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Sample records for immunization elicited significant

  1. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Goorhuis, A.; Jonker, E. F. F.; de Bree, G. J.; de Visser, A. W.; van Genderen, P. J. J.; Remmerswaal, E. B. M.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Visser, L. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; van Leeuwen, E. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen

  2. Identification and characterization of Ixodes scapularis antigens that elicit tick immunity using yeast surface display.

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    Tim J Schuijt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary antigens that react with tick-immune serum. We constructed an Ixodes scapularis nymphal salivary gland yeast surface display library and screened the library with nymph-immune rabbit sera and identified five salivary antigens. Four of these proteins, designated P8, P19, P23 and P32, had a predicted signal sequence. We generated recombinant (r P8, P19 and P23 in a Drosophila expression system for functional and immunization studies. rP8 showed anti-complement activity and rP23 demonstrated anti-coagulant activity. Ixodes scapularis feeding was significantly impaired when nymphs were fed on rabbits immunized with a cocktail of rP8, rP19 and rP23, a hall mark of tick-immunity. These studies also suggest that these antigens may serve as potential vaccine candidates to thwart tick feeding.

  3. Immunization with Brucella VirB proteins reduces organ colonization in mice through a Th1-type immune response and elicits a similar immune response in dogs.

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    Pollak, Cora N; Wanke, María Magdalena; Estein, Silvia M; Delpino, M Victoria; Monachesi, Norma E; Comercio, Elida A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-03-01

    VirB proteins from Brucella spp. constitute the type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor mediating the intracellular survival of these bacteria. Here, we assessed whether a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins may protect mice from Brucella infection and whether this response can be induced in the dog, a natural host for Brucella. Splenocytes from mice immunized with VirB7 or VirB9 responded to their respective antigens with significant and specific production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was not detected. Thirty days after an intraperitoneal challenge with live Brucella abortus, the spleen load of bacteria was almost 1 log lower in mice immunized with VirB proteins than in unvaccinated animals. As colonization reduction seemed to correlate with a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins, we decided to assess whether such a response could be elicited in the dog. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs immunized with VirB proteins (three subcutaneous doses in QuilA adjuvant) produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than cells from control animals upon in vitro stimulation with VirB proteins. A skin test to assess specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was positive in 4 out of 5 dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9. As both proteins are predicted to locate in the outer membrane of Brucella organisms, the ability of anti-VirB antibodies to mediate complement-dependent bacteriolysis of B. canis was assessed in vitro. Sera from dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9, but not from those receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), produced significant bacteriolysis. These results suggest that VirB-specific responses that reduce organ colonization by Brucella in mice can be also elicited in dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.

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    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN or the intrapulmonary (IPL route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.

  5. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100- Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses. PMID:23936066

  6. Systemic and Terminal Ileum Mucosal Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization With the Ty21a Typhoid Vaccine in HumansSummary

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    Jayaum S. Booth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]. Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum–lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC and peripheral blood in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. Methods: We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi–specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry. Results: No differences were observed in cell yields and phenotypes in LPMC CD8+-TM subsets following Ty21a immunization. However, Ty21a immunization elicited LPMC CD8+ T cells exhibiting significant S Typhi–specific responses (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17A, and/or CD107a in all major TM subsets (T-effector/memory [TEM], T-central/memory, and TEM-CD45RA+, although each TM subset exhibited unique characteristics. We also investigated whether Ty21a immunization elicited S Typhi–specific multifunctional effectors in LPMC CD8+ TEM. We observed that LPMC CD8+ TEM responses were mostly multifunctional, except for those cells exhibiting the characteristics associated with cytotoxic responses. Finally, we compared mucosal with systemic responses and made the important observation that LPMC CD8+ S Typhi–specific responses were unique and distinct from their systemic counterparts. Conclusions: This study provides the first demonstration of S Typhi–specific responses in the human terminal ileum mucosa and provides novel insights into the generation of mucosal immune responses following oral Ty21a immunization. Keywords: Lamina Propria Mononuclear Cells, Multifunctional T Cells, CD8+-T Memory Cells, Typhoid, Vaccines

  7. Oncolytic Immunotherapy: Dying the Right Way is a Key to Eliciting Potent Antitumor Immunity

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    Zong Sheng eGuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OVs are novel immunotherapeutic agents whose anticancer effects come from both oncolysis and elicited antitumor immunity. OVs induce mostly immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD, including immunogenic apoptosis, necrosis/necroptosis, pyroptosis and autophagic cell death, leading to exposure of calreticulin and heat-shock proteins to the cell surface, and/or released ATP, high mobility group box-1 [HMGB1], uric acid, and other DAMPs as well as PAMPs as danger signals, along with tumor-associated antigens, to activate dendritic cells (DCs and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Dying the right way may greatly potentiate adaptive antitumor immunity. The mode of cancer cell death may be modulated by individual OVs and cancer cells as they often encode and express genes that inhibit/promote apoptosis, necroptosis or autophagic cell death. We can genetically engineer OVs with death-pathway-modulating genes and thus skew the infected cancer cells towards certain death pathways for the enhanced immunogenicity. Strategies combining with some standard therapeutic regimens may also change the immunological consequence of cancer cell death. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of danger signals, modes of cancer cell death induced by OVs, the induced danger signals and functions in eliciting subsequent antitumor immunity. We also discuss potential combination strategies to target cells into specific modes of ICD and enhance cancer immunogenicity, including blockade of immune checkpoints, in order to break immune tolerance, improve antitumor immunity and thus the overall therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Ixodes scapularis Antigens That Elicit Tick Immunity Using Yeast Surface Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Narasimhan, S.; Daffre, S.; Deponte, K.; Hovius, J.W.R.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.; Bakhtiari, K.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Boder, E.T.; van Dam, A.P.; Fikrig, E.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary

  9. Infection-derived lipids elicit a novel immune deficiency circuitry in arthropods

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    The insect Immune Deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumor necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties elicit the IMD signaling cascade remains unknown. Here, we disclose thoug...

  10. DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

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    Gajadhar Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of pEGFP (plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-encapsulated PEGylated (meaning polyethylene glycol coated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles (referred to as MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles for the induction of immune responses was investigated in a mouse model. MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles induced enhanced serum antibody and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses, as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-12 levels compared to naked pEGFP when administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular routes. A significant macrophage response, both in size and activity, was also observed when mice were immunized with the nanoparticle formulation. The response was highly specific for the antigen, as the increase in interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes as well as lymphocyte proliferation took place only when they were re-stimulated with recombinant green fluorescence protein (rGFP. Thus the nanoparticle formulation elicited both humoral as well as cellular responses. Cytokine profiling revealed the induction of Th-1 type responses. The results suggest DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate (MgPi nanoparticles may constitute a safer, more stable and cost-efficient DNA vaccine formulation.

  11. Vaginal immunization to elicit primary T-cell activation and dissemination.

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    Elena Pettini

    Full Text Available Primary T-cell activation at mucosal sites is of utmost importance for the development of vaccination strategies. T-cell priming after vaginal immunization, with ovalbumin and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant as model vaccine formulation, was studied in vivo in hormone-synchronized mice and compared to the one induced by the nasal route. Twenty-four hours after both vaginal or nasal immunization, antigen-loaded dendritic cells were detected within the respective draining lymph nodes. Vaginal immunization elicited a strong recruitment of antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells into draining lymph nodes that was more rapid than the one observed following nasal immunization. T-cell clonal expansion was first detected in iliac lymph nodes, draining the genital tract, and proliferated T cells disseminated towards distal lymph nodes and spleen similarly to what observed following nasal immunization. T cells were indeed activated by the antigen encounter and acquired homing molecules essential to disseminate towards distal lymphoid organs as confirmed by the modulation of CD45RB, CD69, CD44 and CD62L marker expression. A multi-type Galton Watson branching process, previously used for in vitro analysis of T-cell proliferation, was applied to model in vivo CFSE proliferation data in draining lymph nodes 57 hours following immunization, in order to calculate the probabilistic decision of a cell to enter in division, rest in quiescence or migrate/die. The modelling analysis indicated that the probability of a cell to proliferate was higher following vaginal than nasal immunization. All together these data show that vaginal immunization, despite the absence of an organized mucosal associated inductive site in the genital tract, is very efficient in priming antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells and inducing their dissemination from draining lymph nodes towards distal lymphoid organs.

  12. F4+ ETEC infection and oral immunization with F4 fimbriae elicits an IL-17-dominated immune response.

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    Luo, Yu; Van Nguyen, Ut; de la Fe Rodriguez, Pedro Y; Devriendt, Bert; Cox, Eric

    2015-10-21

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. Porcine-specific ETEC strains possess different fimbrial subtypes of which F4 fimbriae are the most frequently associated with ETEC-induced diarrhea in piglets. These F4 fimbriae are potent oral immunogens that induce protective F4-specific IgA antibody secreting cells at intestinal tissues. Recently, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been implicated in the protection of the host against extracellular pathogens. However, it remains unknown if Th17 effector responses are needed to clear ETEC infections. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate if ETEC elicits a Th17 response in piglets and if F4 fimbriae trigger a similar response. F4(+) ETEC infection upregulated IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-23p19, but not IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in the systemic and mucosal immune system. Similarly, oral immunization with F4 fimbriae triggered a Th17 signature evidenced by an upregulated mRNA expression of IL-17F, RORγt, IL-23p19 and IL-21 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Intriguingly, IL-17A mRNA levels were unaltered. To further evaluate this difference between systemic and mucosal immune responses, we assayed the cytokine mRNA profile of F4 fimbriae stimulated PBMCs. F4 fimbriae induced IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22 and IL-23p19, but downregulated IL-17B mRNA expression. Altogether, these data indicate a Th17 dominated response upon oral immunization with F4 fimbriae and F4(+) ETEC infection. Our work also highlights that IL-17B and IL-17F participate in the immune response to protect the host against F4(+) ETEC infection and could aid in the design of future ETEC vaccines.

  13. Adenosine can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by radiotherapy. Therapeutic strategies alleviating protumor ADO activities

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    Vaupel, Peter [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Multhoff, Gabriele [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Experimental Immune Biology, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    By studying the bioenergetic status we could show that the development of tumor hypoxia is accompanied, apart from myriad other biologically relevant effects, by a substantial accumulation of adenosine (ADO). ADO has been shown to act as a strong immunosuppressive agent in tumors by modulating the innate and adaptive immune system. In contrast to ADO, standard radiotherapy (RT) can either stimulate or abrogate antitumor immune responses. Herein, we present ADO-mediated mechanisms that may thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. An overview of the generation, accumulation, and ADO-related multifaceted inhibition of immune functions, contrasted with the antitumor immune effects of RT, is provided. Upon hypoxic stress, cancer cells release ATP into the extracellular space where nucleotides are converted into ADO by hypoxia-sensitive, membrane-bound ectoenzymes (CD39/CD73). ADO actions are mediated upon binding to surface receptors, mainly A2A receptors on tumor and immune cells. Receptor activation leads to a broad spectrum of strong immunosuppressive properties facilitating tumor escape from immune control. Mechanisms include (1) impaired activity of CD4 + T and CD8 + T, NK cells and dendritic cells (DC), decreased production of immuno-stimulatory lymphokines, and (2) activation of Treg cells, expansion of MDSCs, promotion of M2 macrophages, and increased activity of major immunosuppressive cytokines. In addition, ADO can directly stimulate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. ADO mechanisms described can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. Therapeutic strategies alleviating tumor-promoting activities of ADO include respiratory hyperoxia or mild hyperthermia, inhibition of CD39/CD73 ectoenzymes or blockade of A2A receptors, and inhibition of ATP-release channels or ADO transporters. (orig.) [German] Untersuchungen des bioenergetischen Status ergaben, dass Tumorhypoxie neben vielen anderen bedeutsamen biologischen Effekten zu einem starken

  14. NADH oxidase functions as an adhesin in Streptococcus pneumoniae and elicits a protective immune response in mice.

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    Lena Muchnik

    Full Text Available The initial event in disease caused by S. pneumoniae is adhesion of the bacterium to respiratory epithelial cells, mediated by surface expressed molecules including cell-wall proteins. NADH oxidase (NOX, which reduces free oxygen to water in the cytoplasm, was identified in a non-lectin enriched pneumococcal cell-wall fraction. Recombinant NOX (rNOX was screened with sera obtained longitudinally from children and demonstrated age-dependent immunogenicity. NOX ablation in S. pneumoniae significantly reduced bacterial adhesion to A549 epithelial cells in vitro and their virulence in the intranasal or intraperitoneal challenge models in mice, compared to the parental strain. Supplementation of Δnox WU2 with the nox gene restored its virulence. Saturation of A549 target cells with rNOX or neutralization of cell-wall residing NOX using anti-rNOX antiserum decreased adhesion to A549 cells. rNOX-binding phages inhibited bacterial adhesion. Moreover, peptides derived from the human proteins contactin 4, chondroitin 4 sulfotraferase and laminin5, homologous to the insert peptides in the neutralizing phages, inhibited bacterial adhesion to the A549 cells. Furthermore, rNOX immunization of mice elicited a protective immune response to intranasal or intraperitoneal S. pneumoniae challenge, whereas pneumococcal virulence was neutralized by anti-rNOX antiserum prior to intraperitoneal challenge. Our results suggest that in addition to its enzymatic activity, NOX contributes to S. pneumoniae virulence as a putative adhesin and thus peptides derived from its target molecules may be considered for the treatment of pneumococcal infections. Finally, rNOX elicited a protective immune response in both aerobic and anaerobic environments, which renders NOX a candidate for future pneumococcal vaccine.

  15. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients.

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    Wieten, R W; Goorhuis, A; Jonker, E F F; de Bree, G J; de Visser, A W; van Genderen, P J J; Remmerswaal, E B M; Ten Berge, I J M; Visser, L G; Grobusch, M P; van Leeuwen, E M M

    2016-06-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen patients using different immunosuppressive drugs and 30 healthy individuals vaccinated 0-22 years ago were included. The serological response was measured using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses were measured following proliferation and re-stimulation with YFV peptide pools. Phenotypic characteristics and cytokine responses of CD8(+) T-cells were determined using class I tetramers. The geometric mean titre of neutralizing antibodies was not different between the groups (p = 0.77). The presence of YFV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell did not differ between patients and healthy individuals (15/15, 100.0% vs. 29/30, 96.7%, p = 0.475). Time since vaccination correlated negatively with the number of YFV-specific CD8(+) T-cells (r = -0.66, p = 0.0045). Percentages of early-differentiated memory cells increased (r = 0.67, p = 0.017) over time. These results imply that YF vaccination is effective despite certain immunosuppressive drug regimens. An early-differentiated memory-like phenotype persisted, which is associated with effective expansion upon re-encounter with antigen, suggesting a potent memory T-cell pool remains. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery

  17. Peptidoglycan and muropeptides from pathogens Agrobacterium and Xanthomonas elicit plant innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbs, Gitte; Silipo, Alba; Aslam, Shazia

    2008-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a unique and essential structural part of the bacterial cell wall. PGNs from two contrasting Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria elicited components characteristic of the innate immune system in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as transcription of the defense gene PR1, oxidat...

  18. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase.

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    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Huang, Wan-Ling; Kau, Sau-Wei; Yang, Yun-Pei; Yang, Chung-Da

    2014-05-14

    Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH). In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH) microparticles, 3.21-6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%-83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%), which was significantly higher (p PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  19. An adenoviral vector expressing lipoprotein A, a major antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, elicits robust immune responses in mice.

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    Carozza, Marlène; Rodrigues, Valérie; Unterfinger, Yves; Galea, Sandra; Coulpier, Muriel; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Thiaucourt, François; Totté, Philippe; Richardson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC), is a devastating respiratory disease of cattle. In sub-Saharan Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, live attenuated vaccines are deployed but afford only short-lived protection. In cattle, recovery from experimental MmmSC infection has been associated with the presence of CD4(+) T lymphocytes that secrete interferon gamma in response to MmmSC, and in particular to the lipoprotein A (LppA) antigen. In an effort to develop a better vaccine against CBPP, a viral vector (Ad5-LppA) that expressed LppA was generated from human adenovirus type 5. The LppA-specific immune responses elicited by the Ad5-LppA vector were evaluated in mice, and compared to those elicited by recombinant LppA formulated with a potent adjuvant. Notably, a single administration of Ad5-LppA, but not recombinant protein, sufficed to elicit a robust LppA-specific humoral response. After a booster administration, both vector and recombinant protein elicited strong LppA-specific humoral and cell-mediated responses. Ex vivo stimulation of splenocytes induced extensive proliferation of CD4(+) T cells for mice immunized with vector or protein, and secretion of T helper 1-associated and proinflammatory cytokines for mice immunized with Ad5-LppA. Our study - by demonstrating the potential of a viral-vectored prototypic vaccine to elicit prompt and robust immune responses against a major antigen of MmmSC - represents a first step in developing a recombinant vaccine against CBPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural Killer Dendritic Cells Enhance Immune Responses Elicited by α-Galactosylceramide-Stimulated Natural Killer T Cells

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    Sung Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer dendritic cells (NKDCs possess potent anti-tumor activity, but the cellular effect of NKDC interactions with other innate immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of NKDCs and natural killer T (NKT cells is required for the anti-tumor immune responses that are elicited by α-galactosylceramide (α-GC in mice. The rapid and strong expression of interferon-γ by NKDCs after α-GC stimulation was dependent on NKT cells. Various NK and DC molecular markers and cytotoxic molecules were up-regulated following α-GC administration. This up-regulation could improve NKDC presentation of tumor antigens and increase cytotoxicity against tumor cells. NKDCs were required for the stimulation of DCs, NK cells, and NKT cells. The strong anti-tumor immune responses elicited by α-GC may be due to the down-regulation of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, the depletion of NKDCs dampened the tumor clearance mediated by α-GC-stimulated NKT cells in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that complex interactions of innate immune cells might be required to achieve optimal anti-tumor immune responses during the early stages of tumorigenesis.

  1. Elicitation of strong immune responses by a DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 in murine and porcine animal models

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    Li, Yiping; Kang, H.N.; Babiuk, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    boosting with a recombinant E2 protein vaccine formulated with CpG ODN and 10% Emulsigen. The immunogenicity of HCV E2 vaccines was analyzed by ELISA for antibody responses, MTT assay for lymphocyte proliferation, ELISPOT for the number of interferon-gamma secreting cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte assays...... and shifted the immune response towards Th2-like ones in piglets. CONCLUSION: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein elicited E2-specific immune responses in mice and piglets. Recombinant E2 protein vaccination following DNA immunization significantly increased the antibody response......AIM: To characterize the immunogenicity of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 DNA vaccine alone or with a protein vaccine boost in murine and porcine animal models. METHODS: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein was constructed and used to vaccinate mice and piglets with or without...

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose regulated protein 170-Pokemon complexes elicit a robust antitumor immune response in vivo.

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    Yuan, Bangqing; Xian, Ronghua; Wu, Xianqu; Jing, Junjie; Chen, Kangning; Liu, Guojun; Zhou, Zhenhua

    2012-07-01

    Previous evidence suggested that the stress protein grp170 can function as a highly efficient molecular chaperone, binding to large protein substrates and acting as a potent vaccine against specific tumors when purified from the same tumor. In addition, Pokemon can be found in almost all malignant tumor cells and is regarded to be a promising candidate for the treatment of tumors. However, the potential of the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex has not been well described. In the present study, the natural chaperone complex between grp170 and the Pokemon was formed by heat shock, and its immunogenicity was detected by ELISPOT and (51)Cr-release assays in vitro and by tumor bearing models in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex could elicit T cell responses as determined by ELISPOT and (51)Cr-release assays. In addition, immunized C57BL/6 mice were challenged with subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of Lewis cancer cells to induce primary tumors. Treatment of mice with the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex also significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Our results indicated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex might represent a powerful approach to tumor immunotherapy and have significant potential for clinical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Introduction of OX40 ligand into lymphoma cells elicits anti-lymphoma immunity in vivo.

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    Kaneko, Hitomi; Hori, Toshiyuki; Yanagita, Soshi; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Uchiyama, Takashi

    2005-03-01

    OX40, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, and its ligand (OX40L) play crucial roles in induction and maintenance of integrated T cell immune response. Engagement of OX40L delivers a costimulatory signal to T cells. In this study, we investigated whether inoculation of OX40L-transfected EL4, a murine T cell lymphoma cell line, could induce anti-lymphoma immunity in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with 1 x 10(5) cells of parental EL4, OX40L-transfected EL4 (EL4-OX40L), or mock control vector-transfected EL4 (EL4-mock), and then the tumor size, overall survival, CTL activity of spleen cells, and the immunohistochemistry were compared. While both parental EL4 and EL4-mock grew rapidly, EL4-OX40L was rejected or grew slower than parental EL4 or EL4-mock. Pretreatment of mice with either anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAb accelerated the growth of EL4-OX40L, suggesting that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were involved in anti-lymphoma immunity. The immunohistochemical study revealed the infiltration of CD8+ T cells into the tumor of EL4-OX40L. In vitro CTL assay demonstrated that spleen cells of mice that had rejected EL4-OX40L had significant cytotoxic activity against parental EL4. The gene transfer of OX40L into lymphoma cells is an eligible and efficient modality to induce anti-lymphoma immunity.

  4. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Chuang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, such as pleurocidin (PLE, play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH. In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLG polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%. In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  5. Safety, immunogenicity and duration of immunity elicited by an inactivated bovine ephemeral fever vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Aziz-Boaron

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF is an economically important viral vector-borne cattle disease. Several live-attenuated, inactivated and recombinant vaccines have been tested, demonstrating varying efficacy. However, to the best of our knowledge, duration of immunity conferred by an inactivated vaccine has never been reported. In the last decade, Israel has faced an increasing number of BEF outbreaks. The need for an effective vaccine compatible with strains circulating in the Middle East region led to the development of a MONTANIDE™ ISA 206 VG (water-in-oil-in-water, inactivated vaccine based on a local strain. We tested the safety, immunogenicity and duration of immunity conferred by this vaccine. The induced neutralizing antibody (NA response was followed for 493 days in 40 cows vaccinated by different protocols. The vaccine did not cause adverse reactions or a decrease in milk production. All cows [except 2 (6.7% which did not respond to vaccination] showed a significant rise in NA titer of up to 1:256 following the second, third or fourth booster vaccination. Neutralizing antibody levels declined gradually to 1:16 up to 120 days post vaccination. This decline continued in cows vaccinated only twice, whereas cows vaccinated 3 or 4 times showed stable titers of approximately 1:16 for up to 267 days post vaccination. At least three vaccinations with the inactivated BEF vaccine were needed to confer long-lasting immunity. These results may have significant implications for the choice of vaccination protocol with inactivated BEF vaccines. Complementary challenge data should however be added to the above results in order to determine what is the minimal NA response conferring protection from clinical disease.

  6. Pilot Study on the Use of DNA Priming Immunization to Enhance Y. pestis LcrV-Specific B Cell Responses Elicited by a Recombinant LcrV Protein Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that DNA immunization is powerful in eliciting antigen-specific antibody responses in both animal and human studies. However, there is limited information on the mechanism of this effect. In particular, it is not known whether DNA immunization can also enhance the development of antigen-specific B cell development. In this report, a pilot study was conducted using plague LcrV immunogen as a model system to determine whether DNA immunization is able to enhance LcrV-specific B cell development in mice. Plague is an acute and often fatal infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis. Humoral immune responses provide critical protective immunity against plague. Previously, we demonstrated that a DNA vaccine expressing LcrV antigen can protect mice from lethal mucosal challenge. In the current study, we further evaluated whether the use of a DNA priming immunization is able to enhance the immunogenicity of a recombinant LcrV protein vaccine, and in particular, the development of LcrV-specific B cells. Our data indicate that DNA immunization was able to elicit high-level LcrV antibody responses when used alone or as part of a prime-boost immunization approach. Most significantly, DNA immunization was also able to increase the levels of LcrV-specific B cell development. The finding that DNA immunization can enhance antigen-specific B cell responses is highly significant and will help guide similar studies in other model antigen systems.

  7. The Carbomer-Lecithin Adjuvant Adjuplex Has Potent Immunoactivating Properties and Elicits Protective Adaptive Immunity against Influenza Virus Challenge in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Frank; Moghaddam, Amin E.; Schiffner, Torben; Gartlan, Kate H.; Powell, Timothy J.; Russell, Rebecca A.; Baart, Matthijs; Carrow, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    The continued discovery and development of adjuvants for vaccine formulation are important to safely increase potency and/or reduce the antigen doses of existing vaccines and tailor the adaptive immune response to newly developed vaccines. Adjuplex is a novel adjuvant platform based on a purified lecithin and carbomer homopolymer. Here, we analyzed the adjuvant activity of Adjuplex in mice for the soluble hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza A virus. The titration of Adjuplex revealed an optimal dose of 1% for immunogenicity, eliciting high titers of HA-specific IgG but inducing no significant weight loss. At this dose, Adjuplex completely protected mice from an otherwise lethal influenza virus challenge and was at least as effective as the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum in preventing disease. Adjuplex elicited balanced Th1-/Th2-type immune responses with accompanying cytokines and triggered antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell proliferation. The use of the peritoneal inflammation model revealed that Adjuplex recruited dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and neutrophils in the context of innate cytokine and chemokine secretion. Adjuplex neither triggered classical maturation of DCs nor activated a pathogen recognition receptor (PRR)-expressing NF-κB reporter cell line, suggesting a mechanism of action different from that reported for classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-activated innate immunity. Taken together, these data reveal Adjuplex to be a potent and well-tolerated adjuvant with application for subunit vaccines. PMID:26135973

  8. A nonproliferating parvovirus vaccine vector elicits sustained, protective humoral immunity following a single intravenous or intranasal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gene A; Brogdon, Jennifer L; Constant, Stephanie L; Tattersall, Peter

    2004-02-01

    An ideal vaccine delivery system would elicit persistent protection following a single administration, preferably by a noninvasive route, and be safe even in the face of immunosuppression, either inherited or acquired, of the recipient. We have exploited the unique life cycle of the autonomous parvoviruses to develop a nonproliferating vaccine platform that appears to both induce priming and continually boost a protective immune response following a single inoculation. A crippled parvovirus vector was constructed, based on a chimera between minute virus of mice (MVM) and LuIII, which expresses Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) instead of its coat protein. The vector was packaged into an MVM lymphotropic capsid and inoculated into naive C3H/HeNcr mice. Vaccination with a single vector dose, either intravenously or intranasally, elicited high-titer anti-OspA-specific antibody that provided protection from live spirochete challenge and was sustained over the lifetime of the animal. Both humoral and cell-mediated Th(1) immunity was induced, as shown by anti-OspA immunoglobulin G2a antibody and preferential gamma interferon production by OspA-specific CD4(+) T cells.

  9. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clay Nanoparticles Elicit Long-Term Immune Responses by Forming Biodegradable Depots for Sustained Antigen Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyu; Zuo, Huali; Li, Bei; Duan, Chengcheng; Rolfe, Barbara; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely tested as new generation vaccine adjuvants, but few evoke efficient immunoreactions. Clay nanoparticles, for example, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and hectorite (HEC) nanoparticles, have shown their potent adjuvanticity in generating effective and durable immune responses. However, the mechanism by which clay nanoadjuvants stimulate the immune system is not well understood. Here, it is demonstrated that LDH and HEC-antigen complexes form loose agglomerates in culture medium/serum. They also form nodules with loose structures in tissue after subcutaneous injection, where they act as a depot for up to 35 d. More importantly, clay nanoparticles actively and continuously recruit immune cells into the depot for up to one month, and stimulate stronger immune responses than FDA-approved adjuvants, Alum and QuilA. Sustained antigen release is also observed in clay nanoparticle depots, with 50-60% antigen released after 35 d. In contrast, Alum-antigen complexes show minimal antigen release from the depot. Importantly, LDH and HEC are more effective than QuilA and Alum in promoting memory T-cell proliferation. These findings suggest that both clay nanoadjuvants can serve as active vaccine platforms for sustained and potent immune responses. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Interleukin-4 Supports the Suppressive Immune Responses Elicited by Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-4 (IL-4 has been considered as one of the tolerogenic cytokines in many autoimmune animal models and clinical settings. Despite its role in antagonizing pathogenic Th1 responses, little is known about whether IL-4 possesses functions that affect regulatory T cells (Tregs. Tregs are specialized cells responsible for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance through their immune modulatory capabilities. Interestingly, it has been suggested that IL-4 supplement at a high concentration protects responder T cells (Tresps from Treg-mediated immune suppression. In addition, such supplement also impedes TGF-β-induced Treg differentiation in vitro. However, these phenomena may contradict the tolerogenic role of IL-4, and the effects of IL-4 on Tregs are therefore needed to be further elucidated. In this study, we utilized IL-4 knockout (KO mice to validate the role of IL-4 on Treg-mediated immune suppression. Although IL-4 KO and control animals harbor similar frequencies of Tregs, Tregs from IL-4 KO mice weakly suppressed autologous Tresp activation. In addition, IL-4 deprivation impaired the ability of Tregs to modulate immune response, whereas IL-4 supplementation reinforced IL-4 KO Tregs in their function in suppressing Tresps. Finally, the presence of IL-4 was associated with increased cell survival and granzyme expression of Tregs. These results suggest the essential role of IL-4 in supporting Treg-mediated immune suppression, which may benefit the development of therapeutic strategies for autoimmune diseases.

  12. Abiotic elicitors mediated elicitation of innate immunity in tomato: an ex vivo comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Sudeepa; Chandra, Swarnendu; Sengupta, Sarban; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2016-07-01

    Improvement of the host resistance by using hazard free chemical elicitors is emerging as an alternative approach in the field of plant disease management. In our present work, we have screened the efficacy and possible mechanism of abiogenic elicitors like Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate ( K 2 HPO 4 ), Oxalic acid (OA), Isonicotinic acid (INA), Salicylic acid (SA), Acetylsalicylate (AS), Arachidonic acid (AA) and Calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) to stimulate innate immune responses in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Excised tomato leaves, treated with elicitors at three different concentrations, were found to stimulate defense and antioxidative enzymes, total phenol and flavonoid content after 24 h of incubation. CaCl 2 (0.5 %) followed by INA (2.5 mM) were found most effective in activation of all such defense molecules in tomato leaves. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO), a key gaseous mediator in plant defense signaling, was also measured after subsequent elicitor application. Higher doses of elicitors showed an elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, enhanced lipid peroxidation rate and proline content, which indicates the extent of abiotic stress generation on the leaves. However, ROS production, lipid peroxidation rate and proline concentration remain significantly reduced as a result of CaCl 2 (0.5 %) and INA (2.5 mM) application. A sharp increase of total chlorophyll content was also recorded due to treatment of CaCl 2 (0.5 %). These results demonstrate the effects of different abiogenic elicitors to regulate the production of defense molecules. Results also suggest that among all such chemicals, CaCl 2 (0.5 %) and INA (2.5 mM) can be used as a potential elicitor in organic farming of tomato.

  13. Antigen-Specific lgA B Memory Cell Responses to Shigella Antigens Elicited in Volunteers Immunized with Live Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Oral Vaccine Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    167. [10] E.V. Oaks, T.L. Hale, S.B. Formal, Serum immune response to Shigella protein antigens in rhesus monkeys and humans infected with Shigella ...cell responses to Shigella antigens elicited in volunteers immunized with live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a oral vaccine candidates J.K. Simona,b... Shigella ;. B cell memory; Immunoglobulin lgA; Mucosal immunity Abstract We studied the induction of antigen-specific lgA memory B cells (BM) in

  14. Clonal neoantigens elicit T cell immunoreactivity and sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Nicholas; Furness, Andrew J. S.; Rosenthal, Rachel; Ramskov, Sofie; Lyngaa, Rikke; Saini, Sunil Kumar; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Wilson, Gareth A.; Birkbak, Nicolai J.; Hiley, Crispin T.; Watkins, Thomas B. K.; Shafi, Seema; Murugaesu, Nirupa; Mitter, Richard; Akarca, Ayse U.; Linares, Joseph; Marafioti, Teresa; Henry, Jake Y.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Miao, Diana; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Garraway, Levi A.; Makarov, Vladimir; Rizvi, Naiyer A.; Snyder, Alexandra; Hellmann, Matthew D.; Merghoub, Taha; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Shukla, Sachet A.; Wu, Catherine J.; Peggs, Karl S.; Chan, Timothy A.; Hadrup, Sine R.; Quezada, Sergio A.; Swanton, Charles

    2016-01-01

    As tumors grow, they acquire mutations, some of which create neoantigens that influence the response of patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We explored the impact of neoantigen intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) on antitumor immunity. Through integrated analysis of ITH and neoantigen burden, we demonstrate a relationship between clonal neoantigen burden and overall survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas. CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive to clonal neoantigens were identified in early-stage non–small cell lung cancer and expressed high levels of PD-1. Sensitivity to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in patients with advanced NSCLC and melanoma was enhanced in tumors enriched for clonal neoantigens. T cells recognizing clonal neoantigens were detectable in patients with durable clinical benefit. Cytotoxic chemotherapy–induced subclonal neoantigens, contributing to an increased mutational load, were enriched in certain poor responders. These data suggest that neoantigen heterogeneity may influence immune surveillance and support therapeutic developments targeting clonal neoantigens. PMID:26940869

  15. Immunization of neonatal mice with LAMP/p55 HIV gag DNA elicits robust immune responses that last to adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonhez Rigato, Paula; Maciel, Milton; Goldoni, Adriana Leticia; Piubelli, Orlando; Alves de Brito, Cyro; Fusaro, Ana Elisa; Eurico de Alencar, Liciana Xavier; August, Thomas; Torres Azevedo Marques, Ernesto; Silva Duarte, Alberto Jose da; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2010-01-01

    Successful T cell priming in early postnatal life that can generate effective long-lasting responses until adulthood is critical in HIV vaccination strategies because it prevents early sexual initiation and breastfeeding transmission of HIV. A chimeric DNA vaccine encoding p55 HIV gag associated with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1; which drives the antigen to the MIIC compartment), has been used to enhance cellular and humoral antigen-specific responses in adult mice and macaques. Herein, we investigated LAMP-1/gag vaccine immunogenicity in the neonatal period in mice and its ability to generate long-lasting effects. Neonatal vaccination with chimeric LAMP/gag generated stronger Gag-specific immune responses, as measured by the breadth of the Gag peptide-specific IFN-γ, proliferative responsiveness, cytokine production and antibody production, all of which revealed activation of CD4+ T cells as well as the generation of a more robust CTL response compared to gag vaccine alone. To induce long-lived T and B cell memory responses, it was necessary to immunize neonates with the chimeric LAMP/gag DNA vaccine. The LAMP/gag DNA vaccine strategy could be particularly useful for generating an anti-HIV immune response in the early postnatal period capable of inducing long-term immunological memory.

  16. Strategies and challenges for eliciting immunity against avian influenza virus in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E; Kapczynski, Darrell

    2008-10-01

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged during the past two decades as essential tools in avian influenza (AI) control for poultry, because they increase resistance to infection, prevent illness and death, reduce virus replication and shed from respiratory and alimentary tracts, and reduce virus transmission to birds and mammals, including humans. Such protection in birds is primarily mediated by homosubtypic humoral immunity against the hemagglutinin protein, but cell-mediated and innate immunity contribute to protection in some bird species. The immune response to the neuraminidase protein can contribute to protection, but immunity to the viral internal proteins is generally not protective. Although, some preliminary studies with M2e protein in chickens suggest partial protection may be achievable. Historically, the H5 subtype AI vaccines have demonstrated broad homosubtypic protection, primarily against H5 high-pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses isolated in the early stages of outbreaks. However, as H5 viruses have become endemic and outbreaks prolonged, some drift variants with resistance to earlier H5 AI vaccines have emerged in Central America, China, Egypt, and Indonesia. How widespread such drift variants are will remain unknown until more detailed genetic and antigenic analyses are conducted on field isolates. Future vaccines will utilize biotechnology to produce new AI vaccine seed strains using HA genes more closely matching circulating field viruses. In addition, newer technologies for AI vaccines will improve vaccine coverage by using mass application technologies for example by drinking water, by spray, or via injection in ovo or at the hatchery.

  17. Immunization Elicits Antigen-Specific Antibody Sequestration in Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Manojkumar; Chatterjee, Prodyot K.; Shih, Andrew; Imperato, Gavin H.; Addorisio, Meghan; Kumar, Gopal; Lee, Annette; Graf, John F.; Meyer, Dan; Marino, Michael; Puleo, Christopher; Ashe, Jeffrey; Cox, Maureen A.; Mak, Tak W.; Bouton, Chad; Sherry, Barbara; Diamond, Betty; Andersson, Ulf; Coleman, Thomas R.; Metz, Christine N.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Chavan, Sangeeta S.

    2018-01-01

    The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies. As revealed by RNA-seq and targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR), dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons harvested from either naïve or immunized mice lack enzymes (i.e., RAG1, RAG2, AID, or UNG) required for generating antibody diversity and, therefore, cannot make antibodies. Additionally, transgenic mice that express a reporter fluorescent protein under the control of Igγ1 constant region fail to express Ighg1 transcripts in DRG sensory neurons. Furthermore, neural sequestration of antibodies occurs in mice rendered deficient in neuronal Rag2, but antibody sequestration is not observed in DRG sensory neurons isolated from mice that lack mature B cells [e.g., Rag1 knock out (KO) or μMT mice]. Finally, adoptive transfer of Rag1-deficient bone marrow (BM) into wild-type (WT) mice or WT BM into Rag1 KO mice revealed that antibody sequestration was observed in DRG sensory neurons of chimeric mice with WT BM but not with Rag1-deficient BM. Together, these results indicate that DRG sensory neurons sequester and retain antigen-specific antibodies released by antibody-secreting plasma cells. Coupling this work with previous studies implicating DRG sensory neurons in regulating antigen trafficking during immunization raises the interesting possibility that the nervous system collaborates with the immune system to regulate antigen-mediated responses. PMID:29755449

  18. Immunization Elicits Antigen-Specific Antibody Sequestration in Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojkumar Gunasekaran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies. As revealed by RNA-seq and targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR, dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons harvested from either naïve or immunized mice lack enzymes (i.e., RAG1, RAG2, AID, or UNG required for generating antibody diversity and, therefore, cannot make antibodies. Additionally, transgenic mice that express a reporter fluorescent protein under the control of Igγ1 constant region fail to express Ighg1 transcripts in DRG sensory neurons. Furthermore, neural sequestration of antibodies occurs in mice rendered deficient in neuronal Rag2, but antibody sequestration is not observed in DRG sensory neurons isolated from mice that lack mature B cells [e.g., Rag1 knock out (KO or μMT mice]. Finally, adoptive transfer of Rag1-deficient bone marrow (BM into wild-type (WT mice or WT BM into Rag1 KO mice revealed that antibody sequestration was observed in DRG sensory neurons of chimeric mice with WT BM but not with Rag1-deficient BM. Together, these results indicate that DRG sensory neurons sequester and retain antigen-specific antibodies released by antibody-secreting plasma cells. Coupling this work with previous studies implicating DRG sensory neurons in regulating antigen trafficking during immunization raises the interesting possibility that the nervous system collaborates with the immune system to regulate antigen-mediated responses.

  19. A combination vaccine comprising of inactivated enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 elicits balanced protective immunity against both viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yicun; Ku, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingwei; Leng, Qibin; Huang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is an infectious disease frequently occurring in children. A bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16 is highly desirable. In the present study, we compare monovalent inactivated EV71, monovalent inactivated CA16, and a combination vaccine candidate comprising of both inactivated EV71 and CA16, for their immunogenicity and in vivo protective efficacy. The two monovalent vaccines were found to elicit serum antibodies that potently neutralized the homologous virus but had no or weak neutralization activity against the heterologous one; in contrast, the bivalent vaccine immunized sera efficiently neutralized both EV71 and CA16. More importantly, passive immunization with the bivalent vaccine protected mice against either EV71 or CA16 lethal infections, whereas the monovalent vaccines only prevented the homologous but not the heterologous challenges. Together, our results demonstrate that the experimental bivalent vaccine comprising of inactivated EV71 and CA16 induces a balanced protective immunity against both EV71 and CA16, and thus provide proof-of-concept for further development of multivalent vaccines for broad protection against HFMD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abiotic elicitors mediated elicitation of innate immunity in tomato: an ex vivo comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Sudeepa; Chandra, Swarnendu; Sengupta, Sarban; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of the host resistance by using hazard free chemical elicitors is emerging as an alternative approach in the field of plant disease management. In our present work, we have screened the efficacy and possible mechanism of abiogenic elicitors like Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate (K2HPO4), Oxalic acid?(OA), Isonicotinic acid (INA), Salicylic acid?(SA), Acetylsalicylate?(AS), Arachidonic acid (AA)?and Calcium chloride (CaCl2) to stimulate innate immune responses in Lycopersicum es...

  1. POLE proofreading mutations elicit an anti-tumor immune response in endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, Inge C; Eggink, Florine A; Freeman-Mills, Luke; Stelloo, Ellen; Marchi, Emanuele; de Bruyn, Marco; Palles, Claire; Nout, Remi A; de Kroon, Cor D; Osse, Elisabeth M; Klenerman, Paul; Creutzberg, Carien L; Tomlinson, Ian PM; Smit, Vincent THBM; Nijman, Hans W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have shown that 7-12% of endometrial cancers (ECs) are ultramutated due to somatic mutation in the proofreading exonuclease domain of the DNA replicase POLE. Interestingly, these tumors have an excellent prognosis. In view of the emerging data linking mutation burden, immune response and clinical outcome in cancer, we investigated whether POLE-mutant ECs showed evidence of increased immunogenicity. Experimental design We examined immune infiltration and activation according to tumor POLE proofreading mutation in a molecularly defined EC cohort including 47 POLE-mutant tumors. We sought to confirm our results by analysis of RNAseq data from the TCGA EC series and used the same series to examine whether differences in immune infiltration could be explained by an enrichment of immunogenic neoepitopes in POLE-mutant ECs. Results Compared to other ECs, POLE-mutants displayed an enhanced cytotoxic T cell response, evidenced by increased numbers of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and CD8A expression, enrichment for a tumor-infiltrating T cell gene signature, and strong upregulation of the T cell cytotoxic differentiation and effector markers T-bet, Eomes, IFNG, PRF and granzyme B. This was accompanied by upregulation of T cell exhaustion markers, consistent with chronic antigen exposure. In-silico analysis confirmed that POLE-mutant cancers are predicted to display more antigenic neo-epitopes than other ECs, providing a potential explanation for our findings. Conclusions Ultramutated POLE proofreading-mutant ECs are characterized by a robust intratumoral T cell response, which correlates with, and may be caused by an enrichment of antigenic neo-peptides. Our study provides a plausible mechanism for the excellent prognosis of these cancers. PMID:25878334

  2. Oral administration of a recombinant attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain elicits protective immunity against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-11-27

    A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis PB1+ (Yptb PB1+) mutant strain combined with chromosome insertion of the caf1R-caf1A-caf1M-caf1 operon and deletions of yopJ and yopK, χ10068 [pYV-ω2 (ΔyopJ315 ΔyopK108) ΔlacZ044::caf1R-caf1M-caf1A-caf1] was constructed. Results indicated that gene insertion and deletion did not affect the growth rate of χ10068 compared to wild-type Yptb cultured at 26 °C. In addition, the F1 antigen in χ10068 was synthesized and secreted on the surface of bacteria at 37 °C (mammalian body temperature), not at ambient culture temperature (26 °C). Immunization with χ10068 primed antibody responses and specific T-cell responses to F1 and YpL (Y. pestis whole cell lysate). Oral immunization with a single dose of χ10068 provided 70% protection against a subcutaneous (s.c.) challenge with ∼ 2.6 × 10(5) LD50 of Y. pestis KIM6+ (pCD1Ap) (KIM6+Ap) and 90% protection against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ∼ 500 LD50 of KIM6+Ap in mice. Our results suggest that χ10068 can be used as an effective precursor to make a safe vaccine to prevent plague in humans and to eliminate plague circulation among humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana P C Barroso

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling. Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.

  4. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Pushko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA ® platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice

  5. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Center for Predictive Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA{sup ®} platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice.

  6. Fibrous nanocellulose, crystalline nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes, and crocidolite asbestos elicit disparate immune responses upon pharyngeal aspiration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Khaliullin, Timur O; Shurin, Michael R; Kisin, Elena R; Yanamala, Naveena; Fadeel, Bengt; Chang, Jaerak; Shvedova, Anna A

    2018-12-01

    With the rapid development of synthetic alternatives to mineral fibers, their possible effects on the environment and human health have become recognized as important issues worldwide. This study investigated effects of four fibrous materials, i.e. nanofibrillar/nanocrystalline celluloses (NCF and CNC), single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and crocidolite asbestos (ASB), on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses found in the lungs, as well as the effects on spleen and peripheral blood immune cell subsets. BALB/c mice were given NCF, CNC, CNT, and ASB on Day 1 by oropharyngeal aspiration. At 14 days post-exposure, the animals were evaluated. Total cell number, mononuclear phagocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, and LDH levels were significantly increased in ASB and CNT-exposed mice. Expression of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was quite different in mice exposed to four particle types, as well as expression of antigen presentation-related surface proteins on BAL cells. The results revealed that pulmonary exposure to fibrous materials led to discrete local immune cell polarization patterns with a T H 2-like response caused by ASB and T H 1-like immune reaction to NCF, while CNT and CNC caused non-classical or non-uniform responses. These alterations in immune response following pulmonary exposure should be taken into account when testing the applicability of new nanosized materials with fibrous morphology.

  7. An oral Sindbis virus replicon-based DNA vaccine containing VP2 gene of canine parvovirus delivered by Escherichia coli elicits immune responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, S S; Saini, M; Kumar, P; Gupta, P K

    2011-01-01

    A Sindbis virus replicon-based DNA vaccine containing VP2 gene of canine parvovirus (CPV) was delivered by Escherichia coli to elicit immune responses. The orally immunized dogs developed CPV-specific serum IgG and virus neutralizing antibody responses. The cellular immune responses analyzed using lymphocyte proliferation test and flow cytometry indicated CPV-specific sensitization of both CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes. This study demonstrated that the oral CPV DNA vaccine delivered by E. coli can be considered as a promising approach for vaccination of dogs against CPV.

  8. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S; Pushko, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMoffett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs, including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll., are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genera Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense response in N. tabacum, and tobacco was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  10. Mucosal delivery of a vectored RSV vaccine is safe and elicits protective immunity in rodents and nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angiolo Pierantoni

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is a leading cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. No vaccine is presently available to address this major unmet medical need. We generated a new genetic vaccine based on chimpanzee Adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV and Modified Vaccinia Ankara RSV (MVA-RSV encoding the F, N, and M2-1 proteins of RSV, for the induction of neutralizing antibodies and broad cellular immunity. Because RSV infection is restricted to the respiratory tract, we compared intranasal (IN and intramuscular (M administration for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in different species. A single IN or IM vaccination completely protected BALB/c mice and cotton rats against RSV replication in the lungs. However, only IN administration could prevent infection in the upper respiratory tract. IM vaccination with MVA-RSV also protected cotton rats from lower respiratory tract infection in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. Heterologous prime boost with PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and broad T-cell responses in nonhuman primates. In addition, animals primed in the nose developed mucosal IgA against the F protein. In conclusion, we have shown that our vectored RSV vaccine induces potent cellular and humoral responses in a primate model, providing strong support for clinical testing.

  11. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2015-08-11

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  12. CpG-DNA enhancement the immune elicited as adjuvant of foot- and- mouth disease vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshedi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of the locally produced genetic adjuvant of ginea pig specific CpG-motif-containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN in an inactivated FMD virus vaccine was evaluated. Boosting the ginea pigs with FMD vaccine along with CpG-ODN adjuvant produced relatively higher ratio (5-fold of FMDV-specific IgG2a / IgG1 than those vaccinated in the absence of CpG-ODN. The neutralizing antibody (NA titer induced by FMD vaccine along with CpG-ODN adjuvant was significantly higher (8-fold than NA titer induced by the classical FMD vaccine in Alum adjuvant. The titer of NA and virus clearance from serum was consistently and significantly higher in animals primed with FMD vaccine and boosted by CpG-ODN than the classical FMD vaccine. The results of this study showed the potential of CpG-ODN as a genetic adjuvant to FMD vaccine in the development of Th1 responses.

  13. A repeated injection of polyethyleneglycol-conjugated recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase elicits immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilukuri, Nageswararao; Sun Wei; Parikh, Kalpana; Naik, Ramachandra S.; Tang Lin; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-01-01

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) serves as an efficacious bioscavenger of highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Since there is a concern that the supply of native Hu BChE may be limited, monomeric and tetrameric forms of recombinant Hu BChE (rHu BChE) were evaluated as replacements and found that they lacked sufficient stability in vivo. However, their in vivo stability could be significantly prolonged by conjugation with polyethyleneglycol-20K (PEG) suggesting that monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChE could function as bioscavengers. Here, the immunogenicity of PEG-rHu BChE was evaluated in mice following two injections given four weeks apart. In addition to pharmacokinetic parameters, such as mean residence time, maximal concentration, time to reach the maximal concentration, elimination half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies was also determined. Although the pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly improved for the first injection of monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs, they were much lower for the second injection. Anti-rHu BChE antibodies were detected in the blood of mice following the first and second enzyme injections and their levels were approximately higher by 5-fold and 2-fold in mice injected with monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs as compared to mice injected with unconjugated enzymes. The findings that the rapid clearance of a repeat injection of PEG-rHu BChEs in mice which coincides with the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies suggest that PEG conjugation prolonged the circulatory stability of rHu BChE but failed to eliminate its immunogenicity in mice

  14. Immunization With Fc-Based Recombinant Epstein–Barr Virus gp350 Elicits Potent Neutralizing Humoral Immune Response in a BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchun Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was the first human virus proved to be closely associated with tumor development, such as lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. Despite many efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines against EBV infection and diseases, no candidates have succeeded in effectively blocking EBV infection in clinical trials. Previous investigations showed that EBV gp350 plays a pivotal role in the infection of B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, using monomeric gp350 proteins as antigens has not been effective in preventing infection. Multimeric forms of the antigen are more potently immunogenic than monomers; however, the multimerization elements used in previous constructs are not approved for human clinical trials. To prepare a much-needed EBV prophylactic vaccine that is potent, safe, and applicable, we constructed an Fc-based form of gp350 to serve as a dimeric antigen. Here, we show that the Fc-based gp350 antigen exhibits dramatically enhanced immunogenicity compared with wild-type gp350 protein. The complete or partial gp350 ectodomain was fused with the mouse IgG2a Fc domain. Fusion with the Fc domain did not impair gp350 folding, binding to a conformation-dependent neutralizing antibody (nAb and binding to its receptor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance. Specific antibody titers against gp350 were notably enhanced by immunization with gp350-Fc dimers compared with gp350 monomers. Furthermore, immunization with gp350-Fc fusion proteins elicited potent nAbs against EBV. Our data strongly suggest that an EBV gp350 vaccine based on Fc fusion proteins may be an efficient candidate to prevent EBV infection in clinical applications.

  15. Administration of HPV DNA vaccine via electroporation elicits the strongest CD8+ T cell immune responses compared to intramuscular injection and intradermal gene gun delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Simon R.; Peng, Shiwen; Juang, Chi-Mou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.; Pai, Sara I.

    2009-01-01

    DNA vaccines are an attractive approach to eliciting antigen-specific immunity. Intracellular targeting of tumor antigens through its linkage to immunostimulatory molecules such as calreticulin (CRT) can improve antigen processing and presentation through the MHC Class I pathway and increase cytotoxic CD8+ T cell production. However, even with these enhancements, the efficacy of such immunotherapeutic strategies is dependent on the identification of an effective route and method of DNA administration. Electroporation and gene gun-mediated particle delivery are leading methods of DNA vaccine delivery that can generate protective and therapeutic levels of immune responses in experimental models. In this study, we perform a head-to-head comparison of three methods of vaccination – conventional intramuscular injection, electroporation mediated intramuscular delivery, and epidermal gene gun-mediated particle delivery - in the ability to generate antigen specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses as well as anti-tumor immune responses against an HPV-16 E7 expressing tumor cell line using the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Vaccination via electroporation generated the highest number of E7-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which correlated to improved outcomes in the treatment of growing tumors. In addition, we demonstrate that electroporation results in significantly higher levels of circulating protein compared to gene gun or intramuscular vaccination, which likely enhances calreticulin’s role as a local tumor anti-angiogenesis agent. We conclude that electroporation is a promising method for delivery of HPV DNA vaccines and should be considered for DNA vaccine delivery in human clinical trials. PMID:19622402

  16. Employing Escherichia coli-derived outer membrane vesicles as an antigen delivery platform elicits protective immunity against Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shijie; Yao, Yufeng; Xia, Ye; Yang, Xu; Li, Kui; Sun, Pengyan; Liu, Cunbao; Sun, Wenjia; Bai, Hongmei; Chu, Xiaojie; Li, Yang; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-11-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proven to be highly immunogenic and induced an immune response against bacterial infection in human clinics and animal models. We sought to investigate whether engineered OMVs can be a feasible antigen-delivery platform for efficiently inducing specific antibody responses. In this study, Omp22 (an outer membrane protein of A. baumannii) was displayed on E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs (Omp22-OMVs) using recombinant gene technology. The morphological features of Omp22-OMVs were similar to those of wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs). Immunization with Omp22-OMVs induced high titers of Omp22-specific antibodies. In a murine sepsis model, Omp22-OMV immunization significantly protected mice from lethal challenge with a clinically isolated A. baumannii strain, which was evidenced by the increased survival rate of the mice, the reduced bacterial burdens in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood, and the suppressed serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro opsonophagocytosis assays showed that antiserum collected from Omp22-OMV-immunized mice had bactericidal activity against clinical isolates, which was partly specific antibody-dependent. These results strongly indicated that engineered OMVs could display a whole heterologous protein (~22 kDa) on the surface and effectively induce specific antibody responses, and thus OMVs have the potential to be a feasible vaccine platform.

  17. DNA vaccines elicit durable protective immunity against individual or simultaneous infections with Lassa and Ebola viruses in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathleen A.; Wilkinson, Eric R.; Wollen, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Zelko, Justine M.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Zeng, Xiankun; Broderick, Kate E.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously developed optimized DNA vaccines against both Lassa fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses and demonstrated that they were protective individually in guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. In this study, we vaccinated groups of strain 13 guinea pigs two times, four weeks apart with 50 µg of each DNA vaccine or a mock vaccine at discrete sites by intradermal electroporation. Five weeks following the second vaccinations, guinea pigs were exposed to lethal doses of Lassa virus, Ebola virus, or a combination of both viruses simultaneously. None of the vaccinated guinea pigs, regardless of challenge virus and including the coinfected group, displayed weight loss, fever or other disease signs, and all survived to the study endpoint. All of the mock-vaccinated guinea pigs that were infected with Lassa virus, and all but one of the EBOV-infected mock-vaccinated guinea pigs succumbed. In order to determine if the dual-agent vaccination strategy could protect against both viruses if exposures were temporally separated, we held the surviving vaccinates in BSL-4 for approximately 120 days to perform a cross-challenge experiment in which guinea pigs originally infected with Lassa virus received a lethal dose of Ebola virus and those originally infected with Ebola virus were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus. All guinea pigs remained healthy and survived to the study endpoint. This study clearly demonstrates that DNA vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses can elicit protective immunity against both individual virus exposures as well as in a mixed-infection environment. PMID:29135337

  18. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new o...

  19. Immunization with Pre-Erythrocytic Antigen CelTOS from Plasmodium falciparum Elicits Cross-Species Protection against Heterologous Challenge with Plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    or the early liver-stages of the mammalian life cycle . One of these antigens is the cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS...Immunization with Pre-Erythrocytic Antigen CelTOS from Plasmodium falciparum Elicits Cross-Species Protection against Heterologous Challenge with... Plasmodium berghei Elke S. Bergmann-Leitner1*, Ryan M. Mease1, Patricia De La Vega1, Tatyana Savranskaya2, Mark Polhemus1, Christian Ockenhouse1, Evelina

  20. A novel vaccine p846 encoding Rv3615c, Mtb10.4, and Rv2660c elicits robust immune response and alleviates lung injury induced by Mycobacterium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hongmei; Dong, Chunsheng; Xiong, Sidong

    2014-01-01

    Development of effective anti-tuberculosis (TB) vaccines is one of the important steps to improve control of TB. Cell-mediated immune response significantly affects the control of M. tuberculosis infection. Thus, vaccines able to elicit strong cellular immune response hold special advantages against TB. In this study, three well-defined mycobacterial antigens (Rv3615c, Mtb10.4 [Rv0228], and Rv2660c) were engineered as a novel triple-antigen fusion DNA vaccine p846. The p846 vaccine consists of a high density of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell epitopes. Intramuscular immunization of p846 induced robust T cells mediated immune response comparable to that of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination but more effective than that of individual antigen vaccination. After mycobacterial challenge, p846 immunization decreased bacterial burden at least 15-fold compared with individual antigen-based vaccination. Notably, the lungs of mice immunized with p846 exhibited fewer inflammatory cell infiltrates and less damage than those of control group mice. Our data demonstrate that the potential of p846 vaccine to protect against TB and the feasibility of this design strategy for further TB vaccine development.

  1. Long-Term Protective Immune Response Elicited by Vaccination with an Expression Genomic Library of Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Fachado, Alberto; Rodriguez, Alexandro; Molina, Judith; Silvério, Jaline C.; Marino, Ana P. M. P.; Pinto, Luzia M. O.; Angel, Sergio O.; Infante, Juan F.; Traub-Cseko, Yara; Amendoeira, Regina R.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2003-01-01

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with an expression genomic library of Toxoplasma gondii induces a Th1-type immune response, with recognition of several T. gondii proteins (21 to 117 kDa) and long-term protective immunity against a lethal challenge. These results support further investigations to achieve a multicomponent anti-T. gondii DNA vaccine.

  2. Immune responses elicited by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae recombinant antigens and DNA constructs with potential for use in vaccination against porcine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Gonchoroski, Taylor; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Schuck, Desirée Cigaran; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2014-10-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP) and causes major economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Commercially available vaccines provide only partial protection and are relatively expensive. In this study, we assessed the humoral and cellular immune responses to three recombinant antigens of M. hyopneumoniae. Immune responses to selected domains of the P46, HSP70 and MnuA antigens (P46102-253, HSP70212-601 and MnuA182-378), delivered as recombinant subunit or DNA vaccines, were evaluated in BALB/c mice. All purified recombinant antigens and two DNA vaccines, pcDNA3.1(+)/HSP70212-601 and pcDNA3.1(+)/MnuA182-378, elicited a strong humoral immune response, indicated by high IgG levels in the serum. The cellular immune response was assessed by detection of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants. The recombinant subunit and DNA vaccines induced Th1-polarized immune responses, as evidenced by increased levels of IFN-γ. All recombinant subunit vaccines and the pcDNA3.1(+)/MnuA182-378 vaccine also induced the secretion of IL-10, a Th2-type cytokine, in large quantities. The mixed Th1/Th2-type response may elicit an effective immune response against M. hyopneumoniae, suggesting that P46102-253, HSP70212-601 and MnuA182-378 are potential novel and promising targets for the development of vaccines against PEP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective MCMV immunity by vaccination of the salivary gland via Wharton's duct: replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus expressing individual MCMV genes elicits protection similar to that of MCMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangliang; Zhang, Fangfang; Wang, Ruixue; London, Lucille; London, Steven D

    2014-04-01

    Salivary glands, a major component of the mucosal immune system, confer antigen-specific immunity to mucosally acquired pathogens. We investigated whether a physiological route of inoculation and a subunit vaccine approach elicited MCMV-specific and protective immunity. Mice were inoculated by retrograde perfusion of the submandibular salivary glands via Wharton's duct with tcMCMV or MCMV proteins focused to the salivary gland via replication-deficient adenovirus expressing individual MCMV genes (gB, gH, IE1; controls: saline and replication deficient adenovirus without MCMV inserts). Mice were evaluated for MCMV-specific antibodies, T-cell responses, germinal center formation, and protection against a lethal MCMV challenge. Retrograde perfusion with tcMCMV or adenovirus expressed MCMV proteins induced a 2- to 6-fold increase in systemic and mucosal MCMV-specific antibodies, a 3- to 6-fold increase in GC marker expression, and protection against a lethal systemic challenge, as evidenced by up to 80% increased survival, decreased splenic pathology, and decreased viral titers from 10(6) pfu to undetectable levels. Thus, a focused salivary gland immunization via a physiological route with a protein antigen induced systemic and mucosal protective immune responses. Therefore, salivary gland immunization can serve as an alternative mucosal route for administering vaccines, which is directly applicable for use in humans.

  4. Poly-functional and long-lasting anticancer immune response elicited by a safe attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vector for antigens delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Chauchet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated bacterial vectors for antigens delivery have aroused growing interest in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Their potency to stimulate innate immunity and to promote intracellular antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells could be exploited to elicit a strong and specific cellular immune response against tumor cells. We previously described genetically-modified and attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vectors able to deliver in vivo protein antigens into antigen-presenting cells, through Type 3 secretion system of the bacteria. Using this approach, we managed to protect immunized mice against aggressive B16 melanoma development in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting. In this study, we further investigated the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response, in terms of phenotypic and functional aspects, obtained after immunizations with a killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa attenuated vector. We demonstrated that P. aeruginosa vaccine induces a highly functional pool of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell able to infiltrate the tumor. Furthermore, multiple immunizations allowed the development of a long-lasting immune response, represented by a pool of predominantly effector memory cells which protected mice against late tumor challenge. Overall, killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa vector is a safe and promising approach for active and specific antitumor immunotherapy.

  5. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides containing GACGTT motifs enhance the immune responses elicited by a goose parvovirus vaccine in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Lin, Yu-Ming; Yen, Ting-Ying; Yang, Wen-Jen; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2010-11-23

    Recombinant parvovirus VP2 (rVP2) was formulated with different types of adjuvant, including aluminum adjuvant and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), and the immunological responses after vaccination in ducks were examined. In comparison with the control group, production of rVP2-specific antibodies, expression of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by rVP2, and percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) cells in PBMC were significantly increased in ducks immunized with rVP2 formulated with CpG ODNs containing 3 copies of GACGTT motif. CpG ODNs with GACGTT motifs might be used to improve the efficacy of vaccines for ducks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by inflammatory priming elicits mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, M; Zanotto, M; Malpeli, G; Bassi, G; Perbellini, O; Chilosi, M; Bifari, F; Krampera, M

    2015-03-17

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a central role in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination and may be induced by local inflammation. We asked whether the inflammation-induced acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype by neoplastic epithelial cells is associated with the onset of mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-regulatory properties that may enhance tumour immune escape. Cell lines of lung adenocarcinoma (A549), breast cancer (MCF7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) were co-cultured with T, B and NK cells before and after EMT induction by either the supernatant of mixed-lymphocyte reactions or inflammatory cytokines. EMT occurrence following inflammatory priming elicited multiple immune-regulatory effects in cancer cells resulting in NK and T-cell apoptosis, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and stimulation of regulatory T and B cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, but not Fas ligand pathway, was involved at least in part in these effects, as shown by the use of specific inhibitors. EMT induced by inflammatory stimuli confers to cancer cells some mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties, which could be a cue for cancer progression and metastatic dissemination by favouring immune escape.

  7. A novel inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine can elicit cross-protective immunity against coxsackievirus A16 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Yajing; Li, Shuxuan; Zhao, Huan; Lin, Qiaona; Yu, Hai; Huang, Xiumin; Zheng, Qingbing; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-21

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease that mainly affects infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major pathogens of HFMD. Two EV71 vaccines were recently licensed in China and the administration of the EV71 vaccines is believed to significantly reduce the number of HFMD-related severe or fatal cases. However, a monovalent EV71 vaccine cannot cross-protect against CA16 infection, this may result in that it cannot effectively control the overall HFMD epidemic. In this study, a chimeric EV71, whose VP1/210-225 epitope was replaced by that of CA16, was constructed using a reverse genetics technique to produce a candidate EV71/CA16 bivalent vaccine strain. The chimeric EV71 was infectious and showed similar growth characteristics as its parental strain. The replacement of the VP1/210-225 epitope did not significantly affect the antigenicity and immunogenicity of EV71. More importantly, the chimeric EV71 could induce protective immunity against both EV71 and CA16, and protect neonatal mice against either EV71 or CA16 lethal infections, the chimeric EV71 constructed in this study was shown to be a feasible and promising candidate bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16. The construction of a chimeric enterovirus also provides an alternative platform for broad-spectrum HFMD vaccines development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Replicating rather than nonreplicating adenovirus-human immunodeficiency virus recombinant vaccines are better at eliciting potent cellular immunity and priming high-titer antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C; Kalyanaraman, V S; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J; Murthy, Krishna K; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-08-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants and boosting with an HIV envelope subunit protein, oligomeric HIV(SF162) gp140deltaV2. The immunogenicities of replicating and nonreplicating Ad/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants were compared. Replicating Ad/HIV recombinants were better at eliciting HIV-specific cellular immune responses and better at priming humoral immunity against HIV than nonreplicating Ad-HIV recombinants carrying the same gene insert. Enhanced cellular immunity was manifested by a greater frequency of HIV envelope-specific gamma interferon-secreting peripheral blood lymphocytes and better priming of T-cell proliferative responses. Enhanced humoral immunity was seen in higher anti-envelope binding and neutralizing antibody titers and better induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. More animals primed with replicating Ad recombinants mounted neutralizing antibodies against heterologous R5 viruses after one or two booster immunizations with the mismatched oligomeric HIV-1(SF162) gp140deltaV2 protein. These results support continued development of the replicating Ad-HIV recombinant vaccine approach and suggest that the use of replicating vectors for other vaccines may prove fruitful.

  9. Clonorchis sinensis adult-derived proteins elicit Th2 immune responses by regulating dendritic cells via mannose receptor.

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    Lu Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC, and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4, IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis. Our previous studies had a mere glimpse of T helper type 2 (Th2 dominant immune responses as key players in liver fibrosis induced by C. sinensis infection, but little is known about the involved mechanisms in this pathological process.By flow cytometry (FACS, adult-derived total proteins of C. sinensis (CsTPs down-regulated the expression of surface markers CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II on lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced DC. ELISA results demonstrated that CsTPs inhibited IL-12p70 release from LPS-treated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC. IL-10 level increased in a time-dependent manner in LPS-treated BMDCs after incubation with CsTPs. CD4+ T cells incubated with LPS-treated BMDCs plus CsTPs could significantly elevate IL-4 level by ELISA. Meanwhile, elevated expression of pro-fibrogenic mediators including IL-13 and IL-4 were detected in a co-culture system of LPS-activated BMDCs and naive T cells containing CsTPs. In vivo, CsTPs-immunized mice enhanced expression of type 2 cytokines IL-13, IL-10 and IL-4 in both splenocytes and hepatic tissue. Exposure of BMDCs to CsTPs activated expression of mannose receptor (MR but not toll like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4, C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN and Dectin-2 on the cell surface by RT-PCR and FACS. Blockade of MR almost completely

  10. Anti-Donor Immune Responses Elicited by Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Extracellular Vesicles: Are We Still Learning?

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    Lohan, Paul; Treacy, Oliver; Griffin, Matthew D.; Ritter, Thomas; Ryan, Aideen E.

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous) MS...

  11. Immunological mechanisms involved in the protection against intestinal taeniosis elicited by oral immunization with Taenia solium calreticulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Vaughan, Gilberto; Salazar, Ana María; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2012-11-01

    Oral immunization with functional recombinant Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) induces 37% reduction in tapeworm burden in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. Furthermore, tapeworms recovered from vaccinated animals exhibit diminished length, being frequently found in more posterior parts of the small intestine. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunological mechanisms involved in protection in response to rTsCRT oral immunization. Hamsters were orally immunized with rTsCRT using cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant, weekly for 4 weeks. Fifteen days after the last boost animals were challenged with four T. solium cysticerci. Reduction in the adult worm recovery and increased transcription of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-γ in the mucosa of rTsCRT+CT immunized animals were observed. Immunization also induced goblet cell hyperplasia in the mucosa surrounding the implantation site of the parasite. Specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and fecal supernatants were detected after the second immunization, being more pronounced after challenge. Our data suggest that oral vaccination with rTsCRT+CT regulates a local expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ, stimulating secretion of IgA that, together with the increase of goblet cells and mucin production, could result in an unfavorable environment for T. solium promoting an impaired tapeworm development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-Donor Immune Responses Elicited by Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Extracellular Vesicles: Are We Still Learning?

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    Paul Lohan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous MSC may be the safer choice in terms of avoiding unwanted immune responses, factors including donor comorbidities may preclude these cells from use. In these situations, allogeneic MSC derived from genetically unrelated individuals must be used. While allogeneic MSC were initially believed to be immune-privileged, substantial evidence now exists to prove otherwise with multiple studies documenting specific cellular and humoral immune responses against donor antigens following administration of these cells. In this article, we will review recent published studies using non-manipulated, inflammatory molecule-activated (licensed and differentiated allogeneic MSC, as well as MSC extracellular vesicles focusing on the immune responses to these cells and whether or not such responses have an impact on allogeneic MSC-mediated safety and efficacy.

  13. Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Kroidl, Inge; Schunk, Mirjam; Alberer, Martin; Beissner, Marcus; Pritsch, Michael; Kroidl, Arne; Fröschl, Günter; Hanus, Ingrid; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2014-04-23

    Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.

  14. Plant innate immunity induced by flagellin suppresses the hypersensitive response in non-host plants elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi.

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    Chia-Fong Wei

    Full Text Available A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav, which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta, glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction.

  15. Plant Innate Immunity Induced by Flagellin Suppresses the Hypersensitive Response in Non-Host Plants Elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Deng, Wen-Ling; Wen, Yu-Der; Huang, Hsiou-Chen

    2012-01-01

    A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav), which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta), glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction. PMID:22911741

  16. Multiple antigens of Yersinia pestis delivered by live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains elicit protective immunity against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Patel, Hetal; Sun, Wei; Curtiss, Roy

    2016-05-05

    Based on our improved novel Salmonella vaccine delivery platform, we optimized the recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine (RASV) χ12094 to deliver multiple Yersinia pestis antigens. These included LcrV196 (amino acids, 131-326), Psn encoded on pYA5383 and F1 encoded in the chromosome, their synthesis did not cause adverse effects on bacterial growth. Oral immunization with χ12094(pYA5383) simultaneously stimulated high antibody titers to LcrV, Psn and F1 in mice and presented complete protection against both subcutaneous (s.c.) and intranasal (i.n.) challenges with high lethal doses of Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, no deaths or other disease symptoms were observed in SCID mice orally immunized with χ12094(pYA5383) over a 60-day period. Therefore, the trivalent S. typhimurium-based live vaccine shows promise for a next-generation plague vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infection of goose with genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus of goose origin elicits strong immune responses at early stage

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    Qianqian Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND, caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV, is a highly contagious disease of birds that is responsible for heavy economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about host-virus interactions in waterfowl, goose. In this study, we aim to characterize the host immune response in goose, based on the previous reports on the host response to NDV in chickens. Here, we evaluated viral replication and mRNA expression of 27 immune-related genes in 10 tissues of geese challenged with a genotype VIId NDV strain of goose origin (go/CH/LHLJ/1/06. The virus showed early replication, especially in digestive and immune tissues. The expression profiles showed up-regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR1–3, 5, 7 and 15, avian β-defensin (AvBD 5–7, 10, 12 and 16, cytokines interleukin (IL-8, IL-18, IL-1β and interferon-γ, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and MHC class I in some tissues of geese in response to NDV. In contrast, NDV infection suppressed expression of AvBD1 in cecal tonsil of geese. Moreover, we observed a highly positive correlation between viral replication and host mRNA expressions of TLR1-5 and 7, AvBD4-6, 10 and 12, all the cytokines measured, MHC class I, FAS ligand, and iNOS, mainly at 72 h post-infection. Taken together, these results demonstrated that NDV infection induces strong innate immune responses and intense inflammatory responses at early stage in goose which may associate with the viral pathogenesis.

  18. HPV-E7 Delivered by Engineered Exosomes Elicits a Protective CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, Paola; Ridolfi, Barbara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Giovannelli, Andrea; Chiozzini, Chiara; Manfredi, Francesco; Anticoli, Simona; Arenaccio, Claudia; Federico, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut), which is an inactive protein incorporating in exosomes at high levels also when fused with foreign proteins. We compared the immunogenicity of engineered exosomes uploading human papillomavirus (HPV)-E7 with that of lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs) incorporating equivalent amounts of the same antigen. These exosomes, whose limiting membrane was decorated with VSV-G, i.e., an envelope protein inducing pH-dependent endosomal fusion, proved to be as immunogenic as the cognate VLPs. It is noteworthy that the immunogenicity of the engineered exosomes remained unaltered in the absence of VSV-G. Most important, we provide evidence that the inoculation in mouse of exosomes uploading HPV-E7 induces production of anti-HPV E7 CTLs, blocks the growth of syngeneic tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controls the development of tumor cells inoculated before the exosome challenge. These results represent the proof-of-concept about both feasibility and efficacy of the Nefmut-based exosome platform for the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:25760140

  19. HPV-E7 Delivered by Engineered Exosomes Elicits a Protective CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Bonito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut, which is an inactive protein incorporating in exosomes at high levels also when fused with foreign proteins. We compared the immunogenicity of engineered exosomes uploading human papillomavirus (HPV-E7 with that of lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs incorporating equivalent amounts of the same antigen. These exosomes, whose limiting membrane was decorated with VSV-G, i.e., an envelope protein inducing pH-dependent endosomal fusion, proved to be as immunogenic as the cognate VLPs. It is noteworthy that the immunogenicity of the engineered exosomes remained unaltered in the absence of VSV-G. Most important, we provide evidence that the inoculation in mouse of exosomes uploading HPV-E7 induces production of anti-HPV E7 CTLs, blocks the growth of syngeneic tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controls the development of tumor cells inoculated before the exosome challenge. These results represent the proof-of-concept about both feasibility and efficacy of the Nefmut-based exosome platform for the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity.

  20. Polyethylenimine-based siRNA nanocomplexes reprogram tumor-associated dendritic cells via TLR5 to elicit therapeutic antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Engle, Xavier; Scarlett, Uciane K; Martinez, Diana; Barber, Amorette; Elgueta, Raul; Wang, Li; Nesbeth, Yolanda; Durant, Yvon; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Sentman, Charles L; Kedl, Ross; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2009-08-01

    The success of clinically relevant immunotherapies requires reversing tumor-induced immunosuppression. Here we demonstrated that linear polyethylenimine-based (PEI-based) nanoparticles encapsulating siRNA were preferentially and avidly engulfed by regulatory DCs expressing CD11c and programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1) at ovarian cancer locations in mice. PEI-siRNA uptake transformed these DCs from immunosuppressive cells to efficient antigen-presenting cells that activated tumor-reactive lymphocytes and exerted direct tumoricidal activity, both in vivo and in situ. PEI triggered robust and selective TLR5 activation in vitro and elicited the production of hallmark TLR5-inducible cytokines in WT mice, but not in Tlr5-/- littermates. Thus, PEI is a TLR5 agonist that, to our knowledge, was not previously recognized. In addition, PEI-complexed nontargeting siRNA oligonucleotides stimulated TLR3 and TLR7. The nonspecific activation of multiple TLRs (specifically, TLR5 and TLR7) reversed the tolerogenic phenotype of human and mouse ovarian tumor-associated DCs. In ovarian carcinoma-bearing mice, this induced T cell-mediated tumor regression and prolonged survival in a manner dependent upon myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88; i.e., independent of TLR3). Furthermore, gene-specific siRNA-PEI nanocomplexes that silenced immunosuppressive molecules on mouse tumor-associated DCs elicited discernibly superior antitumor immunity and enhanced therapeutic effects compared with nontargeting siRNA-PEI nanocomplexes. Our results demonstrate that the intrinsic TLR5 and TLR7 stimulation of siRNA-PEI nanoparticles synergizes with the gene-specific silencing activity of siRNA to transform tumor-infiltrating regulatory DCs into DCs capable of promoting therapeutic antitumor immunity.

  1. Intranasal delivery of cationic PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine encoding IL-6 elicited protective immunity against FMDV challenge.

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    Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. In this study, cationic PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering FMDV DNA vaccine encoding the FMDV capsid protein and the bovine IL-6 gene as a means of enhancing mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals. Three eukaryotic expression plasmids with or without bovine IL-6 gene (pc-P12A3C, pc-IL2AP12A3C and pc-P12AIL3C were generated. The two latter plasmids were designed with the IL-6 gene located either before or between the P12A and 3C genes, respectively, as a means of determining if the location of the IL-6 gene affected capsid assembly and the subsequent immune response. Guinea pigs and rats were intranasally vaccinated with the respective chitosan-coated PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine formulations. Animals immunized with pc-P12AIL3C (followed by animals vaccinated with pc-P12A3C and pc-IL2AP12A3C developed the highest levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA antibody responses and the highest levels of sIgA (secretory IgA present in mucosal tissues. However, the highest levels of neutralizing antibodies were generated in pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and then in pc-P12A3C-immunized animals. pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals also developed stronger cell mediated immune responses (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and pc-P12A3C-immunized animals as evidenced by antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and expression levels of IFN-γ by both CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells. The percentage of animals protected against FMDV challenge following immunizations with pc-IL2AP12A3C, pc-P12AIL3C or pc-P12A3C were 3/5, 1/5 and 0/5, respectively. These data suggested that intranasal delivery

  2. The significance of age and sex for the absence of immune response to hepatitis B vaccination

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    Rosić Ilija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Seroepidemiological investigations after the administration of hepatitis B vaccine have shown that even 15% of vaccinated healthy persons do not generate immune response to the vaccines currently in use. OBJECTIVE The aim of the research is to test the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in different age groups on the adult vaccinated population sample in Serbia. METHOD The tested general population sample consisted of 154 adult subjects. Immunization was done using the recombinant fungal vaccine obtained by genetic engineering (Euvax B vaccine, manufacturer LG, distributor Sanofi Pasteur. All tested subjects in the research received 1 ml of hepatitis B vaccine administered intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle by 0, 1, 6 schedule. RESULTS In the tested sample, 3.13% of persons aged up to 29 years, 6.25% aged 30-35 year and 19.23% of the tested persons aged 40 years and older had no immune response. The relative risk of “no response" findings was twice higher in the group aged 30-39 as compared to the population aged up to 29 years. The detected risk was six times higher for the population of 40 years and older in comparison to the population aged up to 29 years. Also, the relative risk of “no response" findings for the population of 40 years and older was more than three times higher than for the group aged 30-39. Absent immune response in relation to sex was found to be higher in male subjects. CONCLUSION The rates of “no response" finding was the following: 3.13% in the group aged up to 29 years, 6.25% in the group aged 30-39, as well as in the group aged 40 years and older (19.23%. Immune response in relation to age groups was statistically significantly different (p<0.001, while there was a statistically significant correlation (C=0.473; p<0.001 between the age of the subjects and the immune response. In relation to sex, the “no response" finding was found to be increased in the males, but without any statistically

  3. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) VLP vaccine covering HPV type 58 can elicit high level of humoral immunity but also induce immune interference among component types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Yufei; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Youchun; Wu, Xueling; Fan, Dongsheng; Peng, Qinglin; Xu, Xuemei

    2010-04-26

    Both Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 bivalent vaccine and type 16/18/6/11 quadrivalent vaccine have been proved to be safe and effective, and licensed for public use. However, these two vaccines do not quite match the distribution of HPV types in China, Southeast Asia and Latin America, where HPV 58 is highly prevalent. Here we produced three types of virus-like particles (VLPs) in baculovirus expression system, formulated a trivalent vaccine containing HPV 16, 18, and 58 L1 VLPs and examined its in vitro neutralizing titers. This vaccine could induce high level and long-term humoral immunity against the component types. But immune interference was observed when comparing type specific neutralizing antibody levels induced by trivalent vaccine to those by corresponding monovalent vaccines. This kind of interference would become more obvious when formulating more types of VLPs into multivalent vaccines, but could be greatly overcome by decreasing the antigen dosage and adding a proper adjuvant. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Putting a finger on the problem: Finger stick blood draw and immunization at the well-child exam elicit a cortisol response to stress among one-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A; Kamin, Hayley S; Liu, Jingwen; Bhatt, Samarth S; Kelly, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Research examining stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in young children has historically been hampered by a lack of reliable methods to invoke a cortisol stress response. This report details an effective method of eliciting a cortisol rise in one-year-old children (N = 83) by modifying and combining two naturalistic stressors previously used with infants and children. Salivary cortisol levels were collected from children before and after a finger stick blood draw and immunizations performed during their one year well-child checkup at their pediatrician's office. Results indicated that the stressor was successful at eliciting a significant cortisol response. An extensive set of potential demographic and clinical confounds were also assessed in order to identify methodological considerations important in studies of infant cortisol. The stress paradigm presented here provides a promising alternative for studies of infant HPA activity to enable investigators to more effectively evaluate early functioning of the biological stress system during this developmentally important life stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 functional peptide and alpha-fetoprotein epitope peptide vaccine elicits specific anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Qiao-Xia; Lin, Huan-Ping; Xu, Bing; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Kun

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and serves as a target for immunotherapy. However, current treatments targeting AFP are not reproducible and do not provide complete protection against cancer. This issue may be solved by developing novel therapeutic vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity that could effectively target AFP-expressing tumors. In this study, we report construction of a therapeutic peptide vaccine by linking heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) functional peptide to the AFP epitope to obtain HSP70-P/AFP-P. This novel peptide was administered into BALB/c mice to observe the effects. Quantification of AFP-specific CD8 + T cells that secrete IFN-γ in these mice via ELISPOT revealed the synergistic effects of HSP70-P/AFP-P with increased numbers of AFP-specific CD8 + T cells. Similarly, ELISA analysis showed increased granzyme B and perforin released by natural killer cells. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assays and in vivo tumor preventive experiments clearly showed the higher antitumor effects of HSP70-P/AFP-P against AFP-expressing tumors. These results show that treatment of BALB/c mice with HSP70-P/AFP-P induced stronger T-cells responses and improved protective immunity. Our data suggest that HSP70-P/AFP-P may be used as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of AFP-expressing cancers.

  7. Chimeric HCMV/HSV-1 and Δγ134.5 oncolytic herpes simplex virus elicit immune mediated antigliomal effect and antitumor memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Ghonime

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor and are characterized by rapid and highly invasive growth. Because of their poor prognosis, new therapeutic strategies are needed. Oncolytic virotherapy (OV is a promising strategy for treating cancer that incorporates both direct viral replication mediated and immune mediated mechanisms to kill tumor cells. C134 is a next generation Δγ134.5 oHSV-1 with improved intratumoral viral replication. It remains safe in the CNS environment by inducing early IFN signaling which restricts its replication in non-malignant cells. We sought to identify how C134 performed in an immunocompetent tumor model that restricts its replication advantage over first generation viruses. To achieve this we identified tumors that have intact IFN signaling responses that restrict C134 and first generation virus replication similarly. Our results show that both viruses elicit a T cell mediated anti-tumor effect and improved animal survival but that subtle difference exist between the viruses effect on median survival despite equivalent in vivo viral replication. To further investigate this we examined the anti-tumor activity in immunodeficient mice and in syngeneic models with re-challenge. These studies show that the T cell response is integral to C134 replication independent anti-tumor response and that OV therapy elicits a durable and circulating anti-tumor memory. The studies also show that repeated intratumoral administration can extend both OV anti-tumor effects and induce durable anti-tumor memory that is superior to tumor antigen exposure alone.

  8. Multiagent vaccines vectored by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon elicits immune responses to Marburg virus and protection against anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John S; Groebner, Jennifer L; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Negley, Diane L; Schmaljohn, Alan L; Welkos, Susan L; Smith, Leonard A; Smith, Jonathan F

    2006-11-17

    The development of multiagent vaccines offers the advantage of eliciting protection against multiple diseases with minimal inoculations over a shorter time span. We report here the results of using formulations of individual Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon-vectored vaccines against a bacterial disease, anthrax; a viral disease, Marburg fever; and against a toxin-mediated disease, botulism. The individual VEE replicon particles (VRP) expressed mature 83-kDa protective antigen (MAT-PA) from Bacillus anthracis, the glycoprotein (GP) from Marburg virus (MBGV), or the H(C) fragment from botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT H(C)). CBA/J mice inoculated with a mixture of VRP expressing BoNT H(C) serotype C (BoNT/C H(C)) and MAT-PA were 80% protected from a B. anthracis (Sterne strain) challenge and then 100% protected from a sequential BoNT/C challenge. Swiss mice inoculated with individual VRP or with mixtures of VRP vaccines expressing BoNT H(C) serotype A (BoNT/A H(C)), MAT-PA, and MBGV-GP produced antibody responses specific to the corresponding replicon-expressed protein. Combination of the different VRP vaccines did not diminish the antibody responses measured for Swiss mice inoculated with formulations of two or three VRP vaccines as compared to mice that received only one VRP vaccine. Swiss mice inoculated with VRP expressing BoNT/A H(C) alone or in combination with VRP expressing MAT-PA and MBGV GP, were completely protected from a BoNT/A challenge. These studies demonstrate the utility of combining individual VRP vaccines into multiagent formulations for eliciting protective immune responses to various types of diseases.

  9. [Different aluminum adjuvants significantly enhances the effect of immunization on Brucella Omp31].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Rui; Xiang, Qingke; Liu, Zhongqi; Xiao, Fei; Yang, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aluminum phosphate (AP) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) as adjuvants on Brucella outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses and immune protection. Methods AP and AH adjuvants were prepared and separately mixed with Brucella Omp31 protein to measure the adsorption rates. The AP- and AH-absorbed Omp31 protein were intraperitoneally injected into BLAB/c mice at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and meanwhile, unabsorbed Omp31 protein and PBS were used as controls. The levels of serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract secretion sIgA were determined by ELISA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Spleen cells were collected for culture at 6 weeks, and the cells were stimulated by Omp31 for 48 hours followed by the analysis of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the supernatants by ELISA, and the determination of lymphocyte proliferation by CCK-8 assay. The mice were challenged with Brucella at 6 weeks, and bacterial content in spleen tissue was determined 1 and 2 weeks later. Results AP and AH could absorb over 70% and 85% of the Omp31 protein, respectively, for solutions at all the tested concentrations. ELISA suggested that serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract sIgA levels peaked 2 weeks after the last immunization for both AP and AH groups, and antibody level was higher in the AP and AH groups than the control groups, and higher in the AH group than in the AP group. CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferating rate of lymphocytes induced by the AH group was significantly higher than that by the AP group, and the AH group also showed significantly higher IFN-γ level in the supernatant than the AP group, but no significant difference in IL-10 level. The AH group had remarkably lower bacterial load in the spleen than the AP group 2 weeks after challenged by Brucella 16M strain. Conclusion Both AP and AH adjuvants effectively enhanced immunogenicity and immune protection of the Brucella Omp31 protein, and AH was superior to AP in

  10. Significance of Lipid-Derived Reactive Aldehyde-Specific Immune Complexes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

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    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Even though systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among young and middle-aged women, the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested an association between oxidative stress and SLE disease activity (SLEDAI. To further assess the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in SLE, we examined the contribution of lipid-derived reactive aldehydes (LDRAs-specific immune complexes in SLE. Sera from 60 SLE patients with varying SLEDAI and 32 age- and gender- matched healthy controls were analyzed for oxidative stress and related markers. Patients were divided into two groups based on their SLEDAI scores (<6 and ≥ 6. Both SLEDAI groups showed higher serum 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE-/malondialdehyde (MDA-protein adducts and their specific immune complexes (HNE-/MDA-specific ICs together with IL-17 than the controls, but the levels were significantly greater in the high SLEDAI (≥ 6 group. Moreover, the serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were significantly reduced in both patient groups compared to controls. Remarkably, for the first time, our data show that increased HNE-/MDA-specific ICs are positively associated with SLEDAI and elevated circulating immune complexes (CICs, suggesting a possible causal relationship among oxidative stress, LDRA-specific ICs and the development of SLE. Our findings, apart from providing firm support to an association between oxidative stress and SLE, also suggest that these oxidative stress markers, especially the HNE-/MDA-specific ICs, may be useful in evaluating the prognosis of SLE as well as in elucidating the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis.

  11. Mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing a fusion protein composed of pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkashvand, Ali; Bahrami, Fariborz; Adib, Minoo; Ajdary, Soheila

    2018-05-05

    We constructed a food-grade expression system harboring a F1S1 fusion protein of Bordetella pertussis to be produced in Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 as a new oral vaccine model against whooping cough, caused by B. pertussis. F1S1 was composed of N-terminally truncated S1 subunit of pertussis toxin and type I immunodominant domain of filamentous hemagglutinin which are both known as protective immunogens against pertussis. The recombinant L. lactis was administered via oral or intranasal routes to BALB/c mice and the related specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were then evaluated. The results indicated significantly higher levels of specific IgA in the lung extracts and IgG in sera of mucosally-immunized mice, compared to their controls. It was revealed that higher levels of IgG2a, compared to IgG1, were produced in all mucosally-immunized mice. Moreover, immunized mice developed Th1 responses with high levels of IFN-γ production by the spleen cells. These findings provide evidence for L. lactis to be used as a suitable vehicle for expression and delivery of F1S1 fusion protein to mucosa and induction of appropriate systemic and mucosal immune responses against pertussis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategy for eliciting antigen-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response against a cryptic CTL epitope of merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen

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    Gomez Bianca P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a relatively new addition to the expanding category of oncovirus-induced cancers. Although still comparably rare, the number of cases has risen dramatically in recent years. Further complicating this trend is that MCC is an extremely aggressive neoplasm with poor patient prognosis and limited treatment options for advanced disease. The causative agent of MCC has been identified as the merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV. The MCPyV-encoded large T (LT antigen is an oncoprotein that is theorized to be essential for virus-mediated tumorigenesis and is therefore, an excellent MCC antigen for the generation of antitumor immune responses. As a foreign antigen, the LT oncoprotein avoids the obstacle of immune tolerance, which normally impedes the development of antitumor immunity. Ergo, it is an excellent target for anti-MCC immunotherapy. Since tumor-specific CD8+ T cells lead to better prognosis for MCC and numerous other cancers, we have generated a DNA vaccine that is capable of eliciting LT-specific CD8+ T cells. The DNA vaccine (pcDNA3-CRT/LT encodes the LT antigen linked to a damage-associated molecular pattern, calreticulin (CRT, as it has been demonstrated that the linkage of CRT to antigens promotes the induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Results The present study shows that DNA vaccine-induced generation of LT-specific CD8+ T cells is augmented by linking CRT to the LT antigen. This is relevant since the therapeutic effects of the pcDNA3-CRT/LT DNA vaccine is mediated by LT-specific CD8+ T cells. Mice vaccinated with the DNA vaccine produced demonstrably more LT-specific CD8+ T cells. The DNA vaccine was also able to confer LT-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated protective and therapeutic effects to prolong the survival of mice with LT-expressing tumors. In the interest of determining the LT epitope which most MCC-specific CD8+ T cells recognize, we identified the amino acid sequence of the

  13. Expression of Fas (CD95/APO-1) ligand by human breast cancers: significance for tumor immune privilege.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, J

    2012-02-03

    Breast cancers have been shown to elicit tumor-specific immune responses. As in other types of cancer, the antitumor immune response fails to contain breast tumor growth, and a reduction in both the quantity and cytotoxic effectiveness of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with a poorer prognosis. Fas ligand (FasL) induces apoptotic death of activated lymphocytes that express its cell surface receptor, FasR (CD95\\/APO-1). FasL-mediated apoptosis of activated lymphocytes contributes to normal immune downregulation through its roles in tolerance acquisition, immune response termination, and maintenance of immune privilege in the eye, testis, and fetus. In this report, we demonstrate that breast carcinomas express FasL. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we show that breast tumors constitutively express FasL at both the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. FasL expression is prevalent in breast cancer: 100% of breast tumors (17 of 17) were found to express FasL, and expression occurred over more than 50% of the tumor area in all cases. By immunohistochemistry, FasR was found to be coexpressed with FasL throughout large areas of all the breast tumors. This suggests that the tumor cells had acquired intracellular defects in FasL-mediated apoptotic signaling. FasL and FasR expression were independent of tumor type or infiltrative capacity. FasL expressed by tumor cells has previously been shown to kill Fas-sensitive lymphoid cells in vitro and has been associated with apoptosis of TILs in vivo. We conclude that mammary carcinomas express FasL in vivo as a potential inhibitor of the antitumor immune response.

  14. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecciso, Mariangela; Ocadlikova, Darina; Sangaletti, Sabina; Trabanelli, Sara; De Marchi, Elena; Orioli, Elisa; Pegoraro, Anna; Portararo, Paola; Jandus, Camilla; Bontadini, Andrea; Redavid, Annarita; Salvestrini, Valentina; Romero, Pedro; Colombo, Mario P; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Cavo, Michele; Adinolfi, Elena; Curti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC) cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs) with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1 + CD39 + DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  15. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Lecciso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1, which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1+CD39+ DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  16. M cell-targeting strategy facilitates mucosal immune response and enhances protection against CVB3-induced viral myocarditis elicited by chitosan-DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Yue, Yan; Fan, Xiangmei; Dong, Chunsheng; Xu, Wei; Xiong, Sidong

    2014-07-31

    Efficient delivery of antigen to mucosal associated lymphoid tissue is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity by vaccines. Considering its potential transcytotic capability, M cell has become a more and more attractive target for mucosal vaccines. In this research, we designed an M cell-targeting strategy by which mucosal delivery system chitosan (CS) was endowed with M cell-targeting ability via conjugating with a CPE30 peptide, C terminal 30 amino acids of clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and then evaluated its immune-enhancing ability in the context of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-specific mucosal vaccine consisting of CS and a plasmid encoding CVB3 predominant antigen VP1. It had shown that similar to CS-pVP1, M cell-targeting CPE30-CS-pVP1 vaccine appeared a uniform spherical shape with about 300 nm diameter and +22 mV zeta potential, and could efficiently protect DNA from DNase I digestion. Mice were orally immunized with 4 doses of CPE30-CS-pVP1 containing 50 μg pVP1 at 2-week intervals and challenged with CVB3 4 weeks after the last immunization. Compared with CS-pVP1 vaccine, CPE30-CS-pVP1 vaccine had no obvious impact on CVB3-specific serum IgG level and splenic T cell immune responses, but significantly increased specific fecal SIgA level and augmented mucosal T cell immune responses. Consequently, much milder myocarditis and lower viral load were witnessed in CPE30-CS-pVP1 immunized group. The enhanced immunogenicity and immunoprotection were associated with the M cell-targeting ability of CPE30-CS-pVP1 which improved its mucosal uptake and transcytosis. Our findings indicated that CPE30-CS-pVP1 may represent a novel prophylactic vaccine against CVB3-induced myocarditis, and this M cell-targeting strategy indeed could be applied as a promising and universal platform for mucosal vaccine development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A tetravalent vaccine comprising hexon-chimeric adenoviruses elicits balanced protective immunity against human adenovirus types 3, 7, 14 and 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xingui; Jiang, Zaixue; Fan, Ye; Qiu, Shuyan; Zhang, Ling; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Zhichao; Liu, Tiantian; Ma, Qiang; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhong, Baimao; Zhou, Rong

    2018-04-04

    Human adenovirus (Ad) species B contains several of the most important types associated with acute respiratory diseases, Ad3, -7, -14 and -55, which often lead to severe lower respiratory tract diseases and epidemic outbreaks. However, there is currently no Ad vaccine approved for general use. The major capsid protein, hexon, is the primary determinant recognized by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In this study, four recombinant Ads that have the same genome sequence as Ad3 with the exception of the hexon genes, rAd3EGFP, rAd3H7, rAd3H14 and rAd3H55, were combined as a tetravalent Ad candidate vaccine against Ad3, -7, -14 and -55. The replication efficiencies of chimeric rAd3H14, rAd3H7 and rAd3H55 were similar to that of rAd3EGFP. Recombinant rAd3EGFP, rAd3H7, rAd3H14 and rAd3H55 induced high titers of NAbs against Ad3, -7, -14 and -55, respectively, which were comparable to those induced by wild-type Ads. The mixture of the four recombinant Ads in equal proportions, rAdMix, or rAdMix inactivated by β-propiolactone, induced balanced NAb responses against Ad3, -7, -14 and -55 in mice without reciprocal immunological interference. In co-culture the four recombinant Ads replicated with a similar efficiency without reciprocal inhibition, and the progeny virions may be chimeric. Purified co-culture, rAdMix-C, also elicited balanced immune responses, suggesting a simple method for multivalent vaccine production. These results indicate the possible advantage of the four Ads as a live combined vaccine. Importantly, pre-immunization with rAdMix conferred protection against Ad3, -7, -14 or -55 challenge in mice in vivo. Thus, this research provides a novel tetravalent Ad vaccine candidate against Ad3, -7, -14 and -55. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of nonneutralizing vaccine-elicited antibody activities to improved protective efficacy in rhesus macaques immunized with Tat/Env compared with multigenic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florese, Ruth H; Demberg, Thorsten; Xiao, Peng; Kuller, LaRene; Larsen, Kay; Summers, L Ebonita; Venzon, David; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2009-03-15

    Previously, chronic-phase protection against SHIV(89.6P) challenge was significantly greater in macaques primed with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr) recombinants encoding HIVtat and env and boosted with Tat and Env protein compared with macaques primed with multigenic adenovirus recombinants (HIVtat, HIVenv, SIVgag, SIVnef) and boosted with Tat, Env, and Nef proteins. The greater protection was correlated with Tat- and Env-binding Abs. Because the macaques lacked SHIV(89.6P)-neutralizing activity prechallenge, we investigated whether Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and Ab-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition (ADCVI) might exert a protective effect. We clearly show that Tat can serve as an ADCC target, although the Tat-specific activity elicited did not correlate with better protection. However, Env-specific ADCC activity was consistently higher in the Tat/Env group, with sustained cell killing postchallenge exhibited at higher levels (p vaccine regimens.

  19. The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

  20. Immunization of Mastomys coucha with Brugia malayi recombinant trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase results in significant protection against homologous challenge infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available Development of a vaccine to prevent or reduce parasite development in lymphatic filariasis would be a complementary approach to existing chemotherapeutic tools. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of Brugia malayi (Bm-TPP represents an attractive vaccine target due to its absence in mammals, prevalence in the major life stages of the parasite and immunoreactivity with human bancroftian antibodies, especially from endemic normal subjects. We have recently reported on the cloning, expression, purification and biochemical characterization of this vital enzyme of B. malayi. In the present study, immunoprophylactic evaluation of Bm-TPP was carried out against B. malayi larval challenge in a susceptible host Mastomys coucha and the protective ability of the recombinant protein was evaluated by observing the adverse effects on microfilarial density and adult worm establishment. Immunization caused 78.4% decrease in microfilaremia and 71.04% reduction in the adult worm establishment along with sterilization of 70.06% of the recovered live females. The recombinant protein elicited a mixed Th1/Th2 type of protective immune response as evidenced by the generation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and an increased production of antibody isotypes IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA. Thus immunization with Bm-TPP conferred considerable protection against B. malayi establishment by engendering a long-lasting effective immune response and therefore emerges as a potential vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis (LF.

  1. Live recombinant Salmonella Typhi vaccines constructed to investigate the role of rpoS in eliciting immunity to a heterologous antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huoying Shi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the immunogenicity of live Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccines expressing heterologous antigens depends, at least in part, on its rpoS status. As part of our project to develop a recombinant attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (RASTyV to prevent pneumococcal diseases in infants and children, we constructed three RASTyV strains synthesizing the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein PspA to test this hypothesis. Each vector strain carried ten engineered mutations designed to optimize safety and immunogenicity. Two S. Typhi vector strains (chi9639 and chi9640 were derived from the rpoS mutant strain Ty2 and one (chi9633 from the RpoS(+ strain ISP1820. In chi9640, the nonfunctional rpoS gene was replaced with the functional rpoS gene from ISP1820. Plasmid pYA4088, encoding a secreted form of PspA, was moved into the three vector strains. The resulting RASTyV strains were evaluated for safety in vitro and for immunogenicity in mice. All three RASTyV strains were similar to the live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty21a in their ability to survive in human blood and human monocytes. They were more sensitive to complement and were less able to survive and persist in sewage and surface water than their wild-type counterparts. Adult mice intranasally immunized with any of the RASTyV strains developed immune responses against PspA and Salmonella antigens. The RpoS(+ vaccines induced a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response while the RpoS(- strain chi9639(pYA4088 induced a strong Th2 immune response. Immunization with any RASTyV provided protection against S. pneumoniae challenge; the RpoS(+ strain chi9640(pYA4088 provided significantly greater protection than the ISP1820 derivative, chi9633(pYA4088. In the pre-clinical setting, these strains exhibited a desirable balance between safety and immunogenicity and are currently being evaluated in a Phase 1 clinical trial to determine which of the three RASTyVs has the optimal safety and

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

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    Mani Harika eVemula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the tuberculosis (TB causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches towards vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M.tb Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1, a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M.tb. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M.tb under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency and nutrient deprivation and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of Peripheral Blood Mononulear Cells (PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1. This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n=121 as against healthy control (n=62, household contacts (n=89 and non-specific infection controls (n=23. A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can be explored as antigen

  3. Oral vaccination with LcrV from Yersinia pestis KIM delivered by live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium elicits a protective immune response against challenge with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, Christine G; Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Sun, Wei; Perry, Robert; Fetherston, Jacqueline; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2009-08-27

    The use of live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASV) synthesizing Yersinia proteins is a promising approach for controlling infection by Yersinia species. In this study, we constructed attenuated Salmonella strains which synthesize a truncated form of LcrV, LcrV196 and evaluated the immune response and protective efficacy elicited by these strains in mice against two other major species of Yersinia: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Surprisingly, we found that the RASV strain alone was sufficient to afford nearly full protection against challenge with Y. pseudotuberculosis, indicating the likelihood that Salmonella produces immunogenic cross-protective antigens. In contrast, lcrV196 expression was required for protection against challenge with Y. enterocolitica strain 8081, but was not sufficient to achieve significant protection against challenge with Y. enterocolitica strain WA, which expressed a divergent form of lcrV. Nevertheless, we are encouraged by these findings to continue pursuing our long-term goal of developing a single vaccine to protect against all three human pathogenic species of Yersinia.

  4. Inhibition of RM-1 prostate carcinoma and eliciting robust immune responses in the mouse model by using VEGF-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqin; Alahdal, Murad; Ye, Jia; Jing, Liangliang; Liu, Xiaoxin; Chen, Huan; Jin, Liang; Cao, Rongyue

    2018-01-23

    GnRH and VEGF have been investigated as prostate carcinoma enhancers that support tumor spread and progression. Although both have documented roles in prostate carcinoma and many cancer types, the weak immunogenicity of these peptides has remained a major challenge for use in immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel strategy to inhibit GnRH and VEGF production and assess the effect on the immune responses against these hormones using the RM-1 prostate cancer model. We designed a novel recombinant fusion protein which combined GnRH and VEGF as a vaccine against this tumor. The newly constructed fusion protein hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP contains the human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF121) and three copies of GnRH in sequential linear alignment and T helper epitope MVP as an immunogenic vaccine. The effectiveness of the vaccine in eliciting an immune response and attenuating the prostate tumor growth was evaluated. Results showed that administration of a new vaccine effectively elicited humoral and cellular immune responses. We found that, a novel fusion protein, hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP, effectively inhibited growth of RM-1 prostate model and effectively promoted immune response. In conclusion, hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP is an effective dual mechanism tumor vaccine that limits RM-1 prostate growth. This vaccine may be a promising strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate malignancies.

  5. Hemagglutinin-based polyanhydride nanovaccines against H5N1 influenza elicit protective virus neutralizing titers and cell-mediated immunity

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    Ross KA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen A Ross,1 Hyelee Loyd,2 Wuwei Wu,2 Lucas Huntimer,3 Shaheen Ahmed,4 Anthony Sambol,5 Scott Broderick,6 Zachary Flickinger,2 Krishna Rajan,6 Tatiana Bronich,4 Surya Mallapragada,1 Michael J Wannemuehler,3 Susan Carpenter,2 Balaji Narasimhan1 1Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 2Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 3Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 4Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 5Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 6Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: H5N1 avian influenza is a significant global concern with the potential to become the next pandemic threat. Recombinant subunit vaccines are an attractive alternative for pandemic vaccines compared to traditional vaccine technologies. In particular, polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating subunit proteins have been shown to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity and provide protection upon lethal challenge. In this work, a recombinant H5 hemagglutinin trimer (H53 was produced and encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles. The studies performed indicated that the recombinant H53 antigen was a robust immunogen. Immunizing mice with H53 encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles induced high neutralizing antibody titers and enhanced CD4+ T cell recall responses in mice. Finally, the H53-based polyanhydride nanovaccine induced protective immunity against a low-pathogenic H5N1 viral challenge. Informatics analyses indicated that mice receiving the nanovaccine formulations and subsequently challenged with virus were similar to naïve mice that were not challenged. The current studies provide a basis to further exploit the advantages of polyanhydride nanovaccines in pandemic scenarios. Keywords: polymer, nanoparticle, vaccine, subunit

  6. Systemic and mucosal immunization with Candida albicans hsp90 elicits hsp90-specific humoral response in vaginal mucosa which is further enhanced during experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, Milan; Belakova, Jana; Horynova, Milada; Krupka, Michal; Novotny, Jiri; Sebestova, Martina; Weigl, Evzen

    2008-08-01

    The Candida albicans heat shock protein 90 kDa (hsp90-CA) is an important target for protective antibodies in disseminated candidiasis of experimental mice and humans. Hsp90-CA is present in the cell wall of Candida pseudohyphae or hyphae--typical pathogenic morphotypes in both mucosal and systemic Candida infections. However, the potential protective effects of hsp90-CA-specific antibodies in vaginal candidiasis has not yet been reported. In the present study we used various vaccine formulations (recombinant hsp90-CA protein and hsp90-CA-encoding DNA vaccine) and routes of administration (intradermal, intranasal, and intravenous) to induce both hsp90-CA-specific systemic and vaginal mucosa immune responses in experimental BALB/c mice. The results showed that intradermal recombinant hsp90-CA protein priming, followed by intranasal or intradermal recombinant hsp90-CA protein boosting induced significant increases in both serum and vaginal hsp90-CA-specific IgG and IgA antibodies compared to the control group, as well as enhanced hsp90-CA-specific splenocyte responses in vitro. In the intradermally boosted group, subsequent experimental vaginal Candida infection induced additional increases in the hsp90-CA specific IgG isotype, suggesting that Candida has the ability to induce a local hsp90-specific antibody (IgG) response during vulvovaginal candidiasis. Further work is required to elucidate the importance of immunity to highly conserved antigens during infection of the human female reproductive tract where a balance between immunity to and tolerance for commonly antigens such as hsp90 is necessary for the maintenance of fertility.

  7. The cryo-thermal therapy eradicated melanoma in mice by eliciting CD4+ T-cell-mediated antitumor memory immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2017-03-23

    Tumor metastasis is a major concern in tumor therapy. In our previous studies, a novel tumor therapeutic modality of the cryo-thermal therapy has been presented, highlighting its effect on the suppression of distal metastasis and leading to long-term survival in 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model. To demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy in other aggressive tumor models and further investigate the mechanism of long-term survival induced, in this study, spontaneous metastatic murine B16F10 melanoma model was used. The cryo-thermal therapy induced regression of implanted melanoma and prolonged long-term survival while inhibiting lung metastasis. It also promoted the activation of CD4 + CD25 - conventional T cells, while reduced the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the spleen, lung and blood. Furthermore, the cryo-thermal therapy enhanced the cytolytic function of CD8 + T cells and induced differentiation of CD8 + T cells into memory stem T cell (T SCM ), and differentiation of CD4 + T cells into dominant CD4-CTL, Th1 and Tfh subsets in the spleen for 90 days after the treatment. It was found that good therapeutic effect was mainly dependent on CD4 + T cells providing a durable memory antitumor immune response. At the same time, significant increase of serum IFN-γ was also observed to provide an ideal microenvironment of antitumor immunity. Further study showed that the rejection of re-challenge of B16F10 but not GL261 tumor in the treated mice in 45 or 60 days after the treatment, implied a strong systemic and melanoma-specific memory antitumor immunity induced by the treatment. Thus the cryo-thermal therapy would be considered as a new therapeutic strategy to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis with potential clinical applications in the near future.

  8. Immune disorders in sepsis and their treatment as a significant problem of modern intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Łysenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great advances in the treatment of sepsis over the past 20 years, sepsis remains the main cause of death in intensive care units. In the context of new possibilities of treating sepsis, a comprehensive response of the immune system to the infection, immunosuppression, in particular, has in recent years gained considerable interest. There is vast evidence pointing to the correlation between comorbid immunosuppression and an increased risk of recurrent infections and death. Immune disorders may impact the clinical course of sepsis. This applies in particular to patients with deteriorated clinical response to infections. They usually suffer from comorbidities and conditions accompanied by immunosuppression. Sepsis disrupts innate and adaptive immunity. The key to diagnose the immune disorders in sepsis and undertake targeted immunomodulatory therapy is to define the right biomarkers and laboratory methods, which permit prompt “bedside” diagnosis. Flow cytometry is a laboratory tool that meets these criteria. Two therapeutic methods are currently being suggested to restore the immune homeostasis of sepsis patients. Excessive inflammatory response may be controlled through extracorporeal blood purification techniques, in large part derived from renal replacement therapy. These are such techniques as high-volume haemofiltration, cascade haemofiltration, plasma exchange, coupled plasma filtration and adsorption, high-absorption membranes, high cut-off membranes. The main task of theses techniques is the selective elimination of middle molecular weight molecules, such as cytokines. Pharmacotherapy with the use of such immunostimulants as interleukin 7, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon gamma, PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 antagonists, intravenous immunoglobulins may help fight immunosuppressive immune disorders.

  9. Immune disorders in sepsis and their treatment as a significant problem of modern intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łysenko, Lidia; Leśnik, Patrycja; Nelke, Kamil; Gerber, Hanna

    2017-08-22

    Despite the great advances in the treatment of sepsis over the past 20 years, sepsis remains the main cause of death in intensive care units. In the context of new possibilities of treating sepsis, a comprehensive response of the immune system to the infection, immunosuppression, in particular, has in recent years gained considerable interest. There is vast evidence pointing to the correlation between comorbid immunosuppression and an increased risk of recurrent infections and death. Immune disorders may impact the clinical course of sepsis. This applies in particular to patients with deteriorated clinical response to infections. They usually suffer from comorbidities and conditions accompanied by immunosuppression. Sepsis disrupts innate and adaptive immunity. The key to diagnose the immune disorders in sepsis and undertake targeted immunomodulatory therapy is to define the right biomarkers and laboratory methods, which permit prompt "bedside" diagnosis. Flow cytometry is a laboratory tool that meets these criteria. Two therapeutic methods are currently being suggested to restore the immune homeostasis of sepsis patients. Excessive inflammatory response may be controlled through extracorporeal blood purification techniques, in large part derived from renal replacement therapy. These are such techniques as high-volume haemofiltration, cascade haemofiltration, plasma exchange, coupled plasma filtration and adsorption, high-absorption membranes, high cut-off membranes. The main task of theses techniques is the selective elimination of middle molecular weight molecules, such as cytokines. Pharmacotherapy with the use of such immunostimulants as interleukin 7, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon gamma, PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 antagonists, intravenous immunoglobulins may help fight immunosuppressive immune disorders.

  10. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  11. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF IMMUNE IMBALANCE AND AUTOIMMUNITY IN NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS (NSDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra K. SINGH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the role of immune imbalance and autoimmunity has been experimentally demonstrated in nervous system disorders (NSDs that include Alzheimer’s disease, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, tics and Tourette’s syndrome, schizophrenia, and some other NSDs. And yet, these NSDs are never counted as autoimmune diseases. Deriving from the rapidly expanding knowledge of neuro-immunology and auto-immune diseases, for example multiple scle-rosis (MS, the author of this mini-review strongly recommends that these NSDs should be included while tallying the number of autoimmune diseases. This effort will help create an updated global database of all autoimmune diseases as well as it should help treat millions of patients who are suffering from debilitating NSDs for which there is no known cure or treatment currently.

  12. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  14. Heterologous Two-Dose Vaccination with Simian Adenovirus and Poxvirus Vectors Elicits Long-Lasting Cellular Immunity to Influenza Virus A in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Coughlan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: T-cell responses against highly conserved influenza antigens have been previously associated with protection. However, these immune responses are poorly maintained following recovery from influenza infection and are not boosted by inactivated influenza vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of two viral vectored vaccines, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1 expressing conserved influenza virus antigens, nucleoprotein (NP and matrix protein-1 (M1. We now report on the safety and long-term immunogenicity of multiple combination regimes of these vaccines in young and older adults. Methods: We conducted a Phase I open-label, randomized, multi-center study in 49 subjects aged 18–46 years and 24 subjects aged 50 years or over. Following vaccination, adverse events were recorded and the kinetics of the T cell response determined at multiple time points for up to 18 months. Findings: Both vaccines were well tolerated. A two dose heterologous vaccination regimen significantly increased the magnitude of pre-existing T-cell responses to NP and M1 after both doses in young and older adults. The fold-increase and peak immune responses after a single MVA-NP + M1 vaccination was significantly higher compared to ChAdOx1 NP + M1. In a mixed regression model, T-cell responses over 18 months were significantly higher following the two dose vaccination regimen of MVA/ChAdOx1 NP + M1. Interpretation: A two dose heterologous vaccination regimen of MVA/ChAdOx1 NP + M1 was safe and immunogenic in young and older adults, offering a promising vaccination strategy for inducing long-term broadly cross-reactive protection against influenza A. Funding Source: Medical Research Council UK, NIHR BMRC Oxford. Keywords: Influenza, T-cell responses, Influenza vaccines, Viral vectors, Adults, Older adults

  15. A novel lumazine synthase molecule from Brucella significantly promotes the immune-stimulation effects of antigenic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Z Q; Wang, J Y

    2015-10-27

    Brucella, an intracellular parasite that infects some livestock and humans, can damage or destroy the reproductive system of livestock. The syndrome is referred to as brucellosis and often occurs in pastoral areas; it is contagious from livestock to humans. In this study, the intact Brucella suis outer membrane protein 31 (omp31) gene was cloned, recombinantly expressed, and examined as a subunit vaccine candidate. The intact Brucella lumazine synthase (bls) gene was cloned and recombinantly expressed to study polymerization function in vitro. Non-reducing gel electrophoresis showed that rBs-BLS existed in different forms in vitro, including as a dimer and a pentamer. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result showed that rOmp31 protein could induce production of an antibody in rabbits. However, the rOmp31-BLS fusion protein could elicit a much higher antibody titer in rabbits; this construct involved fusion of the Omp31 molecule with the BLS molecule. Our results indicate that Omp31 is involved in immune stimulation, while BLS has a polymerizing function based on rOmp31-BLS fusion protein immunogenicity. These data suggest that Omp31 is an ideal subunit vaccine candidate and that the BLS molecule is a favorable transport vector for antigenic proteins.

  16. Synthetic RNAs Mimicking Structural Domains in the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genome Elicit a Broad Innate Immune Response in Porcine Cells Triggered by RIG-I and TLR Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; Revilla, Concepción; Álvarez, Belén; Sobrino, Francisco; Domínguez, Javier; Sáiz, Margarita

    2015-07-17

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

  17. Unbiased proteomics analysis demonstrates significant variability in mucosal immune factor expression depending on the site and method of collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzie M Birse

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions are commonly sampled by lavage of the ectocervix and vaginal vault or via a sponge inserted into the endocervix for evaluating inflammation status and immune factors critical for HIV microbicide and vaccine studies. This study uses a proteomics approach to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these methods, which sample from different compartments of the female genital tract, for the collection of immune factors. Matching sponge and lavage samples were collected from 10 healthy women and were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed by a combination of differential protein expression analysis, hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis. Of the 385 proteins identified, endocervical sponge samples collected nearly twice as many unique proteins as cervicovaginal lavage (111 vs. 61 with 55% of proteins common to both (213. Each method/site identified 73 unique proteins that have roles in host immunity according to their gene ontology. Sponge samples enriched for specific inflammation pathways including acute phase response proteins (p = 3.37×10(-24 and LXR/RXR immune activation pathways (p = 8.82×10(-22 while the role IL-17A in psoriasis pathway (p = 5.98×10(-4 and the complement system pathway (p = 3.91×10(-3 were enriched in lavage samples. Many host defense factors were differentially enriched (p<0.05 between sites including known/potential antimicrobial factors (n = 21, S100 proteins (n = 9, and immune regulatory factors such as serpins (n = 7. Immunoglobulins (n = 6 were collected at comparable levels in abundance in each site although 25% of those identified were unique to sponge samples. This study demonstrates significant differences in types and quantities of immune factors and inflammation pathways collected by each sampling technique. Therefore, clinical studies that measure mucosal immune activation or factors assessing HIV transmission should utilize

  18. Replicating Rather than Nonreplicating Adenovirus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Recombinant Vaccines Are Better at Eliciting Potent Cellular Immunity and Priming High-Titer Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1MNenv/rev recombinants and boosting wit...

  19. [Changes in serum YKL-40 level and humoral immune function and their significance in children with recurrent pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Yin; Peng, Shao; Zhang, Ting

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the changes in serum YKL-40 level and humoral immune function and their significance in children with recurrent pneumonia. Blood samples were collected from 30 children with recurrent pneumonia (recurrent pneumonia group), 30 children with acute pneumonia (acute pneumonia group), and 30 healthy children (control group). Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between serum YKL-40 level and laboratory indices related to humoral immune function was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the diagnostic value of serum YKL-40 level for recurrent pneumonia. The recurrent pneumonia group had a significantly higher serum YKL-40 level than the acute pneumonia and control groups (Ppneumonia group had a significantly higher serum YKL-40 level than the control group (Ppneumonia group were significantly lower than in the acute pneumonia group (Ppneumonia was 0.958 (95%CI: 0.921-0.994). Humoral immune function is low in children with recurrent pneumonia. Serum YKL-40 may be involved in the occurrence of recurrent pneumonia and can be used as a reference index for diagnosing recurrent pneumonia.

  20. Significance of Periodontal Health in Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia- A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder K Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immune thrombocytopenia is an acquired bleeding disorder with no clinically apparent cause of thrombocytopenia. Clinical indicators of ITP include easy bruising of the skin, prolonged bleeding on injury, mucocutaneous lesions such as petechiae and ecchymosis, epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria and bleeding from the gums. It is important for a dentist to be aware of the clinical manifestations of ITP as it may not only lead to successful management of the patient, but in some cases it may even lead to formation of a provisional diagnosis of the condition in previously undetected cases. However, very few cases of ITP have been reported in dental practice making it difficult for a dentist to identify the disorder when a patient suffering from ITP reports for dental treatment. A case report of a female patient with ITP is thus described with emphasis on the importance of periodontal health in such patients to prevent consequent unwanted sequelae. It is followed by discussion of oral manifestations of the disorder and dental management of such patients.

  1. A prime-boost vaccination strategy using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium and a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vector elicits protective immunity against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan-Hui; He, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Xian-Xian; Wu, Qiang; Xie, Can; Zhang, Mei; Wei, Wei; Tang, Qian; Song, Jing-Dong; Qu, Jian-Guo; Hong, Tao

    2010-04-23

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), for which no clinically approved vaccine is available yet, is globally a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract. Several approaches have been used to develop vaccines against RSV, but none of these have been approved for use in humans. An efficient vaccine-enhancing strategy for RSV is still urgently needed. We found previously that oral SL7207/pcDNA3.1/F and intranasal FGAd/F were able to induce an effective protective immune response against RSV. The heterologous prime-boost immunization regime has been reported recently to be an efficient vaccine-enhancing strategy. Therefore, we investigated the ability of an oral SL7207/pcDNA3.1/F prime and intranasal (i.n.) FGAd/F boost regimen to generate immune responses to RSV. The SL7207/pcDNA3.1/F prime-FGAd/F boost regimen generated stronger RSV-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses in BALB/c mice than the oral SL7207/pcDNA3.1/F regimen alone, and stronger specific cellular immune responses than the i.n. FGAd/F regimen alone. Histopathological analysis showed an increased efficacy against RSV challenge by the heterologous prime-boost regimen. These results suggest that such a heterologous prime-boost strategy can enhance the efficacy of either the SL7207 or the FGAd vector regimen in generating immune responses in BALB/c mice. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exopolysaccharide-producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains and their polymers elicit different responses on immune cells from blood and gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Nikolic, Milica; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Miljkovic, Marija; Kojic, Milan; Margolles, Abelardo; Golic, Natasa; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing bifidobacteria, and the EPS derived thereof, on the modulation of immune response was evaluated. Cells isolated from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve rats were used. The proliferation and cytokine production of these immune cells in the presence of the three isogenic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains (A1, A1dOx and A1dOxR), as well as their purified polymers, were in vitro analysed. The cytokine pattern produced by immune cells isolated from GALT showed that most levels remained stable in the presence of the three strains or their corresponding polymers. However, in PBMC the UV-inactivated bacteria induced higher levels of the ratios IFNγ/IL-17, TNFα/IL-10 and TNFα/TGFβ, and no variation in the ratio IFNγ/IL-4. Thus, B. animalis subsp. lactis strains were able to activate blood monocytes as well as T lymphocytes towards a mild inflammatory Th1 response. Furthermore, only the EPS-A1dOxR was able to stimulate a response in a similar way than its EPS-producing bacterium. Our work supports the notion that some bifidobacterial EPS could play a role in mediating the dialog of these microorganisms with the immune system. In addition, this study emphasizes the effect that the origin of the immune cells has in results obtained; this could explain the great amount of contradiction found in literature about the immunomodulation capability of EPS from probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HPV-E7 delivered by engineered exosomes elicits a protective CD8⁺ T cell-mediated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, Paola; Ridolfi, Barbara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Giovannelli, Andrea; Chiozzini, Chiara; Manfredi, Francesco; Anticoli, Simona; Arenaccio, Claudia; Federico, Maurizio

    2015-03-09

    We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut), which is an inactive protein incorporating in exosomes at high levels also when fused with foreign proteins. We compared the immunogenicity of engineered exosomes uploading human papillomavirus (HPV)-E7 with that of lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs) incorporating equivalent amounts of the same antigen. These exosomes, whose limiting membrane was decorated with VSV-G, i.e., an envelope protein inducing pH-dependent endosomal fusion, proved to be as immunogenic as the cognate VLPs. It is noteworthy that the immunogenicity of the engineered exosomes remained unaltered in the absence of VSV-G. Most important, we provide evidence that the inoculation in mouse of exosomes uploading HPV-E7 induces production of anti-HPV E7 CTLs, blocks the growth of syngeneic tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controls the development of tumor cells inoculated before the exosome challenge. These results represent the proof-of-concept about both feasibility and efficacy of the Nefmut-based exosome platform for the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity.

  4. Genotype I of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Virus-like Particles Elicit Sterilizing Immunity against Genotype I and III Viral Challenge in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi-Chin; Chen, Jo-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Ying; Wu, Guan-Hong; Su, Kuan-Hsuan; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Wu, Shang-Rung; Yin, Ji-Hang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2018-05-10

    Swine are a critical amplifying host involved in human Japanese encephalitis (JE) outbreaks. Cross-genotypic immunogenicity and sterile protection are important for the current genotype III (GIII) virus-derived vaccines in swine, especially now that emerging genotype I (GI) JE virus (JEV) has replaced GIII virus as the dominant strain. Herein, we aimed to develop a system to generate GI JEV virus-like particles (VLPs) and evaluate the immunogenicity and protection of the GI vaccine candidate in mice and specific pathogen-free swine. A CHO-heparan sulfate-deficient (CHO-HS(-)) cell clone, named 51-10 clone, stably expressing GI-JEV VLP was selected and continually secreted GI VLPs without signs of cell fusion. 51-10 VLPs formed a homogeneously empty-particle morphology and exhibited similar antigenic activity as GI virus. GI VLP-immunized mice showed balanced cross-neutralizing antibody titers against GI to GIV viruses (50% focus-reduction micro-neutralization assay titers 71 to 240) as well as potent protection against GI or GIII virus infection. GI VLP-immunized swine challenged with GI or GIII viruses showed no fever, viremia, or viral RNA in tonsils, lymph nodes, and brains as compared with phosphate buffered saline-immunized swine. We thus conclude GI VLPs can provide sterile protection against GI and GIII viruses in swine.

  5. A two-dose heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen eliciting sustained immune responses to Ebola Zaire could support a preventive strategy for future outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukarev, Georgi; Callendret, Benoit; Luhn, Kerstin; Douoguih, Macaya

    2017-02-01

    The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination program for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity. Heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens deliver the same or similar antigens through different vaccine types, the first to prime and the second to boost the immune system. Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo is an investigational Ebola Zaire vaccine regimen that uses this heterologous prime-boost approach. Preliminary Phase 1 data suggest that Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo confers durable immunity for at least 240 d and is well-tolerated with a good safety profile. This regimen may therefore be suitable for prophylactic use in a regional or targeted population vaccination strategy, and could potentially aid prevention and control of future Ebola outbreaks.

  6. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H

    1997-01-01

    The binding of immune complexes (IC) to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the consequent respiratory burst (RB) were investigated in whole blood cell preparations suspended in 75% human serum, using flow cytometry. Blockade of the complement receptor (CR)1 receptor sites for C3b on whole blood...... cells using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3D9 resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in the IC-elicited PMN RB after 5 min of incubation, rising to 3.1-fold after 40 min. This enhancement was not due to increased IC deposition on PMN. Blockade of CR3 abrogated the mAb 3D9-induced rise in RB activity...

  7. Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathsala Wijayalath

    Full Text Available Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0 in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.

  8. Transcriptional responses of Leptospira interrogans to host innate immunity: significant changes in metabolism, oxygen tolerance, and outer membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospira interrogans is the major causative agent of leptospirosis. Phagocytosis plays important roles in the innate immune responses to L. interrogans infection, and L. interrogans can evade the killing of phagocytes. However, little is known about the adaptation of L. interrogans during this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira and innate immunity, we employed microarray and comparative genomics analyzing the responses of L. interrogans to macrophage-derived cells. During this process, L. interrogans altered expressions of many genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy production, signal transduction, transcription and translation, oxygen tolerance, and outer membrane proteins. Among them, the catalase gene expression was significantly up-regulated, suggesting it may contribute to resisting the oxidative pressure of the macrophages. The expressions of several major outer membrane protein (OMP genes (e.g., ompL1, lipL32, lipL41, lipL48 and ompL47 were dramatically down-regulated (10-50 folds, consistent with previous observations that the major OMPs are differentially regulated in vivo. The persistent down-regulations of these major OMPs were validated by immunoblotting. Furthermore, to gain initial insight into the gene regulation mechanisms in L. interrogans, we re-defined the transcription factors (TFs in the genome and identified the major OmpR TF gene (LB333 that is concurrently regulated with the major OMP genes, suggesting a potential role of LB333 in OMPs regulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on global responses of pathogenic Leptospira to innate immunity, which revealed that the down-regulation of the major OMPs may be an immune evasion strategy of L. interrogans, and a putative TF may be involved in governing these down-regulations. Alterations of the leptospiral OMPs up interaction with host antigen

  9. Spleen-dependent immune protection elicited by CpG adjuvanted reticulocyte-derived exosomes from malaria infection is associated with T cells population changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Martin-Jaular

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy, had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced PD1- memory T cell expansion with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are able to induce splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to expansion of T-cells.

  10. Virus-like particles displaying H5, H7, H9 hemagglutinins and N1 neuraminidase elicit protective immunity to heterologous avian influenza viruses in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushko, Peter; Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Kapczynski, Darrell R.

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained influenza N1 neuraminidase and retroviral gag protein. The H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs were prepared using baculovirus expression. Biochemical, functional and antigenic characteristics were determined including hemagglutination and neuraminidase enzyme activities. VLPs were further evaluated in a chicken AI challenge model for safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against heterologous AI viruses including H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2 subtypes. All vaccinated birds survived challenges with H5N2 and H7N3 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses, while all controls died. Immune response was also detectable after challenge with low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) H9N2 virus suggesting that H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs represent a promising approach for the development of broadly protective AI vaccine. - Highlights: •VLPs were prepared that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 subtypes in a VLP envelope. •VLPs were characterized including electron microscopy, HA assay and NA enzyme activity. •Experimental VLP vaccine was evaluated in an avian influenza challenge model. •VLPs induced immune responses against heterologous H5, H7 and H9 virus challenges.

  11. Virus-like particles displaying H5, H7, H9 hemagglutinins and N1 neuraminidase elicit protective immunity to heterologous avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia [USDA SEPRL, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA (United States); Tumpey, Terrence M. [Influenza Division, CDC,1600 Clifton Road N.E., Atlanta, GA (United States); Kapczynski, Darrell R. [USDA SEPRL, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained influenza N1 neuraminidase and retroviral gag protein. The H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs were prepared using baculovirus expression. Biochemical, functional and antigenic characteristics were determined including hemagglutination and neuraminidase enzyme activities. VLPs were further evaluated in a chicken AI challenge model for safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against heterologous AI viruses including H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2 subtypes. All vaccinated birds survived challenges with H5N2 and H7N3 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses, while all controls died. Immune response was also detectable after challenge with low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) H9N2 virus suggesting that H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs represent a promising approach for the development of broadly protective AI vaccine. - Highlights: •VLPs were prepared that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 subtypes in a VLP envelope. •VLPs were characterized including electron microscopy, HA assay and NA enzyme activity. •Experimental VLP vaccine was evaluated in an avian influenza challenge model. •VLPs induced immune responses against heterologous H5, H7 and H9 virus challenges.

  12. Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Show Significant Serotype-Specific Colonization and Host-Specific Immune Defense Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720

  13. Dynamic profiles of neutralizing antibody responses elicited in rhesus monkeys immunized with a combined tetravalent DTaP-Sabin IPV candidate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingbo; Ma, Yan; Xu, Yinhua; Yang, Huijuan; Shi, Li; Che, Yanchun; Liao, Guoyang; Jiang, Shude; Zhang, Shumin; Li, Qihan

    2014-02-19

    The World Health Organization has recommended that a Sabin inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) should gradually and synchronously replace oral polio vaccines for routine immunizations because its benefits in eliminating vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis have been reported in different phases of clinical trials. It is also considered important to explore new tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-Sabin IPV (DTaP-sIPV) candidate vaccines for possible use in developing countries. In this study, the immunogenicity of a combined tetravalent DTaP-sIPV candidate vaccine was investigated in primates by evaluating the neutralizing antibody responses it induced. The dynamic profiles of the antibody responses to each of the separate antigenic components and serotypes of Sabin IPV were determined and their corresponding geometric mean titers were similar to those generated by the tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-conventional IPV (DTaP-cIPV), the tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP), and Sabin IPV vaccines in the control groups. This implies that protective immunogenic effects are conferred by this combined tetravalent formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression and Significance of gp96 and Immune-related Gene CTLA-4, CD8 in Lung Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan ZHENG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that gp96 plays an important role in specific cytotoxic immune response which is involved in anti-tumor effect in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological significance of heat shock protein gp96 and immune-related gene CTLA-4, CD8 expressions in lung cancer tissues of different progressive stages. Methods We used Envision immunohistochemistry method to detect the levels of expression of gp96, CTLA-4, CD8 in tissue microarray, which contained 89 primary lung cancer tissues, 12 lymph node metastasis lung cancer tissues, 12 precancerous lesions and 10 normal lung tissues, and analyzed the relationship between their expressions and clinicopathological parameters. Results (1 The positive rate of gp96 in primary lung cancer was remarkably higher than that in precancerous lesion and normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 in primary lung cancer tissue and precancerous lesion was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CD8 in primary lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of gp96 in CD8-positive lymphocytes in the high expression group was less than that in the low group (P < 0.05. (2 The positive rate of gp96 was closely related to sex, differentiation and clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to age, gross type, histological type and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 was closely related to age and differentiation (P < 0.05, but not to sex, gross type, histological type, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. CD8 expression was related to clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to sex, age, gross type, histological type, differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rates of gp96, CTLA-4 were higher than that of CD8 in squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC, respectively. (3 There was positive correlation between gp

  15. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  16. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacterial–viral load and the immune response in stable and exacerbated COPD: significance and therapeutic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Anna SE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silvestro Ennio D’Anna,1 Bruno Balbi,2 Francesco Cappello,3,4 Mauro Carone,2 Antonino Di Stefano21Department of Rehabilitation, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Fondazione Istituto G. Giglio di Cefalù, 2Pneumology Unit and Laboratory of Cytoimmunopathology of Heart and Lung, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Veruno (NO and Cassano delle Murge (BA, 3Human Anatomy Section, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. Bacteria and viruses are a major cause of COPD exacerbations and may contribute to COPD progression by perpetuating the inflammatory response in the airways. Bacterial variety diminishes with increasing COPD severity. Respiratory viruses can colonize the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD, altering the respiratory microbiome and facilitating secondary bacterial infections. In this review, we present the most updated information about the role of bacteria and viruses in stable and exacerbated COPD. In our opinion, to optimize therapeutic strategies, the dynamic events involving bacterial–viral infections and related immune response in COPD phenotypes need to be better clarified. Our paper would address these points that we consider of great importance for the clinical management of COPD.Keywords: COPD phenotype, biomarkers, exacerbations, severity of COPD, microbiome

  18. Modulating the immune system through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacoba, Tamara G; Olivera, Ana; Torres, Dolores; Crecente-Campo, José; Alonso, María José

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, nanotechnology-based modulation of the immune system is presented as a cutting-edge strategy, which may lead to significant improvements in the treatment of severe diseases. In particular, efforts have been focused on the development of nanotechnology-based vaccines, which could be used for immunization or generation of tolerance. In this review, we highlight how different immune responses can be elicited by tuning nanosystems properties. In addition, we discuss specific formulation approaches designed for the development of anti-infectious and anti-autoimmune vaccines, as well as those intended to prevent the formation of antibodies against biologicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expert Panel Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Waste Management and Environmental Protection; Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Scientists are now frequently in a situation where data cannot be easily assessed, since they may have conflicting or uncertain sources. While expert judgment reflects private choices, it is possible both reduce the personal aspect as well as in crease confidence in the judgments by using formal protocols for choice and elicitation of experts. A full-scale elicitation made on seismicity following glaciation, now in its late phase and presented here in a preliminary form, illustrates the value of the technique and some essential issues in connection with the decision to launch such a project. The results show an unusual low variation between the experts.

  20. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  1. Elicited vs. voluntary promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismayilov, H.; Potters, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee. This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost

  2. Significance of adipose tissue-derived stem cells regulate CD4+ T cell immune in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-lin XIE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs are genetically engineered seed cells with immunomodulatory effects, widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on CD4+ T cell subsets, including T helper cell (Th 1, 2, 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg, and its clinical significance in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.005

  3. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  4. An engineered Lactococcus lactis strain exerts significant immune responses through efficient expression and delivery of Helicobacter pylori Lpp20 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongguang; Peng, Xiaoyan; Duan, Guangcai; Shi, Qingfeng; Chen, Shuaiyin; Wang, Chen; Fan, Qingtang; Xi, Yuanlin

    2016-12-01

    To produce and deliver Helicobacter pylori lipoprotein Lpp20 via using Lactococcus lactis with aim of developing an efficient way to use this protective antigen in vaccine formulation. An engineered L. lactis strain carrying the lpp20 gene from H. pylori was constructed. The inducible expression of Lpp20 in L. lactis was detected as a 20 kDa intracellular protein by SDS-PAGE. Lpp20 constituted 10 % of the L. lactis cellular proteins. The expression product was highly immunoreactive, as demonstrated by western blot assays using mouse anti-H. pylori sera. Animal experimentation showed that oral vaccination with the engineered strain excited significantly elevated levels of serum Lpp20-specific IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice (P lactis, demonstrating an efficient utilization mode of Lpp20 in anti-H. pylori vaccination.

  5. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kasztelan-Szczerbińska

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed.147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications.IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort.We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury.

  6. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melanie; Heath, Sonya L; Sweeton, Bentley; Williams, Kathy; Cunningham, Pamela; Keele, Brandon F; Sen, Sharon; Palmer, Brent E; Chomont, Nicolas; Xu, Yongxian; Basu, Rahul; Hellerstein, Michael S; Kwa, Suefen; Robinson, Harriet L

    2016-01-01

    GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine (GOVX-B11), was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI). Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  7. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Thompson

    Full Text Available GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA boost vaccine (GOVX-B11, was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI. Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for at least 6 months were enrolled. Median age was 38 years, median pre-ART HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  8. DNA vaccination with all-trans retinoic acid treatment induces long-term survival and elicits specific immune responses requiring CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation in an acute promyelocytic leukemia mouse model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furugaki, K.; Pokorná, Kateřina; le Pogam, C.; Aoki, M.; Reboul, M.; Bajzik, V.; Krief, P.; Janin, A.; Noguera, M.-E.; West, R.; Charron, D.; Chomienne, C.; Pla, M.; Moins-Teisserenc, H.; Padua, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2010), s. 653-656 ISSN 0006-4971 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 94308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : all-trans retinoic acid * DNA vaccination * protective immunity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.558, year: 2010

  9. The Novel C24D Synthetic Polypeptide Inhibits Binding of Placenta Immunosuppressive Ferritin to Human T Cells and Elicits Anti–Breast Cancer Immunity In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Solodeev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune tolerance mechanisms supporting normal human pregnancy are exploited by breast cancer and other malignancies. We cloned from human placenta and breast cancer cells the novel human immunomodulator named placenta immunosuppressive ferritin (PLIF. PLIF is composed of a ferritin heavy chain–like domain and a novel cytokine-like domain, named C48. Both intact PLIF and C48 inhibit T cell proliferation. Blocking PLIF by specific antibodies in a tolerant breast cancer model in nude mice resulted in tumor cell apoptosis and rejection. This prompted us to study active immune preventive strategies targeting PLIF activity. Currently, we report on the design and synthesis of the novel C24D polypeptide, which inhibits the binding of PLIF to T cells and therefore inhibits the immune suppressive effect of PLIF. The effect of C24D on the generation of anti–breast cancer cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs was studied in vitro in cultures of MCF-7 (HLA-A2+ or T47D (HLA-A2− breast cancer cells incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy blood donors. We found that C24D treatment exclusively induced development of CTLs. On reactivation by their specific target cells, the CTLs secreted interferon-γ and induced target apoptosis. Anti–MCF-7 CTLs were cross-cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 (HLA-A2+ triple-negative breast cancer but not to T47D. Moreover, C24D treatment in vivo inhibited the growth of MCF-7 tumors engrafted in immune-compromised nude mice transfused with naïve allogeneic human PBMCs. Our results demonstrate that C24D treatment breakdown breast cancer induced tolerance enabling the initiation of effective anti-tumor immune response.

  10. Vaccination elicits a prominent acute phase response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine

    2012-02-01

    European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  12. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H

    1997-01-01

    cells using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3D9 resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in the IC-elicited PMN RB after 5 min of incubation, rising to 3.1-fold after 40 min. This enhancement was not due to increased IC deposition on PMN. Blockade of CR3 abrogated the mAb 3D9-induced rise in RB activity...... and inhibited the IC binding to PMN in a whole blood cell preparation, with or without mAb 3D9, by approximately 40% from 15-40 min while reducing their RB over 40 min to approximately one third. Blockade of CR1 on either erythrocytes (E) or leukocytes, before mixing the populations, revealed...... that the potentiation of the RB by mAb 3D9 was associated with abrogation of E-CR1 function, whereas blockade of leukocyte-CR1 had a diminishing effect. Exposure to IC at high concentrations induced release of both specific and azurophilic granule contents from PMN. The latter was CR3 dependent in that blockade...

  13. Comparison of subcutaneous versus intranasal immunization of male koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) for induction of mucosal and systemic immunity against Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Timms, Peter; Andrew, Dean; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2015-02-11

    Chlamydia pecorum infections are debilitating in the koala, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality, with current antibiotic treatments having minimal success and adversely affecting gut microflora. This, combined with the sometimes-asymptomatic nature of the infection, suggests that an efficacious anti-chlamydial vaccine is required to control chlamydial infections in the koala. To date vaccination studies have focused primarily on female koalas, however, given the physiological differences between male and female reproductive tracts, we tested the efficacy of a vaccine in 12 captive male koalas. We evaluated the potential of both subcutaneous and intranasal vaccine delivery to elicit mucosal immunity in male koalas. Our results showed that both intranasal and subcutaneous delivery of a vaccine consisting of C. pecorum major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and the adjuvant immunostimulating complex (ISC) induced significant immune responses in male koalas. Subcutaneous immunization elicited stronger cell-mediated responses in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and greater plasma antibody levels whereas the intranasal immunization elicited stronger humoral responses in urogenital tract (UGT) secretions. This is the first time a Chlamydia vaccine has been tested in the male koala and the first assessment of a mucosal vaccination route in this species. Our results suggest that vaccination of male koalas can elicit mucosal immunity and could contribute to the long-term survivability of wild populations of the koala. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  15. Soluble HIV-1 envelope immunogens derived from an elite neutralizer elicit cross-reactive V1V2 antibodies and low potency neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carbonetti

    Full Text Available We evaluated four gp140 Envelope protein vaccine immunogens that were derived from an elite neutralizer, subject VC10042, whose plasma was able to potently neutralize a wide array of genetically distinct HIV-1 isolates. We sought to determine whether soluble Envelope proteins derived from the viruses circulating in VC10042 could be used as immunogens to elicit similar neutralizing antibody responses by vaccination. Each gp140 was tested in its trimeric and monomeric forms, and we evaluated two gp140 trimer vaccine regimens in which adjuvant was supplied at all four immunizations or at only the first two immunizations. Interestingly, all four Envelope immunogens elicited high titers of cross-reactive antibodies that recognize the variable regions V1V2 and are potentially similar to antibodies linked with a reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. Two of the four immunogens elicited neutralizing antibody responses that neutralized a wide array of HIV-1 isolates from across genetic clades, but those responses were of very low potency. There were no significant differences in the responses elicited by trimers or monomers, nor was there a significant difference between the two adjuvant regimens. Our study identified two promising Envelope immunogens that elicited anti-V1V2 antibodies and broad, but low potency, neutralizing antibody responses.

  16. SU-E-J-66: Significant Anatomical and Dosimetric Changes Observed with the Pharyngeal Constrictor During Head and Neck Radiotherapy Elicited From Daily Deformable Image Registration and Dose Accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasiri, A; Siddiqui, F; Liu, C; Kamal, M; Fraser, C; Chetty, I; Kim, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to the pharyngeal constrictor (PC) that occurs during head and neck radiotherapy (H&N RT). Methods: A cohort of 13 oro-pharyngeal cancer patients, who had daily CBCT’s for localization, was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT, PC was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PC thickness was measured at the C3 level. Delivered dose to PC was estimated by calculating daily doses on CBCT’s, and accumulating to corresponding planning CT images. For accumulation, a parameter-optimized B- spline-based deformable image registration algorithm (Elastix) was used, in conjunction with an energy-mass mapping dose transfer algorithm. Mean and maximum dose (Dmean, Dmax) to PC was determined and compared with corresponding planned quantities. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) volume increase (ΔV) and thickness increase (Δt) over the course of 35 total fractions were 54±33% (11.9±7.6 cc), and 63±39% (2.9±1.9 mm), respectively. The resultant cumulative mean dose increase from planned dose to PC (ΔDmean) was 1.4±1.3% (0.9±0.8 Gy), while the maximum dose increase (ΔDmax) was 0.0±1.6% (0.0±1.1 Gy). Patients with adaptive replanning (n=6) showed a smaller mean dose increase than those without (n=7); 0.5±0.2% (0.3±0.1 Gy) vs. 2.2±1.4% (1.4±0.9 Gy). There was a statistically significant (p<0.0001) strong correlation between ΔDmean and Δt (Pearson coefficient r=0.78), and a moderate-to-strong correlation (r=0.52) between ΔDmean and ΔV. Correlation between ΔDmean and weight loss ΔW (r=0.1), as well as ΔV and ΔW (r=0.2) were negligible. Conclusion: Patients were found to undergo considerable anatomical changes to pharyngeal constrictor during H&N RT, resulting in non-negligible dose deviations from intended dose. Results are indicative that pharyngeal constrictor thickness, measured at C3 level, is a good predictor for the dose change to

  17. SU-E-J-66: Significant Anatomical and Dosimetric Changes Observed with the Pharyngeal Constrictor During Head and Neck Radiotherapy Elicited From Daily Deformable Image Registration and Dose Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarasiri, A; Siddiqui, F; Liu, C; Kamal, M; Fraser, C; Chetty, I; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to the pharyngeal constrictor (PC) that occurs during head and neck radiotherapy (H&N RT). Methods: A cohort of 13 oro-pharyngeal cancer patients, who had daily CBCT’s for localization, was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT, PC was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PC thickness was measured at the C3 level. Delivered dose to PC was estimated by calculating daily doses on CBCT’s, and accumulating to corresponding planning CT images. For accumulation, a parameter-optimized B- spline-based deformable image registration algorithm (Elastix) was used, in conjunction with an energy-mass mapping dose transfer algorithm. Mean and maximum dose (Dmean, Dmax) to PC was determined and compared with corresponding planned quantities. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) volume increase (ΔV) and thickness increase (Δt) over the course of 35 total fractions were 54±33% (11.9±7.6 cc), and 63±39% (2.9±1.9 mm), respectively. The resultant cumulative mean dose increase from planned dose to PC (ΔDmean) was 1.4±1.3% (0.9±0.8 Gy), while the maximum dose increase (ΔDmax) was 0.0±1.6% (0.0±1.1 Gy). Patients with adaptive replanning (n=6) showed a smaller mean dose increase than those without (n=7); 0.5±0.2% (0.3±0.1 Gy) vs. 2.2±1.4% (1.4±0.9 Gy). There was a statistically significant (p<0.0001) strong correlation between ΔDmean and Δt (Pearson coefficient r=0.78), and a moderate-to-strong correlation (r=0.52) between ΔDmean and ΔV. Correlation between ΔDmean and weight loss ΔW (r=0.1), as well as ΔV and ΔW (r=0.2) were negligible. Conclusion: Patients were found to undergo considerable anatomical changes to pharyngeal constrictor during H&N RT, resulting in non-negligible dose deviations from intended dose. Results are indicative that pharyngeal constrictor thickness, measured at C3 level, is a good predictor for the dose change to

  18. Immunization of C57BL/6 Mice with GRA2 Combined with MPL Conferred Partial Immune Protection against Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Jalal; Amiri, Samira; Homayoun, Robab; Azimi, Ebrahim; Mohabati, Reyhaneh; Berizi, Mahboobe; Sadaie, M. Reza; Golkar, Majid

    2018-01-01

    We have previously reported that immunization with GRA2 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii induces protective immunity in CBA/J (H2k) and BALB/c mice (H2d). We aimed to examine whether immunization of a distinct strain of rodent with recombinant dense granule antigens (GRA2) combined with monophosphorryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant elicits protective immune response against T. gondii. C57BL/6 (H2b haplotype) mice were immunized with GRA2, formulated in MPL adjuvant. Strong humoral response, predominantly of IgG1 subclass and cellular response, IFN-γ, was detected at three weeks post immunization. Mice immunized with GRA2 had significantly (p < 0.01) fewer brain cysts than those in the adjuvant group, upon challenge infection. Despite the production of a strong antibody response, IFN-γ production and brain cyst reduction were not significant when the immunized mice were infected four months after the immunization. We can conclude that GRA2 immunization partially protects against T. gondii infection in C57BL/6 mice, though the potency and longevity of this antigen as a standalone vaccine may vary in distinct genetic backgrounds. This observation further emphasizes the utility of GRA2 for incorporation into a multi-antigenic vaccine against T. gondii.

  19. Effect of Early-Life Treatment of Piglets with Long-Acting Ceftiofur on Colonization of Streptococcus suis Serotype 7 and Elicitation of Specific Humoral Immunity in a Farm Dealing with Streptococcal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Unterweger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In newborn piglets treatment with long-acting ceftiofur is a common approach to reduce losses due to streptococcal diseases on farms, even if problems start after weaning. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a single early-life treatment on Streptococcus (S. suis colonization, transmission, immunoreaction, and drug resistance over an observation period of 14 weeks. In a farm with a history of streptococcal disease and isolation of a S. suis cps 7 mrp+, arcA+ isolate from diseased piglets, half of each litter was treated with a long-acting ceftiofur on day 1. S. suis-isolates were profiled and serum samples were tested for opsonizing antibodies. Treated and untreated pigs did not differ according to average daily weight gains, S. suis-isolation rates and level of opsonizing antibodies. Although the invasive cps 7 strain was not detected in a single piglet over 14 weeks, all animals developed bactericidal activity. No resistance to ceftiofur, but resistance to tetracyclins (100%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (53% was shown. Our results indicate that early treatment with ceftiofur does not prevent colonization and transmission of S. suis or the induction of bactericidal humoral immunity in nursery and fattening pigs. The necessity of continuous usage should be reconsidered.

  20. Preexisting Salmonella-specific immunity interferes with the subsequent development of immune responses against the Salmonella strains delivering H9N2 hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Recombinant Salmonella strains expressing foreign heterologous antigens have been extensively studied as promising live vaccine delivery vehicles. In this study, we constructed attenuated smooth (S-HA) and rough (R-HA) Salmonella strains expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of H9N2, a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus. We then investigated the HA-specific immune responses following oral immunization with either S-HA or R-HA strain in chicken model. We further examined the effects of the preexisting anti-Salmonella immunity on the subsequent elicitation of the HA and the Salmonella ompA specific immune responses. Our results showed that primary immunization with either the S-HA or the R-HA strain elicited comparable HA-specific immune responses and the responses were significantly (pSalmonella vector control. When chickens were pre-immunized with the smooth Salmonella carrier alone and then vaccinated with either S-HA or R-HA strain 3, 6 and 9 weeks later, respectively, significant reductions were seen for HA-specific immune responses at week 6, a point which corresponded to the peak of the primary Salmonella-specific antibody responses. No reductions were seen at week 3 and 9, albeit, the HA-specific immune responses were boosted at week 9, a point which corresponded to the lowest primary Salmonella-specific antibody responses. The ompA recall responses remain refractory at week 3 and 6 following deliberate immunization with the carrier strain, but were significantly (pSalmonella immunity inhibits antigen-specific immune responses and this effect could be avoided by carefully selecting the time point when carrier-specific immune responses are relatively low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential protective effects of immune lymphoid cells against transplanted line Ib leukemia and immune polioencephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, P.S.; Lukasewycz, O.A.; Olson, D.S.; Murphy, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    The capacity of immune cells obtained from the major lymphoid compartments to protect C58 mice from transplanted line Ib leukemia, and from an age-dependent autoimmune CNS disease (immune polioencephalomyelitis = IPE) elicited by immunizing old C58 mice with inactivated Ib cells was quantified. Cells used for comparative adoptive protection tests were harvested from the major lymphoid compartments 14 to 15 days after young C58 mice were immunized with inactivated Ib cell preparations. Regression curves were plotted from survival data and the log 10 PD 50 values were determined. Immune spleen (ISC) and peritoneal cells (IPEC) were significantly more protective against transplanted Ib cells than immune lymph node (ILNC), thymic (ITC), and marrow cells (IMC). In contrast, IPEC and IMC were not protective against IPE and ITC were only marginally protective. ILNC afforded significant protection to transplantable leukemia but were only marginally protective to IPE. When ISC were treated with anti-thy 1.2 serum and complement, protection against transplanted leukemia and IPE was reduced > 99%. When donors of immune lymphoid cells were treated with 12.5 mg of cortisone acetate daily for 2 days before lymphoid cells were harvested, protection against transplanted Ib cells by ISC was reduced by approximately 90% whereas protection against IPE was totally eliminated. Considered together, these results indicate that the protective mechanisms to transplantable leukemia and IPE differ significantly in the same indicator mouse strain

  2. Impact of methamphetamine on infection and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Salamanca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of methamphetamine (METH use is estimated at ~35 million people worldwide, with over 10 million users in the United States. METH use elicits a myriad of social consequences and the behavioral impact of the drug is well understood. However, new information has recently emerged detailing the devastating effects of METH on host immunity, increasing the acquisition of diverse pathogens and exacerbating the severity of disease. These outcomes manifest as modifications in protective physical and chemical defenses, pro-inflammatory responses, and the induction of oxidative stress pathways. Through these processes, significant neurotoxicities arise, and, as such, chronic abusers with these conditions are at a higher risk for heightened consequences. METH use also influences the adaptive immune response, permitting the unrestrained development of opportunistic diseases. In this review, we discuss recent literature addressing the impact of METH on infection and immunity, and identify areas ripe for future investigation.

  3. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  4. Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving.

  5. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    : On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized...

  6. The LOV protein of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri plays a significant role in the counteraction of plant immune responses during citrus canker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kraiselburd

    Full Text Available Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development.

  7. The LOV Protein of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Plays a Significant Role in the Counteraction of Plant Immune Responses during Citrus Canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiselburd, Ivana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Tondo, María Laura; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A.; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Orellano, Elena G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates) was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development. PMID:24260514

  8. Induction of antitumor immunity through xenoplacental immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadjanyan Michael G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically cancer vaccines have yielded suboptimal clinical results. We have developed a novel strategy for eliciting antitumor immunity based upon homology between neoplastic tissue and the developing placenta. Placenta formation shares several key processes with neoplasia, namely: angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteases, and active suppression of immune function. Immune responses against xenoantigens are well known to break self-tolerance. Utilizing xenogeneic placental protein extracts as a vaccine, we have successfully induced anti-tumor immunity against B16 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, whereas control xenogeneic extracts and B16 tumor extracts where ineffective, or actually promoted tumor growth, respectively. Furthermore, dendritic cells were able to prime tumor immunity when pulsed with the placental xenoantigens. While vaccination-induced tumor regression was abolished in mice depleted of CD4 T cells, both CD4 and CD8 cells were needed to adoptively transfer immunity to naïve mice. Supporting the role of CD8 cells in controlling tumor growth are findings that only freshly isolated CD8 cells from immunized mice were capable of inducing tumor cell caspases-3 activation ex vivo. These data suggest feasibility of using xenogeneic placental preparations as a multivalent vaccine potently targeting not just tumor antigens, but processes that are essential for tumor maintenance of malignant potential.

  9. [Change of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK Cells in peripheral blood of children with acute leukemia and its possible significance in tumor immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze-Lin; Hu, Guan-Yu; Chen, Fu-Xiong; Lu, Hui-Min; Wu, Zi-Liang; Li, Hua-Mei; Wei, Feng-Gui; Guan, Jing-Ming; Wu, Li-Ping

    2010-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the changes of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK cells in peripheral blood of acute leukemia children at different stages, the function of immune system and the possible roles of the CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells as well as NK cells in leukemia immunity. The number and proportion of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK cells were detected by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 53 acute leukemia children, including 25 patients in new diagnosis and 28 patients in continuous complete remission (CCR), and were compared with that of 20 normal children. The results indicated that the mean proportion of CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(+) in CD4(+) T cells of peripheral blood in newly diagnosed patients, patients with CCR and normal children were (9.55 +/- 2.41)%, (8.54 +/- 2.51)% and (6.25 +/- 0.85)% respectively, the mean proportions of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(+) in newly diagnosed patients and patients with CCR were higher than that in normal children, the mean proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(+) in newly diagnosed patients were higher than that in patients with CCR (p cell count in patients with acute leukaemia decreased as compared with normal control, while after achieving CCR, the NK cell count in patients were also less than that in normal control (4.11 +/- 3.87% and 10.41 +/- 7.20% vs 14.06 +/- 5.95%, p regulatory T cells is a simple, reproductive and accurate method, and the CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(+) T cells can better reflect the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. The increase of regulatory T cells and decrease of NK cells in pediatric patients with acute leukemia indicate that the function of NK cells may be depressed. Treg T cells play a role in occurrence and development of leukemia, and are involved in down-regulating NK cell function.

  10. The significance of fertile pigs vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection in the prevention of intrauterine infection and formation of colostrum piglets immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanac Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to come closer to the knowledge of piglets protection during intrauterine life, as well as formation of colostrum immunity against Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV, on the basis of detailed antibody titer analysis from the blood serum of pigs 7 days before previous weaning, 30 days before mating and their piglets during first 3 days of life. The research included 60 fertile pigs and 300 of their offspring. For that purpose we have examined antibody titer specific for PPV in blood serum of vaccinated fertile pigs on 70th and 113th day of gestation, and in the blood serum of piglets originated from itemized fertile pigs during first day of life, before colostrums consummation and also during 3rd day of life. On the 70th day of gestation, in the fertile pigs blood serum, average antibody titer specific for PPV, value of 12.60 was determined, what represents adequate level for solid protection against PPV infection. This was confirmed undoubtedly by examination results of antibodies in the blood serum of piglets before colostrum consummation, which was 100% negative. Titer drop in the blood serum of fertile pigs, on 113th day of gestation (on the level of 8.7 came as a result of specific antibodies transfer from the mother’s blood flow to the colostrum. The above-mentioned is supported by the fact that on the 3rd day of life there was confirmed high average body titer level (13.37 in newborn piglets body serum has been confirmed. The principle of fertile pigs vaccination 7 days before weaning and one month before gilts insemination is an efficient measure which prevents intrauterine infection occurrence during the entire gestation process. The level of antibodies specific for PPV which is determined in gilts blood serum after vaccination can be a result of both primary and secondary immune response (animal infected before first vaccination, as well as absence of gilts revaccination, what is usually recommended by

  11. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  12. Differential protective effects of immune lymphoid cells against transplanted line Ib leukemia and immune polioencephalomyelitis. [X radiation, mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, P.S.; Lukasewycz, O.A.; Olson, D.S.; Murphy, W.H.

    1978-12-01

    The capacity of immune cells obtained from the major lymphoid compartments to protect C58 mice from transplanted line Ib leukemia, and from an age-dependent autoimmune CNS disease (immune polioencephalomyelitis = IPE) elicited by immunizing old C58 mice with inactivated Ib cells was quantified. Cells used for comparative adoptive protection tests were harvested from the major lymphoid compartments 14 to 15 days after young C58 mice were immunized with inactivated Ib cell preparations. Regression curves were plotted from survival data and the log/sub 10/PD/sub 50/ values were determined. Immune spleen (ISC) and peritoneal cells (IPEC) were significantly more protective against transplanted Ib cells than immune lymph node (ILNC), thymic (ITC), and marrow cells (IMC). In contrast, IPEC and IMC were not protective against IPE and ITC were only marginally protective. ILNC afforded significant protection to transplantable leukemia but were only marginally protective to IPE. When ISC were treated with anti-thy 1.2 serum and complement, protection against transplanted leukemia and IPE was reduced > 99%. When donors of immune lymphoid cells were treated with 12.5 mg of cortisone acetate daily for 2 days before lymphoid cells were harvested, protection against transplanted Ib cells by ISC was reduced by approximately 90% whereas protection against IPE was totally eliminated. Considered together, these results indicate that the protective mechanisms to transplantable leukemia and IPE differ significantly in the same indicator mouse strain.

  13. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2012-10-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  14. Emotion Eliciting in Affective Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Yoke Chin

    2014-01-01

    A successful product needs the designer’s conceptual model congruent with the user’s mental model. The fundamental affective design principle also applies to assistive product design. Eliciting effectively the user’s mental model has been a big challenge for most novice designers. This paper outl...... with 3D digital prototype as emotion stimulus. To form a closed loop reflective model, the emotion response from the user is assessed with an emotion assessment tool. Emotion ontology is established to form the backbone of the emotion assessment tool....

  15. Eliciting Spill: A methodological note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants (Glaser, 1978, 1998. Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews. The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk when they recognize that their stories are valued. Once the informant realizes that he or she is being heard, the story flows. This is what Glaser refers to as “spill.” When this occurs, the theorist becomes a vessel to receive the story. As Glaser describes it, “The researcher will become a ‘big ear’ to pour into incessantly” (1998, p. 124. But, as easy as this seems, the researcher must overcome certain positivist tendencies to allow this to happen. Rather than asking a list of pre-planned questions, the grounded theorist will try to develop one question that will trigger the telling of a story. Eliciting spill requires a deliberate process that employs a deep understanding of the fundamentals of classic grounded theory. Derived from Glaser’s writings, the following are suggestions intended to help the novice grounded theorist to elicit spill.

  16. An oral microjet vaccination system elicits antibody production in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Kiana; Chooljian, Marc; Paredes, Jacobo; Rafi, Mohammad; Lee, Kunwoo; Kim, Allison Y; An, Jeanny; Yau, Jennifer F; Chum, Helen; Conboy, Irina; Murthy, Niren; Liepmann, Dorian

    2017-03-08

    Noninvasive immunization technologies have the potential to revolutionize global health by providing easy-to-administer vaccines at low cost, enabling mass immunizations during pandemics. Existing technologies such as transdermal microneedles are costly, deliver drugs slowly, and cannot generate mucosal immunity, which is important for optimal immunity against pathogens. We present a needle-free microjet immunization device termed MucoJet, which is a three-dimensional microelectromechanical systems-based drug delivery technology. MucoJet is administered orally, placed adjacent to the buccal tissue within the oral cavity, and uses a self-contained gas-generating chemical reaction within its two-compartment plastic housing to produce a high-pressure liquid jet of vaccine. We show that the vaccine jet ejected from the MucoJet device is capable of penetrating the buccal mucosal layer in silico, in porcine buccal tissue ex vivo, and in rabbits in vivo. Rabbits treated with ovalbumin by MucoJet delivery have antibody titers of anti-ovalbumin immunoglobulins G and A in blood serum and buccal tissue, respectively, that are three orders of magnitude higher than rabbits receiving free ovalbumin delivered topically by a dropper in the buccal region. MucoJet has the potential to accelerate the development of noninvasive oral vaccines, given its ability to elicit antibody production that is detectable locally in the buccal tissue and systemically via the circulation. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  18. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The procedure followed the principle of the classical ELISPOT test with nitrocellulose-bottomed microtiter plates, but europium (Eu3+)-linked streptavidin rather than enzyme-conjugated streptavidin was used, with the advantage of quantifying secreted immunoglobulins instead of detecting single antibody-secreting cells. Lymphocytes isolated from the lungs of treated animals revealed significant increases in total and antigen-specific IgA synthesis compared with the rates of the controls, whereas IgG and IgM production rates showed no remarkable differences. In addition, the sera of treated mice revealed higher antigen-specific IgA titers but not increased IgM and IgG levels. We conclude that priming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with bacterial antigens of pneumotropic microorganisms can elicit an enhanced IgA response in a distant mucosal effector site, such as the respiratory tract, according to the concept of a common mucosa-associated immune system.

  19. Characterization of the immune response and evaluation of the protective capacity of rSsnA against Streptococcus suis infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Tarradas, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    were evaluated. Moreover the composition of peripheral blood leukocyte populations was studied in infected animals. The results show that the immunization of piglets with rSsnA elicits a significant humoral antibody response. However, the antibody response is not reflected in protection of pigs...

  20. DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I; Lew, D

    1996-04-01

    A nucleic acid vaccine, expressing the gene encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 glycoprotein D (gD2) under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, was used to immunize guinea pigs against genital HSV-2 infection. The vaccine elicited humoral immune responses comparable to those seen after HSV-2 infection. Immunized animals exhibited protection from primary genital HSV-2 disease with little or no development of vesicular skin lesions and significantly reduced HSV-2 replication in the genital tract. After recovery from primary infection, immunized guinea pigs experienced significantly fewer recurrences and had significantly less HSV-2 genomic DNA detected in the sacral dorsal root ganglia compared with control animals. Thus, immunization reduced the burden of latent infection resulting from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and a nucleic acid vaccine expressing the HSV-2 gD2 antigen protected guinea pigs against genital herpes, limiting primary infection and reducing the magnitude of latent infection and the frequency of recurrent disease.

  1. Needs Elicitation for Novel Pervasive Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Forchhammer, B. H.; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    for pervasive healthcare technology, in which established methods for engaging users to elicit their needs can be difficult or even impossible to apply. In this paper we document our needs elicitation process in a relevant example as a method story, and present our findings and reflections on this as the key...

  2. Requirements Elicitation Problems: A Literature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Davey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is the process through which analysts determine the software requirements of stakeholders. Requirements elicitation is seldom well done, and an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of user requirements has led to the downfall of many software projects. This paper proposes a classification of problem types that occur in requirements elicitation. The classification has been derived from a literature analysis. Papers reporting on techniques for improving requirements elicitation practice were examined for the problem the technique was designed to address. In each classification the most recent or prominent techniques for ameliorating the problems are presented. The classification allows the requirements engineer to be sensitive to problems as they arise and the educator to structure delivery of requirements elicitation training.

  3. Primary immune system responders to nucleus pulposus cells: evidence for immune response in disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Murai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intervertebral disc herniation and associated sciatica is a common disease, its molecular pathogenesis is not well understood. Immune responses are thought to be involved. This study provides direct evidence that even non-degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP cells elicit immune responses. An in vitro colony forming inhibition assay demonstrated the suppressive effects of autologous spleen cells on NP cells and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed the positive cytotoxic effects of natural killer (NK cells and macrophages on NP cells. Non-degenerated rat NP tissues transplanted into wild type rats and immune-deficient mice demonstrated a significantly higher NP cell survival rate in immune-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of macrophages and NK cells in the transplanted NP tissues. These results suggest that even non-degenerated autologous NP cells are recognized by macrophages and NK cells, which may have an immunological function in the early phase of disc herniation. These findings contribute to understanding resorption and the inflammatory reaction to disc herniation.

  4. Effect of the Premalignant and Tumor Microenvironment on Immune Cell Cytokine Production in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Sara D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); De Costa, Anna-Maria A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Young, M. Rita I., E-mail: rita.young@va.gov [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Medical Research Service (151), Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is marked by immunosuppression, a state in which the established tumor escapes immune attack. However, the impact of the premalignant and tumor microenvironments on immune reactivity has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine how soluble mediators from cells established from carcinogen-induced oral premalignant lesions and HNSCC modulate immune cell cytokine production. It was found that premalignant cells secrete significantly increased levels of G-CSF, RANTES, MCP-1, and PGE{sub 2} compared to HNSCC cells. Splenocytes incubated with premalignant supernatant secreted significantly increased levels of Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokines compared to splenocytes incubated with HNSCC supernatant. These studies demonstrate that whereas the premalignant microenvironment elicits proinflammatory cytokine production, the tumor microenvironment is significantly less immune stimulatory and may contribute to immunosuppression in established HNSCC.

  5. Trans-sialidase-based vaccine candidate protects against Trypanosoma cruzi infection, not only inducing an effector immune response but also affecting cells with regulatory/suppressor phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochetto, Estefanía; Roldán, Carolina; Bontempi, Iván A.; Bertona, Daiana; Peverengo, Luz; Vicco, Miguel H.; Rodeles, Luz M.; Pérez, Ana R.; Marcipar, Iván S.; Cabrera, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccines have an important potential to control Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi)infection. The involvement of regulatory/suppressor immune cells after an immunization treatment and T. cruzi infection has never been addressed. Here we show that a new trans-sialidase-based immunogen (TSf) was able to confer protection, correlating not only with beneficial changes in effector immune parameters, but also influencing populations of cells related to immune control. Regarding the effector response, mice immunized with TSf showed a TS-specific antibody response, significant delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity and increased production of IFN-γ by CD8+ splenocytes. After a challenge with T. cruzi, TSf-immunized mice showed 90% survival and low parasitemia as compared with 40% survival and high parasitemia in PBS-immunized mice. In relation to the regulatory/suppressor arm of the immune system, after T. cruzi infection TSf-immunized mice showed an increase in spleen CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) as compared to PBS-inoculated and infected mice. Moreover, although T. cruzi infection elicited a notable increase in myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the spleen of PBS-inoculated mice, TSf-immunized mice showed a significantly lower increase of MDSC. Results presented herein highlight the need of studying the immune response as a whole when a vaccine candidate is rationally tested. PMID:28938533

  6. The role of retinoic acid in tolerance and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jason A; Grainger, John R; Spencer, Sean P; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2011-07-22

    Vitamin A elicits a broad array of immune responses through its metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). Recent evidence indicates that loss of RA leads to impaired immunity, whereas excess RA can potentially promote inflammatory disorders. In this review, we discuss recent advances showcasing the crucial contributions of RA to both immunological tolerance and the elicitation of adaptive immune responses. Further, we provide a comprehensive overview of the cell types and factors that control the production of RA and discuss how host perturbations may affect the ability of this metabolite to control tolerance and immunity or to instigate pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  8. A live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0 virus elicits 10 to 100 times greater protection against genital herpes than a glycoprotein D subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Halford

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein D (gD-2 is the entry receptor of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2, and is the immunogen in the pharmaceutical industry's lead HSV-2 vaccine candidate. Efforts to prevent genital herpes using gD-2 subunit vaccines have been ongoing for 20 years at a cost in excess of $100 million. To date, gD-2 vaccines have yielded equivocal protection in clinical trials. Therefore, using a small animal model, we sought to determine if a live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0⁻ virus would elicit better protection against genital herpes than a gD-2 subunit vaccine. Mice immunized with gD-2 and a potent adjuvant (alum+monophosphoryl lipid A produced high titers of gD-2 antibody. While gD-2-immunized mice possessed significant resistance to HSV-2, only 3 of 45 gD-2-immunized mice survived an overwhelming challenge of the vagina or eyes with wild-type HSV-2 (MS strain. In contrast, 114 of 115 mice immunized with a live HSV-2 ICP0⁻ virus, 0ΔNLS, survived the same HSV-2 MS challenges. Likewise, 0ΔNLS-immunized mice shed an average 125-fold less HSV-2 MS challenge virus per vagina relative to gD-2-immunized mice. In vivo imaging demonstrated that a luciferase-expressing HSV-2 challenge virus failed to establish a detectable infection in 0ΔNLS-immunized mice, whereas the same virus readily infected naïve and gD-2-immunized mice. Collectively, these results suggest that a HSV-2 vaccine might be more likely to prevent genital herpes if it contained a live-attenuated HSV-2 virus rather than a single HSV-2 protein.

  9. Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters Without Inviting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters. Without Inviting Respondents' ... methods based on Randomized Response tech- niques. ... while collecting data on some sensitive issues are well ..... Suppose there is an association of professionals.

  10. Do community and autonomy moral violations elicit different emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollareth, Dolichan; Kikutani, Mariko; Shirai, Mariko; Russell, James A

    2018-06-11

    According to one important set of theories, different domains of immorality are linked to different discrete emotions-panculturally. Violations against the community elicit contempt, whereas violations against an individual elicit anger. To test this theory, American, Indian and Japanese participants (N = 480) indicated contempt and anger reactions (with verbal rating and face selection) to both the types of immorality. To remedy method problems in previous research, community and autonomy violations were created for the same story-frame, by varying the target to be either the community or an individual. Community and autonomy violations did not differ significantly in the emotion elicited: overall, both types of violations elicited more anger than contempt (and more negative emotion of any kind than positive emotion). By verbal rating, Americans and Indians reported more anger than contempt for both types of violation, whereas Japanese reported more contempt than anger for both types. By face selection, the three cultural groups selected anger more than contempt for both types of violation. The results speak against defining distinct domains of morality by their association with distinct emotions. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Soiti Matsumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  12. Pattern visual evoked potentials elicited by organic electroluminescence screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Sasaki, Kakeru; Minoda, Haruka; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  13. Extinction and renewal of cue-elicited reward-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, Louise; Lee, Jessica C; Lovibond, Peter F; Colagiuri, Ben

    2016-12-01

    Reward cues can contribute to overconsumption of food and drugs and can relapse. The failure of exposure therapies to reduce overconsumption and relapse is generally attributed to the context-specificity of extinction. However, no previous study has examined whether cue-elicited reward-seeking (as opposed to cue-reactivity) is sensitive to context renewal. We tested this possibility in 160 healthy volunteers using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design involving voluntary responding for a high value natural reward (chocolate). One reward cue underwent Pavlovian extinction in the same (Group AAA) or different context (Group ABA) to all other phases. This cue was compared with a second non-extinguished reward cue and an unpaired control cue. There was a significant overall PIT effect with both reward cues eliciting reward-seeking on test relative to the unpaired cue. Pavlovian extinction substantially reduced this effect, with the extinguished reward cue eliciting less reward-seeking than the non-extinguished reward cue. Most interestingly, extinction of cue-elicited reward-seeking was sensitive to renewal, with extinction less effective for reducing PIT when conducted in a different context. These findings have important implications for extinction-based interventions for reducing maladaptive reward-seeking in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral or parenteral administration of replication-deficient adenoviruses expressing the measles virus haemagglutinin and fusion proteins: protective immune responses in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, A R; Jeevarajah, D; Lee, J; Warnes, A; Niewiesk, S; ter Meulen, V; Stephenson, J R; Clegg, J C

    1998-05-01

    The genes encoding the measles virus (MV) haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins were placed under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter in a replication-deficient adenovirus vector. Immunofluorescence and radioimmune precipitation demonstrated the synthesis of each protein and biological activity was confirmed by the detection of haemadsorption and fusion activities in infected cells. Oral as well as parenteral administration of the H-expressing recombinant adenovirus elicited a significant protective response in mice challenged with MV. While the F-expressing adenovirus failed to protect mice, cotton rats immunized with either the H- or F-expressing recombinant showed reduced MV replication in the lungs. Antibodies elicited in mice following immunization with either recombinant had no in vitro neutralizing activity, suggesting a protective mechanism involving a cell-mediated immune response. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using oral administration of adenovirus recombinants to induce protective responses to heterologous proteins.

  15. Effects of adjuvants on IgG subclasses elicited by virus-like Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visciano Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-Like Particles (VLPs represent an efficient strategy to present and deliver conformational antigens to the immune system, inducing both arms of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, their particulate structure surrounded by cell membrane provides an adjuvanted effect to VLP-based immunizations. In the present study, the elicitation of different patterns of IgG subclasses by VLPs, administered in CpG ODN1826 or poly(I:C adjuvants, has been evaluated in an animal model. Results Adjuvanted VLPs elicited a higher titer of total specific IgG compared to VLPs alone. Furthermore, while VLPs alone induced a balanced TH2 pattern, VLPs formulated with either adjuvant elicited a TH1-biased IgG subclasses (IgG2a and IgG3, with poly(I:C more potent than CpG ODN1826. Conclusions The results confirmed that adjuvants efficiently improve antigen immunogenicity and represent a suitable strategy to skew the adaptive immune response toward the differentiation of the desired T helper subset, also using VLPs as antigen.

  16. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  17. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  18. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A.; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M.; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Harandi, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes. PMID:28082979

  19. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Harandi, Ali M

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes.

  20. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  1. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Quinones-Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a need for cross-protective or universal influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunisation against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1 and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity via vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive antibody responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and antibodies, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and how to counteract commonly occurring

  3. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  4. The Lookahead Principle for Preference Elicitation: Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Viappiani, Paolo; Faltings, Boi; Pu, Pearl

    2006-01-01

    Preference-based search is the problem of finding an item that matches best with a user's preferences. User studies show that example-based tools for preference-based search can achieve significantly higher accuracy when they are complemented with suggestions chosen to inform users about the available choices. We discuss the problem of eliciting preferences in example-based tools and present the lookahead principle for generating suggestions. We compare two different implementations of this p...

  5. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  6. Soluble human CD4 elicits an antibody response in rhesus monkeys that inhibits simian immunodeficiency virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Chen, Zheng W.; Tsubota, Hiroshi; Lord, C.I.; Levine, C.G.; Letvin, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIV mac ) demonstrate significant virologic and clinical improvement as a result of treatment with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). The authors show that human rsCD4 does not efficiently inhibit SIV mac replication in bone marrow macrophages of rhesus monkeys and does not significantly augment bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. However, plasma of human rsCD4-treated rhesus monkeys does exhibit significant anti-SIV mac activity in vitro. Plasma of these animals efficiently blocks SIV mac replicaton in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow macrophages. It also increases granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in vitro by bone marrow cells of SIV mac -infected monkeys. This plasma and the IgG fraction of plasma from a rhesus monkey immunized with human rsCD4 in adjuvant demonstrate reactivity with a soluble form of the rhesus monkey CD4 molecule, exhibit binding to CD4 + but not CD8 + concanavalin A-activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes, and precipitate the CD4 molecule from surface-labeled activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-viral activity is demonstrable in the IgG fraction of plasma from a human rsCD4-immunized monkey. These studies raise the possibility that a modified human CD4 molecule serving as an immunogen might elicit an antibody response that could potentially induce a beneficial therapeutic response in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

  7. Cancer-Targeted Oncolytic Adenoviruses for Modulation of the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Capasso, Cristian; Vaha-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Otto; Hemminki, Akseli

    2018-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy and it is the first approved virus-derived drug for treatment of cancer. As an oncolytic agent, it can induce lysis of infected cells, but it can also engage the immune system, promoting activation and maturation of antigen- presenting cells (APCs). In essence, oncolysis combined with the associated immunostimulatory actions result in a "personalized in situ vaccine" for each patient. In order to take full advantage of these features, we should try to understand how adenovirus interacts with the immune system, what are the receptors involved in triggering subsequent signals and which kind of responses they elicit. Tackling these questions will give us further insight in how to manipulate adenovirus-mediated immune responses for enhancement of anti-tumor efficacy. In this review, we first highlight how oncolytic adenovirus interacts with the innate immune system and its receptors such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)- like receptors and other immune sensors. Then we describe the effect of these interactions on the adaptive immune system and its cells, especially B and T lymphocytes. Finally, we summarize the most significant preclinical and clinical results in the field of gene therapy where researchers have engineered adenovirus to manipulate the host immune system by expressing cytokines and signalingmediators. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Misinterpreting the therapeutic effects of small interfering RNA caused by immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Marjorie; Judge, Adam; Ambegia, Ellen; Choi, Catherine; Yaworski, Ed; Palmer, Lorne; McClintock, Kevin; MacLachlan, Ian

    2008-10-01

    Activation of innate immunity has direct effects in modulating viral replication, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and inflammatory and other immunological processes. It is now established that unmodified siRNA can activate this innate immune response and therefore there is real potential for siRNA to elicit nonspecific therapeutic effects in a wide range of disease models. Here we demonstrate that in a murine model of influenza infection, the antiviral activity of siRNA is due primarily to immune stimulation elicited by the active siRNA duplexes and is not the result of therapeutic RNA interference (RNAi) as previously reported. We show that the misinterpretation stems from the use of a particular control green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA that we identify as having unusually low immunostimulatory activity compared with the active anti-influenza siRNA. Curiously, this GFP siRNA has served as a negative control for a surprising number of groups reporting therapeutic effects of siRNA. The inert immunologic profile of the GFP sequence was unique among a broad panel of published siRNAs, all of which could elicit significant interferon induction from primary immune cells. This panel included eight active siRNAs against viral, angiogenic, and oncologic targets, the reported therapeutic efficacy of which was based on comparison with the nonimmunostimulatory GFP siRNA. These results emphasize the need for researchers to anticipate, monitor, and adequately control for siRNA-mediated immune stimulation and calls into question the interpretation of numerous published reports of therapeutic RNAi in vivo. The use of chemically modified siRNA with minimal immunostimulatory capacity will help to delineate more accurately the mechanism of action underlying such studies.

  9. Responsibilities in the Usability Requirements Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianella Aveledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any other software system quality attribute, usability places requirements on software components. In particular, it has been demonstrated that certain usability features have a direct impact throughout the software process. This paper details an approach that looks at how to deal with certain usability features in the early software development stages. In particular, we consider usability features as functional usability requirements using patterns that have been termed usability patterns to elicit requirements. Additionally, we clearly establish the responsibilities of all the players at the usability requirements elicitation stage.

  10. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Samuel M.; Carpenter, Stephen M.; Booty, Matthew G.; Barber, Daniel L.; Jayaraman, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction almost a century ago of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), an attenuated form of M. bovis that is used as a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains a global health threat and kills more than 1.5 million people each year. This is mostly because BCG fails to prevent pulmonary disease – the contagious form of tuberculosis. Although there have been significant advances in understanding how the immune system responds to infection, the qualities that define protective immunity against M. tuberculosis remain poorly characterized. The ability to predict who will maintain control over the infection and who will succumb to clinical disease would revolutionize our approach to surveillance, control, and treatment. Here we review the current understanding of pulmonary T cell responses following M. tuberculosis infection. While infection elicits a strong immune response that contains infection, M. tuberculosis evades eradication. Traditionally, its intracellular lifestyle and alteration of macrophage function are viewed as the dominant mechanisms of evasion. Now we appreciate that chronic inflammation leads to T cell dysfunction. While this may arise as the host balances the goals of bacterial sterilization and avoidance of tissue damage, it is becoming clear that T cell dysfunction impairs host resistance. Defining the mechanisms that lead to T cell dysfunction is crucial as memory T cell responses are likely to be subject to the same subject to the same pressures. Thus, success of T cell based vaccines is predicated on memory T cells avoiding exhaustion while at the same time not promoting overt tissue damage. PMID:25311810

  11. Risk-Informed SSCs Categorization: Elicitation Method of Expert's Opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Kil Yoo

    2005-01-01

    The regulations have been performing by deterministic way since nuclear power plants have been operating. However, some SSCs identified as safety-significance by deterministic way, were turned out to be low or non safety-significant and some SSCs identified as non-safety significance were turned out to be high safety-significant according to the results of PSA. Considering these risk insights, Regulatory Guide 1.174 and 10CFR50.69 were drawn up, and we can re-categorize the SSCs according to their safety significance. Therefore, a study and an interest about the risk-informed SSCs re-categorization and treatment has been continued. The objective of this regulatory initiative is to adjust the scope of equipment subject to special regulatory treatment to better focus licensee and regulatory attention and resources on equipment that has safety significance. Current most regulations define the plant equipment necessary to meet deterministic regulatory basis as 'safety-related.' This equipment is subject to special treatment regulations. Other plant equipment is categorized as 'non-safety related,' and is not subject to a select number of special treatment requirement or a subset of those requirement. However, risk information is not a magic tool making a decision but a supporting tool to categorize SSCs. This is because only small parts of a plant are modeled in PSA model. Thus, engineering and deterministic judgments are also used for risk-informed SSCs categorization, and expert opinion elicitation is very important for risk-informed SSCs categorization. Therefore, we need a rational method to elicit the expert's opinions, and in this study, we developed a systematic method for expert elicitation to categorize the nuclear power plants' SSCs. Current states for SSCs categorization of the USA and the existing methods for expert elicitation were surveyed and more systematic way eliciting the expert opinions and combining was developed. To validate the developed method

  12. What monitor can replace the cathode-ray tube for visual stimulation to elicit multifocal electroretinograms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Seki, Keisuke; Nagasaka, Eiichiro; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-08-05

    To compare a conventional cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen to organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens as visual stimulators to elicit multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), mfERGs were recorded from seven eyes of seven healthy volunteers (21 ± 2 years). The mfERGs elicited by a conventional CRT screen (S710, Compaq Computer Co.) were compared to those elicited by a studio-grade master OLED monitor (PVM-1741, Sony, Japan) and a conventional LCD (S1721, Flexscan, Eizo Nanao Corp., Japan). The luminance changes of each monitor were measured with a photodiode. CRT, OLED, and LCD screens with a frame frequency of 60 Hz were studied. A hexagonal stimulus array with 61 stimulus elements was created on each monitor. The serial white stimuli of the OLED screen at 60 Hz did not fuse, and that of the LCD screens fused. The amplitudes of P1 and P2 of the first-order kernels of the mfERGs were not significantly different from those elicited by the CRT and OLED screens, and the P1 amplitude of the first-order kernel elicited by the LCD stimuli was significantly smaller than that elicited by the CRT in all the groups of the averaged hexagonal elements. The implicit times were approximately 10 ms longer in almost all components elicited by the LCD screen compared to those elicited by the CRT screen. The mfERGs elicited by monitors other than the CRT should be carefully interpreted, especially those elicited by LCD screens. The OLED had good performance, and we conclude that it can replace the CRT as a stimulator for mfERGs; however, a collection of normative data is recommended. © 2014 ARVO.

  13. The sterile immune response during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Golen, Rowan F.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Heger, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion elicits an immune response that lacks a microbial constituent yet poses a potentially lethal threat to the host. In this sterile setting, the immune system is alarmed by endogenous danger signals that are release by stressed and dying liver cells. The detection of

  14. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  15. IL-27p28 Production by XCR1+ Dendritic Cells and Monocytes Effectively Predicts Adjuvant-Elicited CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Augustus M; Welsh, Seth; Cheney, Elizabeth E; Chitrakar, Alisha; Blain, Trevor J; Kedl, Benjamin J; Hunter, Chris A; Pennock, Nathan D; Kedl, Ross M

    2018-01-01

    It is well accepted that the innate response is a necessary prerequisite to the formation of the adaptive response. This is true for T cell responses against infections or adjuvanted subunit vaccination. However, specific innate parameters with predictive value for the magnitude of an adjuvant-elicited T cell response have yet to be identified. We previously reported how T cell responses induced by subunit vaccination were dependent on the cytokine IL-27. These findings were unexpected, given that T cell responses to an infection typically increase in the absence of IL-27. Using a novel IL-27p28-eGFP reporter mouse, we now show that the degree to which an adjuvant induces IL-27p28 production from dendritic cells and monocytes directly predicts the magnitude of the T cell response elicited. To our knowledge, these data are the first to identify a concrete innate correlate of vaccine-elicited cellular immunity, and they have significant practical and mechanistic implications for subunit vaccine biology.

  16. Neural circuitry and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  17. Quantification of the Impact of the HIV-1-Glycan Shield on Antibody Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongqing Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character. To a first approximation, the immunogenicity of the glycan-shielded protein surface was negligible, with Env-elicited neutralization (ID50 proportional to the exponential of the protein-surface area accessible to antibody. Based on these high titers and exponential relationship, we propose site-selective deglycosylated trimers as priming immunogens to increase the frequency of site-targeting antibodies.

  18. Quantification of the Impact of the HIV-1-Glycan Shield on Antibody Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tongqing; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Cheng, Cheng; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Chambers, Michael; Druz, Aliaksandr; Geng, Hui; McKee, Krisha; Kwon, Young Do; O’Dell, Sijy; Sastry, Mallika; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Xu, Kai; Chen, Lei; Chen, Rita E.; Louder, Mark K.; Pancera, Marie; Wanninger, Timothy G.; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Farney, S. Katie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lemmin, Thomas; Narpala, Sandeep; Rawi, Reda; Soto, Cinque; Todd, John-Paul; Shen, Chen-Hsiang; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Yang, Yongping; Zhao, Peng; Haynes, Barton F.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; Scorpio, Diana G.; Shapiro, Lawrence; McDermott, Adrian B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2017-04-01

    While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character). To a first approximation, the immunogenicity of the glycan-shielded protein surface was negligible, with Env-elicited neutralization (ID50) proportional to the exponential of the protein-surface area accessible to antibody. Based on these high titers and exponential relationship, we propose site-selective deglycosylated trimers as priming immunogens to increase the frequency of site-targeting antibodies.

  19. A drug-sensitive genetic network masks fungi from the immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Wheeler

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens can be recognized by the immune system via their beta-glucan, a potent proinflammatory molecule that is present at high levels but is predominantly buried beneath a mannoprotein coat and invisible to the host. To investigate the nature and significance of "masking" this molecule, we characterized the mechanism of masking and consequences of unmasking for immune recognition. We found that the underlying beta-glucan in the cell wall of Candida albicans is unmasked by subinhibitory doses of the antifungal drug caspofungin, causing the exposed fungi to elicit a stronger immune response. Using a library of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants, we uncovered a conserved genetic network that is required for concealing beta-glucan from the immune system and limiting the host response. Perturbation of parts of this network in the pathogen C. albicans caused unmasking of its beta-glucan, leading to increased beta-glucan receptor-dependent elicitation of key proinflammatory cytokines from primary mouse macrophages. By creating an anti-inflammatory barrier to mask beta-glucan, opportunistic fungi may promote commensal colonization and have an increased propensity for causing disease. Targeting the widely conserved gene network required for creating and maintaining this barrier may lead to novel broad-spectrum antimycotics.

  20. Eliciting illegal migration rates through list randomization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.; Siegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. We trial this technique by adding it to

  1. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  2. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  3. Multi-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS elicits inflammatory and regenerative processes in the rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adele Rueger

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is increasingly being used in human studies as an adjuvant tool to promote recovery of function after stroke. However, its neurobiological effects are still largely unknown. Electric fields are known to influence the migration of various cell types in vitro, but effects in vivo remain to be shown. Hypothesizing that tDCS might elicit the recruitment of cells to the cortex, we here studied the effects of tDCS in the rat brain in vivo. Adult Wistar rats (n = 16 were randomized to either anodal or cathodal stimulation for either 5 or 10 consecutive days (500 µA, 15 min. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU was given systemically to label dividing cells throughout the experiment. Immunohistochemical analyses ex vivo included stainings for activated microglia and endogenous neural stem cells (NSC. Multi-session tDCS with the chosen parameters did not cause a cortical lesion. An innate immune response with early upregulation of Iba1-positive activated microglia occurred after both cathodal and anodal tDCS. The involvement of adaptive immunity as assessed by ICAM1-immunoreactivity was less pronounced. Most interestingly, only cathodal tDCS increased the number of endogenous NSC in the stimulated cortex. After 10 days of cathodal stimulation, proliferating NSC increased by ∼60%, with a significant effect of both polarity and number of tDCS sessions on the recruitment of NSC. We demonstrate a pro-inflammatory effect of both cathodal and anodal tDCS, and a polarity-specific migratory effect on endogenous NSC in vivo. Our data suggest that tDCS in human stroke patients might also elicit NSC activation and modulate neuroinflammation.

  4. A peroxidase-dependent apoplastic oxidative burst in cultured Arabidopsis cells functions in MAMP-elicited defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jose A; Daudi, Arsalan; Finch, Paul; Butt, Vernon S; Whitelegge, Julian P; Souda, Puneet; Ausubel, Frederick M; Bolwell, G Paul

    2012-04-01

    Perception by plants of so-called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as bacterial flagellin, referred to as pattern-triggered immunity, triggers a rapid transient accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We previously identified two cell wall peroxidases, PRX33 and PRX34, involved in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we describe the generation of Arabidopsis tissue culture lines in which the expression of PRX33 and PRX34 is knocked down by antisense expression of a heterologous French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) peroxidase cDNA construct. Using these tissue culture lines and two inhibitors of ROS generation, azide and diphenylene iodonium, we found that perxoxidases generate about half of the H2O2 that accumulated in response to MAMP treatment and that NADPH oxidases and other sources such as mitochondria account for the remainder of the ROS. Knockdown of PRX33/PRX34 resulted in decreased expression of several MAMP-elicited genes, including MYB51, CYP79B2, and CYP81F2. Similarly, proteomic analysis showed that knockdown of PRX33/PRX34 led to the depletion of various MAMP-elicited defense-related proteins, including the two cysteine-rich peptides PDF2.2 and PDF2.3. Knockdown of PRX33/PRX34 also led to changes in the cell wall proteome, including increases in enzymes involved in cell wall remodeling, which may reflect enhanced cell wall expansion as a consequence of reduced H2O2-mediated cell wall cross-linking. Comparative metabolite profiling of a CaCl2 extract of the PRX33/PRX34 knockdown lines showed significant changes in amino acids, aldehydes, and keto acids but not fatty acids and sugars. Overall, these data suggest that PRX33/PRX34-generated ROS production is involved in the orchestration of pattern-triggered immunity in tissue culture cells.

  5. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  6. Nucleus accumbens inflammation mediates anxiodepressive behavior and compulsive sucrose seeking elicited by saturated dietary fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Décarie-Spain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity. Methods: Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to isocaloric high-fat/high-sucrose diets (HFD, enriched in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, or a control low-fat diet (LFD. Metabolic responses, anxiodepressive behavior, and plasma and NAc inflammatory markers were assessed after 12 weeks. In separate experiments, an adenoviral construct inhibiting IKKβ, an upstream component of the nuclear factor kappa-b (NFkB pathway, was a priori injected into the NAc. Results: Both HFDs resulted in obesity and hyperleptinemia; however, the saturated HFD uniquely triggered anxiety-like behavior, behavioral despair, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, peripheral inflammation, and multiple pro-inflammatory signs in the NAc, including reactive gliosis, increased expression of cytokines, antigen-presenting markers and NFкB transcriptional activity. Selective NAc IKKβ inhibition reversed the upregulated expression of inflammatory markers, prevented anxiodepressive behavior and blunted compulsive sucrose-seeking in mice fed the saturated HFD. Conclusions: Metabolic inflammation and NFкB-mediated neuroinflammatory responses in the NAc contribute to the expression of anxiodepressive behavior and heightened food cravings caused by a diet high in saturated fat and sugar. Keywords: Diet-induced obesity, Dietary fatty acids, Nuclear factor kappa-b, Neuroinflammation, Depression, Anxiety, Food reward

  7. Eliciting Help Without Pity: The Effect of Changing Media Images on Perceptions of Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Stuart B; Dimakos, Christina; Aslemand, Asal; Saleh, Amani; Ali-Mohammed, Saamiyah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether newer, more positive disability charity images can elicit helping behavior without producing pity. One hundred sixty-one university undergraduate students were presented with 35 older (1960-1990) and newer (1991-2010) disability charity images and completed a questionnaire about each image. Results indicate that overall, identification with depicted individuals was low; positive attitudes and perceptions of capabilities were moderate to high. Newer images led to more positive responses, but no significant difference in willingness to help. Eliciting pity through negative depictions of disability appears not to be a necessary precondition for eliciting helping behavior toward people with disabilities.

  8. Models for Immune Response and Immune Evasion in MSI Cancer and Lynch Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Mine

    2017-01-01

    Microsatellite-unstable (MSI) cancers occurring in the context of the hereditary Lynch syndrome or as sporadic cancers elicit pronounced tumor-specific immune responses. The pronounced immune response was shown to be closely associated with frameshift peptides (FSP) that are generated as a result of deficiency in DNA mismatch repair system leading to insertion/deletion mutations in coding microsatellites (cMS). FSP neoantigens are long antigenic amino acid stretches that bear m...

  9. A comparison of five elicitation techniques for elicitation of attributes of low involvement products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    1999-01-01

    of dimensions directed from theories of consumer buying behaviour. Although a number of differences between the techniques are identified in the study, the main findings are that the robustness of the different techniques for attribute elicitation is considerable Udgivelsesdato: JUN......The critical first step for most instruments used in analysing consumer choice and motivation is the identification of product attributes which are important to the consumer and for which there are differences among the available product alternatives. A number of techniques, ranging from...... the complex elicitation of idiosyncratic attributes or simpler picking procedures, has been developed to elicitate such attributes. The purpose of the study presented here is to com-pare attributes of a low involvement product, viz. vegetable oil, elicited by five different techniques on a number...

  10. Multiserotype protection elicited by a combinatorial prime-boost vaccination strategy against bluetongue virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Calvo-Pinilla

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV belongs to the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The development of vector-based vaccines expressing conserved protective antigens results in increased immune activation and could reduce the number of multiserotype vaccinations required, therefore providing a cost-effective product. Recent recombinant DNA technology has allowed the development of novel strategies to develop marker and safe vaccines against BTV. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2, VP7 and NS1 proteins from BTV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7-NS1 in an heterologous prime boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of antibodies specific of VP2, VP7, and NS1, including those with neutralizing activity against BTV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific CD8(+ T cell responses against these three BTV proteins. Importantly, the vaccine combination expressing NS1, VP2 and VP7 proteins of BTV-4, elicited sterile protection against a lethal dose of homologous BTV-4 infection. Remarkably, the vaccine induced cross-protection against lethal doses of heterologous BTV-8 and BTV-1 suggesting that the DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7,-NS1 marker vaccine is a promising multiserotype vaccine against BTV.

  11. Immunization of Mice with Recombinant Brucella abortus Organic Hydroperoxide Resistance (Ohr) Protein Protects Against a Virulent Brucella abortus 544 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Brucella abortus ohr gene coding for an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) was cloned into a maltose fusion protein expression system (pMAL), inserted into Escherichia coli, and purified, and its immunogenicity was evaluated by western blot analysis using Brucella-positive mouse sera. The purified recombinant Ohr (rOhr) was treated with adjuvant and injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. A protective immune response analysis revealed that rOhr induced a significant increase in both the IgG1 and IgG2a titers, and IgG2a reached a higher level than IgG1 after the second and third immunizations. Additionally, immunization with rOhr induced high production of IFN-γ as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, MCP-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6, but a lesser amount of IL-10, suggesting that rOhr predominantly elicited a cell-mediated immune response. In addition, immunization with rOhr caused a significantly higher degree of protection against a virulent B. abortus infection compared with a positive control group consisting of mice immunized with maltose-binding protein. These findings showed that B. abortus rOhr was able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice, which suggested that this recombinant protein could be a potential vaccine candidate for animal brucellosis.

  12. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 558 ) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507 ); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as

  13. Humanized mouse model for assessing the human immune response to xenogeneic and allogeneic decellularized biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond M; Johnson, Todd D; He, Jingjin; Rong, Zhili; Wong, Michelle; Nigam, Vishal; Behfar, Atta; Xu, Yang; Christman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    Current assessment of biomaterial biocompatibility is typically implemented in wild type rodent models. Unfortunately, different characteristics of the immune systems in rodents versus humans limit the capability of these models to mimic the human immune response to naturally derived biomaterials. Here we investigated the utility of humanized mice as an improved model for testing naturally derived biomaterials. Two injectable hydrogels derived from decellularized porcine or human cadaveric myocardium were compared. Three days and one week after subcutaneous injection, the hydrogels were analyzed for early and mid-phase immune responses, respectively. Immune cells in the humanized mouse model, particularly T-helper cells, responded distinctly between the xenogeneic and allogeneic biomaterials. The allogeneic extracellular matrix derived hydrogels elicited significantly reduced total, human specific, and CD4 + T-helper cell infiltration in humanized mice compared to xenogeneic extracellular matrix hydrogels, which was not recapitulated in wild type mice. T-helper cells, in response to the allogeneic hydrogel material, were also less polarized towards a pro-remodeling Th2 phenotype compared to xenogeneic extracellular matrix hydrogels in humanized mice. In both models, both biomaterials induced the infiltration of macrophages polarized towards a M2 phenotype and T-helper cells polarized towards a Th2 phenotype. In conclusion, these studies showed the importance of testing naturally derived biomaterials in immune competent animals and the potential of utilizing this humanized mouse model for further studying human immune cell responses to biomaterials in an in vivo environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Adjuvanted Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Subunit Vaccine Elicits a T Cell Response in Mice and Is an Effective Therapeutic Vaccine in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoberne, Mojca; Cardin, Rhonda; Lee, Alexander; Kazimirova, Ana; Zielinski, Veronica; Garvie, Danielle; Lundberg, Amy; Larson, Shane; Bravo, Fernando J.; Bernstein, David I.; Flechtner, Jessica B.

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine efficacy depends upon the promotion of antigen-specific immune responses that inhibit reactivation or reactivated virus, thus controlling both recurrent lesions and viral shedding. In the present study, a candidate subunit vaccine, GEN-003/MM-2, was evaluated for its ability to induce a broad-spectrum immune response in mice and therapeutic efficacy in HSV-2-infected guinea pigs. GEN-003 is comprised of HSV-2 glycoprotein D2 (gD2ΔTMR340-363) and a truncated form of infected cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4383-766), formulated with Matrix M-2 (MM-2) adjuvant (GEN-003/MM-2). In addition to eliciting humoral immune responses, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells characterized by the secretion of multiple cytokines and cytolytic antigen-specific T cell responses that were able to be recalled at least 44 days after the last immunization were induced in immunized mice. Furthermore, vaccination with either GEN-003 or GEN-003/MM-2 led to significant reductions in both the prevalence and severity of lesions in HSV-2-infected guinea pigs compared to those of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control-vaccinated animals. While vaccination with MM-2 adjuvant alone decreased recurrent disease symptoms compared to the PBS control group, the difference was not statistically significant. Importantly, the frequency of recurrent viral shedding was considerably reduced in GEN-003/MM-2-vaccinated animals but not in GEN-003- or MM-2-vaccinated animals. These findings suggest a possible role for immunotherapeutic GEN-003/MM-2 vaccination as a viable alternative to chronic antiviral drugs in the treatment and control of genital herpes disease. PMID:23365421

  15. Innate immunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ronnie Anderson is Director of the Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity. ... field have included macrophage, T cell, cytokine and cytokine activated killer cell interactions .... monocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, eccrine.

  16. Unattractive infant faces elicit negative affect from adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Stevie S; Langlois, Judith H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and adult affect by investigating whether differing levels of infant facial attractiveness elicit facial muscle movement correlated with positive and negative affect from adults (N=87) using electromyography. Unattractive infant faces evoked significantly more corrugator supercilii and levator labii superioris movement (physiological correlates of negative affect) than attractive infant faces. These results suggest that unattractive infants may be at risk for negative affective responses from adults, though the relationship between those responses and caregiving behavior remains elusive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Humoral and cellular immune response in mice induced by the classical swine fever virus E2 protein fused to the porcine CD154 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Yusmel; Suárez, Marisela; Caraballo, Rosalina; Sardina, Talía; Brown, Emma; Duarte, Carlos; Lugo, Joanna; Gil, Lázaro; Perez, Danny; Oliva, Ayme; Vargas, Milagros; Santana, Elaine; Valdés, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, María Pilar

    2018-03-01

    The development of subunit vaccines against classical swine fever is a desirable goal, because it allows discrimination between vaccinated and infected animals. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response elicited in inbred BALB/c mice by immunization with a recombinant classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein fused to porcine CD154 antigen (E2CD154) was assessed. This model was used as a predictor of immune response in swine. Mice were immunized with E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50V2 or dissolved in saline on days 1 and 21. Another group received E2His antigen, without CD154, in the same adjuvant. Montanide ISA50V2 or saline served as negative controls for each experimental group. Animals immunized with 12.5 and 2.5 μg/dose of E2CD154 developed the highest titers (>1:2000) of CSFV neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, CSFV specific splenocyte gamma-interferon production, measured after seven and twenty-eight days of immunization, was significantly higher in mice immunized with 12.5 μg of E2CD154. As a conclusion, E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50 V2 was able to induce a potent humoral and an early cellular immune response in inbred BALB/c mice. Therefore, this immunogen might be an appropriate candidate to elicit immune response in swine, control CSF disease and to eliminate CSFV in swine. Copyright © 2018 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuronal Activation in the Medulla Oblongata during Selective Elicitation of the Laryngeal Adductor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalavanar, Ranjinidevi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Selbie, W. Scott; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Swallow and cough are complex motor patterns elicited by rapid and intense electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN). The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) includes only a laryngeal response, is elicited by single stimuli to the ISLN, and is thought to represent the brain stem pathway involved in laryngospasm. To identify which regions in the medulla are activated during elicitation of the LAR alone, single electrical stimuli were presented once every 2 s to the ISLN. Two groups of 5 cats each were studied; an experimental group with unilateral ISLN stimulation at 0.5 Hz and a surgical control group. Three additional cats were studied to evaluate whether other oral, pharyngeal or respiratory muscles were activated during ISLN stimulation eliciting LAR. We quantified up to 22 sections for each of 14 structures in the medulla to determine if regions had increased Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the experimental group. Significant increases (p medulla. PMID:15212423

  19. Protective Immunity and Reduced Renal Colonization Induced by Vaccines Containing Recombinant Leptospira interrogans Outer Membrane Proteins and Flagellin Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaris, D.; Sbrogio-Almeida, M. E.; Dib, C. C.; Canhamero, T. A.; Souza, G. O.; Vasconcellos, S. A.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease caused by different Leptospira species, such as Leptospira interrogans, that colonize the renal tubules of wild and domestic animals. Thus far, attempts to develop effective leptospirosis vaccines, both for humans and animals, have failed to induce immune responses capable of conferring protection and simultaneously preventing renal colonization. In this study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by subunit vaccines containing seven different recombinant Leptospira interrogans outer membrane proteins, including the carboxy-terminal portion of the immunoglobulinlike protein A (LigAC) and six novel antigens, combined with aluminum hydroxide (alum) or Salmonella flagellin (FliC) as adjuvants. Hamsters vaccinated with the different formulations elicited high antigen-specific antibody titers. Immunization with LigAC, either with alum or flagellin, conferred protective immunity but did not prevent renal colonization. Similarly, animals immunized with LigAC or LigAC coadministered with six leptospiral proteins with alum adjuvant conferred protection but did not reduce renal colonization. In contrast, immunizing animals with the pool of seven antigens in combination with flagellin conferred protection and significantly reduced renal colonization by the pathogen. The present study emphasizes the relevance of antigen composition and added adjuvant in the efficacy of antileptospirosis subunit vaccines and shows the complex relationship between immune responses and renal colonization by the pathogen. PMID:26108285

  20. Eliciting Perceptual Ground Truth for Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, Victoria Jane; Eakins, John; Austin, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate human visual perception and establish a body of ground truth data elicited from human visual studies. We aim to build on the formative work of Ren, Eakins and Briggs who produced an initial ground truth database. Human subjects were asked to draw and rank their perceptions of the parts of a series of figurative images. These rankings were then used to score the perceptions, identify the preferred human breakdowns and thus allow us to induce perceptual rules for h...

  1. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  2. Characterization of the early local immune response to Ixodes ricinus tick bites in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Means, Terry; Haas, Josef; Steere, Allen C; Müllegger, Robert R

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines and leucocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick-bite skin lesions (skin. With longer tick attachment (>24 hours), the numbers of innate immune cells and mediators (not significantly) declined, whereas the numbers of lymphocytes (not significantly) increased. Natural tick bites by Ixodes ricinus ticks initially elicit a strong local innate immune response in human skin. Beyond 24 hours of tick attachment, this response usually becomes less, perhaps because of immunomodulation by tick saliva. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Immunodominance Change and Protection of CD4+ T-Cell Responses Elicited by an Envelope Protein Domain III-Based Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Dengue is the leading cause of mosquito-borne viral infections and no vaccine is available now. Envelope protein domain III (ED3 is the major target for the binding of dengue virus neutralizing antibodies; however, the ED3-specifc T-cell response is less well understood. To investigate the T-cell responses to four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to 4, we immunized mice using either a tetravalent ED3-based DNA or protein vaccine, or combined both as a DNA prime-protein boost strategy (prime-boost. A significant serotype-dependent IFN-γ or IL-4 response was observed in mice immunized with either the DNA or protein vaccine. The IFN-γ response was dominant to DENV-1 to 3, whereas the IL-4 response was dominant to DENV-4. Although the similar IgG titers for the four serotypes were observed in mice immunized with the tetravalent vaccines, the neutralizing antibody titers varied and followed the order of 2 = 3>1>4. Interestingly, the lower IFN-γ response to DENV-4 is attributable to the immunodominance change between two CD4+ T-cell epitopes; one T-cell epitope located at E349-363 of DENV-1 to 3 was more immunogenic than the DENV-4 epitope E313-327. Despite DENV-4 specific IFN-γ responses were suppressed by immunodominance change, either DENV-4-specific IFN-γ or neutralizing antibody responses were still recalled after DENV-4 challenge and contributed to virus clearance. Immunization with the prime-boost elicited both IFN-γ and neutralizing antibody responses and provided better protection than either DNA or protein immunization. Our findings shed light on how ED3-based tetravalent dengue vaccines sharpen host CD4 T-cell responses and contribute to protection against dengue virus.

  4. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa, B P; Mohapatra, J K; Pauszek, S J; Koster, M; Dhanya, V C; Tamil Selvan, R P; Hosamani, M; Saravanan, P; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; de Los Santos, T; Venkataramanan, R; Rodriguez, L L; Grubman, M J

    2017-05-01

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus). Purified Ad5-FMD viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×10 9 pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×10 9 pfu/animal per serotype) vaccines. Animals vaccinated with monovalent Ad5-FMD vaccines were boosted 63days later with the same dose. After primary immunization, virus neutralization tests (VNT) showed seroconversion in 83, 67 and 33% of animals vaccinated with Ad5-FMD O, A and Asia 1, respectively. Booster immunization elicited seroconversion in all of the animals (100%) in the monovalent groups. When used in a trivalent form, the Ad5-FMD vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in only 33, 50 and 16% of animals against serotypes O, A and Asia 1, respectively on primo-vaccination, and titers were significantly lower than when the same vectors were used in monovalent form. Neutralizing antibody titers differed by serotype for both Ad5-FMD monovalent and trivalent vaccines, with Asia 1 serotype inducing the lowest titers. Antibody response to Ad5 vector in immunized cattle was also assessed by VNT. It appeared that the vector immunity did not impact the recall responses to expressed FMDV antigens on booster immunization. In summary, the study suggested that the recombinant Ad5-FMD vaccine has a potential use in monovalent form, while its application in multivalent form is not currently encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MUC1-specific immune therapy generates a strong anti-tumor response in a MUC1-tolerant colon cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P; Pathangey, L B; Bradley, J B; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Akporiaye, E T; Gendler, S J

    2007-02-19

    A MUC1-based vaccine was used in a preclinical model of colon cancer. The trial was conducted in a MUC1-tolerant immune competent host injected with MC38 colon cancer cells expressing MUC1. The vaccine included: MHC class I-restricted MUC1 peptides, MHC class II-restricted pan-helper-peptide, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Immunization was successful in breaking MUC1 self-tolerance, and in eliciting a robust anti-tumor response. The vaccine stimulated IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells against MUC1 and other undefined MC38 tumor antigens. In the prophylactic setting, immunization caused complete rejection of tumor cells, while in the therapeutic regimen, tumor burden was significantly reduced.

  6. Evaluation of the protection induced by the immunization with radioiodinated yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania Mara do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin American. To date, there is no effective vaccine. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory were developed yeast cells of P. brasiliensis attenuated by gamma radiation, which lose the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins, the oxidative metabolism and the expression of the antigens present in the native yeast. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protection elicited by the immunization with this cells in animal model. The virulence attenuated was evaluated in BALB/c and Nude-Nude mice. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. The mice were sacrificed 30 and 90 days after challenge. The removed organs were used for colony forming units (CFU's) recover, histopathological analysis and cytokine determination. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. To evaluate the type of elicited immune response the cytokines IFN - γ, TNF - α, IL - 10 and IL - 5 were determined by real time PCR. The radio attenuated yeast loses its virulence since fails in producing infection in BALB/c and Nude-Nude mice. No CFU's were recovered neither histological changes observed in the mice infected with the radio attenuated cells. The mice infected with the not irradiated P. brasiliensis showed a high level of antibody production while the infection with the radio attenuated yeast did not significantly change the antibody level. The mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast presented an increase in the IFN - γ and TNF - α production and an inhibition of the IL-10 synthesis, indicating a

  7. Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgment Elicitation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Perman, R.C.; Youngs, R.R.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgement Excitation Project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to demonstrate methods for the excitation of expert judgement, and (2) to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for use in the EPRI-HLW performance assessment. Specifically, the technical issue considered is the probability of differential fault displacement through the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For this study, a strategy for quantifying uncertainties was developed that relies on the judgements of multiple experts. A panel of seven geologists and seismologists was assembled to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for the performance assessment model. A series of technical workshops focusing on these issues were conducted. Finally, each expert was individually interviewed in order to elicit his judgement regarding the technical issues and to provide the technical basis for his assessment. This report summarizes the methodologies used to elicit the judgements of the earthquakes and tectonics experts (termed ''specialists''), and summarizes the technical assessments made by the expert panel

  8. Immunization with Hexon modified adenoviral vectors integrated with gp83 epitope provides protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitra L Farrow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Chagas disease is an endemic infection that affects over 8 million people throughout Latin America and now has become a global challenge. The current pharmacological treatment of patients is unsuccessful in most cases, highly toxic, and no vaccines are available. The results of inadequate treatment could lead to heart failure resulting in death. Therefore, a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies mediated by cell-mediated immune responses and protection against Chagas disease is necessary.The "antigen capsid-incorporation" strategy is based upon the display of the T. cruzi epitope as an integral component of the adenovirus' capsid rather than an encoded transgene. This strategy is predicted to induce a robust humoral immune response to the presented antigen, similar to the response provoked by native Ad capsid proteins. The antigen chosen was T. cruzi gp83, a ligand that is used by T. cruzi to attach to host cells to initiate infection. The gp83 epitope, recognized by the neutralizing MAb 4A4, along with His6 were incorporated into the Ad serotype 5 (Ad5 vector to generate the vector Ad5-HVR1-gp83-18 (Ad5-gp83. This vector was evaluated by molecular and immunological analyses. Vectors were injected to elicit immune responses against gp83 in mouse models. Our findings indicate that mice immunized with the vector Ad5-gp83 and challenged with a lethal dose of T. cruzi trypomastigotes confer strong immunoprotection with significant reduction in parasitemia levels, increased survival rate and induction of neutralizing antibodies.This data demonstrates that immunization with adenovirus containing capsid-incorporated T. cruzi antigen elicits a significant anti-gp83-specific response in two different mouse models, and protection against T. cruzi infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies mediated by cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by the production of several Ig isotypes

  9. [Evasion of anti-infectious immunity by Brucella - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wurong; Yang, Yongjie

    2016-05-04

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella species, is a worldwide zoonosis. As facultative intracellular pathogens, Brucella possess non-classical virulence factor, but its virulence is very powerful and can elicit chronic infections of both animals and humans. Evasion of host anti-infectious immunity is a prerequisite for chronic infections, this ability appears increasingly crucial for Brucella virulence. As successful pathogens, Brucella can escape or suppress innate immunity and modulate adaptive immunity to establish long lasting infections in host cells. In this review, we address the molecular mechanisms of Brucella to evade anti-infectious immunity. This will shed new insights on Brucella virulence and will, potentially, open new prophylactic avenues.

  10. A novel multi-drug metronomic chemotherapy significantly delays tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Napolitano, Maria; Luciano, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Barbieri, Antonio; Arra, Claudio; Maiolino, Piera; Tornesello, Marialina; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-02-24

    The tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment represents a major obstacle to an effective tumor-specific cellular immune response. In the present study, the counterbalance effect of a novel metronomic chemotherapy protocol on such an immunosuppressive microenvironment was evaluated in a mouse model upon sub-cutaneous ectopic implantation of B16 melanoma cells. The chemotherapy consisted of a novel multi-drug cocktail including taxanes and alkylating agents, administered in a daily metronomic fashion. The newly designed strategy was shown to be safe, well tolerated and significantly efficacious. Treated animals showed a remarkable delay in tumor growth and prolonged survival as compared to control group. Such an effect was directly correlated with CD4(+) T cell reduction and CD8(+) T cell increase. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the percentage of both CD25(+)FoxP3(+) and CD25(+)CD127(low) regulatory T cell population was found both in the spleens and in the tumor lesions. Finally, the metronomic chemotherapy induced an intrinsic CD8(+) T cell response specific to B16 naturally expressed Trp2 TAA. The novel multi-drug daily metronomic chemotherapy evaluated in the present study was very effective in counterbalancing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Consequently, the intrinsic anti-tumor T cell immunity could exert its function, targeting specific TAA and significantly containing tumor growth. Overall, the results show that this represents a promising adjuvant approach to significantly enhance efficacy of intrinsic or vaccine-elicited tumor-specific cellular immunity.

  11. The expression and genetic immunization of chimeric fragment of Hantaan virus M and S segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fanglin; Wu Xingan; Luo Wen; Bai Wentao; Liu Yong; Yan Yan; Wang Haitao; Xu Zhikai

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), which is characterized by severe symptoms and high mortality, is caused by hantavirus. There are still no effective prophylactic vaccines directed to HFRS until now. In this research, we fused expressed G2 fragment of M segment and 0.7 kb fragment of S segment. We expect it could be a candidate vaccine. Chimeric gene G2S0.7 was first expressed in prokaryotic expression system pGEX-4T. After inducing expressed fusion proteins, GST-G2S0.7 was induced and its molecular weight was about 100 kDa. Meanwhile, the fusion protein kept the activity of its parental proteins. Further, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by the chimeric gene. ELISA, cell microculture neutralization test in vitro were used to detect the humoral immune response in immunized BALB/c mice. Lymphocyte proliferation assay was used to detect the cellular immune response. The results showed that the chimeric gene could simultaneously evoke specific antibody against nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein (GP). And the immunized mice of every group elicited neutralizing antibodies with different titers. But the titers were low. Lymphocyte proliferation assay results showed that the stimulation indexes of splenocytes of chimeric gene to NP and GP were significantly higher than that of control. It suggested that the chimeric gene of Hantaan virus containing G2 fragment of M segment and 0.7 kb fragment of S segment could directly elicit specific anti-Hantaan virus humoral and cellular immune response in BALB/c mice

  12. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  13. Immunizing Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice of childhood immunization among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Vaccine preventable diseases cause significant morbidity ... This study determined childhood immunization uptake and associated factors ... The commonest immunizations missed were measles and yellow fever.

  15. Chronic inflammation-elicited liver progenitor cell conversion to liver cancer stem cell with clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Cheng; Xiang, Dai-Min; Qu, Le; Sun, Wen; Lu, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Teng-Fei; Chen, Shu-Zhen; Ning, Bei-Fang; Cheng, Zhuo; Xia, Ming-Yang; Shen, Wei-Feng; Yang, Wen; Wen, Wen; Lee, Terence Kin Wah; Cong, Wen-Ming; Wang, Hong-Yang; Ding, Jin

    2017-12-01

    The substantial heterogeneity and hierarchical organization in liver cancer support the theory of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). However, the relationship between chronic hepatic inflammation and LCSC generation remains obscure. Here, we observed a close correlation between aggravated inflammation and liver progenitor cell (LPC) propagation in the cirrhotic liver of rats exposed to diethylnitrosamine. LPCs isolated from the rat cirrhotic liver initiated subcutaneous liver cancers in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, suggesting the malignant transformation of LPCs toward LCSCs. Interestingly, depletion of Kupffer cells in vivo attenuated the LCSC properties of transformed LPCs and suppressed cytokeratin 19/Oval cell 6-positive tumor occurrence. Conversely, LPCs cocultured with macrophages exhibited enhanced LCSC properties. We further demonstrated that macrophage-secreted tumor necrosis factor-α triggered chromosomal instability in LPCs through the deregulation of ubiquitin D and checkpoint kinase 2 and enhanced the self-renewal of LPCs through the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1/Src/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which synergistically contributed to the conversion of LPCs to LCSCs. Clinical investigation revealed that cytokeratin 19/Oval cell 6-positive liver cancer patients displayed a worse prognosis and exhibited superior response to sorafenib treatment. Our results not only clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammation-mediated LCSC generation but also provide a molecular classification for the individualized treatment of liver cancer. (Hepatology 2017;66:1934-1951). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Immune response to UV-induced tumors: mediation of progressor tumor rejection by natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, P.R.; Fortner, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Skin tumors induced in mice by chronic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are highly antigenic and can induce a state of transplantation immunity in syngeneic animals. In the present study, the authors compared the in vitro cytolytic activity of splenic lymphocytes from mice immunized with either regressor or progressor UV-tumors. The results of this comparison implicated tumor-specific cytolytic T (Tc) lymphocytes in rejection of regressor UV-tumors, and revealed that immunization with the progressor UV-tumor 2237 failed to elicit detectable levels of progressor tumor-specific Tc cells even as the tumors rejected. Following in vitro resensitization of spleen cells from either regressor or progressor tumor immune animals, the authors found NK-like lymphocytes with anti-tumor activity. As the authors had not detected cells with this activity in splenic lymphocyte preparations prior to in vitro resensitization, the authors examined lymphocytes from the local tumor environment during the course of progressor tumor rejection for this activity. This analysis revealed NK lymphocytes exhibiting significant levels of cytolytic activity against UV-tumors. These results implicate NK cells as potential effector cells in the rejection of progressor UV-tumors by immune animals, and suggests that these cells may be regulated by T lymphocytes

  17. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  18. Cellular requirements for cutaneous sensitivity elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, I

    1985-01-01

    The role of glass-adherent cells in cutaneous sensitivity (CS) elicitation has been analyzed in this study. CS responses have been revealed to be mediated by at least two distinct subsets of genetically restricted T cells: I-restricted 'DTH-like' T cells and K/D-restricted 'CTL-like' T cells. Both T-cell responses require I-A-positive glass-adherent cell populations, which lack T-cell markers, to manifest their activities. The role of the adherent cells is different in the 'DTH-like' responses and the 'CTL-like' responses. The disparities between the present results and previous contentions are discussed in this paper.

  19. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective immune responses during prepatency in goat kids experimentally infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Rodríguez, F; Perez, D; Lopez, A; Ferrer, O; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A; Ruiz, A

    2017-08-15

    During the first schizogony, the goat coccidia Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae develops macroschizonts in lacteal duct endothelial cells, whose rupture leads to severe ileal damage and clinical signs during the prepatent period. The immune response elicited against early stages of the parasite development still requires to be investigated. In the present study we have evaluated immune reactions in goat kids primary- and challenged-infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, and sacrificed during prepatency (7days after challenge). The oocyst output during the primary infection, body weight and clinical condition of all the animals were examined and, at the end of the experiment, all the goat kids were euthanized and subjected to necropsy. Samples were taken from different sections of the ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of primary- and challenged E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected animals. Intestinal leukocyte subpopulations were characterized in E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected mucosa and counts of lymphocytes, eosinophils, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), globular leukocytes and mast cells were recorded. Additionally, gene expression of caprine IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and INFγ of ileal, colonic and MLN tissues were performed, as well as the immunohistochemical characterization of immune cells. The E. ninakohlyakimovae primary infection resulted in moderate to severe enteritis with different degrees of diarrhoea and was accompanied by high OPG counts and an increase of most immune cells analyzed when compared to uninfected control animals. Furthermore, eosinophil-, lymphocyte-, globular leukocyte- and mast cell-counts were significantly higher in the challenge group compared to the primary infected animals, whilst the opposite was true for PMN counts. The challenge infection was also associated with moderate increased levels of local mucosal IgA. Interestingly, the number of immature schizonts found at the ileal mucosa was statistically higher in the challenge infected

  1. Eliciting consumer preferences for health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booske, B C; Sainfort, F; Hundt, A S

    1999-10-01

    To examine (1) what people say is important to them in choosing a health plan; (2) the effect, if any, that giving health plan information has on what people say is important to them; and (3) the effect of preference elicitation methods on what people say is important. A random sample of 201 Wisconsin state employees who participated in a health plan choice experiment during the 1995 open enrollment period. We designed a computer system to guide subjects through the review of information about health plan options. The system began by eliciting the stated preferences of the subjects before they viewed the information, at time 0. Subjects were given an opportunity to revise their preference structures first after viewing summary information about four health plans (time 1) and then after viewing more extensive, detailed information about the same options (time 2). At time 2, these individuals were also asked to rate the relative importance of a predefined list of health plan features presented to them. Data were collected on the number of attributes listed at each point in time and the importance weightings assigned to each attribute. In addition, each item on the attribute list was content analyzed. The provision of information changes the preference structures of individuals. Costs (price) and coverage dominated the attributes cited both before and after looking at health plan information. When presented with information on costs, quality, and how plans work, many of these relatively well educated consumers revised their preference structures; yet coverage and costs remained the primary cited attributes. Although efforts to provide health plan information should continue, decisions on the information to provide and on making it available are not enough. Individuals need help in understanding, processing, and using the information to construct their preferences and make better decisions.

  2. Defective B cell response to T-dependent immunization in lupus-prone mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haitao; Sobel, Eric S.; Morel, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Lupus anti-nuclear Abs show the characteristics of Ag-driven T cell-dependent (TD) humoral responses. If autoAgs elicit the same response as exogenous Ags, lupus should enhance humoral responses to immunization. Blunted responses to various immunizations have, however, been reported in a significant portion of lupus patients. In this study, we show that lupus-prone B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (B6.TC) mice produce significantly less Ab in response to TD immunization than congenic controls, while producing significantly more total Ig. This blunted Ab response to TD Ag could be reconstituted with B6.TC B and CD4+ T cells. Multiple defects were found in the B6.TC response to NP-KLH as compared to total Ig, including a smaller percentage of B cells participating to the NP-response, a reduced entry into germinal centers, and highly defective production of NP-specific long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow. B6.TC plasma cells expressed reduced levels of FcγRIIb, which suggests that reduced apoptosis in resident plasma cells prevents the establishment of newly-formed NP-specific plasma cells in bone marrow niches. Overall, these results show that lupus-prone mice responded differently to auto- and exogenous antigens and suggest that low FcγRIIb, hypergammaglobulinemia and high autoantibody production would be predictive of a poor response to immunization in lupus patients. PMID:18924209

  3. Immunization with a dicistronic plasmid expressing a truncated form of bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein D and the amino-terminal subunit of glycoprotein B results in reduced gB-specific immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoj, Sharmila; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Drunen Littel van-Hurk, Sylvia van den

    2003-01-01

    As an approach to create a divalent DNA vaccine, a truncated secreted version of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein D (tgD) and the amino-terminal subunit of glycoprotein B (gBb) were expressed from a dicistronic plasmid, designated pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb. Intradermal immunization of mice with pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb or a mixture of plasmids encoding tgD (pSLIAtgD) and gBb (pSLIAgBb) by needle injection or gene gun elicited strong tgD-specific immune responses. However, a significant reduction in gBb-specific immune responses was observed upon immunization of mice with pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb or a mixture of pSLIAtgD and pSLIAgBb in comparison to immunization with pSLIAgBb alone. This reduction in gBb-specific immune responses induced by pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb was due to production of low amounts of gBb from pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb, inefficient processing and transport of gBb, and possibly competition for antigen-presenting cells by tgD and gBb. These results indicate that, although divalent plasmids may be used to express different antigens, the efficacy of vaccination with such plasmids may be influenced by the plasmid design and the characteristics of the expressed antigens

  4. Local and systemic humoral immune response in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under a natural amoebic gill disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-López, Mar; Espinosa Ruiz, Cristóbal; Rodger, Hamish D; O'Connor, Ian; MacCarthy, Eugene; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-07-01

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, protease, anti-protease, esterase, alkaline phosphatase), IgM levels, and the terminal carbohydrate profile in the gill mucus. Overall, greater variations between groups were noted in the immune parameters determined in gill mucus than the equivalent in the serum. In gill mucus, IgM levels and peroxidase, lysozyme, esterase and protease activities were decreased in fish showing longer exposure time to the infection and higher disease severity, then showed a sequential increase after treatment. Results obtained highlight the capacity of gills to elicit a local response to the infection, indicate an impaired immune response at the later stages of the disease, and show partial reestablishment of the host immune status after freshwater treatment. In addition to providing data on the humoral response to AGD, this study increases knowledge on gill mucosal humoral immunity, since some of the parameters were analysed for the first time in gill mucus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  6. Structural Insights into Immune Recognition of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus S Protein Receptor Binding Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, J.; Sharon, C; Satkunarajah, M; Thierry, C; Cameron, C; Kelvin, D; Seetharaman, J; Cochrane, A; Plummer, F; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    The spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is responsible for host cell attachment and fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Within S the receptor binding domain (RBD) mediates the interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV host cell receptor. Both S and the RBD are highly immunogenic and both have been found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Reported here is the X-ray crystal structure of the RBD in complex with the Fab of a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody, F26G19, elicited by immunization with chemically inactivated SARS-CoV. The RBD-F26G19 Fab complex represents the first example of the structural characterization of an antibody elicited by an immune response to SARS-CoV or any fragment of it. The structure reveals that the RBD surface recognized by F26G19 overlaps significantly with the surface recognized by ACE2 and, as such, suggests that F26G19 likely neutralizes SARS-CoV by blocking the virus-host cell interaction.

  7. Influence of the Co-Administration of Heptavalent Conjugate Vaccine PCV7-TT on the Immunological Response Elicited by VA-MENGOC-BC® and Heberpenta®-L in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Viñals, Carlos; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Rodríguez Noda, Laura; Amador Gómez, Aylín; Nicot, Milagros; Valle, Orialys; Núñez, Juan F; Martin, Yanet; Santana, Darielys; Valdés, Yury; Vérez Bencomo, Vicente

    2017-05-01

    Finlay Vaccine Institute is developing a new heptavalent conjugate vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae. As infants are the target population, PCV7-TT will be necessarily co-administered with other vaccines, and then, the interactions represent a concern. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possible immunological interferences in rabbits as animal experimental model. Rabbits were immunized with Heberpenta®-L, VA-MENGOC-BC®, and PCV7-TT. Blood samples were taken fourteen days after final immunization for obtaining sera. Antibody responses to all antigens were evaluated by indirect ELISA. Functional responses against diphtheria and tetanus toxoid were done by in vivo seroneutralization assay. No interference was observed by PCV7-TT over the humoral response against diphtheria toxoid and meningococcal antigens (p > 0.05). A nonstatistically significant reduction (p > 0.05) was observed in the case of the humoral response against Haemophilus influenzae type b oligosaccharide. Concomitant administration of Heberpenta®-L and PCV7-TT increased twice the antibody titers as well as the protective activity against tetanus toxoid, but no statistical differences were found. The co-administration did not induce a reduction in the percent of responders against pneumococcal polysaccharides contained in PCV7-TT vaccine. Concomitant administration of PCV7-TT did not induce interferences over the evaluated antigens of Heberpenta®-L and VA-MENGOC-BC®. Also, no interference was observed on the immune response elicited by PCV7-TT. These preclinical results suggest that PCV7-TT will not result in a serious problem over the immune response elicited by the licensed vaccines Heberpenta®-L and VA-MENGOC-BC®. However, the clinical interference could be strictly studied during clinical trials in infants.

  8. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ramanathan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.

  9. A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW ABOUT SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENIS R. WONG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Requirements Elicitation is recognized as one of the most important activity in software development process as it has direct impact on its success. Although there are many proposals for improving this task, still there are issues which have to be solved. This paper aims to identify the current status of the latest researches related to software requirements elicitation through general framework for literature review, in order to answer the following research questions: Q1 What aspects have been covered by different proposal of requirements elicitation? Q2 What activities of the requirements elicitation process have been covered? And Q3 What factors influence on requirements elicitation and how? A cross-analysis of the outcome was performed. One of the results showed that requirements elicitation process needs improvements.

  10. Immune responses of B. malayi thioredoxin (TRX) and venom allergen homologue (VAH) chimeric multiple antigen for lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugraha, Gandhirajan; Jeyaprita, Parasurama Jawaharlal; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Sheeba, Tamilvanan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2013-12-01

    Although multiple vaccine strategy for lymphatic filariasis has provided tremendous hope, the choice of antigens used in combination has determined its success in the previous studies. Multiple antigens comprising key vaccine candidates from different life cycle stages would provide a promising strategy if the antigenic combination is chosen by careful screening. In order to analyze one such combination, we have used a chimeric construct carrying the well studied B. malayi antigens thioredoxin (BmTRX) and venom allergen homologue (BmVAH) as a fusion protein (TV) and evaluated its immune responses in mice model. The efficacy of fusion protein vaccine was explored in comparison with the single antigen vaccines and their cocktail. In mice, TV induced significantly high antibody titer of 1,28,000 compared to cocktail vaccine TRX+VAH (50,000) and single antigen vaccine TRX (16,000) or VAH (50,000). Furthermore, TV elicited higher level of cellular proliferative response together with elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 indicating a Th1/Th2 balanced response. The isotype antibody profile showed significantly high level of IgG1 and IgG2b confirming the balanced response elicited by TV. Immunization with TV antigen induced high levels of both humoral and cellular immune responses compared to either cocktail or antigen given alone. The result suggests that TV is highly immunogenic in mice and hence the combination needs to be evaluated for its prophylactic potential.

  11. Hypoxia Promotes Tumor Growth in Linking Angiogenesis to Immune Escape

    OpenAIRE

    Chouaib, Salem; Messai, Yosra; Couve, Sophie; Escudier, Bernard; Hasmim, Meriem; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem

    2012-01-01

    Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that a...

  12. Role of Activin A in Immune Response to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    strategies are needed in order to eradicate metastatic breast cancer. In this respect, the activation of the immune system to elicit anti-tumor immune...responses represents one of the most promising approaches that have recently demonstrated some success in other diseases. However, clinically apparent...content/76/14_Supplement/4986 Advertisement Advanced Search search ! Clinical Research (Excluding Clinical Trials) Abstract 4986: Regulation of radiation

  13. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  14. Weakened Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Weakened Immune Systems Safety & Prevention ...

  15. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  16. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-09

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2μg or 2.3 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9 μg or 2.2 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9 μg HA and 2.2 μg HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2 μg HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9μg HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9 μg HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2 μg HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a

  17. Analysis and comparison of immune reactivity in guinea-pigs immunized with equivalent numbers of normal or radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.V.; McLaren, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Guinea-pigs immunized with equivalent numbers of normal or radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni develop close to complete resistance to reinfection at weeks 12 and 4.5 respectively. We here analyse and compare the immune responses induced by the two populations of cercariae. Both radiation-attenuated and normal parasites of S. mansoni elicited an extensive germinal centre response in guinea-pigs by week 4.5 post-immunization. The anti-parasite antibody titre and cytotoxic activity of serum from 4.5-week-vaccinated, or 4.5-week-infected guinea-pigs were approximately equal, but sera from 12-week-infected individuals had high titres of anti-parasite antibody, which promoted significant larvicidal activity in vitro. In all cases, larvicidal activity was mediated by the IgG 2 fraction of the immune serum. Lymphocyte transformation tests conducted on splenic lymphocytes from 4.5-week vaccinated guinea-pigs revealed maximal stimulation against cercarial, 2-week and 3-week worm antigens, whereas spleen cells from 4.5-week-infected guinea-pigs were maximally stimulated by cercarial and 6-week worm antigens. The splenic lymphocyte responses of 12-week infected animals were dramatic against antigens prepared from all life-stages of the parasite. (author)

  18. immune response can measuring immunity to hiv during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-11-01

    Nov 1, 2005 ... inhibitors (PIs), have resulted in significant suppression of viral replication. ... thymus, with the potential for immune reconstitution when ..... HIV-exposed but uninfected Gambian women [published erratum appears in. Nat Med ...

  19. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  20. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  1. Induction of regulatory T cells by high-dose gp96 suppresses murine liver immune hyperactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghui Li

    Full Text Available Immunization with high-dose heat shock protein gp96, an endoplasmic reticulum counterpart of the Hsp90 family, significantly enhances regulatory T cell (Treg frequency and suppressive function. Here, we examined the potential role and mechanism of gp96 in regulating immune-mediated hepatic injury in mice. High-dose gp96 immunization elicited rapid and long-lasting protection of mice against concanavalin A (Con A-and anti-CD137-induced liver injury, as evidenced by decreased alanine aminotransaminase (ALT levels, hepatic necrosis, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6, and number of IFN-γ (+ CD4(+ and IFN-γ (+ CD8(+ T cells in the spleen and liver. In contrast, CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ Treg frequency and suppressive function were both increased, and the protective effect of gp96 could be generated by adoptive transfer of Treg cells from gp96-immunized mice. In vitro co-culture experiments demonstrated that gp96 stimulation enhanced Treg proliferation and suppressive function, and up-regulation of Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-β1 induced by gp96 was dependent on TLR2- and TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation. Our work shows that activation of Tregs by high-dose gp96 immunization protects against Con A- and anti-CD137-induced T cell-hepatitis and provides therapeutic potential for the development of a gp96-based anti-immune hyperactivation vaccine against immune-mediated liver destruction.

  2. Antigen localization controls T cell-mediated tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; van Maren, Wendy W C; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike A; Den Brok, Martijn H M G M; Wagenaars, Jori A L; van der Schaaf, Alie; Jansen, Eric J R; Amigorena, Sebastian; Théry, Clotilde; Figdor, Carl G; Adema, Gosse J

    2011-08-01

    Effective antitumor immunotherapy requires the identification of suitable target Ags. Interestingly, many of the tumor Ags used in clinical trials are present in preparations of secreted tumor vesicles (exosomes). In this study, we compared T cell responses elicited by murine MCA101 fibrosarcoma tumors expressing a model Ag at different localizations within the tumor cell in association with secreted vesicles (exosomes), as a nonsecreted cell-associated protein, or as secreted soluble protein. Remarkably, we demonstrated that only the tumor-secreting vesicle-bound Ag elicited a strong Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell response, CD4(+) T cell help, Ag-specific Abs, and a decrease in the percentage of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells in the tumor. Moreover, in a therapeutic tumor model of cryoablation, only in tumors secreting vesicle-bound Ag could Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells still be detected up to 16 d after therapy. We concluded that the localization of an Ag within the tumor codetermines whether a robust immunostimulatory response is elicited. In vivo, vesicle-bound Ag clearly skews toward a more immunogenic phenotype, whereas soluble or cell-associated Ag expression cannot prevent or even delay outgrowth and results in tumor tolerance. This may explain why particular immunotherapies based on these vesicle-bound tumor Ags are potentially successful. Therefore, we conclude that this study may have significant implications in the discovery of new tumor Ags suitable for immunotherapy and that their location should be taken into account to ensure a strong antitumor immune response.

  3. Using process elicitation and validation to understand and improve chemotherapy ordering and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L

    2012-11-01

    Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to elicit and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was elicited through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the elicited details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process events (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the elicitation and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each elicitation method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.

  4. Challenges to the development of vaccines to hepatitis C virus that elicit neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Edelgard Drummer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite 20 years of research, a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has not been developed. A vaccine to prevent HCV will need to induce broadly reactive immunity able to prevent infection by the 7 genetically and antigenically distinct genotypes circulating world-wide. Hepatitis C virus encodes two surface exposed glycoproteins, E1 and E2 that function as a heterodimer to mediate viral entry. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs to both E1 and E2 have been described with the major NAb target being E2. The function of E2 is to attach virions to host cells via cell surface receptors that include, but is not limited to, the tetraspanin CD81 and scavenger receptor B class I. However, E2 has developed a number of immune evasion strategies to limit the effectiveness of the NAb response and possibly limit the ability of the immune system to generate potent NAbs in natural infection. Hypervariable regions that shield the underlying core domain, subdominant neutralization epitopes and glycan shielding combine to make E2 a difficult target for the immune system. This review summarizes recent information on the role of neutralizing antibodies to prevent HCV infection, the targets of the neutralizing antibody response and structural information on glycoprotein E2 in complex with neutralizing antibodies. This new information should provide a framework for the rational design of new vaccine candidates that elicit highly potent broadly reactive NAbs to prevent HCV infection.

  5. Mucosal immunization in macaques upregulates the innate APOBEC 3G anti-viral factor in CD4(+) memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Bergmeier, Lesley A; Stebbings, Richard; Seidl, Thomas; Whittall, Trevor; Singh, Mahavir; Berry, Neil; Almond, Neil; Lehner, Thomas

    2009-02-05

    APOBEC3G is an innate intracellular anti-viral factor which deaminates retroviral cytidine to uridine. In vivo studies of APOBEC3G (A3G) were carried out in rhesus macaques, following mucosal immunization with SIV antigens and CCR5 peptides, linked to the 70kDa heat shock protein. A progressive increase in A3G mRNA was elicited in PBMC after each immunization (p<0.0002 to p< or =0.02), which was maintained for at least 17 weeks. Analysis of memory T cells showed a significant increase in A3G mRNA and protein in CD4(+)CCR5(+) memory T cells in circulating (p=0.0001), splenic (p=0.0001), iliac lymph nodes (p=0.002) and rectal (p=0.01) cells of the immunized compared with unimmunized macaques. Mucosal challenge with SIVmac 251 showed a significant increase in A3G mRNA in the CD4(+)CCR5(+) circulating cells (p<0.01) and the draining iliac lymph node cells (p<0.05) in the immunized uninfected macaques, consistent with a protective effect exerted by A3G. The results suggest that mucosal immunization in a non-human primate can induce features of a memory response to an innate anti-viral factor in CCR5(+)CD4(+) memory and CD4(+)CD95(+)CCR7(-) effector memory T cells.

  6. Discovering naturally processed antigenic determinants that confer protective T cell immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchuk, Pavlo; Spencer, Charles T; Conant, Stephanie B

    2013-01-01

    and elicited protective TCD8 immunity against lethal intranasal VACV infection. Notably, efficient processing and stable presentation of immune determinants as well as the availability of naive TCD8 precursors were sufficient to drive a multifunctional, protective TCD8 response. Our approach uses fundamental...

  7. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate that the vaccine induced both a humoral and cellular ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses ... produced in mice. ... were performed and HBsAg specific IgM and IgG ..... and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei.

  8. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  9. Induction of phenolic compounds in Hypericum perforatum L. cells by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Luis F R; Ferreres, Federico; Tavares, Rui M; Dias, Alberto C P

    2006-01-01

    Changes in phenolic metabolism after elicitation with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (CG) has been studied in Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) cell suspension cultures. Soluble phenolics were analysed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. HP cultures elicited with the CG elicitor showed a significant increase in xanthone accumulation. Xanthone accumulation increased twelve fold when the cells were primed with methyl-jasmonate (MeJ) or salicylic acid (SA), before elicitation. HP cultures exposed only to MeJ produced a set of flavonoids, the flavones which represent a substantial part (approx. 40%) of the total flavonoids accumulated in these cells. The possible importance of xanthones as a component of defence mechanism of HP against biotic stress is discussed.

  10. Babassu aqueous extract (BAE as an adjuvant for T helper (Th1-dependent immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Flavia RF

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous extract of a Brazilian palm-tree fruit - the babassu - (BAE exerts a clear immunostimulative activity in vivo. In the present work, the possibility that BAE can promote Th1 immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain - the BALB/c was investigated. BAE itself, and preparations consisting of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote extract (LE, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, and in the presence or not of BAE, were used as immunogens. LE and Al(OH3 have been shown to preferentially elicit Th2 immune responses. Results The addition of BAE to LE-containing immunogenic preparations, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, clearly promoted the in vitro production of interferon γ (IFN-γ, a major Th1-dependent cytokine, and not of interleukin (IL-4 (a Th2-dependent cytokine, by LE-stimulated splenocytes of immunized BALB/c mice. It also promoted the in vivo formation of IgG2a anti-LE antibodies. However, immunization with LE by itself led to an increased production of IL-4 by LE-stimulated splenocytes, and this production, albeit not enhanced, was not reduced by the addition of BAE to the immunogen. On the other hand, the IL-4 production by LE-stimulated splenocytes was significantly lower in mice immunized with a preparation containing Al(OH3-adsorbed LE and BAE than in mice immunized with the control preparation of Al(OH3-adsorbed LE without BAE. Moreover, an increased production of IFN-γ, and not of IL-4, was observed in the culture supernatants of splenocytes, from BAE-immunized mice, which were in vitro stimulated with BAE or which received no specific in vitro stimulus. No differences in IL-10 (an immunoregulatory cytokine levels in the supernatants of splenocytes from mice that were injected with BAE, in relation to splenocytes from control mice, were observed. The spontaneous ex vivo production of NO by splenocytes of mice that had been injected with BAE was significantly higher than the production of NO by

  11. A method to elicit beliefs as most likely intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.H.; van der Weele, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show how to elicit the beliefs of an expert in the form of a "most likely interval", a set of future outcomes that are deemed more likely than any other outcome. Our method, called the Most Likely Interval elicitation rule (MLI), asks the expert for an interval and pays according to how well the

  12. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to understand the way in which preschool teachers perceive and construct their provision of children's educational experiences. We explore the value of visually elicited interviews based on video footage and photographs captured during ...

  13. The Concordance of Parent and Child Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G; Osborn, Andrew W

    2017-05-01

    A substantial body of work has related survey-based parental vaccine hesitancy to noncompliant childhood immunization. However little attention has been paid to the connection between parents' own immunization behavior and the immunizations their children receive. Using the Oregon ALERT Immunization Information System, we identified adult caregiver-child pairs for children between 9 months and 17 years of age. The likelihood of adult-child concordance of influenza immunization per influenza season from 2010-2011 through 2014-2015 was assessed. The utility of adult immunization as a predictor was also assessed for other, noninfluenza recommended immunizations for children and adolescents. A total of 450 687 matched adult caregiver-child pairs were included in the study. The children of immunizing adults were 2.77 times more likely to also be immunized for seasonal influenza across all seasons (95% confidence interval, 2.74-2.79), with similar results applying within each season. Adult immunization status was also significantly associated with the likelihood of children and adolescents getting other noninfluenza immunizations, such as the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). When adults improved their own behavior from nonimmunizing to immunizing across influenza seasons, their children if not immunized in the previous season were 5.44 times (95% confidence interval, 5.35-5.53) more likely to become immunized for influenza. Children's likelihood of following immunization recommendations is associated with the immunization behavior of their parents. Encouraging parental immunization is a potential tool for increasing children's immunization rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  15. Antibodies to the A27 protein of vaccinia virus neutralize and protect against infection but represent a minor component of Dryvax vaccine--induced immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Manischewitz, Jody; Meseda, Clement A; Merchlinsky, Michael; Vassell, Russell A; Sirota, Lev; Berkower, Ira; Golding, Hana; Weiss, Carol D

    2007-10-01

    The smallpox vaccine Dryvax, which consists of replication-competent vaccinia virus, elicits antibodies that play a major role in protection. Several vaccinia proteins generate neutralizing antibodies, but their importance for protection is unknown. We investigated the potency of antibodies to the A27 protein of the mature virion in neutralization and protection experiments and the contributions of A27 antibodies to Dryvax-induced immunity. Using a recombinant A27 protein (rA27), we confirmed that A27 contains neutralizing determinants and that vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) derived from Dryvax recipients contains reactivity to A27. However, VIG neutralization was not significantly reduced when A27 antibodies were removed, and antibodies elicited by an rA27 enhanced the protection conferred by VIG in passive transfer experiments. These findings demonstrate that A27 antibodies do not represent the major fraction of neutralizing activity in VIG and suggest that immunity may be augmented by vaccines and immune globulins that include strong antibody responses to A27.

  16. Immune Cells and Molecular Networks in Experimentally Induced Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, E; Gaudin, A; Bienvenu, G; Amiaud, J; Farges, J C; Cuturi, M C; Moreau, A; Alliot-Licht, B

    2016-02-01

    Dental pulp is a dynamic tissue able to resist external irritation during tooth decay by using immunocompetent cells involved in innate and adaptive responses. To better understand the immune response of pulp toward gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed biological mediators and immunocompetent cells in rat incisor pulp experimentally inflamed by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]). Untreated teeth were used as control. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokine ligands, growth factors, and enzymes were evaluated at the transcript level, and the recruitment of the different leukocytes in pulp was measured by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis after 3 h, 9 h, and 3 d post-PBS or post-LPS treatment. After 3 d, injured rat incisors showed pulp wound healing and production of reparative dentin in both LPS and PBS conditions, testifying to the reversible pulpitis status of this model. IL6, IL1-β, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, MMP9, and iNOS gene expression were significantly upregulated after 3 h of LPS stimulation as compared with PBS. The immunoregulatory cytokine IL10 was also upregulated after 3 h, suggesting that LPS stimulates not only inflammation but also immunoregulation. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed a significant, rapid, and transient increase in leukocyte levels 9 h after PBS and LPS stimulation. The quantity of dendritic cells was significantly upregulated with LPS versus PBS. Interestingly, we identified a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-enriched cell population in noninjured rodent incisor dental pulp. The percentage of this population, known to regulate immune response, was higher 9 h after inflammation triggered with PBS and LPS as compared with the control. Taken together, these data offer a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of dental pulp immunity that may be elicited by gram-negative bacteria. © International & American

  17. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration

  18. Vaccination with Recombinant Baculovirus Expressing Ranavirus Major Capsid Protein Induces Protective Immunity in Chinese Giant Salamander, Andrias davidianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (CGSIV, belonging to the genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae, is the causative agent of an emerging infectious disease causing high mortality of more than 90% and economic losses in Chinese giant salamanders in China. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus-based vaccine expressing the CGSIV major capsid protein (MCP was developed and its protective immunity in Chinese giant salamanders was evaluated. The recombinant Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcNPV, expressing CGSIV MCP, designated as AcNPV-MCP, was generated with the highest titers of 1 × 108 plaque forming units/mL (PFU/mL and confirmed by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF assays. Western blot analysis revealed that the expressed MCP reacted with mouse anti-MCP monoclonal antibodies at the band of about 53 kDa. The results of IIF indicated that the MCP was expressed in the infected Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9 cells with the recombinant baculovirus, and the Chinese giant salamander muscle cells also transduced with the AcNPV-MCP. Immunization with the recombinant baculovirus of AcNPV-MCP elicited robust specific humoral immune responses detected by ELISA and neutralization assays and potent cellular immune responses in Chinese giant salamanders. Importantly, the effective immunization conferred highly protective immunity for Chinese giant salamanders against CGSIV challenge and produced a relative percent of survival rate of 84%. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus expressing CGSIV MCP can induce significant immune responses involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in Chinese giant salamanders and might represent a potential baculovirus based vaccine candidate for Chinese giant salamanders against CGSIV.

  19. Mucosal immunization using proteoliposome and cochleate structures from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B induce mucosal and systemic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Judith Del; Zayas, Caridad; Romeu, Belkis; Acevedo, Reinaldo; González, Elizabeth; Bracho, Gustavo; Cuello, Maribel; Cabrera, Osmir; Balboa, Julio; Lastre, Miriam

    2009-12-01

    Most pathogens either invade the body or establish infection in mucosal tissues and represent an enormous challenge for vaccine development by the absence of good mucosal adjuvants. A proteoliposome-derived adjuvant from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (AFPL1, Adjuvant Finlay Proteoliposome 1) and its derived cochleate form (Co, AFCo1) contain multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns as immunopotentiators, and can also serve as delivery systems to elicit a Th1-type immune response. The present studies demonstrate the ability of AFPL1and AFCo1 to induce mucosal and systemic immune responses by different mucosal immunizations routes and significant adjuvant activity for antibody responses of both structures: a microparticle and a nanoparticle with a heterologous antigen. Therefore, we used female mice immunized by intragastric, intravaginal, intranasal or intramuscular routes with both structures alone or incorporated with ovalbumin (OVA). High levels of specific IgG antibody were detected in all sera and in vaginal washes, but specific IgA antibody in external secretions was only detected in mucosally immunized mice. Furthermore, antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes were all induced. AFPL1 and AFCo1 are capable of inducing IFN-gamma responses, and chemokine secretions, like MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta. However, AFCo1 is a better alternative to induce immune responses at mucosal level. Even when we use a heterologous antigen, the AFCo1 response was better than with AFPL1 in inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. These results support the use of AFCo1 as a potent Th1 inducing adjuvant particularly suitable for mucosal immunization.

  20. Custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in sub-Saharan Africa. FMD vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the South Africa...

  1. FIBCD1 Modulation of the Epithelial Immune Response Elicited by Chitin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammond, Mark; Schlosser, Anders; Bak-Thomsen, Theresa Helene

    2010-01-01

    of NF-jB signalling and downstream synthesis of mucosal epithelial-derived cytokines, TSLP and IL-33, which shapes the local accumulation and activation of Th2 responses. Results: Initial experiments have focused on the establishment of stable FIBCD1 overexpression in HEK293, HCT-116 and A549 epithelial......Background: FIBCD1 is a type II transmembrane protein located on the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. FIBCD1 binds specifically to acetylated compounds such as chitin through the C-terminal fibrinogen-related domain. Chitin is a highly acetylated homopolymeric b-1,4-N...... or the model ligand acetylated BSA, at different time intervals anddoses and using a luciferase reporter system detection of NFjB activation will be performed and cytokine expression will be quantified via qRT-PCR. Perspectives: Improved understanding of epithelialimmune and inflammatory modulation in response...

  2. Clonal neoantigens elicit T cell immunoreactivity and sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGranahan, Nicholas; Furness, Andrew J S; Rosenthal, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    demonstrate a relationship between clonal neoantigen burden and overall survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas. CD8(+)tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive to clonal neoantigens were identified in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and expressed high levels of PD-1. Sensitivity to PD-1 and CTLA-4...

  3. Remnant Cholesterol Elicits Arterial Wall Inflammation and a Multilevel Cellular Immune Response in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J.; Verweij, Simone L.; Schnitzler, Johan G.; Stiekema, Lotte C. A.; Bos, Merijn; Langsted, Anne; Kuijk, Carlijn; Bekkering, Siroon; Voermans, Carlijn; Verberne, Hein J.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kroon, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Mendelian randomization studies revealed a causal role for remnant cholesterol in cardiovascular disease. Remnant particles accumulate in the arterial wall, potentially propagating local and systemic inflammation. We evaluated the impact of remnant cholesterol on arterial wall inflammation,

  4. Alga-based HPV16 E7 vaccine elicits specific immune response in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Josef; Bříza, Jindřich; Ryba, Š.; Ludvíková, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 141-148 ISSN 2249-7412 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960903 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chlamydomonas reinhardtii * chloroplast transformation * human papillomaviruses * E7 oncogene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://pelagiaresearchlibrary.com/asian-journal-of-plant-science/vol3-iss1/AJPSR-2013-3-1-141-148.pdf

  5. Remnant Cholesterol Elicits Arterial Wall Inflammation and a Multilevel Cellular Immune Response in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Verweij, Simone L; Schnitzler, Johan G; Stiekema, Lotte C A; Bos, Merijn; Langsted, Anne; Kuijk, Carlijn; Bekkering, Siroon; Voermans, Carlijn; Verberne, Hein J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Stroes, Erik S G; Kroon, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Mendelian randomization studies revealed a causal role for remnant cholesterol in cardiovascular disease. Remnant particles accumulate in the arterial wall, potentially propagating local and systemic inflammation. We evaluated the impact of remnant cholesterol on arterial wall inflammation, circulating monocytes, and bone marrow in patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD). Arterial wall inflammation and bone marrow activity were measured using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Monocyte phenotype was assessed with flow cytometry. The correlation between remnant levels and hematopoietic activity was validated in the CGPS (Copenhagen General Population Study). We found a 1.2-fold increase of 18 F-FDG uptake in the arterial wall in patients with FD (n=17, age 60±8 years, remnant cholesterol: 3.26 [2.07-5.71]) compared with controls (n=17, age 61±8 years, remnant cholesterol 0.29 [0.27-0.40]; P wall and cellular inflammation. These findings imply an important inflammatory component to the atherogenicity of remnant cholesterol, contributing to the increased cardiovascular disease risk in patients with FD. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Remnant Cholesterol Elicits Arterial Wall Inflammation and a Multilevel Cellular Immune Response in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Verweij, Simone L; Schnitzler, Johan G

    2017-01-01

    cholesterol accumulates in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells coinciding with myeloid skewing. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with FD have increased arterial wall and cellular inflammation. These findings imply an important inflammatory component to the atherogenicity of remnant cholesterol, contributing......OBJECTIVE: Mendelian randomization studies revealed a causal role for remnant cholesterol in cardiovascular disease. Remnant particles accumulate in the arterial wall, potentially propagating local and systemic inflammation. We evaluated the impact of remnant cholesterol on arterial wall...... inflammation, circulating monocytes, and bone marrow in patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD). APPROACH AND RESULTS: Arterial wall inflammation and bone marrow activity were measured using 18F-FDG PET/CT. Monocyte phenotype was assessed with flow cytometry. The correlation between remnant levels...

  7. Broad Neutralization of Ebolaviruses via a Fusion Loop Epitope Elicited by Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    abnormalities as well as petechial rash at the time of death (Kozak et al., 2016). We show that two doses of the CA45/FVM04 cocktail were fully protective...Schmaljohn, C., and Huggins, J. (1999). A mouse model for evaluation of prophylaxis and therapy of Ebola hemorrhagic fever . J Infect Dis 179 Suppl...assessment. Genome Res 21, 1746-1756. Feldmann, H., and Geisbert, T.W. (2011). Ebola haemorrhagic fever . Lancet 377, 849-862. Flyak, A.I., Shen, X

  8. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  9. Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2014-09-01

    Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon; van Baarle, Debbie; van den Berg, Sara P H; Benedict, Chris A; Čičin-Šain, Luka; Hill, Ann B; Wills, Mark R

    2017-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response. Without reactivation, latency itself would be redundant for the virus. It is also becoming clear that latency is not a totally quiescent state, but is characterized by limited viral gene expression. Therefore, the virus also needs immune evasion strategies during latency. An effective immune response to CMV is required or viral replication will cause morbidity and ultimately mortality in the host. There is clearly a complex balance between virus immune evasion and host immune recognition over a lifetime. This poses the important question of whether long-term evasion or manipulation of the immune response driven by CMV is detrimental to health. In this meeting report, three groups used the murine model of CMV (MCMV) to examine if the contribution of the virus to immune senescence is set by the (i) initial viral inoculum, (ii) inflation of T cell responses, (iii) or the balance between functionally distinct effector CD4+ T cells. The work of other groups studying the CMV response in humans is discussed. Their work asks whether the ability to make immune responses to new antigens is compromised by (i) age and HCMV carriage, (ii) long-term exposure to HCMV giving rise to an overall immunosuppressive environment and increased levels of latent virus, or (iii) adapted virus mutants (used as potential vaccines) that have the capacity to

  11. Sm29, but not Sm22.6 retains its ability to induce a protective immune response in mice previously exposed to a Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Carvalho Alves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vaccine against schistosomiasis would have a great impact in disease elimination. Sm29 and Sm22.6 are two parasite tegument proteins which represent promising antigens to compose a vaccine. These antigens have been associated with resistance to infection and reinfection in individuals living in endemic area for the disease and induced partial protection when evaluated in immunization trials using naïve mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: In this study we evaluated rSm29 and rSm22.6 ability to induce protection in Balb/c mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and further treated with Praziquantel. Our results demonstrate that three doses of the vaccine containing rSm29 were necessary to elicit significant protection (26%-48%. Immunization of mice with rSm29 induced a significant production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4; significant production of specific antibodies; increased percentage of CD4+ central memory cells in comparison with infected and treated saline group and increased percentage of CD4+ effector memory cells in comparison with naïve Balb/c mice immunized with rSm29. On the other hand, although immunization with Sm22.6 induced a robust immune response, it failed to induce protection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that rSm29 retains its ability to induce protection in previously infected animals, reinforcing its potential as a vaccine candidate.

  12. mTOR at the Transmitting and Receiving Ends in Tumor Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Yakir; Nordmann, Thierry M; Roszik, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease and a leading cause of death worldwide. Immunity is critical for cancer control. Cancer cells exhibit high mutational rates and therefore altered self or neo-antigens, eliciting an immune response to promote tumor eradication. Failure to mount a proper immune response leads to cancer progression. mTOR signaling controls cellular metabolism, immune cell differentiation, and effector function. Deregulated mTOR signaling in cancer cells modulates the tumor microenvironment, thereby affecting tumor immunity and possibly promoting carcinogenesis.

  13. mTOR at the Transmitting and Receiving Ends in Tumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakir Guri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a complex disease and a leading cause of death worldwide. Immunity is critical for cancer control. Cancer cells exhibit high mutational rates and therefore altered self or neo-antigens, eliciting an immune response to promote tumor eradication. Failure to mount a proper immune response leads to cancer progression. mTOR signaling controls cellular metabolism, immune cell differentiation, and effector function. Deregulated mTOR signaling in cancer cells modulates the tumor microenvironment, thereby affecting tumor immunity and possibly promoting carcinogenesis.

  14. Student pharmacists' perceptions of immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Kara; McBane, Sarah; Hirsch, Jan D; Lorentz, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore changes in knowledge level, perceived importance and apprehension of immunizations by first year pharmacy students pre- vs. post-immunization education and training. First year pharmacy students at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UC San Diego SSPPS) completed a pre- and post-immunization training course questionnaire. Knowledge base and perceived importance level of immunizations including hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal and human papilloma virus (HPV) were assessed. In addition, apprehension of needle administration and fears regarding safety and efficacy were evaluated. Of 120 students, 85 (71%) completed pre- and post-course questionnaires for this study. Mean knowledge test scores increased from 56% pre-course to 83% post-course. Pre-course, 73% of participants considered immunizations as very important in preventing future disease outbreaks. Post-course, this percentage climbed to 94%. Prior to taking the course, 52% of students were apprehensive about administering injections; however, after completing the course this percentage declined to 33%. The majority of students who had been fearful prior to the course retained their fears of receiving needle injections. The proportion of students believing immunizations should be a personal choice, not mandatory, did not significantly change from pre-course (49%) to post-course (44%). The UC San Diego SSPPS immunization course increased student knowledge of immunization facts and the perceived importance of immunizations. However, a substantial portion of students retained apprehension about administering and receiving needle injections and the proportion believing immunizations should be a personal choice, almost half, did not change appreciably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or β-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjin; Chen Weizao; Yan Weiyao; Zhao Kai; Liu Mingqiu; Zhang Jun; Fei Liang; Xu Quanxing; Sheng Zutian; Lu Yonggan; Zheng Zhaoxin

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine

  16. Approaches Mediating Oxytocin Regulation of the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Ping; Wang, Stephani C; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuroendocrine system is mainly composed of the neural structures regulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland and has been considered as the higher regulatory center of the immune system. Recently, the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) emerged as an important component of neuroendocrine-immune network, wherein the oxytocin (OT)-secreting system (OSS) plays an essential role. The OSS, consisting of OT neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, their several accessory nuclei and associated structures, can integrate neural, endocrine, metabolic, and immune information and plays a pivotal role in the development and functions of the immune system. The OSS can promote the development of thymus and bone marrow, perform immune surveillance, strengthen immune defense, and maintain immune homeostasis. Correspondingly, OT can inhibit inflammation, exert antibiotic-like effect, promote wound healing and regeneration, and suppress stress-associated immune disorders. In this process, the OSS can release OT to act on immune system directly by activating OT receptors or through modulating activities of other hypothalamic-pituitary-immune axes and autonomic nervous system indirectly. However, our understandings of the role of the OSS in neuroendocrine regulation of immune system are largely incomplete, particularly its relationship with other hypothalamic-pituitary-immune axes and the vasopressin-secreting system that coexists with the OSS in the HNS. In addition, it remains unclear about the relationship between the OSS and peripherally produced OT in immune regulation, particularly intrathymic OT that is known to elicit central immunological self-tolerance of T-cells to hypophysial hormones. In this work, we provide a brief review of current knowledge of the features of OSS regulation of the immune system and of potential approaches that mediate OSS coordination of the activities of entire neuroendocrine-immune network.

  17. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  18. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  19. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  20. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  1. T cell immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2013-01-01

    Since birth, our immune system is constantly bombarded with self-antigens and foreign pathogens. To stay healthy, complex immune strategies have evolved in our immune system to maintain self-tolerance and to defend against foreign pathogens. Effector T cells are the key players in steering the immune responses to execute immune functions. While effector T cells were initially identified to be immune promoting, recent studies unraveled negative regulatory functions of effector T cells...

  2. Immunity to Fasciola hepatica in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, J.; Dargie, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were carried out which demonstrated an acquired immunity to Fasciola hapatica in the rat. It was shown that this immunity could be transferred to recipients using either lymphoid cells or serum from infected donor rats. The extent of the protection obtained by cells appeared to be related to the quantity and persistence of the antigenic stimulus in the donor. Likewise, the degree of immunity conferred by immune serum was dependent upon the volume transferred. The significance of these results in relation to the mechanism of immunity to fascioliasis is discussed

  3. Immune disorders in anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  4. Immune disorders in anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słotwińska, Sylwia Małgorzata; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  5. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Favorites ACIP Recommendations Package Inserts Additional Immunization Resources Photos Adult Vaccination Screening Checklists Ask the ...

  6. Cellular immune responses against CT7 (MAGE-C1) and humoral responses against other cancer-testis antigens in multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Nikoletta; Gnjatic, Sacha; Ritter, Erika; Mangone, Michael; Austin, Wayne; Reyner, Karina; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Jagannath, Sundar; Bhardwaj, Nina; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Old, Lloyd J; Cho, Hearn Jay

    2010-01-29

    The type I melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) proteins CT7 (MAGE-C1) and MAGE-A3 are commonly expressed in multiple myeloma (MM), and their expression correlates with increased plasma cell proliferation and poor clinical outcome. They belong to the cancer-testis antigen (CTAg) group of tumor-associated proteins, some of which elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients. CT7 and MAGE-A3 are promising antigenic targets for therapeutic tumor vaccines in myeloma; therefore, it is critical to determine if they are immunogenic in MM patients. We analyzed cellular and humoral immune responses against CTAgs in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias: MM, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Bone marrow lymphocytes from two of four untreated MM patients exhibited CT7-specific cellular immune responses as measured by an autologous cellular immunity assay, the first such immune response to CT7 to be reported in cancer patients. Sera from 24 patients were screened by ELISA for humoral immune responses to CTAgs. Two patients with MM demonstrated positive titers, one for MAGE-A1 and the other for SSX1. These data demonstrate that CTAgs, particularly CT7, are immunogenic in MM patients and merit further exploration as targets of immunological therapy in MM.

  7. PABRE-Proj: applying patterns in requirements elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Palomares Bonache, Cristina; Quer Bosor, Maria Carme; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Software requirement patterns have been proposed as a type of artifact for fostering requirements reuse. In this paper, we present PABRE-Proj, a tool aimed at supporting requirements elicitation and specification. Peer Reviewed

  8. The Interview as an Approach to Elicit Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Iriarte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In many software projects requirements elicitation is incomplete or inconsistent. One issue that works for this is presented has to be with the requirements engineers use a single method to do it, which can cause a deficiency in the expected results. Among the factors contributing to the success of this stage of the life cycle is an adequate selection of the elicitation technique and other approaches needed. This article describes an experimental study to elicit requirements, in which was applied a combination of methods and techniques, and discusses the advantages of doing it this way. The results obtained allow concluding that to achieve adequate elicitation is necessary to combine several techniques and methods.

  9. Distributed and Collaborative Requirements Elicitation Based on Social Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Bin; Luo, Z.; Liang, P.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements is the formal expression of user's needs. Also, requirements elicitation is the process of activity focusing on requirements collection. Traditional acquisition methods, such as interview, observation and prototype, are unsuited for the service-oriented software development featuring in

  10. Film clips and narrative text as subjective emotion elicitation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Babbage, Duncan R

    2017-01-01

    Film clips and narrative text are useful techniques in eliciting emotion in a laboratory setting but have not been examined side-by-side using the same methodology. This study examined the self-identification of emotions elicited by film clip and narrative text stimuli to confirm that selected stimuli appropriately target the intended emotions. Seventy participants viewed 30 film clips, and 40 additional participants read 30 narrative texts. Participants identified the emotion experienced (happy, sad, angry, fearful, neutral-six stimuli each). Eighty-five percent of participants self-identified the target emotion for at least two stimuli for all emotion categories of film clips, except angry (only one) and for all categories of narrative text, except fearful (only one). The most effective angry text was correctly identified 74% of the time. Film clips were more effective in eliciting all target emotions in participants for eliciting the correct emotion (angry), intensity rating (happy, sad), or both (fearful).

  11. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to ... system, in the District Centres for Early Childhood Education (DICECE), in Kenya. In this paper ..... photographs and even direct to a hand-held computer”.

  12. Expert elicitation and the problem of detecting undeclared activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Sylvester, Kori Budlong; Stanbro, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Measures applicable to the detection of undeclared activities are not well established, and their effectiveness is uncertain. To detect clandestine paths, the IAEA is still developing processes and procedures. As the Agency gains experience with new measures and with integrated safeguards, dealing with such problems may become more experience-based and perhaps more closely parallel the process with current safeguards where detection probabilities for the measures to be utilized on declared paths are well characterized. Whether or not this point will be reached for undeclared and mixed paths, the only tool that appears suitable at present for the purpose of generating a reasonable detection probability that can over time be tested against reality and, if necessary, adjusted is formal expert judgment, or expert elicitation. Formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. To provide a 'proof of principle' of this methodology for presentation to the Agency, experts in nuclear technology, nonproliferation, safeguards and open source information, as well as in formal expert elicitation processes, engaged in three illustrative expert elicitations on assessing information analysis as a means to detect undeclared activities. These elicitations were successful. This paper will discuss the process of and issues raised by the elicitations.

  13. Eliciting expert opinion for economic models: an applied example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, José; Wordsworth, Sarah; Legood, Rosa; Blair, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Expert opinion is considered as a legitimate source of information for decision-analytic modeling where required data are unavailable. Our objective was to develop a practical computer-based tool for eliciting expert opinion about the shape of the uncertainty distribution around individual model parameters. We first developed a prepilot survey with departmental colleagues to test a number of alternative approaches to eliciting opinions on the shape of the uncertainty distribution around individual parameters. This information was used to develop a survey instrument for an applied clinical example. This involved eliciting opinions from experts to inform a number of parameters involving Bernoulli processes in an economic model evaluating DNA testing for families with a genetic disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The experts were cardiologists, clinical geneticists, and laboratory scientists working with cardiomyopathy patient populations and DNA testing. Our initial prepilot work suggested that the more complex elicitation techniques advocated in the literature were difficult to use in practice. In contrast, our approach achieved a reasonable response rate (50%), provided logical answers, and was generally rated as easy to use by respondents. The computer software user interface permitted graphical feedback throughout the elicitation process. The distributions obtained were incorporated into the model, enabling the use of probabilistic sensitivity analysis. There is clearly a gap in the literature between theoretical elicitation techniques and tools that can be used in applied decision-analytic models. The results of this methodological study are potentially valuable for other decision analysts deriving expert opinion.

  14. Green Software Engineering Adaption In Requirement Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Khatuna Jannat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent technology investigates the role of concern in the environment software that is green software system. Now it is widely accepted that the green software can fit all process of software development. It is also suitable for the requirement elicitation process. Now a days software companies have used requirements elicitation techniques in an enormous majority. Because this process plays more and more important roles in software development. At the present time most of the requirements elicitation process is improved by using some techniques and tools. So that the intention of this research suggests to adapt green software engineering for the intention of existing elicitation technique and recommend suitable actions for improvement. This research being involved qualitative data. I used few keywords in my searching procedure then searched IEEE ACM Springer Elsevier Google scholar Scopus and Wiley. Find out articles which published in 2010 until 2016. Finding from the literature review Identify 15 traditional requirement elicitations factors and 23 improvement techniques to convert green engineering. Lastly The paper includes a squat review of the literature a description of the grounded theory and some of the identity issues related finding of the necessity for requirements elicitation improvement techniques.

  15. Differential effects of metal contamination on the transcript expression of immune- and stress-response genes in the Sydney Rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Daisy A.; Thompson, Emma L.; Nair, Sham V.; Raftos, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination by metals is a serious threat to the biological sustainability of coastal ecosystems. Our current understanding of the potential biological effects of metals in these ecosystems is limited. This study tested the transcriptional expression of immune- and stress-response genes in Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata). Oysters were exposed to four metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) commonly associated with anthropogenic pollution in coastal waterways. Seven target genes (superoxide dismutase, ferritin, ficolin, defensin, HSP70, HSP90 and metallothionein) were selected. Quantitative (real-time) PCR analyses of the transcript expression of these genes showed that each of the different metals elicited unique transcriptional profiles. Significant changes in transcription were found for 18 of the 28 combinations tested (4 metals × 7 genes). Of these, 16 reflected down-regulation of gene transcription. HSP90 was the only gene significantly up-regulated by metal contamination (cadmium and zinc only), while defensin expression was significantly down-regulated by exposure to all four metals. This inhibition could have a significant negative effect on the oyster immune system, promoting susceptibility to opportunistic infections and disease. -- Highlights: ► Oysters were exposed to Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn, all commonly associated with coastal pollution. ► qPCR identified significant down-regulation in stress- and immune-response genes in oysters exposed to these metals. ► qPCR showed that each of the different metals elicited unique transcriptional profiles. ► The genes identified have the potential to lead to increased disease susceptibility in oysters. -- qPCR identified significant down-regulation in stress- and immune-response genes in oysters exposed to metals, which could lead to increased disease susceptibility

  16. Brucella abortus ΔrpoE1 confers protective immunity against wild type challenge in a mouse model of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jonathan W; Herrou, Julien; Czyz, Daniel M; Cheng, Jason X; Crosson, Sean

    2016-09-30

    The Brucella abortus general stress response (GSR) system regulates activity of the alternative sigma factor, σ(E1), which controls transcription of approximately 100 genes and is required for persistence in a BALB/c mouse chronic infection model. We evaluated the host response to infection by a B. abortus strain lacking σ(E1) (ΔrpoE1), and identified pathological and immunological features that distinguish ΔrpoE1-infected mice from wild-type (WT), and that correspond with clearance of ΔrpoE1 from the host. ΔrpoE1 infection was indistinguishable from WT in terms of splenic bacterial burden, inflammation and histopathology up to 6weeks post-infection. However, Brucella-specific serum IgG levels in ΔrpoE1-infected mice were 5 times higher than WT by 4weeks post-infection, and remained significantly higher throughout the course of a 12-week infection. Total IgG and Brucella-specific IgG levels peaked strongly in ΔrpoE1-infected mice at 6weeks, which correlated with reduced splenomegaly and bacterial burden relative to WT-infected mice. Given the difference in immune response to infection with wild-type and ΔrpoE1, we tested whether ΔrpoE1 confers protective immunity to wild-type challenge. Mice immunized with ΔrpoE1 completely resisted WT infection and had significantly higher serum titers of Brucella-specific IgG, IgG2a and IFN-γ after WT challenge relative to age-matched naïve mice. We conclude that immunization of BALB/c mice with the B. abortus GSR pathway mutant, ΔrpoE1, elicits an adaptive immune response that confers significant protective immunity against WT infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. T Cell-Mediated Immunity towards Yellow Fever Virus and Useful Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M; Klimstra, William B

    2017-04-11

    The 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines is among the most effective vaccines ever created. The humoral and cellular immunity elicited by 17D has been well characterized in humans. Neutralizing antibodies have long been known to provide protection against challenge with a wild-type virus. However, a well characterized T cell immune response that is robust, long-lived and polyfunctional is also elicited by 17D. It remains unclear whether this arm of immunity is protective following challenge with a wild-type virus. Here we introduce the 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines, describe the current state of knowledge regarding the immunity directed towards the vaccines in humans and conclude with a discussion of animal models that are useful for evaluating T cell-mediated immune protection to yellow fever virus.

  18. T Cell-Mediated Immunity towards Yellow Fever Virus and Useful Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M.; Klimstra, William B.

    2017-01-01

    The 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines is among the most effective vaccines ever created. The humoral and cellular immunity elicited by 17D has been well characterized in humans. Neutralizing antibodies have long been known to provide protection against challenge with a wild-type virus. However, a well characterized T cell immune response that is robust, long-lived and polyfunctional is also elicited by 17D. It remains unclear whether this arm of immunity is protective following challenge with a wild-type virus. Here we introduce the 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines, describe the current state of knowledge regarding the immunity directed towards the vaccines in humans and conclude with a discussion of animal models that are useful for evaluating T cell-mediated immune protection to yellow fever virus. PMID:28398253

  19. Our Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  20. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  1. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  2. Development of an anti-HIV vaccine eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yousuf; Tian, Meijuan; Gao, Yong

    2017-09-12

    The extreme HIV diversity posts a great challenge on development of an effective anti-HIV vaccine. To solve this problem, it is crucial to discover an appropriate immunogens and strategies that are able to prevent the transmission of the diverse viruses that are circulating in the world. Even though there have been a number of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (bNAbs) been discovered in recent years, induction of such antibodies to date has only been observed in HIV-1 infection. Here, in this mini review, we review the progress in development of HIV vaccine in eliciting broad immune response, especially production of bNAbs, discuss possible strategies, such as polyvalent sequential vaccination, that facilitates B cell maturation leading to bNAb response.

  3. In immune defense: redefining the role of the immune system in chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, Katya B; Rubinow, David R

    2017-03-01

    The recognition of altered immune system function in many chronic disease states has proven to be a pivotal advance in biomedical research over the past decade. For many metabolic and mood disorders, this altered immune activity has been characterized as inflammation, with the attendant assumption that the immune response is aberrant. However, accumulating evidence challenges this assumption and suggests that the immune system may be mounting adaptive responses to chronic stressors. Further, the inordinate complexity of immune function renders a simplistic, binary model incapable of capturing critical mechanistic insights. In this perspective article, we propose alternative paradigms for understanding the role of the immune system in chronic disease. By invoking allostasis or systems biology rather than inflammation, we can ascribe greater functional significance to immune mediators, gain newfound appreciation of the adaptive facets of altered immune activity, and better avoid the potentially disastrous effects of translating erroneous assumptions into novel therapeutic strategies.

  4. Immunizations challenge healthcare personnel and affects immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohfus, Pamela K; Kim, Susan C; Palma, Sara; Duke, Russell A; Remington, Richard; Roberts, Caleb

    2017-02-01

    This study measured 1. medical office immunization rates and 2. health care personnel competency in managing vaccine practices before and after evidence-based immunization education was provided. This descriptive study compared 32 family medicine and pediatric offices and 178 medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians in knowledge-based testing pre-education, post-education, and 12-months post-education. Immunization rates were assessed before and 18-months post-education. Immunization rates increased 10.3% - 18months post-education; knowledge increased 7.8% - 12months post-education. Family medicine offices, licensed practical nurses, and medical assistants showed significant knowledge deficits before and 12-months post-education. All demographic groups scored less in storage/handling 12-months post-education. This study is one of the first studies to identify competency challenges in effective immunization delivery among medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, and family medicine offices. Formal and continuous education in immunization administration and storage/handling is recommended among these select groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

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    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  6. No association between oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene polymorphisms and experimentally elicited social preferences.

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    Coren L Apicella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684. Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and behavior in either of the games. CONCLUSION: We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant.

  7. Serum and mucosal immune responses to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine induced by epidermal powder immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Periwal, S B; Larrivee, K; Zuleger, C; Erickson, C A; Endres, R L; Payne, L G

    2001-09-01

    Both circulating and mucosal antibodies are considered important for protection against infection by influenza virus in humans and animals. However, current inactivated vaccines administered by intramuscular injection using a syringe and needle elicit primarily circulating antibodies. In this study, we report that epidermal powder immunization (EPI) via a unique powder delivery system elicits both serum and mucosal antibodies to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Serum antibody responses to influenza vaccine following EPI were enhanced by codelivery of cholera toxin (CT), a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG DNA), or the combination of these two adjuvants. In addition, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies were detected in the saliva and mucosal lavages of the small intestine, trachea, and vaginal tract, although the titers were much lower than the IgG titers. The local origin of the sIgA antibodies was further shown by measuring antibodies released from cultured tracheal and small intestinal fragments and by detecting antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the lamina propria using ELISPOT assays. EPI with a single dose of influenza vaccine containing CT or CT and CpG DNA conferred complete protection against lethal challenges with an influenza virus isolated 30 years ago, whereas a prime and boost immunizations were required for protection in the absence of an adjuvant. The ability to elicit augmented circulating antibody and mucosal antibody responses makes EPI a promising alternative to needle injection for administering vaccines against influenza and other diseases.

  8. Isocitrate dehydrogenase of Helicobacter pylori potentially induces humoral immune response in subjects with peptic ulcer disease and gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abid Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.

  9. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  10. Histomorphometric characteristics of immune cells in small intestine of pigs perorally immunized with vaccine candidate F18ac+ nonenterotoxigenic E. coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valpotic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Colidiarrhea and colienterotoxemia caused by F4+ and/or F18+ enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC strains are the most prevalent infections of suckling and weaned pigs. Here we tested the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness of attenuated F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine candidate strain against challenge infection with F4ac+ ETEC strain by quantitative phenotypic analysis of small intestinal leukocyte subsets in weaned pigs. We also evaluated levamisole as an immune response modifier (IRM and its adjuvanticity when given in the combination with the experimental vaccine. The pigs were parenterally immunized with either levamisole (at days -2, -1 and 0 or with levamisole and perorally given F18ac+ non-ETEC strain (at day 0, and challenged with F4ac+ ETEC strain 7 days later. At day 13 the pigs were euthanatized and sampled for immunohistological/histomorphometrical analyses. Lymphoid CD3+, CD45RA+, CD45RC+, CD21+, IgA+ and myeloid SWC3+ cell subsets were identified in jejunal and ileal epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer’s patches using the avidin-biotin complex method, and their numbers were determined by computer-assisted histomorphometry. Quantitative immunophenotypic analyses showed that levamisole treated pigs had highly increased numbers of jejunal CD3+, CD45RC+ and SWC3+ cells (p<0.05 as compared to those recorded in nontreated control pigs. In the ileum of these pigs we have recorded that only CD21+ cells were significantly increased (p<0.01. The pigs that were treated with levamisole adjuvanted experimental vaccine had significantly increased numbers of all tested cell subsets in both segments of the small intestine. It was concluded that levamisole adjuvanted F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine was a requirement for the elicitation of protective gut immunity in this model; nonspecific immunization with levamisole was less effective, but confirmed its potential as an IRM.

  11. Time course of brain activation elicited by basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot, Pascal; Sequeira, Henrique

    2013-11-13

    Whereas facial emotion recognition protocols have shown that each discrete emotion has a specific time course of brain activation, there is no electrophysiological evidence to support these findings for emotional induction by complex pictures. Our objective was to specify the differences between the time courses of brain activation elicited by feelings of happiness and, with unpleasant pictures, by feelings of disgust and sadness. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the watching of high-arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System, selected to induce specific emotions. In addition to a classical arousal effect on late positive components, we found specific ERP patterns for each emotion in early temporal windows (emotion to be associated with different brain processing after 140 ms, whereas happiness and sadness differed in ERPs elicited at the frontal and central sites after 160 ms. Our findings highlight the limits of the classical averaging of ERPs elicited by different emotions inside the same valence and suggest that each emotion could elicit a specific temporal pattern of brain activation, similar to those observed with emotional face recognition.

  12. Cleavage-Independent HIV-1 Trimers From CHO Cell Lines Elicit Robust Autologous Tier 2 Neutralizing Antibodies

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    Shridhar Bale

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Native flexibly linked (NFL HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env trimers are cleavage-independent and display a native-like, well-folded conformation that preferentially displays broadly neutralizing determinants. The NFL platform simplifies large-scale production of Env by eliminating the need to co-transfect the precursor-cleaving protease, furin that is required by the cleavage-dependent SOSIP trimers. Here, we report the development of a CHO-M cell line that expressed BG505 NFL trimers at a high level of homogeneity and yields of ~1.8 g/l. BG505 NFL trimers purified by single-step lectin-affinity chromatography displayed a native-like closed structure, efficient recognition by trimer-preferring bNAbs, no recognition by non-neutralizing CD4 binding site-directed and V3-directed antibodies, long-term stability, and proper N-glycan processing. Following negative-selection, formulation in ISCOMATRIX adjuvant and inoculation into rabbits, the trimers rapidly elicited potent autologous tier 2 neutralizing antibodies. These antibodies targeted the N-glycan “hole” naturally present on the BG505 Env proximal to residues at positions 230, 241, and 289. The BG505 NFL trimers that did not expose V3 in vitro, elicited low-to-no tier 1 virus neutralization in vivo, indicating that they remained intact during the immunization process, not exposing V3. In addition, BG505 NFL and BG505 SOSIP trimers expressed from 293F cells, when formulated in Adjuplex adjuvant, elicited equivalent BG505 tier 2 autologous neutralizing titers. These titers were lower in potency when compared to the titers elicited by CHO-M cell derived trimers. In addition, increased neutralization of tier 1 viruses was detected. Taken together, these data indicate that both adjuvant and cell-type expression can affect the elicitation of tier 2 and tier 1 neutralizing responses in vivo.

  13. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

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    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  14. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  15. Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Broadly-Reactive HLA Class II Restricted Epitopes Eliciting HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, M.; Norström, M.; Lundegaard, Claus

    2011-01-01

    , the functional and immunodominant discrepancies of CD4+ T cell responses targeting promiscuous MHC II restricted HIV epitopes remains poorly defined. Thus, utilization of interdisciplinary approaches might aid revealing broadly- reactive peptides eliciting CD4 + T cell responses. Methods: We utilized the novel...... bioinformatic prediction program NetMHCIIpan to select 64 optimized MHC II restricted epitopes located in the HIV Gag, Pol, Env, Nef and Tat regions. The epitopes were selected to cover the global diversity of the virus (multiple subtypes) and the human immune system(diverse MHC II types). Optimized...

  16. Noise immunity of optimal tracking demodulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriadnikov, Iu. F.; Vasilev, N. A.

    1982-05-01

    The noise immunity of optimal discrete tracking demodulators, used in space communication systems, is analyzed in the case of an arbitrary relationship between the signal pulse repetition period and the interval of message correlation. Expressions are obtained which are then used to compare the noise immunities of discrete and continuous tracking demodulators, used for the transmission of messages with spectra approximated by Butterworth polynomials. It is shown that the noise immunity of the discrete demodulator significantly deteriorates

  17. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  18. Giardiasis in mice: analysis of humoral and cellular immune responses to Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, R F; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Mitchell, G F

    1982-01-01

    Humoral and cellular immune responses have been evaluated in two inbred strains of mice which differ markedly in their susceptibility to infection with Giardia muris. Serum IgG and IgA antibody levels and IgA levels in intestinal washes were determined by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay using G. muris antigen prepared by sonication of trophozoites, while cell-mediated immunity was assessed by a radiometric ear-assay for delayed-type hypersensitivity. Following infection of BALB/c mice (resistant) and C3H/He mice (susceptible), the IgG and IgA antibody levels in serum progressively increased over the period of study with C3H/He mice having significantly higher titres of IgA antibodies than BALB/c late in the infection. Systemic immunization with G. muris trophozoites resulted in high titres of IgG antibodies in the serum. IgA antibodies were detected in intestinal washes 2 weeks after infection with a subsequent fall in levels in BALB/c mice but a progressive increase levels in C3H/He mice. Prior immunization resulted in IgA antibodies being detected earlier in the intestinal washings after a challenge infection. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to G. muris antigens could not be detected during an infection but a positive response was elicited following antigen priming in mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. The immune responses evaluated in this study were assessed using a whole G. muris trophozoite sonicate and variations in the quantitative aspects of the responses did not account for observed differences in the course of infection in the two strains of mice.

  19. Patient Health Goals Elicited During Home Care Admission: A Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Chou, Edgar Y; Wojciechowicz, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Home care agencies are initiating "patient health goal elicitation" activities as part of home care admission planning. We categorized elicited goals and identified "clinically informative" goals at a home care agency. We examined patient goals that admitting clinicians documented in the point-of-care electronic health record; conducted content analysis on patient goal data to develop a coding scheme; grouped goal themes into codes; assigned codes to each goal; and identified goals that were in the patient voice. Of the 1,763 patient records, 16% lacked a goal; only 15 goals were in a patient's voice. Nurse and physician experts identified 12 of the 20 codes as clinically important accounting for 82% of goal occurrences. The most frequent goal documented was safety/falls (23%). Training and consistent communication of the intent and operationalization of patient goal elicitation may address the absence of patient voice and the less than universal recording of home care patients' goals.

  20. Immune responses in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) with white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, T M; Prokkola, J M; Johnson, J S; Rogers, E J; Gronsky, S; Kurta, A; Reeder, D M; Field, K A

    2017-02-08

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease responsible for decimating many bat populations in North America. Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), the psychrophilic fungus responsible for WNS, prospers in the winter habitat of many hibernating bat species. The immune response that Pd elicits in bats is not yet fully understood; antibodies are produced in response to infection by Pd , but they may not be protective and indeed may be harmful. To understand how bats respond to infection during hibernation, we studied the effect of Pd inoculation on the survival and gene expression of captive hibernating Myotis lucifugus with varying pre-hibernation antifungal antibody titres. We investigated gene expression through the transcription of selected cytokine genes ( Il6 , Il17a , Il1b , Il4 and Ifng ) associated with inflammatory, Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune responses in wing tissue and lymph nodes. We found no difference in survival between bats with low and high anti- Pd titres, although anti- Pd antibody production during hibernation differed significantly between infected and uninfected bats. Transcription of Il6 and Il17a was higher in the lymph nodes of infected bats compared with uninfected bats. Increased transcription of these cytokines in the lymph node suggests that a pro-inflammatory immune response to WNS is not restricted to infected tissues and occurs during hibernation. The resulting Th17 response may be protective in euthermic bats, but because it may disrupt torpor, it could be detrimental during hibernation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Enhanced immunization via dissolving microneedle array-based delivery system incorporating subunit vaccine and saponin adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Qi-Bo; Liu, Bao; Piao, Xiang-Hua; Yan, Yu-Lu; Hu, Xiao-Ge; Zhou, Kuan; Zhang, Yong-Tai; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    To enhance the immunogenicity of the model subunit vaccine, ovalbumin (OVA) was combined with platycodin (PD), a saponin adjuvant. To reduce the toxicity of PD, OVA, and adjuvant were loaded together into liposomes before being incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. OVA- and PD-loaded liposomes (OVA-PD-Lipos) were prepared using the film dispersion method. Their uptake behavior, toxicity to mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs), and hemolytic activity to rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. The OVA-PD-Lipos were incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. The chemical stability of OVA and the physical stability of OVA-PD-Lipos in microneedle arrays were investigated. The immune response of Institute of Cancer Research mice and potential skin irritation reaction of rabbits to OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs were evaluated. The uptake of OVA by mouse BMDCs was greatly enhanced when OVA was prepared as OVA-PD-Lipos, and in this form, the toxicity of PD was dramatically reduced. OVA was chemically stable as OVA-PD-Lipos, when OVA-PD-Lipos was incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. Institute of Cancer Research mice treated with OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs showed a significantly enhanced immune response. PD combined with OVA elicited a balanced Th1 and Th2 humoral immune response in mice, with minimal irritation in rabbit skin. The dissolving microneedle array-based system is a promising delivery vehicle for subunit vaccine and its adjuvant.

  2. Induction of Boosted Immune Response in Mice by Leptospiral Surface Proteins Expressed in Fusion with DnaK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Atzingen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important global disease of human and veterinary concern. Caused by pathogenic Leptospira, the illness was recently classified as an emerging infectious disease. Currently available veterinarian vaccines do not induce long-term protection against infection and do not provide cross-protective immunity. Several studies have suggested the use of DnaK as an antigen in vaccine formulation, due to an exceptional degree of immunogenicity. We focused on four surface proteins: rLIC10368 (Lsa21, rLIC10494, rLIC12690 (Lp95, and rLIC12730, previously shown to be involved in host-pathogen interactions. Our goal was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the proteins genetically fused with DnaK in animal model. The chosen genes were amplified by PCR methodology and cloned into pAE, an E. coli vector. The recombinant proteins were expressed alone or in fusion with DnaK at the N-terminus. Our results demonstrate that leptospiral proteins fused with DnaK have elicited an enhanced immune response in mice when compared to the effect promoted by the individual proteins. The boosted immune effect was demonstrated by the production of total IgG, lymphocyte proliferation, and significant amounts of IL-10 in supernatant of splenocyte cell cultures. We believe that this approach could be employed in vaccines to enhance presentation of antigens of Leptospira to professional immune cells.

  3. The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Neil; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2012-05-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the immunobiology and epidemiology of parasitic helminths of the gastrointestinal system and the cardiorespiratory system, complications arising from infections of animals and humans with these parasites are a major clinical and economic problem. This has been attributed to the high incidence of these parasites, the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant parasite strains and the lack of effective vaccines. Efforts to develop and produce vaccines against virtually all helminths (with the exception of Dictyocaulus viviparus and some cestode species) have been hindered by the complexity of the host-parasite relationship, and incomplete understanding of the molecular and immune regulatory pathways associated with the development of protective immunity against helminths. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and characterisation of effector mechanisms and molecules that govern the host-parasite interactions in these two body systems. Such knowledge provided clues on how appropriate and protective responses are elicited against helminths and, thus, may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we review advances in the immune response to selected helminths of animal health significance, and subsequent vaccine potential. The topics addressed are important for understanding how helminths interact with host immune defences and also are relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases caused by helminths.

  4. A polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (ABP-AW1) as a potential Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liran; Sun, Yongxu; Xu, Hao; Xu, Huiyu; Cong, Huan; Liu, Jicheng

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a 'depot' of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4 + T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4 + CD69 + T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.

  5. Recombinant proteins of Zaire ebolavirus induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses and protect against live virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Axel T; Wong, Teri-Ann S; Lieberman, Michael M; Humphreys, Tom; Clements, David E; Bakken, Russell R; Hart, Mary Kate; Pratt, William D; Dye, John M

    2018-05-24

    Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death. Questions remain with regard to the few survivors of infection, who manage to mount an effective adaptive immune response. These questions concern the humoral and cellular components of this response, and whether such a response can be elicited by an appropriate prophylactic vaccine. The data reported herein describe the production and evaluation of a recombinant subunit Ebola virus vaccine candidate consisting of insect cell expressed Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) surface glycoprotein (GP) and the matrix proteins VP24 and VP40. The recombinant subunit proteins are shown to be highly immunogenic in mice, yielding both humoral and cellular responses, as well as highly efficacious, providing up to 100% protection against a lethal challenge with live virus. These results demonstrate proof of concept for such a recombinant non-replicating vaccine candidate in the mouse model of EBOV which helps to elucidate immune correlates of protection and warrants further development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Viewing pain and happy faces elicited similar changes in postural body sway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gea

    Full Text Available Affective facial expressions are potent social cues that can induce relevant physiological changes, as well as behavioral dispositions in the observer. Previous studies have revealed that angry faces induced significant reductions in body sway as compared with neutral and happy faces, reflecting an avoidance behavioral tendency as freezing. The expression of pain is usually considered an unpleasant stimulus, but also a relevant cue for delivering effective care and social support. Nevertheless, there are few data about behavioral dispositions elicited by the observation of pain expressions in others. The aim of the present research was to evaluate approach-avoidance tendencies by using video recordings of postural body sway when participants were standing and observing facial expressions of pain, happy and neutral. We hypothesized that although pain faces would be rated as more unpleasant than the other faces, they would provoke significant changes in postural body sway as compared to neutral facial expressions. Forty healthy female volunteers (mean age 25 participated in the study. Amplitude of forward movements and backward movements in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes were obtained. Statistical analyses revealed that pain faces were the most unpleasant stimuli, and that both happy and pain faces were more arousing than neutral ones. Happy and pain faces also elicited greater amplitude of body sway in the anterior-posterior axes as compared with neutral faces. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between body sway elicited by pain faces and pleasantness and empathic ratings, suggesting that changes in postural body sway elicited by pain faces might be associated with approach and cooperative behavioral responses.

  7. SjCRT, a recombinant Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin, induces maturation of dendritic cells and a Th1-polarized immune response in mice

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    Lizhen Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that immunization of radiation-attenuated (RA schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula can induce high levels of protective immunity against schistosoma cercariae reinfection in many animals. Many studies have shown that the Th1 cellular immune response is crucial for the protective effect elicited by RA schistosomula. However, the molecular mechanism of this strong protective immunity remains unclear. Methods The expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin (SjCRT in RA and normal schistosoma-derived cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The effect of recombinant SjCRT (rSjCRT on mouse dendritic cells (DCs was determined by FACS, ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. We also analyzed the effects of SjCRT on the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with rSjCRT by detecting lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine profiles of splenocytes. Results We found that the expression level of SjCRT in the cells from RA larvae was significantly higher than that in cells from normal schistosomula at early stages of development (day 4. The results of effect of rSjCRT on mouse DCs showed that rSjCRT could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, and SjCRT bound to the surface of DCs through the CD91 receptor and could be engulfed by DCs. The results of activation of splenocytes from mice immunized with rSjCRT also demonstrate that rSjCRT can effectively stimulate the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes, elicit splenocytes from immunized mice to secrete high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4, and activate CD4+ T cells to produce high levels of IFN-γ. Conclusion SjCRT is one of the immunostimulatory molecules released from RA schistosomula cells, might play a crucial role in conferring a Th1-polarized immune response induced by RA cercariae/schistosomula in mice, and is a candidate molecule responsible for the high levels of protective immunity induced by RA schistosomula.

  8. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

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    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  9. Skin innate immune system

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    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  10. Improvement of Requirement Elicitation Process through Cognitive Psychology

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    Sana Fatima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper requirement elicitation is necessary for client satisfaction along with the overall project success, but requirement engineers face problems in understanding user requirements and the users of the required system fail to make requirement engineering team understand what they actually want. It is then responsibility of requirement engineers to extract proper requirements. This paper discusses how to use cognitive psychology and learning style models (LSM to understand the psychology of clients. Moreover, it also discusses usage of proper elicitation technique according to one’s learning style and gather the right requirements.

  11. Belief elicitation in experiments: Is there a hedging problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Belief-elicitation experiments usually reward accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. But this allows risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of the other decisions. So can we trust the existing belief-elicitation results...... opportunities are very prominent. If hedging opportunities are transparent, and incentives to hedge are strong, many subjects do spot hedging opportunities and respond to them. The bias can go beyond players actually hedging themselves, because some expect others to hedge and best respond to this....

  12. Vaccination with a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii ROP54 induces protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Yang; Chen, Kai; Liu, Qing; Wang, Jin-Lei; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan, which infects most of the warm-blooded animals, causing serious public health problems and enormous economic losses worldwide. The rhoptry effector protein 54 (ROP54) has been indicated as a virulence factor that promotes Toxoplasma infection by modulating GBP2 loading onto parasite-containing vacuoles, which can modulate some aspects of the host immune response. In order to evaluate the immuno-protective value of ROP54, we constructed a eukaryotic recombinant plasmid expressing T. gondii ROP54 and intramuscularly immunized Kunming mice with this recombinant plasmid against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. All mice immunized with pVAX-ROP54 elicited a high level of specific antibody responses, a significant increase of lymphocyte proliferation, and a significant level of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12p70), in addition to an increased production of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). These results demonstrated that pVAX-ROP54 induced significant cellular and humoral (Th1/Th2) immune responses, which extended the survival time (13.0±1.15days for pVAX-ROP54 vs 6.7±0.48days for pVAX I, 6.8±0.42days for PBS and 6.5±0.53 for blank control) and significantly reduced cyst burden (35.9% for pVAX-ROP54, 1% for pVAX I and 2% for PBS, compared with blank control) of immunized mice. These results indicate that the recombinant ROP54 plasmid can provide partial protection and might be a potential vaccine candidate against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk-Informed SSCs Categorization: Elicitation Method of Expert's Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Kil Yoo

    2005-01-15

    The regulations have been performing by deterministic way since nuclear power plants have been operating. However, some SSCs identified as safety-significance by deterministic way, were turned out to be low or non safety-significant and some SSCs identified as non-safety significance were turned out to be high safety-significant according to the results of PSA. Considering these risk insights, Regulatory Guide 1.174 and 10CFR50.69 were drawn up, and we can re-categorize the SSCs according to their safety significance. Therefore, a study and an interest about the risk-informed SSCs re-categorization and treatment has been continued. The objective of this regulatory initiative is to adjust the scope of equipment subject to special regulatory treatment to better focus licensee and regulatory attention and resources on equipment that has safety significance. Current most regulations define the plant equipment necessary to meet deterministic regulatory basis as 'safety-related.' This equipment is subject to special treatment regulations. Other plant equipment is categorized as 'non-safety related,' and is not subject to a select number of special treatment requirement or a subset of those requirement. However, risk information is not a magic tool making a decision but a supporting tool to categorize SSCs. This is because only small parts of a plant are modeled in PSA model. Thus, engineering and deterministic judgments are also used for risk-informed SSCs categorization, and expert opinion elicitation is very important for risk-informed SSCs categorization. Therefore, we need a rational method to elicit the expert's opinions, and in this study, we developed a systematic method for expert elicitation to categorize the nuclear power plants' SSCs. Current states for SSCs categorization of the USA and the existing methods for expert elicitation were surveyed and more systematic way eliciting the expert opinions and combining was developed. To

  14. Intravaginal cytomegalovirus (CMV challenge elicits maternal viremia and results in congenital transmission in a guinea pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleiss Mark R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare intravaginal (ivg and subcutaneous (sc administration of the guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV in pregnant and non-pregnant guinea pigs. These studies tested the hypotheses that ivg infection would elicit immune responses, produce maternal viremia, and lead to vertical transmission, with an efficiency similar to the traditionally employed sc route. Results Four groups of age- and size-matched guinea pigs were studied. Two groups were pregnant, and two groups were not pregnant. Animals received 5x105 plaque-forming units (PFU of a GPCMV reconstituted from an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC construct containing the full-length GPCMV genome. Seroconversion was compared by IgG ELISA, and viremia (DNAemia was monitored by PCR. In both pregnant and non-pregnant animals, sc inoculation resulted in significantly higher serum ELISA titers than ivg inoculation at 8 and 12 weeks post-infection. Patterns of viremia (DNAemia were similar in animals inoculated by either sc or ivg route. However, in pregnant guinea pigs, animals inoculated by both routes experienced an earlier onset of DNAemia than did non-pregnant animals. Neither the percentage of dead pups nor the percentage of GPCMV positive placentas differed by inoculation route. Conclusions In the guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection, the ivg route is as efficient at causing congenital infection as the conventional but non-physiologic sc route. This finding could facilitate future experimental evaluation of vaccines and antiviral interventions in this highly relevant animal model.

  15. Immunization with a dominant-negative recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV type 1 protects against HSV-2 genital disease in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brans Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CJ9-gD is a novel dominant-negative recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 that is completely replication-defective, cannot establish detectable latent infection in vivo, and expresses high levels of the major HSV-1 antigen glycoprotein D immediately following infection. In the present study, CJ9-gD was evaluated as a vaccine against HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs. Results Animals immunized with CJ9-gD developed at least 700-fold higher titers of HSV-2-specific neutralization antibodies than mock-immunized controls. After challenge with wild-type HSV-2, all 10 control guinea pigs developed multiple genital lesions with an average of 21 lesions per animal. In contrast, only 2 minor lesions were found in 2 of 8 CJ9-gD-immunized animals, representing a 40-fold reduction on the incidence of primary genital lesions in immunized animals (p Conclusions Collectively, we demonstrate that vaccination with the HSV-1 recombinant CJ9-gD elicits strong and protective immune responses against primary and recurrent HSV-2 genital disease and significantly reduces the extent of latent infection.

  16. Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Mai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4-5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN elicited by positive feedback was as large as that elicited by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying the FRN may not process feedback valence in early childhood. In addition, positive feedback, compared with negative feedback, evoked a larger P1 over the occipital scalp area and a larger positive slow wave (PSW over the right central-parietal scalp area. We believe that the PSW is related to emotional arousal and the intensive focus on positive feedback that is present in the preschool and early school years has adaptive significance for both cognitive and emotional development during this period.

  17. Imbalanced immune homeostasis in immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Karina

    2016-04-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder resulting from low platelet counts caused by inadequate production as well as increased destruction by autoimmune mechanisms. As with other autoimmune disorders, chronic ITP is characterized by perturbations of immune homeostasis with hyperactivated effector cells as well as defective regulatory arm of the adaptive immune system, which will be reviewed here. Interestingly, some ITP treatments are associated with restoring the regulatory imbalance, although it remains unclear whether the immune system is redirected to a state of tolerance once treatment is discontinued. Understanding the mechanisms that result in breakdown of immune homeostasis in ITP will help to identify novel pathways for restoring tolerance and inhibiting effector cell responses. This information can then be translated into developing therapies for averting autoimmunity not only in ITP but also many autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  19. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Toschi, N; Barbieri, R; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects through linear and nonlinear coupling measures of EEG spectrogram and instantaneous heart rate estimates. To this extent, affective pictures including different combinations of arousal and valence levels, gathered from the International Affective Picture System, were administered to twenty-two healthy subjects. Time-varying maps of cortical activation were obtained through EEG spectral analysis, whereas the associated instantaneous heartbeat dynamics was estimated using inhomogeneous point-process linear models. Brain-Heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC), considering EEG time-varying spectra and point-process estimates defined in the time and frequency domains. As a proof of concept, we here show preliminary results considering EEG oscillations in the θ band (4-8 Hz). This band, indeed, is known in the literature to be involved in emotional processes. MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes, mediated by the prefrontal cortex interplay especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels. Furthermore, lower and higher arousing elicitations were associated to not significant brain-heart coupling changes in response to pleasant/unpleasant elicitations.

  20. Neurotransmitters activate T-cells and elicit crucial functions via neurotransmitter receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levite, Mia

    2008-08-01

    Neurotransmitters are traditionally viewed as nerve-secreted molecules that trigger or inhibit neuronal functions. Yet, neurotransmitters bind also their neurotransmitter receptors in T-cells and directly activate or suppress T-cell functions. This review focuses only on the activating effects of neurotransmitters on T-cells, primarily naïve/resting cells, and covers dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and few neuropeptides: GnRH-I, GnRH-II, substance P, somatostatin, CGRP, and neuropeptide Y. T-cells express many neurotransmitter receptors. These are regulated by TCR-activation, cytokines, or the neurotransmitters themselves, and are upregulated/downregulated in some human diseases. The context - whether the T-cells are naïve/resting or antigen/mitogen/cytokine-activated, the T-cell subset (CD4/CD8/Th1/Th2/Teff/Treg), neurotransmitter dose (low/optimal or high/excess), exact neurotransmitter receptors expressed, and the cytokine milieu - is crucial, and can determine either activation or suppression of T-cells by the same neurotransmitter. T-cells also produce many neurotransmitters. In summary, neurotransmitters activate vital T-cell functions in a direct, potent and specific manner, and may serve for communicating between the brain and the immune system to elicit an effective and orchestrated immune function, and for new therapeutic avenues, to improve T-cell eradication of cancer and infectious organisms.

  1. The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections

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    Elizabeth G. Ibarra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is considered an important modulator of the immune response. Thus, a lack of sleep can weaken immunity, increasing organism susceptibility to infection. For instance, shorter sleep durations are associated with a rise in suffering from the common cold. The function of sleep in altering immune responses must be determined to understand how sleep deprivation increases the susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. There are several explanations for greater susceptibility to infections after reduced sleep, such as impaired mitogenic proliferation of lymphocytes, decreased HLA-DR expression, the upregulation of CD14+, and variations in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which have been observed during partial sleep deprivation. Also, steroid hormones, in addition to regulating sexual behavior, influence sleep. Thus, we hypothesize that sleep and the immune-endocrine system have a bidirectional relationship in governing various physiological processes, including immunity to infections. This review discusses the evidence on the bidirectional effects of the immune response against viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections on sleep patterns and how the lack of sleep affects the immune response against such agents. Because sleep is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis, these situations must be adapted to elicit changes in sleep patterns and other physiological parameters during the immune response to infections to which the organism is continuously exposed.

  2. Overcoming Challenges to Childhood Immunizations Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, Svapna S; Conway, James H

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements, preventing both mortality and morbidity. However, overall immunization rates are still below the 90% target for Healthy People 2020. There remain significant disparities in immunization rates between children of different racial/ethnic groups, as well as among economically disadvantaged populations. There are systemic issues and challenges in providing access to immunization opportunities. In addition, vaccine hesitancy contributes to underimmunization. Multiple strategies are needed to improve immunization rates, including improving access to vaccines and minimizing financial barriers to families. Vaccine status should be assessed and vaccines given at all possible opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Haase, Hajo

    2016-12-01

    The significance of the essential trace element zinc for immune function has been known for several decades. Zinc deficiency affects immune cells, resulting in altered host defense, increased risk of inflammation, and even death. The micronutrient zinc is important for maintenance and development of immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. A disrupted zinc homeostasis affects these cells, leading to impaired formation, activation, and maturation of lymphocytes, disturbed intercellular communication via cytokines, and weakened innate host defense via phagocytosis and oxidative burst. This review outlines the connection between zinc and immunity by giving a survey on the major roles of zinc in immune cell function, and their potential consequences in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strengthening health system to improve immunization for migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai; Yang, Li; Zhang, Huyang; Li, Chenyang; Wen, Liankui; Sun, Li; Hanson, Kara; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-07-01

    Immunization is the most cost-effective method to prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases. Migrant population in China has been rising rapidly, and their immunization status is poor. China has tried various strategies to strengthen its health system, which has significantly improved immunization for migrants. This study applied a qualitative retrospective review method aiming to collect, analyze and synthesize health system strengthening experiences and practices about improving immunizations for migrants in China. A conceptual framework of Theory of Change was used to extract the searched literatures. 11 searched literatures and 4 national laws and policies related to immunizations for migrant children were carefully studied. China mainly employed 3 health system strengthening strategies to significantly improve immunization for migrant population: stop charging immunization fees or immunization insurance, manage immunization certificates well, and pay extra attentions on immunization for special children including migrant children. These health system strengthening strategies were very effective, and searched literatures show that up-to-date and age-appropriate immunization rates were significantly improved for migrant children. Economic development led to higher migrant population in China, but immunization for migrants, particularly migrant children, were poor. Fortunately various health system strengthening strategies were employed to improve immunization for migrants in China and they were rather successful. The experiences and lessons of immunization for migrant population in China might be helpful for other developing countries with a large number of migrant population.

  5. Characterization of guinea pig T cell responses elicited after EP-assisted delivery of DNA vaccines to the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Katherine; Schaefer, Hubert; Yung, Bryan S; Oh, Janet; Muthumani, Karuppiah; Humeau, Laurent; Broderick, Kate E; Smith, Trevor R F

    2017-01-03

    The skin is an ideal target tissue for vaccine delivery for a number of reasons. It is highly accessible, and most importantly, enriched in professional antigen presenting cells. Possessing strong similarities to human skin physiology and displaying a defined epidermis, the guinea pig is an appropriate model to study epidermal delivery of vaccine. However, whilst we have characterized the humoral responses in the guinea pig associated with skin vaccine protocols we have yet to investigate the T cell responses. In response to this inadequacy, we developed an IFN-γ ELISpot assay to characterize the cellular immune response in the peripheral blood of guinea pigs. Using a nucleoprotein (NP) influenza pDNA vaccination regimen, we characterized host T cell responses. After delivery of the DNA vaccine to the guinea pig epidermis we detected robust and rapid T cell responses. The levels of IFN-γ spot-forming units averaged approximately 5000 per million cells after two immunizations. These responses were broad in that multiple regions across the NP antigen elicited a T cell response. Interestingly, we identified a number of NP immunodominant T cell epitopes to be conserved across an outbred guinea pig population, a phenomenon which was also observed after immunization with a RSV DNA vaccine. We believe this data enhances our understanding of the cellular immune response elicited to a vaccine in guinea pigs, and globally, will advance the use of this model for vaccine development, especially those targeting skin as a delivery site. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario The immune system, which is made up ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  7. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  8. Immunity's ancient arms

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Gary W.; Cannon, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse receptors on two types of cell mediate adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. In the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, immunity is likewise compartmentalized but the molecular mechanics are very different.

  9. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  11. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ...

  12. Immunizations for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Larkin, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Immunizations protect individual persons and contribute to public health by reducing morbidity and mortality associated with common infectious diseases. In this Practice Pearl, we review guidelines for adult immunizations and recent and potential changes in vaccines.

  13. The Design of New Adjuvants for Mucosal Immunity to Neisseria meningitidis B in Nasally Primed Neonatal Mice for Adult Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the value of detoxified Shiga toxins Stx1 and Stx2 (toxoids of Escherichia coli as mucosal adjuvants in neonatal mice for immunogenicity against the outer membrane proteins (OMPs of Neisseria meningitidis B. Mucosal immunization has been shown to be effective for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments. Systemic antibody levels (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgM, and IgA and mucosal IgM and IgA were measured by ELISA using an N. meningitidis as an antigen. In addition, IFN-γ and IL-6 production were measured after stimulated proliferation of immune cells. Intranasal administration elicited a higher anti-OMP IgA response in both saliva and vaginal fluids. Our results suggest that both Stx1 and Stx2 toxoids are effective mucosal adjuvants for the induction of Ag-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies. The toxoids significantly enhanced the IgG and IgM response against OMPs with a potency equivalent to CT, with the response being characterized by both IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and increased IFN-gamma production. Additionally, bactericidal activity was induced with IgG and IgM antibodies of high avidity. These results support the use of the new toxoids as potent inducing adjuvants that are particularly suitable for mucosal immunization.

  14. Immune responses to an encapsulated allogeneic islet β-cell line in diabetic NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Sasha P.; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Cui, Hong; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Weber, Collin J.; Safley, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    Our goal is to develop effective islet grafts for treating type 1 diabetes. Since human islets are scarce, we evaluated the efficacy of a microencapsulated insulin-secreting conditionally transformed allogeneic β-cell line (βTC-tet) in non-obese diabetic mice treated with tetracycline to inhibit cell growth. Relatively low serum levels of tetracycline controlled proliferation of βTC-tet cells without inhibiting effective control of hyperglycemia in recipients. There was no significant host cellular reaction to the allografts or host cell adherence to microcapsules, and host cytokine levels were similar to those of sham-operated controls. We conclude that encapsulated allogeneic β-cell lines may be clinically relevant, because they effectively restore euglycemia and do not elicit a strong cellular immune response following transplantation. To our knowledge, this is First extensive characterization of the kinetics of host cellular and cytokine responses to an encapsulated islet cell line in an animal model of type 1 diabetes

  15. Genetic control of the humoral immune response to avian egg white lysozymes in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Chickens from two closely related sublines, GHs-B6 and GHs-B13, differing serologically at the major histocompatibility complex, were significantly different in their humoral response to three avian egg white lysozymes. Specific antisera levels were measured by radioimmunoassay using 125 I-labeled lysozymes. Antibodies elicited in response to these lysozymes are assumed to be directed against sites on these lysozymes where their amino acid sequence differs from that of the recipient G. domesticus egg white lysozyme (HEL). GHs-B6 birds produced a high level of antibody in response to immunization of turkey (TEL), pheasant (PhL) and guinea hen (GHL) lysozymes. GHs-B13 birds produced no detectable antibody to TEL, were intermediate in their response to PhL and equaled the antibody production of GHs-B6 birds in response to GHL. Antisera to each lysozyme were examined for crossreactivity with all other lysozymes by use of a competitive binding assay

  16. Novel Strategies to Enhance Vaccine Immunity against Coccidioidomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    Mexico and Central and South America [1]. Coccidioides is a dimorphic ascomycetous fungus with distinct saprobic and parasitic phases and is classified in...lethal spore inoculum. However, sterile immunity was not achieved and pulmonary tissue damage associated with a persistent host inflammatory response...observation will translate to humans. A recent vector-based vaccine against tuberculosis intended to protect by eliciting strong CMI failed in humans despite

  17. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-shi; Tang, Yun-xiang; Xiao, Ze-ping; Wang, Ji-jun; Zhang, Ming-dao; Zhang, Zai-fu; Hu, Zhen-yu; Lou, Fei-ying; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Tian-hong

    2010-03-20

    Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli, while the cognitive processing of Chinese characters is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms: ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM), with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning (sSdPdM), with same meaning but different phoneme and shape (sMdPdS), and words with different phoneme, shape and meaning (dPdSdM) and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments. In 62 right-handed healthy adults (age 19 - 50 years), N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz, Cz and Pz. N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz. The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending words in healthy adults. Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-words idioms in healthy adults (P idioms, N400 latencies were prolonged and the amplitudes were increased in mismatching ones. N400s elicited by different types of stimuli showed different latencies and amplitudes, and longest N400 latency and largest N400 amplitude were elicited by ending-words with dPdSdM. No gender difference was found of N400 latency and amplitude in this study (P > 0.05). Compared with English stimuli, Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the words have 3-dimension changes - phoneme, shape and meaning. Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the word. Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further research.

  18. Determinants Of Missed Opportunities For Immunization Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors responsible for the missed opportunities included the attitude of the health worker, prolonged time of waiting to receive vaccine, immunization clashing with other schedules and transportation problem. Respondents' level ofknowledge on immunization and educational background were significantly associated with ...

  19. Application of expert elicitation techniques in human reliability, assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Expert elicitation techniques are being used, in the area of technological forecasting, in estimating data needed for analysis when it is either difficult to arrive at the data by experimental means or when it is quite involved to plan and conduct the experiment. In this study, expert elicitation techniques are applied to the evaluation of the frequencies of the various accident sequences that can result from the initiating event (IE) 'High Pressure Process Water (HPPW) system failure' in typical Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) of the older generation. The Operating Procedure under Emergency Conditions (OPEC) for this IE involves human actions according to a pre-defined procedure. The Human Error Probabilities for all these human actions are obtained using expert elicitation techniques. These techniques aim at eliciting the opinion of the experts in the area of interest with regard to the issue in question. The uncertainty is analysed by employing the measure of dissonance and the most probable range of human error probabilities are arrived at by maximizing this measure. These values are combined using the same procedures mentioned above to yield a distribution representing the uncertainty associated with the predictions. (author)

  20. Belief elicitation in experiments: is there a hedging problem?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blanco, M.; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, A. K.; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 412-438 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : belief elicitation * hedging * experimental methodology Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  1. Elicitation support requirements of multi-expertise teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitter-Rijpkema, M.; Martens, R.L.; Jochems, W.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Tools to support knowledge elicitation are more and more used in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that there exist differences between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach

  2. Requirements Elicitation in a Telemedicine Pain-treatment Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Sandsjö, L.; Schaake, L.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Ryan, K.; Robinson, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the early phase requirements elicitation for a work-related neck-shoulder pain teletreatment trial and the assessment of those requirements in respect of their importance to the trial and the feasibility of the needed software adaptations of the telemedicine system within the

  3. Elicitation Support Requirements of Multi-Expertise Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Tools to support knowledge elicitation are used more and more in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that differences exist between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach tends to deal with team members as a single system with…

  4. Experimental elicitation with hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde-containing deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia Haslund; Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Rastogi, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) known as Lyral is a frequent allergen. It is used in more than 50% of marketed deodorants. The aim of the present study was to determine elicitation thresholds for HICC under simulated conditions of deodorant use. 15 patients with previously...

  5. Effect of elicitation on picrotin and picrotoxinin production from in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royel ex. Benth. is an important medicinal plant of Himalayan region and a good source of iridoid glycosides. Picrotin and picrotoxinin are compounds produced by P. kurrooa which are widely used in treatment of hepatic diseases. Elicitation is one of the best effective methods which enhance secondary ...

  6. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  7. Eliciting the Dutch loan phoneme /g/ with the Menu Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, S.; de Jonge, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the menu task, which can be used to elicit infrequent sounds such as loan phonemes that only occur in a restricted set of words. The menu task is similar to the well-known map task and involves the interaction of two participants to create a menu on the basis of a list of

  8. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  9. Delphi Fuzzy Elicitation Technique in the Determination of Third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Delphi technique via the expert elicitation method becomes extremely handy particularly in view of limited availability of data in determining failure probabilities of onshore transmission pipelines in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria occasioned by third party activity. Using, ten (10) experts opinion elucidated individually ...

  10. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  11. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Van den Bergh, O.; Beckers, T.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task.

  12. Eliciting and Applying Local Research Knowledge for Peacebuilding ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gs

    Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) are pleased to announce a jointly-funded research initiative Eliciting and Applying Local Research. Knowledge for Peacebuilding and Statebuilding. The research initiative seeks to increase the level of recognition and ...

  13. Elicitation of Pharmacologically Active Substances in Intact Medical Plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužel, S.; Vydra, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Hrubý, Martin; Cígler, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 17 (2009), s. 7907-7911 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : elicitation * medical plant * Echinacea purpurea * secondary metabolite * foliar application * phenolics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  14. Complex role for the immune system in initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Kristin S; Francis, Amanda A; Murray, Nicole R

    2014-08-28

    The immune system plays a complex role in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Inflammation can promote the formation of premalignant lesions and accelerate pancreatic cancer development. Conversely, pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive environment, which is thought to promote tumor progression and invasion. Here we review the current literature describing the role of the immune response in the progressive development of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the mechanisms that drive recruitment and activation of immune cells at the tumor site, and our current understanding of the function of the immune cell types at the tumor. Recent clinical and preclinical data are reviewed, detailing the involvement of the immune response in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, including the role of specific cytokines and implications for disease outcome. Acute pancreatitis is characterized by a predominantly innate immune response, while chronic pancreatitis elicits an immune response that involves both innate and adaptive immune cells, and often results in profound systemic immune-suppression. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by marked immune dysfunction driven by immunosuppressive cell types, tumor-promoting immune cells, and defective or absent inflammatory cells. Recent studies reveal that immune cells interact with cancer stem cells and tumor stromal cells, and these interactions have an impact on development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Finally, current PDAC therapies are reviewed and the potential for harnessing the actions of the immune response to assist in targeting pancreatic cancer using immunotherapy is discussed.

  15. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno...

  16. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  17. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  18. Synergistic effects of polyploidization and elicitation on biomass and hyoscyamine content in hairy roots of Datura stramonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belabbassi, O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The hyoscyamine, a tropane alkaloid, widely used in medicine, can be produced from Datura sp. (Solanaceae. However, its content in the spontaneous roots remains low; therefore, hairy roots (HRs were envisaged as a potential alternative to improve its biosynthesis. The hairy roots are characterized by a good genetic stability and a rapid growth. Indeed, Datura stramonium HRs have widely been studied in the perspective of improving the yield of hyoscyamine. This study is part of this same perspective. Objectives. This paper aims to study the effects of polyploidization of HRs induced by colchicine in synergy with elicitation (with acetylsalicylic [ASA] or salicylic acids [SA] on the hyoscyamine content in D. stramonium. Method. Colchicine was applied at different concentrations and periods, on a selected hairy root line (LDS of D. stramonium obtained by infection with Agrobactrium rhizogenes strain A4. The selection of tetraploid HR lines was performed by the cytogenetic analysis using light microscopy. The effect of polyploidization and elicitation was studied on the biomass (dry weight and hyoscyamine content of HRs. Results. The untreated HR line (control shows a diploid level with 2n = 24 chromosomes. However, the HR lines treated with colchicine show, in most cases, an endoreduplication of their genetic material. The survival rate of endoreduplicated lines varies between 30% and 93%, depending on concentration and exposure time to colchicine. Moreover, the tetraploid HR line shows an increase in its biomass and hyoscyamine content in comparison to the diploid HR line (LDS. Further, elicitation of HRs by ASA or AS at the 10-4 M concentration causes a low decrease or increase in dry weight, respectively. However, the same treatments show a significant increase in the yield of hyoscyamine in elicited HR lines. Consequently, our work indicates that the combination of polyploidy and elicitation can lead to significant

  19. A new adenovirus based vaccine vector expressing an Eimeria tenella derived TLR agonist improves cellular immune responses to an antigenic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Appledorn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviral based vectors remain promising vaccine platforms for use against numerous pathogens, including HIV. Recent vaccine trials utilizing Adenovirus based vaccines expressing HIV antigens confirmed induction of cellular immune responses, but these responses failed to prevent HIV infections in vaccinees. This illustrates the need to develop vaccine formulations capable of generating more potent T-cell responses to HIV antigens, such as HIV-Gag, since robust immune responses to this antigen correlate with improved outcomes in long-term non-progressor HIV infected individuals.In this study we designed a novel vaccine strategy utilizing an Ad-based vector expressing a potent TLR agonist derived from Eimeria tenella as an adjuvant to improve immune responses from a [E1-]Ad-based HIV-Gag vaccine. Our results confirm that expression of rEA elicits significantly increased TLR mediated innate immune responses as measured by the influx of plasma cytokines and chemokines, and activation of innate immune responding cells. Furthermore, our data show that the quantity and quality of HIV-Gag specific CD8(+ and CD8(- T-cell responses were significantly improved when coupled with rEA expression. These responses also correlated with a significantly increased number of HIV-Gag derived epitopes being recognized by host T cells. Finally, functional assays confirmed that rEA expression significantly improved antigen specific CTL responses, in vivo. Moreover, we show that these improved responses were dependent upon improved TLR pathway interactions.The data presented in this study illustrate the potential utility of Ad-based vectors expressing TLR agonists to improve clinical outcomes dependent upon induction of robust, antigen specific immune responses.

  20. Towards development of novel immunization strategies against leishmaniasis using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with kinetoplastid membrane protein-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos DM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diego M Santos1, Marcia W Carneiro1, Tatiana R de Moura1, Kiyoshi Fukutani1, Jorge Clarencio1, Manuel Soto2, Socorro Espuelas3,4, Claudia Brodskyn1,5, Aldina Barral1,5, Manoel Barral-Netto1,5, Camila I de Oliveira1,51Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz, FIOCRUZ, Salvador, BA, Brazil; 2Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; 3Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, 4Instituto de Salud Tropical, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 5Instituto de Investigação em Imunologia, Salvador, BA, BrazilBackground: Vaccine development has been a priority in the fight against leishmaniases, which are vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa. Among the different immunization strategies employed to date is inoculation of plasmid DNA coding for parasite antigens, which has a demonstrated ability to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. In this sense, inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding Leishmania kinetoplasmid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11 was able to confer protection against visceral leishmaniasis. However, recently the use of antigen delivery systems such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles has also proven effective for eliciting protective immune responses.Methods: In the present work, we tested two immunization strategies with the goal of obtaining protection, in terms of lesion development and parasite load, against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. One strategy involved immunization with plasmid DNA encoding L. infantum chagasi KMP-11. Alternatively, mice were primed with PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the recombinant plasmid DNA and boosted using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with recombinant KMP-11.Results: Both immunization strategies elicited detectable cellular immune responses with the presence of both proinflammatory and anti

  1. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood.As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14 in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7% and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000 and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel, known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein's inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response.Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum egg challenge that associates with a Th2-skewed immune

  2. Effects of vitamin nutrition on the immune response of hatchery-reared salmonids. Annual report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, D.; Holmes, J.; Kaattari, S.; Yui, M.; Jones, T.

    1985-09-01

    Results demonstrate that immunological assays. Lymphocytes from both of the major lymphoid organs (spleen and anterior kidney) produce significant in vitro antibody responses to the antigen, trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide. These cells also demonstrate significant mitogenic stimulation (proliferation) in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, phytohemagglutinin, and to a novel mitogen, Vibrio anguillarum extract. As an assessment of cell-mediated immunity, we have found that lymphocytes are capable of responding in a mixed lymphocyte reaction as demonstrated by increased incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Results also indicate that phagocytosis can be quantified by the uptake of radioiodinated Renibacterium salmoninarum and that production of migration inhibition factor (MIF)-like activity can be induced in immunized animals. Polyclonal activation of chinook lymphocytes was elicited by both Vibrio anguillarum extract and E. coli lipopolysaccharide. Groups of spring chinook salmon were fed a formula diet containing five dietary levels of pyridoxine (15, 30, 60, 120, and 1500 mg/kg diet). Data collected on growth and feed efficiency in the first eighteen weeks show no significant difference between these formulations. 46 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism modulates cue-elicited heroin craving in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chunhong; Li, Yifeng; Jiang, Kaida; Zhang, Dandan; Xu, Yifeng; Lin, Ling; Wang, Qiuying; Zhao, Min; Jin, Li

    2006-06-01

    Subjective craving, which contributes to the continuation of drug use in active abuser and the occurrence of relapse in detoxified abusers, is considered to be a central phenomenon in addiction. Dopamine pathway has been implicated in the mechanism underlying the cue-elicited craving for a variety of addictive substances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that heroin addicts carrying D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) long type allele would have higher craving after exposure to a heroin-related cue. Craving was induced by a series of exposure to neutral and heroin-related cue and were assessed in a cohort of Chinese heroin abusers (n=420) recruited from the Voluntary Drug Dependence Treatment Center at Shanghai. Significantly stronger cue-elicited heroin craving was found in individuals carrying DRD4 VNTR long type allele than the non-carriers (F=31.040, pcue-elicited craving in heroin dependence, indicating DRD4 VNTR represents one of potential genetic risk factors for cue-induced craving.

  4. Exposure to the taste of alcohol elicits activation of the mesocorticolimbic neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; Claus, Eric; Audette, Amy R; Niculescu, Michelle; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody; Du, Yiping P; Hutchison, Kent E

    2008-05-01

    A growing number of imaging studies suggest that alcohol cues, mainly visual, elicit activation in mesocorticolimbic structures. Such findings are consistent with the growing recognition that these structures play an important role in the attribution of incentive salience and the pathophysiology of addiction. The present study investigated whether the presentation of alcohol taste cues can activate brain regions putatively involved in the acquisition and expression of incentive salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded BOLD activity while delivering alcoholic tastes to 37 heavy drinking but otherwise healthy volunteers. The results yielded a pattern of BOLD activity in mesocorticolimbic structures (ie prefrontal cortex, striatum, ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra) relative to an appetitive control. Further analyses suggested strong connectivity between these structures during cue-elicited urge and demonstrated significant positive correlations with a measure of alcohol use problems (ie the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Thus, repeated exposure to the taste alcohol in the scanner elicits activation in mesocorticolimbic structures, and this activation is related to measures of urge and severity of alcohol problems.

  5. Immunization of Children in a Rural Area of North Kashmir, India: A KAP Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamila Hamid; Syed Arshad Hussain Andrabi; Anjum Fazli; Rohul Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Knowledge, attitude and practices about immunization among mothers of children aged 1-2 years was assessed. Method: 300 mothers were administered a semi-structured questionnaire at PHC Hajan from 1st march to 1st may 2011 to elicit the information about the knowledge, attitude and practices of the mothers regarding immunization. Results: 100% of mothers knew that vaccination is beneficial and protects their children from diseases. 39% knew OPV protects from polio while only 1% wer...

  6. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; ZHANG Tian-hong; TANG Yun-xiang; XIAO Ze-ping; WANG Ji-jun; ZHANG Ming-dao; ZHANG Zai-fu; HU Zhen-yu; LOU Fei-ying; CHEN Chong

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli,while the cognitive.processing of Chinese characters is still unclear.The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms.Methods Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms:ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM),with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning(sSdPdM),with same meaning but different phoneme and shape(sMdPdS),and words with different phoneme,shape and meaning(dPdSdM)and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments.In 62 right-handed healthy adults(age 19-50 years),N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz,Cz and Pz.Results N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz.The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending werds in healthy adults.Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-werds idioms in healthy adults(P0.05).Conclusions Compared with English stimuli.Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the werds have 3-dimension changes-phoneme.shape and meaning.Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the werd.Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further research.

  7. Bacteria in the vaginal microbiome alter the innate immune response and barrier properties of the human vaginal epithelia in a species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Throop, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial vaginosis increases the susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negatively affects women's reproductive health. To investigate host-vaginal microbiota interactions and the impact on immune barrier function, we colonized 3-dimensional (3-D) human vaginal epithelial cells with 2 predominant species of vaginal microbiota (Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus crispatus) or 2 prevalent bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (Atopobium vaginae and Prevotella bivia). Colonization of 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates with vaginal microbiota was observed with direct attachment to host cell surface with no cytotoxicity. A. vaginae infection yielded increased expression membrane-associated mucins and evoked a robust proinflammatory, immune response in 3-D vaginal epithelial cells (ie, expression of CCL20, hBD-2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α) that can negatively affect barrier function. However, P. bivia and L. crispatus did not significantly upregulate pattern-recognition receptor-signaling, mucin expression, antimicrobial peptides/defensins, or proinflammatory cytokines in 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates. Notably, L. iners induced pattern-recognition receptor-signaling activity, but no change was observed in mucin expression or secretion of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8. We identified unique species-specific immune signatures from vaginal epithelial cells elicited by colonization with commensal and bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. A. vaginae elicited a signature that is consistent with significant disruption of immune barrier properties, potentially resulting in enhanced susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections during bacterial vaginosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cytokine regulation of immune tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function. Herein, we discuss three non-redundant paradigms by which cytokines maintain or break immune tolerance. We firstly describe how anti-inflammatory cytokines exert direct inhibitory effects on immune cells to enforce immune ...

  9. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Broad cross-reactive IgG responses elicited by adjuvanted vaccination with recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (rHA) in ferrets and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Hilchey, Shannon P.; DeDiego, Marta; Perry, Sheldon; Hyrien, Ollivier; Nogales, Aitor; Garigen, Jessica; Amanat, Fatima; Huertas, Nelson; Krammer, Florian; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Topham, David J.; Treanor, John J.; Sangster, Mark Y.

    2018-01-01

    Annual immunization against influenza virus is a large international public health effort. Accumulating evidence suggests that antibody mediated cross-reactive immunity against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) strongly correlates with long-lasting cross-protection against influenza virus strains that differ from the primary infection or vaccination strain. However, the optimal strategies for achieving highly cross-reactive antibodies to the influenza virus HA have not yet to be defined. In the current study, using Luminex-based mPlex-Flu assay, developed by our laboratory, to quantitatively measure influenza specific IgG antibody mediated cross-reactivity, we found that prime-boost-boost vaccination of ferrets with rHA proteins admixed with adjuvant elicited higher magnitude and broader cross-reactive antibody responses than that induced by actual influenza viral infection, and this cross-reactive response likely correlated with increased anti-stalk reactive antibodies. We observed a similar phenomenon in mice receiving three sequential vaccinations with rHA proteins from either A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) or A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) viruses admixed with Addavax, an MF59-like adjuvant. Using this same mouse vaccination model, we determined that Addavax plays a more significant role in the initial priming event than in subsequent boosts. We also characterized the generation of cross-reactive antibody secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells (MBCs) when comparing vaccination to viral infection. We have also found that adjuvant plays a critical role in the generation of long-lived ASCs and MBCs cross-reactive to influenza viruses as a result of vaccination with rHA of influenza virus, and the observed increase in stalk-reactive antibodies likely contributes to this IgG mediated broad cross-reactivity. PMID:29641537

  11. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  12. An Immunization Strategy Based on Propagation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquity of smart phones, wearable equipment, and wireless sensors, the topologies of networks composed by them change along with time. The immunization strategies in which network immune nodes are chosen by analyzing the static aggregation network topologies have been challenged. The studies about interaction propagations between two pathogens show that the interaction can change propagation threshold and the final epidemic size of each other, which provides a new thinking of immunization method. The eradication or inhibition of the virus can be achieved through the spread of its opposite party. Here, we put forward an immunization strategy whose implementation does not depend on the analysis of network topology. The immunization agents are randomly placed on a few of individuals of network and spread out from these individuals on network in a propagation method. The immunization agents prevent virus infecting their habitat nodes with certain immune success rate. The analysis and simulation of evolution equation of the model show that immune propagation has a significant impact on the spread threshold and steady-state density of virus on a finite size of BA networks. Simulations on some real-world networks also suggest that the immunization strategy is feasible and effective.

  13. Brief Report: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Reciprocal Imitation Training for Teaching Elicited and Spontaneous Imitation to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills. Reciprocal Imitation Training (RIT), a naturalistic imitation intervention, was developed to teach young children with autism to imitate during play. This study used a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of RIT on elicited and spontaneous imitation skills in 21…

  14. Measuring polio immunity to plan immunization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-11-21

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Endogenous molecules released by haemocytes receiving Sargassum oligocystum extract lead to downstream activation and synergize innate immunity in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yin-Ze; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Hui-Fang

    2018-05-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei haemocytes receiving immunostimulating Sargassum oligocystum extract (SE) caused necrosis in haemocyte cells, which released endogenous EM-SE molecules. This study examined the immune response of white shrimp L. vannamei receiving SE and EM-SE in vitro and in vivo. Shrimp haemocytes receiving SE exhibited degranulation, changes in cell size and cell viability, necrosis and a release of EM-SE. Shrimp haemocytes receiving SE, EM-SE, and the SE + EM-SE mixture (SE + EM-SE) increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity which was significantly higher in shrimp haemocytes receiving the SE + EM-SE mixture. Furthermore, shrimp haemocytes receiving EM-SE showed degranulation and changes in cell size and cell viability. Shrimp receiving SE, EM-SE, and SE + EM-SE all increased their immune parameters, phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus, being significantly higher in shrimp receiving SE + EM-SE. Meanwhile, the recombinant lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan binding protein of L. vannamei (rLvLGBP) was bound to SE, EM-SE, and SE + EM-SE. We conclude that in shrimp haemocytes receiving a non-self molecule, SE in dying cells released EM-SE which led to downstream activation and synergization of the immune response. This study demonstrated that the innate immunity of shrimp was elicited and enhanced by a mixture of endogenous molecules and exogenous substances (or immunostimulants). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of maternal and paternal immune challenge on offspring immunity and reproduction in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K B; van Lieshout, E; Simmons, L W

    2014-06-01

    Trans-generational immune priming is the transmission of enhanced immunity to offspring following a parental immune challenge. Although within-generation increased investment into immunity demonstrates clear costs on reproductive investment in a number of taxa, the potential for immune priming to impact on offspring reproductive investment has not been thoroughly investigated. We explored the reproductive costs of immune priming in a field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. To assess the relative importance of maternal and paternal immune status, mothers and fathers were immune-challenged with live bacteria or a control solution and assigned to one of four treatments in which one parent, neither or both parents were immune-challenged. Families of offspring were reared to adulthood under a food-restricted diet, and approximately 10 offspring in each family were assayed for two measures of immunocompetence. We additionally quantified offspring reproductive investment using sperm viability for males and ovary mass for females. We demonstrate that parental immune challenge has significant consequences for the immunocompetence and, in turn, reproductive investment of their male offspring. A complex interaction between maternal and paternal immune status increased the antibacterial immune response of male offspring. This increased immune response was associated with a reduction in son's sperm viability, implicating a trans-generational resource trade-off between investment into immunocompetence and reproduction. Our data also show that these costs are sexually dimorphic, as daughters did not demonstrate a similar increase in immunity, despite showing a reduction in ovary mass. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Hantavirus Gc induces long-term immune protection via LAMP-targeting DNA vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Cheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Guan-Wen; Li, Yun; Li, Zi-Chao; Lu, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zi-Xin; Lu, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhang, Fang-Lin; Yang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted. Plasmids encoding Gc and lysosome-targeted Gc, designated pVAX-Gc and pVAX-LAMP/Gc, respectively, were constructed. Proteins of interest were identified by fluorescence microscopy following cell line transfection. Five groups of 20 female BALB/c mice were subjected to the following inoculations: inactivated HTNV vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gc, pVAX-Gc, and, as the negative controls, pVAX-LAMP or the blank vector pVAX1. Humoral and cellular immunity were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and 15-mer peptide enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) epitope mapping assays. Repeated immunization with pVAX-LAMP/Gc enhanced adaptive immune responses, as demonstrated by the specific and neutralizing antibody titers and increased IFN-γ production. The inactivated vaccine induced a comparable humoral reaction, but the negative controls only elicited insignificant responses. Using a mouse model of HTNV challenge, the in vivo protection conferred by the inactivated vaccine and Gc-based constructs (with/without LAMP recombination) was confirmed. Evidence of pan-epitope reactions highlighted the long-term cellular response to the LAMP-targeting strategy, and histological observations indicated the safety of the LAMP-targeting vaccines. The long-term protective immune responses induced by pVAX-LAMP/Gc may be

  18. Pulmonary immunity and durable protection induced by the ID93/GLA-SE vaccine candidate against the hyper-virulent Korean Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung Bin; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hongmin; Kwon, Kee Woong; Han, Seung Jung; Cho, Sang-Nae; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Shin, Sung Jae

    2016-04-27

    The majority of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates advanced to clinical trials have been evaluated preclinically using laboratory-adapted strains. However, it has been proposed that challenge with clinical isolates in preclinical vaccine testing could provide further and more practical validation. Here, we tested the ID93/GLA-SE TB vaccine candidate against the clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain K (Mtb K) belonging to the Beijing family, the most prevalent Mtb strain in South Korea. Mice immunized with ID93/GLA-SE exhibited a significant reduction in bacteria and reduced lung inflammation against Mtb K when compared to non-immunized controls. In addition, we analyzed the immune responses in the lungs of ID93/GLA-SE-immunized mice, and showed that ID93/GLA-SE was able to elicit sustained Th1-biased immune responses including antigen-specific multifunctional CD4(+) T cell co-producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 as well as a high magnitude of IFN-γ response for up to 10 weeks post-challenge. Notably, further investigation of T cell subsets in the lung following challenge showed remarkable generation of CD8(+) central memory T cells by ID93/GLA-SE-immunization. Our findings showed that ID93/GLA-SE vaccine confers a high level of robust protection against the hypervirulent Mtb Beijing infection which was characterized by pulmonary Th1-polarized T-cell immune responses. These findings may also provide relevant information for potential utility of this vaccine candidate in East-Asian countries where the Beijing genotype is highly prevalent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  20. An alternative approach for eliciting willingness-to-pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Damschroder

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Open-ended methods that elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP in terms of absolute dollars often result in high rates of questionable and highly skewed responses, insensitivity to changes in health state, and raise an ethical issue related to its association with personal income. We conducted a 2x2 randomized trial over the Internet to test 4 WTP formats: 1 WTP in dollars; 2 WTP as a percentage of financial resources; 3 WTP in terms of monthly payments; and 4 WTP as a single lump-sum amount. WTP as a percentage of financial resources generated fewer questionable values, had better distribution properties, greater sensitivity to severity of health states, and was not associated with income. WTP elicited on a monthly basis also showed promise.

  1. Elicitation of preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment...... (DCE), where respondents are asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets. Each alternative is comprised of a number of attributes relating to the adhesive, filter and flexibility of ostomy pouches. The choice between alternatives made by the respondent implies an implicit trade-off between...... the attributes and allows for the estimation of individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy pouches when cost is included as an attribute. The data consists of 254 ostomates responding to the survey. The respondents have positive WTP for all improvement attributes presented to them...

  2. Identification of pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens that target hepatocytes for killing in vivo and contribute to protection elicited by whole-parasite vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines, including those based on whole-parasite approaches, have shown protective efficacy in animal and human studies. However few pre-erythocytic antigens other than the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP have been studied in depth with the goal of developing potent subunit malaria vaccines that are suited for use in endemic areas. Here we describe a novel technique to identify pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens that contribute to protection elicited by whole-parasite vaccination in the mouse model. Our approach combines immunization with genetically attenuated parasites and challenge with DNA plasmids encoding for potential protective pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens as luciferase fusions by hydrodynamic tail vein injection. After optimizing the technique, we first showed that immunization with Pyfabb/f-, a P. yoelii genetically attenuated parasite, induces killing of CSP-presenting hepatocytes. Depletion of CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells diminished the killing of CSP-expressing hepatocytes, indicating that killing is CD8+ T cell-dependent. Finally we showed that the use of heterologous prime/boost immunization strategies that use genetically attenuated parasites and DNA vaccines enabled the characterization of a novel pre-erythrocytic antigen, Tmp21, as a contributor to Pyfabb/f- induced protection. This technique will be valuable for identification of potentially protective liver stage antigens and has the potential to contribute to the understanding of immunity elicited by whole parasite vaccination, as well as the development of effective subunit malaria vaccines.

  3. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇ against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM₁₉₇, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM₁₉₇. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunization with Tc52 or its amino terminal domain adjuvanted with c-di-AMP induces Th17+Th1 specific immune responses and confers protection against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina N Matos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new adjuvants enables fine modulation of the elicited immune responses. Ideally, the use of one or more adjuvants should result in the induction of a protective immune response against the specific pathogen. We have evaluated the immune response and protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice vaccinated with recombinant Tc52 or its N- and C-terminal domains (NTc52 and CTc52 adjuvanted either with the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes agonist cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP, a pegylated derivative of α-galactosylceramide (αGC-PEG, or oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (ODN-CpG. All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant: Tc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP, CTc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG, NTc52+CpG, developed significantly higher anti-Tc52 IgG titers than controls. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 showed the highest Tc52-specific IgA titers in nasal lavages. All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant developed a strong specific cellular immune response in splenocytes and lymph node cells with significant differences for groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52. These groups also showed high levels of Tc52-specific IL-17 and IFN-γ producing cells, while NTc52+CpG group only showed significant difference with control in IFN-γ producing cells. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 developed predominantly a Th17 and Th1immune response, whereas for NTc52+CpG it was a dominant Th1 response. It was previously described that αGC-PEG inhibits Th17 differentiation by activating NKT cells. Thus, in this work we have also included a group immunized with both adjuvants (NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG with the aim to modulate the Th17 response induced by c-di-AMP. This group showed a significant reduction in the number of Tc52-specific IL-17 producing splenocytes, as compared to the group NTc52+c-di-AMP, which has

  5. Preference Elicitation and Negotiation in a Group Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Márquez , Jesús ,; Ziegler , Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present a novel approach to group recommender systems that better takes into account the social interaction in a group when formulating, discussing and negotiating the features of the item to be jointly selected. Our approach provides discussion support in a collaborative preference elicitation and negotiation process. Individual preferences are continuously aggregated and immediate feedback of the resulting recommendations is provided. We also support the last stag...

  6. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  7. Graph and Network for Model Elicitation (GNOME Phase 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    GRAPH AND NETWORK FOR MODEL ELICITATION (GNOME PHASE II) CUBRC FEBRUARY 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR...NUMBER 00 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 01 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CUBRC 4455 Genesee St. Buffalo, NY 14225 8. PERFORMING...Explorer Since the previous version of GNOME was developed as an Eclipse RCP plug-in, it allowed CUBRC to develop the Model Explorer separately without

  8. Anticipating requirements changes-using futurology in requirements elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, João Henrique; Santos, Emanuel; Castro, Jaelson; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that requirements changes in a later phase of software developments is a major source of software defects and costs. Thus, the need of techniques to control or reduce the amount of changes during software development projects. The authors advocate the use of foresight methods as a valuable input to requirements elicitation, with the potential to decrease the number of changes that would be required after deployment, by anticipating them. In this paper, the authors define a pr...

  9. Neutrosophic Logic for Mental Model Elicitation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pérez-Teruel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental models are personal, internal representations of external reality that people use to interact with the world around them. They are useful in multiple situations such as muticriteria decision making, knowledge management, complex system learning and analysis. In this paper a framework for mental models elicitation and analysis based on neutrosophic Logic is presented. An illustrative example is provided to show the applicability of the proposal. The paper ends with conclusion future research directions.

  10. Autobiographical memories of young adults elicited by positive musical stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ana Margarida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia Studies on autobiographical memories have shown the presence of three main components: childhood amnesia, recency effect and reminiscence bump (Rubin, 1986). Previous research suggests that autobiographical memories elicited by positive stimuli are associated with highly, specific and generally pleasant episodes (Krumhansl & Zupnick, 2013). Music has an important and highly emotional and social role in individual’s lives. The p...

  11. Incentives for Truthful Information Elicitation of Continuous Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi

    2014-01-01

    We consider settings where a collective intelligence is formed by aggregating information contributed from many independent agents, such as product reviews, community sensing, or opinion polls. We propose a novel mechanism that elicits both private signals and beliefs. The mechanism extends the previous versions of the Bayesian Truth Serum (the original BTS, the RBTS, and the multi-valued BTS), by allowing small populations and non-binary private signals, while not requiring additional assump...

  12. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects’ perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects’ counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects’ perception by confronting them with statement-evidence incons...

  13. Non-Functional Requirements Elicitation and Incorporation into Class Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Song , Xiaoyu; Duan , Zhenhua; Tian , Cong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Top-quality software architecture should consider both functional and non-functional aspects of systems and their association. In the the existing literature, considerable efforts have been directed at functional requirement analysis and design, regardless of the non-functional aspects. This disassociation makes architecture comprehension and evolution hard. This paper proposes a strategy on how to elicit non-functional requirements and incorporate them into the design...

  14. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  15. Exploitation of herpesvirus immune evasion strategies to modify the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cell transplants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel S de la Garza-Rodea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells residing in the connective tissue of many organs and holding great potential for tissue repair. In culture, human MSCs (hMSCs are capable of extensive proliferation without showing chromosomal aberrations. Large numbers of hMSCs can thus be acquired from small samples of easily obtainable tissues like fat and bone marrow. MSCs can contribute to regeneration indirectly by secretion of cytokines or directly by differentiation into specialized cell types. The latter mechanism requires their long-term acceptance by the recipient. Although MSCs do not elicit immune responses in vitro, animal studies have revealed that allogeneic and xenogeneic MSCs are rejected. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We aim to overcome MSC immune rejection through permanent down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I proteins on the surface of these MHC class II-negative cells through the use of viral immune evasion proteins. Transduction of hMSCs with a retroviral vector encoding the human cytomegalovirus US11 protein resulted in strong inhibition of MHC class I surface expression. When transplanted into immunocompetent mice, persistence of the US11-expressing and HLA-ABC-negative hMSCs at levels resembling those found in immunodeficient (i.e., NOD/SCID mice could be attained provided that recipients' natural killer (NK cells were depleted prior to cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate the potential utility of herpesviral immunoevasins to prevent rejection of xenogeneic MSCs. The observation that down-regulation of MHC class I surface expression renders hMSCs vulnerable to NK cell recognition and cytolysis implies that multiple viral immune evasion proteins are likely required to make hMSCs non-immunogenic and thereby universally transplantable.

  16. Giardia-specific cellular immune responses in post-giardiasis chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Kurt; Kristoffersen, Einar; Mørch, Kristine; Rye, Kristin Paulsen; Sørnes, Steinar; Svärd, Staffan; Bruserud, Øystein; Langeland, Nina

    2017-01-28

    The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific anti-Giardia cellular immunity in cases that developed CFS after Giardia infection compared to cases that recovered well. Patients reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study three years after a Giardia outbreak were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS and idiopathic chronic fatigue. Giardia specific immune responses were evaluated in 39 of these patients by proliferation assay, T cell activation and cytokine release analysis. 20 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Patients were clinically classified into CFS (n = 15), idiopathic chronic fatigue (n = 5), fatigue from other causes (n = 9) and recovered from fatigue (n = 10). There were statistically significant antigen specific differences between these Giardia exposed groups and unexposed controls. However, we did not find differences between the Giardia exposed fatigue classification groups with regard to CD4 T cell activation, proliferation or cytokine levels in 6 days cultured PBMCs. Interestingly, sCD40L was increased in patients with PI-CFS and other persons with fatigue after Giardia infection compared to the non-fatigued group, and correlated well with fatigue levels at the time of sampling. Our data show antigen specific cellular immune responses in the groups previously exposed to Giardia and increased sCD40L in fatigued patients.

  17. Elicitation of andrographolide in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Suryakala; Rao, Kiranmayee; Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Giri, Archana

    2012-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata belonging to the family Acanthaceae produces a group of diterpene lactones, one of which is the pharmaceutically important-andrographolide. It is known to possess various important biological properties like anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, etc. This is the first report on the production of andrographolide in the cell suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata by 'elicitation'. Elicitation was attempted to enhance the andrographolide content in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata and also to ascertain its stimulation under stress conditions or in response to pathogen attack. The maximum andrographolide production was found to be 1.53 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) at the end of stationary phase during the growth curve. The biotic elicitors (yeast, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium rhizogenes 532 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C 58) were more effective in eliciting the response when compared to the abiotic elicitors (CdCl(2), AgNO(3), CuCl(2) and HgCl(2)). Yeast has shown to stimulate maximum accumulation of 13.5 mg/g DCW andrographolide, which was found to be 8.82-fold higher than the untreated cultures.

  18. Role of local neurons in cerebrocortical vasodilation elicited from cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadecola, C.; Arneric, S.P.; Baker, H.D.; Tucker, L.W.; Reis, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The vasodilation elicited in cerebral cortex by stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) is mediated by input pathways coming from the basal forebrain. The authors studied whether these pathways mediate the cortical vasodilation via a direct action on local blood vessels or via interposed local neurons. Neurons were destroyed in the primary sensory cortex by local microinjection of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO). Five days later rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated. Arterial pressure and blood gases were controlled, and FN was stimulated electrically. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) was measured using the [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine technique with autoradiography. Five days after IBO, neurons were destroyed in a restricted cortical area, and afferent fibers and terminals were preserved. The selectivity of the neuronal loss was established by histological and biochemical criteria and by transport of horseradish, peroxidase from or into the lesion. Within the lesion, resting LCBF was unaffected, but the increase in LCBF evoked from the FN was abolished. In contrast the vasodilation elicited by hypercapnia was preserved. In the rest of the brain the vasodilation elicited from FN was largely unaffected. The authors conclude that the vasodilation evoked from FN in cerebral cortex depends on the integrity of a restricted population of local neurons that interact with the local microvasculature

  19. State-of-the-Art Prescriptive Criteria Weight Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Riabacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few of the vast amounts of decision analytical methods suggested have been widely spread in actual practice. Some approaches have nevertheless been more successful in this respect than others. Quantitative decision making has moved from the study of decision theory founded on a single criterion towards decision support for more realistic decision-making situations with multiple, often conflicting, criteria. Furthermore, the identified gap between normative and descriptive theories seems to suggest a shift to more prescriptive approaches. However, when decision analysis applications are used to aid prescriptive decision-making processes, additional demands are put on these applications to adapt to the users and the context. In particular, the issue of weight elicitation is crucial. There are several techniques for deriving criteria weights from preference statements. This is a cognitively demanding task, subject to different biases, and the elicited values can be heavily dependent on the method of assessment. There have been a number of methods suggested for assessing criteria weights, but these methods have properties which impact their applicability in practice. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art weight elicitation methods in a prescriptive setting.

  20. Conditioned responses elicited by experimentally produced cues for smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, R F; Pauli, P; Angrilli, A

    1998-03-01

    Several theories of drug-craving postulate that a signal for drug elicits conditioned responses. However, depending on the theory, a drug cue is said to elicit drug similar, drug compensatory, positive motivational, and negative motivational effects. Since animal data alone cannot tease apart the relative importance of different cue-related processes in the addict, we developed and examined a model of drug cues in the human based on a two-sound, differential conditioning procedure using smoking as the reinforcer. After multiple pairings of a sound with smoking, there was a preference for the smoking cue on a conditioned preference test. The acute effects of smoking (increased heart rate, respiration rate, skin conductance level, skin conductance fluctuations, EEG beta power and trapezius EMG, decreased alpha power) were not affected by the smoking cue, although subjects drew more on their cigarette in the presence of the smoking cue than in the presence of a control cue. Moreover, the cue did not change baseline behaviour except for a possible increase in EEG beta power and an increase in trapezius EMG at about the time when smoking should have occurred. The findings confirm the value of experimental models of drug cues in the human for comparing different cue phenomena in the dependent individual. They indicate that an acquired signal for drug in the human may elicit incentive motivational effects and associated preparatory motor responses in addition to possible conditioned tolerance.

  1. Effects of irradiated Bothropstoxin-1 and Bothrops jararacussu crude venom on the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caproni, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules and has been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with 60 Co gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity, however, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. At the present work, we have evaluated the effects on immune system of B10.PL and BALB/c mice of Bothrops jararacussu crude venom and isolated bothropstoxin-1 (Bthx-1), before and after gamma radiation exposition. According to our data, irradiation process promoted structural modifications on both isolated toxin and crude venom, characterized by higher molecular weight protein (aggregates and oligomers) formation. Irradiated samples were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties. Also, our data indicate that the irradiated protein induced higher titers of IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells were predominantly involved. Results from Western blot assay showed that antibodies raised against irradiated bothropstoxin-1 recognize both native isolated toxin or crude venom. Cytotoxicity assay showed that irradiated toxin and crude venom were less toxic than their native counterpart. Thus, the viability of the macrophages cultured in the presence of irradiated Bthx-1 or crude venom was higher if compared with their native forms. LDH Assay showed that irradiated Bthx-1 promotes less muscular damage than the native form. Our data confirm a potential use of ionizing

  2. Study of irradiated bothropstoxin-1 with 60Co gamma rays: immune system behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caproni, P.; Baptista, J.A.; Almeida, T.L. de; Nascimento, N.; Passos, L.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with 60Co gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity. The achievement of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity can be very useful. Ionizing radiation has already been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venom toxicity without affecting, and even increasing, their immunogenic properties. However, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-1, a K49 phospholipase, before and after irradiation. Structural modifications of the toxin were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin. The circulating antibodies were isotyped and titrated by ELISA. According to our data, irradiation promoted structural modifications in the toxin characterized by higher molecular weight forms of proteins (aggregates and oligomers). The results also indicated that irradiated toxins were immunogenic and antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These findings suggest that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures; however they still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native proteins. Also, our data indicate that irradiated proteins induce higher titers of IgG2a and IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells are predominantly involved in the immune response. (author)

  3. Study of irradiated bothropstoxin-1 with {sup 60}Co gamma rays: immune system behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caproni, P.; Baptista, J.A.; Almeida, T.L. de; Nascimento, N. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Biotechnology Center; Passos, L.A.C. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. of Genetics and Embryo Cryopreservation

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with 60Co gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity. The achievement of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity can be very useful. Ionizing radiation has already been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venom toxicity without affecting, and even increasing, their immunogenic properties. However, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-1, a K49 phospholipase, before and after irradiation. Structural modifications of the toxin were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin. The circulating antibodies were isotyped and titrated by ELISA. According to our data, irradiation promoted structural modifications in the toxin characterized by higher molecular weight forms of proteins (aggregates and oligomers). The results also indicated that irradiated toxins were immunogenic and antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These findings suggest that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures; however they still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native proteins. Also, our data indicate that irradiated proteins induce higher titers of IgG2a and IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells are predominantly involved in the immune response. (author)

  4. Phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced immunity of the whole cell of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-Yen; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chi; Jiang, Bo-Huang; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe aquaculture pathogen that can infect a wide range of warmwater fish species. The outer-surface proteins in bacterial pathogens play an important role in pathogenesis. We evaluated the immunogenicity of two of the identified surface proteins namely phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OCT). PGK and OCT were over-expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and used as the subunit vaccines in tilapia. Tilapia immunized with the S. agalactiae modified bacteria vaccine (whole cell preparations with recombinant PGK and OCT proteins) individually were tested for the efficacy. OCT and PGK combined with WC had a higher survival rate. A high-level protection and significant specific antibody responses against S. agalactiae challenge was observed upon the vaccinated tilapia with the purified PGK protein and S. agalactiae whole cells. The specific antibody titer against S. agalactiae antigen suggested that increased antibody titers were correlated with post-challenge survival rate. Il-1β expression profile was higher in PGK + WC-treated group. Tnf-α expression in the PGK + WC group was significantly increased. Taken together, our results suggested the combinations of recombinant protein and whole cell may elicit immune responses that reach greater protection than that of individual S. agalactiae components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peptide amphiphile nanoparticles enhance the immune response against a CpG-adjuvanted influenza antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zope, H.; Quer, C.B.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Kros, A.; Jiskoot, W.

    2014-01-01

    Cationic peptide amphiphile nanoparticles are employed for co-delivery of immune modulator CpG and antigen. This results in better targeting to the antigen presenting cells and eliciting strong Th1 response, which is effective against the intracellular pathogens.

  6. Mucosal immune response in broilers following vaccination with inactivated influenza and recombinant Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal and systemic immunity were observed in broilers vaccinated with mannosylated chitosan adjuvated (MCA) inactivated A/Turkey/Virginia/158512/2002 (H7N2) and administered with and without recombinant Bacillus subtilis to elicit heterologous influenza strain protection. Previously, mucosal immu...

  7. B cell clonal lineage alterations upon recombinant HIV-1 envelope immunization of Rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from infected subjects display protective potential in animal models. Their elicitation by immunization is thus highly desirable. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole viral target of bnAbs, but is also targeted by binding, non-neutr...

  8. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  9. Impact of Pharmacist Immunization Authority on Seasonal Influenza Immunization Rates Across States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Edward M; Miller, Laura; Johnsrud, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact on immunization rates of policy changes that allowed pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations across the United States. Influenza immunization rates across states were compared before and after policy changes permitting pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations. The study used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data on influenza immunization rates between 2003 and 2013. Logistic regression models were constructed and incorporated adjustments for the complex sample design of the BRFSS to predict the likelihood of a person receiving an influenza immunization based on various patient health, demographic, and access to care factors. Overall, as states moved to allow pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations, the odds that an adult resident received an influenza immunization rose, with the effect increasing over time. The average percentage of people receiving influenza immunizations in states was 35.1%, rising from 32.2% in 2003 to 40.3% in 2013. The policy changes were associated with a long-term increase of 2.2% to 7.6% in the number of adults aged 25 to 59 years receiving an influenza immunization (largest for those aged 35-39 years) and no significant change for those younger or older. These findings suggest that pharmacies and other nontraditional settings may offer accessible venues for patients when implementing other public health initiatives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiotherapy and immune reaction of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankina, V.Kh.; Sarkisyan, Yu.KH.

    1978-01-01

    Represented is a review of data accumulated in literature (1970-1976) on oppression of protection of oncologic patients and more oppression of immune reactions during radiotherapy. Underlined is the significance of studying immune homeostasis in a clinic of radiotherapy to evaluate total resistance of patients before the beginning and in the process of treatment. The prognostic significance of immunodepressive disturbances in patients with malignant tumors is elucidated

  11. Human Circulating Antibody-Producing B Cell as a Predictive Measure of Mucosal Immunity to Poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ayan; Molodecky, Natalie A; Verma, Harish; Sharma, Prashant; Yang, Jae Seung; Saletti, Giulietta; Ahmad, Mohammad; Bahl, Sunil K; Wierzba, Thomas F; Nandy, Ranjan K; Deshpande, Jagadish M; Sutter, Roland W; Czerkinsky, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    The "gold standard" for assessing mucosal immunity after vaccination with poliovirus vaccines consists in measuring virus excretion in stool after challenge with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). This testing is time and resource intensive, and development of alternative methods is a priority for accelerating polio eradication. We therefore evaluated circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) as a potential means to evaluate mucosal immunity to poliovirus vaccine. 199 subjects, aged 10 years, and previously immunized repeatedly with OPV, were selected. Subjects were assigned to receive either a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), bivalent OPV (bOPV), or no vaccine. Using a micro-modified whole blood-based ELISPOT assay designed for field setting, circulating poliovirus type-specific IgA- and IgG-ASCs, including gut homing α4β7+ ASCs, were enumerated on days 0 and 7 after booster immunization. In addition, serum samples collected on days 0, 28 and 56 were tested for neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3. Stool specimens were collected on day 28 (day of bOPV challenge), and on days 31, 35 and 42 and processed for poliovirus isolation. An IPV dose elicited blood IgA- and IgG-ASC responses in 84.8 to 94.9% of subjects, respectively. In comparison, a bOPV dose evoked corresponding blood ASC responses in 20.0 to 48.6% of subjects. A significant association was found between IgA- and IgG-ASC responses and serum neutralizing antibody titers for poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 (ppoliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 was 62.7%, 89.8% and 45.8%, respectively. A significant association was observed between virus excretion and α4β7+ IgA- and/or IgG-ASC responses to poliovirus type 3 among immunized children; however, only a weak association was found for type 1 poliovirus. Our results suggest that virus-specific blood ASCs, especially for type 3 poliovirus, can serve as surrogate of mucosal immunity after vaccination. Further studies are needed to

  12. Engineering intranasal mRNA vaccines to enhance lymph node trafficking and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Li, You; Peng, Ke; Wang, Ying; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin; Sun, Xun

    2017-12-01

    Intranasal mRNA vaccination provides immediate immune protection against pandemic diseases. Recent studies have shown that diverse forms of polyethyleneimine (PEI) have potent mucosal adjuvant activity, which could significantly facilitate the delivery of intranasal mRNA vaccines. Nevertheless, optimizing the chemical structure of PEI to maximize its adjuvanticity and decrease its toxicity remains a challenge. Here we show that the chemical structure of PEI strongly influences how well nanocomplexes of PEI and mRNA migrate to the lymph nodes and elicit immune responses. Conjugating cyclodextrin (CD) with PEI600 or PEI2k yielded CP (CD-PEI) polymers with different CD/PEI ratios. We analyzed the delivery efficacy of CP600, CP2k, and PEI25k as intranasal mRNA vaccine carriers by evaluating the lymph nodes migration and immune responses. Among these polymers, CP2k/mRNA showed significantly higher in vitro transfection efficiency, stronger abilities to migrate to lymph nodes and stimulate dendritic cells maturation in vivo, which further led to potent humoral and cellular immune responses, and showed lower local and systemic toxicity than PEI25k/mRNA. These results demonstrate the potential of CD-PEI2k/mRNA nanocomplex as a self-adjuvanting vaccine delivery vehicle that traffics to lymph nodes with high efficiency. As we face outbreaks of pandemic diseases such as Zika virus, intranasal mRNA vaccination provides instant massive protection against highly variant viruses. Various polymer-based delivery systems have been successfully applied in intranasal vaccine delivery. However, the influence of molecular structure of the polymeric carriers on the lymph node trafficking and dendritic cell maturation is seldom studied for intranasal vaccination. Therefore, engineering polymer-based vaccine delivery system and elucidating the relationship between molecular structure and the intranasal delivery efficiency are essential for maximizing the immune responses. We hereby

  13. Immune responses to rAAV6: The influence of canine parvovirus vaccination and neonatal administration of viral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L H Arnett

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV vectors promote long-term gene transfer in many animal species. Significant effort has focused on the evaluation of rAAV delivery and the immune response in both murine and canine models of neuromuscular disease. However, canines provided for research purposes are routinely vaccinated against canine parvovirus (CPV. rAAV and CPV possess significant homology and are both parvoviruses. Thus, any immune response generated to CPV vaccination has the potential to cross-react with rAAV vectors. In this study, we investigated the immune response to rAAV6 delivery in a cohort of CPV-vaccinated canines and evaluated multiple vaccination regimens in a mouse model of CPV-vaccination. We show that CPV-vaccination stimulates production of neutralizing antibodies with minimal cross-reactivity to rAAV6. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the magnitude of the rAAV6-directed immune response between CPV-vaccinated animals and controls. Moreover, CPV-vaccination did not inhibit rAAV6-mediated transduction. We also evaluated the immune response to early rAAV6-vaccination in neonatal mice. The influence of maternal hormones and cytokines leads to a relatively permissive state in the neonate. We hypothesized that immaturity of the immune system would permit induction of tolerance to rAAV6 when delivered during the neonatal period. Mice were vaccinated with rAAV6 at 1 or 5 days of age, and subsequently challenged with rAAV6 exposure during adulthood via two sequential IM injections, one month apart. All vaccinated animals generated a significant neutralizing antibody response to rAAV6-vaccination that was enhanced following IM injection in adulthood. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the immune response raised against rAAV6 is distinct from that which is elicited by the standard parvoviral vaccines and is sufficient to prevent stable tolerization in neonatal mice.

  14. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  15. [Effect of vitamine A on mice immune response induced by specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria-immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Jia; Liu, Hong-Li; DU, Li-Li; Toshihisa, Kawai

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamine-A deficiency on the induction of specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetetemcomitans(Aa) immunization. BALB/c mice were fed with vitamine A-depleted diet or control regular diet throughout the whole experiment period. After 2 weeks, immunized formalin-killed Aa to build immunized models, 6 weeks later, sacrificed to determine specific antibody-IgG, IgM and sub-class IgG antibody titers in serum, and concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and RANKL in T cell supernatant were measured by ELISA and T cell proliferation was measured by cintilography. SPSS 11.5 software package was used for statistical analysis. The levels of whole IgG and IgM antibody which were immunized by Aa significantly elevated, non-immune group was unable to produce any antibody. Compared with Aa immunized+RD group, the level of whole IgG in Aa immunized+VAD group was significantly higher (Pvitamin-A diet can increase the immunized mice's susceptibility to periodontal pathogenic bacteria and trigger or aggravate immune inflammatory response. Adequate vitamin A is an important factor in maintaining body health. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (Grant No.20092139) and Science and Technology Program of Shenyang Municipality (Grant No.F10-149-9-32).

  16. Hypoxia promotes tumor growth in linking angiogenesis to immune escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem eCHOUAIB

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides as potential targets, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection and contains many overlapping mechanisms to evade antigen specific immunotherapy. Obviously, tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival and metastasis. Among the hypoxia-induced genes, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. In this regard, hypoxia is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed.

  17. Immune response induced by oral delivery of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing enolase of Clonorchis sinensis in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongye; Chen, Tingjin; Sun, Hengchang; Tang, Zeli; Yu, Jinyun; Lin, Zhipeng; Ren, Pengli; Zhou, Xinyi; Huang, Yan; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

    2017-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensisis (C.sinensis), remains a common public health problem. New effective prevention strategies are still urgent to control this food-borne infectious disease. The previous studies suggested Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores was an ideal vaccines delivery system, and the C.sinensis enolase (CsENO) was a potential vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgM levels by ELISA in sera, intestinal mucus and skin mucus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through oral administration with B. subtilis spores surface expressing CsENO. In addition, immune-related genes expression was also measured by qRT-PCR. Grass carps orally treated with B. subtilis spores or normal forages were used as controls. The results of ELISA manifested that specific IgM levels of grass carps in CsENO group in sera, intestine mucus and skin mucus almost significantly increased from week 4 post the first oral administration when compared to the two control groups. The levels of specific IgM reached its peak in intestine mucus firstly, then in sera, and last in skin mucus. qRT-PCR results showed that 5 immune-related genes expression had different degree of rising trend in CsENO group when compared to the two control groups. Our study demonstrated that orally administrated with B. subtilis spores expressing CsENO induced innate and adaptive immunity, systemic and local mucosal immunity, and humoral and cellular immunity. Our work may pave the way to clarify the exact mechanisms of protective efficacy elicited by B. subtilis spores expressing CsENO and provide new ideas for vaccine development against C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  19. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model. Mice were orally immunized with purified rTsCRT and colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Clinical signs of disease, macroscopic and microscopic tissue inflammation, cytokine production and micronuclei formation, as a marker of genotoxicity, were measured in order to assess the effect of rTsCRT immunization on experimentally induced colitis. rTsCRT administration prior to TNBS instillation significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters, including the acute phase cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Dampened inflammation was associated with increased local expression of IL-13 and systemic IL-10 and TGF-β production. Genotoxic damage produced by the inflammatory response was also precluded. Our results show that oral treatment with rTsCRT prevents excessive TNBS-induced inflammation in mice and suggest that rTsCRT has immunomodulatory properties associated with the expression of type 2 and regulatory cytokines commonly observed in other helminths.

  20. Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with concomitant induction of cellular immune responses by a tetraaza-macrocycle with acetate pendant arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S; Ordway, D; Arroz, M J; Costa, J; Delgado, R

    2001-01-01

    The novel tetraaza-macrocyclic compound 3,7,11-tris(carboxymethyl)-3,7,11,17-tetraaza-bicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene, abbreviated as ac3py14, was investigated for its activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for induction of protective cellular immune responses. Perspective results show that ac3py14 and its Fe3+ 1:1 complex, [Fe(ac3py14)], inhibited radiometric growth of several strains of M. tuberculosis. Inhibition with 25 microg/mL varied from 99% for H37Rv to 80% and above for multiple drug-resistant clinical isolates. The capacity of ac3py14 to elicit a beneficial immune response without cellular apoptosis was assessed and compared to the effects of virulent M. tuberculosis. The present study produces evidence that after stimulation with ac3py14 there was significant production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas the production of interleukin-5 (IL-5) remained low, and there was development of a memory population (CD45RO). The level of binding of Annexin V, a marker of apoptosis, was not sufficient to result in toxic effects toward alphabeta and gammadelta T cells and CD14+ macrophages. This preliminary study is the first report of a compound that simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis and induces factors associated with protective immune responses.

  1. [Immune Response of Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus rPRV-VP2 Expressing VP2 Gene of Porcine Parvovirus in Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengfei; Pan, Xinlong; Han, Qiao; Yang, Xingwu; Zhu, Qianlei; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Hongying

    2016-03-01

    In order to develop a combined live vaccine that will be used to prevent against porcine parvovirus (PPV) and Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection, the VP2 gene of PPV was inserted into the transfer vector plasmid pG to produce the recombinant plasmid pGVP2. The plasmid pGVP2 and the genome of PRV HB98 attenuated vaccine were transfected by using lipofectamine into swine testis cells for the homologous recombination. The recombinant virus rPRV-VP2 was purified by selection of green fluorescence plaques for five cycles. 6-week-old female Kunming mice were immunized intramuscularly with attenuated PRV parent HB98 strain, commercial inactivated vaccine against PPV, recombinant virus, DMEM culture solution. The injections were repeated with an equivalent dose after 2 weeks in all of the groups, and then challenged with the virulent PRV NY strain at 7 weeks after the first immunization. The recombinant virus rPRV-VP2 was successfully generated, and the recombinant virus could effectively elicite anti-PPV and PRV antibody and significant cellular immune response as indicated by anti-PPV ELISA and HI, PRV-neutralizing assay and flow cytometry. The challenge assay indicated that recombinant virus could protect the mice against the virulent PRV challenge. These results demonstrated that the recombinant virus can be a candidate recombinant vaccine strain for the prevention of PRV and PPV.

  2. Combined local and systemic immunization is essential for durable T-cell mediated heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria; Pedersen, Line M I; Pedersen, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    nucleoprotein have previously been found to induce short-term protection in mice. In this study we confirm that systemic (subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization rapidly induced heterosubtypic protection predominantly mediated by CD8 T cells, but within three months clinical protection completely disappeared. Local......The threat from unpredictable influenza virus pandemics necessitates the development of a new type of influenza vaccine. Since the internal proteins are highly conserved, induction of T cells targeting these antigens may provide the solution. Indeed, adenoviral (Ad) vectors expressing flu...... (intranasal (i.n.)) immunization elicited delayed, but more lasting protection despite relatively inefficient immunization. However, by far, the most robust protection was induced by simultaneous, combined (i.n. + s.c.) vaccination, and, notably, in this case clinical protection lasted at least 8 months...

  3. Intratumoral Immunization by p19Arf and Interferon-β Gene Transfer in a Heterotopic Mouse Model of Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Portela Catani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies that act by eliciting and enhancing antitumor immunity have been clinically validated as an effective treatment modality but may benefit from the induction of both cell death and immune activation as primary stimuli. Using our AdRGD-PG adenovector platform, we show here for the first time that in situ gene transfer of p19Arf and interferon-β (IFNβ in the LLC1 mouse model of lung carcinoma acts as an immunotherapy. Although p19Arf is sufficient to induce cell death, only its pairing with IFNβ significantly induced markers of immunogenic cell death. In situ gene therapy with IFNβ, either alone or in combination with p19Arf, could retard tumor progression, but only the combined treatment was associated with a protective immune response. Specifically in the case of combined intratumoral gene transfer, we identified 167 differentially expressed genes when using microarray to evaluate tumors that were treated in vivo and confirmed the activation of CCL3, CXCL3, IL1α, IL1β, CD274, and OSM, involved in immune response and chemotaxis. Histologic evaluation revealed significant tumor infiltration by neutrophils, whereas functional depletion of granulocytes ablated the antitumor effect of our approach. The association of in situ gene therapy with cisplatin resulted in synergistic elimination of tumor progression. In all, in situ gene transfer with p19Arf and IFNβ acts as an immunotherapy involving recruitment of neutrophils, a desirable but previously untested outcome, and this approach may be allied with chemotherapy, thus providing significant antitumor activity and warranting further development for the treatment of lung carcinoma.

  4. The use of multi-criteria decision analysis weight elicitation techniques in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, Janine A; Dolan, James G; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Groothuis, Karin C G M; Ijzerman, Maarten J

    2008-04-01

    To test the applicability of multi-criteria decision analysis preference elicitation techniques in cognitively impaired individuals. A convenience sample of 16 cognitively impaired subjects and 12 healthy controls was asked to participate in a small pilot study. The subjects determined the relative importance of four decision criteria using five different weight elicitation techniques, namely simple multi-attribute rating technique, simple multi-attribute rating technique using swing weights, Kepner-Tregoe weighting, the analytical hierarchical process, and conjoint analysis. Conjoint analysis was judged to be the easiest method for weight elicitation in the control group (Z = 10.00; p = 0.04), while no significant differences in difficulty rating between methods was found in cognitively impaired subjects. Conjoint analysis elicitates weights and rankings significantly different from other methods. Subjectively, cognitively impaired subjects were positive about the use of the weight elicitation techniques. However, it seems the use of swing weights can result in the employment of shortcut strategies. The results of this pilot study suggest that individuals with mild cognitive impairment are willing and able to use multi-criteria elicitation methods to determine criteria weights in a decision context, although no preference for a method was found. The same methodologic and practical issues can be identified in cognitively impaired individuals as in healthy controls and the choice of method is mostly determined by the decision context.

  5. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  6. Ethics of Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Quah, S.R.; Cockerham, W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Collective immunization can be highly effective in protecting societies against infectious diseases, but policy decisions about both the character and the content of immunization policies require ethical justification. This article offers an overview of ethical aspects that should be taken into

  7. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  8. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  9. Disparity in childhood immunizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Mark; Neudorf, Cory; Opondo, Johnmark; Toye, Jennifer; Kurji, Ayisha; Kunst, Anton; Tournier, Ceal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete immunization coverage is common in low-income families and Aboriginal children in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether child immunization coverage rates at two years of age were lower in low-income neighbourhoods of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. METHODS: Parents who were and

  10. Estimating unknown parameters in haemophilia using expert judgement elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K; Lewandowski, D; Janssen, M P

    2013-09-01

    The increasing attention to healthcare costs and treatment efficiency has led to an increasing demand for quantitative data concerning patient and treatment characteristics in haemophilia. However, most of these data are difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to use expert judgement elicitation (EJE) to estimate currently unavailable key parameters for treatment models in severe haemophilia A. Using a formal expert elicitation procedure, 19 international experts provided information on (i) natural bleeding frequency according to age and onset of bleeding, (ii) treatment of bleeds, (iii) time needed to control bleeding after starting secondary prophylaxis, (iv) dose requirements for secondary prophylaxis according to onset of bleeding, and (v) life-expectancy. For each parameter experts provided their quantitative estimates (median, P10, P90), which were combined using a graphical method. In addition, information was obtained concerning key decision parameters of haemophilia treatment. There was most agreement between experts regarding bleeding frequencies for patients treated on demand with an average onset of joint bleeding (1.7 years): median 12 joint bleeds per year (95% confidence interval 0.9-36) for patients ≤ 18, and 11 (0.8-61) for adult patients. Less agreement was observed concerning estimated effective dose for secondary prophylaxis in adults: median 2000 IU every other day The majority (63%) of experts expected that a single minor joint bleed could cause irreversible damage, and would accept up to three minor joint bleeds or one trauma related joint bleed annually on prophylaxis. Expert judgement elicitation allowed structured capturing of quantitative expert estimates. It generated novel data to be used in computer modelling, clinical care, and trial design. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Structured tradeoffs preference elicitation: Evaluating CRWMS design and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, H.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary studies over the past few years have yielded multiple design and operations alternatives for the planned Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Waste isolation, pre-closure health and safety, and life cycle cost are among the many factors considered in developing these alternatives. The task of CRWMS designers is complicated by substantial heat and nuclear radiation energy output of the spent nuclear fuel and high level waste intended for disposal in an underground repository. Not only must the usual effectiveness, operability and cost objectives be balanced, but done so in the context of a constantly changing environment. Particular alternatives sometimes are favored by virtue of their outstanding performance relative to one of these factors. The Ultimate success of the potential repository, however, depends on reaching a defensible and traceable final decision through simultaneous and systematic weighing of all relevant factors. This paper documents the outcome of Structured Tradeoffs Preference (STP) elicitation as a method for the simultaneous and systematic weighing of factors relevant to repository thermal loading, waste package (WP) design, and emplacement mode decisions. The study provided a low-cost early indication of directions of further research on CRWMS design and operations likely to be most fruitful. The method of STP elicitation was utilized to avoid potential biases documented in other efforts which use only unstructured decision making, or open-quotes well-considered judgmentclose quotes. The STP elicitation procedure presented here complements the use of a parameter network-model pyramid suggested elsewhere in this proceedings to provide a framework for precisely articulating technical questions needing answers. It also forms an independent crosscheck of systems engineering study results and performance assessment modeling

  12. Transgenerational effects enhance specific immune response in a wild passerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Broggi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mothers transfer diverse compounds to developing embryos that can affect their development and final phenotype (i.e., maternal effects. However, the way such effects modulate offspring phenotype, in particular their immunity, remains unclear. To test the impact of maternal effects on offspring development, we treated wild breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus in Sevilla, SE Spain with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. Female parents were vaccinated when caring for first broods, eliciting a specific immune response to NDV. The immune response to the same vaccine, and to the PHA inflammatory test were measured in 11