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xun

    2017-08-14

    Efficient water splitting demands highly active, low cost, and robust electrocatalysts. In this study, we report the synthesis of penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 nanocages anchored on 3D graphene aerogel using Prussian blue analogues as precursor and further their applications in overall water splitting electrolysis. The synergy between the high activity of (Ni,Co)Se2 and the good conductivity of graphene leads to superior performance of the hybrid toward the water splitting in basic solutions. The (Ni,Co)Se2-GA only requires a low cell voltage of 1.60 V to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2-GA hybrid a competitive alternative to noble metal based catalysts for water splitting.

  9. Confinement of Ionic Liquids in Nanocages: Tailoring the Molecular Sieving Properties of ZIF-8 for Membrane-Based CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yujie; Li, Zhengjie; Li, Yanshuo; Peng, Yuan; Jin, Hua; Jiao, Wenmei; Guo, Ang; Wang, Po; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhong, Chongli; Yang, Weishen

    2015-12-14

    Fine-tuning of effective pore size of microporous materials is necessary to achieve precise molecular sieving properties. Herein, we demonstrate that room temperature ionic liquids can be used as cavity occupants for modification of the microenvironment of MOF nanocages. Targeting CO2 capture applications, we tailored the effective cage size of ZIF-8 to be between CO2 and N2 by confining an imidazolium-based ionic liquid [bmim][Tf2 N] into ZIF-8's SOD cages by in-situ ionothermal synthesis. Mixed matrix membranes derived from ionic liquid-modified ZIF-8 exhibited remarkable combinations of permeability and selectivity that transcend the upper bound of polymer membranes for CO2 /N2 and CO2 /CH4 separation. We observed an unusual response of the membranes to varying pressure, that is, an increase in the CO2 /CH4 separation factor with pressure, which is highly desirable for practical applications in natural gas upgrading.

  10. Double-Shelled Nanocages with Cobalt Hydroxide Inner Shell and Layered Double Hydroxides Outer Shell as High-Efficiency Polysulfide Mediator for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Hu, Han; Li, Zhen; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-03-14

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been considered as a promising candidate for next-generation electrochemical energy-storage technologies because of their overwhelming advantages in energy density. Suppression of the polysulfide dissolution while maintaining a high sulfur utilization is the main challenge for Li-S batteries. Here, we have designed and synthesized double-shelled nanocages with two shells of cobalt hydroxide and layered double hydroxides (CH@LDH) as a conceptually new sulfur host for Li-S batteries. Specifically, the hollow CH@LDH polyhedra with complex shell structures not only maximize the advantages of hollow nanostructures for encapsulating a high content of sulfur (75 wt %), but also provide sufficient self-functionalized surfaces for chemically bonding with polysulfides to suppress their outward dissolution. When evaluated as cathode material for Li-S batteries, the CH@LDH/S composite shows a significantly improved electrochemical performance.

  11. Au Nanocage Functionalized with Ultra-small Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Targeting T1–T2Dual MRI and CT Imaging of Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guannan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Xuanjun; Mei, Xifan

    2016-06-01

    Diagnostic approaches based on multimodal imaging of clinical noninvasive imaging (eg. MRI/CT scanner) are highly developed in recent years for accurate selection of the therapeutic regimens in critical diseases. Therefore, it is highly demanded in the development of appropriate all-in-one multimodal contrast agents (MCAs) for the MRI/CT multimodal imaging. Here a novel ideal MCAs (F-AuNC@Fe3O4) were engineered by assemble Au nanocages (Au NC) and ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) for simultaneous T1–T2dual MRI and CT contrast imaging. In this system, the Au nanocages offer facile thiol modification and strong X-ray attenuation property for CT imaging. The ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticles, as excellent contrast agent, is able to provide great enhanced signal of T1- and T2-weighted MRI (r1 = 6.263 mM‑1 s‑1, r2 = 28.117 mM‑1 s‑1) due to their ultra-refined size. After functionalization, the present MCAs nanoparticles exhibited small average size, low aggregation and excellent biocompatible. In vitro and In vivo studies revealed that the MCAs show long-term circulation time, renal clearance properties and outstanding capability of selective accumulation in tumor tissues for simultaneous CT imaging and T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Taken together, these results show that as-prepared MCAs are excellent candidates as MRI/CT multimodal imaging contrast agents.

  12. ImmunoCytTM and cytology for diagnosis of bladder carcinoma:a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Minggen; Zheng Zhouda; Zhuang Zhiming; Zhao Xiaokun; Xu Zhenqiang; Lin Haili

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently,cystoscopy and urine cytology are standard modalities in therapy monitoring and follow-up of bladder carcinoma (BC).Cystoscopy is an invasive and uncomfortable procedure while cytology has a limited value because it is operator-dependent and has low sensitivity.This study was to assess the accuracy of ImmunoCyt in detecting BC by comparing it with cytology using systemic analyses of studies published in both English and Chinese.Methods Cochrane systematic evaluation was used to search through MEDLINE,EMBASE,Cochrane Library,CMCC,and CNKI for studies regarding ImmunoCyt and cytology for detection of BC.Data were extracted and analyzed by the software MetaDiSc 1.4.Results In total 42 relevant studies were searched,of which 15 were enrolled and 12 491 patients were included.Heterogeneity,except for threshold effects,was found within these studies.A meta-analysis was performed using the random effect model.Pooled accuracy indicators like sensitivity,specificity,and diagnostic odds ratio of ImmunoCytTM and cytology were 0.75 (0.73-0.77) vs.0.45 (0.43-0.48),0.73 (0.72-0.74) vs.0.97 (0.96-0.97),and 10.97 (7.53-15.99) vs.16.40 (10.57-25.46),respectively.The sensitivity of both was increased with the increase of tumor grade and stage.The area under summary receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.834 4 and 0.853 4 and the Q index 0.766 7 and 0.785 3 for ImmunoCyt and cytology,respectively.Combination of both can obviously improve the accuracy of diagnosis.Conclusions ImmunoCyt has a high sensitivity in detecting BC,but its specificity is low.As an important adjunct,ImmunoCytTM can not replace cytology,but combined with cytology it could improve sensitivity with high specificity in the detection and postoperative monitoring of BC.

  13. Gold induced apoptsis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Introduction   Cancer cells are highly thermo sensitive. On the basis of an article in Nature the idea arose, for a new non-invasive thermotherapy technique, based on radio frequency inductive heating of nano gold particles in an MR-scanner. Thermotherapy is getting considerably attention...... at the moment, especially in the fields of lasers, they though have some problems concerning the placement of the tumor in the human body. Local heating by MR has tremendous advance in comparison too lasers. The first step is to validate the hypothesis of the inductive heating of the gold nano particles trough...... in silico methods are here proposed for apoptosis studies and for AMG studies.   Methods   MR - heating of high concentration micrometer gold and low concentration nano gold.   CSLM of ethidum bromide stained cell lines, with and witout gold and automated image processing.   AMG gold uptake study...

  14. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food and environmental settings. We describe principles of current formats, applications, limitations and perspectives for quantitative monitoring. We illustrate the potentials and limitations of analysis with lateral flow (immuno)assays using a literature survey and a SWOT analysis (acronym for "strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats"). Articles referred to in this survey were searched for on MEDLINE, Scopus and in references of reviewed papers. Search terms included "immunochromatography", "sol particle immunoassay", "lateral flow immunoassay" and "dipstick assay".

  15. Immuno-oncology combinations:raising the tail of the survival curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel J Harris; Jessica Brown; Juanita Lopez; Timothy A Yap

    2016-01-01

    There have been exponential gains in immuno-oncology in recent times through the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors also appears to have significant antitumor activity in multiple other tumor types. An exciting component of immunotherapy is the durability of antitumor responses observed, with some patients achieving disease control for many years. Nevertheless, not all patients benefit, and efforts should thus now focus on improving the efficacy of immunotherapy through the use of combination approaches and predictive biomarkers of response and resistance. There are multiple potential rational combinations using an immunotherapy backbone, including existing treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy or molecularly targeted agents, as well as other immunotherapeutics. The aim of such antitumor strategies will be to raise the tail on the survival curve by increasing the number of long term survivors, while managing any additive or synergistic toxicities that may arise with immunotherapy combinations. Rational trial designs based on a clear understanding of tumor biology and drug pharmacology remain paramount. This article reviews the biology underpinning immuno-oncology, discusses existing and novel immunotherapeutic combinations currently in development, the challenges of predictive biomarkers of response and resistance and the impact of immuno-oncology on early phase clinical trial design.

  16. SERS based immuno-microwell arrays for multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Hankus, Mikella E.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2009-05-01

    A novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immuno-microwell array has been developed for multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The immuno-microwell array was prepared by immobilizing the optical addressable immunomagnetic beads (IMB) into the microwell array on one end of a fiber optic bundle. The IMBs, magnetic beads coated with specific antibody to specific bacteria, were used for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of corresponding bacteria. The magnetic separation by the homemade magnetic separation system was evaluated in terms of the influences of several important parameters including the beads concentration, the sample volume and the separation time. IMS separation efficiency of the model bacteria E.coli O157:H7 was 63% in 3 minutes. The microwell array was fabricated on hydrofluoric acid etched end of a fiber optic bundle containing 30,000 fiber elements. After being coated with silver, the microwell array was used as a uniform SERS substrate with the relative standard deviation of the SERS enhancement across the microwell array < 2% and the enhancement factor as high as 2.18 x 107. The antibody modified microwell array was prepared for bacteria immobilization into the microwell array, which was characterized by a sandwich immunoassay. To demonstrate the potential of multiplexed SERS detection with the immuno-microwell array, the SERS spectra of different Raman dye labeled magnetic beads as well as mixtures were measured on the mircrowell array. In bead mixture, different beads were identified by the characteristic SERS bands of the corresponding Raman label.

  17. Gold in the Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江河

    2002-01-01

    In the present Chinese market, more and more businessmen turn to the profit-making trade. Even some counters in the bookstores are selling gold rings, necklaces, bracelets, etc. One day a school teacher asked a store assistant,“Why are you selling gold in your bookstore?”

  18. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...... value maximization forces the manager of high type to extract the gold.The implications are three-fold. First, all managers (except the lowest type) extract the gold too soon compared to the first-best policy of leaving the gold in the mine forever. Second, a manager of high type extracts the gold...... sooner than a manager of lower type. Third, a non-operating gold mine is valued as being of the lowest type in the pool and all else equal, high-asymmetri mines are valued lower than low-asymmetri mines. In a qualitative sense these results are robust with respect to different assumptions (re cost...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry...—Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate... be considered in any assay for quality of a gold filled, gold overlay and rolled gold plate industry...

  20. Imaging free radicals in organelles, cells, tissue, and in vivo with immuno-spin trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ronald Paul

    2016-08-01

    The accurate and sensitive detection of biological free radicals in a reliable manner is required to define the mechanistic roles of such species in biochemistry, medicine and toxicology. Most of the techniques currently available are either not appropriate to detect free radicals in cells and tissues due to sensitivity limitations (electron spin resonance, ESR) or subject to artifacts that make the validity of the results questionable (fluorescent probe-based analysis). The development of the immuno-spin trapping technique overcomes all these difficulties. This technique is based on the reaction of amino acid- and DNA base-derived radicals with the spin trap 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) to form protein- and DNA-DMPO nitroxide radical adducts, respectively. These adducts have limited stability and decay to produce the very stable macromolecule-DMPO-nitrone product. This stable product can be detected by mass spectrometry, NMR or immunochemistry by the use of anti-DMPO nitrone antibodies. The formation of macromolecule-DMPO-nitrone adducts is based on the selective reaction of free radical addition to the spin trap and is thus not subject to artifacts frequently encountered with other methods for free radical detection. The selectivity of spin trapping for free radicals in biological systems has been proven by ESR. Immuno-spin trapping is proving to be a potent, sensitive (a million times higher sensitivity than ESR), and easy (not quantum mechanical) method to detect low levels of macromolecule-derived radicals produced in vitro and in vivo. Anti-DMPO antibodies have been used to determine the distribution of free radicals in cells and tissues and even in living animals. In summary, the invention of the immuno-spin trapping technique has had a major impact on the ability to accurately and sensitively detect biological free radicals and, subsequently, on our understanding of the role of free radicals in biochemistry, medicine and toxicology.

  1. Prelude to Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    FEMALE Chinese athletes Fu Mingxia and Wang Junxia recorded outstanding performances at 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. Fu Mingxia won gold medals in both platform and springboard diving, and in so doing became the first double medal winner in Olympic diving since 1960. Wang Junxia, the holder of several world records in women’s long distance events, struggled against the odds and captured gold in the 5,000-meter event,

  2. Gold nanoprobes for theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Book-Newell, Brittany; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rao, Madhusudhana; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoprobes have become attractive diagnostic and therapeutic agents in medicine and life sciences research owing to their reproducible synthesis with atomic level precision, unique physical and chemical properties, versatility of their morphologies, flexibility in functionalization, ease of targeting, efficiency in drug delivery and opportunities for multimodal therapy. This review highlights some of the recent advances and the potential for gold nanoprobes in theranostics. PMID:22122586

  3. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  4. Joining the Gold Rush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ Flush with advanced technology and large amounts of capital, overseas mining firms are carving a place in the Chinese gold industry Dozens of Western mining companies, particularly those from Canada, are making the journey into the kind of remote corners in China that other overseas investors shy away from. What are they looking for? The answer is one of the most precious substances on the planet: gold.

  5. Real-Time Monitoring Surface Chemistry-Dependent In Vivo Behaviors of Protein Nanocages via Encapsulating an NIR-II Ag2S Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Yejun; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xian-En; Wang, Qiangbin

    2015-12-22

    Protein nanocages (PNCs) have been recognized as a promising platform for nanomedicine innovation. Real-time in vivo tracking of PNCs can provide critically important information for the development of PNC-based diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we demonstrate a general strategy for monitoring the behaviors of PNCs in vivo by encapsulating a Ag2S quantum dot (QD) with fluorescence in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) inside the PNC, using simian virus 40 (SV40) PNC (PNCSV40) as a model. Benefiting from the high spatiotemporal resolution and deep tissue penetration of NIR-II fluorescence imaging, the dynamic distribution of the PNCSV40 in living mice was tracked in real time with high fidelity, and adopting the PEGylation strategy, surface chemistry-dependent in vivo behaviors of PNCSV40 were clearly revealed. This study represents the first evidence of real-time tracking of the intrinsic behaviors of PNCs in vivo without interference in PNC-host interactions by encapsulating nanoprobes inside. The as-described imaging strategy will facilitate the study of interactions between exogenously introduced PNCs and host body and prompt the development of future protein-based drugs, sensors, and high-efficacy targeted delivery systems.

  6. A covalent and cleavable antibody-DNA conjugation strategy for sensitive protein detection via immuno-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buggenum, Jessie A. G. L.; Gerlach, Jan P.; Eising, Selma; Schoonen, Lise; van Eijl, Roderick A. P. M.; Tanis, Sabine E. J.; Hogeweg, Mark; Hubner, Nina C.; van Hest, Jan C.; Bonger, Kimberly M.; Mulder, Klaas W.

    2016-01-01

    Immuno-PCR combines specific antibody-based protein detection with the sensitivity of PCR-based quantification through the use of antibody-DNA conjugates. The production of such conjugates depends on the availability of quick and efficient conjugation strategies for the two biomolecules. Here, we present an approach to produce cleavable antibody-DNA conjugates, employing the fast kinetics of the inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and trans-cyclooctene (TCO). Our strategy consists of three steps. First, antibodies are functionalized with chemically cleavable NHS-s-s-tetrazine. Subsequently, double-stranded DNA is functionalized with TCO by enzymatic addition of N3-dATP and coupling to trans-Cyclooctene-PEG12-Dibenzocyclooctyne (TCO-PEG12-DBCO). Finally, conjugates are quickly and efficiently obtained by mixing the functionalized antibodies and dsDNA at low molar ratios of 1:2. In addition, introduction of a chemically cleavable disulphide linker facilitates release and sensitive detection of the dsDNA after immuno-staining. We show specific and sensitive protein detection in immuno-PCR for human epidermal stem cell markers, ITGA6 and ITGB1, and the differentiation marker Transglutaminase 1 (TGM1). We anticipate that the production of chemically cleavable antibody-DNA conjugates will provide a solid basis for the development of multiplexed immuno-PCR experiments and immuno-sequencing methodologies. PMID:26947912

  7. Differential Immuno-Reactivity to Genomic DNA, RNA and Mitochondrial DNA is Associated with Auto-Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilena V. Ivanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulating auto-reactive antibodies are hallmark features of auto-immune diseases, however little is known with respect to the specificity of such bio-markers. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of anti-nucleic acid antibodies in the blood of subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and healthy controls. Methods: Sera from 12 SLE cases and 8 controls were evaluated for immuno-reactivity to purified RNA, DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA. Results: As expected, immuno-reactivity to total nucleic acids was significantly higher in subjects with SLE when compared to healthy controls, however a clear distinction was observed among the various nucleic acid sub-types, with sera from SLE subjects displaying the greatest immuno-reactivity to RNA followed by mtDNA and then total DNA. Conclusion: The identification of auto-reactive antibodies can serve as highly sensitive biomarkers, although their specificity may not always allow diagnostic certainty. The knowledge that auto-antibodies in subjects with SLE display differential immuno-reactivity may help to improve existing diagnostics and may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of auto-immune disorders.

  8. Development of immuno-oncology drugs - from CTLA4 to PD1 to the next generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Since the regulatory approval of ipilimumab in 2011, the field of cancer immunotherapy has been experiencing a renaissance. This success is based on progress in both preclinical and clinical science, including the development of new methods of investigation. Immuno-oncology has become a sub-specialty within oncology owing to its unique science and its potential for substantial and long-term clinical benefit. Immunotherapy agents do not directly attack the tumour but instead mobilize the immune system - this can be achieved through various approaches that utilize adaptive or innate immunity. Therefore, immuno-oncology drug development encompasses a broad range of agents, including antibodies, peptides, proteins, small molecules, adjuvants, cytokines, oncolytic viruses, bi-specific molecules and cellular therapies. This Perspective summarizes the recent history of cancer immunotherapy, including the factors that led to its success, provides an overview of novel drug-development considerations, summarizes three generations of immunotherapies that have been developed since 2011 and, thus, illustrates the breadth of opportunities these new generations of immunotherapies represent.

  9. Immuno-histochemistry analysis of Helicobacter pylori antigen in renal biopsy specimens from patients with glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and three varieties of glomerulonephritis. Renal biopsy specimens from patients with Henoch Schonlein Purpura nephritis (HSPN; n = 10, membranous nephropathy (MN; n = 9 and lupus nephritis (LN; n = 27 were studied using immuno-histochemical labeling to clarify the etiological significance of H. pylori antigen in this disease. Immuno-histochemical labeling was performed using a mixture of anti-H. pylori-antibody-positive serum from nine volunteers; a mixture of anti-H. pylori-antibody-negative serum from nine volunteers was used as control. Staphylococci protein-A labeled by horseradish peroxidase was used as the second antibody in this study. A total of 34 of the 48 specimens revealed positive reaction with the anti-H. pylori-positive serum and five of the 48 specimens revealed positive reaction with the anti-H. pylori-negative serum. Positive reaction against anti-H. pylori-positive serum was seen in 10/10 patients with HSPN, six of nine patients with MN and 18/27 patients with LN. Statistical analysis showed that the difference of the positive reaction between anti-H. pylori-positive and negative sera was significant (χ 2 = 36.318, P = 0.000. Our study indicates that H. pylori infection may be associated with the development and/or progression of HSPN, MN and LN.

  10. An efficient method of sorting liver stem cells by using immuno-magnetic microbeads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fei He; Yin-Kun Liu; Dong-Mei Gao; Jun Chen; Peng-Yuan Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To develop a method to isolate liver stem cells fast and efficiently.METHODS: Fetal mouse liver cells were characterized by cell surface antigens (c-Kit and CD45/TER119) using flow cytometry. The candidate liver stem cells were sorted by using immuno-magnetic microbeads and identified by clone-forming culture, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays.RESULTS: The c-Kit-(CD45/TER119)-cell population with 97.9% of purity were purified by immuno-magnetic microbeads at one time. The yield of this separation was about 6% of the total sorting cells and the cell viability was above 98%. When cultured in vitro these cells had high clone-forming and self-renewing ability and expressed markers of hepatocytes and bile duct cells.Functionally mature hepatocytes were observed after 21 d of culture.CONCLUSION: This method offers an excellent tool for the enrichment of liver stem cells with high purity and viability, which could be used for further studies. It is fast, efficient, simple and not expensive.

  11. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sato

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Three recombinant antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain were fused with GST, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high levels of GST-rTp47 and GST-rTp17 expression, and supplementation with arginine tRNA for the AGR codon was needed to obtain GST-rTp15 overexpression. Purified fusion protein yields were 1.9, 1.7 and 5.3 mg/l of cell culture for GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15, respectively. The identities of the antigens obtained were confirmed by automated DNA sequencing using ABI Prism 310 and peptide mapping by Finningan LC/MS. These recombinant antigens were evaluated by immuno-slot blot techniques applied to 137 serum samples from patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of syphilis (61 samples, from healthy blood donors (50 samples, individuals with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis (3 samples, and from individuals with other spirochetal diseases such as Lyme disease (20 samples and leptospirosis (3 samples. The assay had sensitivity of 95.1% (95% CI, 86.1 to 98.7% and a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.7%; a stronger reactivity was observed with fraction rTp17. The immunoreactivity results showed that fusion recombinant antigens based-immuno-slot blot techniques are suitable for use in diagnostic assays for syphilis.

  12. An Immuno-Magnetic Nanobead Probe Competitive Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella choleraesuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Yu, Zhibiao; Huang, Yanmei; Wang, Shuying; Wang, Jingyun; Guo, Qi; Xu, Chaolian; Xia, Shiqi; Lai, Weihua

    2016-03-01

    A competitive lateral flow assay for the rapid detection of Salmonella choleraesuis was developed. Immuno-magnetic nanobeads were produced by covalently coupling anti-Salmonella choleraesuis antibody to magnetic nanobeads. These immuno-magnetic nanobeads were used as visually detected probes in the subsequent assay. Compared with the traditional sandwich assay, which is used for detecting macro-molecules, this new method was developed based on the competitive relationship between S. choleraesuis in the inspected sample and the outer membrane protein immobilized on the T line. Thus, only one antibody was necessary in the new assay, whereas a pair of rigorously selected antibodies were required in the sandwich assay. The sensitivity of the competitive assay for S. choleraesuis was 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/mL. In addition, no cross reactions were found in the 17 common non-Salmonella bacteria strains and in the 4 Salmonella strains of other serotypes. Thus, with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, the assay can be applied for the rapid detection of pre-enriched culture that may contain S. choleraesuis.

  13. A novel design for randomized immuno-oncology clinical trials with potentially delayed treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The semi-parametric proportional hazards model is widely adopted in randomized clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes, and the log-rank test is frequently used to detect a potential treatment effect. Immuno-oncology therapies pose unique challenges to the design of a trial as the treatment effect may be delayed, which violates the proportional hazards assumption, and the log-rank test has been shown to markedly lose power under the non-proportional hazards setting. A novel design and analysis approach for immuno-oncology trials is proposed through a piecewise treatment effect function, which is capable of detecting a potentially delayed treatment effect. The number of events required for the trial will be determined to ensure sufficient power for both the overall log-rank test without a delayed effect and the test beyond the delayed period when such a delay exists. The existence of a treatment delay is determined by a likelihood ratio test with resampling. Numerical results show that the proposed design adequately controls the Type I error rate, has a minimal loss in power under the proportional hazards setting and is markedly more powerful than the log-rank test with a delayed treatment effect.

  14. Low sensitivity of counter-current immuno-electrophoresis for serodiagnosis of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Datta, U; Roy, P; Verma, S; Sehgal, S

    1997-12-01

    Counter-current immuno-electrophoresis was evaluated as a diagnostic test for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever with somatic (O), flagellar (H) and capsular polysaccharide (Vi) antigens of Salmonella typhi on the sera of patients who were blood culture positive (confirmed typhoid cases) or had high Widal agglutination titres, > or = 320, (presumptive typhoid cases). Of the 37 sera from confirmed cases, 30% showed positivity with O antigen, 24% with H antigens and 51% with Vi antigen. In patients with a presumptive diagnosis, 45% were positive for O antibody, 27% for flagellar antibody and 52% for Vi antibody. When all three antigens were combined the reactivity to any of the antigens was found to be 59% in confirmed typhoid cases, 79% in presumptive typhoid cases and 93% in patients who were simultaneously positive by blood culture and Widal agglutination. However, none of the sera from 45 controls gave a positive precipitation reaction with any of the antigens. It is concluded that counter-current immuno-electrophoresis is a rapid test with low sensitivity and high specificity with Vi antigen, a panel of antigens being most effective, and is, therefore, recommended for rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  15. [Clinical use of the ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) tests for urothelial carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodde, Michele; Mian, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades years, we have witnessed the propagation and marketing of numerous diagnostic tests capable of detecting, in the urine of patients, the presence of urothelial tumor markers. Among None of the different markers studied to date , no one has been able to meet all the requirements of the ideal marker. We present and discuss below we discuss the results reported in the literature of about two tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration [ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH)], which have been and commercially available for about 10 years., ImmunoCyt/uCyt + and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH).

  16. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  17. Research Progress in Gold Nanostructures with Photothermal Effects%金纳米结构光热转换材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽莎; 胡俊青; 陈志钢

    2012-01-01

    Due to their unique photothermal effect, gold nanostructures have attracted much attention for their potential applications in the ablation of cancer cells. The recent advances in the preparation of gold nanostructures including nanospheres, nanorods, nanoshells, nanocages and nanoclusters, are reviewed. Subsequently, several kinds of surface functionalization ways are summarized. At last, the research progress in their biological application are introduced, including laser-induced drug controlled release, photothermal ablation therapy and NIR photothermal imaging.%金纳米结构材料具有重要的光热转换性质,在癌症治疗方面引起了全世界的高度关注.综述了金纳米结构光热转换材料包括纳米球、纳米棒、纳米壳、纳米笼以及纳米簇等的制备方法和进展,随后总结了其表面功能化的3种方法,即利用双功能的配体直接进行配体交换、二氧化硅包覆、聚合物包覆.最后介绍了其在激光诱导的药物释放、光热治疗、近红外热成像等生物医药方面的应用.

  18. Current humanized mouse models for studying human immunology and HIV-1 immuno-pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEISSNER; Eric

    2010-01-01

    A robust animal model for "hypothesis-testing/mechanistic" research in human immunology and immuno-pathology should meet the following criteria.First,it has well-studied hemato-lymphoid organs and target cells similar to those of humans.Second,the human pathogens establish infection and lead to relevant diseases.Third,it is genetically inbred and can be manipulated via genetic,immunological and pharmacological means.Many human-tropic pathogens such as HIV-1 fail to infect murine cells due to the blocks at multiple steps of their life cycle.The mouse with a reconstituted human immune system and other human target organs is a good candidate.A number of human-mouse chimeric models with human immune cells have been developed in the past 20 years,but most with only limited success due to the selective engraftment of xeno-reactive human T cells in hu-PBL-SCID mice or the lack of significant human immune responses in the SCID-hu Thy/Liv mouse.This review summarizes the current understanding of HIV-1 immuno-pathogenesis in human patients and in SIV-infected primate models.It also reviews the recent progress in the development of humanized mouse models with a functional human immune system,especially the recent progress in the immunodeficient mice that carry a defective gammaC gene.NOD/SCID/gammaC-/(NOG or NSG) or the Rag2-/-/gammaC-/double knockout (DKO) mice,which lack NK as well as T and B cells (NTB-null mice),have been used to reconstitute a functional human immune system in central and peripheral lymphoid organs with human CD34+ HSC.These NTB-hu HSC humanized models have been used to investigate HIV-1 infection,immuno-pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions.Such models,with further improvements,will contribute to study human immunology,human-tropic pathogens as well as human stem cell biology in the tissue development and function in vivo.

  19. Chemistry for oncotheranostic gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouiller, Anne Juliette; Hebié, Seydou; El Bahhaj, Fatima; Napporn, Teko W; Bertrand, Philippe

    2015-06-24

    This review presents in a comprehensive ways the chemical methods used to functionalize gold nanoparticles with focus on anti-cancer applications. The review covers the parameters required for the synthesis gold nanoparticles with defined shapes and sizes, method for targeted delivery in tumours, and selected examples of anti-cancers compounds delivered with gold nanoparticles. A short survey of bioassays for oncology based on gold nanoparticles is also presented.

  20. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  1. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  2. Immuno disc assay for screening duck hepatitis B surface antigen in serum, liver tissue and cultured hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. de Wilde (G.); R.A. Heijtink

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAn immuno disc assay (IDA) for semi-quantitative analysis of the surface antigen (DHBsAg) of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is described. Unpurified antigen preparations were adsorbed onto punched-out nitrocellulose membrane discs. Rabbit antiserum raised against serum-derived

  3. Clinical value of Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, for detecting H pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hui Li; Hong Guo; Peng-Bin Zhang; Xiao-Yan Zhao; Si-Ping Da

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reliability of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, for detecting H pylori infection.METHODS: Stool specimens were collected from 53 patients who received upper endoscopy examination due to gastrointestinal symptoms. ImmunoCard STAT HpSA wasused to detect H pylori stool antigens. H pyloriinfection wasdetected based on three different tests: the urease test, Warthin-Starry staining and culture. H pylori status wasdefined as positive when both the urease test and histology or culture alone was positive.RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values and the total accuracy of ImmunoCard STAT HpSA for the diagnosis of H pylorinfection were 92.6% (25/27), 88.5% (23/26), 89.3% (25/28), 92%(23/25) and 90.6% (48/53), respectively.CONCLUSION: The stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, is a simple noninvasive and accurate test for the diagnosis of H pyloriinfection.

  4. Digging for Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  5. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  7. Digging for Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  8. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute, maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  9. Aiming for Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three years ago he claimed China’s first Olympic gold medal,with a win in the 50-meter pistol shooting competition.Now Xu Haifeng is leading the country’s modern pentathlon team in its bid for success at the Beijing Games

  10. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  11. [A new approach to postexposure treatment of rabies by complex of immuno- and chemotherapy in belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishaeva, N P; Votiakov, V I; Titov, L P; Naralenkov, V A; Nekhaĭ, M R; Sinkevich, V V; Kurlukov, A I; Gorbunov, V A

    2013-01-01

    A method for preventive treatment of rabies with a complex of immuno- and chemotherapeutics was developed. Rifampicin was used a an etiotropic drug. In the experiments on laboratory animals infected with fixed and street strains of rabies virus it was shown to prolong the incubation period and to increase the survival rate. The protective mechanisms of rifampicin against rabies should be associated with inhibition of RNA transcription, as well as immunomodulating function of macrophages, dendritic cells, B- and T-cells. Since 1992, after the approval of the Ministry of Health of Belarus rifampicin is used in complex with antirabic vaccine for postexposure treatment of rabies in people after severe bites by infected animals (wolves, foxes, dogs). For an 18-year period (1992-2009) of integrated application of chemo- and immunotherapy in Belarus there was not registered any case of hydrophobia in people even after the heaviest wolf bites, incompatible with life (penetrating injuries of the skull, scalping, multiple bites).

  12. Nanometal particle reagents for sensitive, MEMS based fiber-optic, multi-analyte, immuno-biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin

    Integration of nanotechnology to medical diagnostics has brought a new era to public health practice. An excellent example is the utilization of unique optoelectronic properties of nanoparticles to develop highly sensitive biosensing devices for point-of-care (POC) disease diagnosis/prognosis. Fluorophore mediated, immuno-biosensors are important disease detection tools. The property of intra-molecular fluorescence quenching of most fluorophores, however, limits the sensitivity of this type of sensors. A plasmon-rich nanometal particle (NMP) can transfer the lone pair electrons of a fluorophore, which normally participate in the fluorescence self-quenching, to its surface plasmon field, resulting in artificial fluorescence enhancement. The enhancement was found to depend on the metal type, the particle size, the distance between a particle and a fluorophore, and the quantum yield of a fluorophore. Some biocompatible solvents were also found to increase the fluorescence emission efficiency via effective dipole coupling between the fluorophore and the solvent molecule. The application of solvents in inmuno-sensing could additionally improve the fluorescence light retrieval by the conformational change of the protein complexes in solvent. The mixture of the NMP and the solvent, which we defined as nanometal particle reagent (NMPR), provided even higher enhancements. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) kill 1 person in every 6 seconds. Among the CVDs, acute myocardial infarction (AMI; commonly known as heart attack) is the most dangerous and time-sensitive killer. A rapid and accurate AMI diagnosis is crucial for saving many lives. For this purpose, a fluorophore mediated, immuno-reaction based, multi-cardiac-marker sensing device was developed, to quantify four myocardium-specific proteins simultaneously, accurately, rapidly, and user-friendly. The four cardiac markers of our choice were myoglobin (MG), C-reactive protein (CRP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and B

  13. ImmunoChip Study Implicates Antigen Presentation to T Cells in Narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faraco, Juliette; Lin, Ling; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek;

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin) deficiency. We genotyped loci associated with other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in 1,886 individuals...... with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and 10,421 controls, all of European ancestry, using a custom genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease risk. In addition to a strong signal in the T cell...... receptor alpha (TRA@), variants in two additional narcolepsy loci, Cathepsin H (CTSH) and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4, also called OX40L), attained genome-wide significance. These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells...

  14. ImmunoChip Study Implicates Antigen Presentation to T Cells in Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Kenny, Eimear E.; Trynka, Gosia; Einen, Mali; Rico, Tom J.; Lichtner, Peter; Dauvilliers, Yves; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lecendreux, Michel; Javidi, Sirous; Geisler, Peter; Mayer, Geert; Pizza, Fabio; Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert Jan; Kemlink, David; Sonka, Karel; Nevsimalova, Sona; Rouleau, Guy; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Högl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Bourgin, Patrice; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Iranzo, Alex; Bassetti, Claudio; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Patrick; Thompson, Susan D.; Damotte, Vincent; Fontaine, Bertrand; Breban, Maxime; Gieger, Christian; Klopp, Norman; Deloukas, Panos; Wijmenga, Cisca; Hallmayer, Joachim; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Winkelmann, Juliane; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin) deficiency. We genotyped loci associated with other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in 1,886 individuals with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and 10,421 controls, all of European ancestry, using a custom genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease risk. In addition to a strong signal in the T cell receptor alpha (TRA@), variants in two additional narcolepsy loci, Cathepsin H (CTSH) and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4, also called OX40L), attained genome-wide significance. These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease. PMID:23459209

  15. Rare presentation of gall bladder tuberculosis in a non immuno-compromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The gall bladder is least common intraabdominal organ to be involved by tuberculosis. It is either part of systemic miliary tuberculosis or abdominal tuberculosis. Isolated gall bladder tuberculosis is even rarer, can presents either as calculus or acalculus cholecystitis. Gall bladder tuberculosis presenting as a localized perforation with a sinus formation into anterior abdominal wall is unreported complication in a non immuno-compromised person. A 48-year old female presented with a gradually increasing swelling in right hypochondrium. Abdominal ultrasound showed superficial collection over right hypochondrium with intraperitoneal extension. Computed tomography showed localized gall bladder perforation with extension to the abdominal wall. Patient underwent emergency exploration and cholecystectomy with excision of sinus tract and drainage of abdominal wall abscess. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous cholecystitis suggestive of tuberculosis of gall bladder with extension into the sinus tract. She had an uneventful recovery and was treated with 6-month antitubercular therapy after surgery.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of longissimus dorsi muscle in immuno- and surgically castrated male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuebin; Li, Chunbao; Cao, Miaodan; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-05-15

    We compared proteomic profiles of male pig muscles after active immunization against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and surgical castration. Longissimus dorsi samples were collected from immunocastration (IC) and surgical castration (SC) groups (n=15 each). Muscle proteins were extracted and then identified by data-independent label-free nano LC-MS/MS. A total of 610 proteins were identified, 50 of which were differentially expressed (P<0.05) between immuno- and surgical castration. Twenty-two of 50 differentially expressed proteins were higher in abundance for IC group and 27 proteins with abundance change folds greater than 1.5 differed with castration methods. Proteins involved in cytoskeleton and immunity were abundant in IC group. Several heat shock proteins (HSPs) and laminins were abundant in SC group.

  17. ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Faraco

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin deficiency. We genotyped loci associated with other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in 1,886 individuals with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and 10,421 controls, all of European ancestry, using a custom genotyping array (ImmunoChip. Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease risk. In addition to a strong signal in the T cell receptor alpha (TRA@, variants in two additional narcolepsy loci, Cathepsin H (CTSH and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4, also called OX40L, attained genome-wide significance. These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease.

  18. Effective dose to immuno-PET patients due to metastable impurities in cyclotron produced zirconium-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Alzimami, Khalid; Ma, Andy K.; Alghamdi, Ali; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Immuno-PET is a nuclear medicine technique that combines positron emission tommography (PET) with radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for tumor characterization and therapy. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is an emerging radionuclide for immuno-PET imaging. Its long half-life (78.4 h) gives ample time for the production, the administering and the patient uptake of the tagged radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the nuclides will remain in the tumor cells after the mAbs are catabolized so that time series studies are possible without incurring further administration of radiopharmarceuticals. 89Zr can be produced in medical cyclotrons by bombarding an yttrium-89 (89Y) target with a proton beam through the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction. In this study, we estimated the effective dose to the head and neck cancer patients undergoing 89Zr-based immune-PET procedures. The production of 89Zr and the impurities from proton irradiation of the 89Y target in a cyclotron was calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the nuclear reaction code TALYS. The cumulated activities of the Zr isotopes were derived from real patient data in literature and the effective doses were estimated using the MIRD specific absorbed fraction formalism. The estimated effective dose from 89Zr is 0.5±0.2 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose is 1.8±0.2 mSv/MBq in the liver. These values are in agreement with those reported in literature. The effective dose from 89mZr is about 0.2-0.3% of the 89Zr dose in the worst case. Since the ratio of 89mZr to 89Zr depends on the cooling time as well as the irradiation details, contaminant dose estimation is an important aspect in optimizing the cyclotron irradiation geometry, energy and time.

  19. Sterilization of freeze dried manila clam (Ruditapea philippinarum) porridge for immuno-compromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jae Nam [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and different conditions (vacuum packaging, antioxidant and freezing) on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of freeze dried Manila clam porridge (MCP) for immuno-compromised patient food. McP can be sterilized at 1 kGy to 10 kGy. the initial counts of total aerobic bacteria and yeast molds in the non-irradiated MCP were 2.4±0.5 and 1.2±0.3 log CFU g{sup -}'1, respectively, but gamma irradiation significantly decreased the total aerobic bacteria to below the detection limit (1 log CFU g{sup -1}) (5 kGy). Moreover, gamma irradiation effectively eliminated yeasts/molds at dose below than 1 kGy. However, gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation and therefore, decreased the sensory characteristics of MCP as irradiation dose increased. to improve the sensory qualities of gamma irradiated MCP, combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) were applied. there was no significant difference in the overall acceptance scores between the combined-treatment sample (5.6 points) and the non-irradiated samples (6.0). the results indicate that combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) may help to maintain the quality of MCP. therefore, it considered that irradiation of MCP with combined treatment and this is an effective method for the consumption as a special purpose food such as for space travel or immuno-compromised patients.

  20. Immune mechanisms and immuno-therapy in sepsis: where do we stan d?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    containment/destr uctio n of the pathogens, they could also exert detrimental effects in the host and co ntribute to host morbidity and mortality. Some of these mediators (TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, LTB4, PAF) have been shown to be “pro-inflammatory”,and to potenti al ly exert a harmful effect on non-immune cell systems such as endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and muscle cells. Among the pro-inflammatory mediators, TNFα a nd IL-1 could play major harmful roles, and thus contribute to the injured host morbidity and mortality. Mediators, IL-10 and PGE2 have been shown to be “an ti-inflammatory” and to potentially contribute to a dreadful state of immuno-s uppression in the injured hosts, which can also lead to morbidity and mortality. Whi ch is worse, a harmful pro-inflammatory phase or harmful immuno-suppression ? Or Which occurs first, a harmful pro-inflammatory condition or a harmful immuno-su ppression? These are questions which can not be definitively answered for the g eneral population of critically ill/injured patients. It is reasonable to assum e that the answers to these question would vary from one patient subset to anot her patient subset. Thus, whether to treat the patient with a putative anti-pro- inflammatory agent or with a putative anti-anti-inflammatory agent remai ns unresolved for the general sepsis patient population. Paradoxically, TNFα, IL-1, and other pro-inflammatory mediators under certa in circumstances may serve as natural “blockers” of immuno-suppression or “pr omoters” of immune stimulation. This may be true in the case of some of the se ptic patients. Understandably, these patients should not be treated with anti-pro-inf lammatory agents. On the other hand, the anti-inflammatory mediators such as PGE 2, IL-10, and certain other naturally occurring antagonists of TNFα and IL-10 a ctions (TNFα, and IL-1 receptor antagonists) could not only be producing a cert ai n level of immune-suppression but also serving as important feed

  1. Evaluation of the Field Performance of ImmunoCard STAT!(®) Rapid Diagnostic Test for Rotavirus in Dadaab Refugee Camp and at the Kenya-Somalia Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ope, Maurice; Nyoka, Raymond; Unshur, Ahmed; Oyier, Fredrick O; Mowlid, Shafe A; Owino, Brian; Ochieng, Steve B; Okello, Charles I; Montgomery, Joel M; Wagacha, Burton; Galev, Aleksandar; Abdow, Abdikadir; Esona, Mathew D; Tate, Jacqueline; Fitter, David; Cookson, Susan T; Arunmozhi, Balajee; Marano, Nina

    2017-06-01

    AbstractRotavirus commonly causes diarrhea in children, leading to hospitalization and even death. Rapid diagnostic tests are feasible alternatives for determining rotavirus outbreaks in refugee camps that have inadequate laboratory capacity. We evaluated the field performance of ImmunoCard STAT!(®) Rotavirus (ICS-RV) in Dadaab Refugee Camp and at the Kenya-Somalia border. From May to December 2014, we prospectively enrolled children aged tested by trained surveillance clerks using ICS-RV per manufacturer's instructions. The field performance characteristics of ICS-RV were evaluated against the gold standard test, Premier(™) Rotaclone(®) enzyme immunoassay. The operational characteristics were evaluated using World Health Organization (WHO) ASSURED criteria to determine whether ICS-RV is appropriate as a point-of-care test by administering a standard questionnaire and observing surveillance clerks performing the test. We enrolled 213 patients with a median age of 10 months (range = 1-48); 58.2% were male. A total of 71 (33.3%) and 60 (28.2%) patients tested positive for rotavirus infection by immunoassay and ICS-RV, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ICS-RV compared with the immunoassay were 83.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.3-91.0), 99.3% (95% CI = 96.1-100), 98.3% (95% CI = 91.1-100), and 92.1% (95% CI = 86.6-95.5), respectively. The ICS-RV fulfilled the WHO ASSURED criteria for point-of-care testing. ICS-RV is a field-ready point-of-care test with good field performance and operational characteristics. It can be useful in determining rotavirus outbreaks in resource-limited settings.

  2. Highly Sensitive and Selective Immuno-capture/Electrochemical Assay of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Red Blood Cells: A Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiqiong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-09

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity in red blood cells (RBCs) is a useful biomarker for biomonitoring of exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and chemical nerve agents. In this paper, we reported a new method for AChE activity assay based on selective immuno-capture of AChE from biological samples followed by enzyme activity assay of captured AChE using a disposable electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor is based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-gold nanocomposites (MWCNTs-Au) modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Upon the completion of immunoreaction, the target AChE (including active and inhibited) is captured onto the electrode surface and followed by an electrochemical detection of enzymatic activity in the presence of acetylthiocholine. A linear response is obtained over standard AChE concentration range from 0.1 to 10 nM. To demonstrate the capability of this new biomonitoring method, AChE solutions dosed with different concentration of paraoxon were used to validate the new AChE assay method. AChE inhibition in OP dosed solutions was proportional to its concentration from 0.2 to 50 nM. The new AChE activity assay method for biomonitoring of OP exposure was further validated with in-vitro paraoxon-dosed RBC samples. The established electrochemical sensing platform for AChE activity assay not only avoids the problem of overlapping substrate specificity with esterases by using selective antibody, but also eliminates potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It offers a new approach for sensitive, selective, and rapid AChE activity assay for biomonitoring of exposures to OPs.

  3. Spiky gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Park, So-Jung

    2010-12-21

    We report a high-yield synthetic method for a new type of metal nanostructure, spiky gold nanoshells, which combine the morphological characteristics of hollow metal nanoshells and nanorods. Our method utilizes block copolymer assemblies and polymer beads as templates for the growth of spiky nanoshells. Various shapes of spiky metal nanoshells were prepared in addition to spherical nanoshells by using block copolymer assemblies such as rod-like micelles, vesicles, and bilayers as templates. Furthermore, spiky gold shells encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles or quantum dots were prepared based on the ability of block copolymers to self-assemble with various types of nanoparticles and molecules. The capability to encapsulate other materials in the core, the shape tunability, and the highly structured surface of spiky nanoshells should benefit a range of imaging, sensing, and medical applications of metal nanostructures.

  4. Gold induced apoptsis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    at the moment, especially in the fields of lasers, they though have some problems concerning the placement of the tumor in the human body. Local heating by MR has tremendous advance in comparison too lasers. The first step is to validate the hypothesis of the inductive heating of the gold nano particles trough......Introduction   Cancer cells are highly thermo sensitive. On the basis of an article in Nature the idea arose, for a new non-invasive thermotherapy technique, based on radio frequency inductive heating of nano gold particles in an MR-scanner. Thermotherapy is getting considerably attention...... the low energy radio frequencies. If the method is demonstrated to be feasible, next step is testing in cell line trials.   Confocal microscopy experiments on cells are very hard to do reliable and reproducible statistic on, due to the fact that that it’s user counting which makes the data. Automatic...

  5. The RHIC gold rush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, T. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Physicists are colliding gold nuclei to recreate the fireball that existed in the very early universe, and they may have found evidence for quark-gluon plasma. What happens to ordinary matter as you heat it to higher and higher temperatures, or compress it to greater and greater densities? This simple question underpins a major effort to create extreme conditions in the lab, which has recently taken the shape of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This machine has been colliding gold nuclei since 2000, and has produced tantalizing hints that a new state of matter - the quark-gluon plasma - is created in the reactions. But it has also sparked surprises that are sending researchers back to the drawing board. (U.K.)

  6. The RHIC gold rush

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, T

    2003-01-01

    Physicists are colliding gold nuclei to recreate the fireball that existed in the very early universe, and they may have found evidence for quark-gluon plasma. What happens to ordinary matter as you heat it to higher and higher temperatures, or compress it to greater and greater densities? This simple question underpins a major effort to create extreme conditions in the lab, which has recently taken the shape of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This machine has been colliding gold nuclei since 2000, and has produced tantalizing hints that a new state of matter - the quark-gluon plasma - is created in the reactions. But it has also sparked surprises that are sending researchers back to the drawing board. (U.K.)

  7. Film Ace Takes Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "Really, I never, never expected to win this," said Chinese director Jia Zhangke on hearing he had taken the top award for his movie Still Life (Sanxia Haoren) at the Venice Film Festival, on September 9. A surprise late entry, Still Life quickly emerged as the favorite and the Gold Lion was again hugged by Chinese. The well-known Chinese director Zhang Yimou won the same award back in 1999, for Not One Less-also a

  8. JUNK: rubbish to gold

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    JUNK: rubbish to gold is a playful exploration of community economies (exchange, giving, bartering, gathering, earning, harvesting); putting on display the process of creating the ‘work of art’. Co-created and co-curated by Jivan Astfalck, Laura Bradshaw-Heap and Rachel Darbourne and partnered with charities, who supplied JUNK jewellery. During a public performance 31 jewellers ‘gifted’ their skills, (re)constructing pieces selected from a mountain of JUNK creating reimagined artworks for the...

  9. Rushing for gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    2009-01-01

    African rural dwellers have faced depressed economic prospects for several decades. Now, in a number of mineral-rich countries, multiple discoveries of gold and precious stones have attracted large numbers of prospective small-scale miners. While their 'rush' to, and activities within, mining sit...... affluent than the others, suggesting that movement can be rewarding for those willing to 'try their luck' with the hard work and social networking demands of mining another site....

  10. Gold-gold junction electrodes:the disconnection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sara E C; Vuorema, Anne; Ashmore, Ellen M Y; Kasprzyk-Horden, Barbara; Sillanpää, Mika; Denuault, Guy; Marken, Frank

    2012-02-01

    The formation of gold-gold junction electrodes for application in electroanalysis is described here based on electro-deposition from a non-cyanide gold plating bath. Converging growth of two hemispherical gold deposits on two adjacent platinum microelectrodes (both 100 µm diameter in glass, ca. 45 µm gap) followed by careful etching in aqueous chloride solution was employed. During growth both gold hemispheres "connect" and during etching "disconnection" is evident in a drop in current. Gold-gold junctions with sub-micron gaps are formed and applied for the electroanalytical detection of sub-micromolar concentrations of hydroquinone in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7 (E(rev) = 0.04 V vs. SCE) and sub-micromolar concentration of dopamine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7 (E(rev) = 0.14 V vs. SCE). The potential future uses in analysis and limitations of gold-gold junction electrodes are discussed.

  11. Separation of {sup 90}Nb from zirconium target for application in immuno-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, V.; Roesch, F. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Filosofov, D.V.; Bochko, O.K.; Lebedev, N.A.; Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Hauser, H.; Eisenhut, M. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Aksenov, N.V.; Bozhikov, G.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions; Ponsard, B. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCKCEN), Mol (Belgium). Radioisotopes and NTD Silicon Production

    2014-07-01

    Fast progressing immuno-PET asks to explore new radionuclides. One of the promising candidates is {sup 90}Nb. It has a half-life of 14.6 h that allows visualizing and quantifying biological processes with medium and slow kinetics, such as tumor accumulation of antibodies and antibodies fragments or drug delivery systems and nanoparticles. {sup 90}Nb exhibits a positron branching of 53% and an average kinetic energy of emitted positrons of E{sub mean} = 0.35 MeV. Currently, radionuclide production routes and NbV labeling techniques are explored to turn this radionuclide into a useful imaging probe. However, efficient separation of {sup 90}Nb from irradiated targets remains in challenge. Ion exchange based separation of {sup 90}Nb from zirconium targets was investigated in systems AG 1 x 8 - HCl/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UTEVA-HCl. {sup 95}Nb (t{sub 1/2} = 35.0 d), {sup 95}Zr (t{sub 1/2} = 64.0 d) and {sup 92m}Nb (t{sub 1/2} = 10.15 d) were chosen for studies on distribution coefficients. Separation after AG 1 x 8 anion exchange yields 99% of {sup 90/95}Nb. Subsequent use of a solid-phase extraction step on UTEVA resin further decontaminates {sup 90/95}Nb from traces of zirconium with yields 95% of {sup 90/95}Nb. A semi-automated separation takes one hour to obtain an overall recovery of {sup 90/95}Nb of 90%. The amount of Zr was reduced by factor of 10{sup 8}. The selected separation provides rapid preparation (< 1 h) of high purity {sup 90}Nb appropriate for the synthesis of {sup 90}Nb-radiopharmaceuticals, relevant for purposes of immuno-PET. Applying the radioniobium obtained, {sup 90/95}Nb-labeling of a monoclonal antibody (rituximab) modified with desferrioxamine achieved labeling yields of > 90% after 1 h incubation at room temperature. (orig.)

  12. Development of hepatitis C virus vaccine using hepatitis B core antigen as immuno-carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Chen; Fan Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To develop hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine using HBcAg as the immuno-carrier to express HCV T epitope and to investigate its immunogenicity in mice.METHODS: We constructed the plasmid pTrc-coreNheI using gene engineering technique, constructed the pcDNA3.1-coreNheI-GFP plasmid with GFP as the reporter gene, and transfected them into Hela cells.The expression of GFP was observed under confocal microscopy and the feasibility of using HBcAg as an immuno-carrier vaccine was studied. pTrc-core gene with a synthetic T epitope antigen gene of HCV (35-44aa) was fused and expressed in the plasmid pTrccore-HCV (T). For the fusion of the HBcAg-T protein,sucrose, density gradient centrifugation was used, and its molecular weight and purity were analyzed by SDSPAGE. Then balb/c mice were immunized by the plasmid with the HBcAg (expressed by pTrc-core) protein as control. The tumor regression potential was investigated in mice and evaluated at appropriate time. After three times of immunization, the peripheral blood and spleen of vaccinated mice were collected. HBcAb was detected by ELISA, and nonspecific T lymphocyte proliferation and response of splenocytes were respectively examined by MTT assay. T cell subset of blood and spleen were detected by FACS.RESULTS: GFP was successfully expressed. Tumor regression trial showed that no tumor formation was found in the group receiving immunization, while tumor xenograft progression was not changed in the control group. Strong nonspecific lymphocyte proliferation response was induced. FACS also showed that the ratio of CD8+T cells in the experimental group was higher than the controls, but the serum HBcAb in experimental group was similar to the control.CONCLUSION: HBcAg can be used as an immunocarrier of vaccine, the fusion of HBcAg-T protein could induce stronger cellular immune responses and it might be a candidate for therapeutic vaccines specific for HCV.

  13. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  14. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased interest in understanding the toxicity and rational design of gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications in recent years. In this study gold nanoparticles were synthesized using dextrose as a reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles displayed characteristic Surface Plasmon Resonance peak at around 550 nm having a mean particle size of 75±30 nm. In order to identify and analyze nanoparticles, UV–Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used.

  15. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  16. Immuno-Virological Discordance and the Risk of NonAIDS and AIDS Events in a Large Observational Cohort of HIV-Patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoufaly, Alexander; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Reekie, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated....

  17. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free white blood cell counting system using MEMS...

  18. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and our partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on orbit immuno-based, label-free, white blood cell counting system for...

  19. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts from lung tumors maintain their immuno-suppressive abilities after high-dose irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia eGorchs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence supports the notion that high-dose (>5 Gy radiotherapy (RT regimens are triggering stronger pro-immunogenic effects than standard low-dose (2 Gy regimens. However, the effects of RT on certain immunoregulatory elements in tumors remain unexplored. In this study we have investigated the effects of high-dose irradiation (HD-RT on the immunomodulating functions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. Primary CAF cultures were established from lung cancer specimens derived from patients diagnosed for non-small cell lung cancer. Irradiated and non-irradiated CAFs were examined for immunomodulation in experiments with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from random, healthy donors. Regulation of lymphocytes behavior was checked by lymphocyte proliferation assays, lymphocyte migration assays and T-cell cytokine production. Additionally, CAF-secreted immuno-regulatory factors were studied by multiplex protein arrays, ELISAs and by LC-MS/MS proteomics. In all functional assays we observed a powerful immuno-suppressive effect exerted by CAF-conditioned medium on activated T-cells (p>0,001, and this effect was sustained after a single radiation dose of 18 Gy. Relevant immuno-suppressive molecules such as prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and -10, or transforming growth factor-β were found in CAF conditioned medium, but their secretion was unchanged after irradiation. Finally, immunogenic cell death responses in CAFs were studied by exploring the release of high motility group box-1 and ATP. Both alarmins remained undetectable before and after irradiation. In conclusion, CAFs play a powerful immuno-suppressive effect over activated T-cells, and this effect remains unchanged after HD-RT. Importantly, CAFs do not switch on immunogenic cell death responses after exposure to HD-RT.

  20. Immuno PET/MR imaging allows specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus lung infection in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolle, Anna-Maria; Hasenberg, Mike; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    a novel probe for noninvasive detection of A. fumigatus lung infection based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (immunoPET/MR) imaging.Administration of a [64Cu]DOTA-labeled A. fumigatus-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), JF5, to neutrophil-depleted A. fumigatus...... with enormous potential for diagnosis of infectious diseases and with potential for clinical translation....

  1. Immuno Vaccine Technologies公司与FIT Biotech公司合作推出治疗性HIV疫苗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    疫苗开发公司Immuno Vaccine Technologies(IVT)与芬兰的开发DNA疫苗的临床阶段公司FITBiotech形成研究伙伴关系。这项研究是将FIT Biotech的GTU MultiHIV DNA质粒与IVT的Depovax疫苗输送系统配制成治疗性HIV疫苗。

  2. Controlling viral immuno-inflammatory lesions by modulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Veiga-Parga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocular herpes simplex virus infection can cause a blinding CD4⁺ T cell orchestrated immuno-inflammatory lesion in the cornea called Stromal Keratitis (SK. A key to controlling the severity of SK lesions is to suppress the activity of T cells that orchestrate lesions and enhance the representation of regulatory cells that inhibit effector cell function. In this report we show that a single administration of TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a non-physiological ligand for the AhR receptor, was an effective means of reducing the severity of SK lesions. It acted by causing apoptosis of Foxp3⁻ CD4⁺ T cells but had no effect on Foxp3⁺ CD4⁺ Tregs. TCDD also decreased the proliferation of Foxp3⁻ CD4⁺ T cells. The consequence was an increase in the ratio of Tregs to T effectors which likely accounted for the reduced inflammatory responses. In addition, in vitro studies revealed that TCDD addition to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated naïve CD4⁺ T cells caused a significant induction of Tregs, but inhibited the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. Since a single TCDD administration given after the disease process had been initiated generated long lasting anti-inflammatory effects, the approach holds promise as a therapeutic means of controlling virus induced inflammatory lesions.

  3. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elizabeth A; Tran, Mai L; Dimos, Christos S; Budziszek, Michael J; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Roberts, Alison W

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.

  4. Development of an assay for urinary free cortisol determination on the Technicon Immuno 1 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letellier, M.; Levesque, A.; Daigle, F. [Centre Universitaire de Sante de l' Estrie, Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry, Site Fleurimont, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-08-15

    To develop and evaluate a method using an ethyl acetate extraction procedure for the determination of urinary free cortisol on the Technicon Immuno 1 system from Bayer Corporation. We tested the assay precision, linearity, and correlation with the Urinary Kallestad Quanticoat Cortisol radioimmunoassay. We also studied the efficiency of the extraction procedure, performed a cross-reactivity study with different cortisol metabolites, and determined the reference values. The assay shows within-run CVs varying from 1.6 to 5.3% and between-day CVs from 2.7 to 6.1% for urinary free cortisol concentrations from 58 to 1097 nmol/L. The assay demonstrates an excellent linearity and a very good correlation with the Kallestad Quanticoat Cortisol assay (slope 0.94, y-intercept = 29 nmol/L, Sy|x = 54 nmol/L, r = 0.996). The reference values were estimated at 42-281 nmol/d. The extraction procedure shows an average recovery of 99.0% and minimal interference with the cortisol metabolites tested with the exception of cortisone. The evaluation shows that the developed assay has the analytical characteristics required for its utilization in a clinical laboratory. (author)

  5. Studies on Chemistry and Immuno-modulating Mechanism of a Glycoconjugate from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); HUANG,Lin-Juan(黄琳娟); QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); TIAN,Geng-Yuan(田庚元)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed structure of an O-glycan derived from the fruitof Lyciun barbariun L.was elucidated based on glycosidiclinkage analysis,comnplete and partial acid hydrolysis,1H-NMR amd 13C NMR spectroscopy.According to the experi-ments,the carbohydrate was in the form of polysacchride(arabinogalactan) chains with highly branched 3,4-galactans and terminal arabinofuranosyl substituents.``The irmmmo-modulating mechanism of glycoconjugate ami its glycan were investigated using tritium thymidine lucor-poration assay,flow cytometry assay and electrophoreticalmobility shift assay (EMSA).The results suggested that theimmunoncfive components of the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.could enlance the splenocyte proliferation in normal mice andthe effects of glycan chain were stronger than those of glyco-conjugate.The target cell was most likely to be B-lympho-cyte,on which existed receptor binding site acting with theglycan.In addition,the immuno-stimulatory effect of glyco-conjugate (LbGp4) amd its glycan (LbGp4-OL) was associat ed with activating the expression of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) and activator protein 1 (AP-l).``

  6. The challenge of measuring elusive immune markers by enzyme-linked immuno-spot (ELISPOT) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faresjö, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immuno-spot (ELISPOT) technique is a sensitive method used for measurement of elusive immune markers in limited-volume samples. By virtue of the exquisite sensitivity of the ELISPOT assay, frequency analysis of rare cell populations (e.g., antigen-specific responses), which was not possible before, is now relatively easy. However, development of a method sensitive enough to pinpoint elusive immune markers at the single-cell level is a challenge since there are a number of demands that have to be fulfilled and traps to avoid, achieving a valuable outcome.To optimize the environment for in vitro culture and analysis of immune spots by ELISPOT, a number of criteria have to be fulfilled: processing of sample and perhaps also cryopreservation of cells before analysis and, for the ELISPOT assay, optimal cell culture, positive and negative controls, antigen concentration, and, finally, development and readout of spots.If these criteria are fulfilled for your ELISPOT assay, you will likely have the opportunity to pinpoint elusive immune markers at the single-cell level. This chapter describes the ELISPOT assay for detection of cytokines (e.g., IFN-γ and IL-4), with focus on the main criteria that affect the assay. However, this method could be easily adapted to measure other immune markers in small volumes of biological samples.

  7. Isolation of rare tumor cells from blood cells with buoyant immuno-microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Shi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs. MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85% and rapidly (within 15 minutes bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88% isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77% isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells.

  8. Real-time immuno-PCR assay for detecting PCBs in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Yu; Zhuang, Hui-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    A fast and robust assay, based on immuno-polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) techniques, was developed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples. Real-time IPCR (rt-IPCR) is a powerful technique that combines enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the specificity and sensitivity of PCR. In our assay, indirect ELISAs based on immobilization of PCB37 hapten-ovalbumin conjugates was used for evaluation of the immune response. The effect of optimal reagent concentrations to reduce background fluorescence was also investigated. Using the optimized assay, the linear sensitivity range of the assay covered more than six orders of magnitude, and the minimum detection limits reached 5 fg ml(-1) antigen. Rt-IPCR was tested for its cross-reactivity profiles using four selected congeners and four Aroclor products. The assays were highly specific for congeners but less specific for Aroclor1242. We took four soil samples to validate the method, and the results were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The rt-IPCR results for soil samples correlated well with the concentrations of PCBs obtained by GC/MS (r = 0.99, n = 6). These data indicate that this highly specific, sensitive, and robust assay can be modified for detecting PCB compounds in the environment.

  9. CD8: Adhesion Molecule, Co-Receptor and Immuno-Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David K Cole; George F Gao

    2004-01-01

    CD8 is a cell surface glycoprotein found in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which are important components in cellular immunity, esp. In the immune response to cancer and chronic infections. There are two forms of CD8,either as an αα homodimer or αβ heterodimer. It acts as an "assistant" or co-receptor in the function of cytotoxic T cells where specific immunity is mediated by interaction of specific T cell receptor (αβTCR) and its ligand peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC). CD8 also binds to pMHC but away from the interface of pMHC and TCR contact, thereof no influence on the specificity of this interaction. If the TCR and CD8 bind to the same pMHC at the same time, CD8 is defined as a co-receptor, functioning through its signalling via its cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation pathway; if CD8 binds to pMHC independently of the TCR, it is defined as an adhesion molecule. At present, the co-receptor function theory is dominated in the field.Recent study has also shown that murine CD8αα binds to TL antigen, an MHC homologue, therefore acts as an immuno-modulator. In this review, we discuss these current understandings of the three aspects of the CD8 functions and their structural basis.

  10. CD8: Adhesion Molecule, Co-Receptor and Immuno-Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DavidKCole; GeorgeFGao

    2004-01-01

    CD8 is a cell surface glycoprotein found in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which are important components in cellular immunity, esp. in the immune response to cancer and chronic infections. There are two forms of CD8, either as an αα homodimer or αβ heterodimer. It acts as an "assistant" or co-receptor in the function of cytotoxic T cells where specific immunity is mediated by interaction of specific T cell receptor (αβTCR) and its ligand peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC). CD8 also binds to pMHC but away from the interface of pMHC and TCR contact, thereof no influence on the specificity of this interaction. If the TCR and CD8 bind to the same pMHC at the same time, CD8 is defined as a co-receptor, functioning through its signalling via its cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation pathway; if CD8 binds to pMHC independently of the TCR, it is defined as an adhesion molecule. At present, the co-receptor function theory is dominated in the field. Recent study has also shown that murine CD8αα binds to TL antigen, an MHC homologue, therefore acts as an immuno-modulator. In this review, we discuss these current understandings of the three aspects of the CD8 functions and their structural basis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(2):81-88.

  11. Development of an immunoFET biosensor for the detection of biotinylated PCR product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannaporn Muangsuwan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ImmunoFET (IMFET biosensor is a simple platform for the detection of biotinylated products of polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Construction of the IMFET biosensor started with adsorption of 1.5 mg/mL of protein A (PA onto the insulated gate surface of ISFET for 90 min. Next, the immobilized 1/500 dilution of anti-biotin antibody was adsorbed onto the PA layer for 60 min. The IMFET biosensor was subsequently ready for detection of the biotinylated amplicon. The IMFET biosensor showed highly specific binding to the biotinylated PCR product of the phaE gene of Haloquadratum walsbyi DSM 16854. The phaE gene is a biomarker of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA producers that contain PHA synthase class III. The lowest amount of DNA template of H. walsbyi DSM 16854 that the IMFET biosensor could detect was 125 fg. The IMFET biosensor has a lower amount of detection compared with a DNA lateral flow biosensor from our previous study. The degree of linearity of the biosensor signal was influenced by the concentration of the biotinylated amplicon. The IMFET biosensor also has a short response time (approximately 30 times to detect the phaE amplicon compared to an agarose gel electrophoresis. The IMFET biosensor is a promising tool for the detection of the biotinylated PCR product, and it can be integrated into a micro total analysis system (μTAS.

  12. A direct, automated, immuno-turbidimetric assay of free protein S antigen in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffert, C; Esteve, F; Grimaux, M; Gouault-Heilmann, M

    2001-03-01

    A new, fully automated, one-step, immuno-turbidimetric assay of free protein S (fPS) in plasma (STA Liatest Free Protein S; Diagnostica Stago, Asnières, France) has been developed for STA analysers. This technique combines the advantages of a direct assay of fPS using two monoclonal antibodies, which specifically recognize fPS but not protein S (PS)-C4b-binding protein complexes, and the advantages of automation. The assay has good analytical performances, with intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients below 5% for normal values, and slightly higher for abnormal values. In a comparison study with a one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for fPS (Asserachrom Free Protein S; Diagnostica Stago), a correlation coefficient of 0.93 with a regression line close to 1 was found between the two techniques (n = 166 normal or PS-deficient plasma samples collected from healthy subjects and individuals with a personal or family history of thrombosis). This new technique is specific, reproducible, easy to perform, and provides a useful tool in the diagnosis of PS deficiency.

  13. Development of a novel immuno-PCR for detection of avian leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Zhang, Jianjun; Shao, Hongxia; Wan, Zhimin; Tian, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jialiang; Pang, Mayun; Qian, Kun; Gao, Wei; Wang, Chengming; Qin, Aijian; Ye, Jianqiang

    2016-10-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an important pathogen for various neoplasms, including lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid neoplasms, and it causes significant economic loss in the poultry industry. Several efficient methods for the detection of ALV have been reported. However, these previously developed approaches are based on either PCR or immunoassays. Here, we used a proximity ligation technique and combined PCR with the immunoassay to develop a novel immuno-PCR (Im-PCR) approach for the detection of ALV. Our data showed that the Im-PCR had high specificity and sensitivity to ALV. The Im-PCR method selectively reacted to ALV but not to the other avian viruses tested. The limit of detection of Im-PCR could reach 0.5 TCID50. Moreover, the results of Im-PCR were in agreement with results from commercial ELISA when the clinical cloaca samples were used for ALV detection. The present results demonstrate that the novel Im-PCR method can be efficiently applied to detect ALV in a clinical setting. Our data also highlight that Im-PCR may have promising applications in the diagnosis of pathogens.

  14. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese with the magnetic immuno-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluit, A C; Torensma, R; Visser, M J; Aarsman, C J; Poppelier, M J; Keller, B H; Klapwijk, P; Verhoef, J

    1993-05-01

    A new detection system, the magnetic immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (MIPA) has been developed to detect Listeria monocytogenes in food. This method separates Listeria cells from PCR-inhibitory factors present in enrichment broths containing food samples by using magnetic beads coated with specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The separated bacteria were lysed, and the supernatant containing the bacterial DNA was subjected to the PCR. Detection of L. monocytogenes in three naturally contaminated cheese samples with two different MAbs and PCR primers specific for the gene encoding the delayed-hypersensitivity factor showed that with MAb 55 all three samples were positive whereas with MAb A two samples were positive. A further improvement of the method was obtained by using a PCR step based on the listeriolysin O gene. A MIPA employing MAb 55 and the listeriolysin O gene primer set detected L. monocytogenes after 24 h of culture in Listeria Enrichment Broth samples from Port Salut artificially contaminated with 40 CFU/25 g. We could detect 1 CFU of L. monocytogenes per g of cheese after a second enrichment for 24 h in Fraser broth. The analysis time including both enrichments is approximately 55 h.

  15. Immuno and affinity cytochemical analysis of cell wall composition in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Berry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalacturonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogeneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.

  16. Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

    2010-09-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose.

  17. The Immuno-Regulatory Effects of Schisandra chinensis and Its Constituents on Human Monocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsien Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases occur when the immune system is weakened. Intracellular signals activate immuno-responsive cells to produce cytokines that modulate the immune response. Schisandra chinensis has been used traditionally to treat general fatigue, neurasthenia, and spontaneous sweating. In the present study, the effect of constituents of S. chinensis on cytokine release by human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1 was tested using microparticle-based flow cytometric analysis. Two major lignans, schizandrin (Sch and gomisin A (Gom A, were identified and shown to induce interleukin (IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β, and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF release by THP-1 cells. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR or quantitative real-time PCR, there was a dose-dependent increase of IL-8, MIP-1β and GM-CSF mRNA levels. Thus, Sch and Gom A from S. chinensis enhance cytokine release by THP-1 cells and this effect occurs through mRNA upregulation. Upregulation of MIP-1β and GM-CSF in particular may have clinical applications. Therefore, S. chinensis may be therapeutically beneficial by promoting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

  18. Bridging ImmunoGenomic Data Analysis Workflow Gaps (BIGDAWG): An integrated case-control analysis pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Derek J; Marin, Wesley; Hollenbach, Jill A; Mack, Steven J

    2016-03-01

    Bridging ImmunoGenomic Data-Analysis Workflow Gaps (BIGDAWG) is an integrated data-analysis pipeline designed for the standardized analysis of highly-polymorphic genetic data, specifically for the HLA and KIR genetic systems. Most modern genetic analysis programs are designed for the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms, but the highly polymorphic nature of HLA and KIR data require specialized methods of data analysis. BIGDAWG performs case-control data analyses of highly polymorphic genotype data characteristic of the HLA and KIR loci. BIGDAWG performs tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculates allele frequencies and bins low-frequency alleles for k×2 and 2×2 chi-squared tests, and calculates odds ratios, confidence intervals and p-values for each allele. When multi-locus genotype data are available, BIGDAWG estimates user-specified haplotypes and performs the same binning and statistical calculations for each haplotype. For the HLA loci, BIGDAWG performs the same analyses at the individual amino-acid level. Finally, BIGDAWG generates figures and tables for each of these comparisons. BIGDAWG obviates the error-prone reformatting needed to traffic data between multiple programs, and streamlines and standardizes the data-analysis process for case-control studies of highly polymorphic data. BIGDAWG has been implemented as the bigdawg R package and as a free web application at bigdawg.immunogenomics.org.

  19. Immunodynamics: a cancer immunotherapy trials network review of immune monitoring in immuno-oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Tumeh, Paul C; Benson, Don; Bhardwaj, Nina; Brody, Joshua; Formenti, Silvia; Fox, Bernard A; Galon, Jerome; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael; Kirsch, Ilan; Kleen, Thomas; Kroemer, Guido; Lanier, Lewis; Levy, Ron; Lyerly, H Kim; Maecker, Holden; Marabelle, Aurelien; Melenhorst, Jos; Miller, Jeffrey; Melero, Ignacio; Odunsi, Kunle; Palucka, Karolina; Peoples, George; Ribas, Antoni; Robins, Harlan; Robinson, William; Serafini, Tito; Sondel, Paul; Vivier, Eric; Weber, Jeff; Wolchok, Jedd; Zitvogel, Laurence; Disis, Mary L; Cheever, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapies in addition to anti-CTLA-4 solidifies immunotherapy as a modality to add to the anticancer arsenal. Despite raising the bar of clinical efficacy, immunologically targeted agents raise new challenges to conventional drug development paradigms by highlighting the limited relevance of assessing standard pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Specifically, systemic and intratumoral immune effects have not consistently correlated with standard relationships between systemic dose, toxicity, and efficacy for cytotoxic therapies. Hence, PK and PD paradigms remain inadequate to guide the selection of doses and schedules, both starting and recommended Phase 2 for immunotherapies. The promise of harnessing the immune response against cancer must also be considered in light of unique and potentially serious toxicities. Refining immune endpoints to better inform clinical trial design represents a high priority challenge. The Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network investigators review the immunodynamic effects of specific classes of immunotherapeutic agents to focus immune assessment modalities and sites, both systemic and importantly intratumoral, which are critical to the success of the rapidly growing field of immuno-oncology.

  20. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morimoto Marie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD, a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1. However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. Methods We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Results Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. Conclusions This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD.

  1. Live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine with improved safety in immuno-compromised mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Periaswamy

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines are of great value for preventing infectious diseases. They represent a delicate compromise between sufficient colonization-mediated adaptive immunity and minimizing the risk for infection by the vaccine strain itself. Immune defects can predispose to vaccine strain infections. It has remained unclear whether vaccine safety could be improved via mutations attenuating a vaccine in immune-deficient individuals without compromising the vaccine's performance in the normal host. We have addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ssaV. Vaccination with this strain elicited protective immunity in wild type mice, but a fatal systemic infection in immune-deficient cybb(-/-nos2(-/- animals lacking NADPH oxidase and inducible NO synthase. In cybb(-/-nos2(-/- mice, we analyzed the attenuation of 35 ssaV strains carrying one additional mutation each. One strain, Z234 (ssaV SL1344_3093, was >1000-fold attenuated in cybb(-/-nos2(-/- mice and ≈100 fold attenuated in tnfr1(-/- animals. However, in wt mice, Z234 was as efficient as ssaV with respect to host colonization and the elicitation of a protective, O-antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA response. These data suggest that it is possible to engineer live attenuated vaccines which are specifically attenuated in immuno-compromised hosts. This might help to improve vaccine safety.

  2. Identification of proteins interacting with ammodytoxins in Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom by immuno-affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Kurtović, Tihana; Kovačič, Lidija; Križaj, Igor; Barut, Miloš; Lang Balija, Maja; Allmaier, Günter; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Halassy, Beata

    2014-01-01

    In order to perform their function, proteins frequently interact with other proteins. Various methods are used to reveal protein interacting partners, and affinity chromatography is one of them. Snake venom is composed mostly of proteins, and various protein complexes in the venom have been found to exhibit higher toxicity levels than respective components separately. Complexes can modulate envenomation activity of a venom and/or potentiate its effect. Our previous data indicate that the most toxic components of the Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Vaa) venom isolated so far-ammodytoxins (Atxs)-are contributing to the venom's toxicity only moderately; therefore, we aimed to explore whether they have some interacting partner(s) potentiating toxicity. For screening of possible interactions, immuno-affinity chromatography combined with identification by mass spectrometry was used. Various chemistries (epoxy, carbonyldiimidazole, ethylenediamine) as well as protein G functionality were used to immobilize antibodies on monolith support, a Convective Interaction Media disk. Monoliths have been demonstrated to better suit the separation of large biomolecules. Using such approach, several proteins were indicated as potential Atx-binding proteins. Among these, the interaction of Atxs with a Kunitz-type inhibitor was confirmed by far-Western dot-blot and surface plasmon resonance measurement. It can be concluded that affinity chromatography on monolithic columns combined with mass spectrometry identification is a successful approach for screening of protein interactions and it resulted with detection of the interaction of Atx with Kunitz-type inhibitor in Vaa venom for the first time.

  3. A Nanoparticle Based Sp17 Peptide Vaccine Exposes New Immuno-Dominant and Species Cross-reactive B Cell Epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue D. Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sperm protein antigen 17 (Sp17, expressed in primary as well as in metastatic lesions in >83% of patients with ovarian cancer, is a promising ovarian cancer vaccine candidate. Herein we describe the formulation of nanoparticle based vaccines based on human Sp17 (hSp17 sequence derived peptides, and map the immuno-dominant T cell and antibody epitopes induced using such formulations. The primary T and B cell immuno-dominant region within Sp17 was found to be the same when using biocompatible nanoparticle carriers or the conventional “mix-in” pro-inflammatory adjuvant CpG, both mapping to amino acids (aa 111–142. However, delivery of hSp17111–142 as a nanoparticle conjugate promoted a number of new properties, changing the dominant antibody isotype induced from IgG2a to IgG1 and the fine specificity of the B cell epitopes within hSp17111–142, from an immuno-dominant region 134–142 aa for CpG, to region 121–138 aa for nanoparticles. Associated with this change in specificity was a substantial increase in antibody cross-reactivity between mouse and human Sp17. These results indicate conjugation of antigen to nanoparticles can have major effects on fine antigen specificity, which surprisingly could be beneficially used to increase the cross-reactivity of antibody responses.

  4. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  5. Gold electrodes from recordable CDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angnes; Richter; Augelli; Kume

    2000-11-01

    Gold electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry. The notable performance when used in stripping analysis of many ionic species and the extraordinary affinity of thio compounds for its surface make these electrodes very suitable for many applications. This paper reports a simple and novel way to construct gold electrodes (CDtrodes) using recordable CDs as the gold source. The nanometer thickness of the gold layer of recordable disks (50-100 nm) favors the construction of band nanoelectrodes with areas as small as 10(-6) cm2. The plane surface can be easily used for the construction of conventional-sized gold electrodes for batch or flow injection analysis or even to obtain electrodes as large as 100 cm2. The low price of commercial recordable CDs allows a "one way use". The evaluation and applicability of these electrodes in the form of nanoelectrodes, in batch and associated with flow cells, are illustrated in this paper.

  6. 89Zr-DFO-J591 for immunoPET of prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason P; Divilov, Vadim; Bander, Neil H; Smith-Jones, Peter M; Larson, Steven M; Lewis, Jason S

    2010-08-01

    (89)Zr (half-life, 78.41 h) is a positron-emitting radionuclide that displays excellent potential for use in the design and synthesis of radioimmunoconjugates for immunoPET. In the current study, we report the preparation of (89)Zr-desferrioxamine B (DFO)-J591, a novel (89)Zr-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) construct for targeted immunoPET and quantification of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in vivo. The in vivo behavior of (89)Zr-chloride, (89)Zr-oxalate, and (89)Zr-DFO was studied using PET. High-level computational studies using density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the electronic structure of (89)Zr-DFO and probe the nature of the complex in aqueous conditions. (89)Zr-DFO-J591 was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. ImmunoPET in male athymic nu/nu mice bearing subcutaneous LNCaP (PSMA-positive) or PC-3 (PSMA-negative) tumors was conducted. The change in (89)Zr-DFO-J591 tissue uptake in response to high- and low-specific-activity formulations in the 2 tumor models was measured using acute biodistribution studies and immunoPET. The basic characterization of 3 important reagents-(89)Zr-chloride, (89)Zr-oxalate, and the complex (89)Zr-DFO-demonstrated that the nature of the (89)Zr species dramatically affects the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics. Density functional theory calculations provide a rationale for the observed high in vivo stability of (89)Zr-DFO-labeled mAbs and suggest that in aqueous conditions, (89)Zr-DFO forms a thermodynamically stable, 8-coordinate complex by coordination of 2 water molecules. (89)Zr-DFO-J591 was produced in high radiochemical yield (>77%) and purity (>99%), with a specific activity of 181.7 +/- 1.1 MBq/mg (4.91 +/- 0.03 mCi/mg). In vitro assays demonstrated that (89)Zr-DFO-J591 had an initial immunoreactive fraction of 0.95 +/- 0.03 and remained active for up to 7 d. In vivo biodistribution experiments revealed high, target-specific uptake of (89)Zr-DFO-J591 in LNCa

  7. Evaluation of immuno efficiency of hemorrhagic septicemia vaccine strain (vaccine seed)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maheswarappa Gowrakkal; Chandrashekar M; Shankarappa Bhajantri; Jaykumar Satav; Chandakala GC; Asha Mayanna; Byregowda SM; Renukaprasad C

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compared seed culture of hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) bacteria which was used to produce vaccine for its antibody induction efficiency before and after passaging in natural host (calf) using laboratory animals.Methods:HS vaccine which was obtained from seed bacteria before and after back passaged in calf. Ratio of survived and dead was calculated by Reed-Meunch hypothesis and the LD50 value for each vaccine trial groups were calculated.Results:Serial dilution of virulent bacteria was injected in to mice which were immunized with culture showed greater improvement in its immunopotency than seed vaccine (before back passage). Around 200 mice were used to study the immuno efficiency of vaccine. Each mouse was from the same source, which were free from the Pastuerella infection previous to expose to trial infection. The same broth culture of HS was used to induce infection in mice in both trials (vaccine before back passage and vaccine after back passage). The 0.2 mL of broth dilution from 10-1 to 10-10 was used, as dilution increases, death rate decreases. It indicates the minimum load of bacterium is required to induced infection. The immunological study revealed that vaccine prepared from back passaged seed Conclusions: Obtained results revealed that back passaged vaccine seed HS bacteria in its natural host had provided better immune efficiency to the culture than laboratory stock culture, and this findings recommended that regular annual back passage was mandatory for the vaccine seed culture of Pastuerella multocida bacteria for better establishment of immune potent vaccines.

  8. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a human immuno-deficiency virus patient treated with laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, Alexandros; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Vecchio, Alessandro Del; Romeo, Umberto

    2014-07-16

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa; it is mostly found in children or young adults who are immunosuppressed and who live in regions with low socioeconomic status. It is characterized by asymptomatic papules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Healing can be spontaneous, and treatment is indicated if there are aesthetic or functional complications. Human papillomavirus, especially genotypes 13 and 32, has been associated with FEH and is detected in the majority of lesions. Histopathologically, FEH is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, and fusion and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges. A 37-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences at the Sapienza University of Rome, complaining of numerous exophytic lesions in his mouth. He stated that the lesions were not painful but he had experienced occasional bleeding after incidental masticatory trauma. He had received no previous treatment for the oral lesions. His medical history revealed that he was human immuno-deficiency virus positive and was a smoker with numerous, asymptomatic oral papules clinically and histologically corresponding to FEH. The labial and buccal mucosa were especially affected by lesions. Surgical treatment was performed using a 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate laser (SmartLite, Deka, Florence, Italy) in continuous mode with a 300 μm fiber and power of 1.4 W (power density 1980.22 W/cm(2)). After anesthesia without vasoconstrictors, the lesions were tractioned with sutures or an Allis clamp and then completely excised. The lesions were preserved in 10% formalin for histological examination, which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of FEH. In this case, the laser allowed excellent control of bleeding, without postoperative sutures, and optimal wound healing.

  9. Diagnostic value of enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay for cytomegalovirus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya K

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since interpretation of results of enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA for diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in India is difficult, its diagnostic value required evaluation. AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic value of ELISA against polymerase chain reaction (PCR in CMV disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Results of ELISA test for CMV antibodies in CMV-DNA PCR positive and negative patients and normal healthy blood donors were analysed. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Anti-CMV antibodies were assayed by ELISA on the sera of 26 CMV PCR positive and 21 PCR negative patients and 35 normal healthy blood donors. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Chi square and Fischer exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Anti-CMV antibodies (IgG or IgG and IgM were present in 20 (76.9% of 26 PCR positive and 13 (61.9% of 21 PCR negative patients. ELISA was negative in six (23.1% of 26 PCR positive patients. Of the 28 paediatric patients, ELISA was positive in 14 (73.7% of 19 PCR positive and three (33.3% of nine PCR negative patients showing a statistically significant difference (Chi square test, P value 0.038. Among the 19 patients having complications after organ transplant, ELISA showed anti-CMV antibodies in six (85.7% of seven PCR positive and 11 (91.7% of 12 PCR negative patients showing no significant difference. CMV-DNA was not detected in the buffy coat of 35 sero-positive blood donors. CONCLUSION: ELISA has no diagnostic value in the detection of CMV activation although it may help in the differential diagnosis of CMV infection in the paediatric age group.

  10. 金标记免疫渗滤法检测GV抗体%DETECTION OF GV ANTIBODY BY COLLOIDAL GOLD- LABELED IMMUNO - PERCOLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明达

    2005-01-01

    细菌性阴道病(bacterial vaginosis GV)是阴道内需氧或兼性厌氧乳酸杆菌被另一组以厌氧菌和阴道加特纳菌(Cardnerella vaginalis GV)为主的细菌及支原体所取代,在阴道内过度生长,造成阴道正常菌群微生态平衡失调,而引起的非特异细菌性阴道病,GV是其中一类重要的病原菌。

  11. 斑点免疫金渗滤法诊断猪蛔虫病%Diagnosis of Swine Ascariasis Based on Dot Immuno-gold Filtration Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 王平; 王文佳; 韩洁; 简昌友; 安永如

    2010-01-01

    [目的]探讨斑点免疫金渗滤法诊断猪蛔虫病的可行性,为制备诊断猪蛔虫病试剂盒提供参考依据.[方法]采用猪蛔虫的重组蛋白AS16抗原和胶体金标记葡萄球菌蛋白A(SPA),根据免疫渗滤原理,建立抗猪蛔虫抗体的斑点金免疫渗滤检测法.[结果]斑点免疫金渗滤法检测1 200份猪血清样本中猪蛔虫抗体,检出阳性率为25.00%,而琼脂扩散试验(AGP)阳性检出率为15.00%.[结论]斑点金免疫渗滤检测法具有操作简便,灵敏度高,特异性强的优点,可用于猪蛔虫病的快速检测.

  12. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  13. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  14. 41 CFR 101-45.002 - Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Gold. 101-45.002 Section... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.002 Gold. (a) Gold will be sold in accordance with this section and part 102-38 of the Federal Management Regulation. (b) Sales of gold shall be processed to— (1) Use the sealed bid...

  15. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  16. Protein-mediated autoreduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Nivedita; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: Mukherjee.Priyabrata@mayo.edu

    2008-09-01

    Here we report for the first time that proteins can function as unique reducing agents to produce gold nanoparticles from gold salts. We demonstrate that three different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Rituximab (RIT-an anti-CD20 antibody) and Cetuximab (C225-anti-EGFR antibody), reduce gold salts to gold nanoparticles (GNP). Interestingly, among all the three proteins tested, only BSA can reduce gold salts to gold nanotriangles (GNT). BSA-induced formation of GNT can be controlled by carefully selecting the reaction condition. Heating or using excess of ascorbic acid (AA) as additional reducing agent shifts the reaction towards the formation of GNP with flower-like morphology, whereas slowing down the reaction either by cooling or by adding small amount of AA directs the synthesis towards GNT formation. GNT is formed only at pH 3; higher pHs (pH 7 and pH 10) did not produce any nanoparticles, suggesting the involvement of specific protein conformation in GNT formation. The nanomaterials formed by this method were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is an important finding that will have uses in various nanotechnological applications, particularly in the green synthesis of novel nanomaterials based on protein structure.

  17. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille;

    2013-01-01

    by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study....... In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid....

  18. Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Synthesis of Heterocycles via Gold-Catalyzed Heteroatom Addition to Unsaturated C-C Bonds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization of Polyunsaturated Compounds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds via α-Oxo Gold Carbenoid * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cycloaddition Reactions * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Activation of Carbonyl Groups and Alcohols * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds through Gold-Mediated C-H Bond Functionalization * Gold-Catalyzed Domino Cyclization/Oxidative Coupling Reactions * Conclusions * References

  19. A low cost and high throughput magnetic bead-based immuno-agglutination assay in confined droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, Bruno; Ali-Cherif, Anaïs; Viovy, Jean Louis; Malaquin, Laurent

    2013-06-21

    Although passive immuno-agglutination assays consist of one step and simple procedures, they are usually not adapted for high throughput analyses and they require expensive and bulky equipment for quantitation steps. Here we demonstrate a low cost, multimodal and high throughput immuno-agglutination assay that relies on a combination of magnetic beads (MBs), droplets microfluidics and magnetic tweezers. Antibody coated MBs were used as a capture support in the homogeneous phase. Following the immune interaction, water in oil droplets containing MBs and analytes were generated and transported in Teflon tubing. When passing in between magnetic tweezers, the MBs contained in the droplets were magnetically confined in order to enhance the agglutination rate and kinetics. When releasing the magnetic field, the internal recirculation flows in the droplet induce shear forces that favor MBs redispersion. In the presence of the analyte, the system preserves specific interactions and MBs stay in the aggregated state while in the case of a non-specific analyte, redispersion of particles occurs. The analyte quantitation procedure relies on the MBs redispersion rate within the droplet. The influence of different parameters such as magnetic field intensity, flow rate and MBs concentration on the agglutination performances have been investigated and optimized. Although the immuno-agglutination assay described in this work may not compete with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in terms of sensitivity, it offers major advantages regarding the reagents consumption (analysis is performed in sub microliter droplet) and the platform cost that yields to very cheap analyses. Moreover the fully automated analysis procedure provides reproducible analyses with throughput well above those of existing technologies. We demonstrated the detection of biotinylated phosphatase alkaline in 100 nL sample volumes with an analysis rate of 300 assays per hour and a limit of detection of 100 pM.

  20. Gold island fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Wig, A. G.; Passian, A.; Downey, Todd R.; Buncick, Milan; Ferrell, Trinidad L.

    1999-12-01

    A fiber optic chemical sensor based on gold-island surface plasmon excitation is presented. The sensing part of the fiber is the end of the fiber onto which a thin layer of gold has been deposited to form a particulate surface. Annealing the gold reshapes the particles and produces an optical absorbance near 535 nm with the fiber in air. The optical absorption resonance of the gold particles is shifted if the fiber is immersed in a medium other than air. These resonance shifts are examined by transmission spectroscopy through the fiber. Experimental results for the sensitivity and dynamic range in the measurement of liquid solutions are in agreement with a basic theoretical model which characterizes the surface plasmon using nonretarded electrodynamics.

  1. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  2. Gold, currencies and market efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2016-05-01

    Gold and currency markets form a unique pair with specific interactions and dynamics. We focus on the efficiency ranking of gold markets with respect to the currency of purchase. By utilizing the Efficiency Index (EI) based on fractal dimension, approximate entropy and long-term memory on a wide portfolio of 142 gold price series for different currencies, we construct the efficiency ranking based on the extended EI methodology we provide. Rather unexpected results are uncovered as the gold prices in major currencies lay among the least efficient ones whereas very minor currencies are among the most efficient ones. We argue that such counterintuitive results can be partly attributed to a unique period of examination (2011-2014) characteristic by quantitative easing and rather unorthodox monetary policies together with the investigated illegal collusion of major foreign exchange market participants, as well as some other factors discussed in some detail.

  3. The role of Vitamin D in immuno-inflammatory responses in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients with and without Acute Anterior Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mitulescu, TC; Stavaru, C; Voinea, LM; Banica, LM; Matache, C; Predeteanu, D

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis:Abnormal Vitamin D (Vit D) level could have consequences on the immuno-inflammatory processes in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Aim:The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of Vitamin D in the interplay between immune and inflammation effectors in AS associated-Acute Anterior Uveitis (AAU). Methods and Results:25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vit D), LL-37 peptide, IL-8 and Serum Amyloid A (SAA) were identified and quantified in the serum/ plasma of thirty-four AS patients [eleven AS pa...

  4. The TRIPS (Toll-like receptors in immuno-inflammatory pathogenesis) Hypothesis: a novel postulate to understand schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Debnath, Monojit

    2013-07-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that immune activation and/or immuno-inflammatory reactions during neurodevelopment apparently contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of schizophrenia. One of the important environmental factors that is known to trigger immune activation/inflammatory responses during early pregnancy is prenatal infection. Recent understanding from animal studies suggests that prenatal infection induced maternal immune activation (MIA)/inflammation in congruence with oxidative/nitrosative stress can lead to neurodevelopmental damage and behavioral abnormalities in the offspring. Although the underlying precise mechanistic processes of MIA/inflammation are yet to be completely elucidated, it is being increasingly recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that form the first line of defense against invading microorganisms could participate in the prenatal infection induced immune insults. Interestingly, some of the TLRs, especially TLR3 and TLR4 that modulate neurodevelopment, neuronal survival and neuronal plasticity by regulating the neuro-immune cross-talk in the developing and adult brain could also be affected by prenatal infection. Importantly, sustained activation of TLR3/TLR4 due to environmental factors including infection and stress has been found to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators during embryogenesis, which result into neuronal damage by necrosis/apoptosis. In recent times, ROS/RNS and immuno-inflammatory mediators are being increasingly linked to progressive brain changes in schizophrenia. Although a significant role of TLR3/TLR4 in neurodegeneration is gaining certainty, their importance in establishing a causal link between prenatal infection and immuno-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) responses and influence on adult presentation of schizophrenia is yet to be ascertained. We review here the current knowledge generated from

  5. {sup 68}Ga-labelled recombinant antibody variants for immuno-PET imaging of solid tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Matthias; Eisenhut, Michael [German Cancer Research Center, Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Knackmuss, Stefan; Gall, Fabrice Le; Reusch, Uwe; Little, Melvyn [Affimed Therapeutics AG, Heidelberg (Germany); Rybin, Vladimir [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter [University of Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Recombinant antibodies isolated from human antibody libraries have excellent affinities and high target specificity. As full-length IgGs are cleared inadequately slowly from the circulation, the aim of this work was to figure out which kind of recombinant antibody fragment proves to be appropriate for imaging epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-expressing tumours with the short-living radioisotope {sup 68}Ga. In order to combine the promising tumour targeting properties of antibodies with {sup 68}Ga, four antibody variants with the same specificity and origin only differing in molecular weight were constructed for comparison. Therefore, the binding domains of a single-chain fragment variable (scFv) isolated from a human naive antibody library were modified genetically to construct the respective full-length IgG, the tria- and diabody variants. These molecules were conjugated with the bifunctional chelating agent N,N{sup '}-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N{sup '}-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) to enable {sup 68}Ga labelling at ambient temperature and compared in biodistribution and immuno-PET imaging experiments. The antibody variants with identical specificity proved to have the correct molecular weight, high binding affinity and specificity to their antigen, EpCAM. Radiometal complexation was efficiently performed at room temperature leading to {sup 68}Ga-labelled antibodies with unchanged binding properties compared to the original antibody variants. The best targeting properties were obtained with the scFv and especially with the diabody. The triabody showed higher absolute tumour uptake but only moderate clearance from circulation. The antibody variants differed considerably in normal organ uptake, clearance from circulation and tumour accumulation. The data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging solid tumours with the {sup 68}Ga-labelled diabody format. This type of recombinant protein might be a promising carrier even for the

  6. Anti-tumor effects of brucine immuno-nanoparticles on hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin JM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian-Min Qin1, Pei-Hao Yin1, Qi Li1, Zhong-Qiu Sa1, Xia Sheng1, Lin Yang1, Tao Huang1, Min Zhang1, Ke-Pan Gao2, Qing-Hua Chen2, Jing-Wei Ma3, He-Bai Shen31Department of General Surgery, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2National Pharmaceutical Engineering Research Center; Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, 3Department of Physical Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Hepatocellular carcinoma is difficult to diagnose early, and most patients are already in the late stages of the disease when they are admitted to hospital. The total 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. Recent studies have showed that brucine has a good anti-tumor effect, but high toxicity, poor water solubility, short half-life, narrow therapeutic window, and a toxic dose that is close to the therapeutic dose, which all limit its clinical application. This study evaluated the effects of brucine immuno-nanoparticles (BIN on hepatocellular carcinoma.Materials and methods: Anionic polymerization, chemical modification technology, and phacoemulsification technology were used to prepare a carboxylated polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid copolymer carrier material. Chemical coupling technology was utilized to develop anti-human AFP McAb-polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid copolymer BIN. The size, shape, zeta potential, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and release of these immune-nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The targeting, and growth, invasion, and metastasis inhibitory effects of this treatment on liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells were tested.Results: BIN were of uniform size with an average particle size of 249 ± 77 nm and zeta potential of -18.7 ± 4.19 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 76.0% ± 2.3% and the drug load was 5.6% ± 0.2%. Complete uptake and even distribution around the liver cancer cell membrane were observed.Conclusion: BIN had even size distribution, was

  7. Immuno-capture and in situ detection of Salmonella typhimurium on a novel microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renjie, E-mail: 1058464972@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Ni, Yanan, E-mail: 468885029@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Xu, Yi, E-mail: xuyibbd@sina.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); National Center for International Research of Micro/Nano-System and New Material Technology, No. 174, St. Shazhengjie, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology for National Defense, Chongqing (China); Jiang, Yan, E-mail: 919865356@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Dong, Chunyan, E-mail: 774176325@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Chuan, Na, E-mail: 814859441@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel microfluidic chip and a LIF microsystem were designed and fabricated. • Salmonella typhimurium was captured and labeled by specific immuno-capture on chip. • CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled bacteria were detected by in situ analysis using LIF microsystem. • The proposed method has potential application in practice. - Abstract: The new method presented in this article achieved the goal of capturing Salmonella typhimurium via immunoreaction and rapid in situ detection of the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) labeled S. typhimurium by self-assembly light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection (LIF) microsystem on a specially designed multichannel microfluidic chip. CdSe/ZnS QDs were used as fluorescent markers improving detection sensitivity. The microfluidic chip developed in this study was composed of 12 sample channels, 3 mixing zones, and 6 immune reaction zones, which also acted as fluorescence detection zones. QDs–IgG–primary antibody complexes were generated by mixing CdSe/ZnS QDs conjugated secondary antibody (QDs–IgG) and S. typhimurium antibody (primary antibody) in mixing zones. Then, the complexes went into immune reaction zones to label previously captured S. typhimurium in the sandwich mode. The capture rate of S. typhimurium in each detection zone was up to 70%. The enriched QDs-labeled S. typhimurium was detected using a self-assembly LIF microsystem. A good linear relationship was obtained in the range from 3.7 × 10 to 3.7 × 10{sup 5} cfu mL{sup −1} using the equation I = 0.1739 log (C) − 0.1889 with R{sup 2} = 0.9907, and the detection limit was down to 37 cfu mL{sup −1}. The proposed method of online immunolabeling with QDs for in situ fluorescence detection on the designed multichannel microfluidic chip had been successfully used to detect S. typhimurium in pork sample, and it has shown potential advantages in practice.

  8. Gold, coal and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio U

    2010-03-01

    Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans

  9. Gold-catalyzed domino reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Gold-catalyzed reactions have appeared to be highly attractive tools for chemists to promote novel transformations to prepare elaborated structures from simple starting materials. This chapter presents selected and original examples of domino processes in the presence of gold catalysts, highlighting reports implying hydration, hydroxylation, and hydroamination as key starting point for cascade transformations. Domino processes implying 1,n-enynes, asymmetric domino transformations, and applications of all the presented processes in total synthesis are presented.

  10. ImmunoGrid, an integrative environment for large-scale simulation of the immune system for vaccine discovery, design and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappalardo, F.; Halling-Brown, M. D.; Rapin, Nicolas;

    2009-01-01

    Vaccine research is a combinatorial science requiring computational analysis of vaccine components, formulations and optimization. We have developed a framework that combines computational tools for the study of immune function and vaccine development. This framework, named ImmunoGrid combines...... conceptual models of the immune system, models of antigen processing and presentation, system-level models of the immune system, Grid computing, and database technology to facilitate discovery, formulation and optimization of vaccines. ImmunoGrid modules share common conceptual models and ontologies....... The ImmunoGrid portal offers access to educational simulators where previously defined cases can be displayed, and to research simulators that allow the development of new, or tuning of existing, computational models. The portal is accessible at http://www.w3.org....

  11. Detection of measles, mumps and rubella viruses by immuno-colorimetric assay and its application in focus reduction neutralization tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S; Bhide, Vandana S

    2014-12-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine-preventable diseases; however limited epidemiological data are available from low-income or developing countries. Thus, it is important to investigate the transmission of these viruses in different geographical regions. In this context, a cell culture-based rapid and reliable immuno-colorimetric assay (ICA) was established and its utility studied. Twenty-three measles, six mumps and six rubella virus isolates and three vaccine strains were studied. Detection by ICA was compared with plaque and RT-PCR assays. In addition, ICA was used to detect viruses in throat swabs (n = 24) collected from patients with suspected measles or mumps. Similarly, ICA was used in a focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) and the results compared with those obtained by a commercial IgG enzyme immuno assay. Measles and mumps virus were detected 2 days post-infection in Vero or Vero-human signaling lymphocytic activation molecule cells, whereas rubella virus was detected 3 days post-infection in Vero cells. The blue stained viral foci were visible by the naked eye or through a magnifying glass. In conclusion, ICA was successfully used on 35 virus isolates, three vaccine strains and clinical specimens collected from suspected cases of measles and mumps. Furthermore, an application of ICA in a neutralization test (i.e., FRNT) was documented; this may be useful for sero-epidemiological, cross-neutralization and pre/post-vaccine studies. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Immuno-histochemistry and three-dimensional architecture of the intermediate filaments in Purkinje cells in mammalian hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Kawazato, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Shimada, Tatsuo

    2014-12-01

    In mammalian hearts, Purkinje cells varied greatly in morphological appearance in different species, and were divided into three groups. Bovine Purkinje cells corresponding to group I were a large size, and had a few myofibrils and abundant intermediate filaments throughout the cytoplasm. The aim of the present study was to clarify the more detailed distribution and three-dimensional architecture of intermediate filaments in Purkinje cells. The hearts in various mammals including humans were investigated by both immuno-histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Immuno-histochemical studies demonstrated that sheep Purkinje cells in group I had a great number of intermediate filaments of 10 nm positive for desmin antibody. Purkinje cells in group II (humans, monkeys and dogs) and group III (mice) were somewhat larger or smaller in size than myocardial cells, but also showed a strong positive reaction for desmin antibody. The saponin or NaOH treatment of cardiac tissues in sheep and humans enabled us to view intermediate filaments by SEM three-dimensionally. Intermediate filaments in sheep Purkinje cells formed a considerably delicate network, and were distributed throughout the cytoplasm. In contrast, those in human Purkinje cells were lower in density, and were present around the nucleus and between myofibrils. It was concluded that a delicate network of intermediate filaments in Purkinje cells of mammalian hearts acted as the cytoskeleton to maintain intercellular stability.

  13. The research on the immuno-modulatory defect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell from Chronic Myeloid Leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Song

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Overwhelming evidence from leukemia research has shown that the clonal population of neoplastic cells exhibits marked heterogeneity with respect to proliferation and differentiation. There are rare stem cells within the leukemic population that possess extensive proliferation and self-renewal capacity not found in the majority of the leukemic cells. These leukemic stem cells are necessary and sufficient to maintain the leukemia. While the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC origin of CML was first suggested over 30 years ago, recently CML-initiating cells beyond HSCs are also being investigated. We have previously isolated fetal liver kinase-1-positive (Flk1+ cells carrying the BCR/ABL fusion gene from the bone marrow of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+ patients with hemangioblast property. Here, we showed that CML patient-derived Flk1+CD31-CD34-MSCs had normal morphology, phenotype and karyotype but appeared impaired in immuno-modulatory function. The capacity of patient Flk1+CD31-CD34- MSCs to inhibit T lymphocyte activation and proliferation was impaired in vitro. CML patient-derived MSCs have impaired immuno-modulatory functions, suggesting that the dysregulation of hematopoiesis and immune response may originate from MSCs rather than HSCs. MSCs might be a potential target for developing efficacious cures for CML.

  14. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-04-07

    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  15. Modeling of gold production in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Nora; Ainuddeen, Nasihah Rasyiqah; Ismail, Hamizun; Umor, Mohd Rozi

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the main factors that contribute to the gold production and hence determine the factors that affect to the development of the mining industry in Malaysia. An econometric approach was used by performing the cointegration analysis among the factors to determine the existence of long term relationship between the gold prices, the number of gold mines, the number of workers in gold mines and the gold production. The study continued with the Granger analysis to determine the relationship between factors and gold production. Results have found that there are long term relationship between price, gold production and number of employees. Granger causality analysis shows that there is only one way relationship between the number of employees with gold production in Malaysia and the number of gold mines in Malaysia.

  16. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  17. Preparation of cellular vehicles for delivery of gold nanorods to tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centi, S.; Borri, C.; Lai, S.; Tatini, F.; Colagrande, S.; Ratto, F.; Pini, R.

    2016-03-01

    Over recent years, gold nanorods (GNRs) have emerged as a promising material in biomedical optics and have been proposed as contrast agents for the photothermal therapy and the photoacoustic imaging of tumors. A pioneering approach to target tumors is the use of cellular vehicles, i.e. cells of the immune system that exhibit an innate tropism to tumors and that can be serve as Trojan horses. This strategy relies on cell types, such as tumor-associated macrophages or T cells, that are recruited by or naturally traffic to the microenvironment of tumors and that can be isolated from a patient and loaded with plasmonic particles in vitro. In this work, GNRs were synthesized and designed to combine high optical and photo-stability and the ability to accumulate into cells of the immuno system. Particles were silanized, PEGylated and conjugated with cationic moieties. Different cationic compounds were tested and the cell viability and uptake of the particles were studied on complementary cell types. The cytotoxicity test was based on a colorimetric WST-8 assay while the intracellular amount of gold and the optical absorbance of the cells were quantified by spectrophotometry. Moreover, we investigated the effect of GNRs on the cell migration and the production of cytokines in the presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli, which provide a functional overview on the feasibility of this approach to target.

  18. Gold process mineralogy: Objectives, techniques, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Joe Y.; Cabri, Louis J.

    2004-07-01

    The extractive metallurgy of gold is largely driven by mineralogical factors such as gold particle size; association with other minerals; coatings; presence of cyanicides, oxygen consumers, and preg-robbers; presence of refractory gold minerals; and locking of submicroscopic gold in sulfide and sulfarsenide mineral structures. Gold process mineralogy addresses all issues related to gold ore processing by the detailed study of an ore or a mill product. The methodology is widely used as a predictive tool in feasibility studies and during the process development stage, and as a trouble-shooting tool for mineral processing and hydrometallurgical operations.

  19. Serum gold concentrations during treatment with auranofin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riel, P L; Gribnau, F W; Van de Putte, L B; Arts, C W; Van Aernsbergen, A

    1987-03-01

    Serum gold concentrations were measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients during chronic treatment with the orally adsorbable gold compound auranofin. In agreement with data in the literature, the highest serum gold concentration was reached after 16 weeks of treatment with 6 mg auranofin daily. A striking finding in this study was that thereafter the serum gold concentrations did not appear to plateau but declined gradually. Statistically this resulted in a significantly lower concentration after one year as compared with week 16 (p less than 0.05, paired t-test). It is suggested that a shift from protein bound gold to cell-bound gold might be the explanation.

  20. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T

    2014-01-22

    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  1. Study on mechanisms of hypertension in rat adult offspring following prenatal exposure to immuno-inflammatory stimulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian-zhi; LI Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective Essential hypertension (EH) is one of the most common cardiovascular disease and the main causes of human fatility. Recently significant progress has been made in our lab, it was found that exterior stimulation during pregnancy may play a key role in chronicle adult disease. However, what factors affect the growth of fetus after those exterior stimulation and why has not been reported. Based on our previous finding, this study intends to investigate how immuno-inflammatory stimulation affect the development of embryo. Methods 1. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, dams in each group received i.p. injections of 0.79 mg· kg-1 LPS, 8 mg·kg-1 zymosan or sterile saline respectively on their gestational days 8, 10, and 12.2. The serums were collected in tail nick at 2 h after the last injection, and the amniotic fluid was mixed at 2, 12, 24,48 h after the last injection. TNF-α and IL-6 levels of serum and amniotic fluid were measured by RIA method. 3. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA levels were quantitated in amnion, placenta, amniotic fluid, Embryo and maerophage by real-time fluorescent quantitative-PCR. Results 1. The serum level of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS group and zymosan group was higher than that in control group (P<0.01). It showed that there was immuno-imflammatory response after LPS or zymosan injection in rats. The mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 was very higher in macrophage than in other organization. 2. In embryo, the mRNA level of IL-6 was more than other organization, but the mRNA level of TNF-α was lower than other organization. However, the IL-6 mRNA level of LPS group and zymosan group was higher several dozens times than control group on 24 h and 48 h. Conclusions It suggested that IL-6 was important in the model that prenatalexposure to immuno-inflammatory stimulant results in increases of blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  2. Calcarea carbonica induces apoptosis in cancer cells in p53-dependent manner via an immuno-modulatory circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shilpi; Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Mukherjee, Shravanti; Mohanty, Suchismita; Mazumdar, Minakshi; Mukherjee, Sanhita; Ghosh, Uttam K; Nayek, Chaturbhuj; Raveendar, Chinta; Khurana, Anil; Chakrabarty, Rathin; Sa, Gaurisankar; Das, Tanya

    2013-09-21

    Complementary medicines, including homeopathy, are used by many patients with cancer, usually alongside with conventional treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms underneath the anti-cancer effect, if any, of these medicines have still remained unexplored. To this end we attempted to evaluate the efficacy of calcarea carbonica, a homeopathic medicine, as an anti-cancer agent and to delineate the detail molecular mechanism(s) underlying calcerea carbonica-induced tumor regression. To investigate and delineate the underlying mechanisms of calcarea carbonica-induced tumor regression, Trypan blue dye-exclusion test, flow cytometric, Western blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR techniques were employed. Further, siRNA transfections and inhibitor studies were used to validate the involvement of p53 pathway in calcarea carbonica-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Interestingly, although calcarea carbonica administration to Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC)- and Sarcoma-180 (S-180)-bearing Swiss albino mice resulted in 30-35% tumor cell apoptosis, it failed to induce any significant cell death in ex vivo conditions. These results prompted us to examine whether calcarea carbonica employs the immuno-modulatory circuit in asserting its anti-tumor effects. Calcarea carbonica prevented tumor-induced loss of effector T cell repertoire, reversed type-2 cytokine bias and attenuated tumor-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation in tumor-bearing host. To confirm the role of immune system in calcarea carbonica-induced cancer cell death, a battery of cancer cells were co-cultured with calcarea carbonica-primed T cells. Our results indicated a "two-step" mechanism of the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by calcarea carbonica i.e., (1) activation of the immune system of the host; and (2) induction of cancer cell apoptosis via immuno-modulatory circuit in p53-dependent manner by down-regulating Bcl-2:Bax ratio. Bax up-regulation resulted in mitochondrial transmembrane potential

  3. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  4. Nanobubble trouble on gold surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Kuhle, A.; Garnaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    When analyzing surfaces related to biosensors with in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), the existence of nanobubbles called for our attention. The bubbles seem to form spontaneously when gold surfaces are immersed in clean water and are probably a general phenomenon at water-solid interfaces....... Besides from giving rise to undesired effects in, for example, biosensors, nanobubbles can also cause artifacts in AFM imaging. We have observed nanobubbles on unmodified gold surfaces, immersed in clean water, using standard silicon AFM probes. Nanobubbles can be made to disappear from contact mode AFM...

  5. Economic geology: Gold buried by oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, Fabrice; Copard, Y.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; he Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa contains extraordinary amounts of gold. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the gold may have accumulated there in response to a perfect storm of conditions available only during the Archaean.

  6. Economic geology: Gold buried by oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, Fabrice; Copard, Y.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; he Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa contains extraordinary amounts of gold. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the gold may have accumulated there in response to a perfect storm of conditions available only during the Archaean.

  7. Research progresses for tumor theranostics based on gold nanomaterials%基于金纳米结构材料的肿瘤诊疗一体化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇玉; 王静; 陈春英

    2014-01-01

    gold nanoparticles is effective in opti-mizing the efficacy of cancer treatments. Therefore, gold nanoparticles can integrate multiple functions into one single system and real-ize the integration of tumor diagnosis and therapy, which provide new insights for the on-demand therapy and personalized medicine de-velopment. This study reviews the recent progress of several gold nanoparticles in the integrated applications for tumor theranostics, in-cluding gold nanoshells, gold nanorods, hollow gold nanospheres, gold nanocages, and gold nanostars. The major strategies of gold nanomaterials in biomedical applications are also discussed.

  8. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in general. 100.4 Section 100.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general....

  9. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Korthout, H.A.A.J.; Meeteren-Kreikamp, A.P. van; Ehlert, K.A.; Wang, M.; Greef, J. van der; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extrac

  10. Immunoliposomes as enzyme-carriers (immuno-enzymosomes) for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) : Optimization of prodrug activating capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, MH; Haisma, HJ; Belliot, SO; Smit, RHP; Crommelin, DJA; Storm, G

    Purpose. Immuno-enzymosomes are tumor-specific immunoliposomes bearing enzymes on their surface. These enzymes are capable of converting relatively nontoxic prodrugs into active cytostatic agents. The enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUS)(4) was coupled to the external surface of immunoliposomes directed

  11. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated bu CB1 en CB2 receptor coupled pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Korthout, H.A.A.J.; Meeteren-Kreikamp, van A.P.; Ehlert, K.A.; Wang, M.; Greef, de J.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extrac

  12. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.; Korthout, H.A.; Meeteren-Kreikamp, A.P. van; Ehlert, K.A.; Wang, M.; Greef, J. van der; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa

  13. Magnetic albumin immuno-nanospheres as an efficient gene delivery system for a potential use in lung cancer: preparation, in vitro targeting and biological effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xinxin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic albumin immuno-nanospheres (MAINs), simultaneously loaded with super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting application and anticancer gene, plasmid-survivin/shRNA (pshRNA) and modified with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody Cetuximab for targeting and treatment agents, were prepared for targeting lung cancer. Transmission electron microscopy images and transfection photographs, respectively, showed that magnetic nanoparticles and pshRNA were successfully encased in the albumin nanospheres. The release profiles in vitro indicated that nanospheres had an obvious effect of sustained release of pshRNA. The results of slide agglutination test and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that the immuno-nanospheres retained the immuno-reactivity of Cetuximab. The MAINs significantly increased adherence and uptake by GLC-82 lung cancer cells over-expressed epidermal growth factor receptor over a magnetic albumin nanospheres (MANs) control. The pshRNA-loaded MAINs formulation was more effective than equimolar doses of free Cetuximab, single magnetic targeting with pshRNA (pshRNA-loaded MANs) or single monoclonal antibody targeting with pshRNA (pshRNA-loaded AINs) in the treatment of GLC-82 lung cancer cells. Collectively, the study indicates that the novel pshRNA-loaded magnetic immuno-nanospheres represent a promising approach for magnetic and monoclonal antibody-dependent gene targeting in lung cancer therapy.

  14. Design of immuno-enzymosomes with maximum enzyme targeting capability : effect of the enzyme density on the enzyme targeting capability and cell binding properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, MJ; Haisma, HJ; Klaasen, S; Vingerhoeds, MH; Storm, G

    1999-01-01

    Immuno-enzymosomes have been proposed for the targeting of enzymes to cancer cells to achieve site specific activation of anticancer prodrugs. Previously, we reported that the enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUS), capable of activating anthracycline-glucuronide prodrugs, can be coupled to the surface of

  15. Quantitative Immuno-SPECT Monitoring of Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy with a Bispecific Antibody in an Intraperitoneal Nude Mouse Model of Human Colon Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, R.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Sharkey, R.M.; Franssen, G.M.; McBride, W.J.; Chang, C.H.; Bos, D.L.; Goldenberg, D.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    The prospects for using pretargeted immuno-SPECT to monitor the response to pretargeted radioimmunotherapy were examined. In this study, a bispecific anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEACAM5; CD66e) x antihapten monoclonal antibody, TF2, was used in combination with a small (1.5 kD) peptide, IMP288, la

  16. Immuno-virological discordance and the risk of non-AIDS and AIDS events in a large observational cohort of HIV-patients in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoufaly, A.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Reekie, J.; Kirk, O.; Lundgren, J.; Reiss, P.; Jevtovic, D.; Machala, L.; Zangerle, R.; Mocroft, A.; Lunzen, J. van; Burger, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Patients in EuroSIDA starting at least 1 new antiretroviral drug with

  17. Single-crystalline gold nanoplates from a commercial gold plating solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonghao; Lapeyre, Véronique; Ravaine, Valérie; Ravaine, Serge; Kuhn, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    A novel route was proposed to synthesize gold nanoplates using a commercial gold plating solution as the reactant. Single-crystalline gold nanoplates can be successfully synthesized by reacting gold plating solution with HCl. The as-prepared nanoplates are from several micrometers to tens of micrometers in size. The effects of reactant concentration and temperature on the morphology of the gold products were investigated. The size of the gold nanoplate increases with the decrease of the amount of gold plating solution, while irregular gold nanoparticles are formed as the HCl concentration becomes low. When the reaction temperature is as low as room temperature, nanoplates with a concavity form. Specifically, it is found that the Cl- plays an important role for the formation of these gold nanoplates. The formation mechanism of the gold nanoplates is studied in detail.

  18. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  19. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  20. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...

  1. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Transplant of ex vivo incubated bone marrow with rIL -7 for the enhancement of immuno-hematopoietic reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hai, Ali; Ben Yehuda, Aryeh; Slavin, Shimon; Or, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a critical cytokine in early B and T cell development. Peripheral T cell expansion and thymopoiesis and is a result of the ongoing reconstitution from uncommitted stem cells after transplant. We investigated the efficacy of ex vivo incubated bone marrow cells treated with recombinant human IL-7 (rIL-7) on subsequent in vivo murine models of syngeneic bone marrow (BM) transplant. After ex vivo culture with rIL-7, we observed a 1½-fold increase in BM cellularity; this increase was associated with an enhanced reconstitution of bone marrow cells and thymocytes at 45 days post-transplant. In addition to increased cellularity, lymphocytes from mice transplanted with cultured rIL-7 showed enhanced proliferative responses to mitogenic stimulation. These findings suggest rIL-7 to be a promising agent for the clinical application of treating immune deficiency and enhancing immuno-hematopoietic reconstitution of the stem cell auto/allograft.

  3. In vivo detection of free radicals in mouse septic encephalopathy using molecular MRI and immuno-spin trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Rheal A; Garteiser, Philippe; Bozza, Fernando; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; d' Avila, Joana C P; Magno, Flora; Oliveira, Marcus F; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Lupu, Florea; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramirez, Dario C; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Mason, Ronald P; Castro Faria-Neto, Hugo C

    2013-12-01

    Free radicals are known to play a major role in sepsis. Combined immuno-spin trapping and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to detect in vivo and in situ levels of free radicals in murine septic encephalopathy after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). DMPO (5,5-dimethyl pyrroline N-oxide) was injected over 6h after CLP, before administration of an anti-DMPO probe (anti-DMPO antibody bound to albumin-gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-biotin MRI targeting contrast agent). In vitro assessment of the anti-DMPO probe in oxidatively stressed mouse astrocytes significantly decreased T1 relaxation (p free radicals in murine septic encephalopathy.

  4. An automated assay for the clinical measurement of plasma renin activity by immuno-MALDI (iMALDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Robert; Malmström, David; Chambers, Andrew G; Lin, David; Camenzind, Alexander G; van der Gugten, J Grace; Holmes, Daniel T; Pugia, Michael; Jaremek, Marta; Cornett, Shannon; Suckau, Detlev; Borchers, Christoph H

    2015-06-01

    Plasma renin activity (PRA) is essential for the screening and diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA), a form of secondary hypertension, which affects approximately 100 million people worldwide. It is commonly determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and, more recently, by relatively low-throughput LC-MS/MS methods. In order to circumvent the negative aspects of RIAs (radioisotopes, cross-reactivity) and the low throughput of LC-MS based methods, we have developed a high-throughput immuno-MALDI (iMALDI)-based assay for PRA determination using an Agilent Bravo for automated liquid handling and a Bruker Microflex LRF instrument for MALDI analysis, with the goal of implementing the assay in clinical laboratories. The current assay allows PRA determination of 29 patient samples (192 immuno-captures), within ~6 to 7h, using a 3-hour Ang I generation period, at a 7.5-fold faster analysis time than LC-MS/MS. The assay is performed on 350μL of plasma, and has a linear range from 0.08 to 5.3ng/L/s in the reflector mode, and 0.04 to 5.3ng/L/s in the linear mode. The analytical precision is 2.0 to 9.7% CV in the reflector mode, and 1.5 to 14.3% CV in the linear mode. A method comparison to a clinically employed LC-MS/MS assay for PRA determination showed excellent correlation within the linear range, with an R(2) value of ≥0.98. This automated high throughput iMALDI platform has clinically suitable sensitivity, precision, linear range, and correlation with the standard method for PRA determination. Furthermore, the developed workflow based on the iMALDI technology can be used for the determination of other proteomic biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Medical Proteomics.

  5. Applications of immuno-magnetic bead and immunofluorescent flow cytometric techniques for the quantitative detection of HAB microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; WEN Ruobing; BAO Zhenmin; SUI Zhenghong; SUN Ningbo; KANG Kyoungho

    2012-01-01

    Over the last severaldecades,harmful algal blooms (HABs) havebecome a serious environmental problem in many parts of the world.A rapid and accurate detection process for HAB algae has yet to be developed.Heterosigma akashiwo is one of the most important HABs species in China.The objective of this study was to develop an immunologic technique that can rapidly and sensitively count H.akashiwo cells.Five HABs species (Alexandrium catenella,Thalassiosira sp.,Cryptomonas sp.,Alexandrium tamarense and Symbiodinium sp.,) were used in this study to evaluate the analysis process we developed.A polyclonal antibody with high titers against H.akashiwo was obtained by injecting H.akashiwo cells into rabbits.Immuno-magnetic beads (IMB) were produced via conjugated polyclonal antibodies with magnetic beads and applied to isolate and count H.akashiwo cells from the culture.Results show that 66.7%-91.6% of the cells were captured from unialgal culture by IMBs,and only 5.3%-12.5% of the four other HAB microalgae species were captured,indicating that the constructed IMBs combined specifically with the H.akashiwo cells.At the same time,flow cytometry (FCM) sorting was exploited to screen H.akashiwo cells after labeling with FITC conjugated polyclonal antibodies.Using the FCM technique,91.7% of the targeted cells were sorted out from mixed microalgae samples in just a few minutes.These results indicate that both antibody-involved IMB and antibody-based FCM techniques are highly effective at detecting and quantifying HAB species.These techniques,especially immuno-magnetic separation,have low associated cost,and are fast and simple processes compared with other techniques currently in use.

  6. Immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohguchi, Michihiro; Kunikata, Toshio; Watanabe, Hikaru; Kudo, Naoki; Shibuya, Takashi; Ishihara, Tatsuya; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2004-04-01

    The immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi, RR), which has been used as a traditional supplement for human health, were investigated in mice. BALB/c mice were administered orally with RR for 3 days at a dose of 50 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by splenocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined on day 4. The oral administration of 500 mg/kg of RR resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in IFN-gamma production. Stimulation of splenic adherent cells from these mice with LPS also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in interleukin-12 (IL-12) production compared with that from the control mice, suggesting that splenic macrophages were activated by RR administration. Furthermore, 500 mg/kg of RR administered for 14 days resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in IFN-gamma production by splenocytes in response to both LPS and concanavalin A (Con A). These results suggest that not only splenic macrophages but also T cells were activated by the long-term treatment with RR in vivo. On the other hand, the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), which is known as an allergic disease-related cytokine, was not affected by the long-term treatment with RR. Our results suggest that the oral administration of RR resulted in Th1-associated immuno-potentiating activities in vivo.

  7. Immuno-detection of OCTN1 (SLC22A4) in HeLa cells and characterization of transport function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Indiveri, Cesare

    2015-11-01

    OCTN1 was immuno-detected in the cervical cancer cell HeLa, in which the complete pattern of acetylcholine metabolizing enzymes is expressed. Comparison of immuno-staining intensity of HeLa OCTN1 with the purified recombinant human OCTN1 allowed measuring the specific OCTN1 concentration in the HeLa cell extract and, hence calculating the HeLa OCTN1 specific transport activity that was about 10 nmol×min(-1)×mg protein(-1), measured as uptake of [(3)H]acetylcholine in proteoliposomes reconstituted with HeLa extract. This value was very similar to the specific activity of the recombinant protein. Acetylcholine transport was suppressed by incubation of the protein or proteoliposomes with the anti-OCTN1 antibody and was strongly inhibited by PLP and MTSEA, known inhibitors of OCTN1. The absence of ATP in the internal side of proteoliposomes strongly impaired transport function of both the HeLa and, as expected, the recombinant OCTN1. HeLa OCTN1 was inhibited by spermine, NaCl (Na(+)), TEA, γ-butyrobetaine, choline, acetylcarnitine and ipratropium but not by neostigmine. Besides acetylcholine, choline was taken up by HeLa OCTN1 proteoliposomes. The transporter catalyzed also acetylcholine and choline efflux which, differently from uptake, was not inhibited by MTSEA. Time course of [(3)H]acetylcholine uptake in intact HeLa cells was measured. As in proteoliposomes, acetylcholine transport in intact cells was inhibited by TEA and NaCl. Efflux of [(3)H]acetylcholine occurred in intact cells, as well. The experimental data concur in demonstrating a role of OCTN1 in transporting acetylcholine and choline in HeLa cells.

  8. Insights into the immuno-molecular biology of Angiostrongylus vasorum through transcriptomics--prospects for new interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Brendan R E; Schnyder, Manuela; Deplazes, Peter; Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Mangiola, Stefano; Boag, Peter R; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a metastrongyloid nematode of dogs and other canids of major clinical importance in many countries. In order to gain first insights into the molecular biology of this worm, we conducted the first large-scale exploration of its transcriptome, and predicted essential molecules linked to metabolic and biological processes as well as host immune responses. We also predicted and prioritized drug targets and drug candidates. Following Illumina sequencing (RNA-seq), 52.3 million sequence reads representing adult A. vasorum were assembled and annotated. The assembly yielded 20,033 contigs, which encoded proteins with 11,505 homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, and additional 2252 homologues in various other parasitic helminths for which curated data sets were publicly available. Functional annotation was achieved for 11,752 (58.6%) proteins predicted for A. vasorum, including peptidases (4.5%) and peptidase inhibitors (1.6%), protein kinases (1.7%), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (1.5%) and phosphatases (1.2%). Contigs encoding excretory/secretory and immuno-modulatory proteins represented some of the most highly transcribed molecules, and encoded enzymes that digest haemoglobin were conserved between A. vasorum and other blood-feeding nematodes. Using an essentiality-based approach, drug targets, including neurotransmitter receptors, an important chemosensory ion channel and cysteine proteinase-3 were predicted in A. vasorum, as were associated small molecular inhibitors/activators. Future transcriptomic analyses of all developmental stages of A. vasorum should facilitate deep explorations of the molecular biology of this important parasitic nematode and support the sequencing of its genome. These advances will provide a foundation for exploring immuno-molecular aspects of angiostrongylosis and have the potential to underpin the discovery of new methods of intervention.

  9. Applications of immuno-magnetic bead and immunofluorescent flow cytometric techniques for the quantitative detection of HAB microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wen, Ruobing; Bao, Zhenmin; Sui, Zhenghong; Sun, Ningbo; Kang, Kyoungho

    2012-05-01

    Over the last several decades, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become a serious environmental problem in many parts of the world. A rapid and accurate detection process for HAB algae has yet to be developed. Heterosigma akashiwo is one of the most important HABs species in China. The objective of this study was to develop an immunologic technique that can rapidly and sensitively count H. akashiwo cells. Five HABs species ( Alexandrium catenella, Thalassiosira sp., Cryptomonas sp., Alexandrium tamarense and Symbiodinium sp.), were used in this study to evaluate the analysis process we developed. A polyclonal antibody with high titers against H. akashiwo was obtained by injecting H. akashiwo cells into rabbits. Immuno-magnetic beads (IMB) were produced via conjugated polyclonal antibodies with magnetic beads and applied to isolate and count H. akashiwo cells from the culture. Results show that 66.7%-91.6% of the cells were captured from unialgal culture by IMBs, and only 5.3%-12.5% of the four other HAB microalgae species were captured, indicating that the constructed IMBs combined specifically with the H. akashiwo cells. At the same time, flow cytometry (FCM) sorting was exploited to screen H. akashiwo cells after labeling with FITC conjugated polyclonal antibodies. Using the FCM technique, 91.7% of the targeted cells were sorted out from mixed microalgae samples in just a few minutes. These results indicate that both antibody-involved IMB and antibody-based FCM techniques are highly effective at detecting and quantifying HAB species. These techniques, especially immuno-magnetic separation, have low associated cost, and are fast and simple processes compared with other techniques currently in use.

  10. Gold color in dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T

    1997-01-01

    This article will help the dental laboratory with alloy selection by exploring how the relationship among color, ductility and strength applies to gold and how color can be quantified. Because higher quality materials translate into higher profits, upselling to the dentist and patient is also discussed.

  11. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  12. Gold, Silver and Bronze Citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents the gold, silver, and bronze winners of a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total area, total…

  13. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trappe...

  14. Antibody-functionalized nanoparticles for imaging cancer: influence of conjugation to gold nanoparticles on the biodistribution of 89Zr-labeled cetuximab in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmani, Linda; Labar, Daniel; Valembois, Vanessa; Bouchat, Virginie; Nagaswaran, Praveen Ganesh; Bol, Anne; Gillart, Jacques; Levêque, Philippe; Bouzin, Caroline; Bonifazi, Davide; Michiels, Carine; Feron, Olivier; Grégoire, Vincent; Lucas, Stéphane; Vander Borght, Thierry; Gallez, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-labeled gold nanoparticles represent a promising novel tool regarding cancer imaging and therapy. Nevertheless, the characterization of biodistribution of such immunonanocarriers has been poorly documented. In this study, the biodistribution of (89)Zr-labeled cetuximab before and after the coupling reaction to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was compared and the quantitative imaging performance of (89)Zr immuno-PET was evaluated. Cetuximab was functionalized with the desferal moiety and labeled with (89)Zr ((89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-cetuximab). AuNPs with a mean diameter of 5 nm were synthesized according a new method developed in the laboratory, and conjugated to (89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-cetuximab using carbodiimide chemistry (AuNPs-PPAA-cetuximab-(89)Zr). The two tracers were injected in A431 xenograft-bearing mice. Tumor and liver uptakes were assessed at different times after injection using quantitative PET imaging. The in vivo specificity of the binding was investigated using a saturating dose of unlabeled cetuximab. Radiolabeled cetuximab was conjugated to AuNPs with a coupling reaction yield >75%. All conjugates were stable in vitro and to a lesser extent in plasma. In vivo distribution studies revealed no significant difference in tumor uptake for cetuximab conjugated to nanoparticles up to 72 h after injection, compared with unconjugated cetuximab. Immuno-PET studies showed that AuNPs-PPAA-cetuximab-(89)Zr provided high tumor-to-background ratio. The liver uptake of AuNPs-PPAA-cetuximab-(89)Zr was higher, compared with (89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-cetuximab. In vivo blocking experiments demonstrated selective tumor targeting after coupling reaction. This study showed that the conjugation of AuNPs to cetuximab did not affect its tumor accumulation and that the efficacy of EGFR-targeted nanoparticles was unaltered. The (89)Zr-labeled cetuximab-targeted gold nanoparticles could be a valuable tool for theranostic purposes.

  15. Gold nephropathy in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Shuler, S E

    1979-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl was treated with gold salts for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment had to be discontinued when persistent proteinuria was detected. As this case report indicates, close monitoring of the urine is mandatory during treatment with gold salts to detect early signs of toxicity: hematuria followed by casts and then proteinuria as therapy is continued. Histologic examination with electron microscopy will help to differentiate the different forms of gold toxicity. When the findings are consistent with gold-induced renal involvement, therapy should be discontinued. The gold nephropathy usually resolves in time, with no permanent renal damage.

  16. Hydrofluorination of Alkynes Catalysed by Gold Bifluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Nahra, Fady; Patrick, Scott R.; Bello, Davide; Brill, Marcel; Obled, Alan; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Hagan, David; Steven P. Nolan

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis of nine new N-heterocyclic carbene gold bifluoride complexes starting from the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbene gold hydroxides. A new methodology to access N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) fluoride starting from N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) hydroxide and readily available potassium bifluoride is also reported. These gold bifluorides were shown to be efficient catalysts in the hydrofluorination of symmetrical an...

  17. I. Unbound serum gold: procedure for quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, A; Vibert, G J; Harralson, A F; Simon, T M

    1983-08-01

    The unbound fraction of many drugs appears to be the therapeutically active component. However, the major problem encountered in following unbound serum gold (UBSG) concentration during chrysotherapy has been the ability to quantitate such a small quantity of gold reliably without matrix interference. The methodology detailed here overcomes these difficulties and provides an effective means of monitoring the UBSG fraction during chrysotherapy. We have observed that the unbound fraction of gold dissipates quickly after gold sodium thiomalate administration and constitutes less than 2% of the total serum gold concentration.

  18. Gold recycling; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, Earle B.

    2000-01-01

    This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

  19. New approach to fabricate nanoporous gold film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhou; Lan Jin; Wei Xu

    2007-01-01

    A simple preparation of ultrathin nanoporous gold film was described. Copper and gold were used to fabricate Cu-Au alloy films through vacuum deposition. The formation of nanoporous gold films from the alloy films involved thermal process and chemical etch by hydrochloric acid or by nitric acid. The free-standing nanoporous gold films have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It was noted that the nanoporous gold film etched by hydrochloric acid is uniform with a cover of fog-like moieties.

  20. [Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Azospirillum brasilense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Vetchinkina, E P; Burov, A M; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Azospirillum brasilense were shown to reduce the gold of chloroauric acid to elemental gold, resulting in formation of gold nanoparicles. Extracellular phenoloxidizing enzymes (laccases and Mn peroxidases) were shown to participate in reduction of Au+3 (HAuCl4) to Au(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed accumulation of colloidal gold nanoparticles of diverse shape in the culture liquid of A. brasilense strains Sp245 and Sp7. The size of the electron-dense nanospheres was 5 to 50 nm, and the size of nanoprisms varied from 5 to 300 nm. The tentative mechanism responsible for formation of gold nanoparticles is discussed.

  1. Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, David J; Toste, F Dean

    2007-03-22

    Transition-metal catalysts containing gold present new opportunities for chemical synthesis, and it is therefore not surprising that these complexes are beginning to capture the attention of the chemical community. Cationic phosphine-gold(i) complexes are especially versatile and selective catalysts for a growing number of synthetic transformations. The reactivity of these species can be understood in the context of theoretical studies on gold; relativistic effects are especially helpful in rationalizing the reaction manifolds available to gold catalysts. This Review draws on experimental and computational data to present our current understanding of homogeneous gold catalysis, focusing on previously unexplored reactivity and its application to the development of new methodology.

  2. Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au? toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species.

  3. Leaching behavior of butanedionedioxime as gold ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Butanedionedioxime, a small organic compound with low-toxicity and good chemical stability, has been proposed as an effective gold ligand in gold extraction. The result of experiment shows that: 1) highly effective gold lixiviantcan be composed of butanedionedioxime (BDM) with many oxidants, especially potassium permanganate; 2)in the leaching system of BD M- K M nO4 the suitable Ox/Lig(ratio of oxidants to gold ligands) tange is 0.20 ~ 0. 50, optimally 0.25 ~0.45 at the pH range of 7 ~ 11; 3) BDM-KMnO4 extraction of gold from an oxide ore is similar to cyanide(cyanide-O2)extraction, but the leaching rate of gold by BDM-KMnO4 is faster than that by cyanide-O2; 4) gold may readily be recov-ered by carbon adsorption and zinc precipitation

  4. Immuno nanoparticles integrated electrical control of targeted cancer cell development using whole cell bioelectronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Chengxiao; Chen, Chunying; Ino, Kosuke; Matsue, Tomokazu; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Electrical properties of cells determine most of the cellular functions, particularly ones which occur in the cell's membrane. Manipulation of these electrical properties may provide a powerful electrotherapy option for the treatment of cancer as cancerous cells have been shown to be more electronegative than normal proliferating cells. Previously, we used an electrical impedance sensing system (EIS) to explore the responses of cancerous SKOV3 cells and normal HUVEC cells to low intensity (electric fields, determining that the optimal frequency for SKOV3 proliferation arrest was 200 kHz, without harming the non-cancerous HUVECs. In this study, to determine if these effects are cell type dependant, human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) were subjected to a range of frequencies (50 kHz-2 MHz) similar to the previously tested SKOV3. For the MCF7, an optimal frequency of 100 kHz was determined using the EIS, indicating a higher sensitivity towards the applied field. Further experiments specifically targeting the two types of cancer cells using HER2 antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (HER2-AuNPs) were performed to determine if enhanced electric field strength can be induced via the application of nanoparticles, consequently leading to the killing of the cancerous cells without affecting non cancerous HUVECs and MCF10a providing a platform for the development of a non-invasive cancer treatment without any harmful side effects. The EIS was used to monitor the real-time consequences on cellular viability and a noticeable decrease in the growth profile of the MCF7 was observed with the application of the HER2-AuNPs and the electric fields indicating specific inhibitory effects on dividing cells in culture. To further understand the effects of the externally applied field to the cells, an Annexin V/EthD-III assay was performed to determine the cell death mechanism indicating apoptosis. The zeta potential of the SKOV3 and the MCF7 before and after incorporation of

  5. [Contact allergy to gold and its alloys. Pertinence of gold salt patch tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, E; Lacroix, M; Dalac, S; Ponnelle, C; Lambert, D

    1994-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to gold and its alloys is a rare affection and it is difficult to interpret gold salts patch tests. We report two cases of patients with positive patch tests to 0.5% sodium aurothiosulfate discovered during a dermatology exploration of an occupational contact eczema (for the first patient) and an intolerance to gold jewelry (for the second). There is much confusion in the literature concerning the allergologic exploration of contact dermatitis to gold: no standardized test, possible cross reactions between different gold salts, the tests often irritate. The mechanism of sensitization to gold salts is unknown since pure gold is inalterable and does not contain any salts. The pertinence of a positive test to one or more gold salts must therefore be examined carefully and the diagnosis of gold allergy must not be made without sufficient evidence.

  6. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of gold ion and gold modified

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gold ion modified TiO2 was prepared by means of sol- gelwhereas gold deposited TiO2 was prepared by means of photo- reduction. The physical properties were influenced significantly by the presence of gold ion or gold. The enhanced photo-activity of gold modified TiO2 was quantified in terms of methylene blue degradation. The presence of gold ion in TiO2 lattices or gold on TiO2 surface enhanced their photo-activity. The optimum molar content of gold ion doping and gold deposition all was 0.5%. The first-order rates constants of gold modified TiO2 was more than that of pure TiO2, and decreased by increasing the content of gold ion and gold when their contents were more than 0.5%. Gold iondoped in TiO2 lattices was more effective to enhance the photo-activity than gold on TiO2 surface. Moreover, the relationship between physical properties, chemical properties and photo-activityhas been discussed.

  7. Gold concentration in blood in relation to the number of gold restorations and contact allergy to gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnlide, Ingela; Ahlgren, Camilla; Björkner, Bert; Bruze, Magnus; Lundh, Thomas; Möller, Halvor; Nilner, Krister; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between gold allergy and the presence of dental gold restorations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the concentration of gold in blood (B-Au) and the number of tooth surfaces with gold alloys in subjects with and without contact allergy to gold. In 80 patients referred for patch testing because of eczematous disease, blood samples were taken and analyzed for B-Au using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The detection limit for the Au determination was 0.04 microg/L. In addition, a dentist made a clinical and radiological examination of the patients and registered the number of dental gold surfaces. Patients with dental gold restorations had a statistically significantly higher B-Au in Mann-Whitney U test (P = 0.025), (range < 0.04-1.07 microg/L) than patients without (range < 0.04-0.15 microg/L). Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between B-Au and the number of dental gold surfaces (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in B-Au between persons with and without contact allergy to gold. The study thus indicates that gold is released from dental restorations and taken tip into the circulation.

  8. CMS Industries awarded gold, crystal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CMS collaboration honoured 10 of its top suppliers in the seventh annual awards ceremony The representatives of the firms that recieved the CMS Gold and Crystal Awards stand with their awards after the ceremony. The seventh annual CMS Awards ceremony was held on Monday 13 March to recognize the industries that have made substantial contributions to the construction of the collaboration's detector. Nine international firms received Gold Awards, and General Tecnica of Italy received the prestigious Crystal Award. Representatives from the companies attended the ceremony during the plenary session of CMS week. 'The role of CERN, its machines and experiments, beyond particle physics is to push the development of equipment technologies related to high-energy physics,'said CMS Awards Coordinator Domenico Campi. 'All of these industries must go beyond the technologies that are currently available.' Without the involvement of good companies over the years, the construction of the CMS detector wouldn't be possible...

  9. Nanobubble trouble on gold surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Kuhle, A.; Garnaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    When analyzing surfaces related to biosensors with in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), the existence of nanobubbles called for our attention. The bubbles seem to form spontaneously when gold surfaces are immersed in clean water and are probably a general phenomenon at water-solid interfaces....... Besides from giving rise to undesired effects in, for example, biosensors, nanobubbles can also cause artifacts in AFM imaging. We have observed nanobubbles on unmodified gold surfaces, immersed in clean water, using standard silicon AFM probes. Nanobubbles can be made to disappear from contact mode AFM...... tip and the nanobubble indicates that a small tip cone angle and a relatively hydrophilic tip surface makes it possible to image nanobubbles with contact mode AFM even though the tip has penetrated the surface of the bubble....

  10. Switchable Imbibition in Nanoporous Gold

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Yahui; Duan, Huiling; Weissmueller, Joerg; Huber, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous imbibition enables the elegant propelling of nano-flows because of the dominance of capillarity at small length scales. The imbibition kinetics are, however, solely determined by the static geometry of the porous host, the capillarity, and the fluidity of the imbibed liquid. This makes active control particularly challenging. Here, we show for aqueous electrolyte imbibition in nanoporous gold that the fluid flow can be reversibly switched on and off through electric potential control of the solid-liquid interfacial tension, i.e. we can accelerate the imbibition front, stop it, and have it proceed at will. Simultaneous measurements of the mass flux and the electrical current allow us to document simple scaling laws for the imbibition kinetics, and to explore the charge flow dynamics in the metallic nanopores. Our findings demonstrate that the high electric conductivity along with the pathways for ionic and/or fluid transport render nanoporous elemental gold a versatile, accurately controllable elec...

  11. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  12. Gemballa Mirage GT Gold Edition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    前不久,保时捷的专业改装厂Gembaila推出了一款Mirage GT Gold Edition,这款车以Carrera GT为基础,并且使用了大量的碳纤维材料,而且在车身内外配备了一些黄金色的涂装。

  13. Clinical Study on the value of Cox-2, ImmunoCyt and HAase in urine exfoliated cells in early diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma%尿中脱落细胞的环氧化酶-2、ImmunoCyt和透明质酸酶联合检测在膀胱癌早期诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔国兴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical significance of Cox-2、ImmunoCyt and Hyaluronidase( HAase) in urine exfoliated cells in early diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma,and find a favorable method for bladder transitional cell carcinoma(BTCC). Methods Cox-2、ImmunoCyt and HAase in urine exfoliated cells were detected from 60 cases with early BTCC and other 60 controls,and exfoliative cytology were detected too. Results The resuts showed that the sensitivities of Cox-2、ImmunoCyt、HAase in urine exfoliated cells and exfoliative cytology was 60% ,58% ,66% ,76%,the accuracy was74% ,80% ,87% and 22. 0% respectively,the specificity was 92 % ,90% ,94%and 100% respectively. The diagnosis sensitivity and accuracy of tumor marker combined detection were significantly higher than that alone (P<0. 05). but the sensitivity and accuracy of Cox-2、ImmunoCyt and HAase in u-rine exfoliated cells were significantly higher than those of urinary cytology (P<0. 05). Conclusion Cox-2、ImmunoCyt and HAase in urine exfoliated cells are specific markers in the early diagnosis of BTCC. The combined detection can improve the early diagnosis rate of carcinoma of urinary bladder.%目的 评价尿中脱落细胞的环氧化酶-2(Cox2)、ImmunoCyt和透明质酸酶(HAase)测定在膀胱癌早期诊断中的应用价值,寻找早期诊断膀胱癌的有效方法.方法 选择60例早期膀胱移行细胞癌和60例非膀胱肿瘤患者,对尿中脱落细胞的Cox-2、ImmunoCyt和透明质酸酶(HAase)进行检测,并行尿脱落细胞学检查.结果 尿中脱落细胞的Cox-2、ImmunoCyt、HAase和尿脱落细胞学的敏感度分别为60%、61.6%、66%、26.6%;准确度分别为76%、74%、80%和87%;特异度分别为92%、90%、94%和100%.Cox-2+ ImmunoCyt+ HAase联合检测与Cox-2、ImmunoCyt和HAase单独检测相比,敏感度和准确度都有所提高(P<0.05);尿中脱落细胞的Cox-2、hnmunoCyt和HAase联合检测的敏感性和准确性均高

  14. CO extrusion in homogeneous gold catalysis: reactivity of gold acyl species generated through water addition to gold vinylidenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Janina; Stößer, Tim; Rudolph, Matthias; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2015-01-26

    Herein, we describe a new gold-catalyzed decarbonylative indene synthesis. Synergistic σ,π-activation of diyne substrates leads to gold vinylidene intermediates, which upon addition of water are transformed into gold acyl species, a type of organogold compound hitherto only scarcely reported. The latter are shown to undergo extrusion of CO, an elementary step completely unknown for homogeneous gold catalysis. By tuning the electronic and steric properties of the starting diyne systems, this new reactivity could be exploited for the synthesis of indene derivatives in high yields.

  15. A comparative density functional theory study of guanine chemisorption on Al{sub 12}N{sub 12}, Al{sub 12}P{sub 12}, B{sub 12}N{sub 12}, and B{sub 12}P{sub 12} nano-cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokuhi Rad, Ali, E-mail: a.shokuhi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ayub, Khurshid [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, University Road, Tobe Camp, 22060 Abbottabad (Pakistan)

    2016-07-05

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed for adsorption of guanine (a nucleobase) on the surface of Al{sub 12}N{sub 12} (AlN), Al{sub 12}P{sub 12} (AlP), B{sub 12}N{sub 12} (BN), and B{sub 12}P{sub 12} (BP) nano-cages. The interaction of guanine with nano-cages is highly exothermic (chemisorption), and the adsorption energies are in order of AlN > AlP > BN > BP. Although AlN has the highest adsorption energy; however, BN and BP show more changes in electronic property upon adsorption of guanine. The results of charge analysis, density of states (DOSs), and frontier molecular orbital, confirm a distinguished orbital hybridization upon adsorption of guanine, which suggest potential application of BN as biochemical adsorbent for guanine. - Highlights: • The adsorption energies are in order of AlN > AlP > BN > BP upon adsorption of guanine. • BN and BP show more changes in electronic property upon adsorption of guanine. • Distinguished orbital hybridization upon adsorption of guanine. • The strongest interaction energy of guanine was obtained for AlN.

  16. Feasibilty of electroplated gold for hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessner, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    Electroplating was investigated as a method of providing thick gold films. Because electroplated gold has never been used for hybrid microcircuit (HMC) substrate metallization, this feasibility study was also designed to determine the characteristics of electroplated gold and its compatibility with present HMC fabrication processes. Ceramic substrates 95 by 114 mm (3.75 by 4.5 in.) were electroplated with 6, 10, and 25 ..mu..m of gold after 0.02 ..mu..m of chromium and 0.5 ..mu..m of gold had been either sputtered or vacuum evaporated onto the substrate surfaces. Substrates vacuum evaporated with 6 ..mu..m of gold were used as a control group. The substrates were evaluated for via resistance, RF electrical characteristics, conductor definition and resolution, solder wettability, thermocompression bondability, and environmental stability.

  17. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  18. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  19. The Gold Standard Since Alec Ford

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry

    1989-01-01

    This paper surveys studies of the operation of the classical gold standard published subsequent to the appearance of Alec Ford's The Gold Standard 1880-1914: Britain and Argentina in 1962. Contributions tend to fall under two headings: those which emphasize stock equilibrium in money markets (examples of the so-called "monetary approach") and those which emphasize instead stockflow interactions in bond markets. The paper then addresses the perennial question of how the gold standard worked. A...

  20. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  1. Expression and purification of the recombinant outer membrane protein Tp0453 of Treponema pallidum and its characterization of immuno-competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUANGQUANLIU; YIMOUWU; FEIJUNZHAO; TIEBINGZENG; WEIGUOYIN

    2005-01-01

    To clone and express the recombinant outer membrane protein Tp0453 of Treponema pallidum and to analyze the immuno-reactivity and immunogenicity of the expressed protein, the immuno-dominant epitope of the Tp0453 was amplified from the complete genome of T. pallidum by PCR, subcloned into expression vector pQE32 to generate the recombinant plasmid pQE32/Tp0453, then expressed in E. coli M15 and analyzed by SDS/PAGE and Western blotting. The fusion protein expressed was purified with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Its immuno-reactivity was assayed by indirect ELISA, and the immunogenicity was determined by immunization with this fusion protein in New Zealand rabbits. In the presentstudy, a fusion protein of molecular weight about 32 kDa was obtained. As demonstrated by Western blotting, the recombinant protein could react specifically with positive IgG sera of patients with syphilis, and the antibodies against T. pallidum in human sera were successfully detected by indirect ELISA. Both the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA based on the Tp0453 fusion protein as were 100% (30/30) when detected with control sera. In comparison with the results of IgG ELISA with those of TPPA. It was found that the sensitivity of ELISA was 96.8% and the specificity was 100%. The difference of ELISA and TPPA was not significant, and the concordance of results between ELISA and TPPA was 98.2 %. In addition, specific humoral responses could be elicited by immunization with the recombinant fusion protein in New Zealand rabbits with a specific antibody titer of 1:1280 after 3 successive doses of immunization.These results demonstrate that the expressed recombinant fusion protein shows excellent immuno-competence and provide foundation to develop a quick diagnostic kid applied to detect the presence of T. pallidum infections.

  2. Analysis of the effects of androgens and training on myostatin propeptide and follistatin concentrations in blood and skeletal muscle using highly sensitive Immuno PCR

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Myostatin propeptide (MYOPRO) and follistatin (FOLLI) are potent myostatin inhibitors. In this study we analysed effects of training and androgens on MYOPRO and FOLLI concentrations in blood and skeletal muscle using Immuno PCR. Young healthy males performed either a 3-month endurance-training or a strength-training. Blood and biopsy samples were analysed. Training did not significantly affect MYOPRO and FOLLI concentrations in serum and muscle. To investigate whether tota...

  3. Development of real-time immuno-PCR for the quantitative detection of mycobacterial PstS1 in tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suman; Raj, Ankush; Singh, Netrapal; Dahiya, Bhawna; Sheoran, Abhishek; Gupta, Krishna B; Mehta, Promod K

    2017-01-01

    A novel indirect real-time immuno-polymerase chain reaction (RT-I-PCR) assay, an evolution of I-PCR, was developed for the quantitative detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PstS1 (Rv0934) with a wide dynamic range of 10ng/mL to 1pg/mL in body fluids of tuberculosis (TB) patients, which may monitor the dynamics of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gold Photoluminescence: Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes and dimen......We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes...

  5. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    , is to handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  6. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...... nanoparticles can adsorb small inorganic molecules such as O2 and CO, and the presence of these sites is the key factor for the catalytic properties of supported gold nanoclusters. Other contributions, induced by the presence of the support, can provide parallel channels for the reaction and modulate the final...

  7. The Stabilizing Effects in Gold Carbene Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Dos Santos Comprido, Laura; Klein, Johannes E M N; Knizia, Gerald; Kästner, Johannes; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2015-08-24

    Bonding and stabilizing effects in gold carbene complexes are investigated by using Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) and the intrinsic bond orbital (IBO) approach. The π-stabilizing effects of organic substituents at the carbene carbon atom coordinated to the gold atom are evaluated for a series of recently isolated and characterized complexes, as well as intermediates of prototypical 1,6-enyne cyclization reactions. The results indicate that these effects are of particular importance for gold complexes especially because of the low π-backbonding contribution from the gold atom. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Phototherapy for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles exhibit very unique physiochemical and optical properties, which now are extensively studied in range of medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In particular, gold nanoparticles show promise in the advancement of cancer treatments. This review will provide insights into the four different cancer treatments such as photothermal therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided photodynamic therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy, and their use as drug carrier. We also discuss the mechanism of every method and the adverse effects and its limitations.

  9. Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Wu, Wei-Chi; Hsu, Jason; Weng, Shih-Ting; Lin, Tsai-Leng; Liu, Chun-Yi; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Huang, Ching-Tsan

    2008-04-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus is thought to possess and enhance a variety of human immune functions. An immuno-modulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) isolated from G. lucidum exhibited potent mitogenic effects upon human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). However, LZ-8-mediated signal transduction in the regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression within human T cells is largely unknown. Here we cloned the LZ-8 gene of G. lucidum, and expressed the recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) by means of a yeast Pichia pastoris protein expression system. We found that rLZ-8 induces IL-2 gene expression via the Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), via reactive oxygen species (ROS), and differential protein kinase-dependent pathways within human primary T cells and cultured Jurkat T cells. In essence, we have established the nature of the rLZ-8-mediated signal-transduction pathways, such as PTK/protein kinase C (PKC)/ROS, PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/ERK1/2, and PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/p38 pathways in the regulation of IL-2 gene expression within human T cells. Our current results of analyzing rLZ-8-mediated signal transduction in T cells might provide a potential application for rLZ-8 as a pharmacological immune-modulating agent.

  10. Quantification of (1→4-β-d-Galactans in Compression Wood Using an Immuno-Dot Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh R. Chavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compression wood is a type of reaction wood formed on the underside of softwood stems when they are tilted from the vertical and on the underside of branches. Its quantification is still a matter of some scientific debate. We developed a new technique that has the potential to do this based on the higher proportions of (1→4-β-d-galactans that occur in tracheid cell walls of compression wood. Wood was milled, partially delignified, and the non-cellulosic polysaccharides, including the (1→4-β-d-galactans, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide. After neutralizing, the solution was serially diluted, and the (1→4-β-d-galactans determined by an immuno-dot assay using the monoclonal antibody LM5, which specifically recognizes this polysaccharide. Spots were quantified using a dilution series of a commercially available (1→4-β-d-galactan from lupin seeds. Using this method, compression and opposite woods from radiata pine (Pinus radiata were easily distinguished based on the amounts of (1→4-β-d-galactans extracted. The non-cellulosic polysaccharides in the milled wood samples were also hydrolysed using 2 M trifluoroacetic acid followed by the separation and quantification of the released neutral monosaccharides by high performance anion exchange chromatography. This confirmed that the compression woods contained higher proportions of galactose-containing polysaccharides than the opposite woods.

  11. Structural Analysis and Immuno-Stimulating Activity of an Acidic Polysaccharide from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Zuo, Shu-Rong; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2017-04-10

    Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios of 1.0:4.9:2.5:0.5:1.0:0.9, was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Using methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, pectolyase treatment, NMR, and ESI-MS, the structure of DNP-W4 was elucidated. The obtained data indicated that DNP-W4 was a complex heteropolysaccharide and possessed a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-Glcp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp, and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp, with substitutes at O-4/6 of Glcp residues and O-3 of Galp. The branches of DNP-W4 were composed of terminal Manp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked β-d-Glcp, β-d-Glcp, β-d-Galp, (1→4)-linked α-d-GalAp, (1→2)-linked α-L-Rhap, and Xylp. DNP-W4 had little immunological activities, but its derivatives had immuno-stimulating activities to some extent.

  12. Insights into the renal pathogenesis in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: A renal histological characterization and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Sanjay; Javidan, Ashkan; Boivin, Felix; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Lukic, Dusan; Svajger, Bruno; Chu, Stephanie; Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Rosenblum, Norman D; Bridgewater, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a pleiotropic disorder caused by mutations in the SWI/SNF2-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like-1 (SMARCAL1) gene, with multiple clinical features, notably end-stage renal disease. Here we characterize the renal pathology in SIOD patients. Our analysis of SIOD patient renal biopsies demonstrates the tip and collapsing variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Additionally, electron microscopy revealed numerous glomerular abnormalities most notably in the podocyte and Bowman's capsule. To better understand the role of SMARCAL1 in the pathogenesis of FSGS, we defined SMARCAL1 expression in the developing and mature kidney. In the developing fetal kidney, SMARCAL1 is expressed in the ureteric epithelium, stroma, metanephric mesenchyme, and in all stages of the developing nephron, including the maturing glomerulus. In postnatal kidneys, SMARCAL1 expression is localized to epithelial tubules of the nephron, collecting ducts, and glomerulus (podocytes and endothelial cells). Interestingly, not all cells within the same lineage expressed SMARCAL1. In renal biopsies from SIOD patients, TUNEL analysis detected marked increases in DNA fragmentation. Our results highlight the cells that may contribute to the renal pathogenesis in SIOD. Further, we suggest that disruptions in genomic integrity during fetal kidney development contribute to the pathogenesis of FSGS in SIOD patients.

  13. Immuno-allergological properties of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) ceramics and nickel sulfate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Barnstorf, S; Summer, B; Willmann, G; Przybilla, B

    2003-03-01

    For more than 30 years aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) ceramics have been used for implants in maxillofacial and orthopaedic surgery. Up to now, there are no reports and also no investigations on hypersensitivity reactions. In order to evaluate the aspects of immuno-allergological reactivity to aluminium oxide ceramics, skin testing and in vitro lymphocyte activation studies were performed. The patch test reactivity to a standard series of contact allergens and to an aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) disk was examined in a consecutive series of 250 patients frequenting a University Dermatology Clinic. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 15 nickel-allergic and 15 non-allergic individuals were cultured with medium alone, with the pan T-cell mitogen phytohemagglutinine (PHA) or with nickel sulfate (NiSO(4)). By additional presence/absence of Al(2)O(3) disk its influence on the cytokine secretion pattern and proliferative response was investigated. The results show that in contrast to a high frequency of delayed-type hypersensitivity to standard contact allergens, no allergic skin reactions to Al(2)O(3) ceramics occured. The IL-4 and IFN-gamma production in vitro remained almost unchanged by the presence of Al(2)O(3) disk as well as the proliferative response of PBMC of non-allergic individuals. Cellular reactivity of nickel allergic and non-allergic donors was partly enhanced upon contact to Al(2)O(3) disks.

  14. Sulfite-Mediated Oxidation of Myeloperoxidase to a Free Radical: Immuno-Spin Trapping Detection in Human Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Rice, Annette B.; Lardinois, Olivier M.; Triquigneaux, Mathilde; Steinckwich, Natacha; Deterding, Leesa J.; Garantziotis, Stavros; Mason, Ronald P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies focused on catalyzed oxidation of (bi)sulfite, leading to the formation of reactive sulfur trioxide (•SO3−), peroxymonosulfate (−O3SOO•) and sulfate (SO4•−) anion radicals, which can damage target proteins and oxidize them to protein radicals. It is known that these very reactive sulfur- and oxygen-centered radicals can be formed by oxidation of (bi)sulfite by peroxidases. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme protein secreted from activated neutrophils that play a central role in host defense mechanisms, allergic reactions and asthma, is a likely candidate for initiating the respiratory damage caused by sulfur dioxide. The objective of the present study is to examine the oxidative damage caused by (bi)sulfite-derived free radicals in human neutrophils through formation of protein radicals. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study the protein oxidations driven by sulfite-derived radicals. We found that the presence of sulfite can cause MPO-catalyzed oxidation of MPO to a protein radical in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated human neutrophils. We trapped the MPO-derived radicals in situ using the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and detected them immunologically as nitrone adducts in cells. Our present study demonstrates that myeloperoxidase initiates (bi)sulfite oxidation leading to MPO radical damage possibly leading to (bi)sulfite-exacerbated allergic reactions. PMID:23376232

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 was involved in the immuno-modulatory defect of mesenchymal stem cell from chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xi-shan; SHI Wei; AN Guang-yu; ZHANG Hong-mei; SONG Yu-guang; LI You-bin

    2011-01-01

    Background Overwhelming evidences on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate that patients harbor quiescent CML stem cells that are responsible for blast crisis. While the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) origin of CML was first suggested over 30 years ago, recently CML-initiating cells beyond HSCs are also being investigated.Methods We have previously isolated fetal liver kinase-1-positive (Flk1+) cells carrying the BCR/ABL fusion gene from the bone marrow of Ph+ patients with hemangioblast property. In this study, we isolated CML patient-derived regulation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS),enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay, mixed lymphocyte reaction assays; then we compared these characters with those of the healthy donors.lymphocyte activation and proliferation was impaired in vitro.Conclusions CML patient-derived MSCs have impaired immuno-modulatory functions, suggesting that the dysregulation of hematopoiesis and immune response may originate from MSCs rather than hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). MSCs might be a potential target for developing efficacious treatment for CML.

  16. [Intracellular gold content of circulating blood cells using various gold compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlinger, J D; Beress, R; Hecker, U

    1984-01-01

    Evidence on the action mechanisms of gold salts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is still inconclusive. The intracellular localization of the place of action is likely. Therefore not only the serum gold levels but also the intracellular concentration of gold are of special interest. We measured the gold concentration in the serum and in the blood cells after in vitro application of aurothiomalate (Tauredon), gold keratinate (Auro-Detoxin) and triethylphosphine-gold (Ridaura) and in blood samples of patients undergoing these gold salts treatments. Cell-bound concentrations were found to vary extensively as a function of the gold compound used. While no or very little gold was present intracellularly after administration of the 2 parenteral drugs, up to 40% of the circulating gold was found to bind to the cells after administration of the triethylphosphine compound for gastro-intestinal absorption. The red cell concentration was more or less the same as that in the extracellular compartment. Gold apparently accumulated in the white cells, because the cell-bound concentration relative to unit volume was up to 20 times higher than the plasma level. The method used did not offer any information on the actual binding site of gold in white cells, i.e. cytoplasm versus nucleus versus cell membrane.

  17. Gold Fever! Seattle Outfits the Klondike Gold Rush. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Marc K.

    This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file, "Pioneer Square Historic District," and other sources about Seattle (Washington) and the Klondike Gold Rush. The lesson helps students understand how Seattle exemplified the prosperity of the Klondike Gold Rush after 1897 when news of a gold strike in…

  18. Comparison of the skin-prick test and Phadia ImmunoCAP as tools to diagnose house-dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Gi; Cho, Hyun-Jin; Park, Ga Young; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Chung, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seon Woo

    2010-01-01

    When the skin-prick test (SPT) and in vitro test such as ImmunoCAP assay are performed simultaneously, results do not always coincide in some patients. Our objectives, therefore, were (1) to assess differences in allergic test results according to age group and (2) to establish appropriate guidelines for diagnosing mite allergy according to age. A total of 692 participants complaining of allergic rhinitis symptoms participated. Patients were divided according to age; the mean age was 32 years (range, 8-76 years). The SPT and ImmunoCAP assays were performed to detect allergies to house-dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae). The association between age and the result of each allergy test were examined, and a cutoff age for proper application of each test was than estimated. Three hundred thirty-six patients (48.6%) were allergic to D. pteronyssinus and 350 patients (50.6%) were allergic to D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, SPT was proved to be more useful in detecting allergy for subjects 30 years old (p allergy tests according to age using true allergens. For patients >50 years of age, the ImmunoCAP was found to be the preferred method for detecting allergy to house-dust mites and for patients <30 years old, SPT is the recommended first choice.

  19. A comparison of the chicken and turkey proteomes and phosphoproteomes in the development of poultry-specific immuno-metabolism kinome peptide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Arsenault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of species-specific peptide arrays for the study of animal kinomes has a proven track record of success. This technique has been used in a variety of species for the study of host-pathogen interactions and metabolism. Species-specific peptide arrays have been designed previously for use with chicken, but a turkey array has never been attempted. In addition, arrays designed around individual cellular functions have been designed and utilized, but cross-function immuno-metabolic arrays have not been considered previously. Antecedent to designing separate chicken and turkey immuno-metabolic kinome peptide arrays, we show that while the chicken and turkey genomes are quite similar, the two species are much more distinct at the proteome and phosphoproteome levels. Despite a genome identity of approximately 90%, we observe that only 83% of chicken and turkey orthologous proteins display sequence matches between the two species. Further, less than 70% of kinase recognition target sequences are exact matches between chicken and turkey. Thus, our analysis shows that, at the proteome and kinome level, these two species must be considered separately in the design of novel peptide arrays. Our ultimate array design covers numerous immune and metabolic processes including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammatory responses, carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, and response to hormones. We have shown the proteomic and phosphoproteomic diversity of chicken and turkey and have designed a valuable research tool for the study of immuno-metabolism within these two species.

  20. Effect of perioperative immuno-enhanced enteral nutrition on inflammatory response, nutritional status, and outcomes in head and neck cancer patients undergoing major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felekis, Dimitrios; Eleftheriadou, Anna; Papadakos, Georgios; Bosinakou, Irini; Ferekidou, Eliza; Kandiloros, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Manolopoulos, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    Administration of immuno-enhanced nutritional support may decrease postoperative morbidity, mortality, and infectious complications in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to verify that perioperative enteral diet, enriched with the nutrients arginine, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and ω-3 fatty acids improves outcomes of head and neck cancer patients undergoing major surgery. Forty patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were studied. Group 1 received no preoperative nutritional support, whereas Group 2 received an oral formula with nutrients arginine, RNA, and ω-3 fatty acids. After surgery, Group 1 received a standard enteral formula, whereas Group 2 received an enriched enteral formula. Albumin (g/dl), prealbumin, fibrinogen, CRP, Il-6, and TNFa were measured 5 days before and 8 days after surgery. No statistically significant difference was observed for all the evaluated markers between postoperative and preoperative levels for both groups. The rate of complications was significantly reduced in the total number of patients receiving immunonutrition and in the particular subgroup of well-nourished patients receiving an immuno-enhanced diet. Perioperative enteral immuno-enhanced feeding in head and neck cancer patients undergoing major surgery may influence the postoperative outcomes by reducing the frequency rate of infections and wound complications.

  1. Immuno-proteomic analysis of human immune responses to experimental Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicle vaccines identifies potential cross-reactive antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeannette N; Weynants, Vincent; Poolman, Jan T; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron

    2014-03-05

    Human volunteers were vaccinated with experimental Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B vaccines based on strain H44/76 detoxified L3 lipooligosaccharide (LOS)-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMV) or the licensed Cuban vaccine, VA-MENGOC-BC. Some volunteers were able to elicit cross-bactericidal antibodies against heterologous L2-LOS strain (760676). An immuno-proteomic approach was used to identify potential targets of these cross-bactericidal antibodies using an L2-LOS derived OMV preparation. A total of nine immuno-reactive spots were detected in this proteome: individuals vaccinated with the detoxified OMVs showed an increase in post-vaccination serum reactivity with Spots 2-8, but not with Spots 1 and 9. Vaccination with VA-MENGOC-BC induced sera that showed increased reactivity with all of the protein spots. Vaccinees showed increases in serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against the heterologous L2-LOS expressing strain 760676, which correlated, in general, with immunoblot reactivity. The identities of proteins within the immuno-reactive spots were determined. These included not only well-studied antigens such as Rmp, Opa, PorB and FbpA (NMB0634), but also identified novel antigens such as exopolyphosphatase (NMB1467) and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (NMB1057) enzymes and a putative cell binding factor (NMB0345) protein. Investigating the biological properties of such novel antigens may provide candidates for the development of second generation meningococcal vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O;

    2011-01-01

    elucidate the corresponding mode shapes and find that the substrate plays an important role in determining the mode damping. This study demonstrates the need for a plasmonic nano-optics approach to understand the optical excitation and detection mechanisms for the vibrations of plasmonic nanostructures.......We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  3. Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Protein A/Deposited Gold Nanocrystals Modified Electrode for Carbofuran Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  4. Amperometric immunosensor based on a protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals modified electrode for carbofuran detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xiangyou

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu) was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA) and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA's oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  5. p-Isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine: a new bifunctional chelate for facile radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies with zirconium-89 for immuno-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Lars R.; Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Budde, Marianne [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visser, Gerard W.M. [VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E. [Macrocyclics Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    Immuno-PET is an emerging imaging tool for the selection of high potential antibodies (mAbs) for imaging and therapy. The positron emitter zirconium-89 ({sup 89}Zr) has attractive characteristics for immuno-PET with intact mAbs. Previously, we have described a multi-step procedure for stable coupling of {sup 89}Zr to mAbs via the bifunctional chelate (BFC) tetrafluorophenol-N-succinyldesferal (TFP-N-sucDf). To enable widespread use of {sup 89}Zr-immuno-PET, we now introduce the novel BFC p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine B (Df-Bz-NCS) and compare its performance in {sup 89}Zr-immuno-PET with the reference BFC TFP-N-sucDf. Three mAbs were premodified with Df-Bz-NCS and labeled with {sup 89}Zr at different pHs to assess the reaction kinetics and robustness of the radiolabeling. Stability of both {sup 89}Zr-Df-Bz-NCS- and {sup 89}Zr-N-sucDf-conjugates was evaluated in different buffers and human serum. Comparative biodistribution and PET studies in tumor-bearing mice were undertaken. The selected conjugation conditions resulted in a chelate:mAb substitution ratio of about 1.5:1. Under optimal radiolabeling conditions (pH between 6.8-7.2), the radiochemical yield was >85% after 60 min incubation at room temperature, resulting in radioimmunoconjugates with preserved integrity and immunoreactivity. The new radioimmunoconjugate was very stable in serum for up to 7 days at 37 C, with <5% {sup 89}Zr release, and was equally stable compared to the reference conjugate when stored in the appropriate buffer at 4 C. In biodistribution and imaging experiments, the novel and the reference radioimmunoconjugates showed high and similar accumulation in tumors in nude mice. The novel Df-Bz-NCS BFC allows efficient and easy preparation of optimally performing {sup 89}Zr-labeled mAbs, facilitating further exploration of {sup 89}Zr-immuno-PET as an imaging tool. (orig.)

  6. Sorption Recovery of Gold Thiosulphate Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.G.Kholmogorov; O.N.Kononova; 等

    2002-01-01

    The gold sorption from thiosulphate solutions on carbon sorbents and on anion exchangers was studied. It was shown that the anion exchangers AV-17-10P and AP-100 are the most effective and selective at pH=5-8. These anion exchangers can be recommended for the gold recovery from the industrial solutions.

  7. 2008: Golden Time in Gold Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo; Yan

    2008-01-01

      Pushed by increased demand from both jewelers and investors, China has become the drivin, g force behind the world's gold market in 2007. Chinas gold market this year has maintained its growing momentum with booming demand, not only in the domestic market but also in the international market.……

  8. 2008: Golden Time in Gold Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Pushed by increased demand from both jewelers and investors, China has become the drivin, g force behind the world's gold market in 2007. Chinas gold market this year has maintained its growing momentum with booming demand, not only in the domestic market but also in the international market.

  9. Gold-Collar Workers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The gold-collar worker has problem-solving abilities, creativity, talent, and intelligence; performs non-repetitive and complex work difficult to evaluate; and prefers self management. Gold-collar information technology workers learn continually from experience; recognize the synergy of teams; can demonstrate leadership; and are strategic thinkers…

  10. Galvanic Synthesis of Hollow Gold Nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    pulses in the NIR.2 The advantage of hollow nanoshells over solid gold (Au) or silver (Ag) nanoparticles , or alloys thereof,3 is that the...Karna SP. Synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and characterization of structural, optical, and electronic properties. Aberdeen Proving Ground...

  11. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods

  12. Nonlinear optical studies of single gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Meindert Alexander van

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are spherical clusters of gold atoms, with diameters typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. The applications of these particles are rather diverse, from optical labels for biological experiments to data carrier for optical data storage. The goal of my project was to develop new

  13. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...

  14. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods Dece

  15. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods Dece

  16. RF Sputtering of Gold Contacts On Niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable gold contacts are deposited on niobium by combination of RF sputtering and photolithography. Process results in structures having gold only where desired for electrical contact. Contacts are stable under repeated cycling from room temperature to 4.2 K and show room-temperature contact resistance as much as 40 percent below indium contacts made by thermalcompression bonding.

  17. Sesquicentennial: Gold Rush to Golden Statehood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, George

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of educational resources that can be used to support instructional units on the Gold Rush or the sesquicentennial of California's statehood. The materials include workbooks, videos, teacher's guides, monographs, and magazines. Offers a brief history of the Gold Rush and a set of relevant discussion questions.…

  18. Computational approaches to homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, Olalla Nieto; López, Carlos Silva

    2015-01-01

    Homogenous gold catalysis has been exploding for the last decade at an outstanding pace. The best described reactivity of Au(I) and Au(III) species is based on gold's properties as a soft Lewis acid, but new reactivity patterns have recently emerged which further expand the range of transformations achievable using gold catalysis, with examples of dual gold activation, hydrogenation reactions, or Au(I)/Au(III) catalytic cycles.In this scenario, to develop fully all these new possibilities, the use of computational tools to understand at an atomistic level of detail the complete role of gold as a catalyst is unavoidable. In this work we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the available benchmark works on methodological options to study homogenous gold catalysis in the hope that this effort can help guide the choice of method in future mechanistic studies involving gold complexes. This is relevant because a representative number of current mechanistic studies still use methods which have been reported as inappropriate and dangerously inaccurate for this chemistry.Together with this, we describe a number of recent mechanistic studies where computational chemistry has provided relevant insights into non-conventional reaction paths, unexpected selectivities or novel reactivity, which illustrate the complexity behind gold-mediated organic chemistry.

  19. The current preference for the immuno-analytical ELISA method for quantitation of steroid hormones (endocrine disruptor compounds) in wastewater in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickum, Thavrin; John, Wilson

    2015-07-01

    The availability of national test centers to offer a routine service for analysis and quantitation of some selected steroid hormones [natural estrogens (17-β-estradiol, E2; estrone, E1; estriol, E3), synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol, EE2), androgen (testosterone), and progestogen (progesterone)] in wastewater matrix was investigated; corresponding internationally used chemical- and immuno-analytical test methods were reviewed. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (immuno-analytical technique) was also assessed for its suitability as a routine test method to quantitate the levels of these hormones at a sewage/wastewater treatment plant (WTP) (Darvill, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa), over a 2-year period. The method performance and other relevant characteristics of the immuno-analytical ELISA method were compared to the conventional chemical-analytical methodology, like gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/LC-MS), and GC-LC/tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS), for quantitation of the steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental waters. The national immuno-analytical ELISA technique was found to be sensitive (LOQ 5 ng/L, LOD 0.2-5 ng/L), accurate (mean recovery 96%), precise (RSD 7-10%), and cost-effective for screening and quantitation of these steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental water matrix. A survey of the most current international literature indicates a fairly equal use of the LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS (chemical-analytical), and ELISA (immuno-analytical) test methods for screening and quantitation of the target steroid hormones in both water and wastewater matrix. Internationally, the observed sensitivity, based on LOQ (ng/L), for the steroid estrogens E1, E2, EE2, is, in decreasing order: LC-MSMS (0.08-9.54) > GC-MS (1) > ELISA (5) (chemical-analytical > immuno-analytical). At the national level, the routine, unoptimized chemical-analytical LC-MSMS method was found to lack the required sensitivity for meeting environmental

  20. Preparation of conductive gold nanowires in confined environment of gold-filled polymer nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschang, Fabian; Langner, Markus; Vieker, Henning; Beyer, André; Greiner, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Continuous conductive gold nanofibers are prepared via the "tubes by fiber templates" process. First, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with over 60 wt% gold are synthesized and characterized, including gel permeation chromatography coupled with a diode array detector. Subsequent electrospinning of these AuNP with template PLLA results in composite nanofibers featuring a high gold content of 57 wt%. Highly homogeneous gold nanowires are obtained after chemical vapor deposition of 345 nm of poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) onto the composite fibers followed by pyrolysis of the polymers at 1050 °C. The corresponding heat-induced transition from continuous gold-loaded polymer tubes to smooth gold nanofibers is studied by transmission electron microscopy and helium ion microscopy using both secondary electrons and Rutherford backscattered ions.

  1. Gold Liquid Crystals in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bardají

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the first gold liquid crystal was described in 1986, much effort has been done to prepare new compounds bearing this property. The review deals with the last results obtained in this new century. Gold(I has a strong affinity to give linear co-ordination and metal-metal interactions, which produce a rich supramolecular chemistry, and can promote the behavior as liquid crystal. Therefore, most liquid crystals are based on rod-like gold(I compounds, while gold(III liquid crystals are scarce. Calamitic and discotic mesogens have been reported, as well as chiral liquid crystals. Weak interactions such as H-bonds have also been used to obtain gold mesogens. Some of them exhibit additional properties, such as color, luminescence, and chirality. Luminescence has been reported, not only in the solid state or in solution, but also in the mesophase. This is relevant for applications in LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes, information storage, and sensors.

  2. Magnetically mediated vortexlike assembly of gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianfei; Dong, Jian; Sun, Dongke; Guo, Zhirui; Gu, Ning

    2012-04-24

    Gold nanoshells currently attract increasing research interests due to the important role in many subjects. For practical applications, random arrangement of the nanoparticles is often unfavored so that the assembly of gold nanoshells is becoming a central issue. We here proposed to utilize time-variant magnetic field to direct the assembly of gold nanoshells. It was discovered that the alternating magnetic field can mediate the vortex-like assembly of gold nanoshells. The mechanism was explored and thought to be relative with the electric field of induction which caused the thermal gradient on the substrate and the electric force. The vortexlike structure as well as the assembly mechanism will play an important role in research and application of gold nanomaterials.

  3. Tailored nanoporous gold for ultrahigh fluorescence enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, X Y; Guan, P F; Fujita, T; Chen, M W

    2011-03-07

    We report molecular fluorescence enhancement of free-standing nanoporous gold in which the nanoporosity can be arbitrarily tailored by the combination of dealloying and electroless gold plating. The nanoporous gold fabricated by this facile method possesses unique porous structures with large gold ligaments and very small pores, and exhibits significant improvements in surface enhanced fluorescence as well as structure rigidity. It demonstrates that the confluence effect of improved quantum yield and excitation of fluorophores is responsible for the large fluorescence enhancement due to the near-field enhancement of nanoporous gold, which arises from the strong electromagnetic coupling between neighboring ligaments and the weakening of plasmon damping of the large ligaments because of the small pore size and large ligament size, respectively.

  4. Ordering Gold Nanoparticles with DNA Origami Nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert; Santiago, Ibon; Ardavan, Arzhang; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2016-08-23

    Nanostructured materials, including plasmonic metamaterials made from gold and silver nanoparticles, provide access to new materials properties. The assembly of nanoparticles into extended arrays can be controlled through surface functionalization and the use of increasingly sophisticated linkers. We present a versatile way to control the bonding symmetry of gold nanoparticles by wrapping them in flower-shaped DNA origami structures. These "nanoflowers" assemble into two-dimensonal gold nanoparticle lattices with symmetries that can be controlled through auxiliary DNA linker strands. Nanoflower lattices are true composites: interactions between the gold nanoparticles are mediated entirely by DNA, and the DNA origami will fold into its designed form only in the presence of the gold nanoparticles.

  5. 84 Immuno-Safety of Recombinant Human C1 Inhibitor in Patients With Hereditary Angioedema: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Erik; Relan, Anurag; Kaufman, Leonard; Pijpstra, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Background Recombinant C1 inhibitor (rhC1INH) is a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of acute angioedema attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE). The amino acid sequence of rhC1INH is identical to that of endogenous C1INH. However, any recombinant protein may elicit antibodies against the protein and/or host related impurities (HRI). Clinical consequences of these antibodies can theoretically range from no clinical symptoms to allergic reactions and reduced C1INH activity due to neutralizing antibodies. Objective To analyze the immuno-safety of rhC1INH in symptomatic patients with HAE. Methods Plasma samples were collected pre-treatment and 22 and 90 days post-treatment of an acute angioedema attack. Plasma samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against plasma-derived C1INH and rhC1INH using 6 different, validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), to detect IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against plasma-derived C1INH or rhC1INH. Antibodies against HRI in plasma samples were measured in an ELISA testing for all antibody classes. Plasma samples from normal healthy controls and HAE patients, never exposed to rhC1INH, were used to estimate cut off levels of the assays. Plasma samples with antibody levels above the cut-off level in the screening assays were tested in confirmatory displacement assay in case of anti-HRI antibodies and in an assay for neutralizing antibodies in case of antibodies against C1INH. Results Data from 155 symptomatic HAE patients having received a total of 424 administrations of rhC1INH were analyzed. The frequency of anti-C1INH antibody levels above the assay cut-off was low and similar in pre- and post-exposure samples (1.7 and 1.8%, respectively). Results above the assay cut-off were sporadic and transient. Occurrence of anti-C1INH antibodies did not correlate with repeated treatment or time since last treatment. No neutralizing antibodies were detected. A total of 5/155 (3%) rhC1INH-treated patients

  6. Molecular Beam Optical Study of Gold Sulfide and Gold Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruohan; Yu, Yuanqin; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Gold-sulfur and gold-oxygen bonds are key components to numerous established and emerging technologies that have applications as far ranging as medical imaging, catalysis, electronics, and material science. A major theoretical challenge for describing this bonding is correctly accounting for the large relativistic and electron correlation effects. Such effects are best studied in diatomic, AuX, molecules. Recently, the observed AuS electronic state energy ordering was measured and compared to a simple molecular orbital diagram prediction. Here we more thoroughly investigate the nature of the electronic states of both AuS and AuO from the analysis of high-resolution (FWHM\\cong35MHz) optical Zeeman spectroscopy of the (0,0){B}2Σ--{X}2Π3/2 bands. The determined fine and hyperfine parameters for the {B}2Σ- state of AuO differ from those extracted from the analysis of a hot, Doppler-limited, spectrum. It is demonstrated that the nature of the {B}2Σ- states of AuO and AuS are radically different. The magnetic tuning of AuO and AuS indicates that the {B}2Σ- states are heavily contaminated. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.1265885. D. L. Kokkin, R. Zhang, T. C. Steimle, I. A. Wyse, B. W. Pearlman and T. D. Varberg, J. Phys. Chem. A., 119(48), 4412, 2015. L. C. O'Brien, B. A. Borchert, A. Farquhar, S. Shaji, J. J. O'Brien and R. W. Field, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 252(2), 136, 2008

  7. Imaging the L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1 with Zr-89 immunoPET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatayo F Ikotun

    Full Text Available The L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1, SLC7A5 is upregulated in a wide range of human cancers, positively correlated with the biological aggressiveness of tumors, and a promising target for both imaging and therapy. Radiolabeled amino acids such as O-(2-[(18F]fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (FET that are transport substrates for system L amino acid transporters including LAT1 have met limited success for oncologic imaging outside of the brain, and thus new strategies are needed for imaging LAT1 in systemic cancers. Here, we describe the development and biological evaluation of a novel zirconium-89 labeled antibody, [(89Zr]DFO-Ab2, targeting the extracellular domain of LAT1 in a preclinical model of colorectal cancer. This tracer demonstrated specificity for LAT1 in vitro and in vivo with excellent tumor imaging properties in mice with xenograft tumors. PET imaging studies showed high tumor uptake, with optimal tumor-to-non target contrast achieved at 7 days post administration. Biodistribution studies demonstrated tumor uptake of 10.5 ± 1.8 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g at 7 days with a tumor to muscle ratio of 13 to 1. In contrast, the peak tumor uptake of the radiolabeled amino acid [(18F]FET was 4.4 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 30 min after injection with a tumor to muscle ratio of 1.4 to 1. Blocking studies with unlabeled anti-LAT1 antibody demonstrated a 55% reduction of [(89Zr]DFO-Ab2 accumulation in the tumor at 7 days. These results are the first report of direct PET imaging of LAT1 and demonstrate the potential of immunoPET agents for imaging specific amino acid transporters.

  8. Investigating mathematical models of immuno-interactions with early-stage cancer under an agent-based modelling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in research regarding immuno-interactions with cancer were developed with the help of ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. These models, however, are not effectively capable of representing problems involving individual localisation, memory and emerging properties, which are common characteristics of cells and molecules of the immune system. Agent-based modelling and simulation is an alternative paradigm to ODE models that overcomes these limitations. In this paper we investigate the potential contribution of agent-based modelling and simulation when compared to ODE modelling and simulation. We seek answers to the following questions: Is it possible to obtain an equivalent agent-based model from the ODE formulation? Do the outcomes differ? Are there any benefits of using one method compared to the other? To answer these questions, we have considered three case studies using established mathematical models of immune interactions with early-stage cancer. These case studies were re-conceptualised under an agent-based perspective and the simulation results were then compared with those from the ODE models. Our results show that it is possible to obtain equivalent agent-based models (i.e. implementing the same mechanisms); the simulation output of both types of models however might differ depending on the attributes of the system to be modelled. In some cases, additional insight from using agent-based modelling was obtained. Overall, we can confirm that agent-based modelling is a useful addition to the tool set of immunologists, as it has extra features that allow for simulations with characteristics that are closer to the biological phenomena. PMID:23734575

  9. A systematic review of p16/Ki-67 immuno-testing for triage of low grade cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, A; Zechmeister-Koss, I

    2015-01-01

    Screening for cervical cancer precursors by Papanicolaou cytology is a public health success story; however, its low sensitivity entails unnecessary referrals to colposcopy of healthy women with equivocal (ASCUS) or mild dysplasia (LSIL) cytology. We assessed the accuracy of p16/Ki-67 immuno-testing for triage of low grade cervical cytology. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, CRD and Cochrane databases, and handsearched key references. Eligible studies included women with ASCUS or LSIL cervical cytology who had undergone p16/Ki-67 testing and subsequent verification by colposcopy-directed biopsies and histologic analysis. We extracted data on patient characteristics and test conduct, diagnostic accuracy measures and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. R software was used to perform a bivariate analysis of test performance data. Five eligible studies were identified. Four of the studies had high risk of bias. In the LSIL subgroup, the sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 testing ranged from 0.86 to 0.98, compared with 0.92-0.96 of high-risk HPV testing (hrHPV); specificity ranged from 0.43 to 0.68 versus 0.19 to 0.37, respectively. In the ASCUS subgroup, sensitivity ranged from 0.64 to 0.92 (p16/Ki67 test) versus 0.91 to 0.97 (hrHPV); specificity ranged from 0.53 to 0.81 versus 0.26 to 0.44, respectively. p16/Ki-67 testing cannot be recommended for triage women with ASCUS or LSIL cytology due to insufficient high-quality evidence. Further studies on test performance and the impact of p16/Ki-67-based triage on health outcomes are needed for a definitive evaluation of its clinical utility. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Anti-idiotypic VHH phage display-mediated immuno-PCR for ultrasensitive determination of mycotoxin zearalenone in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianxian; He, Qinghua; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Shu, Mei; Tu, Zhui; Li, Yanping; Wang, Wei; Cao, Dongmei

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay is frequently used to analyze mycotoxin contamination. However, the introduction of mycotoxins or their conjugates in conventional immunoassay threatens the safety of individuals and the environment. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) can be used as alternative compounds to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies, which work as non-toxic surrogate reagents in immunoassay. In this work, anti-zearalenone (ZEN) monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as the target for biopanning anti-idiotypic VHH from a naïve alpaca VHH phage display library. After four panning cycles, one anti-idiotypic VHH phage clone (Z1) was isolated and the Z1 based phage ELISA for ZEN showed a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.25±0.02ng/mL, a linear range of 0.11-0.55ng/mL, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08ng/mL. Furthermore, the phage particles of Z1 were also applied to immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PD-IPCR), which supplied both the detection antigens and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) templates. Compared with that of phage ELISA, the LOD of Z1 based PD-IPCR was 12-fold improved, with a detection limit of 6.5pg/mL and a linear range of 0.01-100ng/mL. The proposed method was then validated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results showed the reliability of PD-IPCR for the determination of ZEN in cereal samples. The use of anti-idiotypic VHH phage as non-toxic surrogate and signal-amplification function of PCR make it a promising method for actual ZEN analysis in cereals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Yu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies demonstrated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS, a form of bioactive β-glucan can stimulate the maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC. The question of how leukemic cells especially in monocytic lineage respond to GL-PS stimuli remains unclear. Results In this study, we used in vitro culture model with leukemic monocytic cell-lines THP-1 and U937 as monocytic effectors cells for proliferation responses and DCs induction. We treated the THP-1 and U937 cells with purified GL-PS (100 μg/mL or GL-PS with GM-CSF/IL-4. GL-PS alone induced proliferative response on both THP-1 and U937 cells but only THP-1 transformed into typical DC morphology when stimulated with GL-PS plus GM-CSF/IL-4. The transformed THP-1 DCs had significant increase expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86 though not as high as the extent of normal monocyte-derived DCs. They had similar antigen-uptake ability as the normal monocyte-derived DCs positive control. However, their potency in inducing allogeneic T cell proliferation was also less than that of normal monocyte-derived DCs. Conclusion Our findings suggested that GL-PS could induce selected monocytic leukemic cell differentiation into DCs with immuno-stimulatory function. The possible clinical impact of using this commonly used medicinal mushroom in patients with monocytic leukemia (AML-M4 and M5 deserved further investigation.

  12. Sub-micron particle behaviour and capture at an immuno-sensor surface in an ultrasonic standing wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Larisa A; Martin, Stacey P; Coakley, W Terence

    2005-12-15

    The capture of 200 nm biotinylated latex beads from suspensions of concentration 10(7) to 2.5 x 10(8) particle/ml on an immuno-coated surface of the acoustic reflector in an ultrasound standing wave (USW) resonator has been studied while the acoustic pathlength was less than one half wavelength (lambda/2). The particles were delivered to the reflector's surface by acoustically induced flow. The capture dependencies on suspension concentration, duration of experiments and acoustic pressure have been established at 1.09, 1.46 and 1.75 MHz. Five-fold capture increase has been obtained at 1.75 MHz in comparison to the control (no ultrasound) situation. The contrasting behaviours of 1, 0.5 and 0.2 mum fluorescent latex beads in a lambda/4 USW resonator at 1.46 MHz have been characterized. The particle movements were observed with an epi-fluorescent microscope and the velocities of the particles were measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiments showed that whereas the trajectories of 1 mum particles were mainly affected by the direct radiation force, 0.5 mum particles were influenced both by the radiation force and acoustic streaming. The 0.2 mum latex beads followed acoustic streaming in the chamber and were not detectably affected by the radiation force. The streaming-associated behaviour of the 200 nm particles has implications for enhanced immunocapture of viruses and macromolecules (both of which are also too small to experience significant acoustic radiation force).

  13. Simple Objective Detection of Human Lyme Disease Infection Using Immuno-PCR and a Single Recombinant Hybrid Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Micah D.; Molins, Claudia R.; Schriefer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi. PMID:24899074

  14. MWCNT-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based immuno-PCR for the early screening of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia-Ching, Liu [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Subramaniam, Sadhasivam [Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Sivasubramanian, Savitha [Department of Biotechnology, Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai (India); Feng-Huei, Lin, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Division of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most prevalent form of malignancy in southeast China and its development is meticulously related to EBV pathogenesis. The current screening techniques are unsatisfactory in terms of the sensitivity and hence most of the NPC patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Herein, we report the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) combined with iron oxide nanoparticles as a sensing surface for the early screening of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by immuno-PCR (iPCR). The MWCNT-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characterization techniques had confirmed the successful formation of MWCNT-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites. The MWCNT-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based iPCR was effectively tested for the quantification of anti-EBV antibodies in human serum and the limit of detection (LOD) was compared with ELISA. The limit of detection by iPCR was valid until 1:10,000,000 fold dilution of NPC{sup +ve} human serum, whereas ELISA can detect the anti-EBV antibodies in human serum up to 1:100,000 fold dilution. The MWCNT-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} offers an excellent surface area for the antigen-antibody binding and hence greater sensitivity was achieved. - Highlights: • MWCNT-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite offers more surface area and effortless separation • The iPCR offers an exceptional LOD, which is significantly higher than the other analytical techniques reported • LOD of anti-EBV abs by ELISA was significant only until 1:100000 fold dilution • The proposed iPCR design could be extremely useful for the population-based screening.

  15. The diagnostic significance of enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay for herpes simplex, varicella zoster and cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Hajib

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA in single serum samples to associate herpes simplex virus (HSV, varicella zoster virus (VZV or cytomegalovirus (CMV with viral retinitis as against polymerase chain reaction (PCR on intraocular specimens. It was also designed to study the seroprevalence in normal healthy individuals, and the genomic prevalence of HSV, VZV and CMV in patients without an active viral inflammatory process. Methods: PCR for the detection of HSV, VZV and CMV genomes was done on 33 and 90 intraocular fluids from viral retinal patients and non-viral controls respectively. ELISA was done on 30 and 100 serum samples from viral retinitis patients and normal healthy controls respectively. Results: PCR did not detect HSV, VZV and CMV genomes except one, in which VZV-DNA was detected. ELISA showed prevalence rates of 28%, 83% and 90% for antibodies against HSV, VZV and CMV respectively in the normal population. In the 30 viral retinitis patients, PCR detected HSV-DNA in 2 (6.7%, VZV-DNA in 7 (23.3% and CMV-DNA in 6 (20.0% patients, while ELISA detected antibodies against HSV, VZV and CMV in 13 (43.3%, 24 (80.0% and 23 (76.7% patients respectively. ELISA was of value in indirect diagnosis only in 6 (20.0% as compared to 15 (50.0% of 30 patients by PCR, this difference was statistically significant (McNemar test, P value = 0.005. Conclusion: Serology by ELISA is no longer a useful diagnostic tool to associate HSV, VZV and CMV viruses with viral retinitis.

  16. Clinical manifestation and humoral immuno-function of myasthenia gravis patients with abnormal and normal thymus gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuhua Peng; Yongqiang Dai; Wei Qiu; Xueqiang Hu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease which mainly affects neuromuscular junctions. The ages, modified Osserman classification and clinical manifestation and humoral immunol function of MG with and without thymic abnormality are different.OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical manifestation and humoral immuno-function of MG with abnormal and normal thymus gland.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 49 inpatients with MG were selected from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from March 2000 to August 2005. All the patients had typical clinical manifestation of MG and positive neostigmine test. All the patients knew and agreed the laboratory examinations. There were 22 males and 27 females of 2-69 years old. Chest MRI or CT scan were performed to reveal thymus gland abnormality. According to whether there was tumor in superior mediastinum, all patients were divided into 2 groups, abnormal and normal groups. Normal thymus gland group (n=30) contained 16 males and 14 famales of 6-43 years old. Abnormal thymus gland group (n=19) contained 6 male and 13 female of 2-69years old.METHODS: ① All patients were questioned about initial symptoms. Meanwhile, main clinical manifestations were recorded at hospital admission. ② 7180A automatic biochemical analyzer and automatic microplate reader were used in detecting seroimmunity index. The levels of C3, C4, IgG, IgA, IgM and CH50 in blood serum were analyzed by nephelometry. ③ Clinical classification is based on modified Osserman classification. The patients with MG were divided into six types: Ⅰ (Ocular myasthenia), Ⅱ a (Mild generalized myasthenia), Ⅱ b (Moderately severe generalized myasthenia), Ⅲ (Acute fulminating myasthenia), Ⅳ (Late severe myasthenia).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Differences of initial symptoms and clinical manifestation of two group patients.

  17. The 'price' of Olympic Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, K; Norton, K

    2000-06-01

    In 1981 the Commonwealth Government established the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). The Australian Sports Commission (ASC) which administers the AIS has 2 objectives: (1) excellence in sports performances; and (2) increased participation in sports and sports activities. State-based institutes of sport have also been established with the same or very similar objectives. Federal policy directs the bulk of the ASC budget to elite athlete programs. A smaller proportion goes towards community participation. The official reason is based on the notion of the 'trickle-down' or 'demonstration' effect. That is, a flow-on of benefits to the broader community in the form of increased participation as a direct result of elite sports success. The aims of this study were to determine the (1) spending pattern to elite sports programs for the 5 Olympics 1976/77 to 1995/96, (2) evidence for the two ASC objectives having been met, and (3) expected medal tally at the 2000 Olympic Games. Results show funding (in 1998 dollars), has accelerated from about $1.2 million (1976/77) to $106 million in (1997/98), particularly since the Games were awarded to Sydney. The total amount spent on elite athletes was $0.918 billion. In the period 1980-96 Australia won 25 gold and 115 total Olympic medals. This equates to approximately $37 million per gold and $8 million per medal in general. There was a significant linear relationship between money spent and total medals won. This was also found when all medal types were analysed independently. The predicted medal tally in 2000 (based on the cost per medal and the expenditure towards Sydney) indicates the medal count will be about 14+/-1 gold, 15+/-2 silver and 33+/-4 bronze. Based on our nation's record of international sporting achievement, there is little doubt we have fulfilled the ASC's first objective. Current data on physical activity patterns of Australians suggest the second objective has not been met. Focusing attention on and achieving

  18. Cancer theranostics with gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Wallace, Michael; Melancon, Marites P

    2014-09-01

    Gold nanoshells (AuNSs) present a vivid example of integrating nanoscience in order to solve a biomedical problem. AuNSs exhibit tunable surface plasmon resonance, which can be tuned to the near-infrared region in order to realize optimal tissue penetration. The highly efficient light-to-heat transformation by AuNSs during laser irradiation causes thermal damage to the tumor without damaging healthy organs. Transient nanobubbles can form around AuNSs during laser treatment and induce mechanical stress specifically in tumor cells. AuNSs also serve as a versatile platform for the delivery of various diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In this article, we describe the physicochemical properties of AuNSs in the context of their design, preparation and application in cancer theranostics. Ultimately, we look beyond the current research on AuNSs and discussed future challenges to their successful translation into clinical use.

  19. Gold-catalyzed naphthalene functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Rivilla

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexes IPrMCl (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene, M = Cu, 1a; M = Au, 1b, in the presence of one equiv of NaBAr'4 (Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl, catalyze the transfer of carbene groups: C(RCO2Et (R = H, Me from N2C(RCO2Et to afford products that depend on the nature of the metal center. The copper-based catalyst yields exclusively a cycloheptatriene derivative from the Buchner reaction, whereas the gold analog affords a mixture of products derived either from the formal insertion of the carbene unit into the aromatic C–H bond or from its addition to a double bond. In addition, no byproducts derived from carbene coupling were observed.

  20. Gold film resistor bolometric array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Fuxian [Academia Sinica, Hefei, AH (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    1997-03-01

    A new type of bolometric array diagnostic system has been developed for HT-6M tokamak and HT-7 superconductor tokamak plasma physics experimental research. This system is composed of temperature-sensitive detectors of gold film resistor and phase-sensitive rectifiers of the bridge excited by square waves. With this system, a radiation detection limit of 192.0 {mu}W cm{sup -2} at a spatial resolution of 2.0 cm and a temporal resolution of 1.0 mS. The system features a high temperature baking resistance, ultra high vacuum endurance, sufficient insensitivity to radiation damage, sufficient suppression of electromagnetic interference, good long-term stability, high radiation sensitivity and measurement data reliability. Absolute calibration of the detectors is performed simultaneously and in situ by means of a built-in electronic power pulse. (orig.) 9 refs.

  1. Origin of the transition voltage in gold-vacuum-gold atomic junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kunlin; Bai, Meilin; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2013-01-18

    The origin and the distance dependence of the transition voltage of gold-vacuum-gold junctions are investigated by employing first-principles quantum transport simulations. Our calculations show that atomic protrusions always exist on the electrode surface of gold-vacuum-gold junctions fabricated using the mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) method. The transition voltage of these gold-vacuum-gold junctions with atomically sharp electrodes is determined by the local density of states (LDOS) of the apex gold atom on the electrode surface rather than by the vacuum barrier shape. More specifically, the absolute value of the transition voltage roughly equals the rising edge of the LDOS peak contributed by the 6p atomic orbitals of the gold atoms protruding from the electrode surface, whose local Fermi level is shifted downwards when a bias voltage is applied. Since the LDOS of the apex gold atom depends strongly on the exact shape of the electrode, the transition voltage is sensitive to the variation of the atomic configuration of the junction. For asymmetric junctions, the transition voltage may also change significantly depending on the bias polarity. Considering that the occurrence of the transition voltage requires the electrode distance to be larger than a critical value, the interaction between the two electrodes is actually rather weak. Consequently, the LDOS of the apex gold atom is mainly determined by its local atomic configuration and the transition voltage only depends weakly on the electrode distance as observed in the MCBJ experiments.

  2. The giant Jiaodong gold province: The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the term orogenic gold deposit has been widely accepted for all gold-only lode-gold deposits, with the exception of Carlin-type deposits and rare intrusion-related gold systems, there has been continuing debate on their genesis. Early syngenetic models and hydrothermal models dominated by meteoric fluids are now clearly unacceptable. Magmatic-hydrothermal models fail to explain the genesis of orogenic gold deposits because of the lack of consistent spatially – associated granitic intrusions and inconsistent temporal relationships. The most plausible, and widely accepted, models involve metamorphic fluids, but the source of these fluids is hotly debated. Sources within deeper segments of the supracrustal successions hosting the deposits, the underlying continental crust, and subducted oceanic lithosphere and its overlying sediment wedge all have their proponents. The orogenic gold deposits of the giant Jiaodong gold province of China, in the delaminated North China Craton, contain ca. 120 Ma gold deposits in Precambrian crust that was metamorphosed over 2000 million years prior to gold mineralization. The only realistic source of fluid and gold is a subducted oceanic slab with its overlying sulfide-rich sedimentary package, or the associated mantle wedge. This could be viewed as an exception to a general metamorphic model where orogenic gold has been derived during greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism of supracrustal rocks: basaltic rocks in the Precambrian and sedimentary rocks in the Phanerozoic. Alternatively, if a holistic view is taken, Jiaodong can be considered the key orogenic gold province for a unified model in which gold is derived from late-orogenic metamorphic devolatilization of stalled subduction slabs and oceanic sediments throughout Earth history. The latter model satisfies all geological, geochronological, isotopic and geochemical constraints but the precise mechanisms of auriferous fluid release, like many

  3. The giant Jiaodong gold province:The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David I. Groves; M. Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Although the term orogenic gold deposit has been widely accepted for all gold-only lode-gold deposits, with the exception of Carlin-type deposits and rare intrusion-related gold systems, there has been continuing debate on their genesis. Early syngenetic models and hydrothermal models dominated by meteoric fluids are now clearly unacceptable. Magmatic-hydrothermal models fail to explain the genesis of orogenic gold deposits because of the lack of consistent spatially e associated granitic intrusions and inconsistent temporal relationships. The most plausible, and widely accepted, models involve meta-morphic fluids, but the source of these fluids is hotly debated. Sources within deeper segments of the supracrustal successions hosting the deposits, the underlying continental crust, and subducted oceanic lithosphere and its overlying sediment wedge all have their proponents. The orogenic gold deposits of the giant Jiaodong gold province of China, in the delaminated North China Craton, contain ca. 120 Ma gold deposits in Precambrian crust that was metamorphosed over 2000 million years prior to gold mineralization. The only realistic source of fluid and gold is a subducted oceanic slab with its overlying sulfide-rich sedimentary package, or the associated mantle wedge. This could be viewed as an exception to a general metamorphic model where orogenic gold has been derived during greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism of supracrustal rocks: basaltic rocks in the Precambrian and sedi-mentary rocks in the Phanerozoic. Alternatively, if a holistic view is taken, Jiaodong can be considered the key orogenic gold province for a unified model in which gold is derived from late-orogenic metamorphic devolatilization of stalled subduction slabs and oceanic sediments throughout Earth history. The latter model satisfies all geological, geochronological, isotopic and geochemical constraints but the precise mechanisms of auriferous fluid release, like many other subduction

  4. Magnetic Ordering in Gold Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrachev, Mikhail; Antonello, Sabrina; Dainese, Tiziano; Ruzzi, Marco; Zoleo, Alfonso; Aprà, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Sementa, Luca; Maran, Flavio

    2017-06-12

    Several research groups have observed magnetism in monolayer-protected gold-cluster samples, but the results were often contradictory and thus a clear understanding of this phenomenon is still missing. We used Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)180, which is a paramagnetic cluster that can be prepared with atomic precision and whose structure is known precisely. Previous magnetometry studies only detected paramagnetism. We used samples representing a range of crystallographic orders and studied their magnetic behaviors by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). As a film, Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)180 displays paramagnetic behavior but, at low temperature, ferromagnetic interactions are detectable. One or few single crystals undergo physical reorientation with the applied field and display ferromagnetism, as detected through hysteresis experiments. A large collection of microcrystals is magnetic even at room temperature and shows distinct paramagnetic, superparamagnetic, and ferromagnetic behaviors. Simulation of the EPR spectra shows that both spin-orbit coupling and crystal distortion are important to determine the observed magnetic behaviors. DFT calculations carried out on single cluster and periodic models predict values of spin6orbit coupling and crystal6splitting effects in agreement with the EPR derived quantities. Magnetism in gold nanoclusters is thus demonstrated to be the outcome of a very delicate balance of factors. To obtain reproducible results, the samples must be (i) controlled for composition and thus be monodispersed with atomic precision, (ii) of known charge state, and (iii) well defined also in terms of crystallinity and experimental conditions. This study highlights the efficacy of EPR spectroscopy to provide a molecular understanding of these phenomena

  5. Alkanetelluroxide-protected gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Silverton, Latoya C; Haasch, Richard; Tong, Yu Ye

    2008-07-15

    The synthesis and characterization of the first air-stable tellurium-containing ligand-protected gold nanoparticles (NPs) are reported. Although the synthesis largely followed the well-known Brust two-phase approach, the starting ligand was dioctyl ditelluride rather than alkanetellurol, which is an analogue of the widely used alkanethiol. Dioctyl ditelluride was used because alkanetellurol is unstable. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra, as well as infrared spectra (IR) of the formed Au NPs, indicated that the Te-Te bond in the starting ligand was broken but the octyl group was intact. This was further corroborated by the solid-state 125Te NMR spectrum that displayed a very broad and significantly downfield-shifted peak, indicating that tellurium was directly bound to the Au core. Furthermore, the O 1s and Te 3d XPS spectra of the Au NPs indicated that the capping ligands were octanetelluroxide. An average particle size of 2.7 nm diameter as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) corresponded to an Au607 core. A two-step weight loss of approximately 22.2% in total was observed in the thermogravimetric analysis, which indicated about 53% ligand monolayer coverage (i.e., Au607(Te(=O)C8H17)133). Additionally, dioctyl ditelluride demonstrated an intriguing reductive power that led to a more sophisticated chemistry of forming the air-stable octanetelluroxide-protected gold NPs. It has been found that (1) when the ratio of Au to Te was about 1.5 a colorless intermediate state similar to Au(I)-SR (the intermediate state widely accepted in the synthesis of thiolate-protected Au NPs) could be obtained and (2) this kind of intermediate state played a key role in the formation of stable Au NPs.

  6. NUCLEATION STUDIES OF GOLD ON CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SOBRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown in developing non-toxic electrolytes for gold electrodeposition to replace the conventional cyanide-based bath for long term sustainability of gold electroplating. A solution containing thiosulphate and sulphite has been developed specially for microelectronics applications. However, at the end of the electrodeposition process, the spent electrolyte can contain a significant amount of gold in solution. This study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of gold recovery from a spent thiosulphate-sulphite electrolyte. We have used flat-plate glassy carbon and graphite electrodes to study the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth of gold deposition from the spent electrolyte. It was found that at the early stages of reduction process, the deposition of gold on glassy carbon exhibits an instantaneous nucleation of non-overlapping particles. At longer times, the particles begin to overlap and the deposition follows a classic progressive nucleation phenomenon. On the other hand, deposition of gold on graphite does not follow the classical nucleation phenomena.

  7. Nature vs. nurture: gold perpetuates "stemness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P; Deb, Kaushik Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Adult tissues contain quiescent reservoirs of multipotent somatic stem cells and pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells (ELSCs). Credited with regenerative properties gold is used across both -contemporary and -ancient medicines. Here, we show that gold exerted these effects by enhancing the pool of pluripotent ELSC while improving their stemness. We used hESCs as an in-vitro model to understand if gold could enhance self-renewal and pluripotency. Swarna-bhasma (SB), an ancient Indian gold microparticulate (41.1 nm), preparation, reduced spontaneous-differentiation, improved self-renewal, pluripotency and proliferation of hESCs. Colloidal gold-nanoparticles (GNP) (15.59 nm) were tested to confirm that the observations were attributable to nanoparticulate-gold. SB and GNP exposure: maintained -stemness, -karyotypic stability, enhanced pluripotency till day-12, increased average colony-sizes, and reduced the number of autonomously-derived differentiated FGFR1 positive fibroblast-niche-cells/colony. Particulate-gold induced upregulation of FGFR1 and IGF2 expression, and decrease in IGF1 secretion indicates IGF1/2 mediated support for enhanced pluripotency and self-renewal in hESCs.

  8. Accumulation of Gold Nanoparticles in Brassic Juncea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, A.T.; Haverkamp, R.G.; Davies, C.E.; Parsons, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Agterveld, D.van

    2009-06-03

    Enzymatic digestion is proposed as a method for concentrating gold nanoparticles produced in plants. The mild conditions of digestion are used in order to avoid an increase in the gold particle size, which would occur with a high-temperature process, so that material suitable for catalysis may be produced. Gold nanoparticles of a 5-50-nm diameter, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), at concentrations 760 and 1120 ppm Au, were produced within Brassica juncea grown on soil with 22-48 mg Au kg{sup -1}. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveals that the plant contained approximately equal quantities of Au in the metallic (Au{sup 0}) and oxidized (Au{sup +1}) states. Enzymatic digestion dissolved 55-60 wt% of the plant matter. Due to the loss of the soluble gold fraction, no significant increase in the total concentration of gold in the samples was observed. However, it is likely that the concentration of the gold nanoparticles increased by a factor of two. To obtain a gold concentration suitable for catalytic reactions, around 95 wt% of the starting dry biomass would need to be solubilized or removed, which has not yet been achieved.

  9. Accumulation of gold nanoparticles in Brassic juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Aaron T; Haverkamp, Richard G; Davies, Clive E; Parsons, Jason G; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; van Agterveld, Dimitri

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic digestion is proposed as a method for concentrating gold nanoparticles produced in plants. The mild conditions of digestion are used in order to avoid an increase in the gold particle size, which would occur with a high-temperature process, so that material suitable for catalysis may be produced. Gold nanoparticles of a 5-50-nm diameter, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), at concentrations 760 and 1120 ppm Au, were produced within Brassica juncea grown on soil with 22-48 mg Au kg(-1). X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveals that the plant contained approximately equal quantities of Au in the metallic (Au0) and oxidized (Au+1) states. Enzymatic digestion dissolved 55-60 wt% of the plant matter. Due to the loss of the soluble gold fraction, no significant increase in the total concentration of gold in the samples was observed. However, it is likely that the concentration of the gold nanoparticles increased by a factor of two. To obtain a gold concentration suitable for catalytic reactions, around 95 wt% of the starting dry biomass would need to be solubilized or removed, which has not yet been achieved.

  10. Gold nanoparticles produced in a microalga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangpipat, Tiyaporn; Beattie, Isabel R.; Chisti, Yusuf; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2011-12-01

    An efficient biological route to production of gold nanoparticles which allows the nanoparticles to be easily recovered remains elusive. Live cells of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris were incubated with a solution of gold chloride and harvested by centrifugation. Nanoparticles inside intact cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and confirmed to be metallic gold by synchrotron based X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These intracellular gold nanoparticles were 40-60 nm in diameter. At a concentration of 1.4% Au in the alga, a better than 97% recovery of the gold from solution was achieved. A maximum of 4.2% Au in the alga was obtained. Exposure of C. vulgaris to solutions containing dissolved salts of palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium also resulted in the production of the corresponding nanoparticles within the cells. These were surmised to be also metallic, but were produced at a much lower intracellular concentration than achieved with gold. Iridium was apparently toxic to the alga. No nanoparticles were observed using platinum solutions. C. vulgaris provides a possible route to large scale production of gold nanoparticles.

  11. Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nanoconjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pellegrino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold-DNA conjugates were investigated in detail by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis study based on 1200 gels. A controlled number of single-stranded DNA of different length was attached specifically via thiol-Au bonds to phosphine-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles. Alternatively, the surface of the gold particles was saturated with single stranded DNA of different length either specifically via thiol-Au bonds or by nonspecific adsorption. From the experimentally determined electrophoretic mobilities, estimates for the effective diameters of the gold-DNA conjugates were derived by applying two different data treatment approaches. The first method is based on making a calibration curve for the relation between effective diameters and mobilities with gold nanoparticles of known diameter. The second method is based on Ferguson analysis which uses gold nanoparticles of known diameter as reference database. Our study shows that effective diameters derived from gel electrophoresis measurements are affected with a high error bar as the determined values strongly depend on the method of evaluation, though relative changes in size upon binding of molecules can be detected with high precision. Furthermore, in this study, the specific attachment of DNA via gold-thiol bonds to Au nanoparticles is compared to nonspecific adsorption of DNA. Also, the maximum number of DNA molecules that can be bound per particle was determined.

  12. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  13. The giant Kalgoorlie Gold Field revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Mary Vielreicher

    2016-05-01

    Direct timing constraints on gold mineralization indicate that Fimiston- and Mt Charlotte-style mineralization formed within a relative short period of time around 2.64 Ga, and, as such, support a model of progressive deformation of a rheologically heterogeneous rock package late in the structural history. Fluid characteristics, combined with the structural, metamorphic and absolute timing, support description of gold mineralization at the Golden Mile as orogenic and mesozonal, and this allows direct correlation with orogenic gold deposits worldwide, which classically formed during accretion along convergent margins throughout Earth history.

  14. Gold Photoluminescence Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Sebastian K H; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we develop a simple model that faithfully reproduces all features observed in our experiments showing also good quantitative agreement for the PL enhancement

  15. Gold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Surya Mulyadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to have a portfolio in investment to diversify the investment to different kinds of instruments. Based on previous research, it is concluded that gold is a good portfolio diversifier, a hedge against stock and safe haven in extreme stock market condition. As an investment instrument, stock is exposed to macroeconomic risks and global stock market risks. In this research, we conduct a comparison between the stock investment and gold investment by using the probit econometric model and data from 1997 to 2011. The final result obtained from the model shows that the gold investment is more advantageous than the stock investment.

  16. Resonance scattering spectroscopy of gold nanoparticle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gold nanoparticles in diameter of 10-95 nm have been prepared by Frens procedure, all of which exhibit a resonance scattering peak at 580 nm. The mechanism of resonance scattering for gold nanoparticle has been considered according to the wave motion theory of nanoparticle in liquid. The principle of superamolecular interface energy band(SIEB) has been set up and utilized to explain the relationship between the diameter and colors for gold nanoparticle in liquid. A novel spectrophotometric ruler for the determination of the diameter has been proposed according to the relationship of the maximum absorption wavelength and diameter.

  17. Mechanical characterization of a single gold nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming; Liu, Xiaojun; Chang, Feng-Cheng; Deka, Juti R

    2013-08-01

    Mechanical properties of gold nanowires were individually determined in this investigation using a multifunctional nanomanipulator inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Gold nanowires were synthesized by an electrochemical deposition technique. Three different characterization techniques including tensile, buckling and bending tests were adapted to quantitatively determine Young's modulus, yield stress and failure stress of the gold nanowires. The mechanical characterizations show that the nanowires were highly flexible in nature. The excellent resilience and the ability to store elastic energy in these nanowires confirm their potential applications in nano electromechanical devices.

  18. Designing hollow nano gold golf balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Preston B; Mo, Alexander H; Zhang, Chen; Emerson, Chris D; Printz, Adam D; Gomez, Alan F; DeLaTorre, Christopher J; Colburn, David A M; Anzenberg, Paula; Eliceiri, Matthew; O'Connell, Connor; Lal, Ratnesh

    2014-07-09

    Hollow/porous nanoparticles, including nanocarriers, nanoshells, and mesoporous materials have applications in catalysis, photonics, biosensing, and delivery of theranostic agents. Using a hierarchical template synthesis scheme, we have synthesized a nanocarrier mimicking a golf ball, consisting of (i) solid silica core with a pitted gold surface and (ii) a hollow/porous gold shell without silica. The template consisted of 100 nm polystyrene beads attached to a larger silica core. Selective gold plating of the core followed by removal of the polystyrene beads produced a golf ball-like nanostructure with 100 nm pits. Dissolution of the silica core produced a hollow/porous golf ball-like nanostructure.

  19. Gold in the past, today and future

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R; Anžel, M.; Marković, E.; M. Čolić; D. Stamenković

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with gold, which is described as a chemical element. Special attention is paid to its physical-chemical properties and, furthermore, where or in what form it can be found in nature. We discuss the role it has played through history and we inform how gold has been developed to the level it has reached today’s value. Still more, when gold is broken into nanoparticles, this form could be highly useful for a wide range of processes, including general nanotechnology, electronics m...

  20. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  1. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  2. Proteomic analysis of prolactinoma cells by immuno-laser capture microdissection combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Luping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary adenomas, the third most common intracranial tumor, comprise nearly 16.7% of intracranial neoplasm and 25%-44% of pituitary adenomas are prolactinomas. Prolactinoma represents a complex heterogeneous mixture of cells including prolactin (PRL, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other stromal cells, making it difficult to dissect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of prolactin cells in pituitary tumorigenesis through high-throughout-omics analysis. Our newly developed immuno-laser capture microdissection (LCM method would permit rapid and reliable procurement of prolactin cells from this heterogeneous tissue. Thus, prolactin cell specific molecular events involved in pituitary tumorigenesis and cell signaling can be approached by proteomic analysis. Results Proteins from immuno-LCM captured prolactin cells were digested; resulting peptides were separated by two dimensional-nanoscale liquid chromatography (2D-nanoLC/MS and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. All MS/MS spectrums were analyzed by SEQUEST against the human International Protein Index database and a specific prolactinoma proteome consisting of 2243 proteins was identified. This collection of identified proteins by far represents the largest and the most comprehensive database of proteome for prolactinoma. Category analysis of the proteome revealed a widely unbiased access to various proteins with diverse functional characteristics. Conclusions This manuscript described a more comprehensive proteomic profile of prolactinomas compared to other previous published reports. Thanks to the application of immuno-LCM combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography here permitted identification of more proteins and, to our best knowledge, generated the largest prolactinoma proteome. This enlarged proteome would contribute significantly to further understanding of prolactinoma tumorigenesis which is crucial to the management of

  3. Uptake and recovery of gold by immobilized persimmon tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, A; Sakaguchi, T

    1993-01-01

    Some attempts were made to recover gold from aqueous systems using immobilized persimmon tannin. This adsorbent adsorbed gold from solutions containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) with high efficiency, whereas there was minimal adsorption from solutions containing gold(I) sodium thiomalate and sodium dicyanoaurate(I). The adsorption of gold was rapid, and was affected by the pH of the solution, temperature, external gold concentration and amount of adsorbent. Adsorbed gold was easily desorbed with 1 mol dm-3 thiourea solution, indicating that immobilized persimmon tannin can be repeatedly re-used for the recovery of gold using adsorption-desorption cycles.

  4. Gold nanodumbbell-seeded growth of silver nanobars and nanobipyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin-Pei; Chen, Chih-Wei; Hsieh, Wei-Chi; Wang, Chao-Hsien; Hsu, Cheng-Yung; Lin, Jyun-Hao

    2014-03-01

    Gold nanodumbbells (NDs) are prepared by the reduction of gold ions in the presence of gold nanorods. Gold NDs are then employed for the synthesis of gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs). The quasi-ellipsoidal NPs could be found at room temperature, but Au@Ag bar and triangular bipyramid (TBP) NPs were obtained at 75 °C. Our results show that the long ends of gold NDs are in the position of the bar center and closely paralleled the shorter edge of TBP. Mechanisms in the growth of silver on gold NDs are proposed for the formations of these Au@Ag NPs.

  5. Source Strata of Gold in Western Guangdong—Their Identification and Significance in Gold Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建军; 吴劲薇; 等

    1995-01-01

    Strata of different geological periods extensively outcrop in western Guang-dong Province, but most gold deposits are restricted to the Middle-Late Proterozoic Yunkai Group and the Cambrian Bacun Group,showing obvious strata-boun character-istics .Gold abundance and trace element geochemistry of the Yunkai and Bacun Groups are compared with those of the Ordovician and Silurian strta.The Yunkai Group is considered to be the source strata for gold mineralization in the region.

  6. High-throughput immuno-profiling of mamba (Dendroaspis) venom toxin epitopes using high-density peptide microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a serious condition requiring medical attention and administration of antivenom. Current antivenoms are antibody preparations obtained from the plasma of animals immunised with whole venom(s) and contain antibodies against snake venom toxins, but also against other antigens....... In order to better understand the molecular interactions between antivenom antibodies and epitopes on snake venom toxins, a high-throughput immuno-profiling study on all manually curated toxins from Dendroaspis species and selected African Naja species was performed based on custom-made high...

  7. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. I. Immunochemical quantification of allergens by RAST-inhibition, Mab-ELISA, basophil histamine release, and counter current immuno electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Abrahamsen, L; Stahl Skov, P;

    1991-01-01

    The aim was to compare IgE and IgG4 RAST-inhibition assay (RI), monoclonal antibody ELISA (Mab-ELISA), counter current immuno electrophoresis (CCIE) and histamine release from basophil leukocytes (HR) for allergen quantification with special reference to aeroallergen detection. As components...... and Derm. pter. (10-10(2) SQ-U/ml), and 10(2)-10(3) SQ-U/ML for dog. Because of cross-reactivity, a minor degree of interference was observed in the IgE-RI and the HR test for the highest concentration of cat and dog allergens....

  8. {sup 124}I-L19-SIP for immuno-PET imaging of tumour vasculature and guidance of {sup 131}I-L19-SIP radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijink, Bernard M.; Perk, Lars R.; Budde, Marianne; Stigter-van Walsum, Marijke; Leemans, C.R. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visser, Gerard W.M.; Kloet, Reina W. [VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Berlin (Germany); Neri, Dario [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    The human monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment L19-SIP is directed against extra domain B (ED-B) of fibronectin, a marker of tumour angiogenesis. A clinical radioimmunotherapy (RIT) trial with {sup 131}I-L19-SIP was recently started. In the present study, after GMP production of {sup 124}I and efficient production of {sup 124}I-L19-SIP, we aimed to demonstrate the suitability of {sup 124}I-L19-SIP immuno-PET for imaging of angiogenesis at early-stage tumour development and as a scouting procedure prior to clinical {sup 131}I-L19-SIP RIT. {sup 124}I was produced in a GMP compliant way via {sup 124}Te(p,n){sup 124}I reaction and using a TERIMO trademark module for radioiodine separation. L19-SIP was radioiodinated by using a modified version of the IODO-GEN method. The biodistribution of coinjected {sup 124}I- and {sup 131}I-L19-SIP was compared in FaDu xenograft-bearing nude mice, while {sup 124}I PET images were obtained from mice with tumours of <50 to {proportional_to}700 mm{sup 3}. {sup 124}I was produced highly pure with an average yield of 15.4 {+-} 0.5 MBq/{mu}Ah, while separation yield was {proportional_to}90% efficient with <0.5% loss of TeO{sub 2}. Overall labelling efficiency, radiochemical purity and immunoreactive fraction were for {sup 124}I-L19-SIP: {proportional_to}80, 99.9 and >90%, respectively. Tumour uptake was 7.3{+-}2.1, 10.8{+-}1.5, 7.8{+-}1.4, 5.3{+-}0.6 and 3.1{+-}0.4%ID/g at 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h p.i., resulting in increased tumour to blood ratios ranging from 6.0 at 24 h to 45.9 at 72 h p.i. Fully concordant labelling and biodistribution results were obtained with {sup 124}I- and {sup 131}I-L19-SIP. Immuno-PET with {sup 124}I-L19-SIP using a high-resolution research tomograph PET scanner revealed clear delineation of the tumours as small as 50 mm{sup 3} and no adverse uptake in other organs. {sup 124}I-MAb conjugates for clinical immuno-PET can be efficiently produced. Immuno-PET with {sup 124}I-L19-SIP appeared qualified for sensitive

  9. ImmunoPET of tissue factor expression in triple-negative breast cancer with a radiolabeled antibody Fab fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Sixiang [University of Wisconsin, Materials Science Program, Madison, WI (United States); Hong, Hao; Orbay, Hakan; Yang, Yunan; Ohman, Jakob D. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Graves, Stephen A.; Nickles, Robert J. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Bai; Wong, Hing C. [Altor BioScience, Miramar, FL (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin, Materials Science Program, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    To date, there is no effective therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has a dismal clinical outcome. Upregulation of tissue factor (TF) expression leads to increased patient morbidity and mortality in many solid tumor types, including TNBC. Our goal was to employ the Fab fragment of ALT-836, a chimeric anti-human TF mAb, for PET imaging of TNBC, which can be used to guide future TNBC therapy. ALT-836-Fab was generated by enzymatic papain digestion. SDS-PAGE and FACS studies were performed to evaluate the integrity and TF binding affinity of ALT-836-Fab before NOTA conjugation and {sup 64}Cu-labeling. Serial PET imaging and biodistribution studies were carried out to evaluate the tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in the MDA-MB-231 TNBC model, which expresses high levels of TF on the tumor cells. Blocking studies, histological assessment, as well as RT-PCR were performed to confirm TF specificity of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab. ALT-836-Fab was produced with high purity, which exhibited superb TF binding affinity and specificity. Serial PET imaging revealed rapid and persistent tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab (5.1 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection; n = 4) and high tumor/muscle ratio (7.0 ± 1.2 at 24 h post-injection; n = 4), several-fold higher than that of the blocking group and tumor models that do not express significant level of TF, which was confirmed by biodistribution studies. TF specificity of the tracer was also validated by histology and RT-PCR. {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab exhibited prominent tissue factor targeting efficiency in MDA-MB-231 TNBC model. The use of a Fab fragment led to fast tumor uptake and good tissue/muscle ratio, which may be translated into same-day immunoPET imaging in the clinical setting to improve TNBC patient management. (orig.)

  10. ImmunoPET for assessing the differential uptake of a CD146-specific monoclonal antibody in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haiyan; Kamkaew, Anyanee; Jiang, Dawei; Yang, Yunan [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); England, Christopher G.; Hernandez, Reinier; Graves, Stephen A.; Barnhart, Todd E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Majewski, Rebecca L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Overexpression of CD146 in solid tumors has been linked to disease progression, invasion, and metastasis. We describe the generation of a {sup 64}Cu-labeled CD146-specific antibody and its use for quantitative immunoPET imaging of CD146 expression in six lung cancer models. The anti-CD146 antibody (YY146) was conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu. CD146 expression was evaluated in six human lung cancer cell lines (A549, NCI-H358, NCI-H522, HCC4006, H23, and NCI-H460) by flow cytometry and quantitative western blot studies. The biodistribution and tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-YY146 was assessed by sequential PET imaging in athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous lung cancer xenografts. The correlation between CD146 expression and tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-YY146 was evaluated by graphical software while ex vivo biodistribution and immunohistochemistry studies were performed to validate the accuracy of PET data and spatial expression of CD146. Flow cytometry and western blot studies showed similar findings with H460 and H23 cells showing high levels of expression of CD146. Small differences in CD146 expression levels were found among A549, H4006, H522, and H358 cells. Tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-YY146 was highest in CD146-expressing H460 and H23 tumors, peaking at 20.1 ± 2.86 and 11.6 ± 2.34 %ID/g at 48 h after injection (n = 4). Tumor uptake was lowest in the H522 model (4.1 ± 0.98 %ID/g at 48 h after injection; n = 4), while H4006, A549 and H358 exhibited similar uptake of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-YY146. A positive correlation was found between tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-YY146 (%ID/g) and relative CD146 expression (r {sup 2} = 0.98, p < 0.01). Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed the accuracy of the PET data. The strong correlation between tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-YY146 and CD146 expression demonstrates the potential use of this radiotracer for imaging tumors that elicit varying levels of CD146

  11. Immuno-therapy with anti-CTLA4 antibodies in tolerized and non-tolerized mouse tumor models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Persson

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA4 are a novel form of cancer immunotherapy. While preclinical studies in mouse tumor models have shown anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CTLA4 injection or expression, anti-CTLA4 treatment in patients with advanced cancers had disappointing therapeutic benefit. These discrepancies have to be addressed in more adequate pre-clinical models. We employed two tumor models. The first model is based on C57Bl/6 mice and syngeneic TC-1 tumors expressing HPV16 E6/E7. In this model, the HPV antigens are neo-antigens, against which no central tolerance exists. The second model involves mice transgenic for the proto-oncogen neu and syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC cells. In this model tolerance to Neu involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. Anti-CTLA4 delivery as a protein or expression from gene-modified tumor cells were therapeutically efficacious in the non-tolerized TC-1 tumor model, but had no effect in the MMC-model. We also used the two tumor models to test an immuno-gene therapy approach for anti-CTLA4. Recently, we used an approach based on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC to deliver the relaxin gene to tumors and showed that this approach facilitates pre-existing anti-tumor T-cells to control tumor growth in the MMC tumor model. However, unexpectedly, when used for anti-CTLA4 gene delivery in this study, the HSC-based approach was therapeutically detrimental in both the TC-1 and MMC models. Anti-CTLA4 expression in these models resulted in an increase in the number of intratumoral CD1d+ NKT cells and in the expression of TGF-β1. At the same time, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which potentially can support anti-tumor T-cell responses, were lower in tumors of mice that received anti-CTLA4-HSC therapy. The differences in outcomes between the tolerized and non-tolerized models also provide a potential explanation for the low efficacy

  12. Gold revolution--gold nanoparticles for modern medicine and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Radoslaw A; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2011-05-01

    Nanotechnology is a new and exciting branch of science which offers enormous potential for development of medicine and surgery. Gold nanoparticles (GNP) is just one of a variety of nano products which will be available for physician of the future. GNP will give us more effective treatments and diagnosis. We are able to conjugate GNP with peptides, drugs, and other molecules to gain astonishing effects. High quality, non-invasive imaging will inevitably lead to astonishing accuracy diagnostic tools with effective use during surgery. The same principles may be used in the future for drug delivery and thermal treatment of cancer. Detailed DNA detection and regulation may become everyday use technology, in medicine with support from GNP based tools. Bacterial diagnostics and nerve repair are relatively poorly researched areas of application of GNP with possibly astonishing therapeutic effects. Non-invasive clearance of arteriosclerotic plagues with GNP shows a great prospect for further development of minimally invasive surgery. However, before all of those tools will become available for clinicians, in depth toxicology research as well as transitional research and design have to be done to ensure safe clinical practice with maximal benefit for patients.

  13. Structural controls on Carlin-type gold mineralization in the gold bar district, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, O.; Nelson, E.P.; Hitzman, M.W.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Gold Bar district in the southern Roberts Mountains, 48 km northwest of Eureka, Nevada, contains one main deposit (Gold Bar), five satellite deposits, and other resources. Approximately 0.5 Moz of gold have been recovered from a resource of 1,639,000 oz of gold in Carlin-type gold deposits in lower plate, miogeoclinal carbonate rocks below the Roberts Mountains thrust. Host rocks are unit 2 of the Upper Member of the Devonian Denay Formation and the Bartine Member of the McColley Canyon Formation. Spatial and temporal relations between structures and gold mineralization indicate that both pre-Tertiary and Tertiary structures were important controls on gold mineralization. Gold mineralization occurs primarily along high-angle Tertiary normal faults, some of which are reactivated reverse faults of Paleozoic or Mesozoic age. Most deposits are localized at the intersection of northwest- and northeast-striking faults. Alteration includes decalcification, and to a lesser extent, silicification along high-angle faults. Jasperoid (pervasive silicification), which formed along most faults and in some strata-bound zones, accounts for a small portion of the ore in every deposit. In the Gold Canyon deposit, a high-grade jasperoid pipe formed along a Tertiary normal fault which was localized along a zone of overturned fault-propagation folds and thrust faults of Paleozoic or Mesozoic age.

  14. Direct formation of gold nanorods on surfaces using polymer-immobilised gold seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Abyaneh, Majid K; Pietro Parisse; Loredana Casalis

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present the formation of gold nanorods (GNRs) on novel gold–poly(methyl methacrylate) (Au–PMMA) nanocomposite substrates with unprecedented growth control through the polymer molecular weight (Mw) and gold-salt-to-polymer weight ratio. For the first time, GNRs have been produced by seed-mediated direct growth on surfaces that were pre-coated with polymer-immobilised gold seeds. A Au–PMMA nanocomposite formed by UV photoreduction has been used as the gold seed. The influence of poly...

  15. Epithermal Gold Mineralization in Chinese Tianshan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Tianshan is a part of the complex system of orogenic belts of Phanerozoic in Central Asia. In the northwestern Chinese Tianshan, Borohoro range, the major metallogenic belt in this area is situated between the Yili block and Keguqinshan-Sairim uplift. The intra-arc basins resulting from southward subduction of the Junggar plate and accompanying volcanism are the essential factors for the formation of the hydrothermal system that caused gold mineralization. The adularia-sericite-style epithermal Arxi gold deposit formed in an extensional tectonic setting. In the eastern Tianshan, post-orogenic magmatism resulted in a hydrothermai system that produced the epithermai Xitan gold deposit. Both gold deposits are related to local extensional setting, although differences exist in their timing and location.

  16. Adsorption-induced restructuring of gold nanochains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet;

    2002-01-01

    The chemical properties of single-atomic chains of gold atoms are investigated using density functional calculations. The nanochains are shown to be unusually chemically active with strong chemisorption of oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. The chemisorption energies vary significantly...

  17. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Polyelectrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ping SUN; Zhe Ling ZHANG; Bai Lin ZHANG; Xian Dui DONG; Shao Jun DONG; Er Kang WANG

    2003-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized through the reduction of tetrachlorauric acid (HAuCl4) by NaBH4, with polyethyleneimine(PEI) as stabilizer. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy(AFM).

  18. Gold in the past, today and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with gold, which is described as a chemical element. Special attention is paid to its physical-chemical properties and, furthermore, where or in what form it can be found in nature. We discuss the role it has played through history and we inform how gold has been developed to the level it has reached today’s value. Still more, when gold is broken into nanoparticles, this form could be highly useful for a wide range of processes, including general nanotechnology, electronics manufacturing and the synthesizing of different functional materials. It is important that we know that gold is also used in industry in many engineering applications (contacts in micro-electronics and medicine (dental alloys, implants.

  19. Stabilizer-free nanosized gold sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreescu, Daniel; Sau, Tapan Kumar; Goia, Dan V

    2006-06-15

    The paper describes a convenient, rapid, and reproducible method for the synthesis of stable dispersions of uniform gold nanoparticles at ambient temperatures by mixing aqueous solutions of tetrachloroauric acid and iso-ascorbic acid. The influence of the experimental conditions on the size of the gold particles and the stability of the final sols was monitored by dynamic light scattering and UV-vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the size of the resulting nanoparticles is affected by the concentration and the pH of gold solution, while the stability of the electrostatically stabilized final sols is strongly dependent on the excess of reductant in the system, the ionic strength, and the temperature of the precipitation. Since the preparation process does not require the addition of a dispersing agent, the surface of the resulting gold nanoparticles can be easily functionalized to make them suitable for applications in medicine, biology, and catalysis.

  20. Willingness to Open Islamic Gold Investment Accounts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanudin Amin

    2016-01-01

    .... This study extends the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to Islamic gold investment accounts and includes three additional factors namely perceived financial benefit, consumer religiosity and consumer information...

  1. Alaska gold rush trails study: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary study draft, with maps, of seven gold rush trails in Alaska, to determine suitability for inclusion in the National Scenic Trails system and their...

  2. Deep gold mine fracture zone behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the behaviour of the fracture zone surrounding deep level gold mine stopes is detailed in three main sections of this report. Section 2 outlines the ongoing study of fundamental fracture process and their numerical...

  3. Is Farmland As Good As Gold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin J. Painter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Canadian farmland risk and its return on investment shows that a Farmland Real Estate Investment Trust (F-REIT and gold would have significantly enhanced portfolio performance over the past 35 years. Investors who desire low-risk portfolios would not have benefited from an F-REIT or gold investment. However, investors in the medium-risk category could have improved the financial performance of their portfolios by including an F-REIT investment rather than gold. The financial gains from F-REIT result from a level of risk that is lower than gold, REITs, and stocks, an expected yield that is greater than for bonds, and a low correlation with other financial asset returns.

  4. Interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with gold: toxicity and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamushka, V I; Gadd, G M

    1999-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of ionic gold on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as determined by long-term (growth in gold-containing media) and short-term interactions (H+ efflux activity). An increasing gold concentration inhibited growth and at gold concentration used. Both Ca and Mg enhanced the inhibitory effect of gold on the yeast cells with Ca showing a stronger inhibitory effect than Mg.

  5. The Modern Monetary System and Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Rubtsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the nature of modern money, analyzes the mechanism of its creation, showing that it is basically generated by credit and the principle of partial bank reserve. The article draws comparative parallels between trade money based on gold and contemporary, credit money; the author quotes leading bankers and finance experts on the need for partial return to the principles of functioning of the gold standard as the most effective institute of regulating the monetary system in society.

  6. Silver and gold-catalyzed multicomponent reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Abbiati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver and gold salts and complexes mainly act as soft and carbophilic Lewis acids even if their use as σ-activators has been rarely reported. Recently, transformations involving Au(I/Au(III-redox catalytic systems have been reported in the literature. In this review we highlight all these aspects of silver and gold-mediated processes and their application in multicomponent reactions.

  7. PIXE analysis of Trojan gold jewelry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C. P.; Betancourt, P. P.; Fleming, S.; Floyd, C. R.

    1997-07-01

    Technological advancements in the production of gold jewelry from the Troad in northwest Anatolia in the third millennium BC are investigated by PIXE. Results indicate a higher percentage of Cu at the interface between joined pieces of gold than exists elsewhere on the jewelry, away from joinings. The results indicate the probable use of copper salts as a flux in the manufacture of jewelry with granulation.

  8. Nonlinear photoluminescence spectrum of single gold nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Vanessa; Fischer, Marco P; de Roo, Tjaard; Mecking, Stefan; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Brida, Daniele

    2015-01-27

    We investigate the multiphoton photoluminescence characteristics of gold nanoantennas fabricated from single crystals and polycrystalline films. By exciting these nanostructures with ultrashort pulses tunable in the near-infrared range, we observe distinct features in the broadband photoluminescence spectrum. By comparing antennas of different crystallinity and shape, we demonstrate that the nanoscopic geometry of plasmonic devices determines the shape of the emission spectra. Our findings rule out the contribution of the gold band structure in shaping the photoluminescence.

  9. Radiochemical separation of gold by amalgam exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, R.R.

    1970-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the radiochemical separation of gold after neutron activation. The technique is based on treatment with a dilute indium-gold amalgam, both chemical reduction and isotopic exchange being involved. The counting efficiency for 198Au in small volumes of the amalgam is good. Few interferences occur and the method is applicable to clays, rocks, salts and metals. The possibility of determining silver, platinum and palladium by a similar method is mentioned. ?? 1970.

  10. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-09

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm.

  11. Analysis on the Impact of the Fluctuation of the International Gold Prices on the Chinese Gold Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share and Comex gold futures are chosen to form the sample, for the purpose of analysing the impact of the fluctuation of the international gold prices on the gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share. Using the methods of unit root test, Granger causality test, VAR model, and impulse response function, this paper has analysed the relationship between the price change of the international gold futures and the price fluctuation of gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen comprehensively. The results suggest the fluctuation of the international gold futures has a strong influence on the domestic futures.

  12. Functionalization of gold nanoparticles as antidiabetic nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, M; Govindaraju, K; Mohamed Sadiq, A; Tamilselvan, S; Ganesh Kumar, V; Singaravelu, G

    2013-12-01

    In the present investigation, functionalization of gold nanoparticles synthesized using propanoic acid 2-(3-acetoxy-4,4,14-trimethylandrost-8-en-17-yl) (PAT) an active biocomponent isolated from Cassia auriculata is studied in detail. On reaction of PAT with aqueous HAuCl4, rapid formation of stable gold nanoparticles was achieved. Formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, GC-MS,FTIR, TEM and SEM with EDAX. Gold nanoparticles mostly were monodisperse, spherical in shape and ranged in size 12-41 nm. Gold nanoparticles synthesised using PAT was administered to alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic male albino rats at different doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Plasma glucose level, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly (pgold nanoparticles at dosage of 0.5mg/kg body weight and plasma insulin increased significantly. The newly genre green gold nanoparticles exhibit remarkable protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity.

  13. Gold mobility during Palaeoarchaean submarine alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Axel; Pitcairn, Iain; Wilson, Allan

    2017-03-01

    Seafloor alteration provides large amounts of solutes to the hydrosphere. In order to investigate gold mobility during water-rock interaction prior to 3-billion-years ago, low detection limit analysis of Au concentrations was carried out on rocks from marine alteration zones. Stratiform zones recording low-temperature (≤150 °C) seafloor alteration are a characteristic feature of greenstone belts older than 3.0 Ga. Hydrothermal processes were operating on, and immediately below, the seafloor, giving rise to extensive silicification of sub-seafloor volcanic rocks and silicification of seafloor sediments. In order to investigate gold mobility during silicification, unaltered and variably silicified volcanic rocks and associated cherts from Palaeoarchaean greenstone successions (c. 3.4 Ga) of South Africa were analyzed. Results show mobility of gold during silicification of mafic/ultramafic rocks and transfer to the Archaean ocean. Some gold was incorporated into carbonaceous marine sediments overlying the alteration zones. A combination of pervasive silicification, rarity of black shales, and low gold content in komatiites can explain the low mineralization potential of Palaeoarchaean greenstone belts for orogenic gold deposits.

  14. The gold rush 1925-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keers, R Y

    1980-12-01

    Although from the time of Koch onwards there had been desultory experiments with a variety of gold preparations in the management of pulmonary tuberculosis, gold as a recognised and accepted treatment did not emerge until 1925. In that year Holger Mollgaard of Copenhagen introduced sanocrysin, a double thiosulphate of gold and sodium, with which he had conducted an extensive series of animal experiments. The results of these were considered to justify its use in clinical practice and two physicians, Secher and Faber, undeterred by its toxicity, reported enthusiastically in its favour. Other Danish physicians followed but, alarmed by violent reactions, modified the dosage, an example followed by British workers. Encouraging results continued to be reported although each series contained a significant proportion of failures, and toxicity remained high. The first properly planned and fully controlled clinical trial took place in the United States and produced a report which was wholly adverse and which sounded the death knell of gold therapy throughout America. Until 1934-35 gold was used extensively in Europe but thereafter there was a sudden and largely universal cessation of interest and within a few years gold, introduced with such éclat and carrying so many high hopes, had vanished from the therapy of tuberculosis even though, at that point, no better alternative was available.

  15. Gold grade distribution within an epithermal quartz vein system, Kestanelik, NW Turkey: implications for gold exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Gulyuz, Erhan; Lord, Richard; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Kuscu, İlkay

    2017-04-01

    Vein-hosted gold deposits contribute a large part to the global gold production. Discovery of these deposits mainly include drilling of hundreds of holes, collecting thousands of soil and rock samples and some geophysical surveys which are expensive and time consuming. Understanding the structures hosting the veins and the variations in gold concentrations within the veins is crucial to constrain a more economic exploration program. The main aim of this study is to investigate the gold grade distribution in the mineralized quartz veins of a well exposed epithermal gold deposit hosted by Paleozoic schist and Eocene quartz-feldspar-hornblende porphyry in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We have constructed 3D architecture of the vein surfaces by mapping their outcrop geometries using a highly sensitive Trimble GPS, collecting detailed field data, well-logs and geochemistry data from 396 drill holes (255 diamond cut and 141 reverse circulation holes). Modelling was performed in MOVE Structural Modelling and Analysis software granted by Midland Valley's Academic Software Initiative, and GIS application softwares Global Mapper and Esri-ArcGIS. We envisaged that while fluid entering the conduit ascents, a sudden thickness increase in the conduit would lead to a drop in the fluid pressure causing boiling (the most dominant gold precipitation mechanism) and associated gold precipitation. Regression analysis was performed between the orthogonal thickness values and gold grades of each vein, and statistical analyses were performed to see if the gold is concentrated at specific structural positions along dip. Gold grades in the alteration zones were compared to those in the adjacent veins to understand the degree of mineralization in alteration zones. A possible correlation was also examined between the host rock type and the gold grades in the veins. These studies indicated that gold grades are elevated in the adjacent alteration zones where high gold grades exist in the veins. Schist

  16. Crystal structure of gold hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degtyareva, Valentina F., E-mail: degtyar@issp.ac.ru

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Volume expansion of metal hydrides is due to the increase in the s-band filling. • AuH structure is similar to that of Hg having one more s electron compared to Au. • Structure stability of both Hg and AuH is governed by the Hume-Rothery rule. - Abstract: A number of transition metal hydrides with close-packed metal sublattices of fcc or hcp structures with hydrogen in octahedral interstitial positions were obtained by the high-pressure-hydrogen technique described by Ponyatovskii et al. (1982). In this paper we consider volume increase of metals by hydrogenation and possible crystal structure of gold hydride in relation with the structure of mercury, the nearest neighbor of Au in the Periodic table. Suggested structure of AuH has a basic tetragonal body-centered cell that is very similar to the mercury structure Hg-t I 2. The reasons of stability for this structure are discussed within the model of Fermi sphere–Brillouin zone interactions.

  17. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Sundaram, Chitra; Malani, Nikita; Ichikawa, Haruyo

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".

  18. [Sunrise gold foil jacket crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecardonnel, A

    1989-09-01

    This technique permits the preparation of ceramic jacket crowns made on Sunrise laminated precious metal alloy. The Sunrise foil is gold-colored, made of 99% of precious metals and is 50 microns thick. The die is prepared in order to display a moderate and regular undercut beyond the cervical limit. The margin will be underlined with a red pencil. The Sunrise foil is cut according to predetermined templates. Then the foil is applied without burnishing, according to the technique of jacket crowns on platinum foil only by finger pressure. The double folding on closure is preferably done distally or mesially. Then, the metal base is disinserted, sandblasted with 100 microns aluminum oxide, replaced on its die, and placed in a rubber casing before being placed in the isostatic press, to be subjected to a pressure of 2,000 TSI (14 kg par cm2). Sunrise's orange color reinforces rather subtetly the overall color, making these reconstructions particularly esthetic. The color of the Sunrise metal does not require, therefore a too thick opaque. Any ceramic intended to be fired on a metal base, may be used in respecting its firing protocol. Sunrise, as any other technique of this type, require a careful preparation with a shoulder that has a rounded gingivoaxial line angle. Bridges may be built on the "thimbles" crowns, fitted on Sunrise cores, the pontics being made as a ceramo-metal framework.

  19. A thermally stable gold(III) hydride: synthesis, reactivity, and reductive condensation as a route to gold(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, Dragoş-Adrian; Smith, Dan A; Hughes, David L; Bochmann, Manfred

    2012-10-15

    Going for gold: The first thermally stable gold(III) hydride [(C N C)*AuH] is presented. It undergoes regioselective insertions with allenes to give gold(III) vinyl complexes, and reductive condensation with [(C N C)*AuOH] to the air-stable Au(II) product, [(C N C)*(2)Au(2)], with a short nonbridged gold-gold bond.

  20. Evaluation of the SHIGA TOXIN QUIK CHEK and ImmunoCard STAT! EHEC as screening tools for the detection of Shiga toxin in fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Megan; Fang, Ning-Xia; Graham, Rikki Ma; Smith, Helen V; Jennison, Amy V

    2017-02-01

    In this study we evaluated the performance of the SHIGA TOXIN QUIK CHEK (Techlab®, Blacksburg, VA) and the ImmunoCard STAT! Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) (Meridian BioScience, Cincinnati, OH, USA) assays as methods for qualitatively detecting the presence of Shiga toxin in human fecal specimens. A multiplex PCR for the detection of stx1 and stx2 was used as the standard for comparison. The SHIGA TOXIN QUIK CHEK detected all known Shiga toxin subtypes with the exception of Stx2f, while the ImmunoCard STAT! EHEC was unable to identify four of the seven Stx2 subtypes, including Stx2b and Stx2d. When compared to multiplex PCR based on Shiga toxin gene presence alone both assays demonstrated 100% specificity, and gave sensitivity values of 50.0% and 41.2% respectively. Correlation between each assay and the multiplex PCR was calculated by the use of kappa, with both assays exhibiting a moderate level of agreement.

  1. Environmental effects on the production of Shiga-like toxins by Escherichia coli O157:H7 as revealed by sandwiched immuno-chemiluminescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Uknalis, Joseph; He, Yiping

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a sandwiched immuno assay to detect sensitively Shiga-like toxins (SLTs) produced by Escherichia coli O157:H7. The method involved the capture of toxins by specific immuno magnetic beads followed by tagging the toxins with peroxidase-labeled anti E. coli O157:H7 antibody. Upon addition of proper substrate, peroxidase induced luminescence was used to measure the presence of SLTs. We have previously demonstrated that co-incubation of shiga toxin (SLT) producing E. coli O157:H7 with certain other bacteria can inhibit toxin production but does not affect the growth of the E. coli. We show here that media in which the cells have grown been centrifuged from (conditioned media) have similar effects on cell growth and SLT production. Adjusting the pH and adding nutrients to the conditioned media did not have any effect on the reduction of SLT produced. Bacteria communicate with each other via secreted sensing molecules. Several types of the molecules have been identified. However, the mechanisms of control remain to be established. This pattern for bacteria growth and toxin production is also observed when quorum-sensing molecules of homoserine lactone and indole are added to the media prior to inoculation.

  2. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  3. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Park, Jung Duck; Song, Moon Yong; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ryu, Hyeon Ryol; Yoon, Jin Uk; Jeon, Ki Soo; Jeong, Jayoung; Han, Beom Seok; Chung, Yong Hyun; Chang, Hee Kyung; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong Won; Kelman, Bruce J; Yu, Il Je

    2011-05-14

    Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males) and 145 g (females), were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3), middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3), and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3). The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm) for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue distribution of gold nanoparticles showed a dose

  4. Tectonic setting of Late Cenozoic gold mineralization in the gold belt of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruyter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Gold Belt of Costa Rica is a northwest-elongated zone 15 km wide by 120 km long containing numerous auriferous quartz veins and pyritic silicified patterns upon which abundant small mines are developed. Gold veins are related principally to northeast-southwest and north-south striking, steeply dipping faults. Higher grade ore and thicker veins invariably occur at intersections of these fracture orientations, indicating simultaneous opening at the time of gold introduction. Restriction of gold veins to the northwest-trending arc of Miocene Aguacate Group andesite volcanic rocks, a product of Cocos Plate subduction, suggested approximately coeval formation, but recognition by the writer of the important role played by 2-5 m.y. old altered, gold mineralized rhyolite dikes intruded along north-south gold vein structures and intimately involved with high grade ores at the Esperanza Mine and Rio Chiquito prospect, for example, suggest a much younger period of fracturing and gold introduction. The rhyolite intrusions are more brittle and stockwork mineralized than andesite host rocks and form bulk tonnage gold targets. Initiation of right-lateral movement along the north-south Panama Fracture Zone at 5 m.y.a. within the pattern of northeastward Cocos Plate subduction may have tapped rhyolites from subvolcanic magma chambers into new faults.

  5. Well-Defined Dinuclear Gold Complexes for Preorganization-Induced Selective Dual Gold Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeken, V.; Broere, D.L.J.; Jans, A.C.H.; Lankelma, M.; Reek, J.N.H.; Siegler, M.A.; van der Vlugt, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis, reactivity, and potential of well-defined dinuclear gold complexes as precursors for dual gold catalysis are explored. Using the preorganizing abilities of the ditopic (PNPiPr)-P-H (L-H) ligand, dinuclear Au-I-Au-I complex 1 and mixed-valent Au-I-Au-III complex 2 provide access to str

  6. Knowledge-driven GIS modeling technique for gold exploration, Bulghah gold mine area, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to generate a favorability map for gold exploration at the Bulghah gold mine area using integration of geo-datasets within a GIS environment. Spatial data analyses and integration of different geo-datasets are carried out based on knowledge-driven and weighting technique. The integration process involves the weighting and scoring of different layers affecting the gold mineralization at the study area using the index overlay method within PCI Geomatica environment. Generation of the binary predictor maps for lithology, lineaments, faults and favorable contacts precede the construction of the favorability map. About 100 m buffer zones are generated for favorable contacts, lineaments and major faults layers. Internal weighting is assigned to each layer based on favorability for gold mineralization. The scores for lithology, major faults, lineaments and favorable contacts layers in the constructed favorability map are 50%, 25%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Final favorability map for the Bulghah gold mine area shows the recording of two new sites for gold mineralization located at the northern and southern extensions of tonalite–diorite intrusions. The northern new site is now exploited for gold from the Bulghah North mine. The southern new site is narrow and small; its rocks resemble those of the Bulghah gold mine.

  7. Coupling reaction on gold nanoparticle to yield polythiophene/gold nanoparticle alternate network film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Manabu; Fujita, Remi; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The novel gold nanoparticle, which was stabilized with pi-conjugated molecules bearing functional groups at the terminals, was prepared via conventional procedure by using 5-bromo-2,2'-bithiophene-5'-thiol as a stabilizer. The gold nanoparticle (ca. 3 nm-diameter) showed good dispersion stability in various organic solvents, and its electrochemical and spectroscopic study revealed peculiar properties originated in the pi-conjugated molecular stabilizer, bithiophene derivative. The Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction on the gold nanoparticle was first achieved by using the gold nanoparticle bearing bromo groups at the particle surface and the model boronic acid molecule, 5-formyl-2-thiopheneboronic acid, to yield the terthiophene derivatives on the gold nanoparticle. The 1H-NMR, UV, and TGA analysis supported the progress of the coupling reaction on the gold nanoparticle. This Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction was applied with the borate-terminated polythiophene to form polythiophene/gold nanoparticle alternate network film. The electron microscopic images supported the formation of the network structure. The high electric conductivity on the network film suggested that the conductive characteristic of the film originated from that of the pi-conjugated polythiophene backbone connected with the gold nanoparticle.

  8. China Gold Group Invested 2.18 billion Yuan to Buy Gold Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Ministry of Finance recently proclaimed that China Gold Group has invested 2.18 billion Yuan to gain the exploration right on the Yang- shan gold mine in Wen County,Gansu Prov- ince.Yangshan is located at the place where

  9. Blood gold concentrations in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis undergoing long-term oral gold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, E H; Brewer, E J; Person, D A

    1984-04-01

    During an uncontrolled, open-labelled, open-ended clinical trial of auranofin in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) we obtained serial blood samples for the purpose of assessing gold content. Our objectives were (1) to observe the pattern of blood gold concentrations over a period of time in children undergoing long-term oral gold therapy, and (2) to observe the effect of changing dosage levels on blood gold concentrations. The initial dosage of auranofin was 0.1 mg/kg/day with allowable increases to 0.2 mg/kg/day. A concurrent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug was allowed. Twenty-one patients were enrolled in the study, and we obtained 2 or more serial samples on 13 of the children. At a constant dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day, steady state blood gold concentrations were attained in 11 to 13 weeks of therapy and, in the absence of a dosage change, remained remarkably constant through extended periods. The blood gold concentration was related to total daily dosage rather than to the cumulative amount of gold received. Increasing or decreasing the dose resulted in a direct effect on concentration. The clinical value of blood gold levels resulting from auranofin therapy in JRA will have to be established through double-blind controlled trials.

  10. Synergistic extraction of gold from the refractory gold ore via ultrasound and chlorination-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Likang; Zhang, Libo; Wang, Shixing; Cui, Wei; Peng, Jinhui

    2017-07-01

    A synergistic extraction method for gold from the refractory gold ores via ultrasound and chlorination-oxidation was developed. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, extraction time, ultrasound power, NaClO concentration and NaOH concentration on the extraction rate of gold from the refractory gold ore were investigated. The optimum conditions were as follows: NaClO concentration of 1.5mol/L, NaOH concentration of 1.5mol/L, solid-liquid ratio of 5, ultrasound power of 200W and ultrasound time of 2h. Under the optimal conditions, 68.55% of gold was extracted. However, only 45.8% of gold was extracted after 6h without the ultrasound-assisted extraction. XRD and SEM were used to analyze the influence of ultrasound on the mineral properties and strengthening mechanism. The results showed that the interface layer was peeled, new surface was exposed, reaction resistance was reduced, the liquid-solid reaction was promoted and reaction speed was greatly improved under ultrasound. According to the results of range and variance analysis, the optimum leaching experiment with orthogonal design was almost identical with the optimum experiment of single factor. Among them, the ultrasound power was the most significant factors affecting leaching rate of gold. Compared with other extraction method, the synergistic extraction process decomposed completely sulfide and improved significantly the extraction rate of gold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protracted elimination of gold nanoparticles from mouse liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadauskas, Evaldas; Wallin, Håkan; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at revealing the fate of 40-nm gold nanoparticles after intravenous injections. The gold nanoparticles were traced histochemically with light and transmission electron microscopy using autometallographic (AMG) staining, and the gold content in the liver was determined...... with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Gold nanoparticles were identified in almost all Kupffer cells one day after the injection, but the fraction of gold-loaded cells gradually decreased to about one fifth after 6 months. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed that the gold......% fall in the gold content over the observed 6 months, the AMG finding of a significant reduction in the stained area of the liver sections and number of macrophages loaded with gold nanoparticles reveals that over time an increasing part of the total amount of gold nanoparticles in the liver...

  12. An econometrics method for estimating gold coin futures prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pousti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present some regression functions to estimate gold coin future price based on gold coin price, future exchange price, price of gold traded globally and trend of time. The proposed model of this paper is used for price estimation of special gold coin traded in Iran. The proposed model of this paper is applied for historical data of future gold prices and the results are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that an increase on gold coin price could increase gold coin future price. An increase on foreign exchange price has negative impact on gold coin future and present trend on time has positive impact on gold coin future.

  13. Beneficiation of the gold bearing ore by gravity and flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Alim; Kangal, Olgaç; Sirkeci, Ayhan A.; Önal, Güven

    2012-02-01

    Gold concentration usually consists of gravity separation, flotation, cyanidation, or the combination of these processes. The choice among these processes depends on the mineralogical characterization and gold content of the ore. Recently, the recovery of gold using gravity methods has gained attention because of low cost and environmentally friendly operations. In this study, gold pre-concentrates were produced by the stepwise gravity separation and flotation techniques. The Knelson concentrator and conventional flotation were employed for the recovery of gold. Gold bearing ore samples were taken from Gümüşhane Region, northern east part of Turkey. As a result of stepwise Knelson concentration experiments, a gold concentrate assaying around 620 g/t is produced with 41.4wt% recovery. On the other hand, a gold concentrate about 82 g/t is obtained with 89.9wt% recovery from a gold ore assaying 6 g/t Au by direct flotation.

  14. {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 immuno-PET imaging in patients with advanced metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Solomon, Stephen B.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Osborne, Joseph R. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); O' Donoghue, Joseph A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Beylergil, Volkan; Ruan, Shutian; Cheal, Sarah M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Lyashchenko, Serge [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiochemistry and Molecular Imaging Probes Core, New York, NY (United States); Gonen, Mithat [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Lewis, Jason S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiochemistry and Molecular Imaging Probes Core, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Holland, Jason P. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Reuter, Victor E. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Loda, Massimo F. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science of Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Weber, Wolfgang A.; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Bander, Neil H. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Urology, New York, NY (United States); Scher, Howard I.; Morris, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Given the bone tropism of prostate cancer, conventional imaging modalities poorly identify or quantify metastatic disease. {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in patients with metastatic prostate cancer to analyze and validate this as an imaging biomarker for metastatic disease. The purpose of this initial study was to assess safety, biodistribution, normal organ dosimetry, and optimal imaging time post-injection for lesion detection. Ten patients with metastatic prostate cancer received 5 mCi of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591. Four whole-body scans with multiple whole-body count rate measurements and serum activity concentration measurements were obtained in all patients. Biodistribution, clearance, and lesion uptake by {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 immuno-PET imaging was analyzed and dosimetry was estimated using MIRD techniques. Initial assessment of lesion targeting of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 was done. Optimal time for imaging post-injection was determined. The dose was well tolerated with mild chills and rigors seen in two patients. The clearance of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 from serum was bi-exponential with biological half-lives of 7 ± 4.5 h (range 1.1-14 h) and 62 ± 13 h (range 51-89 h) for initial rapid and later slow phase. Whole-body biological clearance was 219 ± 48 h (range 153-317 h). The mean whole-body and liver residence time was 78.7 and 25.6 h, respectively. Dosimetric estimates to critical organs included liver 7.7 ± 1.5 cGy/mCi, renal cortex 3.5 ± 0.4 cGy/mCi, and bone marrow 1.2 ± 0.2 cGy/mCi. Optimal time for patient imaging after injection was 7 ± 1 days. Lesion targeting of bone or soft tissue was seen in all patients. Biopsies were performed in 8 patients for a total 12 lesions, all of which were histologically confirmed as metastatic prostate cancer. One biopsy-proven lesion was not positive on {sup 89}Zr-huJ591, while the remaining 11 lesions were {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 positive. Two biopsy-positive nodal lesions were noted only on

  15. Evaluation of the CCA Immuno-Chromatographic Test to Diagnose Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Maria Soares Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kato-Katz (KK stool smear is the standard test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, but suffers from low sensitivity when infections intensities are moderate to low. Thus, misdiagnosed individuals remain untreated and contribute to the disease transmission, thereby forestalling public health efforts to move from a modality of disease control to one of elimination. As an alternative, the urine-based diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni via the circulating cathodic antigen immuno-chromatographic test (CCA-ICT has been extensively evaluated in Africa with the conclusion that it may replace the KK test in areas where prevalences are moderate or high.The objective was to measure the performance of the CCA-ICT in a sample study population composed of residents from non-endemic and endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni in two municipalities of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Volunteers (130 were classified into three infection status groups based on duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample (2KK test: 41 negative individuals from non-endemic areas, 41 negative individuals from endemic areas and 48 infected individuals from endemic areas. Infection status was also determined by the CCA-ICT and infection exposure by antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA and soluble (adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP. Sensitivity and specificity were influenced by whether the trace score visually adjudicated in the CCA-ICT was characterized as positive or negative for S. mansoni infection. An analysis of a two-graph receiver operating characteristic was performed to change the cutoff point. When the trace score was interpreted as a positive rather than as a negative result, the specificity decreased from 97.6% to 78.0% whereas sensitivity increased from 68.7% to 85.4%. A significantly positive correlation between the CCA-ICT scores and egg counts was identified (r = 0.6252, p = 0

  16. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li, Zi-An; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 μg mL-1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  17. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Joerg; Ristig, Simon [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Greulich, Christina [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Li Zian; Farle, Michael [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Koeller, Manfred [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Epple, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.epple@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 {mu}g mL{sup -1} induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  18. Au与Au合金的微合金化%Microalloying of Gold and Gold Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁远涛

    2008-01-01

    Microalloying to pure gold and gold alloys was discussed and summerized. The main effects of microalloying elements in gold alloys are those for strengthening, for regulating electrical resistance, for refining grain-size and for increasing recrystallization temperature. In nearly all applications, the elements with large difference of melting point or atomic size to gold, and those with low solid solubility in gold, such as alkali- and alkali-earth metals, rare earth metals, high melting point metals, metalloids and some simple metals are selected as microalloying elements. Some examples of microalloyed gold alloys are introduced. The effects of many microalloying elements on the properties of gold and gold alloys are often multiple-coincidence. Some selection principles of microalloying elements for gold and gold alloys with various applications are summarized.%讨论和总结了Au与Au合金的微合金化.在Au合金中,微合金化元素的主要作用是强化、调整电阻率、细化晶粒尺寸和提高再结晶温度等. 几乎在所有的应用中,相对于Au具有大的熔点差或原子尺寸差的合金元素,诸如碱和碱土金属、稀土金属、高熔点金属、类金属和某些简单金属被选择作为微合金化元素. 介绍了微合金化Au合金的某些应用.许多微合金化元素对Au和Au合金性能的影响常常是多重和协同的.总结了对于不同应用的Au和Au合金的微合金化元素的某些选择原则.

  19. Precipitation of lamellar gold nanocrystals in molten polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, M.; Carotenuto, G.

    2016-05-01

    Non-aggregated lamellar gold crystals with regular shape (triangles, squares, pentagons, etc.) have been produced by thermal decomposition of gold chloride (AuCl) molecules in molten amorphous polymers (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Such covalent inorganic gold salt is high soluble into non-polar polymers and it thermally decomposes at temperatures compatible with the polymer thermal stability, producing gold atoms and chlorine radicals. At the end of the gold precipitation process, the polymer matrix resulted chemically modified because of the partial cross-linking process due to the gold atom formation reaction.

  20. Application of gold in the field of heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Siwei

    2014-01-01

    Gold has been long thought as an inert metal which finds most of its use in jewelry and monetary exchange. However, catalysis by gold has rapidly become a hot topic in chemistry ever since Haruta and Hutchings found gold to be an extraordinary good heterogeneous catalyst in certain reactions. Here in this paper, several model reactions which made gold historically famous as a catalyst and a currently hot topic will be demonstrated, such as oxidation of CO, selective oxidation, and hydrodechlorination. Conclusions on the chemical nature of gold will be made as well as future perspectives of designing gold as a better catalyst.

  1. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated. (author)

  2. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  3. Engineered Gold Nanoparticles and Plant Adaptation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-09-01

    Use of metal nanoparticles in biological system has recently been recognised although little is known about their possible effects on plant growth and development. Nanoparticles accumulation, translocation, growth response and stress modulation in plant system is not well understood. Plants exposed to gold and gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to exhibit both positive and negative effects. Their growth and yield vary from species to species. Cytoxicity of engineered gold nanoparticles depends on the concentration, particle size and shape. They exhibit increase in vegetative growth and yield of fruit/seed at lower concentration and decrease them at higher concentration. Studies have shown that the gold nanoparticles exposure has improved free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant enzymatic activities and alter micro RNAs expression that regulate different morphological, physiological and metabolic processes in plants. These modulations lead to improved plant growth and yields. Prior to the use of gold nanoparticles, it has been suggested that its cost may be calculated to see if it is economically feasible.

  4. Amplitude enhancement by a gold dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Wang, Jingxin; Jin, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    The unique optical properties such as brightness, non-bleaching, good bio-compatibility make gold particles ideal label candidates for molecular probes. Due to the strongly enhanced field, aggregation of gold nanoparticles finds themselves plenty of applications in bio-imaging. But limited by its small cross-section associated with nanometer sized particle, it is a big challenge to employ it in a single molecular detection. The field enhancement results from the effect of plasmonic coupling between two closely attached gold nanoparticle under the right excitation condition. With the aim to apply the gold dimer probe to find the molecules in our recently established optical detection method, we compared of the amplitude enhancement by the dimer relative to a single particle. The amplitude distribution under a highly focused illumination objective was calculated, whose results suggest that at the optimized excitation condition, the local field can be enhanced 190 fold. In consequence, experimental detection was carried out. Gold dimers were linked together by the hybridization of two single chain DNAs. Dimer and single particle probes were mixed together in one detection. Overwhelming contrast between these two kinds of probes were clearly exhibited in the experimental detection image. This method can provide a way to a high specific detection in early diagnosis.

  5. Simple fabrication of gold nanobelts and patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyun Zhang

    Full Text Available Gold nanobelts are of interest in several areas; however, there are only few methods available to produce these belts. We report here on a simple evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA method to produce porous gold nanobelts with dimensions that scale across nanometer (thickness ∼80 nm and micrometer (width ∼20 µm, to decimeter (length ∼0.15 m. The gold nanobelts are well packed on the beaker wall and can be easily made to float on the surface of the solution for depositing onto other substrates. Microscopy showed that gold nanobelts had a different structure on the two sides of the belt; the density of gold nanowires on one side was greater than on the other side. Electrical measurements showed that these nanobelts were sensitive to compressive or tensile forces, indicating a potential use as a strain sensor. The patterned nanobelts were further used as a template to grow ZnO nanowires for potential use in applications such as piezo-electronics.

  6. Gold nanocrystals with DNA-directed morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyi; Huh, June; Park, Wounjhang; Lee, Luke P.; Kwon, Young Jik; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-09-01

    Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures. We anchor DNA onto gold nanoseed with various alignments to form gold nanocrystals with defined topologies. Some topologies are asymmetric including pushpin-, star- and biconcave disk-like structures, as well as more complex jellyfish- and flower-like structures. The approach of employing DNA enables the solution-based synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures in a desired direction, and expands the current tools available for designing and synthesizing feature-rich nanomaterials for future translational biotechnology.

  7. Gold(III) complexes in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Pedro Ivo da Silva; Deflon, Victor M; Abram, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    A number of gold(III) compounds has been designed with the objective of overcoming the disadvantages associated with the platinum-based drugs for cancer treatment. Compounds of a remarkable structural manifold show significant antiproliferative effects in vitro against a number of cancer cells, including cisplatin resistant ones. The target of most of them is, unlike that of cisplatin, not the DNA. Although the mechanisms of action displayed by the gold compounds in biological media are still under investigation, many studies show evidence that the cellular targets are mitochondria-based. Recent advances in gold(III) medicinal chemistry also recommend such compounds for other pharmacological applications such as the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. The radioactive isotopes (198)Au and (199)Au present potential in radiotherapy.

  8. Galvanic gold plating for fixed dental prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Tuncer Burak; Yilmaz, Burak

    2013-07-01

    Metal ceramic partial fixed dental prostheses have been commonly used for the replacement of missing teeth for many years. Because of an increase in the price of gold, base metal alloys have been the choice of alloy for the fabrication of metal ceramic restorations in many dental clinics. Some major disadvantages of base metals are their corrosion and the dark coloration they may cause at the crown margins. This article describes a galvanic gold-plating technique, which is used to minimize corrosion and improve the esthetics of metal ceramic restorations fabricated with Cr-Co base metal alloys. This technique involves the deposition of a 6 μm to 8 μm 24 K gold layer directly onto the Cr-Co cast prosthesis framework. The technique improves metal surface properties, making them more biocompatible and usable, however, requires additional equipment and experienced laboratory technicians. Clinical studies should be performed to corroborate the long term success of this technique.

  9. Hybrid gold single crystals incorporating amino acids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Linfeng; Weber, Eva; Fitch, Andy N; Pokroy, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Composite hybrid gold crystals are of profound interest in various research areas ranging from materials science to biology. Their importance is due to their unique properties and potential implementation, for example in sensing or in bio-nanomedicine. Here we report on the formation of hybrid organic-metal composites via the incorporation of selected amino acids histidine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamine, alanine, cysteine, and selenocystine into the crystal lattice of single crystals of gold. We used electron microscopy, chemical analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X ray diffraction to examine these composites. Crystal shape, as well as atomic concentrations of occluded amino acids and their impact on the crystal structure of gold, were determined. Concentration of the incorporated amino acid was highest for cysteine, followed by serine and aspartic acid. Our results indicate that the incorporation process probably occurs through a complex interaction of their individual functional groups with ...

  10. Ultrasonic-aided fabrication of gold nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Wen, Dongsheng

    2011-03-07

    A novel ultrasonic-aided one-step method for the fabrication of gold nanofluids is proposed in this study. Both spherical- and plate-shaped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the size range of 10-300 nm are synthesized. Subsequent purification produces well-controlled nanofluids with known solid and liquid contents. The morphology and properties of the nanoparticle and nanofluids are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering, as well as effective thermal conductivities. The ultrasonication technique is found to be a very powerful tool in engineering the size and shape of GNPs. Subsequent property measurement shows that both particle size and particle shape play significant roles in determining the effective thermal conductivity. A large increase in effective thermal conductivity can be achieved (approximately 65%) for gold nanofluids using plate-shaped particles under low particle concentrations (i.e.764 μM/L).

  11. Layering-induced Superlubricity: Gold on Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Guerra, Roberto; Tosatti, Erio; Nanofriction Group Sissa Team

    2015-03-01

    By means of realistic MD simulations, we explore the static friction trend as a function of the true contact area and the model dimensionality for 2D gold nanoislands and 3D gold nanoclusters deposited on graphite, interesting tribological systems whose slow and fast dynamics have been previously investigated. For increasing island size, because of the relative gold-graphite lattice mismatch, the interface stress energy has the chance to pile up by forming frustrated unmatched (i.e., incommensurate) regions and to develop a continuous solitonic pathway, foreshadowing a possible condition for the occurrence of ultra-low friction regimes. The significant reduction of the depinning threshold, towards superlubricity, with the system dimensionality can be ascribed to a layering-induced effective stiffness of the interface contact, favoring the natural Au-C lattice incommensurability. Partly sponsored under SNSF Sinergia Grant CRSII2 136287/1, EU ERC Grant No. 320796 MODPHYSFRICT, EU COST Action MP1303.

  12. Regional and subcellular distribution of gold in brain of gold thioglucose obese mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, K; Danbara, H; Sunayashiki, K; Okuno, S; Sorimachi, M; Tanaka, M; Chikamori, K

    1978-01-01

    By employing neutron activation analysis, endogenous content of gold was estimated quantitatively in discrete brain areas and in subcellular fractions of the hypothalamus of gold thioglucose (GTG) induced obese mice. The highest concentration of gold was obtained in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reaching approximately 100 ng/mg wet tissue. Significantly higher concentrations were observed in other hypothalamic subareas followed by certain limbic areas and the thalamus, while in the cerebral and the cerebellar cortex the gold concentration was very low. Subcellularly, the hypothalamic gold was principally recovered in the supernatant fraction particularly after a hyposmotic shock treatment of the crude mitochondrial fraction. Contrary to GTG, treatment with gold thiomalate (GTM) did not induce obesity in the mouse, although considerable amount of gold was observed in the VMH, a finding suggesting the existence in the VMH of at least a two step mechanisms for inducing GTG obesity. To identify the satiety neuron transmitter, an analysis of certain enzyme activities involved in the synthesis of known transmitters, such as acetylcholine or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was made in the GTG-obese mice. There were no significant changes in any of the areas functionally related to the VMH.

  13. Direct formation of gold nanorods on surfaces using polymer-immobilised gold seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyaneh, Majid K; Parisse, Pietro; Casalis, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present the formation of gold nanorods (GNRs) on novel gold-poly(methyl methacrylate) (Au-PMMA) nanocomposite substrates with unprecedented growth control through the polymer molecular weight (M w) and gold-salt-to-polymer weight ratio. For the first time, GNRs have been produced by seed-mediated direct growth on surfaces that were pre-coated with polymer-immobilised gold seeds. A Au-PMMA nanocomposite formed by UV photoreduction has been used as the gold seed. The influence of polymer M w and gold concentration on the formation of GNRs has been investigated and discussed. The polymer nanocomposite formed with a lower M w PMMA and 20 wt % gold salt provides a suitable medium for growing well-dispersed GNRs. In this sample, the average dimension of produced GNRs is 200 nm in length with aspect ratios up to 10 and a distribution of GNRs to nanoparticles of nearly 22%. Suitable characterization techniques such as AFM and SEM have been used to support concept of the proposed growth method.

  14. Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Charles H.; DeWitt, Ed; Maron, Marcos A.; Ladeira, Eduardo A.

    2001-07-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (>20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  15. Detection of ESAT-6 by a label free miniature immuno-electrochemical biosensor as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ouerghi, Oussama; Refai, Amira; Belgacem, Kamel; Tlili, Chaker; Laouini, Dhafer; Essafi, Makram

    2017-05-01

    Tuberculosis is a worldwide disease considered as a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality rates. Poor detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis remains a major obstacle to the global control of this disease. Here we report the development of a new test based on the detection of the major virulent factor of Mtb, namely the early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein or ESAT-6. A label free electrochemical immunosensor using an anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody as a bio-receptor is described herein. Anti-ESAT-6 antibodies were first covalently immobilized on the surface of a gold screen-printed electrode functionalized via a self-assembled thiol monolayer. Interaction between the bio-receptor and ESAT-6 antigen was evaluated by square wave voltammetry method using [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) as redox probe. The detection limit of ESAT-6 antigen was 7ng/ml. The immunosensor has also been able to detect native ESAT-6 antigen secreted in cell culture filtrates of three pathogenic strains of Mtb (CDC1551, H37RV and H8N8). Overall, this work describes an immune-electrochemical biosensor, based on ESAT-6 antigen detection, as a useful diagnostic tool for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gold and Silver Inlaid Bronze Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gold and silver inlaying is a metal processing technique popular during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B. C.) and the Warring States Period (475-221 B. C.). Patterns on the surface of the bronze figure are chiselled out and gold and silver threads (which can be as thin as hair) are inlaid. Finally the whole figure is filed and polished resulting in a splendid artistic work highlighting the different colours of the three different kinds of metal. The artifact shown here was unearthed from Ningxia'...

  17. Current methods for synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herizchi, Roya; Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles, such as nanoparticles synthesized using gold, have numerous uncommon chemical and physical properties due to the effects of their quantum size and their large surface area, in comparison with other metal atoms or bulk metal. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs), in particular, are very attractive because of their size and shape-dependent properties. Metal nanoparticles have gathered extensive attention due to their uncommon properties and promising applications in photonics, electronics, biochemical sensing, and imaging. This review covers recent advances in the synthesis of GNPs.

  18. Radiation Heat Waves in Gold Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jia-Min; XU Yan; DING Yao-Nan; LAI Dong-Xian; DING Yong-Kun; JIANG Shao-En; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; MIAO Wen-Yong

    2003-01-01

    Eight beams 0.35/um laser with pulse duration of about 1.0ns and energy of 260 J per beam was injected into a cylindrical cavity to generate intense x-ray radiation on the "Shengguang I" high power laser facility. Gold foils with a thickness in the range of 0.09-0.52/j,m were attached on the diagnostic hole of the cavity and ablated by the intense x-ray radiation. The propagating radiation heat wave in the high-Z gold plasma was observed clearly. For comparison, we also simulated the experimental results.

  19. Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree R. Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticles are being extensively used in various biomedical applications due to their small size to volume ratio and extensive thermal stability. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs are an obvious choice due to their amenability of synthesis and functionalization, less toxicity and ease of detection. The present review focuses on various methods of functionalization of GNPs and their applications in biomedical research. Functionalization facilitates targeted delivery of these nanoparticles to various cell types, bioimaging, gene delivery, drug delivery and other therapeutic and diagnostic applications. This review is an amalgamation of recent advances in the field of functionalization of gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in the field of medicine and biology.

  20. Chirality in Bare and Passivated Gold Nanoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Garzon, I L; Rodrigues-Hernandez, J I; Sigal, I; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Chiral structures have been found as the lowest-energy isomers of bare (Au$_{28}$ and Au$_{55}) and thiol-passivated (Au$_{28}(SCH$_{3})$_{16}$ and Au$_{38}$(SCH$_{3}$)$_{24}) gold nanoclusters. The degree of chirality existing in the chiral clusters was calculated using the Hausdorff chirality measure. We found that the index of chirality is higher in the passivated clusters and decreases with the cluster size. These results are consistent with the observed chiroptical activity recently reported for glutahione-passivated gold nanoclusters, and provide theoretical support for the existence of chirality in these novel compounds.